Sample records for tunable element applications

  1. Tunable laser applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ


    Introduction F. J. Duarte Spectroscopic Applications of Tunable Optical Parametric Oscillators B. J. Orr, R. T. White, and Y. He Solid-State Dye Lasers Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre Tunable Lasers Based on Dye-Doped Polymer Gain Media Incorporating Homogeneous Distributions of Functional Nanoparticles F. J. Duarte and R. O. James Broadly Tunable External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers F. J. Duarte Tunable Fiber Lasers T. M. Shay and F. J. Duarte Fiber Laser Overview and Medical Applications

  2. MEMS Tunable Diffraction Grating for Spaceborne Imaging Spectroscopic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanathanan S. Muttikulangara


    Full Text Available Diffraction gratings are among the most commonly used optical elements in applications ranging from spectroscopy and metrology to lasers. Numerous methods have been adopted for the fabrication of gratings, including microelectromechanical system (MEMS fabrication which is by now mature and presents opportunities for tunable gratings through inclusion of an actuation mechanism. We have designed, modeled, fabricated and tested a silicon based pitch tunable diffraction grating (PTG with relatively large resolving power that could be deployed in a spaceborne imaging spectrometer, for example in a picosatellite. We have carried out a detailed analytical modeling of PTG, based on a mass spring system. The device has an effective fill factor of 52% and resolving power of 84. Tuning provided by electrostatic actuation results in a displacement of 2.7 μ m at 40 V . Further, we have carried out vibration testing of the fabricated structure to evaluate its feasibility for spaceborne instruments.

  3. Tunable lasers for waste management photochemistry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, F.T.


    A review of lasers with potential photochemical applications in waste management indicates that dye lasers, as a class, can provide tunable laser output through the visible and near-uv regions of the spectrum of most interest to photochemistry. Many variables can affect the performance of a specific dye laser, and the interactions of these variables, at the current state of the art, are complex. The recent literature on dye-laser characteristics has been reviewed and summarized, with emphasis on those parameters that most likely will affect the scaling of dye lasers in photochemical applications. Current costs are reviewed and correlated with output power. A new class of efficient uv lasers that appear to be scalable in both energy output and pulse rate, based on rare-gas halide excimers and similar molecules, is certain to find major applications in photochemistry. Because the most important developments are too recent to be adequately described in the literature or are the likely outcome of current experiments, the basic physics underlying the class of excimer lasers is described. Specific cost data are unavailable, but these new gas lasers should reflect costs similar to those of existing gas lasers, in particular, the pulsed CO 2 lasers. To complete the survey of tunable-laser characteristics, the technical characteristics of the various classes of lasers in the ir are summarized. Important developments in ir laser technology are being accelerated by isotope-separation research, but, initially at least, this portion of the spectrum is least likely to receive emphasis in waste-management-oriented photochemistry

  4. Tunable Electro-optic modulators for lidar systems and atmospheric applications (United States)

    Eng, R. S.; Harris, N. W.; Summers, C. L.; Lax, B.


    In global sensing applications using different types of lidars, the spectral range and fine frequency coverages are often limited because of the finite tunabilities of molecular lasers and the number of molecular species that are available. To overcome the above obstacle, we have proposed new broadband frequency tunable electro-optic (EO) modulators that can cover a wide range from the mid-infrared to the visible as lidar sources in atmospheric sensing applications such as high resolution atmospheric molecular spectroscopy, Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), and laser radar imaging. The configuration of the proposed new tunable EO modulators includes an electro-optic active crystal element surrounded by a ferrite tuning element which is placed inside a microwave waveguide. The tuning is provided by an external magnetic field, which is either longitudinal or transverse, and the modulator can be either single sideband type or a double sideband type depending on the application required for the spectral purity of the modulator output.

  5. Adaptive Tunable Laser Spectrometer for Space Applications (United States)

    Flesch, Gregory; Keymeulen, Didier


    An architecture and process for the rapid prototyping and subsequent development of an adaptive tunable laser absorption spectrometer (TLS) are described. Our digital hardware/firmware/software platform is both reconfigurable at design time as well as autonomously adaptive in real-time for both post-integration and post-launch situations. The design expands the range of viable target environments and enhances tunable laser spectrometer performance in extreme and even unpredictable environments. Through rapid prototyping with a commercial RTOS/FPGA platform, we have implemented a fully operational tunable laser spectrometer (using a highly sensitive second harmonic technique). With this prototype, we have demonstrated autonomous real-time adaptivity in the lab with simulated extreme environments.

  6. MEMS for Tunable Photonic Metamaterial Applications (United States)

    Stark, Thomas

    Photonic metamaterials are materials whose optical properties are derived from artificially-structured sub-wavelength unit cells, rather than from the bulk properties of the constituent materials. Examples of metamaterials include plasmonic materials, negative index materials, and electromagnetic cloaks. While advances in simulation tools and nanofabrication methods have allowed this field to grow over the past several decades, many challenges still exist. This thesis addresses two of these challenges: fabrication of photonic metamaterials with tunable responses and high-throughput nanofabrication methods for these materials. The design, fabrication, and optical characterization of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) tunable plasmonic spectrometer are presented. An array of holes in a gold film, with plasmon resonance in the mid-infrared, is suspended above a gold reflector, forming a Fabry-Perot interferometer of tunable length. The spectra exhibit the convolution of extraordinary optical transmission through the holes and Fabry-Perot resonances. Using MEMS, the interferometer length is modulated from 1.7 mum to 21.67 mum , thereby tuning the free spectral range from about 2900 wavenumbers to 230.7 wavenumbers and shifting the reflection minima and maxima across the infrared. Due to its broad spectral tunability in the fingerprint region of the mid-infrared, this device shows promise as a tunable biological sensing device. To address the issue of high-throughput, high-resolution fabrication of optical metamaterials, atomic calligraphy, a MEMS-based dynamic stencil lithography technique for resist-free fabrication of photonic metamaterials on unconventional substrates, has been developed. The MEMS consists of a moveable stencil, which can be actuated with nanometer precision using electrostatic comb drive actuators. A fabrication method and flip chip method have been developed, enabling evaporation of metals through the device handle for fabrication on an

  7. Tunable protein harmonic diffractive micro-optical elements. (United States)

    Sun, Yun-Lu; Liu, Dong-Xu; Dong, Wen-Fei; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo


    Herein, tunable protein harmonic diffractive microlenses (PHDMs) have been constructed by femtosecond laser direct writing from bovine serum albumin. With excellent three-dimensional topography, PHDMs show distinct harmonic diffractive features, such as similarly good imaging performance with smaller thickness than refractive lenses and well controlled minus chromatic dispersion compared with simple diffractive lenses (∼5% focal length shift against ∼21% of the protein Fresnel zone plate with the same radius under light with wavelength 450-659 nm). Owing to the nature of protein molecules as "building blocks," the focal length of the PHDM can be facilely tuned within seconds by changing the pH value (focal length tunability of up to ∼20%).

  8. Automatic Adaptation of Tunable Distributed Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Fangzhe


    Current-day applications are written to execute on a wide range of platforms ranging from fast desktop computers to mobile laptops all the way to hand-held PDAs and cellular phones, spanning several...

  9. MEMS-based tunable gratings and their applications (United States)

    Yu, Yiting; Yuan, Weizheng; Qiao, Dayong


    The marriage of optics and MEMS has resulted in a new category of optical devices and systems that have unprecedented advantages compared with their traditional counterparts. As an important spatial light modulating technology, diffractive optical MEMS obtains a wide variety of successful commercial applications, e.g. projection displays, optical communication and spectral analysis, due to its features of highly compact, low-cost, IC-compatible, excellent performance, and providing possibilities for developing totally new, yet smart devices and systems. Three most successful MEMS diffraction gratings (GLVs, Polychromator and DMDs) are briefly introduced and their potential applications are analyzed. Then, three different MEMS tunable gratings developed by our group, named as micro programmable blazed gratings (μPBGs) and micro pitch-tunable gratings (μPTGs) working in either digital or analog mode, are demonstrated. The strategies to largely enhance the maximum blazed angle and grating period are described. Some preliminary application explorations based on the developed grating devices are also shown. For our ongoing research focus, we will further improve the device performance to meet the engineering application requirements.

  10. Tunable resistive pulse sensing: potential applications in nanomedicine. (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Muttuswamy; Platt, Mark


    An accurate characterization of nanomaterials used in clinical diagnosis and therapeutics is of paramount importance to realize the full potential of nanotechnology in medicine and to avoid unexpected and potentially harmful toxic effects due to these materials. A number of technical modalities are currently in use to study the physical, chemical and biological properties of nanomaterials but they all have advantages and disadvantages. In this review, we discuss the potential of a relative newcomer, tunable resistive pulse sensing, for the characterization of nanomaterials and its applications in nanodiagnostics.

  11. A Versatile Active Block: DXCCCII and Tunable Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Tekin


    Full Text Available The study describes dual-X controlled current conveyor (DXCCCII as a versatile active block and its application to inductance simulators for testing. Moreover, the high pass filter application using with DXCCCII based inductance simulator and oscillator with flexible tunable oscillation frequency have been presented and simulated to confirm the theoretical validity. The proposed circuit which has a simple circuit design requires the low-voltage and the DXCCCII can also be tuned in the wide range by the biasing current. The proposed DXCCCII provides a good linearity, high output impedance at Z terminals, and a reasonable current and voltage transfer gain accuracy. The proposed DXCCCII and its applications have been simulated using the CMOS 0.18 µm technology.

  12. Design and Fabrication of Tunable Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications (United States)

    Sun, Leming

    In this dissertation, we first reviewed the naturally occurring nanoparticles and their limitations (Chapter 1). We then discussed the need and the parameters to design and fabricate bio-inspired tunable nanoparticles for wound healing, Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis and progression monitoring. Tunable nanoparticles enhanced adhesive was inspired from the self-assembly processes, nanocomposite and chemical structures. Fluorescent peptide nanoparticles were inspired from the biological peptide self-assembly and naturally occurring fluorescent proteins. Then we reported the development of an in situ synthesis approach for fabricating tunable nanoparticle enhanced adhesives inspired from the strong adhesive produced by English ivy in Chapter 2. Special attention was given to tunable features of the adhesive produced by the biological process. Parameters that may be used to tune properties of the adhesive were proposed. To illustrate and validate the proposed approach, an experimental platform was presented for fabricating tunable chitosan adhesive enhanced by Au nanoparticles synthesized in situ. This study contributes to a bio-inspired approach for in situ synthesis of tunable nanocomposite adhesives by mimicking the natural biological processes of ivy adhesive synthesis. Using a bio-inspired approach, we synthesized adhesive hydrogels comprised of sodium alginate, gum arabic, and calcium ions to mimic the properties of the natural sundew-derived adhesive hydrogels in Chapter 3. We then characterized and showed that these sundew-inspired hydrogels promote wound healing through their superior adhesive strength, nanostructure, and resistance to shearing; when compared to other hydrogels in vitro. In vivo, sundew-inspired hydrogels promoted a "suturing" effect to wound sites; which was demonstrated by enhanced wound closure following topical application of the hydrogels. In combination with mouse adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), and compared to other therapeutic

  13. Optically Tunable Magnetoresistance Effect: From Mechanism to Novel Device Application. (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Lin, Xiaoyang; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Boyu; Si, Zhizhong; Cao, Kaihua; Wei, Jiaqi; Zhao, Weisheng


    The magnetoresistance effect in sandwiched structure describes the appreciable magnetoresistance effect of a device with a stacking of two ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic layer (i.e., a sandwiched structure). The development of this effect has led to the revolution of memory applications during the past decades. In this review, we revisited the magnetoresistance effect and the interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) effect in magnetic sandwiched structures with a spacer layer of non-magnetic metal, semiconductor or organic thin film. We then discussed the optical modulation of this effect via different methods. Finally, we discuss various applications of these effects and present a perspective to realize ultralow-power, high-speed data writing and inter-chip connection based on this tunable magnetoresistance effect.

  14. Tunable lasers and their application in analytical chemistry (United States)

    Steinfeld, J. I.


    The impact that laser techniques might have in chemical analysis is examined. Absorption, scattering, and heterodyne detection is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the advantages of using frequency-tunable sources, and dye solution lasers are regarded as the outstanding example of this type of laser. Types of spectroscopy that can be carried out with lasers are discussed along with the ultimate sensitivity or minimum detectable concentration of molecules that can be achieved with each method. Analytical applications include laser microprobe analysis, remote sensing and instrumental methods such as laser-Raman spectroscopy, atomic absorption/fluorescence spectrometry, fluorescence assay techniques, optoacoustic spectroscopy, and polarization measurements. The application of lasers to spectroscopic methods of analysis would seem to be a rewarding field both for research in analytical chemistry and for investments in instrument manufacturing.

  15. Frequency-Tunable and Pattern Diversity Antennas for Cognitive Radio Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ramadan


    Full Text Available Frequency-tunable microstrip antennas, for cognitive radio applications, are proposed herein. The approach is based on tuning the operating frequency of a bandpass filter that is incorporated into a wideband antenna. The integration of an open loop resonator- (OLR- based adjustable bandpass filter into a wideband antenna to transform it into a tunable filter-antenna is presented. The same technique is employed to design a cognitive radio pattern diversity tunable filter-antenna. A good agreement between the simulated and measured results for the fabricated prototypes is obtained. The radiation characteristics of each designed tunable filter-antenna are included herein.

  16. A magnetic nano-particle ink for tunable microwave applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.


    Inkjet printing or printing for realization of inexpensive and large area electronics has unearthed as an attractive fabrication technique. Though at present, mostly the metallic inks are printed on regular microwave substrates. In this paper, a fully printed multilayer fabrication process is demonstrated where the substrate is also realized through printing. A novel Fe2O3 based magnetic ink is used as a substrate while an in-house silver organo complex (SOC) ink is developed for metallic layers. Complete magnetostatic and microwave characterization of the ink is presented. At the end, a tunable patch antenna is shown as an application using the magnetic ink as the substrate. The antenna shows a tuning range of 12.5 % for a magnetic field strength of 3 kOe.

  17. Tunable dispersion compensator based on uniform fiber Bragg grating and its application to tunable pulse repetition-rate multiplication. (United States)

    Han, Young-Geun; Lee, Sang


    A new technique to control the chromatic dispersion of a uniform fiber Bragg grating based on the symmetrical bending is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The specially designed two translation stages with gears and a sawtooth wheel can simultaneously induce the tension and compression strain corresponding to the bending direction. The tension and compression strain can effectively control the chirp ratio along the fiber grating attached on a flexible cantilever beam and consequently the dispersion value without the center wavelength shift. We successfully achieve the wide tuning range of chromatic dispersion without the center wavelength shift, which is less than 0.02 nm. We also reduce the group delay ripple as low as ~+/-5 ps. And we also demonstrate the application of the proposed tunable dispersion compensation technique to the tunable pulse repetition-rate multiplication and obtain high-quality pulses at repetition rates of 20 ~ 40 GHz.

  18. RF tunable devices and subsystems methods of modeling, analysis, and applications methods of modeling, analysis, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Qizheng


    This book serves as a hands-on guide to RF tunable devices, circuits and subsystems. An innovative method of modeling for tunable devices and networks is described, along with a new tuning algorithm, adaptive matching network control approach, and novel filter frequency automatic control loop.  The author provides readers with the necessary background and methods for designing and developing tunable RF networks/circuits and tunable RF font-ends, with an emphasis on applications to cellular communications. ·      Discusses the methods of characterizing, modeling, analyzing, and applying RF tunable devices and subsystems; ·      Explains the necessary methods of utilizing RF tunable devices and subsystems, rather than discussing the RF tunable devices themselves; ·      Presents and applies methods for MEMS tunable capacitors, which can be used for any RF tunable device; ·      Uses analytic methods wherever possible and provides numerous, closed-form solutions; ·      Includ...

  19. Fractal elements and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gil’mutdinov, Anis Kharisovich; El-Khazali, Reyad


    This book describes a new type of passive electronic components, called fractal elements, from a theoretical and practical point of view. The authors discuss in detail the physical implementation and design of fractal devices for application in fractional-order signal processing and systems. The concepts of fractals and fractal signals are explained, as well as the fundamentals of fractional calculus. Several implementations of fractional impedances are discussed, along with comparison of their performance characteristics. Details of design, schematics, fundamental techniques and implementation of RC-based fractal elements are provided. .

  20. Electronically Tunable Multi-Terminal Floating Nullor and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tangsrirat


    Full Text Available A realization scheme of an electronically tun- able multi-terminal floating nullor (ET-MTFN is de- scribed in this paper. The proposed circuit mainly employs a transconductance amplifier, an improved translinear cell, two complementary current mirrors with variable current gain and improved Wilson current mirrors, which provide an electronic tuning of the current gain. The va- lidity of the performance of the scheme is verified through PSPICE simulation results. Example applications employing the proposed ET-MTFN as an active element demonstrate that the circuit properties can be varied by electronic means.

  1. RF MEMS Based Tunable Bandpass Filter For X-Band Applications (United States)

    Chaubey, Mahesh Kumar; Bhadauria, Avanish


    In this paper, we present the design and simulation of RF MEMS based Tunable combline band pass filters for X-band applications at different substrate thicknesses and studied the effect of thickness on tuning. The proposed filters are designed on high resistive silicon substrate of 500µm and 300 thicknesses. The tunability is achieved by using MEMS based varacter replaced with fix capacitor in conventional combline filter. First, the microstrip combline filter is designed at the centre frequency of 9.5 GHz and then tuning is achieved by varying the capacitance in the designed combline filters. The electromagnetic simulation has been carried out using HFSS v15 software based on finite element method (FEM). The tuning of the filter on silicon substrate of 500 μm is achieved by changing the capacitance value from 0.2035 pF to 0.4035 pF in the model in HFSS, which resulted the tuning in the frequency range of 7.85 to 10.35GHz. Insertion loss of design filter is in the range of 1dB within the tuning range. In case of substrate thickness 300 μm the tuning of the filter is achieved by changing the capacitance value from 0.293 pF to 0.403 pF in the model in HFSS, which resulted the tuning in the frequency range of 8.80 to 9.90 GHz. Insertion loss of design filter is in the range of ∼1.2dB within the tuning range.

  2. Tunable emission in surface passivated Mn-ZnS nanophosphors and its application for Glucose sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sharma


    Full Text Available The present work describes the tunable emission in inorganic-organic hybrid NPs which can be useful for optoelectronic and biosensing applications. In this work, Mn- ZnS nanoparticles emitting various colors, including blue and orange, were synthesized by simple chemical precipitation method using chitosan as a capping agent. Earlier reports describe that emission color characteristics in nanoparticles are tuned by varying particle size and with doping concentration. Here in this article tunable emission has been achieved by varying excitation wavelength in a single sample. This tunable emission property with high emission intensity was further achieved by changing capping concentration keeping host Mn-ZnS concentration same. Tunable emission is explained by FRET mechanism. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE chromaticity coordinates shifts from (0.273, 0.20 and (0.344, 0.275 for same naocrystals by suitably tuning excitation energy from higher and lower ultra-violet (UV range. Synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, SEM, HRTEM, UV- Visible absorption and PL spectroscopy for structural and optical studies. Using tunable emission property, these highly emissive nanoparticles functionalized with biocompatible polymer chitosan were further used for glucose sensing applications.

  3. Ferrite LTCC-based antennas for tunable SoP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif


    For the first time, ferrite low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) tunable antennas are presented. These antennas are frequency tuned by a variable magnetostatic field produced in a winding that is completely embedded inside the ferrite LTCC substrate. Embedded windings have reduced the typically required magnetic bias field for antenna tuning by over 95%. The fact that large electromagnets are not required for tuning makes ferrite LTCC with embedded bias windings an ideal platform for advanced tunable system-on-package applications. Measurements of rectangular microstrip patch antennas on a ferrite LTCC substrate display a maximum tuning range of 610 MHz near 12 GHz. Two different bias windings and their effect on the antenna performance are discussed, as is the effect of antenna orientation with respect to the bias winding. The antenna radiation patterns are measured under biased and unbiased conditions, showing a stable co-polarized linear gain. © 2011-2012 IEEE.

  4. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.


    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  5. Highly tunable perpendicularly magnetized synthetic antiferromagnets for biotechnology applications


    Vemulkar, T; Mansell, Rhodri; Petit, Dorothee Celine; Cowburn, Russell Paul; Lesniak, MS


    Magnetic micro and nanoparticles are increasingly used in biotechnological applications due to the ability to control their behavior through an externally applied field. We demonstrate the fabrication of particles made from ultrathin perpendicularly magnetized CoFeB/Pt layers with antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling. The particles are characterized by zero moment at remanence, low susceptibility at low fields, and a large saturated moment created by the stacking of the basic coupled bilayer...

  6. Deep-UV Based Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter for Spectral Sensing Applications (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.


    In this paper, recent progress made in the development of quartz and KDP crystal based acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) are presented. These AOTFs are developed for operation over deep-UV to near-UV wavelengths of 190 nm to 400 nm. Preliminary output performance measurements of quartz AOTF and design specifications of KDP AOTF are presented. At 355 nm, the quartz AOTF device offered approx.15% diffraction efficiency with a passband full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of less than 0.0625 nm. Further characterization of quartz AOTF devices at deep-UV wavelengths is progressing. The hermetic packaging of KDP AOTF is nearing completion. The solid-state optical sources being used for excitation include nonlinear optics based high-energy tunable UV transmitters that operate around 320 nm and 308 nm wavelengths, and a tunable deep-UV laser operating over 193 nm to 210 nm. These AOTF devices have been developed as turn-key devices for primarily for space-based chemical and biological sensing applications using laser induced Fluorescence and resonance Raman techniques.

  7. Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications (United States)

    Preu, S.; Döhler, G. H.; Malzer, S.; Wang, L. J.; Gossard, A. C.


    This review is focused on the latest developments in continuous-wave (CW) photomixing for Terahertz (THz) generation. The first part of the paper explains the limiting factors for operation at high frequencies ˜ 1 THz, namely transit time or lifetime roll-off, antenna (R)-device (C) RC roll-off, current screening and blocking, and heat dissipation. We will present various realizations of both photoconductive and p-i-n diode-based photomixers to overcome these limitations, including perspectives on novel materials for high-power photomixers operating at telecom wavelengths (1550 nm). In addition to the classical approach of feeding current originating from a small semiconductor photomixer device to an antenna (antenna-based emitter, AE), an antennaless approach in which the active area itself radiates (large area emitter, LAE) is discussed in detail. Although we focus on CW photomixing, we briefly discuss recent results for LAEs under pulsed conditions. Record power levels of 1.5 mW average power and conversion efficiencies as high as 2 × 10-3 have been reached, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than those obtained with CW antenna-based emitters. The second part of the paper is devoted to applications for CW photomixers. We begin with a discussion of the development of novel THz optics. Special attention is paid to experiments exploiting the long coherence length of CW photomixers for coherent emission and detection of THz arrays. The long coherence length comes with an unprecedented narrow linewidth. This is of particular interest for spectroscopic applications, the field in which THz research has perhaps the highest impact. We point out that CW spectroscopy systems may potentially be more compact, cheaper, and more accurate than conventional pulsed systems. These features are attributed to telecom-wavelength compatibility, to excellent frequency resolution, and to their huge spectral density. The paper concludes with prototype experiments of THz wireless LAN

  8. Context-aware tunable office lighting application and user response (United States)

    Chen, Nancy H.; Nawyn, Jason; Thompson, Maria; Gibbs, Julie; Larson, Kent


    LED light sources having multiple independently controllable color channels allow tuning of both the intensity and color output. Consequently, highly tailored lighting can be applied according to instantaneous user needs and preferences. Besides improving lighting performance, energy use can also be reduced since the brightest illumination is applied only when necessary. In an example application, low activity or vacant areas of a multi-zone office are lit by low power illumination, including colored light options, which can reduce energy consumption to 20-45% of typical full-time, fullbrightness, office-wide illumination. The availability of color also allows communication functions and additional aesthetic design possibilities. To reduce user burden in frequent switching between various illumination settings, an activity recognition sensor network is used to identify selected office activities. The illumination is then adjusted automatically to satisfy the needs of the occupants. A handheld mobile device provides an interactive interface for gathering user feedback regarding impressions and illumination preferences. The activity-triggered queries collect contemporaneous feedback that reduces reliance on memory; immediate previews of illumination options are also provided. Through mobile queries and post-experience interviews, user feedback was gathered regarding automation, colored lighting, and illumination preferences. Overall reaction was indicated by a range of response words such as fun, stimulating, very cool, very pleasant, enjoyed, good, comfortable, satisfactory, fine, energy saving, interesting, curious, dim, cave, isolated, distracting, and unfamiliar. Positive reaction from a meaningful, though not universal, fraction of users indicates reasonable application potential, particularly as personal preferences and control are accommodated.

  9. Tunable light source for fiber optic lighting applications (United States)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Bierman, Andrew; Finney, Mark J.; Edwards, Ian K.


    This paper examines the possibility of tuning the lamp spectrum to compensate for color distortions in fiber optic lighting systems. Because most optical fibers have strong absorption in the blue and red wavelength regions, white light entering and propagating down an optical fiber suffers varied amounts of attenuation as a function of wavelength. As a result, the light exiting the optical fiber has a greenish tint that the lighting design community considers undesirable in interior lighting applications. HID lamps are commonly used for the light source in this industry. Certain classes of HID lamps tend to shift in color when their operating position or the input voltage to the lamp is changed. An experimental study is being conducted to characterize the color shift properties of a small HID lamp as a function of tilt and input voltage. The study also examines the possibility of exploiting this color shift to compensate for the color distortions caused by optical fibers. The details of the experiment and the results are presented in this manuscript.

  10. A Tunable Bimetallic MOF-74 for Adsorption Chiller Applications: A Tunable Bimetallic MOF-74 for Adsorption Chiller Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; Zheng, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; Barpaga, Dushyant [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; Sabale, Sandip [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; P.G. Department of Chemistry, Jaysingpur College, 416101 Jaysingpur Maharashtra India; Arey, Bruce [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; Derewinski, Miroslaw A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; Motkuri, Radha Kishan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA


    A mixed metal strategy, in which two different metal nodes coexist in one MOF framework, was examined using MOF-74. The Ni salt precursor for the MOF-74(Ni) analogue was partially replaced during synthesis with relatively inexpensive Zn salt. These bimetallic MOFs were developed and examined for water sorption for potential use in adsorption cooling/chiller applications. Varying concentration ratios of Ni:Zn in MOF-74 achieved using this mixed metal strategy were shown to provide unique impacts on H2O uptake while significantly mitigating the costs of synthesis

  11. Widely tunable Sampled Grating Distributed Bragg Reflector Quantum Cascade laser for gas spectroscopy applications (United States)

    Diba, Abdou Salam

    Since the advent of semiconductor lasers, the development of tunable laser sources has been subject of many efforts in industry and academia arenas. This interest towards broadly tunable lasers is mainly due to the great promise they have in many applications ranging from telecommunication, to environmental science and homeland security, just to name a few. After the first demonstration of quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the early nineties, QCL has experienced a rapid development, so much so that QCLs are now the most reliable and efficient laser source in the Mid-IR range covering between 3 microm to 30 microm region of the electromagnetic spectrum. QCLs have almost all the desirable characteristics of a laser for spectroscopy applications such as narrow spectral linewidth ideal for high selectivity measurement, high power enabling high sensitivity sensing and more importantly they emit in the finger-print region of most of the trace gases and large molecules. The need for widely tunable QCLs is now more pressing than ever before. A single mode quantum cascade laser (QCL) such as a distributed feedback (DFB) QCL, is an ideal light source for gas sensing in the MIR wavelength range. Despite their performance and reliability, DFB QCLs are limited by their relatively narrow wavelength tuning range determined by the thermal rollover of the laser. An external cavity (EC) QCL, on the other hand, is a widely tunable laser source, and so far is the choice mid-infrared single frequency light sources for detecting multiple species/large molecules. However, EC QCLs can be complex, bulky and expensive. In the quest for finding alternative broadly wavelength tunable sources in the mid-infrared, many monolithic tunable QCLs are recently proposed and fabricated, including SG-DBR, DFB-Arrays, Slot-hole etc. and they are all of potentially of interest as a candidate for multi-gas sensing and monitoring applications, due to their large tuning range (>50 cm-1), and potentially low

  12. On Applicability of Tunable Filter Bank Based Feature for Ear Biometrics: A Study from Constrained to Unconstrained. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Debbrota Paul; Bakshi, Sambit; Guo, Guodong; Sa, Pankaj Kumar


    In this paper, an overall framework has been presented for person verification using ear biometric which uses tunable filter bank as local feature extractor. The tunable filter bank, based on a half-band polynomial of 14th order, extracts distinct features from ear images maintaining its frequency selectivity property. To advocate the applicability of tunable filter bank on ear biometrics, recognition test has been performed on available constrained databases like AMI, WPUT, IITD and unconstrained database like UERC. Experiments have been conducted applying tunable filter based feature extractor on subparts of the ear. Empirical experiments have been conducted with four and six subdivisions of the ear image. Analyzing the experimental results, it has been found that tunable filter moderately succeeds to distinguish ear features at par with the state-of-the-art features used for ear recognition. Accuracies of 70.58%, 67.01%, 81.98%, and 57.75% have been achieved on AMI, WPUT, IITD, and UERC databases through considering Canberra Distance as underlying measure of separation. The performances indicate that tunable filter is a candidate for recognizing human from ear images.

  13. Tunable photoluminescence of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots for light emitting diodes application (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Xin, Xing; Zang, Zhigang; Tang, Xiaosheng; Li, Cunlong; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Miao; Du, Juan


    All-inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbBr3) perovskite quantum dots (QDs), as one kind of promising materials, have attracted considerable attention in optoelectronic applications. Herein, we synthesized the colloidal CsPbBr3 QDs with tunable photoluminescence (PL) (493-531 nm) by adjusting the reaction temperatures, which revealed narrow emission bandwidths of about 25 nm. The average diameters of the QDs could be adjusted from 7.1 to 12.3 nm as the temperature increased from 100 °C to 180 °C. Moreover, the radiative lifetimes of CsPbBr3 QDs were measured to be 2 ns, and the single QD fluorescence intensity time trace results demonstrated its suppressed blinking emission. Moreover, green light emitting diodes by using CsPbBr3 QDs casted on blue LED chips were further fabricated, which provided potential applications in the field of display and lighting technology.

  14. Copper Nanowire-Based Aerogel with Tunable Pore Structure and Its Application as Flexible Pressure Sensor. (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ranran; Nie, Pu; Cheng, Yin; Lu, Xiaoyu; Shi, Liangjing; Sun, Jing


    Aerogel is a kind of material with high porosity and low density. However, the research on metal-based aerogel with good conductivity is quite limited, which hinders its usage in electronic devices, such as flexible pressure sensors. In this work, we successfully fabricate copper nanowire (CuNW) based aerogel through a one-pot method, and the dynamics for the assembly of CuNWs into hydrogel is intensively investigated. The "bubble controlled assembly" mechanism is put forward for the first time, according to which tunable pore structures and densities (4.3-7.5 mg cm -3 ) of the nanowire aerogel is achieved. Subsequently, ultralight flexible pressure sensors with tunable sensitivities (0.02 kPa -1 to 0.7 kPa -1 ) are fabricated from the Cu NWs aerogels, and the negative correlation behavior of the sensitivity to the density of the aerogel sensors is disclosed systematically. This work provides a versatile strategy for the fabrication of nanowire-based aerogels, which greatly broadens their application potential.

  15. Tunable bandpass filter based on partially magnetized ferrite LTCC with embedded windings for SoP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.


    Tunable filters that are based on ferrite materials often require large and bulky electromagnets. In this work, we present a tunable filter in the Ku-band, which is realized in multilayer ferrite LTCC substrate with embedded bias windings, thus negating the need of a large electromagnet. Also, because of the embedded windings, the bias fields are not lost at the air-substrate interface and therefore the field and current requirements are reduced by an order of magnitude as compared to the previously reported filters. A simulation strategy that uses full permeability tensor with arbitrarily directed magnetic fields has been used to model the filter on a partially magnetized ferrite substrate. Special attention has also been paid to approximate the non-uniform magneto-static fields produced by the embedded windings. The complete design is implemented in 10 layers of ferrite LTCC, making it the first magnetically tunable filter with embedded windings and extremely small size [(5 × 5 × 1.1)mm3]. The filter demonstrates a measured tunability of 4% and an insertion loss of 2.3 dB. With the small form factor, embedded windings, and low bias requirements, the design is highly suitable for compact and tunable SoP applications.

  16. Flexible transparent aerogels as window retrofitting films and optical elements with tunable birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingkun; Frazier, Allister W.; Zhao, Xinpeng; De La Cruz, Joshua A.; Hess, Andrew J.; Yang, Ronggui; Smalyukh, Ivan I.


    Experimental realization of optically transparent, mechanically robust and flexible aerogels has been a longstanding challenge, which limits their practical applications in energy-saving devices, such as thermally insulating films for enhancing energy efficiency of windows. The poor transparency precluded even hypothetical consideration of the possibility of birefringent aerogels. We develop birefringent and optically isotropic aerogels that combine properties of thermal super-insulation, mechanical robustness and flexibility, and transparency to visible-spectrum light. This unusual combination of physical properties is achieved by combining liquid crystalline self-organization of cellulose nanofibers with polysiloxane cross-linking and control of the nanoscale porosity to form hybrid organic-inorganic mesostructured aerogels. Potential applications of these inexpensive materials range from single pane window retrofitting to smart fabrics.

  17. A tunable continuous wave (CW) and short-pulse optical source for THz brain imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakopoulos, P; Karanasiou, I; Zakynthinos, P; Uzunoglu, N; Avramopoulos, H; Pleros, N


    We demonstrate recent advances toward the development of a novel 2D THz imaging system for brain imaging applications both at the macroscopic and at the bimolecular level. A frequency-synthesized THz source based on difference frequency generation between optical wavelengths is presented, utilizing supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear optical fiber with subsequent spectral carving by means of a fiber Fabry–Perot filter. Experimental results confirm the successful generation of THz radiation in the range of 0.2–2 THz, verifying the enhanced frequency tunability properties of the proposed system. Finally, the roadmap toward capturing functional brain information by exploiting THz imaging technologies is discussed, outlining the unique advantages offered by THz frequencies and their complementarity with existing brain imaging techniques

  18. Reprint of: Pendant allyl crosslinking as a tunable shape memory actuator for vascular applications. (United States)

    Boire, Timothy C; Gupta, Mukesh K; Zachman, Angela L; Lee, Sue Hyun; Balikov, Daniel A; Kim, Kwangho; Bellan, Leon M; Sung, Hak-Joon


    Thermo-responsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) can be programmed to fit into small-bore incisions and recover their functional shape upon deployment in the body. This property is of significant interest for developing the next generation of minimally-invasive medical devices. To be used in such applications, SMPs should exhibit adequate mechanical strengths that minimize adverse compliance mismatch-induced host responses (e.g. thrombosis, hyperplasia), be biodegradable, and demonstrate switch-like shape recovery near body temperature with favorable biocompatibility. Combinatorial approaches are essential in optimizing SMP material properties for a particular application. In this study, a new class of thermo-responsive SMPs with pendant, photocrosslinkable allyl groups, x%poly(ε-caprolactone)-co-y%(α-allyl carboxylate ε-caprolactone) (x%PCL-y%ACPCL), are created in a robust, facile manner with readily tunable material properties. Thermomechanical and shape memory properties can be drastically altered through subtle changes in allyl composition. Molecular weight and gel content can also be altered in this combinatorial format to fine-tune material properties. Materials exhibit highly elastic, switch-like shape recovery near 37 °C. Endothelial compatibility is comparable to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and 100%PCL in vitro and vascular compatibility is demonstrated in vivo in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia, indicating promising suitability for vascular applications. With the ongoing thrust to make surgeries minimally-invasive, it is prudent to develop new biomaterials that are highly compatible and effective in this workflow. Thermo-responsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) have great potential for minimally-invasive applications because SMP medical devices (e.g. stents, grafts) can fit into small-bore minimally-invasive surgical devices and recover their functional shape when deployed in the body. To realize their potential, it is imperative to devise

  19. Pendant allyl crosslinking as a tunable shape memory actuator for vascular applications. (United States)

    Boire, Timothy C; Gupta, Mukesh K; Zachman, Angela L; Lee, Sue Hyun; Balikov, Daniel A; Kim, Kwangho; Bellan, Leon M; Sung, Hak-Joon


    Thermo-responsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) can be programmed to fit into small-bore incisions and recover their functional shape upon deployment in the body. This property is of significant interest for developing the next generation of minimally-invasive medical devices. To be used in such applications, SMPs should exhibit adequate mechanical strengths that minimize adverse compliance mismatch-induced host responses (e.g. thrombosis, hyperplasia), be biodegradable, and demonstrate switch-like shape recovery near body temperature with favorable biocompatibility. Combinatorial approaches are essential in optimizing SMP material properties for a particular application. In this study, a new class of thermo-responsive SMPs with pendant, photocrosslinkable allyl groups, x%poly(ε-caprolactone)-co-y%(α-allyl carboxylate ε-caprolactone) (x%PCL-y%ACPCL), are created in a robust, facile manner with readily tunable material properties. Thermomechanical and shape memory properties can be drastically altered through subtle changes in allyl composition. Molecular weight and gel content can also be altered in this combinatorial format to fine-tune material properties. Materials exhibit highly elastic, switch-like shape recovery near 37°C. Endothelial compatibility is comparable to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) and 100%PCL in vitro and vascular compatibility is demonstrated in vivo in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia, indicating promising suitability for vascular applications. With the ongoing thrust to make surgeries minimally-invasive, it is prudent to develop new biomaterials that are highly compatible and effective in this workflow. Thermo-responsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) have great potential for minimally-invasive applications because SMP medical devices (e.g. stents, grafts) can fit into small-bore minimally-invasive surgical devices and recover their functional shape when deployed in the body. To realize their potential, it is imperative to devise

  20. Finite element and boundary element applications in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Tsuyoshi


    Although this book is one of the Oxford Texts in Applied and Engineering Mathematics, we may think of it as a physics book. It explains how to solve the problem of quantum mechanics using the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM). Many examples analysing actual problems are also shown. As for the ratio of the number of pages of FEM and BEM, the former occupies about 80%. This is, however, reasonable reflecting the flexibility of FEM. Although many explanations of FEM and BEM exist, most are written using special mathematical expressions and numerical computation fields. However, this book is written in the 'language of physicists' throughout. I think that it is very readable and easy to understand for physicists. In the derivation of FEM and the argument on calculation accuracy, the action integral and a variation principle are used consistently. In the numerical computation of matrices, such as simultaneous equations and eigen value problems, a description of important points is also fully given. Moreover, the practical problems which become important in the electron device design field and the condensed matter physics field are dealt with as example computations, so that this book is very practical and applicable. It is characteristic and interesting that FEM is applied to solve the Schroedinger and Poisson equations consistently, and to the solution of the Ginzburg--Landau equation in superconductivity. BEM is applied to treat electric field enhancements due to surface plasmon excitations at metallic surfaces. A number of references are cited at the end of all the chapters, and this is very helpful. The description of quantum mechanics is also made appropriately and the actual application of quantum mechanics in condensed matter physics can also be surveyed. In the appendices, the mathematical foundation, such as numerical quadrature formulae and Green's functions, is conveniently described. I recommend this book to those who need to

  1. Multicomponent doped barium strontium titanate thin films for tunable microwave applications (United States)

    Alema, Fikadu Legesse

    In recent years there has been enormous progress in the development of barium strontium titanate (BST) films for tunable microwave applications. However, the properties of BST films still remain inferior compared to bulk materials, limiting their use for microwave technology. Understanding the film/substrate mismatch, microstructure, and stoichiometry of BST films and finding the necessary remedies are vital. In this work, BST films were deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering method and characterized both analytically and electrically with the aim of optimizing their properties. The stoichiometry, crystal structure, and phase purity of the films were studied by varying the oxygen partial pressure (OPP) and total gas pressure (TGP) in the chamber. A better stoichiometric match between film and target was achieved when the TGP is high (> 30 mTorr). However, the O2/Ar ratio should be adjusted as exceeding a threshold of 2 mTorr in OPP facilitates the formation of secondary phases. The growth of crystalline film on platinized substrates was achieved only with a lower temperature grown buffer layer, which acts as a seed layer by crystallizing when the temperature increases. Concurrent Mg/Nb doping has significantly improved the properties of BST thin films. The doped film has shown an average tunability of 53%, which is only ˜8 % lower than the value for the undoped film. This drop is associated with the Mg ions whose detrimental effects are partially compensated by Nb ions. Conversely, the doping has reduced the dielectric loss by ˜40 % leading to a higher figure of merit. Moreover, the two dopants ensure a charge neutrality condition which resulted in significant leakage current reduction. The presence of large amounts of empty shallow traps related to Nb Ti localize the free carriers injected from the contacts; thus increase the device control voltage substantially (>10 V). A combinatorial thin film synthesis method based on co-sputtering of two BST

  2. Alkylation of human hair keratin for tunable hydrogel erosion and drug delivery in tissue engineering applications. (United States)

    Han, Sangheon; Ham, Trevor R; Haque, Salma; Sparks, Jessica L; Saul, Justin M


    Polymeric biomaterials that provide a matrix for cell attachment and proliferation while achieving delivery of therapeutic agents are an important component of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. Keratins are a class of proteins that have received attention for numerous tissue engineering applications because, like other natural polymers, they promote favorable cell interactions and have non-toxic degradation products. Keratins can be extracted from various sources including human hair, and they are characterized by a high percentage of cysteine residues. Thiol groups on reductively extracted keratin (kerateine) form disulfide bonds, providing a more stable cross-linked hydrogel network than oxidatively extracted keratin (keratose) that cannot form disulfide crosslinks. We hypothesized that an iodoacetamide alkylation (or "capping") of cysteine thiol groups on the kerateine form of keratin could be used as a simple method to modulate the levels of disulfide crosslinking in keratin hydrogels, providing tunable rates of gel erosion and therapeutic agent release. After alkylation, the alkylated kerateines still formed hydrogels and the alkylation led to changes in the mechanical and visco-elastic properties of the materials consistent with loss of disulfide crosslinking. The alkylated kerateines did not lead to toxicity in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. These cells adhered to keratin at levels comparable to fibronectin and greater than collagen. Alkylated kerateine gels eroded more rapidly than non-alkylated kerateine and this control over erosion led to tunable rates of delivery of rhBMP-2, rhIGF-1, and ciprofloxacin. These results demonstrate that alkylation of kerateine cysteine residues provides a cell-compatible approach to tune rates of hydrogel erosion and therapeutic agent release within the context of a naturally-derived polymeric system. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Geometrically unfitted finite element methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Burman, Erik; Larson, Mats; Olshanskii, Maxim


    This book provides a snapshot of the state of the art of the rapidly evolving field of integration of geometric data in finite element computations. The contributions to this volume, based on research presented at the UCL workshop on the topic in January 2016, include three review papers on core topics such as fictitious domain methods for elasticity, trace finite element methods for partial differential equations defined on surfaces, and Nitsche’s method for contact problems. Five chapters present original research articles on related theoretical topics, including Lagrange multiplier methods, interface problems, bulk-surface coupling, and approximation of partial differential equations on moving domains. Finally, two chapters discuss advanced applications such as crack propagation or flow in fractured poroelastic media. This is the first volume that provides a comprehensive overview of the field of unfitted finite element methods, including recent techniques such as cutFEM, traceFEM, ghost penalty, and aug...

  4. Thin film barium strontium titanate capacitors for tunable RF front-end applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.


    In this thesis, the results of intensive electrical characterization, modeling and the design of hardware with thin film tunable capacitors, i.e., dielectric varactors, has been presented and discussed. Especially the quality factor Q and the tuning ratio of the tunable capacitors have been studied,

  5. Fine-tunable plasma nano-machining for fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures: SERS application. (United States)

    Mehrvar, L; Hajihoseini, H; Mahmoodi, H; Tavassoli, S H; Fathipour, M; Mohseni, S M


    Novel processing sequences for the fabrication of artificial nanostructures are in high demand for various applications. In this paper, we report on a fine-tunable nano-machining technique for the fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures. This technique originates from redeposition effects occurring during Ar dry etching of nano-patterns. Different geometries of honeycomb, double ring, nanotube, cone and crescent arrays have been successfully fabricated from various metals such as Au, Ag, Pt and Ti. The geometrical parameters of the 3D hollow nanostructures can be straightforwardly controlled by tuning the discharge plasma pressure and power. The structure and morphology of nanostructures are probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Finally, a Ag nanotube array was assayed for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), resulting in an enhancement factor (EF) of 5.5 × 10 5 , as an experimental validity proof consistent with the presented simulation framework. Furthermore, it was found that the theoretical EF value for the honeycomb array is in the order of 10 7 , a hundred times greater than that found in nanotube array.

  6. Characterization of PDMS samples with variation of its synthesis parameters for tunable optics applications (United States)

    Marquez-Garcia, Josimar; Cruz-Félix, Angel S.; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; González-García, Jorge


    Nowadays the elastomer known as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, Sylgard 184), due to its physical properties, low cost and easy handle, have become a frequently used material for the elaboration of optical components such as: variable focal length liquid lenses, optical waveguides, solid elastic lenses, etc. In recent years, we have been working in the characterization of this material for applications in visual sciences; in this work, we describe the elaboration of PDMSmade samples, also, we present physical and optical properties of the samples by varying its synthesis parameters such as base: curing agent ratio, and both, curing time and temperature. In the case of mechanical properties, tensile and compression tests were carried out through a universal testing machine to obtain the respective stress-strain curves, and to obtain information regarding its optical properties, UV-vis spectroscopy is applied to the samples to obtain transmittance and absorbance curves. Index of refraction variation was obtained through an Abbe refractometer. Results from the characterization will determine the proper synthesis parameters for the elaboration of tunable refractive surfaces for potential applications in robotics.

  7. Tunable Optical Polymer Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenekhe, S. A; Bard, Allen J; Chen, S. H; Hammond, P. T; Rothberg, L. J


    This multidisciplinary university research initiative (MURI) program investigated tunable optical polymer systems suitable for large-area color-switchable coatings and devices, displays, sensors, and other electronic applications...

  8. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Application of tunable diode lasers for a highly sensitive analysis of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air (United States)

    Stepanov, E. V.; Milyaev, Varerii A.


    The application of tunable diode lasers for a highly sensitive analysis of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air in biomedical diagnostics is discussed. The principle of operation and the design of a laser analyser for studying the composition of exhaled air are described. The results of detection of gaseous biomarkers in exhaled air, including clinical studies, which demonstrate the diagnostic possibilities of the method, are presented.

  9. Tunable 3D cQED: Applications to Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (United States)

    Reed, Matthew; Chou, Kevin; Ofek, Nissim; Blumoff, Jacob; Vlastakis, Brian; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Leghtas, Zaki; Nigg, Simon; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, Steven; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Schoelkopf, Robert


    The ability to control the frequency of a superconducting qubit on nanosecond timescales has been used, among other things, to generate multi-qubit entanglement. The recently developed 3D cQED architecture has yielded dramatic coherence improvements and novel methods of entangling fixed-tuned qubits, but has until now has lacked the ability to control qubit frequencies in situ. Adding this would grant several abilities. First, the coupling of a qubit to the cavity bus could be modulated to control both the inherited nonlinearity and the dispersive shift of the oscillator. Second, controlling the interactions between individual qubits, particularly those coupled to more than one cavity, could be used to shuttle quantum information between subsystems. Third, a small change to the physical implementation could yield efficient individual qubit QND readout or reset. These abilities are readily applicable to demonstrations of hardware-efficient quantum error correction, entanglement distillation between distant pairs of qubits, and teleportation of quantum information. In this talk, we will discuss our recent results toward achieving these capabilities using the tunable 3D cQED architecture introduced previously.

  10. Characterization of a tunable astigmatic fluidic lens with adaptive optics correction for compact phoropter application (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Huang, Chieh-Tse


    Fluidically controlled lenses which adaptively correct prescribed refractive error without mechanically moving parts are extensively applied in the ophthalmic applications. Capable of variable-focusing properties, however, the associated aberrations due to curvature change and refractive index mismatch can inherently degrade image quality severely. Here we present the experimental study of the aberrations in tunable astigmatic lens and use of adaptive optics to compensate for the wavefront errors. Characterization of the optical properties of the individual lenses is carried out by Shack-Hartmann measurements. An adaptive optics (AO) based scheme is demonstrated for three injected fluidic volumes, resulting in a substantial reduction of the wavefront errors from -0.12, -0.25, -0.32 to 0.01, -0.01, -0.20 μm, respectively, corresponding to the optical power tenability of 0.83 to 1.84 D. Furthermore, an integrated optical phoroptor consisting of adjustable astigmatic lenses and AO correction is demonstrated such that an induced refraction error of -1 D cylinder at 180° of a model eye vision is experimentally corrected.

  11. Hollow nickel-aluminium-manganese layered triple hydroxide nanospheres with tunable architecture for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekaran, Nivedhini Iswarya; Muthukumar, Harshiny; Sekar, Aiswarya Devi; Manickam, Matheswaran, E-mail:


    Hollow triple layered Ni-Al-Mn hydroxide nanocomposite is a promising electrode material with high capacitance value. Moreover, the material provides a high energy density with good cycling stability. Here we demonstrate the facile method for preparation of hollow layered triple hydroxide material in a combination of Nickel, Aluminium and Manganese with high surface area and mesoporous nature. Owing to its high electrode area and fast electron-ion transfer nature, the hollow Ni-Al-Mn hydroxide exhibits the high capacitance of 1756 F/g at 4 A/g and retains its capacitance value upto 89.5% of initial values after 4000 cycles. Additionally, it provides a higher energy density of 239.0795 Wh/kg at a power density of 1980 W/kg. HLTH of Ni-Al-Mn nanocomposite provides a better capacitance effect. Finally, this material provides a general approach for designing supercapacitor with tunable nanostructure and enhanced supercapacitor behaviour has a large application in energy storage and conversion devices. - Highlights: • An approach to acquire a hollow Ni-Al-Mn layered triple hydroxide is presented. • HLTH shows a large surface area suitable for electrochemical performance. • Exhibits high energy density of 239.07 Wh/kg at a power density of 1980 W/kg. • Recorded specific capacitance of 1756 F/g at current density 4 A/g. • HLTH retains 89.5% of initial capacitance values after 4000 cycles.

  12. The application of hospitality elements in hospitals. (United States)

    Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke


    In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority.

  13. Radiolabelled blood elements techniques and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.


    Over the past few years, in nuclear medicine, the diagnostic applications of radiolabelled blood elements in general, and of radiolabelled white blood cells in particular, have become increasingly popular. This is primarily due to the introduction of lipid soluble 111 In-oxine as an agent, which not only is an excellent and a reliable tracer for blood cells but also enables the investigators to study the in vivo cell kinetics and map the localization of labelled cells by external gamma scintigraphy. The tracer has the modest half life of 67 hours and decays with the emission of two gamma photons (173 and 247 keV) in high abundance. This technique has provided a powerful tool to study the in vivo cell kinetics in health and localize abnormal lesions in diseases which invoke intense focal cellular concentration

  14. Novel Applications of a Thermally Tunable Bistable Buckling Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Microfabricated Membrane (United States)


    accelerometers and gyroscopes as the biggest selling MEMS devices and it is predicted that the market will continue to grow (Figure 28) until at...a wide application in the area of vibration isolation mechanisms. Negative stiffness elements contribute to damping behavior because they tend to...assist rather than resist deformation as a result of internally stored energy [100]. Minus K Technology developed a negative stiffness vibration iso

  15. Tunable micro-optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duppé, Claudia


    Presenting state-of-the-art research into the dynamic field of tunable micro-optics, this is the first book to provide a comprehensive survey covering a varied range of topics including novel materials, actuation concepts and new imaging systems in optics. Internationally renowned researchers present a diverse range of chapters on cutting-edge materials, devices and subsystems, including soft matter, artificial muscles, tunable lenses and apertures, photonic crystals, and complete tunable imagers. Special contributions also provide in-depth treatment of micro-optical characterisation, scanners, and the use of natural eye models as inspiration for new concepts in advanced optics. With applications extending from medical diagnosis to fibre telecommunications, Tunable Micro-optics equips readers with a solid understanding of the broader technical context through its interdisciplinary approach to the realisation of new types of optical systems. This is an essential resource for engineers in industry and academia,...

  16. Tunable multiple plasmon induced transparencies in parallel graphene sheets and its applications (United States)

    khazaee, Sara; Granpayeh, Nosrat


    Tunable plasmon induced transparency is achieved by using only two parallel graphene sheets beyond silicon diffractive grating in mid-infrared region. Excitation of the guided-wave resonance (GWR) in this structure is illustrated on the normal incident transmission spectra and plays the bright resonance mode role. Weak hybridization between two bright modes, creates plasmon induced transparency (PIT) optical response. The resonance frequency of transparency window can be tuned by different geometrical parameters. Also, variation of graphene Fermi energy can be used to achieve tunability of the resonance frequency of transparency window without reconstruction and re-fabrication of the structure. We demonstrate the existence of multiple PIT spectral responses resulting from a series of self-assembled GWRs to be used as the wavelength demultiplexer. This study can be used for design of the optical ultra-compact devices and photonic integrated circuits.

  17. A novel tunable frequency selective surface absorber with dual-DOF for broadband applications. (United States)

    Kong, Peng; Yu, XiaoWei; Liu, ZhengYang; Zhou, Kai; He, Yun; Miao, Ling; Jiang, JianJun


    A novel tunable frequency selective surface (FSS) with dual-degrees of freedom (DOF) is presented, and firstly applied to broadband absorber. Based on a simple prototype unit cell resonator, an approach for achieving multi-resonances is studied. A unit cell pattern with gradient edges is discussed, and variable resistor and variable capacitor are introduced to fully utilize its characteristic of multi-resonances. Bias line is designed to provide bias voltage respectively for two variable devices and provide two operational DOF for FSS. Simulation and measurement results both show that the tunable FSS absorber with dual-DOF has wideband absorption with the reflectivity below -10 dB in 1-5 GHz and with a total thickness of about 10 mm.

  18. Tunable-wavelength picosecond vortex generation in fiber and its application in frequency-doubled vortex (United States)

    Zhang, Wending; Wei, Keyan; Wang, Heng; Mao, Dong; Gao, Feng; Huang, Ligang; Mei, Ting; Zhao, Jianlin


    We present a method for tunable-wavelength picosecond vortex pulse generation by using an acoustically-induced fiber grating (AIFG). The AIFG-driven mode conversion characteristic was activated via a shear-mode piezoelectric transducer that excels in excitation efficiency of acoustic flexural wave and mechanical stability. The linearly-polarized ±1-order picosecond vortex pulse was experimentally generated via AIFG with a uniform coupling efficiency of ∼98.4% from the fundamental mode to the ±1-order vortex mode within the wavelength range 1540 nm ∼ 1560 nm. The topological charge and the linearly-polarized characteristic of the picosecond vortex pulse were verified by examination of the off-axial interference and the polarization angle-dependent intensity, respectively. Furthermore, the picosecond vortex pulse with wavelength tunability was input to a nonlinear BBO crystal to generate a frequency-doubled ±2-order vortex in the wavelength range 770 nm ∼ 780 nm. This technology provides a convenient apparatus for generating a picosecond vortex pulse and the frequency-doubled vortex with wavelength tunability.

  19. Broadly tunable, beta-barium-borate-based, pulsed optical parametric oscillators and their potential applications in medicine (United States)

    Sobey, Mark S.; Clark, Jim; Johnson, Bertram C.


    With the recent availability of Beta Barium Borate (BBO) crystals in useful sizes at acceptable market prices, the promise of Optical Parametric Oscillators (OPOs) becoming practical tunable systems is finally being realized. Wavelength coverage from such systems extends from 420 nm to over 2400 nm when pumped in the UV. For medical applications their usage will be limited in the near term to low repetition rates (suitable for selective absorption applications in medicine such as colored tattoo removal or treating vascular lesions. For such high energy devices peak powers necessitate the use of articulating arms for beam delivery. For high repetition rate systems, energy outputs will be in the range of 100 to 500 (mu) J at kHz frequencies (up to 1 W average power). Peak powers are low enough that fiber optic delivery is possible. These systems may find selective absorption applications in ophthalmology.

  20. Miniaturized and Ferrite Based Tunable Bandpass Filters in LCP and LTCC Technologies for SoP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.


    Wireless systems with emerging applications are leaning towards small size, light-weight and low cost. Another trend for these wireless devices is that new applications and functionalities are being added without increasing the size of the device. To accomplish this, individual components must be miniaturized and the system should be designed to maximize the integration of the individual components. The high level of 3D integration feasible in system on package design (SoP) concept can fulfill the latter requirement. Bandpass filters are important components on all wireless systems to reject the unwanted signals and reduce interference. Being mostly implemented with passive and distributed components, bandpass filters take considerable space in a wireless system. Moreover, with emerging bands and multiple applications encompassed in a single device, many bandpass filters are required. The miniaturization related to bandpass filters can be approached by three main ways: (1) at the component level through the miniaturization of individual bandpass filters, (2) at the system level through the use of tunable filters to reduce the overall number of filters, and (3) at the system level through the high level of integration in a 3D SoP platform. In this work we have focused on all three aspects of miniaturization of band pass filters mentioned above. In the first part of this work, a low frequency (1.5 GHz global positioning system (GPS) band) filter implemented through 3D lumped components in two leading SoP technologies, namely low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) and the liquid crystal polymers (LCP) is demonstrated. The miniaturized filter is based on a second order topology, which has been modified to improve the selectivity and out-of-band rejection without increasing the size. Moreover, for the case of LCP, the filter is realized in an ultra-thin stack up comprising four metallization layers with an overall thickness of only 100 _m. Due to its ultra

  1. Multilayer-WS2:ferroelectric composite for ultrafast tunable metamaterial-induced transparency applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jinghuan; Zhu, Yu; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang


    An ultrafast and low-power all-optical tunable metamaterial-induced transparency is realized, using polycrystalline barium titanate doped gold nanoparticles and multilayer tungsten disulfide microsheets as nonlinear optical materials. Large nonlinearity enhancement is obtained associated with quantum confinement effect, local-field effect, and reinforced interaction between light and multilayer tungsten disulfide. Low threshold pump intensity of 20 MW/cm 2 is achieved. An ultrafast response time of 85 ps is maintained because of fast carrier relaxation dynamics in nanoscale crystal grains of polycrystalline barium titanate. This may be useful for the study of integrated photonic devices based on two-dimensional materials

  2. CuO-PANI nanostructure with tunable spectral selectivity for solar selective coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cindrella, L., E-mail:; Prabhu, S., E-mail:


    Highlights: • CuO-PANI nanostructure has been reported as the solar selective absorber coating. • Solar selectivity and efficiency of the coatings have been evaluated. • PANI provides a surface texture favourable for multiple reflection. - Abstract: CuO-PANI nanostructure has been demonstrated as the solar selective absorber coating for the first time. The effortless chemical methods and easily scalable techniques such as precipitation, in-situ polymerization and spray coating were adopted for the fabrication of CuO nanorods and CuO-PANI nanostructures for solar application. The synthesis was carried out without using any template. The morphology and phase structure of fabricated CuO nanorods and CuO-PANI nanostructure coatings were studied by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The energy dispersive X-ray spectra and elemental mapping confirm the presence of the chosen elements in the nanostructure. The solar absorptance (α{sub s}), thermal emittance (ε{sub t}) and selectivity (ξ) of the nanostructure coatings on glass substrate were optimized to 0.94, 0.01 and 94 respectively by changing the polyaniline content on the surface of the CuO nanorods. The efficiency of the solar selective coatings were evaluated. The optimized solar absorber coating of CuO-PANI nanostructure is highly promising for its selective optical properties.

  3. Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhao-xian


    We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.

  4. Optimal design of tunable phononic bandgap plates under equibiaxial stretch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, M S; Guest, James K


    Design and application of phononic crystal (PhCr) acoustic metamaterials has been a topic with tremendous growth of interest in the last decade due to their promising capabilities to manipulate acoustic and elastodynamic waves. Phononic controllability of waves through a particular PhCr is limited only to the spectrums located within its fixed bandgap frequency. Hence the ability to tune a PhCr is desired to add functionality over its variable bandgap frequency or for switchability. Deformation induced bandgap tunability of elastomeric PhCr solids and plates with prescribed topology have been studied by other researchers. Principally the internal stress state and distorted geometry of a deformed phononic crystal plate (PhP) changes its effective stiffness and leads to deformation induced tunability of resultant modal band structure. Thus the microstructural topology of a PhP can be altered so that specific tunability features are met through prescribed deformation. In the present study novel tunable PhPs of this kind with optimized bandgap efficiency-tunability of guided waves are computationally explored and evaluated. Low loss transmission of guided waves throughout thin walled structures makes them ideal for fabrication of low loss ultrasound devices and structural health monitoring purposes. Various tunability targets are defined to enhance or degrade complete bandgaps of plate waves through macroscopic tensile deformation. Elastomeric hyperelastic material is considered which enables recoverable micromechanical deformation under tuning finite stretch. Phononic tunability through stable deformation of phononic lattice is specifically required and so any topology showing buckling instability under assumed deformation is disregarded. Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (GA) NSGA-II is adopted for evolutionary multiobjective topology optimization of hypothesized tunable PhP with square symmetric unit-cell and relevant topologies are analyzed through finite

  5. Growth and Characterization of Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films for Application in Tunable Metasurfaces (United States)

    Moore, Elise; Kurtz, Nathan; Ollanik, Adam; Riggs, Brian; Escarra, Matthew

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) demonstrates dramatic variation in optical and electronic properties across a metal-insulator transition. The transition, which occurs near room temperature, involves a phase change from monoclinic to tetragonal crystal structure. In order to utilize its unique properties in tunable optical metasurfaces, VO2 thin films are grown using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous glass substrates. Raman scattering spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and other characterization of the phase transition are used to assess their quality. The most straightforward characterization is done by measuring the resistivity change of a film across the transition temperature (68C). The magnitude of this change is a direct measure of film quality. Electrical characterization of the phase transition is verified and complemented by optical characterization - analysis of the film's reflectance, transmittance, and refractive index as a function of temperature. These films are then employed in low-loss Huygens optical metasurfaces, which use tunable phase shift in nanoresonators to vary the behavior of light across an interface via a thermal, electrical, or optical stimulus.

  6. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter


    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  7. Tunable white light of a Ce3+,Tb3+,Mn2+triply doped Na2Ca3Si2O8phosphor for high colour-rendering white LED applications: tunable luminescence and energy transfer. (United States)

    Lü, Wei; Xu, Huawei; Huo, Jiansheng; Shao, Baiqi; Feng, Yang; Zhao, Shuang; You, Hongpeng


    A tunable white light emitting Na 2 Ca 3 Si 2 O 8 :Ce 3+ ,Tb 3+ ,Mn 2+ phosphor with a high color rendering index (CRI) has been prepared. Under UV excitation, Na 2 Ca 3 Si 2 O 8 :Ce 3+ phosphors present blue luminescence and exhibit a broad excitation ranging from 250 to 400 nm. When codoping Tb 3+ /Mn 2+ ions into Na 2 Ca 3 Si 2 O 8 , energy transfer from Ce 3+ to Tb 3+ and Ce 3+ to Mn 2+ ions is observed from the spectral overlap between Ce 3+ emission and Tb 3+ /Mn 2+ excitation spectra. The energy-transfer efficiencies and corresponding mechanisms are discussed in detail. The mechanism of energy transfer from Ce 3+ to Tb 3+ is demonstrated to be a dipole-quadrupole mechanism by the Inokuti-Hirayama model. The wavelength-tunable white light can be realized by coupling the emission bands centered at 440, 550 and 590 nm ascribed to the contribution from Ce 3+ , Tb 3+ and Mn 2+ , respectively. The commission on illumination value of color tunable emission can be tuned by controlling the content of Ce 3+ , Tb 3+ and Mn 2+ . Temperature-dependent luminescence spectra proved the good thermal stability of the as-prepared phosphor. White LEDs with CRI = 93.5 are finally fabricated using a 365 nm UV chip and the as-prepared Na 2 Ca 3 Si 2 O 8 :Ce 3+ ,Tb 3+ ,Mn 2+ phosphor. All the results suggest that Na 2 Ca 3 Si 2 O 8 :Ce 3+ ,Tb 3+ ,Mn 2+ can act as potential color-tunable and single-phase white emission phosphors for possible applications in UV based white LEDs.

  8. Anti-Reflective Fluoride Coatings for Widely Tunable Deep-Ultraviolet Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin-Cheng, Li; Da-Wei, Lin; Yan-Ling, Han; Chun, Guo; Yun-Dong, Zhang; Hong-Xiang, Liu


    An anti-reflective (AR) fluoride coating in the 170–230 nm spectral range is prepared by the thermal evaporation method for the applications of widely tunable deep-ultraviolet diode-pumped solid-state lasers. The transmittance of an AR coated calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) window in thickness 3 mm is measured to be in the range of 95.8% at 170 nm to 97.1% at 230 nm, with the maximum transmittance 99.2% and the minimum residual reflectance 0.04% appeared at 195 nm. The experimental results indicate that treating the AR coated window and the bare substrate with ultraviolet irradiation can significantly improve their optical performance

  9. Finite element analysis theory and application with ANSYS

    CERN Document Server

    Moaveni, Saeed


    For courses in Finite Element Analysis, offered in departments of Mechanical or Civil and Environmental Engineering. While many good textbooks cover the theory of finite element modeling, Finite Element Analysis: Theory and Application with ANSYS is the only text available that incorporates ANSYS as an integral part of its content. Moaveni presents the theory of finite element analysis, explores its application as a design/modeling tool, and explains in detail how to use ANSYS intelligently and effectively. Teaching and Learning Experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. It will help: *Present the Theory of Finite Element Analysis: The presentation of theoretical aspects of finite element analysis is carefully designed not to overwhelm students. *Explain How to Use ANSYS Effectively: ANSYS is incorporated as an integral part of the content throughout the book. *Explore How to Use FEA as a Design/Modeling Tool: Open-ended design problems help stude...

  10. Tunable grating with active feedback (United States)

    Rosset, Samuel; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Gisby, Todd; Xu, Daniel; Shea, Herbert R.; Anderson, Iain A.


    We report on the use of capacitive self-sensing to operate a DEA-based tunable grating in closed-loop mode. Due to their large strain capabilities, DEAs are key candidates for tunable optics applications. However, the viscoelasticity of elastomers is detrimental for applications that require long-term stability, such as tunable gratings and lenses. We show that capacitive sensing of the electrode strain can be used to suppress the strain drift and increase the response speed of silicone-based actuators. On the other hand, VHB actuators exhibit a time-dependent permittivity, which causes a drift between the device capacitance and its strain.

  11. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa


    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  12. Lightweight Tunable Infrared Filter, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Michigan Aerospace Corporation has developed spaceflight qualified compact tunable Fabry-Perot interferometers for a number of applications, from ranging direct...

  13. Infrared hyperspectral tunable filter imaging spectrometer for remote leak detection, chemical speciation, and stack/vent analysis applications (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele


    With support from the Department of Energy, the State of California and the Gas Technology Institute, Pacific Advanced Technology is developing a small field portable infrared imaging spectrometer (Sherlock) based on the advances in hyperspectral tunable filter technology, that will be applied to the detection of fugitive gas leaks. This imaging spectrometer uses the Image Multi-spectral Sensing (IMSS) diffractive optic tunable filter invented by Pacific Advanced Technology . The Sherlock has an embedded digital signal processor for real time detection of the gas leak while surrounded by severe background noise. The infrared sensor engine is a 256 x 320 midwave cooled focal plane array which spans the spectral range from 3 to 5 microns, ideal for most hydrocarbon leaks. The technology is by no means limited to this spectral region, and can just as easily work in the longwave infrared from 8 to 12 microns for chemical detection applications. This paper will present the design of the Sherlock camera as well as processed data collected at a gas processing plant and an instrumented kiln at LSU using the prototype camera. The processed data shows that the IMSS imaging spectrometer, using an all passive approach, has the sensitivity to detect methane gas leaks at short range with a flow rate as low as 0.01 scfm2. In addition, the IMSS imaging spectrometer can measure hot gas plumes at longer ranges. As will be shown in this paper the IMSS can detect and image warm species gas additives of methane and propane in the Kiln exhaust stack. The methane injected gas with a concentration of 72 ppm and the propane with a concentration of 49 ppm (as seen by the IMSS sensor) at a range of 60 meters. The atmospheric path was a stressing environment, being hot and humid, for any imaging infrared spectrometer.

  14. The elements of Cantor sets with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vallin, Robert W


    This book is a thorough introduction to the Cantor (Ternary) Set and its applications and brings together many of the topics (advanced calculus, probability, topology, and algebra) that mathematics students are required to study, but unfortunately are treated as separate ideas. This book successfully bridges the gap between how several mathematical fields interact using Cantor Sets as the common theme.  While the book is mathematically self-contained, readers should be comfortable with mathematical formalism and have some experience in reading and writing mathematical proofs.  Chapter cover

  15. High energy, single frequency, tunable laser source operating in burst mode for space based lidar applications (United States)

    Cosentino, Alberto; Mondello, Alessia; Sapia, Adalberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Brotini, Mauro; Nava, Enzo; Stucchi, Emanuele; Trespidi, Franco; Mariottini, Cristina; Wazen, Paul; Falletto, Nicolas; Fruit, Michel


    This paper describes the laser transmitter assembly used in the ALADIN instrument currently in C/D development phase for the ESA ADM-AEOLUS mission (EADS Astrium as prime contractor for the satellite and the instrument). The Laser Transmitter Assembly (TXA), based on a diode pumped tripled Nd:YAG laser, is used to generate tunable laser pulses of 150 mJ at a nominal wavelength of 355 nm. This laser is operated in burst mode, with a pulse repetition cycle of 100 Hz. The TXA is composed of the following units: a diodepumped CW Nd:YAG Laser named Reference Laser Head (RLH), used to inject a diode-pumped, Q-switched, amplified and frequency tripled Nd:YAG Laser working in the third harmonic referred as Power Laser Head (PLH) and a Transmitter Laser Electronics (TLE) containing all the control and power electronics needed for PLH and RLH operation. The TXA is made by an European consortium under the leadership of Galileo Avionica (It), and including CESI (It), Quantel (Fr), TESAT (Ge) and Thales (Fr).

  16. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials (United States)

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Jun, Young Chul


    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  17. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A.; Passmore, Brandon Scott


    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  18. Ultrawide continuously tunable 1.55-μm vertical air-cavity wavelength-selective elements for VCSELs using micromachined electrostatic actuation (United States)

    Hillmer, Hartmut H.; Daleiden, Juergen; Prott, Cornelia; Roemer, Friedhard; Irmer, Soeren; Ataro, Edwin; Tarraf, Amer; Gutermuth, D.; Kommallein, I.; Strassner, Martin


    Surface-micromachined 1.55μm vertical-resonator-based devices, capable of wide, continuous, monotonic and kink-free tuning are designed, technologically implemented and characterized. Tuning is achieved by mechanically actuating one or several membranes in a vertical resonator including two ultra-highly reflective DBR mirrors. The tuning is controlled by a single parameter (actuation voltage). The two different layers composing the mirrors reveal a very strong refractive index contrast. Filters including InP/air-gap DBR's (3.5 periods) using GaInAs sacrificial layers reveal a continuous tuning of up to 9% of the absolute wavelength. Varying a reverse voltage (U=0 .. -3.2V) between the membranes, a tuning range up to 142nm was obtained by electrostatic actuation. The correlation of the wavelength and the applied voltage is accurately reproducible without any hysteresis. Theoretical model calculations are performed for symmetric and asymmetric device structures, varying layer thickness and compositions. Models of highly sophisticated color tuning can be found in nature, e.g. in tunable spectral light filtering by trogon and butterfly wings. Bionics transfers the principles of success of nature into natural science, engineering disciplines and applications (here filters and VCSELs for optical communication on the basis of WDM). Light interferes constructively and destructively with nano- and microstructures of appropriate shape, dimensions and materials, both in the artificial DBR structures fabricated in our labs as well as in the natural ones.

  19. PIXE methodology of rare earth element analysis and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei


    The Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology of rare earth element (REEs) analysis is discussed, including the significance of REE analysis, the principle of PIXE applied to REE, selection of characteristic X-ray for Lanthanide series elements, deconvolution of highly over lapped PIXE spectrum and minimum detection limit (MDL) of REEs. Some practical applications are presented. And the specialities of PIXE analysis to the high pure REE chemicals are discussed. (author)

  20. Spectral/hp element methods: Recent developments, applications, and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Hui; Cantwell, Chris; Monteserin, Carlos


    The spectral/hp element method combines the geometric flexibility of the classical h-type finite element technique with the desirable numerical properties of spectral methods, employing high-degree piecewise polynomial basis functions on coarse finite element-type meshes. The spatial approximation...... regularity assumptions an exponential reduction in approximation error between numerical and exact solutions can be achieved. This method has now been applied in many simulation studies of both fundamental and practical engineering flows. This paper briefly describes the formulation of the spectral...... method in more complex science and engineering applications are discussed....

  1. Tunable high pressure lasers (United States)

    Hess, R. V.


    Atmospheric transmission of high energy CO2 lasers is considerably improved by high pressure operation which, due to pressure broadening, permits tuning the laser lines off atmospheric absorption lines. Pronounced improvement is shown for horizontal transmission at altitudes above several kilometers and for vertical transmission through the entire atmosphere. Applications of tunable high pressure CO2 lasers to energy transmission and to remote sensing are discussed along with initial efforts in tuning high pressure CO2 lasers.

  2. Concentration specific and tunable photoresponse of bismuth vanadate functionalized hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals based photoanodes for photoelectrochemical application (United States)

    Singh, Sonal; Ruhela, Aakansha; Rani, Sanju; Khanuja, Manika; Sharma, Rishabh


    In the present work, dual layer BiVO4/ZnO photoanode is instigated for photo-electrochemical (PEC) water splitting applications. Two different photocatalytic layers ZnO and BiVO4, reduces charge carrier recombination and charge transfer resistance at photoanode/electrolyte junction. The concentration-specific, tunable and without 'spike and overshoot' features, photocurrent density response is originated by varying BiVO4 concentration in the BiVO4/ZnO photoanode. The crystal structure of ZnO (hexagonal wurtzite structure) and BiVO4 (monoclinic scheelite structure) is confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. The band gap of BiVO4/ZnO was estimated to be ca. 2.42 eV through Kubler-Munk function F(R∞) using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Electrochemical behavior of samples was analyzed with photocurrent measurements, electrochemical impedance, Mott-Schottky plots, bulk separation efficiency and surface transfer efficiency. The maximum photocurrent density of BiVO4/ZnO photoanode was found to be 2.3 times higher than pristine ZnO sample.0.038 M BiVO4/ZnO exhibited the highest separation efficiency of 72% and surface transfer efficiency of 64.7% at +1.23 V vs. RHE. Mott-Schottky study revealed the maximum charge carrier density in the same sample.

  3. Electrostatically Tunable Nanomechanical Shallow Arches

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed N. R.


    We report an analytical and experimental study on the tunability of in-plane doubly-clamped nanomechanical arches under varied DC bias conditions at room temperature. For this purpose, silicon based shallow arches are fabricated using standard e-beam lithography and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The experimental results show good agreement with the analytical results with a maximum tunability of 108.14% for 180 nm thick arch with a transduction gap of 1 μm between the beam and the driving/sensing electrodes. The high tunability of shallow arches paves the ways for highly tunable band pass filtering applications in high frequency range.

  4. Spectral/ hp element methods: Recent developments, applications, and perspectives (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Cantwell, Chris D.; Monteserin, Carlos; Eskilsson, Claes; Engsig-Karup, Allan P.; Sherwin, Spencer J.


    The spectral/ hp element method combines the geometric flexibility of the classical h-type finite element technique with the desirable numerical properties of spectral methods, employing high-degree piecewise polynomial basis functions on coarse finite element-type meshes. The spatial approximation is based upon orthogonal polynomials, such as Legendre or Chebychev polynomials, modified to accommodate a C 0 - continuous expansion. Computationally and theoretically, by increasing the polynomial order p, high-precision solutions and fast convergence can be obtained and, in particular, under certain regularity assumptions an exponential reduction in approximation error between numerical and exact solutions can be achieved. This method has now been applied in many simulation studies of both fundamental and practical engineering flows. This paper briefly describes the formulation of the spectral/ hp element method and provides an overview of its application to computational fluid dynamics. In particular, it focuses on the use of the spectral/ hp element method in transitional flows and ocean engineering. Finally, some of the major challenges to be overcome in order to use the spectral/ hp element method in more complex science and engineering applications are discussed.

  5. Hands on applied finite element analysis application with ANSYS

    CERN Document Server

    Arslan, Mehmet Ali


    Hands on Applied Finite Element Analysis Application with Ansys is truly an extraordinary book that offers practical ways of tackling FEA problems in machine design and analysis. In this book, 35 good selection of example problems have been presented, offering students the opportunity to apply their knowledge to real engineering FEA problem solutions by guiding them with real life hands on experience.

  6. Liquid Tunable Microlenses based on MEMS techniques (United States)

    Zeng, Xuefeng; Jiang, Hongrui


    The recent rapid development in microlens technology has provided many opportunities for miniaturized optical systems, and has found a wide range of applications. Of these microlenses, tunable-focus microlenses are of special interest as their focal lengths can be tuned using micro-scale actuators integrated with the lens structure. Realization of such tunable microlens generally relies on the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technologies. Here, we review the recent progress in tunable liquid microlenses. The underlying physics relevant to these microlenses are first discussed, followed by description of three main categories of tunable microlenses involving MEMS techniques, mechanically driven, electrically driven, and those integrated within microfluidic systems. PMID:24163480

  7. Broadly tunable metal halide perovskites for solid-state light-emission applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjokatse, Sampson; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta


    The past two years have witnessed heightened interest in metal-halide perovskites as promising optoelectronic materials for solid-state light emitting applications beyond photovoltaics. Metal-halide perovskites are low-cost solution-processable materials with excellent intrinsic properties such as

  8. Hydrophilic silver nanoparticles with tunable optical properties: application for the detection of heavy metals in water. (United States)

    Prosposito, Paolo; Mochi, Federico; Ciotta, Erica; Casalboni, Mauro; De Matteis, Fabio; Venditti, Iole; Fontana, Laura; Testa, Giovanna; Fratoddi, Ilaria


    Due their excellent chemo-physical properties and ability to exhibit surface plasmon resonance, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have become a material of choice in various applications, such as nanosensors, electronic devices, nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. In particular, from the environmental monitoring perspective, sensors based on silver nanoparticles are in great demand because of their antibacterial and inexpensive synthetic method. In the present study, we synthesized AgNPs in water phase using silver nitrate as precursor molecules, hydrophilic thiol (3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt, 3MPS) and sodium borohydride as capping and reducing agents, respectively. The AgNPs were characterized using techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential (ζ-potential) measurements and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Further, to demonstrate the environmental application of our AgNPs, we also applied them for heavy metal sensing by detecting visible color modification due to SPR spectral changes. We found that these negatively charged AgNPs show good response to nickel (II) and presented good sensibility properties for the detection of low amount of ions in water in the working range of 1.0-0.1 ppm.

  9. Hydrophilic silver nanoparticles with tunable optical properties: application for the detection of heavy metals in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Prosposito


    Full Text Available Due their excellent chemo-physical properties and ability to exhibit surface plasmon resonance, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have become a material of choice in various applications, such as nanosensors, electronic devices, nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. In particular, from the environmental monitoring perspective, sensors based on silver nanoparticles are in great demand because of their antibacterial and inexpensive synthetic method. In the present study, we synthesized AgNPs in water phase using silver nitrate as precursor molecules, hydrophilic thiol (3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt, 3MPS and sodium borohydride as capping and reducing agents, respectively. The AgNPs were characterized using techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS, zeta potential (ζ-potential measurements and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM. Further, to demonstrate the environmental application of our AgNPs, we also applied them for heavy metal sensing by detecting visible color modification due to SPR spectral changes. We found that these negatively charged AgNPs show good response to nickel (II and presented good sensibility properties for the detection of low amount of ions in water in the working range of 1.0–0.1 ppm.

  10. Graphene-based tunable non-foster circuit for VHF applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tian


    Full Text Available This paper presents a negative impedance converter (NIC based on graphene field effect transistors (GFETs for VHF applications. The NIC is designed following Linvill’s open circuit stable (OCS topology. The DC modelling parameters of GFET are extracted from a device measured by Meric et al. [IEEE Electron Devices Meeting, 23.2.1 (2010] Estimated parasitics are also taken into account. Simulation results from Keysight Advanced Design System (ADS show good NIC performance up to 200 MHz and the value of negative capacitance is directly proportional to the capacitive load. In addition, it has been shown that by varying the supply voltage the value of negative capacitance can also be tuned. The NIC stability has been tested up to 2 GHz (10 times the maximum operation frequency using Nyquist stability criterion to ensure there are no oscillation issues.

  11. Robust hydrophobic polyurethane fibrous membranes with tunable porous structure for waterproof and breathable application (United States)

    Gu, Jiatai; Gu, Haihong; Cao, Jin; Chen, Shaojie; Li, Ni; Xiong, Jie


    In this work, novel nanofibrous membranes with waterproof and breathable (W&B) performance were successfully fabricated by the combination of electrospinning and surface modification technology. This fibrous membranes consisted of polyurethane (PU), NaCl, and fluoroalkylsilane (FAS). Firstly, The fibrous construction and porous structure of fibrous membranes were regulated by tuning the NaCl concentrations in PU solutions. Then, the obtained PU/NaCl fibrous membranes were further modified with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) to improve hydrophobic property. The synergistic effect of porous structure and hydrophobicity on waterproof and breathable performance was investigated. Furthermore, the mechanical property of fibrous membranes was deeply analysed on the basis of macromolecule orientation and adhesive structure. Benefiting from the optimized porous structure and hydrophobic modification, the resultant fibrous membranes exhibited excellent waterproof (hydrostatic pressure of 1261 Mbar), breathable (water vapor transmission (WVT) rate of 9.06 kg m-2 d-1 and air permeability of 4.8 mm s-1) performance, as well as high tensile strength (breakage stress of 10.4 MPa), suggesting a promising candidate for various applications, especially in protective clothing.

  12. High energy, single frequency, tunable laser source operating in burst mode for space based lidar applications (United States)

    Cosentino, Alberto; Mondello, Alessia; Sapia, Adalberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Brotini, Mauro; Gironi, Gianna; Suetta, Enrico


    This paper describes energetic, spatial, temporal and spectral characterization measurements of the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) of the Laser Transmitter Assembly (TXA) used in the ALADIN instrument currently under development for the ESA ADM-AEOLUS mission (EADS Astrium as prime contractor for the satellite and the instrument). The EQM is equivalent to the Flight Model, with the exception of some engineering grade components. The Laser Transmitter Assembly, based on a diode pumped tripled Nd:YAG laser, is used to generate laser pulses at a nominal wavelength of 355 nm. This laser is operated in burst mode, with a pulse repetition cycle of 100 Hz during bursts. It is capable to operate in Single Longitudinal Mode and to be tuned over 25 GHz range. An internal "network" of sensors has been implemented inside the laser architecture to allow "in flight" monitoring of transmitter. Energy in excess of 100 mJ, with a spatial beam quality factor (M2) lower than 3, a spectral linewidth less than 50 MHz with a frequency stability better than 4 MHz on short term period have been measured on the EQM. Most of the obtained results are well within the expected values and match the Instrument requirements. They constitute an important achievement, showing the absence of major critical areas in terms of performance and the capability to obtain them in a rugged and compact structure suitable for space applications. The EQM will be submitted in the near future to an Environmental test campaign.

  13. Generalization of mixed multiscale finite element methods with applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C S [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    Many science and engineering problems exhibit scale disparity and high contrast. The small scale features cannot be omitted in the physical models because they can affect the macroscopic behavior of the problems. However, resolving all the scales in these problems can be prohibitively expensive. As a consequence, some types of model reduction techniques are required to design efficient solution algorithms. For practical purpose, we are interested in mixed finite element problems as they produce solutions with certain conservative properties. Existing multiscale methods for such problems include the mixed multiscale finite element methods. We show that for complicated problems, the mixed multiscale finite element methods may not be able to produce reliable approximations. This motivates the need of enrichment for coarse spaces. Two enrichment approaches are proposed, one is based on generalized multiscale finte element metthods (GMsFEM), while the other is based on spectral element-based algebraic multigrid (rAMGe). The former one, which is called mixed GMsFEM, is developed for both Darcy’s flow and linear elasticity. Application of the algorithm in two-phase flow simulations are demonstrated. For linear elasticity, the algorithm is subtly modified due to the symmetry requirement of the stress tensor. The latter enrichment approach is based on rAMGe. The algorithm differs from GMsFEM in that both of the velocity and pressure spaces are coarsened. Due the multigrid nature of the algorithm, recursive application is available, which results in an efficient multilevel construction of the coarse spaces. Stability, convergence analysis, and exhaustive numerical experiments are carried out to validate the proposed enrichment approaches. iii

  14. Nano-porous carbide derived carbon with tunable pore size: synthesis and energy-related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleb Yushin; John Chmiola; Ranjan K Dash; Elisabeth Hoffman; Michel Barsoum; Yury Gogotsi; Giovanna Laudisio; John E Fischer


    The large surface area and adjustable internal surface chemistry of porous carbons are attractive for a wide range of energy applications, including gas separation and storage, high power super-capacitors and lithium ion batteries. Major efforts in the field have been directed toward control of pore size, shape and uniformity, and total pore volume. Here we demonstrate that pore size can be precisely tuned with sub-Angstroms accuracy over a 0.5-3.0 nm range by preferentially removing metals from metal carbides. This is achieved by 'burning out' the metals (and metalloids) in halogen atmospheres at modest temperatures. The resulting carbide-derived carbon (CDC) retains the original shape of the carbide and shows linear reaction kinetics, allowing conversion of a carbide surface to a CDC layer of any thickness, including the entire monolith, film or particle. CDCs produced from binary and ternary carbides have been investigated, and specific surface areas (SSA) in excess of 2000 m 2 /g have been achieved. Pore size is determined by the structure and chemistry of the precursor, and by process parameters including temperature and composition of the reaction mixture. Most CDCs show smaller and more uniform pores when processed below 400-800 C, while larger and less uniform pores are found at 600-1200 C. Some CDCs (e.g. from B 4 C) have relatively broad pore size distributions, including meso-pores, even when processed at low temperatures. In contrast, other CDCs, e.g from SiC maintain a narrow distribution up to 1200 C. CDC microstructures become more ordered, evolving from amorphous to graphitic, with increasing process temperature. Other carbon forms, e.g. nano-tubes, onions, and nanocrystalline diamonds have also been obtained as CDC. The ability to fine tune the pore size, and independently to control the microstructure and surface termination, offers unique opportunities for parametric studies of gas sorption and desorption phenomena. Our recent studies show that

  15. Quantum Effects in Nanoantennas and Their Applications in Tunability, Mixing, and Rectification

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Pai-Yen


    It has been recently shown that optical nanoantennas made of single or paired metallic nanoparticles can efficiently couple the propagating light into and from deeply subwavelength volumes. The strong light-matter interaction mediated by surface plasmons in metallic nanostructures allows for localizing optical fields to a subdiffraction-limited region, thereby enhancing emission of nanoemitters and offering the flexible control of nanofocused radiation. Here we theoretically study the nanodipole antennas with submicroscopic gaps, i.e. a few nanometers, for which there exists linear and high-order nonlinear quantum conductivities due to the photon-assisted tunneling effect. Noticeably, these quantum conductivities induced at the nanogap are enhanced by several orders of magnitude, due to the strongly localized optical fields associated with the plasmonic resonance.In this talk, we will show that by tailoring the geometry of nanoantennas and the quantum well structure, a quantum nanodipole antenna with a gap size of few nanometers can induce linear, high-order quantum conductivities that are considerably enhanced by the surface plasmon resonance. We envisage here a number of intriguing nanophotonic applications of these quantum nanoantennas, including (i) modulatable and switchable radiators and metamaterials, with electronic and all-optical tuning (which is related to the two photon absorption), (ii) optical rectification for detection and energy harvesting of infrared and visible light, which are related to the relevant second-order quantum conductivity, (iii) harmonic sensing for the work function and the optical index of nanoparticle, e.g. DNA and molecules, loaded inside the nanogap, and (iv) high harmonic generation and wave mixing with nonlinear quantum conductivities.

  16. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator (United States)

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Girit, Caglar O; Mickelson, William E; Zettl, Alexander K; Grossman, Jeffrey C


    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  17. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Cao


    Full Text Available An overview on the development of hybrid fundamental solution based finite element method (HFS-FEM and its application in engineering problems is presented in this paper. The framework and formulations of HFS-FEM for potential problem, plane elasticity, three-dimensional elasticity, thermoelasticity, anisotropic elasticity, and plane piezoelectricity are presented. In this method, two independent assumed fields (intraelement filed and auxiliary frame field are employed. The formulations for all cases are derived from the modified variational functionals and the fundamental solutions to a given problem. Generation of elemental stiffness equations from the modified variational principle is also described. Typical numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and performance of the HFS-FEM. Finally, a brief summary of the approach is provided and future trends in this field are identified.

  18. Nonlinear finite element analyses: advances and challenges in dental applications. (United States)

    Wakabayashi, N; Ona, M; Suzuki, T; Igarashi, Y


    To discuss the development and current status of application of nonlinear finite element method (FEM) in dentistry. The literature was searched for original research articles with keywords such as nonlinear, finite element analysis, and tooth/dental/implant. References were selected manually or searched from the PUBMED and MEDLINE databases through November 2007. The nonlinear problems analyzed in FEM studies were reviewed and categorized into: (A) nonlinear simulations of the periodontal ligament (PDL), (B) plastic and viscoelastic behaviors of dental materials, (C) contact phenomena in tooth-to-tooth contact, (D) contact phenomena within prosthodontic structures, and (E) interfacial mechanics between the tooth and the restoration. The FEM in dentistry recently focused on simulation of realistic intra-oral conditions such as the nonlinear stress-strain relationship in the periodontal tissues and the contact phenomena in teeth, which could hardly be solved by the linear static model. The definition of contact area critically affects the reliability of the contact analyses, especially for implant-abutment complexes. To predict the failure risk of a bonded tooth-restoration interface, it is essential to assess the normal and shear stresses relative to the interface. The inclusion of viscoelasticity and plastic deformation to the program to account for the time-dependent, thermal sensitive, and largely deformable nature of dental materials would enhance its application. Further improvement of the nonlinear FEM solutions should be encouraged to widen the range of applications in dental and oral health science.

  19. Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mable P. Fok


    Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.

  20. Applications of finite-element scaling analysis in primatology. (United States)

    Richtsmeier, J T


    The study of biological shape in three dimensions using landmark data can now be accomplished using several alternative methods. This report focuses on the use of finite-element scaling analysis in primate craniofacial morphology. The method is particularly useful in its ability to localize the differences between forms, thereby indicating those loci that differ most between specimens. Several examples of this feature are provided from primatological research. Particulars of the methods are also discussed in an attempt to provide the reader with cautionary knowledge for prudent application of the method in future research.

  1. Towards a SFP+ module for WDM applications using an ultra-widely-tunable high-speed MEMS-VCSEL (United States)

    Paul, Sujoy; Cesar, Julijan; Malekizandi, Mohammadreza; Haidar, Mohammad T.; Heermeier, Niels; Ortsiefer, Markus; Neumeyr, Christian; Gréus, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael H.; Ibrahim, Irfan; Schmidt, Henning; Schmidt, Jörg; Küppers, Franko


    In this work, we have used a tunable VCSEL for high-speed optical data transmission. To obtain wide tunability, a MEMS-DBR is surface micromachined onto a short-cavity high-speed VCSEL operating at 1550 nm. Ultra-wide continuous tuning is realized with electro-thermal actuation of the MEMS with built-in stress gradient within SiOx/SiNy dielectric layers. The MEMS-VCSEL operates in single-mode with SMSR > 40 dB across the entire tuning range. Quasi-error-free transmission of direct-modulation at record 15 Gbps is reported for 20 nm tuning, showing the potential towards the standard requirements for the SFP+ modules in the tail-ends of the WDM transmission system.

  2. Tunable photonic bandgap fiber based devices for optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Scolari, Lara; Rottwitt, Karsten


    In future all optical networks one of the enabling technologies is tunable elements including reconfigurable routers, switches etc. Thus, the development of a technology platform that allows construction of tuning components is critical. Lately, microstructured optical fibers, filled with liquid...... crystals, have proven to be a candidate for such a platform. Microstructured optical fibers offer unique wave-guiding properties that are strongly related to the design of the air holes in the cladding of the fiber. These wave-guiding properties may be altered by filling the air holes with a material......, for example a liquid crystal that changes optical properties when subjected to, for example, an optical or an electrical field. The utilization of these two basic properties allows design of tunable optical devices for optical networks. In this work, we focus on applications of such devices and discuss recent...

  3. Graphene induced tunable and polarization-insensitive broadband metamaterial absorber (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Li, Yue; Cao, Yanyan; Liu, Yuanzhong; Zhang, Huiyun


    We design a tunable and broadband metamaterial absorber in the mid-infrared region based on graphene. The unit cell of the proposed metamaterial absorber consists of circular gold patches, which coupled with a graphene layer, and are separated by a dielectric spacer from the gold film on the bottom. The absorption bandwidth is effectively extended by patterning multi-circular gold patches of different dimension elements with appropriate geometrical parameters in a co-plane. The metamaterial absorber achieves its frequency tunable characteristics via changing the applied voltage or chemical doping to manipulate graphene's Fermi energy. We analyzed the surface current distributions and the distributions of the z-component electric field for understanding the absorption mechanism. Moreover, the design principle here could be regarded as a template to extend bandwidth by introducing more circular patches into each unit cell. Our design has potential applications in various fields of stealth technology, photovoltaic devices, sensors, and broadband communication.

  4. Electrothermally Tunable Arch Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.


    This paper demonstrates experimentally, theoretically, and numerically a wide-range tunability of electrothermally actuated microelectromechanical arch beams. The beams are made of silicon and are intentionally fabricated with some curvature as in-plane shallow arches. An electrothermal voltage is applied between the anchors of the beam generating a current that controls the axial stress caused by thermal expansion. When the electrothermal voltage increases, the compressive stress increases inside the arch beam. This leads to an increase in its curvature, thereby increasing its resonance frequencies. We show here that the first resonance frequency can increase monotonically up to twice its initial value. We show also that after some electrothermal voltage load, the third resonance frequency starts to become more sensitive to the axial thermal stress, while the first resonance frequency becomes less sensitive. These results can be used as guidelines to utilize arches as wide-range tunable resonators. Analytical results based on the nonlinear Euler Bernoulli beam theory are generated and compared with the experimental data and the results of a multi-physics finite-element model. A good agreement is found among all the results. [2016-0291

  5. Practical Aspects of Finite Element Method Applications in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbović Aleksandar


    Full Text Available The use of numerical methods, such as finite element method (FEM, has been widely adopted in solving structural problems with complex geometry under external loads when analytical solutions are unachievable. Basic idea behind FEM is to divide the complex body geometry into smaller and simpler domains, called finite elements, and then to formulate solution for each element instead of seeking a solution for the entire domain. After finding the solutions for all elements they can be combined to obtain a solution for the whole domain. This numerical method is mostly used in engineering, but it is also useful for studying the biomechanical properties of materials used in medicine and the influence of mechanical forces on the biological systems. Since its introduction in dentistry four decades ago, FEM became powerful tool for the predictions of stress and strain distribution on teeth, dentures, implants and surrounding bone. FEM can indicate aspects of biomaterials and human tissues that can hardly be measured in vivo and can predict the stress distribution in the contact areas which are not accessible, such as areas between the implant and cortical bone, denture and gingiva, or around the apex of the implant in trabecular bone. Aim of this paper is to present - using results of several successful FEM studies - the usefulness of this method in solving dentistry problems, as well as discussing practical aspects of FEM applications in dentistry. Some of the method limitations, such as impossibility of complete replication of clinical conditions and need for simplified assumptions regarding loads and materials modeling, are also presented. However, the emphasis is on FE modelling of teeth, bone, dentures and implants and their modifications according to the requirements. All presented studies have been carried out in commercial software for FE analysis ANSYS Workbench.

  6. Fast tunable blazed MEMS grating for external cavity lasers (United States)

    Tormen, Maurizio; Niedermann, Philippe; Hoogerwerf, Arno; Shea, Herbert; Stanley, Ross


    Diffractive MEMS are interesting for a wide range of applications, including displays, scanners or switching elements. Their advantages are compactness, potentially high actuation speed and in the ability to deflect light at large angles. We have designed and fabricated deformable diffractive MEMS grating to be used as tuning elements for external cavity lasers. The resulting device is compact, has wide tunability and a high operating speed. The initial design is a planar grating where the beams are free-standing and attached to each other using leaf springs. Actuation is achieved through two electrostatic comb drives at either end of the grating. To prevent deformation of the free-standing grating, the device is 10 μm thick made from a Silicon on Insulator (SOI) wafer in a single mask process. At 100V a periodicity tuning of 3% has been measured. The first resonant mode of the grating is measured at 13.8 kHz, allowing high speed actuation. This combination of wide tunability and high operating speed represents state of the art in the domain of tunable MEMS filters. In order to improve diffraction efficiency and to expand the usable wavelength range, a blazed version of the deformable MEMS grating has been designed. A key issue is maintaining the mechanical properties of the original device while providing optically smooth blazed beams. Using a process based on anisotropic KOH etching, blazed gratings have been obtained and preliminary characterization is promising.

  7. Electrically Tunable Plasmonic Resonances with Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emani, Naresh K.; Chung, Ting-Fung; Ni, Xingjie


    Real time switching of a plasmonic resonance may find numerous applications in subwavelength optoelectronics, spectroscopy and sensing. We take advantage of electrically tunable interband transitions in graphene to control the strength of the plasmonic resonance.......Real time switching of a plasmonic resonance may find numerous applications in subwavelength optoelectronics, spectroscopy and sensing. We take advantage of electrically tunable interband transitions in graphene to control the strength of the plasmonic resonance....

  8. The development of a tunable, single-frequency ultraviolet laser source for UV filtered Rayleigh scattering (United States)

    Finkelstein, N.; Gambogi, J.; Lempert, Walter R.; Miles, Richard B.; Rines, G. A.; Finch, A.; Schwarz, R. A.


    We present the development of a flexible, high power, narrow line width, tunable ultraviolet source for diagnostic application. By frequency tripling the output of a pulsed titanium-sapphire laser, we achieve broadly tunable (227-360 nm) ultraviolet light with high quality spatial and spectral resolution. We also present the characterization of a mercury vapor cell which provides a narrow band, sharp edge absorption filter at 253.7 nm. These two components form the basis for the extension of the Filtered Rayleigh Scattering technique into the ultraviolet. The UV-FRS system is comprised of four pieces: a single frequency, cw tunable Ti:Sapphire seeding source; a high-powered pulsed Ti:Sapphire oscillator; a third harmonic generator system; and an atomic mercury vapor filter. In this paper we discuss the development and characterization of each of these elements.

  9. Electrothermally Tunable Bridge Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.


    This paper demonstrates experimentally, theoretically, and numerically a wide-range tunability of an in-plane clamped-clamped microbeam, bridge, and resonator compressed by a force due to electrothermal actuation. We demonstrate that a single resonator can be operated at a wide range of frequencies. The microbeam is actuated electrothermally, by passing a DC current through it. We show that when increasing the electrothermal voltage, the compressive stress inside the microbeam increases, which leads eventually to its buckling. Before buckling, the fundamental frequency decreases until it drops to very low values, almost to zero. After buckling, the fundamental frequency increases, which is shown to be as high as twice the original resonance frequency. Analytical results based on the Galerkin discretization of the Euler Bernoulli beam theory are generated and compared to the experimental data and to simulation results of a multi-physics finite-element model. A good agreement is found among all the results.

  10. Curvilinear interface methodology for finite-element applications (United States)

    Rose, Ollie James


    Recent trends in design and manufacturing suggest a tendency toward multiple centers of specialty which results in a need for improved integration methodology for dissimilar finite element or CFD meshes. Since a typical finite element or CFD analysis requires about 50% of an engineers effort to be devoted to modeling and input, there is a need to advance the state-of-the-art in modeling, methodology. These two trends indicate a need to for the capability to combine independently-modeled configurations in an automated and robust way without the need for global remodeling. One approach to addressing this need is the development of interfacing methodology which will automatically integrate independently modeled subdomains. The present research included the following objectives: (i) to develop and implement computational methods for automatically remodeling non-coincident finite element models having a pre-defined interface, (ii) to formulate and implement a parametric representation of general space curves and surfaces with a well-defined orientation, and (iii) to demonstrate the computational methodology with representative two- and three-dimensional finite element models. Methodology for automatically remodeling non-coincident subdomains was developed and tested for two- and three-dimensional, independently modeled subdomains. Representative classes of applications have been solved which gave good agreement with reference solutions obtained with conventional methods. The two-dimensional classes of problems solved included flat and curved membranes multiple subdomains having large gaps between the subdomains and general space curves representing an interface for re-modeling the portions of subdomains adjacent to the interface. The three-dimensional classes of problems solved includes multiple three-dimensional subdomains having large three-dimensional gap between previously modeled subdomains. The interface was represented by general surfaces with a well

  11. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.


    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ˜30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  12. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.


    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ∼30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves

  13. Tunable Mechanical Filter for Longitudinal Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asiri


    Full Text Available This paper presents both theoretically and experimentally a new kind of vibration isolator called tunable mechanical filter which consists of four parallel hybrid periodic rods connected between two plates. The rods consist of an assembly of periodic cells, each cell being composed of a short rod and piezoelectric inserts. By actively controlling the piezoelectric elements, it is shown that the periodic rods can efficiently attenuate the propagation of vibration from the upper plate to the lower one within critical frequency bands and consequently minimize the effects of transmission of undesirable vibration and sound radiation. In such a filter, longitudinal waves can propagate from the vibration source in the upper plate to the lower one along the rods only within specific frequency bands called the “Pass Bands” and wave propagation is efficiently attenuated within other frequency bands called the “Stop Bands”. The spectral width of these bands can be tuned according to the nature of the external excitation. The theory governing the operation of this class of vibration isolator is presented and their tunable filtering characteristics are demonstrated experimentally as functions of their design parameters. The concept of this mechanical filter as presented can be employed in many applications to control the wave propagation and the force transmission of longitudinal vibrations both in the spectral and spatial domains in an attempt to stop/attenuate the propagation of undesirable disturbances.

  14. Novel powder/solid composites possessing low Young’s modulus and tunable energy absorption capacity, fabricated by electron beam melting, for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeo, Naoko; Ishimoto, Takuya; Nakano, Takayoshi


    Highlights: • We fabricated novel porous composites by electron beam melting. • The composites consist of necked powder and melted solid framework. • Unmelted powder that is usually discarded was mechanically functionalized by necking. • The composites possess controllably low Young’s modulus and excellent toughness. • The composites would be promising for utilization in biomedical applications. - Abstract: A novel, hierarchical, porous composite from a single material composed of necked powder and melted solid, with tunable mechanical properties, is fabricated by electron beam melting and subsequent heat treatment. The composite demonstrates low Young’s modulus (⩽31 GPa) and excellent energy absorption capacity, both of which are necessary for use in orthopedic applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of a material combining controllably low Young’s modulus and excellent toughness

  15. High dno/dT liquid crystals and their applications in a thermally tunable liquid crystal photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, J.; Gauza, S.; Wu, S.-T.


    We have analyzed the physical origins of the temperature gradient of the ordinary refractive index (odn/dT) of liquid crystals. To achieve a large odn/dT , high birefringence (Delta n) and low clearing temperature play crucial roles. Based on these guidelines, we formulated two exemplary liquid...... crystal mixtures, designated as UCF-1 and UCF-2. The dn(o)/dT of UCF-1 is similar to 4x higher than that of 5CB at room temperature. By infiltrating UCF-1 into the air holes of a three-rod core photonic crystal fiber, we demonstrate a thermally tunable photonic bandgap fiber with tuning sensitivity of 27...

  16. Application of PIXE for elemental analysis of ancient Chinese artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.K.; Wang, C.W.; Yu, Y.C.; Cheng, W.C.; Chang, C.H.; Yang, Y.C.; Chang, C.Y.


    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is a well-known method for elemental analysis in many different specimens for various applied studies. In this paper, we report an application of PIXE analysis for a series of ancient Chinese coins from the Tang Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty (AD 618-1679). Ninety-six PIXE spectra were obtained from forty-eight samples of the ancient coins with the use of a Ge(Li) X-ray detector. On each sample two spots at different positions on the flat surface were irradiated per run by 3 MeV protons from a NEC 9SDH-2 pelletron tandem accelerator. The principal component elements (Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn) and others (Fe, Sb, Ni and As) were determined for the analyzed coins. Variations in composition with a time span of about one thousand years for the examined coins were observed. The results are presented and aspects of the evolution of Chinese metallurgy in casting coins are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Finite elements in fracture mechanics theory, numerics, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuna, Meinhard


    Fracture mechanics has established itself as an important discipline of growing interest to those working to assess the safety, reliability and service life of engineering structures and materials. In order to calculate the loading situation at cracks and defects, nowadays numerical techniques like finite element method (FEM) have become indispensable tools for a broad range of applications. The present monograph provides an introduction to the essential concepts of fracture mechanics, its main goal being to procure the special techniques for FEM analysis of crack problems, which have to date only been mastered by experts. All kinds of static, dynamic and fatigue fracture problems are treated in two- and three-dimensional elastic and plastic structural components. The usage of the various solution techniques is demonstrated by means of sample problems selected from practical engineering case studies. The primary target group includes graduate students, researchers in academia and engineers in practice.

  18. Multilayer thin films with compositional PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3/Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7 layers for tunable applications. (United States)

    Yu, Shihui; Li, Lingxia; Zhang, Weifeng; Sun, Zheng; Dong, Helei


    The dielectric properties and tunability of multilayer thin films with compositional PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3/Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7 (PZT/BZN) layers (PPBLs) fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate have been investigated. Dielectric measurements indicate that the PZT/BZN bilayer thin films exhibit medium dielectric constant of about 490, low loss tangent of 0.017, and superior tunable dielectric properties (tunability=49.7% at 500 kV/cm) at a PZT/BZN thickness ratio of 3, while the largest figure of merit is obtained as 51.8. The thickness effect is discussed with a series connection model of bilayer capacitors, and the calculated dielectric constant and loss tangent are obtained. Furthermore, five kinds of thin-film samples comprising single bilayers, two, three, four and five PPBLs were also elaborated with the final same thickness. The four PPBLs show the largest dielectric constant of ~538 and tunability of 53.3% at a maximum applied bias field of 500 kV/cm and the lowest loss tangent of ~0.015, while the largest figure of merit is 65.6. The results indicate that four PPBLs are excellent candidates for applications of tunable devices.

  19. Design of Hilbert transformers with tunable THz bandwidths using a reconfigurable integrated optical FIR filter (United States)

    Ngo, Nam Quoc; Song, Yufeng; Lin, Bo


    We present the design and analysis of a wideband and tunable optical Hilbert transformer (OHT) using a tunable waveguide-based finite-impulse response (FIR) filter structure by using the digital filter design method and the Remez algorithm. The tunable Nth-order waveguide-based FIR filter, which simply consists of N delay lines, N tunable couplers, N tunable phase shifters and a combiner, can be tuned, by thermally adjusting the tunable couplers and tunable phase shifters, to tune the bandwidth of an OHT using silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the simulation results have an excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. The tunable OHT can function as a wideband and tunable 90° phase shifter and thus has many potential applications. The two unique features of wideband characteristic (up to ~ 2 THz) and tunable bandwidth (THz tuning range) of the proposed OHT cannot be obtained from the existing OHTs.

  20. Possible alternatives to critical elements in coatings for extreme applications (United States)

    Grilli, Maria Luisa; Valerini, Daniele; Piticescu, Radu Robert; Bellezze, Tiziano; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Rinaldi, Antonio; Cuesta-López, Santiago; Rizzo, Antonella


    Surface functionalisation and protection have been used since a long time for improving specific properties of materials such as lubrication, water repellence, brightness, and for increasing durability of objects and tools. Among the different kinds of surface treatments used to achieve the required properties, the use of coatings is fundamental to guarantee substrate durability in harsh environments. Extreme working conditions of temperature, pressure, irradiation, wear and corrosion occur in several applications, thus very often requiring bulk material protection by means of coatings. In this study, three main classes of coatings used in extreme conditions are considered: i) hard and superhard coatings for application in machining tools, ii) coatings for high temperatures (thermal barrier coatings), and iii) coatings against corrosion. The presence of critical elements in such coatings (Cr, Y, W, Co, etc.) is analysed and the possibility to use CRMs-free substitutes is reviewed. The role of multilayers and nanocomposites in tailoring coating performances is also discussed for thermal barrier and superhard coatings.

  1. Iron: a versatile element to produce materials for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Araujo, Maria H.; Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Moura, Flavia C.C.; Lago, Rochel M., E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Tristao, Juliana C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Florestal, MG (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada; Amorim, Camila C., E-mail: [Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Iron is a versatile element forming several phases with different oxidation states and {sup s}tructures, such as Fe{sup 0}, FeO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeOOH. All these phases have unique physicochemical properties which can be used for different applications. In this work, it is described the use of different iron compounds, synthetic and also from natural and waste sources, in environmental and technological applications. Two main research areas are described. The first one is related to strategies to increase the reactivity of Fe phases, mainly by the formation of Fe{sup 0}/iron oxide composites and by the introduction of new metals in the iron oxide structure to promote new surface reactions. The second area is the use of the magnetic properties of some iron phases to produce versatile magnetic materials with focus in adsorption, catalysis and emulsions. (author)

  2. Microporous Hexanuclear Ln(III) Cluster-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks: Color Tunability for Barcode Application and Selective Removal of Methylene Blue. (United States)

    Gao, Ming-Liang; Wang, Wen-Jing; Liu, Lin; Han, Zheng-Bo; Wei, Na; Cao, Xiao-Man; Yuan, Da-Qiang


    Two hexanuclear Ln(III) cluster-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) (Ln = Tb or Eu) and a series of isomorphic bimetallic Ln(III)-MOFs have been synthesized by changing the ratio of Tb(III) and Eu(III) under solvothermal conditions. The excellent linear color tunability (from green to red) makes them suitable for barcode application. In addition, the anionic Ln(III)-MOFs exhibit superior uptake capacity toward methylene blue (MB + ) by an ion-exchange process, and its reversible adsorption performance makes 1 suitable for removal of organic dye MB + . The as-prepared anionic hexanuclear Ln(III) cluster-based MOFs can serve as a multifunctional material for an optical and environmental area.

  3. Facile, Large-Quantity Synthesis of Stable, Tunable-Color Silicon Nanoparticles and Their Application for Long-Term Cellular Imaging. (United States)

    Zhong, Yiling; Sun, Xiaotian; Wang, Siyi; Peng, Fei; Bao, Feng; Su, Yuanyuan; Li, Youyong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; He, Yao


    We herein introduce a facile, low-cost photochemical method capable of rapid (nanoparticles (SiNPs) of tunable optical properties (peak emission wavelength in the range of 470-560 nm) under ambient air conditions, by introducing 1,8-naphthalimide as a reducing agent and surface ligands. The as-prepared SiNPs feature robust storage stability and photostability preserving strong and stable fluorescent during long-term (>3 h) high-power UV irradiation, in contrast to the rapid fluorescence quenching within 2 h of conventional organic dyes and II-VI quantum dots under the same conditions. The as-prepared SiNPs serving as photostable nanoprobes are workable for cellular imaging in long-term manners. Our findings provide a powerful method for mild-condition and low-cost, large-quantity production of highly fluorescent and photostable SiNPs for various promising applications.

  4. Three-dimensional broadband tunable terahertz metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Kebin; Strikwerda, Andrew; Zhang, Xin


    We present optically tunable magnetic three-dimensional (3D) metamaterials at terahertz (THz) frequencies which exhibit a tuning range of ~30% of the resonance frequency. This is accomplished by fabricating 3D array structures consisting of double-split-ring resonators (DSRRs) on silicon on sapph...... as verified through electromagnetic simulations and parameter retrieval. Our approach extends dynamic metamaterial tuning to magnetic control, and may find applications in switching and modulation, polarization control, or tunable perfect absorbers....

  5. Tunable Nanoplasmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Swillam


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present novel mechanisms for tuning and controlling the response of novel plasmonic filter using metal-insulator-metal (MIM configuration. These mechanisms allow for full control on the transmission response from these waveguide based structures. This control can be done electrically or mechanically. The applications and advantages of these novel schemes are discussed in details. Wideband tuning range has been obtained using these schemes.

  6. Tunable and Memory Metamaterials (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0402 TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS Dimitri Basov UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO Final Report 12/02/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-08-2010 to 14-08-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550...common limitations of infrared metamaterials in order to achieve low electromagnetic losses and broad tunability of the electromagnetic response. One

  7. Applications of the discrete element method in mechanical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleissner, Florian; Gaugele, Timo; Eberhard, Peter


    Compared to other fields of engineering, in mechanical engineering, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is not yet a well known method. Nevertheless, there is a variety of simulation problems where the method has obvious advantages due to its meshless nature. For problems where several free bodies can collide and break after having been largely deformed, the DEM is the method of choice. Neighborhood search and collision detection between bodies as well as the separation of large solids into smaller particles are naturally incorporated in the method. The main DEM algorithm consists of a relatively simple loop that basically contains the three substeps contact detection, force computation and integration. However, there exists a large variety of different algorithms to choose the substeps to compose the optimal method for a given problem. In this contribution, we describe the dynamics of particle systems together with appropriate numerical integration schemes and give an overview over different types of particle interactions that can be composed to adapt the method to fit to a given simulation problem. Surface triangulations are used to model complicated, non-convex bodies in contact with particle systems. The capabilities of the method are finally demonstrated by means of application examples

  8. Application of Mass Lumped Higher Order Finite Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Chen, H.R. Strauss, S.C. Jardin, W. Park, L.E. Sugiyama, G. Fu, J. Breslau


    There are many interesting phenomena in extended-MHD such as anisotropic transport, mhd, 2-fluid effects stellarator and hot particles. Any one of them challenges numerical analysts, and researchers are seeking for higher order methods, such as higher order finite difference, higher order finite elements and hp/spectral elements. It is true that these methods give more accurate solution than their linear counterparts. However, numerically they are prohibitively expensive. Here we give a successful solution of this conflict by applying mass lumped higher order finite elements. This type of elements not only keep second/third order accuracy but also scale closely to linear elements by doing mass lumping. This is especially true for second order lump elements. Full M3D and anisotropic transport models are studied

  9. Tunable Microwave Filter Design Using Thin-Film Ferroelectric Varactors (United States)

    Haridasan, Vrinda

    Military, space, and consumer-based communication markets alike are moving towards multi-functional, multi-mode, and portable transceiver units. Ferroelectric-based tunable filter designs in RF front-ends are a relatively new area of research that provides a potential solution to support wideband and compact transceiver units. This work presents design methodologies developed to optimize a tunable filter design for system-level integration, and to improve the performance of a ferroelectric-based tunable bandpass filter. An investigative approach to find the origins of high insertion loss exhibited by these filters is also undertaken. A system-aware design guideline and figure of merit for ferroelectric-based tunable band- pass filters is developed. The guideline does not constrain the filter bandwidth as long as it falls within the range of the analog bandwidth of a system's analog to digital converter. A figure of merit (FOM) that optimizes filter design for a specific application is presented. It considers the worst-case filter performance parameters and a tuning sensitivity term that captures the relation between frequency tunability and the underlying material tunability. A non-tunable parasitic fringe capacitance associated with ferroelectric-based planar capacitors is confirmed by simulated and measured results. The fringe capacitance is an appreciable proportion of the tunable capacitance at frequencies of X-band and higher. As ferroelectric-based tunable capac- itors form tunable resonators in the filter design, a proportionally higher fringe capacitance reduces the capacitance tunability which in turn reduces the frequency tunability of the filter. Methods to reduce the fringe capacitance can thus increase frequency tunability or indirectly reduce the filter insertion-loss by trading off the increased tunability achieved to lower loss. A new two-pole tunable filter topology with high frequency tunability (> 30%), steep filter skirts, wide stopband

  10. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.


    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis such as, e.g., neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilisators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicium in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalysators. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection. (orig./AK) [de

  11. Ferroelectric tunneling element and memory applications which utilize the tunneling element (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei V [Knoxville, TN; Christen, Hans M [Knoxville, TN; Baddorf, Arthur P [Knoxville, TN; Meunier, Vincent [Knoxville, TN; Lee, Ho Nyung [Oak Ridge, TN


    A tunneling element includes a thin film layer of ferroelectric material and a pair of dissimilar electrically-conductive layers disposed on opposite sides of the ferroelectric layer. Because of the dissimilarity in composition or construction between the electrically-conductive layers, the electron transport behavior of the electrically-conductive layers is polarization dependent when the tunneling element is below the Curie temperature of the layer of ferroelectric material. The element can be used as a basis of compact 1R type non-volatile random access memory (RAM). The advantages include extremely simple architecture, ultimate scalability and fast access times generic for all ferroelectric memories.

  12. Negative stiffness honeycombs as tunable elastic metamaterials (United States)

    Goldsberry, Benjamin M.; Haberman, Michael R.


    Acoustic and elastic metamaterials are media with a subwavelength structure that behave as effective materials displaying atypical effective dynamic properties. These material systems are of interest because the design of their sub-wavelength structure allows for direct control of macroscopic wave dispersion. One major design limitation of most metamaterial structures is that the dynamic response cannot be altered once the microstructure is manufactured. However, the ability to modify wave propagation in the metamaterial with an external stimulus is highly desirable for numerous applications and therefore remains a significant challenge in elastic metamaterials research. In this work, a honeycomb structure composed of a doubly periodic array of curved beams, known as a negative stiffness honeycomb (NSH), is analyzed as a tunable elastic metamaterial. The nonlinear static elastic response that results from large deformations of the NSH unit cell leads to a large variation in linear elastic wave dispersion associated with infinitesimal motion superposed on the externally imposed pre-strain. A finite element model is utilized to model the static deformation and subsequent linear wave motion at the pre-strained state. Analysis of the slowness surface and group velocity demonstrates that the NSH exhibits significant tunability and a high degree of anisotropy which can be used to guide wave energy depending on static pre-strain levels. In addition, it is shown that partial band gaps exist where only longitudinal waves propagate. The NSH therefore behaves as a meta-fluid, or pentamode metamaterial, which may be of use for applications of transformation elastodynamics such as cloaking and gradient index lens devices.

  13. Highly tunable NEMS shallow arches

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed N. R.


    We report highly tunable nanoelectromechanical systems NEMS shallow arches under dc excitation voltages. Silicon based in-plane doubly clamped bridges, slightly curved as shallow arches, are fabricated using standard electron beam lithography and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. By designing the structures to have gap to thickness ratio of more than four, the mid-plane stretching of the nano arches is maximized such that an increase in the dc bias voltage will result into continuous increase in the resonance frequency of the resonators to wide ranges. This is confirmed analytically based on a nonlinear beam model. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with that of the results from developed analytical model. A maximum tunability of 108.14% for a 180 nm thick arch with an initially designed gap of 1 μm between the beam and the driving/sensing electrodes is achieved. Furthermore, a tunable narrow bandpass filter is demonstrated, which opens up opportunities for designing such structures as filtering elements in high frequency ranges.

  14. MEMS Tunable Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Morris, Art; Pedersen, Gert Frølund


    Addressing low frequency bands is challenging on small platforms. Tunability is a promising solution to cover the bandwidth required for 4G mobile communication. The work presents two designs and shows that for comparable efficiency and bandwidth, the tunable antenna occupies half the volume requ...

  15. Nanocantilevers with Adjustable Static Deflection and Significantly Tunable Spectrum Resonant Frequencies for Applications in Nanomechanical Mass Sensors. (United States)

    Stachiv, Ivo; Sittner, Petr


    Nanocantilevers have become key components of nanomechanical sensors that exploit changes in their resonant frequencies or static deflection in response to the environment. It is necessary that they can operate at a given, but adjustable, resonant frequency and/or static deflection ranges. Here we propose a new class of nanocantilevers with a significantly tunable spectrum of the resonant frequencies and changeable static deflection utilizing the unique properties of a phase-transforming NiTi film sputtered on the usual nanotechnology cantilever materials. The reversible frequency tuning and the adjustable static deflection are obtained by intentionally changing the Young's modulus and the interlayer stress of the NiTi film during its phase transformation, while the usual cantilever elastic materials guarantee a high frequency actuation (up to tens of MHz). By incorporating the NiTi phase transformation characteristic into the classical continuum mechanics theory we present theoretical models that account for the nanocantilever frequency shift and variation in static deflection caused by a phase transformation of NiTi film. Due to the practical importance in nanomechanical sensors, we carry out a complete theoretical analysis and evaluate the impact of NiTi film on the cantilever Young's modulus, static deflection, and the resonant frequencies. Moreover, the importance of proposed NiTi nanocantilever is illustrated on the nanomechanical based mass sensors. Our findings will be of value in the development of advanced nanotechnology sensors with intentionally-changeable physical and mechanical properties.

  16. Size-tunable synthesis of monolayer MoS2 nanoparticles and their applications in non-volatile memory devices. (United States)

    Jeon, Jaeho; Lee, Jinhee; Yoo, Gwangwe; Park, Jin-Hong; Yeom, Geun Young; Jang, Yun Hee; Lee, Sungjoo


    We report the CVD synthesis of a monolayer of MoS 2 nanoparticles such that the nanoparticle size was controlled over the range 5-100 nm and the chemical potential of sulfur was modified, both by controlling the hydrogen flow rate during the CVD process. As the hydrogen flow rate was increased, the reaction process of sulfur changed from a "sulfiding" process to a "sulfo-reductive" process, resulting in the growth of smaller MoS 2 nanoparticles on the substrates. The size control, crystalline quality, chemical configuration, and distribution uniformity of the CVD-grown monolayer MoS 2 nanoparticles were confirmed. The growth of the MoS 2 nanoparticles at different edge states was studied using density functional theory calculations to clarify the size-tunable mechanism. A non-volatile memory device fabricated using the CVD-grown size-controlled 5 nm monolayer MoS 2 nanoparticles as a floating gate showed a good memory window of 5-8 V and an excellent retention period of a decade.

  17. Polarity-Tunable Host Materials and Their Applications in Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Organic Light-Emitting Diodes. (United States)

    Xie, Gaozhan; Chen, Dongjun; Li, Xianglong; Cai, Xinyi; Li, Yunchuan; Chen, Dongcheng; Liu, Kunkun; Zhang, Qian; Cao, Yong; Su, Shi-Jian


    A series of polarity-tunable host materials were developed based on oligocarbazoles and diphenylphosphine oxide, and their polarities can be tuned through increasing distance of acceptor and donor units. Density functional theory calculations were employed, and photoluminescence spectra in different polar solvents were measured to illustrate different polarities of these host materials. As CZPO has relatively stronger polarity, electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of solution-processed device based on 6 wt % PXZDSO2:CZPO is 7 nm red-shifted relative to that of other host materials based devices. Besides, a comparable impressive external quantum efficiency (EQE) value of 18.7% is achieved for an evaporation-processed yellow device consisting of FCZBn, which is superior to that of the device based on CBP (4,4'-dicarbazolyl-1,1'-biphenyl) (17.0%), and its efficiency roll-off is also obviously reduced, giving an EQE value as high as 16.3% at the luminance of 1000 cd/m 2 . In addition, from CZPO to FCZBn as the polarities of host materials decrease, EL spectra of solution-processed devices based on DMAC-DPS emitter blue-shift constantly from 496 to 470 nm. The current work gives a constructive approach to control EL spectra of organic light-emitting diodes with a fixed thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter by tuning the polarities of host materials.

  18. Enhanced tunability of plasmon induced transparency in graphene strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xi; Su, Xiaopeng; Yang, Yaping


    The approach of slow-light efficiency manipulation is theoretically investigated in graphene analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system, which cannot be realized in conventional quantum regime. In this system, two graphene strips with different Fermi energies placed side by side as radiative elements have been discussed, and the coupling strength between radiative elements and dark elements is tuned by these radiative elements. Our proposed scheme exploits the tuning of coupling strength between the radiative elements and dark elements in contrast with the existing approaches that rely on tuning the damping rates of radiative or dark elements. The transparent window and group delays can be tuned by different coupling strength without changing the geometry of structure. This manipulation can be explained using a temporal coupled-mode theory. Furthermore, the hybridized states in this EIT-like system can be manipulated by tuning the Fermi energy of radiative elements. This kind of controllable electromagnetically induced transparency has many significant potential applications in optoelectronic, photodetectors, tunable sensors, and storage of optical data regimes

  19. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas


    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  20. Tunable pulse-shaping with gated graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokopeva, Ludmila; Emani, Naresh K.; Boltasseva, Alexandra


    We propose a pulse-shaper made of gated graphene nanoribbons. Simulations demonstrate tunable control over the shapes of transmitted and reflected pulses using the gating bias. Initial fabrication and characterization of graphene elements is also discussed.......We propose a pulse-shaper made of gated graphene nanoribbons. Simulations demonstrate tunable control over the shapes of transmitted and reflected pulses using the gating bias. Initial fabrication and characterization of graphene elements is also discussed....

  1. Application of pressurized ion exchange to separations of transplutonium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.


    High-pressure ion exchange chromatography, used first for nucleic acid separations, was applied to the production of the heavier actinides, particularly the transcurium elements. Its use at the TRU plant is described. Future developments are considered briefly

  2. Application of finite element numerical technique to nuclear reactor geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouai, N. M.


    Determination of the temperature distribution in nuclear elements is of utmost importance to ensure that the temperature stays within safe limits during reactor operation. This paper discusses the use of Finite element numerical technique (FE) for the solution of the two dimensional heat conduction equation in geometries related to nuclear reactor cores. The FE solution stats with variational calculus which considers transforming the heat conduction equation into an integral equation I(O) and seeks a function that minimizes this integral and hence gives the solution to the heat conduction equation. In this paper FE theory as applied to heat conduction is briefly outlined and a 2-D program is used to apply the theory to simple shapes and to two gas cooled reactor fuel elements. Good results are obtained for both cases with reasonable number of elements. 7 figs

  3. Facile synthesis of tunable carbon modified mesoporous TiO{sub 2} for visible light photocatalytic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hui-Long, E-mail:; Wang, Xin-Kui; Jiang, Wen-Feng


    Highlights: • Combined hydrothermal-calcination steps were used to prepare mesoporous C-TiO{sub 2}. • Polyacrylate was employed as the carbon source. • XPS revealed the interstitial carbon modifying mode through carbonate-like species. • C-TiO{sub 2} exhibited visible light activity towards dinitro butyl phenol degradation. - Abstract: In this paper, we describe a simple and novel approach for preparing tunable carbon-modified mesoporous TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts by combining the in-situ carbonization of PAA-Ti/TiO{sub 2}, hydrothermal reaction process and post-calcination treatment. The synthesized carbon-modified mesoporous TiO{sub 2} powders were of high crystallinity, large specific surface area and good visible light response. The carbon species were formed by the carbonization of polyacrylate (PAA). The presence of carbonates was subsequently confirmed by the XPS spectra, which significantly narrow down the band gap of TiO{sub 2}. The organic group in polyacrylate served as the carbon source and carbon resulted from in-situ carbonization treatment could help to inhibit the excessive growth of TiO{sub 2} grain and enlarge the pore structure of TiO{sub 2}. The amount of carbon species could be feasibly modulated by adjusting the post-calcination temperature and the surface area of the photocatalyst was enlarged further after the partial removal of carbon species. The carbon-modified mesoporous TiO{sub 2} powders exhibit excellent reproducibility and photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation.

  4. [Physiological effects of rare earth elements and their application in traditional Chinese medicine]. (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Guo, Lanping; Xiao, Wenjuan; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao; Shi, Xin'gang; Dan, Staerk


    The process in the studies on physiological effects of rare earth elements in plants and their action mechanisms were summarized in the aspects of seed germination, photosynthesis, mineral metabolism and stress resistance. And the applications of rare earth elements in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in recent years were also overviewed, which will provide reference for further development and application of rare earth elements in TCM.

  5. Development of frequency tunable gyrotrons for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idehara, T.; Mitsudo, S.; Sabchevski, S.; Glyavin, M. [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan); Ogawa, I. [Faculty of Engineering, Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan); Sato, M.; Kawahata, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Brand, G.F. [School of Physics, Univ. of Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Development of two types of frequency tunable gyrotrons are described. One is frequency step-tunable gyrotrons (Gyrotron FU Series) which cover wide range from millimeter to submillimeter wavelength region. The other is a quasi-optical gyrotron operating in 90 and 180 GHz bands. Both are applicable for plasma diagnostics as power sources. (author)

  6. Development of frequency tunable gyrotrons for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idehara, T.; Mitsudo, S.; Sabchevski, S.; Glyavin, M.; Ogawa, I.; Sato, M.; Kawahata, K.; Brand, G.F.


    Development of two types of frequency tunable gyrotrons are described. One is frequency step-tunable gyrotrons (Gyrotron FU Series) which cover wide range from millimeter to submillimeter wavelength region. The other is a quasi-optical gyrotron operating in 90 and 180 GHz bands. Both are applicable for plasma diagnostics as power sources. (author)

  7. Highly Tunable Electrostatic Nanomechanical Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed Naveed Riaz


    There has been significant interest towards highly tunable resonators for on-demand frequency selection in modern communication systems. Here, we report highly tunable electrostatically actuated silicon-based nanomechanical resonators. In-plane doubly-clamped bridges, slightly curved as shallow arches due to residual stresses, are fabricated using standard electron beam lithography and surface nanomachining. The resonators are designed such that the effect of mid-plane stretching dominates the softening effect of the electrostatic force. This is achieved by controlling the gap-to-thickness ratio and by exploiting the initial curvature of the structure from fabrication. We demonstrate considerable increase in the resonance frequency of nanoresonators with the dc bias voltages up to 108% for 180 nm thick structures with a transduction gap of 1 $mu$m separating them from the driving/sensing electrodes. The experimental results are found in good agreement with those of a nonlinear analytical model based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. As a potential application, we demonstrate a tunable narrow band-pass filter using two electrically coupled nanomechanical arch resonators with varied dc bias voltages.

  8. Tunable Handset Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Foroozanfard, Ehsan; Morris, Art


    With the future LTE auction for TV white spaces at 600 MHz, there is a strong need for efficient handset antennas operating at very low frequencies. This paper shows a tunable antenna covering the LTE bands from 600 MHz to 2.6 GHz. The antenna uses state-of-the-art MEMS tunable capacitors in order...... to reconfigure its operating frequency. In this work, the design mitigates the tuning loss with a tunable extended ground plane. The resulting dual-resonant antenna exhibits a peak total efficiency of -3.9 dB at 600 MHz....

  9. Dynamically tunable electromagnetically induced transparency analogy in terahertz metamaterial (United States)

    Liu, Chenxi; Liu, Peiguo; Bian, Lian; Zhou, Qihui; Li, Gaosheng; Liu, Hanqin


    A metamaterial analogy of tunable electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is theoretically investigated in terahertz regime. The proposed metamaterial consists of vertical gold strips and horizontal graphene wires, which perform as bright elements and dark elements, respectively. The EIT-like phenomenon can be induced by bright-dark mode coupling on condition of structural lateral displacement. Numerical result reveals that the EIT-like effect remains noticeable with a wide range of incidence polarization angles. Most importantly, by manipulating gate voltages, the EIT window can be dynamically controlled without refabricating the structure. The amplitude modulation depth can reach 81%, 79%, and 68% respectively at three characteristic frequencies as Fermi energy changes in the scope of 0.8-1.0 eV. Furthermore, a sensitivity of 0.95 THz per refractive index unit (RIU) is realized varying the refractive index in the surrounding medium. This structure provides potential applications for detectors, sensors, and modulators.

  10. An Application-Oriented Periodic Table of the Elements. (United States)

    Bouma, J.


    A brief history of several of the early forms of the periodic table of the elements are discussed including those of Mendeleev, Meyer, Hubbard, Gmelin, Von Antropoff, and Strong. A more every-day-life form of the table is presented. (CW)

  11. Application of FIRE for the calculation of photon matrix elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to evaluate the two-loop Feynman diagrams for the photon matrix element of the gluon operator, I apply the recently developed algorithm FIRE which reduces a complicated sum of scalar Feynman integrals to a linear combination of a few master integrals. The details of the calculation are presented.

  12. Finite element concept to derive isostatic residual maps-Application ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new space-domain operator based on the shape function concept of finite element analysis has been developed to derive the residual maps of the Gorda Plate of western United States. The technique does not require explicit assumptions on isostatic models. Besides delineating the Gorda Plate boundary, the residual ...

  13. Post-Plasma SiOx Coatings of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles for Enhanced Thermal Stability and Tunable Photoactivity Applications (United States)

    Post, Patrick; Jidenko, Nicolas; Weber, Alfred P.; Borra, Jean-Pascal


    The plasma-based aerosol process developed for the direct coating of particles in gases with silicon oxide in a continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process is presented. It is shown that non-thermal plasma filaments induced in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure trigger post-DBD gas phase reactions. DBD operating conditions are first scanned to produce ozone and dinitrogen pentoxide. In the selected conditions, these plasma species react with gaseous tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) precursor downstream of the DBD. The gaseous intermediates then condense on the surface of nanoparticles and self-reactions lead to homogeneous solid SiOx coatings, with thickness from nanometer to micrometer. This confirms the interest of post-DBD injection of the organo-silicon precursor to achieve stable production of actives species with subsequent controlled thickness of SiOx coatings. SiOx coatings of spherical and agglomerated metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (Pt, CuO, TiO2) are achieved. In the selected DBD operating conditions, the thickness of homogeneous nanometer sized coatings of spherical nanoparticles depends on the reaction duration and on the precursor concentration. For agglomerates, operating conditions can be tuned to cover preferentially the interparticle contact zones between primary particles, shifting the sintering of platinum agglomerates to much higher temperatures than the usual sintering temperature. Potential applications for enhanced thermal stability and tunable photoactivity of coated agglomerates are presented. PMID:28335219

  14. Application of global elements to a reinforced concrete structure; Application des elements globaux a une structure en beton arme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morand, O


    The dimensioning of nuclear facilities requires to take into account the possible risk of earthquakes. However such installations are generally complex structures with reinforced concrete poles, walls, beams and porches. In this study, a seismic analysis of such a structure is proposed. The use of the Castem 2000 global element code was attempted to dynamically simulate the behaviour of the reinforced concrete elements. However, no suitable modeling has been found for the storeys, the functioning of which being dominated by carrying walls. Concerning the porch-type storeys, monotonous static loads were simulated and provided information on the local and global behaviour of these structures. Thus, representative global elements could be realized for these structures. Results obtained are satisfactory for these storeys which essentially undergo a bending deformation. (J.S.)

  15. The finite element method and applications in engineering using ANSYS

    CERN Document Server

    Madenci, Erdogan


    This textbook offers theoretical and practical knowledge of the finite element method. The book equips readers with the skills required to analyze engineering problems using ANSYS®, a commercially available FEA program. Revised and updated, this new edition presents the most current ANSYS® commands and ANSYS® screen shots, as well as modeling steps for each example problem. This self-contained, introductory text minimizes the need for additional reference material by covering both the fundamental topics in finite element methods and advanced topics concerning modeling and analysis. It focuses on the use of ANSYS® through both the Graphics User Interface (GUI) and the ANSYS® Parametric Design Language (APDL). Extensive examples from a range of engineering disciplines are presented in a straightforward, step-by-step fashion. Key topics include: • An introduction to FEM • Fundamentals and analysis capabilities of ANSYS® • Fundamentals of discretization and approximation functions • Modeling techniq...

  16. Application of FIRE for the calculation of photon matrix elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    perturbative QCD for the kinematical region Λ2 ≪ P2 ≪ Q2, where −Q2 (−P2) is the mass square of the probe (target) photon and Λ is the QCD scale parameter. In order to evaluate the two-loop Feynman diagrams for the photon matrix element of the gluon operator, I apply the recently developed algorithm FIRE which ...



    T. Thenmozhi; K. Nithya; M. Arun Kumar; M. Ravichandran


    The increasing reliance of engineers on computer software in the performance of their tasks requires engineers, the future professional engineers, must be knowledgeable of sound engineering concepts, updated on the latest computer technology used in the industry and aware of the limitations and capabilities of the computer in solving engineering problems. Computer Methods in Civil Engineering to developed structural design program for design of structural element using Visual Basic. By creati...

  18. Applications of finite element simulation in orthopedic and trauma surgery


    Herrera, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Cegoñino, José; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Puértolas, Sergio; López, Enrique; Mateo, Jesús; Gracia, Luis


    Research in different areas of orthopedic and trauma surgery requires a methodology that allows both a more economic approach and the ability to reproduce different situations in an easy way. Simulation models have been introduced recently in bioengineering and could become an essential tool in the study of any physiological unity, regardless of its complexity. The main problem in modeling with finite elements simulation is to achieve an accurate reproduction of the anatomy and a perfect corr...

  19. Mathematical modelling of fractional order circuit elements and bioimpedance applications (United States)

    Moreles, Miguel Angel; Lainez, Rafael


    In this work a classical derivation of fractional order circuits models is presented. Generalised constitutive equations in terms of fractional Riemann-Liouville derivatives are introduced in the Maxwell's equations for each circuit element. Next the Kirchhoff voltage law is applied in a RCL circuit configuration. It is shown that from basic properties of Fractional Calculus, a fractional differential equation model with Caputo derivatives is obtained. Thus standard initial conditions apply. Finally, models for bioimpedance are revisited.

  20. Low-Temperature Sintering of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3-SrMoO4 Dielectric Tunable Composite Ceramics for LTCC Applications (United States)

    Tang, Linjiang; Wang, Jinwen; Zhai, Jiwei


    A sintering-aid system using melting of B-Li glass for barium strontium titanate (BST)-based compositions to be used in low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) layers is introduced. The effects of the sintering aid on the microstructure, dielectric properties, and application in LTCC were investigated. The composition Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3-SrMoO4 with 3 wt.% B-Li glass sintered at 950°C exhibits optimized dielectric properties, including low dielectric constant (368), low dielectric loss (0.007), and moderate tunability (13%, 60 kV/cm) at 10 kHz. At 1.44 GHz, it possesses a dielectric constant of 218 and Q value of 230. LTCC multilayer ceramic capacitors fabricated by the tape-casting process have steady relative tunability of 12% at 300 V, suggesting that BST50-SrMoO4-B-Li glass composite ceramic is a promising candidate for electrically tunable LTCC microwave device applications.

  1. Application of hair as an indicator for trace element exposure in man. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The report presents a comprehensive summary of what is known from the literature on the use of hair as a bioindicator for trace elements. It is split into two parts: The use of hair as a biopsy tissue for trace elements in the human body and the contribution of studies in animals to the application of hair as an indicator for metals and trace elements in man. A separate abstract is prepared for each part. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Mixed Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Eric T.


    In this paper, we present a mixed generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) for solving flow in heterogeneous media. Our approach constructs multiscale basis functions following a GMsFEM framework and couples these basis functions using a mixed finite element method, which allows us to obtain a mass conservative velocity field. To construct multiscale basis functions for each coarse edge, we design a snapshot space that consists of fine-scale velocity fields supported in a union of two coarse regions that share the common interface. The snapshot vectors have zero Neumann boundary conditions on the outer boundaries, and we prescribe their values on the common interface. We describe several spectral decompositions in the snapshot space motivated by the analysis. In the paper, we also study oversampling approaches that enhance the accuracy of mixed GMsFEM. A main idea of oversampling techniques is to introduce a small dimensional snapshot space. We present numerical results for two-phase flow and transport, without updating basis functions in time. Our numerical results show that one can achieve good accuracy with a few basis functions per coarse edge if one selects appropriate offline spaces. © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  3. Scaling issues in ferroelectric barium strontium titanate tunable planar capacitors. (United States)

    Lam, Peter G; Haridasan, Vrinda; Feng, Zhiping; Steer, Michael B; Kingon, Angus I; Maria, Jon-Paul


    We report on the geometric limits associated with tunability of interdigitated capacitors, specifically regarding the impact of a parasitic non-tunable component that necessarily accompanies a ferroelectric surface capacitor, and can dominate the voltage-dependent response as capacitor dimensions are reduced to achieve the small capacitance values required for impedance matching in the X band. We present a case study of simple gap capacitors prepared and characterized as a function of gap width (i.e., the distance between electrodes) and gap length (i.e., the edge-to-edge gap distance). Our series of measurements reveals that for gap widths in the micrometer range, as gap lengths are reduced to meet sub-picofarad capacitance values, the non-tunable parasitic elements limit the effective tunability. These experimental measurements are supported by a companion set of microwave models that clarify the existence of parallel parasitic elements.

  4. Applications of nonvariational finite element methods to Monge--Amp\\`ere type equations


    Pryer, Tristan


    The goal of this work is to illustrate the application of the nonvariational finite element method to a specific Monge--Amp\\`ere type nonlinear partial differential equation. The equation we consider is that of prescribed Gauss curvature.

  5. Emission tunability and local environment in europium-doped OH{sup −}-free calcium aluminosilicate glasses for artificial lighting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Aline M.; Sandrini, Marcelo; Viana, José Renato M.; Baesso, Mauro L.; Bento, Antônio C.; Rohling, Jurandir H. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av Colombo, 5790, 87020-900, Maringá, PR (Brazil); Guyot, Yannick [Laboratoire de Physico–Chimie des Matériaux Luminescents, Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, UMR 5620 CNRS 69622 (France); De Ligny, Dominique [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen Nürnberg, Martens str. 5, 91058, Erlangen (Germany); Nunes, Luiz Antônio O. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense400, 13566-590, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Gandra, Flávio G. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sampaio, Juraci A. [Lab Ciências Físicas, Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense, 28013-602, Campos Dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Sandro M.; Andrade, Luis Humberto C. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Óptica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul-UEMS, Dourados, MS, C. P. 351, CEP 79804-970 (Brazil); and others


    The relationship between emission tunability and the local environment of europium ions in OH{sup −}-free calcium aluminosilicate glasses was investigated, focusing on the development of devices for artificial lighting. Significant conversion of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} was obtained by means of melting the glasses under a vacuum atmosphere and controlling the silica content, resulting in broad, intense, and tunable luminescence ranging from blue to red. Electron spin resonance and X-ray absorption near edge structure measurements enabled correlation of the luminescence behavior of the material with the Eu{sup 2+}/Eu{sup 3+} concentration ratio and changes in the surrounding ions' crystal field. The coordinates of the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram were calculated from the spectra, and the contour maps showed that the light emitted from Eu{sup 2+} presented broad bands and enhanced color tuning, ranging from reddish-orange to blue. The results showed that these Eu doped glasses can be used for tunable white lighting by combining matrix composition and the adjustment of the pumping wavelength. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 2+}-doped OH{sup −} free calcium aluminosilicate glass as a new source for white lighting. • Correlation between emission tunability and local environment of europium ions. • Significant reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} by melting the glasses under vacuum atmosphere. • Broad, intense and tunable luminescence ranging from blue to red.

  6. Elements of the theory of Markov processes and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha-Reid, A T


    This graduate-level text and reference in probability, with numerous applications to several fields of science, presents nonmeasure-theoretic introduction to theory of Markov processes. The work also covers mathematical models based on the theory, employed in various applied fields. Prerequisites are a knowledge of elementary probability theory, mathematical statistics, and analysis. Appendixes. Bibliographies. 1960 edition.

  7. Nodal Discontinuous Element Methods: Formulations, Analysis, and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, Jan

    Part of concluding summary and outlook: "The focus of this thesis has been on the formulation, analysis, and application of high-order accurate computational techniques for solving rather general initial boundary value problems, emphasizing an analysis driven theoretical foundation. As such, the ...

  8. Model order reduction techniques with applications in finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Zu-Qing


    Despite the continued rapid advance in computing speed and memory the increase in the complexity of models used by engineers persists in outpacing them. Even where there is access to the latest hardware, simulations are often extremely computationally intensive and time-consuming when full-blown models are under consideration. The need to reduce the computational cost involved when dealing with high-order/many-degree-of-freedom models can be offset by adroit computation. In this light, model-reduction methods have become a major goal of simulation and modeling research. Model reduction can also ameliorate problems in the correlation of widely used finite-element analyses and test analysis models produced by excessive system complexity. Model Order Reduction Techniques explains and compares such methods focusing mainly on recent work in dynamic condensation techniques: - Compares the effectiveness of static, exact, dynamic, SEREP and iterative-dynamic condensation techniques in producing valid reduced-order mo...

  9. Trace elements based classification on clinkers. Application to Spanish clinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás, F. D.


    Full Text Available The qualitative identification to determine the origin (i.e. manufacturing factory of Spanish clinkers is described. The classification of clinkers produced in different factories can be based on their trace element content. Approximately fifteen clinker sorts are analysed, collected from 11 Spanish cement factories to determine their Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content. An expert system formulated by a binary decision tree is designed based on the collected data. The performance of the obtained classifier was measured by ten-fold cross validation. The results show that the proposed method is useful to identify an easy-to-use expert system that is able to determine the origin of the clinker based on its trace element content.

    En el presente trabajo se describe el procedimiento de identificación cualitativa de clínkeres españoles con el objeto de determinar su origen (fábrica. Esa clasificación de los clínkeres se basa en el contenido de sus elementos traza. Se analizaron 15 clínkeres diferentes procedentes de 11 fábricas de cemento españolas, determinándose los contenidos en Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn y V. Se ha diseñado un sistema experto mediante un árbol de decisión binario basado en los datos recogidos. La clasificación obtenida fue examinada mediante la validación cruzada de 10 valores. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el modelo propuesto es válido para identificar, de manera fácil, un sistema experto capaz de determinar el origen de un clínker basándose en el contenido de sus elementos traza.

  10. Perovskite Superlattices as Tunable Microwave Devices (United States)

    Christen, H. M.; Harshavardhan, K. S.


    Experiments have shown that superlattices that comprise alternating epitaxial layers of dissimilar paraelectric perovskites can exhibit large changes in permittivity with the application of electric fields. The superlattices are potentially useful as electrically tunable dielectric components of such microwave devices as filters and phase shifters. The present superlattice approach differs fundamentally from the prior use of homogeneous, isotropic mixtures of base materials and dopants. A superlattice can comprise layers of two or more perovskites in any suitable sequence (e.g., ABAB..., ABCDABCD..., ABACABACA...). Even though a single layer of one of the perovskites by itself is not tunable, the compositions and sequence of the layers can be chosen so that (1) the superlattice exhibits low microwave loss and (2) the interfacial interaction between at least two of the perovskites in the superlattice renders either the entire superlattice or else at least one of the perovskites tunable.

  11. Advance elements of optoisolation circuits nonlinearity applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Aluf, Ofer


    This book on advanced optoisolation circuits for nonlinearity applications in engineering addresses two separate engineering and scientific areas, and presents advanced analysis methods for optoisolation circuits that cover a broad range of engineering applications. The book analyzes optoisolation circuits as linear and nonlinear dynamical systems and their limit cycles, bifurcation, and limit cycle stability by using Floquet theory. Further, it discusses a broad range of bifurcations related to optoisolation systems: cusp-catastrophe, Bautin bifurcation, Andronov-Hopf bifurcation, Bogdanov-Takens (BT) bifurcation, fold Hopf bifurcation, Hopf-Hopf bifurcation, Torus bifurcation (Neimark-Sacker bifurcation), and Saddle-loop or Homoclinic bifurcation. Floquet theory helps as to analyze advance optoisolation systems. Floquet theory is the study of the stability of linear periodic systems in continuous time. Another way to describe Floquet theory, it is the study of linear systems of differential equations with p...

  12. Embedding of bacterial cellulose nanofibers within PHEMA hydrogel matrices: tunable stiffness composites with potential for biomedical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobzová, Radka; Hrib, Jakub; Širc, Jakub; Karpushkin, Evgeny; Michálek, Jiří; Janoušková, Olga; Gatenholm, P.


    Roč. 2018, 17 January (2018), s. 1-11, č. článku 5217095. ISSN 1687-4110 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-04863S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : bacterial cellulose * PHEMA * biomedical application Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2016

  13. Tunable Microwave Component Technologies for SatCom-Platforms (United States)

    Maune, Holger; Jost, Matthias; Wiens, Alex; Weickhmann, Christian; Reese, Roland; Nikfalazar, Mohammad; Schuster, Christian; Franke, Tobias; Hu, Wenjuan; Nickel, Matthias; Kienemund, Daniel; Prasetiadi, Ananto Eka; Jakoby, Rolf


    Modern communication platforms require a huge amount of switched RF component banks especially made of different filters and antennas to cover all operating frequencies and bandwidth for the targeted services and application scenarios. In contrast, reconfigurable devices made of tunable components lead to a considerable reduction in complexity, size, weight, power consumption, and cost. This paper gives an overview of suitable technologies for tunable microwave components especially for SatCom applications. Special attention is given to tunable components based on functional materials such as barium strontium titanate (BST) and liquid crystal (LC).

  14. Application of cyclic activation to in vivo elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.


    Experience over the past seven years with a prototype cyclic system, based on an oscillating 5Ci AmBe neutron source, suggests that multielemental in vivo analysis is possible and more specifically indicates that the determination of selenium and cadmium in liver may allow the examination of the interaction of the two elements at acceptable doses. Detection limits obtained for selenium and cadmium, in the same experiment but through different modes of detection i.e. the measurement of delayed gamma-rays from short-lived Se-77m (17.6 s) and prompt gamma-rays from Cd-114, in a cyclic sequence of irradiations, are 0.4 ppm and 6 ppm respectively, for a total irradiation period of 1800s and an equivalent dose to the irradiated region of 5mSv. The redesigning of the prototype system is being considered in order to decrease the detection limit of selenium to a value of 0.1 ppm or less and the effect of increasing the neutron flux tenfold is investigated. This could result in an improvement by a factor of 4 to 5 in detection, for the same dose. 36 references, 6 figures

  15. Assessment of human sinus cavity air volume using tunable diode laser spectroscopy, with application to sinusitis diagnostics. (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Tianqi; Lin, Huiying; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune


    Sinusitis is a very common disease and improved diagnostic tools are desirable also in view of reducing over-prescription of antibiotics. A non-intrusive optical technique called GASMAS (GAs in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy), which has a true potential of being developed into an important complement to other means of detection, was utilized in this work. Water vapor in the frontal sinuses, related to the free gas volume, was studied at around 937 nm in healthy volunteers. The results show a good stability of the GASMAS signals over extended times for the frontal sinuses for all volunteers, showing promising applicability to detect anomalies due to sinusitis. Measurements were also performed following the application of a decongestion spray. No noticeable signal change was observed, which is consistent with the fact that the water vapor concentration is given by the temperature only, and is not influenced by changes in cavity ventilation. Evaluated GASMAS data recorded on 6 consecutive days show signal stability for the left and right frontal sinus in one of the test volunteers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Electronically Tunable Resistorless Mixed Mode Biquad Filters


    Yesil, A.; Kacar, F.


    This paper presents a new realization of elec¬tronically tunable mixed mode (including transadmittance- and voltage-modes) biquad filter with single input, three outputs or three inputs, single output using voltage differ-encing transconductance amplifier (VDTA), a recently introduced active element. It can simultaneously realize standard filtering signals: low-pass, band-pass and high-pass or by selecting input terminals, it can realize all five different filtering signals: low-pass, band-pa...

  17. Novel Metamaterial Blueprints and Elements for Electromagnetic Applications (United States)

    Odabasi, Hayrettin

    In the first part of this dissertation, we explore the metric invariance of Maxwell's equations to design metamaterial blueprints for three novel electromagnetic devices. The metric invariance of Maxwell's equations here means that the effects of an (hypothetical) distortion of the background spatial domain on the electromagnetic fields can be mimicked by properly chosen material constitutive tensors. The exploitation of such feature of Maxwell's equations to derive metamaterial devices has been denoted as `transformation optics' (TO). The first device proposed here consists of metamaterial blueprints of waveguide claddings for (waveguide) miniaturization. These claddings provide a precise control of mode distribution and frequency cut-off. The proposed claddings are distinct from conventional dielectric loadings as the former do not support hybrid modes and are impedance-matched to free-space. We next derive a class of metamaterial blueprints designed for low-profile antenna applications, whereby a simple spatial transformation is used to yield uniaxial metamaterial substrate with electrical height higher than its physical height and surface waves are not supported, which is an advantage for patch antenna applications. We consider the radiation from horizontal wire and patch antennas in the presence of such substrates. Fundamental characteristics such as return loss and radiation pattern of the antennas are investigated in detail. Finally, transformation optics is also applied to design cylindrical impedance-matched absorbers. In this case, we employ a complex-valued transformation optics approach (in the Fourier domain) as opposed to the conventional real-valued approach. A connection of such structures with perfectly matched layers and recently proposed optical pseudo black-hole devices is made. In the second part of this dissertation, we move from the derivation of metamaterial blueprints to the application of pre-defined unit-cell metamaterial structures for

  18. Applications of nuclear technologies for in-vivo elemental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Wielopolski, L.


    Measurement facilities developed, to date, include a unique whole-body-counter, (WBC); a total-body neutron-activation facility (TBNAA); and a partial-body activation facility (PBNAA). A variation of the prompt-gamma neutron-activation technique for measuring total-body nitrogen was developed to study body composition of cancer patients and the effect of nutritional regimens on the composition. These new techniques provide data in numerous clinical studies not previously amenable to investigation. The development and perfection of these techniques provide unique applications of radiation and radioisotopes to the early diagnosis of certain diseases and the evaluation of therapeutic programs. The PBNAA technique has been developed and calibrated for in-vivo measurement of metals. Development has gone forward on prompt-gamma neutron activation for the measurement of cadmium, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for measurement of iron. Other techniques are being investigated for in-vivo measurement of metals such as silicon and beryllium.

  19. Applications of nuclear technologies for in-vivo elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Wielopolski, L.


    Measurement facilities developed, to date, include a unique whole-body-counter, (WBC); a total-body neutron-activation facility (TBNAA); and a partial-body activation facility (PBNAA). A variation of the prompt-gamma neutron-activation technique for measuring total-body nitrogen was developed to study body composition of cancer patients and the effect of nutritional regimens on the composition. These new techniques provide data in numerous clinical studies not previously amenable to investigation. The development and perfection of these techniques provide unique applications of radiation and radioisotopes to the early diagnosis of certain diseases and the evaluation of therapeutic programs. The PBNAA technique has been developed and calibrated for in-vivo measurement of metals. Development has gone forward on prompt-gamma neutron activation for the measurement of cadmium, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for measurement of iron. Other techniques are being investigated for in-vivo measurement of metals such as silicon and beryllium

  20. Tunable bandgap energy of fluorinated nanocrystals for flash memory applications produced by low-damage plasma treatment (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Hsien; Lin, Chih-Ting; Wang, Jer-Chyi; Chou, Chien; Ye, Yu-Ren; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Lai, Chao-Sung


    A plasma system with a complementary filter to shield samples from damage during tetrafluoromethane (CF4) plasma treatment was proposed in order to incorporate fluorine atoms into gadolinium oxide nanocrystals (Gd2O3-NCs) for flash memory applications. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that fluorine atoms were successfully introduced into the Gd2O3-NCs despite the use of a filter in the plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition system to shield against several potentially damaging species. The number of incorporated fluorine atoms can be controlled by varying the treatment time. The optimized memory window of the resulting flash memory devices was twice that of devices treated by a filterless system because more fluorine atoms were incorporated into the Gd2O3-NCs film with very little damage. This enlarged the bandgap energy from 5.48 to 6.83 eV, as observed by ultraviolet absorption measurements. This bandgap expansion can provide a large built-in electric field that allows more charges to be stored in the Gd2O3-NCs. The maximum improvement in the retention characteristic was >60%. Because plasma damage during treatment is minimal, maximum fluorination can be achieved. The concept of simply adding a filter to a plasma system to prevent plasma damage exhibits great promise for functionalization or modification of nanomaterials for advanced nanoelectronics while introducing minimal defects.

  1. Domain decomposition techniques for boundary elements application to fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Brebbia, C A; Skerget, L


    The sub-domain techniques in the BEM are nowadays finding its place in the toolbox of numerical modellers, especially when dealing with complex 3D problems. We see their main application in conjunction with the classical BEM approach, which is based on a single domain, when part of the domain needs to be solved using a single domain approach, the classical BEM, and part needs to be solved using a domain approach, BEM subdomain technique. This has usually been done in the past by coupling the BEM with the FEM, however, it is much more efficient to use a combination of the BEM and a BEM sub-domain technique. The advantage arises from the simplicity of coupling the single domain and multi-domain solutions, and from the fact that only one formulation needs to be developed, rather than two separate formulations based on different techniques. There are still possibilities for improving the BEM sub-domain techniques. However, considering the increased interest and research in this approach we believe that BEM sub-do...

  2. Tunable dielectric properties of TiO2 thin film based MOS systems for application in microelectronics (United States)

    Gyanan; Mondal, Sandip; Kumar, Arvind


    Post-deposition annealing (PDA) is an inherent part of a sol-gel fabrication process to achieve the optimum device performance, especially in CMOS applications. Annealing removes the oxygen vacancies and improves the structural order of the dielectric films. The process also reduces the interface related defects and improves the interfacial properties. Here, we applied a sol-gel spin-coating technique to prepare high-k TiO2 films on the p-Si substrate. These films were fired at 400 °C for the duration of 20, 40, 60 and 80 min to know the effects of annealing time on the device characteristics. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of annealed TiO2 films were examined in Al/TiO2/p-Si device configuration at room temperature. The 60 min annealed film gives the optimum performance and contained 69.5% anatase and 39.5% rutile phase with refractive index 2.40 at 550 nm. The C-V and I-V characteristic showed a significant dependence on annealing time such as variation in dielectric constant and leakage current. This allows us to tune the various electrical properties of MOS systems. The accumulation capacitance (Cox), dielectric constant (κ) and the equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of the film fired for 60 min were found to be 458 pF, 33, and 4.25 nm, respectively with a low leakage current density (3.13 × 10-7 A/cm2) fired for 80 min at -1 V. The current conduction mechanisms at high bias voltage were dominated by trap-charge limited current (TCLC), while at small voltages, space charge limited current (SCLC) was more prominent.

  3. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler (United States)

    Schlueter, R.D.; Deis, G.A.


    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles. 14 figs.

  4. High Quality Liquid Crystal Tunable Lenses and Optimization with Floating Electrodes (United States)

    Li, Liwei


    In addition to the display application, Liquid Crystals (LC) can be very useful in other applications such as beam steering, tunable lenses, etc. Electro-optical LC tunable lenses have been considered as an alternative to conventional glass lenses because of their ability to change their focal length with the application of a control voltage, as…

  5. Ultra-Sensitive Elemental Analysis Using Plasmas 7.Application to Criminal Investigation (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    This paper describes the application of trace elemental analysis using ICP-AES and ICP-MS to criminal investigation. The comparison of trace elements, such as Rb, Sr, Zr, and so on, is effective for the forensic discrimination of glass fragments, which can be important physical evidence for connecting a suspect to a crime scene or to a victim. This procedure can be applied also to lead shotgun pellets by the removal of matrix lead as the sulfate precipitate after the dissolution of a pellet sample. The determination of a toxic element in bio-logical samples is required to prove that a victim ingested this element. Arsenous acids produced in Japan, China, Germany and Switzerland show characteristic patterns of trace elements characteristic to each country.

  6. Anterior esthetics and the visual arts: beauty, elements of composition, and their clinical application to dentistry. (United States)

    Valo, T S


    The challenge of developing a pleasing smile is an artistic venture. A study of how the visual arts have explored the nature of beauty and the elements of artistic composition will enhance our artistic abilities in cosmetic dentistry. This review discusses the perception of beauty and important features of that which we call beautiful. The discussion uses important works of art to demonstrate elements of composition, which are then made relevant in a dental application.

  7. Parallel performance of a preconditioned CG solver for unstructured finite element applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Moffat, H.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A parallel unstructured finite element (FE) implementation designed for message passing MIMD machines is described. This implementation employs automated problem partitioning algorithms for load balancing unstructured grids, a distributed sparse matrix representation of the global finite element equations and a parallel conjugate gradient (CG) solver. In this paper a number of issues related to the efficient implementation of parallel unstructured mesh applications are presented. These include the differences between structured and unstructured mesh parallel applications, major communication kernels for unstructured CG solvers, automatic mesh partitioning algorithms, and the influence of mesh partitioning metrics on parallel performance. Initial results are presented for example finite element (FE) heat transfer analysis applications on a 1024 processor nCUBE 2 hypercube. Results indicate over 95% scaled efficiencies are obtained for some large problems despite the required unstructured data communication.

  8. Applications of the Method of Space-Time Conservation Element and the Solution Element to Unsteady Chemically Reactive Flows (United States)

    Yu, Sheng-Tao


    This document reports the conclusion and findings of our research activities for this grant. The goal of the project is the development and application of the method of Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element, or the CE/SE method, to simulate chemically reacting flows. The product of this project will be a high-fidelity, time-accurate flow solver analyzing unsteady flow fields advanced propulsion concepts, including the low-emission turbojet engine combustion and flow fields of the Pulse Detonation Engines (PDE). Based on the documents and computer software of the CE/SE method that we have received from the CE/SE working group at NASA Lewis, we have focused our research effort on addressing outstanding technical issues related to the extension of the CE/SE method for unsteady, chemically reactive flows. In particular, we have made progresses in the following three aspects: (1) Derivation of the governing equations for reacting flows; (2) Numerical treatments of stiff source terms; and (3) Detailed simulations of ZND detonation waves.

  9. Application of modified integration rule to time-domain finite-element acoustic simulation of rooms. (United States)

    Okuzono, Takeshi; Otsuru, Toru; Tomiku, Reiji; Okamoto, Noriko


    The applicability of the modified integration rule for time-domain finite-element analysis is tested in sound field analysis of rooms involving rectangular elements, distorted elements, and finite impedance boundary conditions. Dispersion error analysis in three dimensions is conducted to evaluate the dispersion error in time-domain finite-element analysis using eight-node hexahedral elements. The results of analysis confirmed that fourth-order accuracy with respect to dispersion error is obtainable using the Fox-Goodwin method (FG) with a modified integration rule, even for rectangular elements. The stability condition in three-dimensional analysis using the modified integration rule is also presented. Numerical experiments demonstrate that FG with a modified integration rule performs much better than FG with the conventional integration rule for problems with rectangular elements, distorted elements, and with finite impedance boundary conditions. Further, as another advantage, numerical results revealed that the use of modified integration rule engenders faster convergence of the iterative solver than a conventional rule for problems with the same degrees of freedom.

  10. Dynamically tunable interface states in 1D graphene-embedded photonic crystal heterostructure. (United States)

    Huang, Zhao; Li, Shuaifeng; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Degang; Ye, Lei; Zhu, Xuefeng; Zang, Jianfeng


    Optical interface states exhibit promising applications in nonlinear photonics, low-threshold lasing, and surface-wave assisted sensing. However, the further application of interface states in configurable optics is hindered by their limited tunability. Here, we demonstrate a new approach to generate dynamically tunable and angle-resolved interface states using graphene-embedded photonic crystal (GPC) heterostructure device. By combining the GPC structure design with in situ electric doping of graphene, a continuously tunable interface state can be obtained and its tuning range is as wide as the full bandgap. Moreover, the exhibited tunable interface states offer a possibility to study the correspondence between space and time characteristics of light, which is beyond normal incident conditions. Our strategy provides a new way to design configurable devices with tunable optical states for various advanced optical applications such as beam splitter and dynamically tunable laser.

  11. Dynamically tunable interface states in 1D graphene-embedded photonic crystal heterostructure (United States)

    Huang, Zhao; Li, Shuaifeng; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Degang; Ye, Lei; Zhu, Xuefeng; Zang, Jianfeng


    Optical interface states exhibit promising applications in nonlinear photonics, low-threshold lasing, and surface-wave assisted sensing. However, the further application of interface states in configurable optics is hindered by their limited tunability. Here, we demonstrate a new approach to generate dynamically tunable and angle-resolved interface states using graphene-embedded photonic crystal (GPC) heterostructure device. By combining the GPC structure design with in situ electric doping of graphene, a continuously tunable interface state can be obtained and its tuning range is as wide as the full bandgap. Moreover, the exhibited tunable interface states offer a possibility to study the correspondence between space and time characteristics of light, which is beyond normal incident conditions. Our strategy provides a new way to design configurable devices with tunable optical states for various advanced optical applications such as beam splitter and dynamically tunable laser.

  12. Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves. (United States)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Xiao-Ping; Peng, Ru-Wen; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Xu, Di-Hu; Xiong, Xiang; Huang, Xian-Rong; Wang, Mu


    A freely tunable polarization rotator for broadband terahertz waves is demonstrated using a three-rotating-layer metallic grating structure, which can conveniently rotate the polarization of a linearly polarized terahertz wave to any desired direction with nearly perfect conversion efficiency. This low-cost, high-efficiency, and freely tunable device has potential applications as material analysis, wireless communication, and THz imaging. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Tunable surface plasmon devices (United States)

    Shaner, Eric A [Rio Rancho, NM; Wasserman, Daniel [Lowell, MA


    A tunable extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) device wherein the tunability derives from controlled variation of the dielectric constant of a semiconducting material (semiconductor) in evanescent-field contact with a metallic array of sub-wavelength apertures. The surface plasmon resonance wavelength can be changed by changing the dielectric constant of the dielectric material. In embodiments of this invention, the dielectric material is a semiconducting material. The dielectric constant of the semiconducting material in the metal/semiconductor interfacial region is controllably adjusted by adjusting one or more of the semiconductor plasma frequency, the concentration and effective mass of free carriers, and the background high-frequency dielectric constant in the interfacial region. Thermal heating and/or voltage-gated carrier-concentration changes may be used to variably adjust the value of the semiconductor dielectric constant.

  14. Application of finite element method in mechanical design of automotive parts (United States)

    Gu, Suohai


    As an effective numerical analysis method, finite element method (FEM) has been widely used in mechanical design and other fields. In this paper, the development of FEM is introduced firstly, then the specific steps of FEM applications are illustrated and the difficulties of FEM are summarized in detail. Finally, applications of FEM in automobile components such as automobile wheel, steel plate spring, body frame, shaft parts and so on are summarized, compared with related research experiments.

  15. Nuclear techniques for trace element analysis. PIXE and its applications to biomedical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cata-Danil, I.; Moro, R.; Gialanella, G.


    Problems in understanding the role of trace elements in the functioning of life processes are discussed. A brief review of the state of the PIXE technique is given. Principles and recent advances in beam systems, instrumentation and sample handling are covered. A rather comprehensive list of references regarding varies methodological aspects and biomedical applications is given. Some applications are discussed. In particular, preliminary results of an investigation regarding pediatric obesity are presented. (author) 5 tabs., 21 refs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hnatov


    Full Text Available In the paper the properties of piezoelectric substances are studied and the possibilities of their application as a source of electric energy are analyzed. The characteristics of piezoelectric substances properties are considered and the main analytical connections during their calculation are given. The piezoceramic elements as energy converters with reference to the basic schemes of their application are investigated. The schemes of constructing piezogenerators for the systems and devices of electric power generation are presented.

  17. Development of Shear Deformable Laminated Shell Element and Its Application to ANCF Tire Model (United States)


    DEFORMABLE LAMINATED SHELL ELEMENT AND ITS APPLICATION TO ANCF TIRE MODEL Hiroki Yamashita Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering...for application to the modeling of fiber-reinforced rubber (FRR) structure of the physics-based ANCF tire model. The complex deformation coupling...cornering forces. Since a tire consists of layers of plies and steel belts embedded in rubber , the tire structure needs to be modeled by cord- rubber

  18. Tunable laser optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ


    This Second Edition of a bestselling book describes the optics and optical principles needed to build lasers. It also highlights the optics instrumentation necessary to characterize laser emissions and focuses on laser-based optical instrumentation. The book emphasizes practical and utilitarian aspects of relevant optics including the essential theory. This revised, expanded, and improved edition contains new material on tunable lasers and discusses relevant topics in quantum optics.

  19. Application of UHPC thin-walled elements for multi-purpose use table (United States)

    Slabý, O.; Vašková, J.; Veselý, V.


    This paper deals with thin-walled elements made of high performance concrete and the application of these elements in practice. This material is nowadays used more often in civil engineering and also in architecture, it enables realization of lighter and thinner products. The paper presents design and manufacturing of a ping-pong table for multi-purpose use, which is assembled from thin-walled UHPC elements. The intention was to utilize the advantages of the material and design and construct a demountable table, which could be easily transported; hence the weight of each element will be lower than 100 kg. The thickness of the concrete board of the table was only 15 mm. The paper describes the whole development of the product - from the design and the software verification, the development of casting technologies and the development of suitable concrete composite to the final realization and testing of the manufactured table.

  20. Application of the neutron activation analysis method for determing trace elements in Brazilian food sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.


    Recently there has been an increase of consciousness about the importance of trace elements in human health and disease as well as rising concern about food contamination. The development of sensitive, accurate and price methods is one of the most important of the knowledge of trace elements contents in foods and in biological samples. Neutron activation analysis is one of the most suitable tecniques because a great number of elements can be determined in concentrations in the range of μg/g to ng/g. The present work is a part of an AIEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the applications of nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs. Neutron activation analysis is applied to analysis of bread, milk powder and rice that are considered essential foods in the Brazilian diet. Some aspects of the activation analysis of biological matrices are discussed. (author) [pt

  1. Finite Element Analysis for Satellite Structures Applications to Their Design, Manufacture and Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelal, Gasser F; Gad, Ahmed H


    Designing satellite structures poses an ongoing challenge as the interaction between analysis, experimental testing, and manufacturing phases is underdeveloped. Finite Element Analysis for Satellite Structures: Applications to Their Design, Manufacture and Testing explains the theoretical and practical knowledge needed to perform design of satellite structures. By layering detailed practical discussions with fully developed examples, Finite Element Analysis for Satellite Structures: Applications to Their Design, Manufacture and Testing provides the missing link between theory and implementation.   Computational examples cover all the major aspects of advanced analysis; including modal analysis, harmonic analysis, mechanical and thermal fatigue analysis using finite element method. Test cases are included to support explanations an a range of different manufacturing simulation techniques are described from riveting to shot peening to material cutting. Mechanical design of a satellites structures are covered...

  2. The analysis of application of secondary seismic elements in design according to Eurocode 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Ivan


    Full Text Available Analysis of conceptual design of reinforced concrete (RC structure with secondary seismic elements in compliance with Eurocode 8 is presented in this paper. The application of this concept is complex due to the requirements regarding the classification and calculation of design internal forces, although the contribution of these elements in the total structural stiffness is neglected. The basic calculations of 8-story RC structure are performed with the main goal to emphasize and explain the problems of utilization of this concept. Its advantages are clearly presented and critical analysis of application in aseismic structural design is performed. The results of comparative analysis of structural design in which some structural elements are treated as a primary or as a secondary are presented.

  3. Rational design, green synthesis, and initial evaluation of a series of full-color tunable fluorescent dyes enabled by the copper-catalyzed N-arylation of 6-phenyl pyridazinones and their application in cell imaging. (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Wang, Wei; Wu, Jun; Xu, Fengrong; Niu, Yan; Xu, Bo; Xu, Ping


    There is widespread interest in the application, optimization, and evolution of the transition-metal-catalyzed arylation of N-heteroarenes to discover full-color tunable fluorescent core frameworks. Inspired by the versatile roles of pyridazinone in organic synthesis and medicinal chemistry, herein, we report a simple and efficient copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction for the N-functionalization of pyridazinones in neat water. To achieve the efficient conversion of pyridazinones and organic halides in aqueous phase, a series of copper-salen complexes composed of different Schiff base ligands were investigated by rational design. A final choice of fine-tuned hydrophilicity balanced with lipophilicity among the candidates was confirmed, which affords excellent activity towards the reaction of a wide range of pyridazinones and organic halides. More importantly, the products as N-substituted pyridazinones were synthesized rationally by this methodology as full-color tunable fluorescent agents (426-612 nm). The N2 position of pyridazinones was modified by different aryl group such as benzothiazole, N,N-dimethylaniline, 3-quinoline, 4-isoquinoline and 2-thiophene, resulting in a series of full-color tunable fluorescent reagents. Meanwhile, the effects of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups of the 6-substituted phenyl ring have also been investigated to optimize the fluorescent properties. These fluorescent core frameworks were studied in several cell lines as fluorescent dyes. Different colors from blue to red were observed by using fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Non-linear finite element analyses applicable for the design of large reinforced concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engen, M; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Øverli, Jan Arve; Åldstedt, Erik


    In order to make non-linear finite element analyses applicable during assessments of the ultimate load capacity or the structural reliability of large reinforced concrete structures, there is need for an efficient solution strategy with a low modelling uncertainty. A solution strategy comprises

  5. Application of the finite element method to the neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.R.


    This paper examines the theoretical and practical application of the finite element method to the neutron transport equation. It is shown that in principle the system of equations obtained by application of the finite element method can be solved with certain physical restrictions concerning the criticality of the medium. The convergence of this approximate solution to the exact solution with mesh refinement is examined, and a non-optical estimate of the convergence rate is obtained analytically. It is noted that the numerical results indicate a faster convergence rate and several approaches to obtain this result analytically are outlined. The practical application of the finite element method involved the development of a computer code capable of solving the neutron transport equation in 1-D plane geometry. Vacuum, reflecting, or specified incoming boundary conditions may be analyzed, and all are treated as natural boundary conditions. The time-dependent transport equation is also examined and it is shown that the application of the finite element method in conjunction with the Crank-Nicholson time discretization method results in a system of algebraic equations which is readily solved. Numerical results are given for several critical slab eigenvalue problems, including anisotropic scattering, and the results compare extremely well with benchmark results. It is seen that the finite element code is more efficient than a standard discrete ordinates code for certain problems. A problem with severe heterogeneities is considered and it is shown that the use of discontinuous spatial and angular elements results in a marked improvement in the results. Finally, time-dependent problems are examined and it is seen that the phenomenon of angular mode separation makes the numerical treatment of the transport equation in slab geometry a considerable challenge, with the result that the angular mesh has a dominant effect on obtaining acceptable solutions

  6. Virtual and smoothed finite elements: A connection and its application to polygonal/polyhedral finite element methods


    Natarajan, Sundararajan; Bordas, Stéphane; Ooi, Ean Tat


    We show both theoretically and numerically a connection between the smoothed finite element method (SFEM) and the virtual element method and use this approach to derive stable, cheap and optimally convergent polyhedral FEM.We show that the stiffness matrix computed with one subcell SFEM is identical to the consistency term of the virtual element method, irrespective of the topology of the element, as long as the shape functions vary linearly on the boundary. Using this connection, we propose ...

  7. Construction of tunable peptide nucleic acid junctions. (United States)

    Duan, Tanghui; He, Liu; Tokura, Yu; Liu, Xin; Wu, Yuzhou; Shi, Zhengshuang


    We report here the construction of 3-way and 4-way peptide nucleic acid (PNA) junctions as basic structural units for PNA nanostructuring. The incorporation of amino acid residues into PNA chains makes PNA nanostructures with more structural complexity and architectural flexibility possible, as exemplified by building 3-way PNA junctions with tunable nanopores. Given that PNA nanostructures have good thermal and enzymatic stabilities, they are expected to have broad potential applications in biosensing, drug delivery and bioengineering.

  8. 37 CFR 1.154 - Arrangement of application elements in a design application. (United States)


    ...) Design application transmittal form. (2) Fee transmittal form. (3) Application data sheet (see § 1.76... the application data sheet). (3) Statement regarding federally sponsored research or development. (4... preceded by a section heading in uppercase letters without underlining or bold type. [65 FR 54674, Sept. 8...

  9. Clinical Research with a Hermenutical Design and an Element of Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillemor Lindwall RN, RNA, PhD


    Full Text Available In 2008 two researchers completed a 2-year study in collaboration with nurse anesthetists and operating room nurses from three operating theaters in western Sweden. In this paper, with focus on methodology and the ethical approach to research, the aim was to describe a hermeneutical design with an element of application used in a perioperative clinical study. The element of application was chosen to involve clinical nurses to participate as coresearchers. This research was inspired by Lindholm's (2006 method for application research developed to bring new knowledge, to create change as well as to unite theory in dialogues with clinical nurses. Through the perioperative dialogue, the coreseacher not only became one who collected data but also the older patients' nurse, who cared for them. A hermeneutical text interpretation with five readings was used to gain new understanding. Perioperative care becomes evident and is dedicated to the patient in perioperative.

  10. Application of boosting classification and regression to modeling the relationships between trace elements and diseases. (United States)

    Tan, Chao; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Wanping


    The study on the relationship between trace elements and diseases often need to build a classification/regression model. Furthermore, the accuracy of such a model is of particular importance and directly decides its applicability. The goal of this study is to explore the feasibility of applying boosting, i.e., a new strategy from machine learning, to model the relationship between trace elements and diseases. Two examples are employed to illustrate the technique in the applications of classification and regression, respectively. The first example involves the diagnosis of anorexia according to the concentrations of six elements (i.e. classification task). Decision stump and support vector machine are used as the weak/base algorithm and reference algorithm, respectively. The second example involves the prediction of breast cancer mortality based on the intake of trace elements (i.e. a regression task). In this regard, partial least squares is not only used as the weak/base algorithm, but also the reference algorithm. The results from both examples confirm the potential of boosting in modeling the relationship between trace elements and diseases.

  11. Applications of X-ray emission to elemental analysis of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocchini, R.G.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Perley, B.P.


    Trace element analysis via X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) techniques were applied to several samples of fresh and processed foods. Thin samples of fresh fruits and vegetables, processed dry foods, and spices were included in these analyses. The results indicate that XRF and/or PIXE analysis is applicable to these types of samples but require special and simple modifications in sample preparation techniques, and the inclusion of new matrix type corrections for data analysis. However, the non-destructive nature, reproducibility, efficiency and high sensitivity that characterize these multi-element analytical procedures can provide new potential methods for detecting trace elements in foods and in many agricultural commodities. Toxic metals such as Hg, Pb, and As were detected in some foods. In addition, other essential or neutral trace elements such as Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Cr, V, Zn, Mo, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Cl, S, and P were also detected. These and other elements can be analyzed rapidly and with high sensitivity for applications in process control and for certification of food quality. Developing these techniques and procedures specifically for food and for various agricultural products may provide new analytical options and help mitigate the expected impact of forthcoming regulations intended to establish limits and tolerance levels for micro toxicants and other essential nutrients in foods and agricultural products. (author)

  12. Application of finite-element method to three-dimensional nuclear reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, K.Y.


    The application of the finite element method to solve a realistic one-or-two energy group, multiregion, three-dimensional static neutron diffusion problem is studied. Linear, quadratic, and cubic serendipity box-shape elements are used. The resulting sets of simultaneous algebraic equations with thousands of unknowns are solved by the conjugate gradient method, without forming the large coefficient matrix explicitly. This avoids the complicated data management schemes to store such a large coefficient matrix. Three finite-element computer programs: FEM-LINEAR, FEM-QUADRATIC and FEM-CUBIC were developed, using the linear, quadratic, and cubic box-shape elements respectively. They are self-contained, using simple nodal labeling schemes, without the need for separate finite element mesh generating routines. The efficiency and accuracy of these computer programs are then compared among themselves, and with other computer codes. The cubic element model is not recommended for practical usage because it gives almost identical results as the quadratic model, but it requires considerably longer computation time. The linear model is less accurate than the quadratic model, but it requires much shorter computation time. For a large 3-D problem, the linear model is to be preferred since it gives acceptable accuracy. The quadratic model may be used if improved accuracy is desired

  13. Application of art therapy elements for students at high special school (practical)


    Koubská, Patricie


    Application of art therapy elements for students at high special school (practical) The theme of this bachelor thesis is the use of art therapy procedure for pupils from practical two-year high school. The aim of this thesis is to consider the possibilities of using elements of group art therapy for the development of self-knowledge, communication, for strengthening of prosocial ties and increasing of a sense of group belonging. In the narrower sense, art therapy is underwood as a fine art th...

  14. A Compact Design of Planar Array Antenna with Fractal Elements for Future Generation Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert F.


    In this paper, a planar phased array fractal antenna for the future fifth generation (5G) applications is presented. The proposed array antenna is designed to operate at 22 GHz. 64 patch antenna elements with coaxial-probe feeds have been used for the proposed design. The antenna elements are based...... on Vicsek fractal geometry where the third iteration patches operate over a wide bandwidth and contribute to improve the efficiency and realized gain performance. The designed planar array has more than 22 dB realized gain and -0.3 dB total efficiency when its beam is tilted to 0 degrees elevation...

  15. ABAQUS/EPGEN - a general purpose finite element code with emphasis on nonlinear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbitt, H.D.


    The article contains a summary description of ABAQUS, a finite element program designed for general use in nonlinear as well as linear structural problems, in the context of its application to nuclear structural integrity analysis. The article begins with a discussion of the design criteria and methods upon which the code development has been based. The engineering modelling capabilities, currently implemented in the program - elements, constitutive models and analysis procedures - are then described. Finally, a few demonstration examples are presented, to illustrate some of the program's features that are of interest in structural integrity analysis associated with nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  16. The Multitracer technique: manufacturing and application to bio-trace elemental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Shuichi; Hirunuma, Rieko


    A versatile radioactive multitracer technique has been developed at RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility about 11 years before. It enables efficient and simultaneous tracing of a number of elements under identical experimental conditions. Since 1991, the multitracer technique has been applied for an investigation of a behavior of various elements in chemistry, biochemistry, pharmaceutical sciences, medical sciences, nutritional sciences, agricultural sciences, and environmental sciences. Now, the multitracer has been used in more than 50 laboratories in the world. Its principle and features are presented with examples of recent application. (author)

  17. Tunable conductivity in mesoporous germanium (United States)

    Beattie, Meghan N.; Bioud, Youcef A.; Hobson, David G.; Boucherif, Abderraouf; Valdivia, Christopher E.; Drouin, Dominique; Arès, Richard; Hinzer, Karin


    Germanium-based nanostructures have attracted increasing attention due to favourable electrical and optical properties, which are tunable on the nanoscale. High densities of germanium nanocrystals are synthesized via electrochemical etching, making porous germanium an appealing nanostructured material for a variety of applications. In this work, we have demonstrated highly tunable electrical conductivity in mesoporous germanium layers by conducting a systematic study varying crystallite size using thermal annealing, with experimental conductivities ranging from 0.6 to 33 (×10‑3) Ω‑1 cm‑1. The conductivity of as-prepared mesoporous germanium with 70% porosity and crystallite size between 4 and 10 nm is shown to be ∼0.9 × 10‑3 Ω‑1 cm‑1, 5 orders of magnitude smaller than that of bulk p-type germanium. Thermal annealing for 10 min at 400 °C further reduced the conductivity; however, annealing at 450 °C caused a morphological transformation from columnar crystallites to interconnecting granular crystallites and an increase in conductivity by two orders of magnitude relative to as-prepared mesoporous germanium caused by reduced influence of surface states. We developed an electrostatic model relating the carrier concentration and mobility of p-type mesoporous germanium to the nanoscale morphology. Correlation within an order of magnitude was found between modelled and experimental conductivities, limited by variation in sample uniformity and uncertainty in void size and fraction after annealing. Furthermore, theoretical results suggest that mesoporous germanium conductivity could be tuned over four orders of magnitude, leading to optimized hybrid devices.

  18. Tunable PhoXonic Band Gap Materials from Self-Assembly of Block Copoliymers and Colloidal Nanocrystals (NBIT Phase II) (United States)


    Activities: Hysteric Tunable Photonic Gels and Their Applications Photonic band gap ( PBG ) materials have been of great interest due to their potential...applications in science and technology. Their applications can be further extended when the PBG becomes tunable against various chemical and...electrical stimuli. Recently, it was found that tunable photonic band gap materials can be achieved by incorporating stimuli-responsive smart gels into PBG

  19. Tunable X-ray source (United States)

    Boyce, James R [Williamsburg, VA


    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  20. Tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lægsgaard, Jesper


    We demonstrate electrically-tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser output at the visible range. Using an all-fiber, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and nonlinear photonic crystal fiber link as the wave-conversion medium, ultrafast, milliwatt-level, tunable...

  1. Tunable resistance coatings (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.


    A method and article of manufacture of intermixed tunable resistance composite materials containing at least one of W:Al.sub.2O.sub.3, Mo:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 or M:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 where M is a conducting compound containing either W or Mo. A conducting material and an insulating material are deposited by such methods as ALD or CVD to construct composites with intermixed materials which do not have structure or properties like their bulk counterparts.

  2. MEMS Tunable nanostructured photodetector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learkthanakhachon, Supannee

    This thesis was prepared at the department of Photonics Engineering, the Technical University of Denmark in fulfilment of the requirements for acquiring a Philosophiae doctor (Ph.D.) in Photonics Engineering. The thesis deals with the design and fabrication of tunable resonant......-cavity-enhanced photodetector using dielectric subwavelength gratings as reflectors operating at 1550 nm optical communication wavelength. The main work in this thesis divided equally into device design and process development. The properties of dielectric subwavelength grating are described. The main result of the thesis...

  3. Tunable Nitride Josephson Junctions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lewis, Rupert M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolfley, Steven L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolak, Matthaeus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    We have developed an ambient temperature, SiO2/Si wafer - scale process for Josephson junctions based on Nb electrodes and Ta x N barriers with tunable electronic properties. The films are fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The electronic properties of the TaxN barriers are controlled by adjusting the nitrogen flow during sputtering. This technology offers a scalable alternative to the more traditional junctions based on AlOx barriers for low - power, high - performance computing.

  4. Integrated tunable CMOS laser. (United States)

    Creazzo, Timothy; Marchena, Elton; Krasulick, Stephen B; Yu, Paul K L; Van Orden, Derek; Spann, John Y; Blivin, Christopher C; He, Lina; Cai, Hong; Dallesasse, John M; Stone, Robert J; Mizrahi, Amit


    An integrated tunable CMOS laser for silicon photonics, operating at the C-band, and fabricated in a commercial CMOS foundry is presented. The III-V gain medium section is embedded in the silicon chip, and is hermetically sealed. The gain section is metal bonded to the silicon substrate creating low thermal resistance into the substrate and avoiding lattice mismatch problems. Optical characterization shows high performance in terms of side mode suppression ratio, relative intensity noise, and linewidth that is narrow enough for coherent communications.

  5. Liquid crystal parameter analysis for tunable photonic bandgap fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei


    We investigate the tunability of splay-aligned liquid crystals for the use in solid core photonic crystal fibers. Finite element simulations are used to obtain the alignment of the liquid crystals subject to an external electric field. By means of the liquid crystal director field the optical...

  6. Geometrically Unfitted Finite Element Methods and Applications : Proceedings of the UCL Workshop 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Burman, Erik; Larson, Mats; Olshanskii, Maxim


    This book provides a snapshot of the state of the art of the rapidly evolving field of integration of geometric data in finite element computations. The contributions to this volume, based on research presented at the UCL workshop on the topic in January 2016, include three review papers on core topics such as fictitious domain methods for elasticity, trace finite element methods for partial differential equations defined on surfaces, and Nitsche’s method for contact problems. Five chapters present original research articles on related theoretical topics, including Lagrange multiplier methods, interface problems, bulk-surface coupling, and approximation of partial differential equations on moving domains. Finally, two chapters discuss advanced applications such as crack propagation or flow in fractured poroelastic media. This is the first volume that provides a comprehensive overview of the field of unfitted finite element methods, including recent techniques such as cutFEM, traceFEM, ghost penalty, and aug...

  7. Tunable bandgap in hybrid perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br3−yXy single crystals and photodetector applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang


    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of CH3NH3Pb(Br3−yXy (X=Cl and I single crystals via a stepwise temperature control approach. High-quality CH3NH3Pb(Br3−yXy crystals with a tunable bandgap from 1.92eV to 2.53eV have been prepared successfully in this way. And further experiments revealed the influence of halogen content and preparation temperature on the structural and optical properties of these crystals. It is observed that chlorine can lower the critical nucleation energy, which results in crystallizing at lower temperature with the chlorine content increasing, while the nucleation energy increases slowly with increasing iodine content. Moreover, in contrast to Frank–van der Merwe growth with low heating rate, high heating rate leads to a mass of small size single crystals and Stranski-Krastanov growth. The single crystals with tunable band gap and impressive characteristics enable us to fabricate high performance photodetectors for different wavelengths.

  8. Tunable superconducting qudit mediated by microwave photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Un [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Myung-Ho; Kim, Nam [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kicheon [Department of Physics, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)


    We have investigated the time-domain characteristics of the Autler-Townes doublet in a superconducting circuit. The transition probabilities between the ground state and the Autler-Townes doublet states are shown to be controlled in a phase-coherent manner using a well-known microwave pulse pattern technique. The experimental results are well explained by a numerical simulation based on the Markovian master equation. Our result indicates that the Autler-Townes doublet states might be useful as a tunable qudit for implementation of quantum information processing, in particular as a multivalued quantum logic element.

  9. Tunable superconducting qudit mediated by microwave photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Un Cho


    Full Text Available We have investigated the time-domain characteristics of the Autler-Townes doublet in a superconducting circuit. The transition probabilities between the ground state and the Autler-Townes doublet states are shown to be controlled in a phase-coherent manner using a well-known microwave pulse pattern technique. The experimental results are well explained by a numerical simulation based on the Markovian master equation. Our result indicates that the Autler-Townes doublet states might be useful as a tunable qudit for implementation of quantum information processing, in particular as a multivalued quantum logic element.

  10. Application of fibrous complexing sorbents for trace elements preconcentration and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhartchenko, E.A.; Myasoedova, G.V.


    This article demonstrates the application of the 'filled' fibrous sorbents for preconcentration and separation of platinum metals, as well as heavy metals and radionuclides. The POLYORGS complexing sorbents and ion-exchangers were used as fillers. Dynamic preconcentration conditions should be set for complete sorption of the elements: diameter and mass of the sorbent disk or the column as well as flow rate of the solution. These conditions depend on specific features of materials to be analysed and the requirements of the experimental task or detection method. Extensive alteration of features as well as perfect kinetic properties and high selectivity of the 'filled' sorbents confirm their applicability for trace elements preconcentration and separation in technology and analytical chemistry. (authors)

  11. Application of the Finite Element Method in Atomic and Molecular Physics (United States)

    Shertzer, Janine


    The finite element method (FEM) is a numerical algorithm for solving second order differential equations. It has been successfully used to solve many problems in atomic and molecular physics, including bound state and scattering calculations. To illustrate the diversity of the method, we present here details of two applications. First, we calculate the non-adiabatic dipole polarizability of Hi by directly solving the first and second order equations of perturbation theory with FEM. In the second application, we calculate the scattering amplitude for e-H scattering (without partial wave analysis) by reducing the Schrodinger equation to set of integro-differential equations, which are then solved with FEM.

  12. Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo


    Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.

  13. Photo-Modeling and Cloud Computing. Applications in the Survey of Late Gothic Architectural Elements (United States)

    Casu, P.; Pisu, C.


    This work proposes the application of the latest methods of photo-modeling to the study of Gothic architecture in Sardinia. The aim is to consider the versatility and ease of use of such documentation tools in order to study architecture and its ornamental details. The paper illustrates a procedure of integrated survey and restitution, with the purpose to obtain an accurate 3D model of some gothic portals. We combined the contact survey and the photographic survey oriented to the photo-modelling. The software used is 123D Catch by Autodesk an Image Based Modelling (IBM) system available free. It is a web-based application that requires a few simple steps to produce a mesh from a set of not oriented photos. We tested the application on four portals, working at different scale of detail: at first the whole portal and then the different architectural elements that composed it. We were able to model all the elements and to quickly extrapolate simple sections, in order to make a comparison between the moldings, highlighting similarities and differences. Working in different sites at different scale of detail, have allowed us to test the procedure under different conditions of exposure, sunshine, accessibility, degradation of surface, type of material, and with different equipment and operators, showing if the final result could be affected by these factors. We tested a procedure, articulated in a few repeatable steps, that can be applied, with the right corrections and adaptations, to similar cases and/or larger or smaller elements.

  14. Progress in multi-element silicon detectors for synchrotron XRF applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, B.; Rossington, C.; Kipnis, I.; Krieger, B.


    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon and high purity germanium detectors for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. We have been developing these types of detectors specifically for low noise synchrotron applications, such as extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, microprobe x-ray fluorescence and total reflection x-ray fluorescence. The current version of the 192-element detector and integrated circuit preamplifier, cooled to -25 degrees C with a single-stage thermoelectric cooler, achieves an energy resolution of <200 eV full width of half maximum (FWHM) per channel (at 5.9 keV, 2 μs peaking time), and each detector element is designed to handle ∼20 kHz count rate. The detector system will soon be completed to 64 channels using new application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) amplifier chips, new CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control standard) analog-to-digital converters recently developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), CAMAC histogramming modules, and Macintosh-based data acquisition software. We report on the characteristics of this detector system, and the work in progress towards the next generation system

  15. Fully Distributed Tunable Bandpass Filter Based on Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 Thin-Film Slow-Wave Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien L. Delprat


    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation and measurement results of fully distributed tunable coplanar bandpass filters (BPFs with center frequencies around 6 GHz that make use of ferroelectric Barium Strontium Titanate (BaxSr1−xTiO3 or BST-x thin film as tunable material. The two experimental bandpass filters tested are based on a novel frequency-agile structure composed of cascaded half wavelength slow-wave resonators (2 poles and three coupled interdigital capacitors (IDCs optimized for bias voltage application. Devices with gap dimensions of 10 and 3 μm are designed and fabricated with a two-step process on polycrystalline Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films deposited on alumina substrate. A frequency tunability of 9% is obtained for the 10 μm gap structure at ±30 V with 7 dB insertion loss (the BST dielectric tunability being 26% with 0.04 loss tangent for this gap size. When the structure gap is reduced to 3 μm the center frequency shifts with a constant 9 dB insertion loss from 6.95 GHz at 0 V to 9.05 GHz at ±30 V, thus yielding a filter tunability of 30% (the BST dielectric tunability being 60% with 0.04 loss tangent for this gap size, a performance comparable to some extent to localized or lumped element BPFs operating at microwave frequency (>2 GHz.

  16. Dental application of novel finite element analysis software for three-dimensional finite element modeling of a dentulous mandible from its computed tomography images. (United States)

    Nakamura, Keiko; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Chen, Ker-Kong; Nagamatsu, Yuki; Kakigawa, Hiroshi; Masumi, Shin-ich


    This study focused on the application of novel finite-element analysis software for constructing a finite-element model from the computed tomography data of a human dentulous mandible. The finite-element model is necessary for evaluating the mechanical response of the alveolar part of the mandible, resulting from occlusal force applied to the teeth during biting. Commercially available patient-specific general computed tomography-based finite-element analysis software was solely applied to the finite-element analysis for the extraction of computed tomography data. The mandibular bone with teeth was extracted from the original images. Both the enamel and the dentin were extracted after image processing, and the periodontal ligament was created from the segmented dentin. The constructed finite-element model was reasonably accurate using a total of 234,644 nodes and 1,268,784 tetrahedral and 40,665 shell elements. The elastic moduli of the heterogeneous mandibular bone were determined from the bone density data of the computed tomography images. The results suggested that the software applied in this study is both useful and powerful for creating a more accurate three-dimensional finite-element model of a dentulous mandible from the computed tomography data without the need for any other software.

  17. Application of mid-infrared cavity-ringdown spectroscopy to trace explosives vapor detection using a broadly tunable (6-8 μm) optical parametric oscillator (United States)

    Todd, M. W.; Provencal, R. A.; Owano, T. G.; Paldus, B. A.; Kachanov, A.; Vodopyanov, K. L.; Hunter, M.; Coy, S. L.; Steinfeld, J. I.; Arnold, J. T.

    A novel instrument, based on cavity-ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS), has been developed for trace gas detection. The new instrument utilizes a widely tunable optical parametric oscillator (OPO), which incorporates a zinc-germanium-phosphide (ZGP) crystal that is pumped at 2.8 μm by a 25-Hz Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The resultant mid-IR beam profile is nearly Gaussian, with energies exceeding 200 μJ/pulse between 6 and 8 μm, corresponding to a quantum conversion efficiency of approximately 35%. Vapor-phase mid-infrared spectra of common explosives (TNT, TATP, RDX, PETN and Tetryl) were acquired using the CRDS technique. Parts-per-billion concentration levels were readily detected with no sample preconcentration. A collection/flash-heating sequence was implemented in order to enhance detection limits for ambient air sampling. Detection limits as low as 75 ppt for TNT are expected, with similar concentration levels for the other explosives.

  18. Piezoelectric materials selection for sensor applications using finite element and multiple attribute decision-making approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuruddh Kumar


    Full Text Available This paper examines the selection and performance evaluation of a variety of piezoelectric materials for cantilever-based sensor applications. The finite element analysis method is implemented to evaluate the relative importance of materials properties such as Young's Modulus (E, piezoelectric stress constants (e31, dielectric constant (ε and Poisson's ratio (υ for cantilever-based sensor applications. An analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used to assign weights to the properties that are studied for the sensor structure under study. A technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is used to rank the performance of the piezoelectric materials in the context of sensor voltage outputs. The ranking achieved by the TOPSIS analysis is in good agreement with the results obtained from finite element method simulation. The numerical simulations show that K0.5Na0.5NbO3–LiSbO3 (KNN–LS materials family is important for sensor application. Young's modulus (E is most influencing material's property followed by piezoelectric constant (e31, dielectric constant (ε and Poisson's ratio (υ for cantilever-based piezoelectric sensor applications.

  19. Column extraction chromatography with HEH (EHP) for separating rare earth elements from coexistent elements and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chunlin; Sun Baocheng; Zhao Junwu; Liu Xuan


    For separating rare earths from large amount of coexistent elements a new method of column extraction chromatography with HEH (EHP) as a stationary phase and sulphosalicylic acid, gluconic acid, ascorbic acid respectively as a mobile phase has been developed. It has been applied to the determination of trace rare earth elements in nickel-base alloys and iron-nickel-base alloys with satisfactory results

  20. Integrated Method for Purification and Single-Particle Characterization of Lentiviral Vector Systems by Size Exclusion Chromatography and Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing. (United States)

    Heider, Susanne; Muzard, Julien; Zaruba, Marianne; Metzner, Christoph


    Elements derived from lentiviral particles such as viral vectors or virus-like particles are commonly used for biotechnological and biomedical applications, for example in mammalian protein expression, gene delivery or therapy, and vaccine development. Preparations of high purity are necessary in most cases, especially for clinical applications. For purification, a wide range of methods are available, from density gradient centrifugation to affinity chromatography. In this study we have employed size exclusion columns specifically designed for the easy purification of extracellular vesicles including exosomes. In addition to viral marker protein and total protein analysis, a well-established single-particle characterization technology, termed tunable resistive pulse sensing, was employed to analyze fractions of highest particle load and purity and characterize the preparations by size and surface charge/electrophoretic mobility. With this study, we propose an integrated platform combining size exclusion chromatography and tunable resistive pulse sensing for monitoring production and purification of viral particles.

  1. Biochar application to hardrock mine tailings: Soil quality, microbial activity, and toxic element sorption (United States)

    Kelly, Charlene N.; Peltz, Christopher D.; Stanton, Mark R.; Rutherford, David W.; Rostad, Colleen E.


    Waste rock piles from historic mining activities remain unvegetated as a result of metal toxicity and high acidity. Biochar has been proposed as a low-cost remediation strategy to increase soil pH and reduce leaching of toxic elements, and improve plant establishment. In this laboratory column study, biochar made from beetle-killed pine wood was assessed for utility as a soil amendment by mixing soil material from two mine sites collected near Silverton, Colorado, USA with four application rates of biochar (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% vol:vol). Columns were leached seven times over 65 days and leachate pH and concentration of toxic elements and base cations were measured at each leaching. Nutrient availability and soil physical and biological parameters were determined following the incubation period. We investigated the hypotheses that biochar incorporation into acidic mine materials will (1) reduce toxic element concentrations in leaching solution, (2) improve soil parameters (i.e. increase nutrient and water holding capacity and pH, and decrease compaction), and (3) increase microbial populations and activity. Biochar directly increased soil pH (from 3.33 to 3.63 and from 4.07 to 4.77 in the two materials) and organic matter content, and decreased bulk density and extractable salt content in both mine materials, and increased nitrate availability in one material. No changes in microbial population or activity were detected in either mine material upon biochar application. In leachate solution, biochar increased base cations from both materials and reduced the concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in leachate solution from one material. However, in the material with greater toxic element content, biochar did not reduce concentrations of any measured dissolved toxic elements in leachate and resulted in a potentially detrimental release of Cd and Zn into solution at concentrations above that of the pure mine material. The length of time of effectiveness and specific

  2. Convenience of Statistical Approach in Studies of Architectural Ornament and Other Decorative Elements Specific Application (United States)

    Priemetz, O.; Samoilov, K.; Mukasheva, M.


    An ornament is an actual phenomenon of the architecture modern theory, a common element in the practice of design and construction. It has been an important aspect of shaping for millennia. The description of the methods of its application occupies a large place in the studies on the theory and practice of architecture. However, the problem of the saturation of compositions with ornamentation, the specificity of its themes and forms have not been sufficiently studied yet. This aspect requires accumulation of additional knowledge. The application of quantitative methods for the plastic solutions types and a thematic diversity of facade compositions of buildings constructed in different periods creates another tool for an objective analysis of ornament development. It demonstrates the application of this approach for studying the features of the architectural development in Kazakhstan at the end of the XIX - XXI centuries.

  3. Multilayer Finite-Element Model Application to Define the Bearing Structure Element Stress State of Launch Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zverev


    Full Text Available The article objective is to justify the rationale for selecting the multilayer finite element model parameters of the bearing structure of a general-purpose launch complex unit.A typical design element of the launch complex unit, i.e. a mount of the hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder, block, etc. is under consideration. The mount represents a set of the cantilevered axis and external structural cage. The most loaded element of the cage is disk to which a moment is transferred from the cantilevered axis due to actuator effort acting on it.To calculate the stress-strain state of disk was used a finite element method. Five models of disk mount were created. The only difference in models was the number of layers of the finite elements through the thickness of disk. There were models, which had one, three, five, eight, and fourteen layers of finite elements through the thickness of disk. For each model, we calculated the equivalent stresses arising from the action of the test load. Disk models were formed and calculated using the MSC Nastran complex software.The article presents results in the table to show data of equivalent stresses in each of the multi-layered models and graphically to illustrate the changing equivalent stresses through the thickness of disk.Based on these results we have given advice on selecting the proper number of layers in the model allowing a desirable accuracy of results with the lowest run time. In addition, it is concluded that there is a need to use the multi-layer models in assessing the performance of structural elements in case the stress exceeds the allowable one in their surface layers.

  4. Application of the space-time conservation element and solution element method to two-dimensional advection-diffusion problems (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung


    The existing 2-D alpha-mu scheme and alpha-epsilon scheme based on the method of space-time conservation element and solution element, which were constructed for solving the linear 2-D unsteady advection-diffusion equation and unsteady advection equation, respectively, are tested. Also, the alpha-epsilon scheme is modified to become the V-E scheme for solving the nonlinear 2-D inviscid Burgers equation. Numerical solutions of six test problems are presented in comparison with their exact solutions or numerical solutions obtained by traditional finite-difference or finite-element methods. It is demonstrated that the 2-D alpha-mu, alpha-epsilon, and nu-epsilon schemes can be used to obtain numerical results which are more accurate than those based on some of the traditional methods but without using any artificial tuning in the computation. Similar to the previous 1-D test problems, the high accuracy and simplicity features of the space-time conservation element and solution element method have been revealed again in the present 2-D test results.

  5. Finite element methods in incompressible, adiabatic, and compressible flows from fundamental concepts to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kawahara, Mutsuto


    This book focuses on the finite element method in fluid flows. It is targeted at researchers, from those just starting out up to practitioners with some experience. Part I is devoted to the beginners who are already familiar with elementary calculus. Precise concepts of the finite element method remitted in the field of analysis of fluid flow are stated, starting with spring structures, which are most suitable to show the concepts of superposition/assembling. Pipeline system and potential flow sections show the linear problem. The advection–diffusion section presents the time-dependent problem; mixed interpolation is explained using creeping flows, and elementary computer programs by FORTRAN are included. Part II provides information on recent computational methods and their applications to practical problems. Theories of Streamline-Upwind/Petrov–Galerkin (SUPG) formulation, characteristic formulation, and Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) formulation and others are presented with practical results so...

  6. Application of Assembly of Finite Element Methods on Graphics Processors for Real-Time Elastodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Cecka, Cris


    This chapter discusses multiple strategies to perform general computations on unstructured grids, with specific application to the assembly of matrices in finite element methods (FEMs). It reviews and applies two methods for assembly of FEMs to produce and accelerate a FEM model for a nonlinear hyperelastic solid where the assembly, solution, update, and visualization stages are performed solely on the GPU, benefiting from speed-ups in each stage and avoiding costly GPUCPU transfers of data. For each method, the chapter discusses the NVIDIA GPU hardware\\'s limiting resources, optimizations, key data structures, and dependence of the performance with respect to problem size, element size, and GPU hardware generation. Furthermore, this chapter informs potential users of the benefits of GPU technology, provides guidelines to help them implement their own FEM solutions, gives potential speed-ups that can be expected, and provides source code for reference. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of a general purpose finite element program system in pressure vessel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, B.; Sandsmark, N.; Medonos, S.


    Main advantages of using general purpose finite element program systems in structural analysis are summarized. Several illustrative applications of the program system SESAM-69 to pressure vessel problems are described. The first example is a dynamic analysis of the motor housing of the internal main circulation pump of a BWR nuclear reactor. The next example is a transient heat conduction and stress analysis of deflector of feeding nozzle of PWR nuclear reactor. Then, numerical calculations of stress intensity factors and fatigue crack growth of semi-elliptical surface cracks are discussed. And finally, an elasto-plastic analysis of a thick plate with edge-cracks is considered. It is concluded that due to the fact that general purpose finite element program systems are general and user-orientated, they will gain increasingly higher popularity in the years ahead

  8. Applicability of microwave digestion for analysis of elements in certified reference material by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Suhaimi Elias; Ab Khalik Wood; Awad Al-Zahrany; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abd Rahman


    Quality of an analysis is contingent by several factors such as analysis method, equipment performance, standard preparation, sample preparation, staff competency and environmental condition. One of other major factor that also contributes to the quality of analysis results is the sample pre-treatment. In this study, sample pretreatment is involving digestion process of certified reference material using microwave oven whilst elemental analysis (Ba, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Ti) was done by Inductively Couple Plasma - Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The applicability of the analytical method is confirmed by analysis results of the certified reference material (CRM). The results showed that the recovery of the elements of the CRM is 65% to 133% with Z-score value of -1.63 to 1.67. (Author)

  9. Preparation of Novel Semiconductor Nanoparticles Composed of Low Toxic Elements and the Application to Photo-functional Materials (United States)

    Sasamura, Tetsuya; Okazaki, Ken-Ichi; Kuwabata, Susumu; Torimoto, Tsukasa

    The chemical synthesis of ZnS-AgInS2 solid solution (ZAIS) nanoparticles and their application to photo-functional materials are reviewed in the present paper. ZAIS nanoparticles were successfully prepared by thermal decomposition of (AgIn)xZn2(1-x)(S2CNEt2)4 complex powders as a precursor. The chemical composition of the resulting particle was tunable by changing the composition (x) in the precursor powders. ZAIS nanoparticles exhibited intense photoluminescence, whose peak wavelength was blue-shifted from 780 to 540 nm with an increase in the content of Zn in ZAIS particles. The maximum quantum yield of PL was ca. 80%. The novel photofunctional devices such as luminescent devises and solar cells could be fabricated by the immobilization of ZAIS particles on solid substrates.

  10. Adaptive finite element simulation of flow and transport applications on parallel computers (United States)

    Kirk, Benjamin Shelton

    The subject of this work is the adaptive finite element simulation of problems arising in flow and transport applications on parallel computers. Of particular interest are new contributions to adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in this parallel high-performance context, including novel work on data structures, treatment of constraints in a parallel setting, generality and extensibility via object-oriented programming, and the design/implementation of a flexible software framework. This technology and software capability then enables more robust, reliable treatment of multiscale--multiphysics problems and specific studies of fine scale interaction such as those in biological chemotaxis (Chapter 4) and high-speed shock physics for compressible flows (Chapter 5). The work begins by presenting an overview of key concepts and data structures employed in AMR simulations. Of particular interest is how these concepts are applied in the physics-independent software framework which is developed here and is the basis for all the numerical simulations performed in this work. This open-source software framework has been adopted by a number of researchers in the U.S. and abroad for use in a wide range of applications. The dynamic nature of adaptive simulations pose particular issues for efficient implementation on distributed-memory parallel architectures. Communication cost, computational load balance, and memory requirements must all be considered when developing adaptive software for this class of machines. Specific extensions to the adaptive data structures to enable implementation on parallel computers is therefore considered in detail. The libMesh framework for performing adaptive finite element simulations on parallel computers is developed to provide a concrete implementation of the above ideas. This physics-independent framework is applied to two distinct flow and transport applications classes in the subsequent application studies to illustrate the flexibility of the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Zoric


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of diffractive optical elements on the optical aberrations. The correction of optical aberrations was investigated in the simple optical systems with one and two lenses (singlet and doublet. The advantages of diffractive optical elements are their ability to generate arbitrary complex wave fronts from a piece of optical material that is essentially flat. The optical systems consisting of the standard surfaces were designed and optimized by using the same starting points. Further, the diffractive and aspheric surfaces were introduced into the developed systems. The resulting hybrid systems were optimized. To compare the complicity of the development of narrow field systems and wide field optical systems, the optimization has been done separately for these two types of the instruments. The optical systems were designed by using special Optical Design Software. Тhe characteristics of designed diffractive surfaces were controlled in Software DIFSYS 2.30. Due to the application of diffractive optical elements the longitudinal chromatic aberration was 5 times reduced for the narrow field systems. The absolute value of Seidel coefficient related to the spherical aberration was reduced in the range of 0.03. Considering that diffractive optical elements have the known disadvantages, like possible parasitic diffraction orders and probable decrease of the transmission, we also developed and analyzed the optical systems with combined aspheric and diffractive surfaces. A combination of the aspheric and diffractive surfaces in the optical disk system of the disk reading lens, gave cutting down of the longitudinal color aberrations almost 15 times on-axis, comparing to the lens consisting of the aspherical and standard surfaces. All of the designed diffractive optical elements possess the parameters within the fabrication limits.

  12. Application of the space-time conservation element and solution element method to shock-tube problem (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung


    An Euler solver based on the method of space-time conservation element and solution element is in this paper to simulate shock-tube flows involving shock waves, contact discontinuities, expansion waves and their intersections. Seven test problems are considered to examine the capability of this method. The numerical results, when compared with exact solutions and/or numerical solutions by other methods, indicate that the present method can accurately resolve strong shock and contact discontinuities without using any ad hoc techniques which are used only at the neighborhood of a discontinuity.

  13. One-pot stirring-free synthesis of silver nanowires with tunable lengths and diameters via a Fe3+& Cl-co-mediated polyol method and their application as transparent conductive films. (United States)

    Zhan, Kan; Su, Rui; Bai, Sihang; Yu, Zhenhua; Cheng, Nian; Wang, Changlei; Xu, Sheng; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong


    The properties of nanomaterials are highly dependent on their size, shape and composition. Compared with zero-dimensional nanoparticles, the increased dimension of a one-dimensional silver nanowire (AgNW/Ag NW) leads to extra challenges on synthesizing it with controllable sizes. Here, a convenient way for the synthesis of AgNWs with tunable sizes has been developed simply by adjusting the amount of salt additives, i.e., ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ), or Fe(NO 3 ) 3 & KCl. The average diameter and length of nanowires are readily tailored within 45-220 nm and 10-230 μm, respectively. The distinctive roles of Fe 3+ and Cl - played during the growth stages of Ag NWs were revealed by comparative experiments and a heterogeneous nucleation model with the assistance of oxidative etching was proposed to elucidate the growth mechanism. Afterwards, transformations in XRD patterns from nanometer-size effects and quantitative relation for size-dependent peak wavelength of surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) in UV-vis spectroscopy of these nanowires were studied. In addition, as transparent conductive materials (TCMs), these metal nanowires were utilized to fabricate transparent conductive films (TCFs), and the effects of their diameters and lengths were elucidated. Very/ultra-long nanowires with a high aspect ratio up to 1600 achieved impressive properties of R = 12.4 ohm sq -1 at T% = 90.1% without any post treatment. This facile method for the size-tunable growth of uniform AgNWs with high yield is attractive and ready to be home-made, which is believed to promote research in their potential applications, especially in optoelectronic devices and flexible electronics.

  14. Tunable on chip optofluidic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakal, Avraham; Vannahme, Christoph; Kristensen, Anders


    On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range.......On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range....

  15. Pneumatically tunable optofluidic dye laser


    Song, W.; Psaltis, D.


    We presented a tunable optofluidic dye laser with integrated elastomeric air-gap etalon controlled by air pressure. The chip was fabricated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via replica molding. It comprises a liquid waveguide and microscale air-gap mirrors providing the feedback. The lasing wavelength is chosen by the interference between two parallel PDMS-air interfaces inside the internal tunable air-gap etalon, of which pneumatic tuning can be realized by inflating the air-gap etalon with ...

  16. Homogenization on Multi-Materials’ Elements: Application to Printed Circuit Boards and Warpage Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Manuel


    Full Text Available Multi-material domains are often found in industrial applications. Modelling them can be computationally very expensive due to meshing requirements. The finite element properties comprising different materials are hardly accurate. In this work, a new homogenization method that simplifies the computation of the homogenized Young modulus, Poisson ratio and thermal expansion coefficient is proposed, and applied to composite-like material on a printed circuit board. The results show a good properties correspondence between the homogenized domain and the real geometry simulation.

  17. Dual Feed, Single Element Antenna for WiMAX MIMO Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. Caimi


    Full Text Available A novel u-shaped single element antenna having two feed ports is compared with two equal length monopoles separated by a distance equivalent to the width. A discussion of relative performance metrics is provided for MIMO applications, and measured data is given for comparison. Good impedance match and isolation of greater than −10 dB are observed over the operating bandwidth from 2.3 to 2.39 GHz. The antenna patterns are highly uncorrelated, as illustrated by computation of the antenna pattern correlation coefficient for the two comparison monopoles.

  18. Three dimensional finite element analysis of weld overlay application on a plastically formed feeder tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, F.H.; Riccardella, P.C.; Lashley, M.S. [Structural Integrity Associates Inc., California (United States); Chen, Y. [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., Ontario (Canada); Yee, R.K. [San Jose State Univ., California (United States)


    This paper presents a finite element analysis (FEA) model to predict the residual stresses in a tight-radius warm bend feeder tube in a CANDU nuclear reactor coolant system throughout the various stages of the manufacturing and welding processes, including feeder tube forming, Grayloc hub weld, and weld overlay application. The FEA employs 3-D elastic-plastic technology with large deformation capability to predict the residual stresses due to the feeder tube forming and various welding processes. The results demonstrate that the FEA method captures the residual stress trends resulted from warm bending and weld overlay with acceptable accuracy. (author)

  19. Spectral and Radiometric Calibration Using Tunable Lasers (United States)

    McCorkel, Joel (Inventor)


    A tunable laser system includes a tunable laser, an adjustable laser cavity for producing one or more modes of laser light emitted from the tunable laser, a first optical parametric oscillator positioned in a light path of the adjustable laser cavity, and a controller operable to simultaneously control parameters of at least the tunable laser, the first optical parametric oscillator, and the adjustable laser cavity to produce a range of wavelengths emitted from the tunable laser system. A method of operating a tunable laser system includes using a controller to simultaneously control parameters of a tunable laser, an adjustable laser cavity for producing one or more modes of laser light emitted from the tunable laser, and a first optical parametric oscillator positioned in a light path of the adjustable laser cavity, to produce a range of wavelengths emitted from the tunable laser system.

  20. Composition-Tunable Optical Properties of Zn x Cd(1 - x)S Quantum Dot-Carboxymethylcellulose Conjugates: Towards One-Pot Green Synthesis of Multifunctional Nanoplatforms for Biomedical and Environmental Applications (United States)

    Mansur, Alexandra A. P.; Mansur, Herman S.; Caires, Anderson J.; Mansur, Rafael L.; Oliveira, Luiz C.


    Quantum dots (QDs) are colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals with unique properties that can be engineered by controlling the nanoparticle size and chemical composition by doping and alloying strategies. However, due to their potential toxicity, augmenting their biocompatibility is yet a challenge for expanding to several biomedical and environmentally friendly applications. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop composition-tunable and biocompatible Zn x Cd1 - x S QDs using carboxymethylcellulose polysaccharide as direct capping ligand via green colloidal aqueous route at neutral pH and at room temperature for potential biomedical and environmental applications. The ternary alloyed QDs were extensively characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that Zn x Cd(1 - x)S QDs were surface stabilized by carboxymethylcellulose biopolymer with spherical morphology for all composition of alloys and narrow sizes distributions ranging from 4 to 5 nm. The XRD results indicated that monophasic ternary alloyed Zn x Cd1 - x S nanocrystals were produced with homogenous composition of the core as evidenced by EELS and XPS analyses. In addition, the absorption and emission optical properties of Zn x Cd1 - x S QDs were red shifted with increasing the amount of Cd2+ in the alloyed nanocrystals, which have also increased the quantum yield compared to pure CdS and ZnS nanoparticles. These properties of alloyed nanomaterials were interpreted based on empirical model of Vegard's law and chemical bond model (CBM). As a proof of concept, these alloyed-QD conjugates were tested for biomedical and environmental applications. The results demonstrated that they were non-toxic and effective fluorophores for bioimaging live HEK293T cells (human embryonic kidney cells) using confocal

  1. Industrial integration of high coherence tunable single frequency semiconductor lasers based on VECSEL technology for scientific instrumentation in NIR and MIR (United States)

    Lecocq, Vincent; Chomet, Baptiste; Ferrières, Laurence; Myara, Mikhaël.; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Sagnes, Isabelle; Cerutti, Laurent; Denet, Stéphane; Garnache, Arnaud


    Laser technology is finding applications in areas such as high resolution spectroscopy, radar-lidar, velocimetry, or atomic clock where highly coherent tunable high power light sources are required. The Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL) technology [1] has been identified for years as a good candidate to reach high power, high coherence and broad tunability while covering a wide emission wavelength range exploiting III-V semiconductor technologies. Offering such performances in the Near- and Middle-IR range, GaAs- and Sb-based VECSEL technologies seem to be a well suited path to meet the required specifications of demanding applications. Built up in this field, our expertise allows the realization of compact and low power consumption marketable products, with performances that do not exist on the market today in the 0.8-1.1 μm and 2-2.5 μm spectral range. Here we demonstrate highly coherent broadly tunable single frequency laser micro-chip, intracavity element free, based on a patented VECSEL technology, integrated into a compact module with driving electronics. VECSEL devices emitting in the Near and Middle-IR developed in the frame of this work [2] exhibit exciting features compared to diode-pumped solid-state lasers and DFB diode lasers; they combine high power (>100mW) high temporal coherence together with a low divergence diffraction limited TEM00 beam. They exhibit a class-A dynamics with a Relative Intensity Noise as low as -140dB/Hz and at shot noise level reached above 200MHz RF frequency (up to 160GHz), a free running narrow linewidth at sub MHz level (fundamental limit at Hz level) with high spectral purity (SMSR >55dB), a linear polarization (>50dB suppression ratio), and broadband continuous tunability greater than 400GHz (state of the art commercial technologies thanks to a combination of power-coherence-wavelength tunability performances and integration.

  2. Application of 3D X-ray CT data sets to finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, P.L.; Martz, H.E.; Brand, H.R.; Hollerbach, K.


    Finite Element Modeling (FEM) is becoming more important as industry drives toward concurrent engineering. A fundamental hindrance to fully exploiting the power of FEM is the human effort required to acquire complex part geometry, particularly as-built geometry, as a FEM mesh. Many Quantitative Non Destructive Evaluation (QNDE) techniques that produce three-dimensional (3D) data sets provide a substantial reduction in the effort required to apply FEM to as-built parts. This paper describes progress at LLNL on the application of 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT) data sets to more rapidly produce high-quality FEM meshes of complex, as-built geometries. Issues related to the volume segmentation of the 3D CT data as well as the use of this segmented data to tailor generic hexahedral FEM meshes to part specific geometries are discussed. The application of these techniques to FEM analysis in the medical field is reported here

  3. Ubiquitous Chromatin-opening Elements (UCOEs): Applications in biomanufacturing and gene therapy. (United States)

    Neville, Jonathan J; Orlando, Joe; Mann, Kimberly; McCloskey, Bethany; Antoniou, Michael N


    Ubiquitous Chromatin-opening Elements (UCOEs) are defined by their ability to consistently confer stable, site of integration-independent transgene expression that is proportional to copy number, including from within regions of heterochromatin such as centromeres. UCOEs structurally consist of methylation-free CpG islands encompassing single or dual divergently-transcribed housekeeping gene promoters. Since their discovery in 1999, UCOEs and their sub-fragments have found applications in areas of biotechnology requiring stable, reproducible, and high levels of gene expression. This review recounts the discovery of UCOEs and examines their current and future applications in protein therapeutic biomanufacturing and gene therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of Fast Neutron Activity for Analysing Element Content on the Air Particulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elin Nuraini; Ngasifudin; Sunardi; Elisabeth


    The research on application of fast neutron activation analysis for analysing element content on the air particulate has been done. The research about analysis of the particulate matters contained in non industrial traffic territory of Surakarta and full industrial traffic territory of Karanganyar, had been done using Fast Neutron Activation Analysis Method. Fast Neutron Activation Analysis method is one of the element analysis method which it's basic principle causes radioactivity appearance from the samples after being irradiated by neutron. The qualitative analysis method is based on the measuring of specific energy which was radiated by radioactive's nucleus and quantitative analysis method is based on the measuring of the intensity of each peak gamma energy. The qualitative analysis results showed, some element were identified i.e : 51 V ; 200 Pb, 27 Al and 52 Cr. The result showed that Pb level is 2.21 ± 0.09x10 -1 mg/m 3 in non industrial traffic territory of Surakarta and 2.78 ± 0.11x10 -1 mg/m 3 full industrial traffic territory of Karanganyar, this value greater than threshold value according 6.0x10 -2 mg/m 3 . (author)

  5. Hoberman-sphere-inspired lattice metamaterials with tunable negative thermal expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yangbo; Chen, Yanyu; Li, Tiantian; Cao, Siyu; Wang, Lifeng


    Materials with engineered thermal expansion coefficients, capable of avoiding failure or irreversible destruction of structures and devices, are important for aerospace, civil, biomedical, optics, and semiconductor applications. In natural materials, thermal expansion usually cannot be adjusted easily and a negative thermal expansion coefficient is still uncommon. Here we propose a novel architected lattice bi-material system, inspired by the Hoberman sphere, showing a wide range of tunable thermal expansion coefficient from negative to positive, -1.04 x 10-3 degrees C-1 to 1.0 x 10-5 degrees C-1. Numerical simulations and analytical formulations are implemented to quantify the evolution of the thermal expansion coefficients and reveal the underlying mechanisms responsible for this unusual behavior. We show that the thermal expansion coefficient of the proposed metamaterials depends on the thermal expansion coefficient ratio and the axial stiffness ratio of the constituent materials, as well as the bending stiffness and the topological arrangement of the constitutive elements. The finding reported here provides a new routine to design architected metamaterial systems with tunable negative thermal expansion for a wide range of potential applications.

  6. The application of finite element analysis in the skull biomechanics and dentistry. (United States)

    Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua; Rossi, Ana Cláudia; Freire, Alexandre Rodrigues; Ferreira Caria, Paulo Henrique


    Empirical concepts describe the direction of the masticatory stress dissipation in the skull. The scientific evidence of the trajectories and the magnitude of stress dissipation can help in the diagnosis of the masticatory alterations and the planning of oral rehabilitation in the different areas of Dentistry. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a tool that may reproduce complex structures with irregular geometries of natural and artificial tissues of the human body because it uses mathematical functions that enable the understanding of the craniofacial biomechanics. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the advantages and limitations of FEA in the skull biomechanics and Dentistry study. The keywords of the selected original research articles were: Finite element analysis, biomechanics, skull, Dentistry, teeth, and implant. The literature review was performed in the databases, PUBMED, MEDLINE and SCOPUS. The selected books and articles were between the years 1928 and 2010. The FEA is an assessment tool whose application in different areas of the Dentistry has gradually increased over the past 10 years, but its application in the analysis of the skull biomechanics is scarce. The main advantages of the FEA are the realistic mode of approach and the possibility of results being based on analysis of only one model. On the other hand, the main limitation of the FEA studies is the lack of anatomical details in the modeling phase of the craniofacial structures and the lack of information about the material properties.

  7. The application of the high throughput sequencing technology in the transposable elements. (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Xu, Jian-hong


    High throughput sequencing technology has dramatically improved the efficiency of DNA sequencing, and decreased the costs to a great extent. Meanwhile, this technology usually has advantages of better specificity, higher sensitivity and accuracy. Therefore, it has been applied to the research on genetic variations, transcriptomics and epigenomics. Recently, this technology has been widely employed in the studies of transposable elements and has achieved fruitful results. In this review, we summarize the application of high throughput sequencing technology in the fields of transposable elements, including the estimation of transposon content, preference of target sites and distribution, insertion polymorphism and population frequency, identification of rare copies, transposon horizontal transfers as well as transposon tagging. We also briefly introduce the major common sequencing strategies and algorithms, their advantages and disadvantages, and the corresponding solutions. Finally, we envision the developing trends of high throughput sequencing technology, especially the third generation sequencing technology, and its application in transposon studies in the future, hopefully providing a comprehensive understanding and reference for related scientific researchers.

  8. Evaluations of Silica Aerogel-Based Flexible Blanket as Passive Thermal Control Element for Spacecraft Applications (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammed Adnan; Rashmi, S.; Esther, A. Carmel Mary; Bhavanisankar, Prudhivi Yashwantkumar; Sherikar, Baburao N.; Sridhara, N.; Dey, Arjun


    The feasibility of utilizing commercially available silica aerogel-based flexible composite blankets as passive thermal control element in applications such as extraterrestrial environments is investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that aerogel blanket was thermally stable over - 150 to 126 °C. The outgassing behavior, e.g., total mass loss, collected volatile condensable materials, water vapor regained and recovered mass loss, was within acceptable range recommended for the space applications. ASTM tension and tear tests confirmed the material's mechanical integrity. The thermo-optical properties remained nearly unaltered in simulated space environmental tests such as relative humidity, thermal cycling and thermo-vacuum tests and confirmed the space worthiness of the aerogel. Aluminized Kapton stitched or anchored to the blanket could be used to control the optical transparency of the aerogel. These outcomes highlight the potential of commercial aerogel composite blankets as passive thermal control element in spacecraft. Structural and chemical characterization of the material was also done using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  9. Determinant representations of spin-operator matrix elements in the XX spin chain and their applications (United States)

    Wu, Ning


    For the one-dimensional spin-1/2 XX model with either periodic or open boundary conditions, it is shown by using a fermionic approach that the matrix element of the spin operator Sj- (Sj-Sj'+ ) between two eigenstates with numbers of excitations n and n +1 (n and n ) can be expressed as the determinant of an appropriate (n +1 )×(n +1 ) matrix whose entries involve the coefficients of the canonical transformations diagonalizing the model. In the special case of a homogeneous periodic XX chain, the matrix element of Sj- reduces to a variant of the Cauchy determinant that can be evaluated analytically to yield a factorized expression. The obtained compact representations of these matrix elements are then applied to two physical scenarios: (i) Nonlinear optical response of molecular aggregates, for which the determinant representation of the transition dipole matrix elements between eigenstates provides a convenient way to calculate the third-order nonlinear responses for aggregates from small to large sizes compared with the optical wavelength; and (ii) real-time dynamics of an interacting Dicke model consisting of a single bosonic mode coupled to a one-dimensional XX spin bath. In this setup, full quantum calculation up to N ≤16 spins for vanishing intrabath coupling shows that the decay of the reduced bosonic occupation number approaches a finite plateau value (in the long-time limit) that depends on the ratio between the number of excitations and the total number of spins. Our results can find useful applications in various "system-bath" systems, with the system part inhomogeneously coupled to an interacting XX chain.

  10. Magnetostatic wave tunable resonators (United States)

    Castera, J.-P.; Hartemann, P.


    Theoretical principles and techniques for the implementation of magnetostatic surface wave and volume wave resonators in high frequency oscillators are discussed. Magnetostatic waves are magnetic waves that propagate in materials exposed to a polarized magnetic field. The propagation speed ranges from 3-300 km/sec for wavelengths between 1 micron and 10 mm, in the presence of lags from 10-1000 nsec/ cm. Tunable resonators in the 1-20 GHz frequency range have been manufactured with YIG using liquid phase epitaxy for deposition on gadolinium and gallium substrates. Distributed-mirror Fabry-Perot cavity resonators are described and performance tests results are reported, including losses of 8 dB, a quality coefficient under voltage of 450, and frequency rejection outside of resonance better than 10 dB. However, saturation occurs at low power levels at frequencies lower than 4.2 GHz, a feature overcome with forward volume magnetostatic wave generators, which have a quality factor of 500, an insertion loss of 22 dB, and rejection around 15 dB.

  11. Tunable HTS Filters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mancusi, Joseph


    ... capacitor and the continuously variable inductor. The target application is for this technology is SIGINT applications in the 400 MHz to 3000 MHz frequency band, with potential applications in areas from 20 MHz to 20 GHz...

  12. Tunable graphene antennas for selective enhancement of THz-emission

    KAUST Repository

    Filter, Robert


    In this paper, we will introduce THz graphene antennas that strongly enhance the emission rate of quantum systems at specific frequencies. The tunability of these antennas can be used to selectively enhance individual spectral features. We will show as an example that any weak transition in the spectrum of coronene can become the dominant contribution. This selective and tunable enhancement establishes a new class of graphene-based THz devices, which will find applications in sensors, novel light sources, spectroscopy, and quantum communication devices. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  13. Chip scale broadly tunable laser for laser spectrometer (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Davis, Scott R.; Anderson, Michael H.


    We are developing an innovative Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) that is compact, broad tuning range (> 200 nm) enabled by an innovative chip-scale (a waveguide based architecture), non-mechanical (voltage- controlled tuning), Waveguide External-cavity Semiconductor Laser (WECSL). This WECSL based TLS, with broad tuning range, will enable the simultaneous measurement of multiple gases abundances in Martian and other planetary atmospheres, adsorbed to soil; and bound to rocks. This monolithic, robust, integrated-optic Tunable Laser Absorption Spectrometer (TLS) will operate in the near infrared and infrared spectral bands. The system architecture, principles of operation and applications of the TLS will be reported in this paper.

  14. Fabrication of Al/MgO/C and C/MgO/InSe/C tunneling barriers for tunable negative resistance and negative capacitance applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasrawi, A.F., E-mail: [Group of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Atilim University, 06836 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics, Arab-American University, Jenin, West Bank, Palestine (Country Unknown)


    Highlights: • Aluminum and indium selenide thin films are used to design MgO tunneling diodes. • The Al/MgO/C and C/MgO/InSe/C tunneling diode structures are characterized. • The C/MgO/InSe/C device exhibited a peak to valley current ratio of 135. • It reflected negative resistance effect in the voltage range of 0.94–2.24. • A resonance peak located at 39 MHz was observed. -- Abstract: In this work, the design and characterization of magnesium oxide based tunneling diodes which are produced on Al and InSe films as rectifying substrates are investigated. It was found that when Al thin films are used, the device exhibit tunneling diode behavior of sharp valley at 0.15 V and peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) of 11.4. In addition, the capacitance spectra of the Al/MgO/C device show a resonance peak of negative capacitance (NC) values at 44.7 MHz. The capacitance and resistance–voltage characteristics handled at an ac signal frequency of 100 MHz reflected a build in voltage (V{sub bi}) of 1.29 V and a negative resistance (NR) effect above 2.05 V. This device quality factor (Q)–voltage response is ∼10{sup 4}. When the Al substrate is replaced by InSe thin film, the tunneling diode valley appeared at 1.1 V. In addition, the PVCR, NR range, NC resonance peak, Q and V{sub bi} are found to be 135, 0.94–2.24 and 39.0 MHz, ∼10{sup 5} and 1.34 V, respectively. Due to the wide differential negative resistance and capacitance voltage ranges and due to the response of the C/MgO/InSe/C device at 1.0 GHz, these devices appear to be suitable for applications as frequency mixers, amplifiers, and monostable–bistable circuit elements (MOBILE)

  15. Application of the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method to One-Dimensional Advection-Diffusion Problems (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung


    Test problems are used to examine the performance of several one-dimensional numerical schemes based on the space-time conservation and solution element (CE/SE) method. Investigated in this paper are the CE/SE schemes constructed previously for solving the linear unsteady advection-diffusion equation and the schemes derived here for solving the nonlinear viscous and inviscid Burgers equations. In comparison with the numerical solutions obtained using several traditional finite-difference schemes with similar accuracy, the CE/SE solutions display much lower numerical dissipation and dispersion errors.

  16. Highly Tunable Electrothermally and Electrostatically Actuated Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.


    This paper demonstrates experimentally, theoretically, and numerically for the first time, a wide-range tunability of an in-plane clamped-clamped microbeam, bridge, and resonator actuated electrothermally and electrostatically. Using both actuation methods, we demonstrate that a single resonator can be operated at a wide range of frequencies. The microbeam is actuated electrothermally by passing a dc current through it, and electrostatically by applying a dc polarization voltage between the microbeam and the stationary electrode. We show that when increasing the electrothermal voltage, the compressive stress inside the microbeam increases, which leads eventually to its buckling. Before buckling, the fundamental frequency decreases until it drops to very low values, almost to zero. After buckling, the fundamental frequency increases, which is shown to be as high as twice the original resonance frequency. Adding a dc bias changes the qualitative nature of the tunability both before and after buckling, which adds another independent way of tuning. This reduces the dip before buckling, and can eliminate it if desired, and further increases the fundamental frequency after buckling. Analytical results based on the Galerkin discretization of the Euler Bernoulli beam theory are generated and compared with the experimental data and simulation results of a multi-physics finite-element model. A good agreement is found among all the results. [2015-0341

  17. Highly Tunable Electrothermally Actuated Arch Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.


    This paper demonstrates experimentally, theoretically, and numerically a wide-range tunability of electrothermally actuated MEMS arch beams. The beams are made of silicon and are intentionally fabricated with some curvature as in-plane shallow arches. Analytical results based on the Galerkin discretization of the Euler Bernoulli beam theory are generated and compared to the experimental data and results of a multi-physics finite-element model. A good agreement is found among all the results. The electrothermal voltage is applied between the anchors of the clamped-clamped MEMS arch beam, generating a current that passes through the MEMS arch beam and controls its axial stress caused by thermal expansion. When the electrothermal voltage increases, the compressive stress increases inside the arch beam. This leads to increase in its curvature, thereby increases the resonance frequencies of the structure. We show here that the first resonance frequency can increase up to twice its initial value. We show also that after some electro-thermal voltage load, the third resonance frequency starts to become more sensitive to the axial thermal stress, while the first resonance frequency becomes less sensitive. These results can be used as guidelines to utilize arches as wide-range tunable resonators.

  18. Regulatory and practical challenges in controlling trace element inputs from land application of CFB ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope-Simpson, M.; Goodyear, N. [Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS (Canada)


    , and Zn. Arsenic, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb are regulated in Canada, but none were detected in plant uptake and none exceeded criteria for metals in soil. The exception was thallium which increased in both soils and plant tissues. The two challenges regarding the control of metal inputs are to determine the presence of potentially toxic elements in the ash and the variation in elemental composition of the ash with different combustion feedstocks. It was recommended that ash quality standards and guidelines for land application of CFB ash be developed to promote safe and efficient use of this material.

  19. Applications of the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CE/SE) Method to Computational Aeroacoustic Benchmark Problems (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Himansu, Ananda; Chang, Sin-Chung; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.


    The Internal Propagation problems, Fan Noise problem, and Turbomachinery Noise problems are solved using the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method. The problems in internal propagation problems address the propagation of sound waves through a nozzle. Both the nonlinear and linear quasi 1D Euler equations are solved. Numerical solutions are presented and compared with the analytical solution. The fan noise problem concerns the effect of the sweep angle on the acoustic field generated by the interaction of a convected gust with a cascade of 3D flat plates. A parallel version of the 3D CE/SE Euler solver is developed and employed to obtain numerical solutions for a family of swept flat plates. Numerical solutions for sweep angles of 0, 5, 10, and 15 deg are presented. The turbomachinery problems describe the interaction of a 2D vortical gust with a cascade of flat-plate airfoils with/without a downstream moving grid. The 2D nonlinear Euler Equations are solved and the converged numerical solutions are presented and compared with the corresponding analytical solution. All the comparisons demonstrate that the CE/SE method is capable of solving aeroacoustic problems with/without shock waves in a simple and efficient manner. Furthermore, the simple non-reflecting boundary condition used in the CE/SE method which is not based on the characteristic theory works very well in 1D, 2D and 3D problems.

  20. Application of the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method to One-Dimensional Convection-Diffusion Problems (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Wang, Xiao-Yen; To, Wai-Ming


    In the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method, the independent marching variables used comprise not only the mesh value of the physical dependent variables but also, in contrast to it typical numerical method, the Mesh values of the spatial derivatives of the physical variables The use of the extra marching variables results from the need to construct the two-level explicit and nondissipative schemes which are at the core of the CE/SE development. It also results from the need to minimize the stencil while maintaining accuracy. In this paper using the 1D(sub (alpha)-mu) scheme as an example, the effect of this added complication on consistency, accuracy and operation count is assessed. As part of this effort, an equivalent yet more efficient form of the alpha-mu scheme in which the independent marching variables are the local fluxes tied to each mesh point is introduced. Also, the intriguing relations that exist among the alpha-mu. Leapfrog, and DuFort-Frankel schemes are further explored. In addition, the redundance of the Leapfrog, DUFort-Frankel, and Lax scheme and the remedy for this redundance are discussed. This paper is concluded with the construction and evaluation of a CE/SE solver for the inviscid Burger equation.

  1. Color-tunable photoluminescence from In-doped CdS nanowires (United States)

    Xu, Jinyou; Quan, Songli; Zou, Zhijun; Guo, Pengfei; Lu, Yang; Yan, Hailong; Luo, Yongsong


    Color-tunable emission from semiconductor nanostructures holds promising applications in developing multi-color/color-tunable nano-devices. Herein, we reported the growth of In-doped CdS nanowires with various dopant concentrations via a thermal evaporation method. Optical measurement revealed the photoluminescence of these doped nanowires consists of a narrow bandedge emission and a broad trap-state emission, and the intensity ratio between them is tunable depending on excitation laser intensities and trap-state concentrations. On the basis of this variable intensity ratio, a tunable photoluminescent color from red to green was demonstrated. Our work indicates that trap-state emission from doped nanostructures might be useful for color-tunable emissions.

  2. Composite lay-up process with application of elements of augmented reality (United States)

    Novák-Marcinčin, Jozef; Barna, Jozef; Janák, Miroslav; Fečová, Veronika; Nováková-Marcinčinová, L'udmila


    This article deals with virtual tools based on principles of open source philosophy in implementation area of composite lay-up technology. It describes virtual software and hardware elements that are necessary for work in augmented reality environment. In the beginning it focuses on general problems of applications of virtual components and in composite lay-up process. It clarifies the fundamental philosophy of new created application and the process called visual scripting that was used for program development. Further it provides closer view on particular logical sections, where necessary data are harvested and compared with values from virtual arrays. Also the new device is described with adjustment of operating desk, what enables detailed control of any realized manufacturing process. This positioning table can determine and set the position of the working plane using the commands in computer interface or manual changes. Information about exact position of individual layers are obtained in real time thanks to the built-in sensors. One of them manages the data change of the desk position (X, Y, Z), other checks the rotation around main axis situated in the center of the table. New software consists of 4 main logical areas with data packets comming from internal computer components as well as from external devices. In the end the displaying section is able to realize the movement process of virtual item (composite layer) according to its trajectory. Article presents new attitude in realization of composite lay-up process. Finally it deals with possible future improvements and other application possibilities.

  3. Metal complexes containing natural and and artificial radioactive elements and their applications. (United States)

    Kharissova, Oxana V; Méndez-Rojas, Miguel A; Kharisov, Boris I; Méndez, Ubaldo Ortiz; Martínez, Perla Elizondo


    Recent advances (during the 2007-2014 period) in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium), are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well π-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described.

  4. Metal Complexes Containing Natural and and Artificial Radioactive Elements and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana V. Kharissova


    Full Text Available Recent advances (during the 2007–2014 period in the coordination and organometallic chemistry of compounds containing natural and artificially prepared radionuclides (actinides and technetium, are reviewed. Radioactive isotopes of naturally stable elements are not included for discussion in this work. Actinide and technetium complexes with O-, N-, N,O, N,S-, P-containing ligands, as well π-organometallics are discussed from the view point of their synthesis, properties, and main applications. On the basis of their properties, several mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra- or polydentate ligands have been designed for specific recognition of some particular radionuclides, and can be used in the processes of nuclear waste remediation, i.e., recycling of nuclear fuel and the separation of actinides and fission products from waste solutions or for analytical determination of actinides in solutions; actinide metal complexes are also usefulas catalysts forcoupling gaseous carbon monoxide,as well as antimicrobial and anti-fungi agents due to their biological activity. Radioactive labeling based on the short-lived metastable nuclide technetium-99m (99mTc for biomedical use as heart, lung, kidney, bone, brain, liver or cancer imaging agents is also discussed. Finally, the promising applications of technetium labeling of nanomaterials, with potential applications as drug transport and delivery vehicles, radiotherapeutic agents or radiotracers for monitoring metabolic pathways, are also described.

  5. Application of the integral method to modelling the oxidation of defected fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, M.


    The starting point for this report is the discrepancy reported in previous work between the reaction-diffusion calculations and the CEX-1 experiment, which involves storage of defected fuel elements in air at 150 deg C. This discrepancy is considerably diminished here by a more critical choice of theoretical parameters, and by taking into account the fact that different CEX-1 fuel elements were oxidized at very different rates and that the fuel element used previously for comparison with theoretical calculations actually underwent two limited-oxygen-supply cycles. Much better agreement is obtained here between the theory and the third, unlimited-air, storage period of the CEX-1 experiment. The approximate integral method is used extensively for the solution of the one-dimensional diffusion moving-boundary problems that may describe various storage periods of the CEX-1 experiment. In some cases it is easy to extend this method to arbitrary precision by using higher moments of the diffusion equation. Using this method, the validity of quasi-steady-state approximation is verified. Diffusion-controlled oxidation is also studied. In this case, for the unlimited oxygen supply, the integral method leads to an exact analytical solution for linear geometry, and to a good analytical approximation of the solution for the spherically symmetric geometry. These solutions may have some application in the analysis of experiments on the oxidation of small UO 2 fragments or powders when the individual UO 2 grains may be considered to be approximately spherical. (author). 23 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs

  6. High-order finite element analysis of the Helmholtz equation and its application in laser physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterhazy, S.


    This thesis forms a bridge between basic research in mathematics and applied research in the field of laser physics, structured accordingly in two parts. The central focus is the numerical analysis of the Helmholtz equation with radiating boundary condition which is used for modeling of phenomena such as acoustic or electromagnetic standing waves in free space. As a convenient method for the numerical calculations and simulation of this problem, the finite elements method (FEM) is used. This method suffers, however, from numerical dispersion error when increasing the wave number. The explicit dependence on the wave number and the discretization parameters is therefore under a particular focus in the context of basic research. Basic investigations concerning regularity properties, geometric aspects, as well as a convergence analysis with respect to different norms are therefore discussed in detail in the first part. In addition to that, the numerical study is extended/applied to the field of laser physics. While laser light constitutes a form of spatially and temporally coherent electromagnetic waves, major effects coming from the interaction with gain material, however, have to be taken into account. The significant characteristics of a laser are thus described by a coupled system of nonlinear Helmholtz-type equations. Here, the focus was to find an efficient and flexible solution method in order to be able to simulate a wide range of experimental applications. To this end, the finite element method has again been used for the discretization. (author) [de

  7. Analysis of the Range of Applicability of Thermodynamic Calculations in the Engineering of Nitride Fuel Elements (United States)

    Ivanov, A. S.; Rusinkevich, A. A.; Belov, G. V.; Ivanov, Yu. A.


    The domains of applicability of thermodynamic calculations in the engineering of nitride fuel are analyzed. Characteristic values of the following parameters, which affect directly the concentration equilibration time, are estimated: nuclide production rate; characteristic times to local equilibrium in the considered temperature range; characteristic time needed for a stationary temperature profile to be established; characteristic time needed for a quasi-stationary concentration field to be established on a scale comparable to the size of a fuel pellet. It is demonstrated that equilibrium thermodynamic calculations are suitable for estimating the chemical and phase composition of fuel. However, a two-layer kinetic model should be developed in order to characterize the transport processes in condensed and gaseous phases. The process of diffusive transport needs to be taken into account in order to determine the composition in the hot region at the center of a fuel element.

  8. Sr - an element shows the way - Applications of Sr isotopes for provenance, tracing and migration (Invited) (United States)

    Prohaska, T.; Irrgeher, J.; Zitek, A.; Teschler Nicola, M.


    Strontium - named after the small Scottish town Strontian - as such is an element with little popularity. Firstly described by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1798, the metal is used in metallurgy to some extent whereas its compounds are interesting in glass industries, electronics and pyrotechnics. The element has chemical similarity to Ca and makes up 1/60 of the earth’s amount of the latter. Nonetheless, it is its isotopic composition which makes Sr so interesting for a large number of scientists. The natural composition of the four naturally occurring isotopes (84Sr, 86Sr 87Sr and 88Sr) varies in nature due to the radioactive decay of 87Rb to 87Sr. Thus, it was early recognized as geochronometer especially in Ca rich matrices. With increasing precision of applied methodology, the natural variation of the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio (analyzed at first mainly by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS)) became more and more popular in provenance studies. The natural variation of the ratio is mainly determined by the geological age and the original composition of the rock and can be used therefore as fingerprint of the local geology. The ratio is transferred with no significant fractionation via the water into plants and finally via the food chain into animal and human tissues (especially bones and teeth). As the element is chemically similar to Ca, it appears in most matrices. The use for provenance studies is supported by the fact that the long half life (4.8 x 1010 years) does not lead to an alteration during the time scales which are investigated (from recent samples to human or animal skeletal remains which date back up to 30.000 BC). The uniqueness of the system besides the natural variation is defined by the ubiquity in nature and the relatively high (and thus measurable) elemental concentration in most tissues. It was finally the advent of multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) which augmented the number of applications

  9. A simple introduction to the mixed finite element method theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gatica, Gabriel N


    The main purpose of this book is to provide a simple and accessible introduction to the mixed finite element method as a fundamental tool to numerically solve a wide class of boundary value problems arising in physics and engineering sciences. The book is based on material that was taught in corresponding undergraduate and graduate courses at the Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion, Chile, during the last 7 years. As compared with several other classical books in the subject, the main features of the present one have to do, on one hand, with an attempt of presenting and explaining most of the details in the proofs and in the different applications. In particular several results and aspects of the corresponding analysis that are usually available only in papers or proceedings are included here.

  10. Applications of mass spectrometry in the trace element analysis of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, L.


    The importance of mass spectrometry for the analysis of biological material is illustrated by reviewing the different mass spectrometric methods applied and describing some typical applications published recently. Though atomic absorption spectrometry is used in the majority of analyses of biological material, most mass spectrometric methods have been used to some extent for trace element determination in biomedical research. The relative importance of the different methods is estimated by reviewing recent research papers. It is striking that especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is increasingly being applied, partly because the method can be used on-line after chromatographic separation, in speciation studies. Mass spectrometric methods prove to offer unique possibilities in stable isotope tracer studies and for this purpose also experimentally demanding methods such as thermal ionization mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry are frequently used. (orig.)

  11. Plasmonic Gold Nanorod Dispersions with Electrical and Optical Tunability (United States)

    Grabowski, Christopher; Mahoney, Clare; Park, Kyoungweon; Jawaid, Ali; White, Timothy; Vaia, Richard

    The transmissive, absorptive, electrical, and thermal properties of plasmonic gold nanorods (NRs) have led to their employment in a broad range of applications. These electro-optical properties - governed by their size, shape, and composition - are widely and precisely tunable during synthesis. Gold NRs show promise for large scale optical elements as they have been demonstrated to align faster than liquid crystal films (μs) at low fields (1 V/ μm). Successfully dispersing a high volume fraction of gold NRs requires a strategy to control particle-particle separation and thus avoid aggregation. Herein, we discuss the role of theta temperature and the ability to swell or collapse the chains of polymer-grafted gold NRs to alter the interaction potential between particles. UV-Vis spectroscopy, scattering, and electrical susceptibility characterization methods were employed to determine nanoparticle dispersion along with the degree of gold NR alignment. The development of new agile photonic materials, controllable with both light and electric fields, will help address emerging needs in laser hardening (agile filters) and variable transmission visors.

  12. Macromolecular Coating Enables Tunable Selectivity in a Porous PDMS Matrix. (United States)

    Winkeljann, Benjamin; Käsdorf, Benjamin T; Boekhoven, Job; Lieleg, Oliver


    Whether for laboratory use or clinical practice, many fields in Life Sciences require selective filtering. However, most existing filter systems lack the ability to easily tune their filtration behavior. Two key elements for efficient filtering are a high surface-to-volume ratio and the presence of suitable chemical groups which establish selectivity. In this study, an artificial PDMS-based capillary system with highly tunable selectivity properties is presented. The high surface-to-volume ratio of this filter system is generated by first embedding sugar fibers into a synthetic polymer matrix and then dissolving these fibers from the cured polymer. To functionalize this filter, the inner surface of the capillaries is coated with purified or synthetic macromolecules. Depending on the type of macromolecule used for filter functionalization, selective sieving is observed based on steric hindrance, electrostatic binding, electrostatic repulsion, or specific binding interactions. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that enzymes can be immobilized in the capillary system which allows for performing multiple cycles of enzymatic reactions with the same batch of enzymes and without the need to separate the enzymes from their reaction products. In addition to lab-scale filtration and enzyme immobilization applications demonstrated here, the functionalized porous PDMS matrix may also be used to test binding interactions between different molecules. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Application of the finite element method in the modelling of coil bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibui, M.; Zatz, I.J.; Bialek, J.M.


    Three different FEM approaches are presented and evaluated as viable interpretations of an actual coil, each limited for use within specified parameter ranges. One is based on solid elements with correctly defined properties permitting the accurate representation of the global behavior of a coil bundle. The other two are more complex and are based on the combination of various elements each accounting for a different aspect of coil behavior which are best resolved via multi-level substructuring. The choice of the best model for the job rests with the analyst who must first resolve what the goals of the analysis are and given the parameters of the problem, which models can be used. The basic idea behind these models is the application of a systematic modelling technique requiring a close correspondence between the capability of the FE themselves and the true mechanical behavior of that portion of the coil being simulated. In order to have analytical solutions for confirming the bending and torsional capabilities of these coil bundle FEM, their behavior is studied via several basic examples. Laminated beam behavior which categorizes the structural nature of many conventional coil bundles is also examined in some depth. Also discussed is a generalized computer program that was developed to accept the description of any conventional coil section and determine an effective stiffness for it to be used in FEM. The various methodologies described in this paper should be applicable to any bundled coil design. Although only conventional coils are discussed, with the proper modifications the concepts and techniques presented can be applied to other configurations as well, such as superconductors. (orig./HP)

  14. Hyperspectral REE (Rare Earth Element Mapping of Outcrops—Applications for Neodymium Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kristine Boesche


    Full Text Available In this study, an in situ application for identifying neodymium (Nd enriched surface materials that uses multitemporal hyperspectral images is presented (HySpex sensor. Because of the narrow shape and shallow absorption depth of the neodymium absorption feature, a method was developed for enhancing and extracting the necessary information for neodymium from image spectra, even under illumination conditions that are not optimal. For this purpose, the two following approaches were developed: (1 reducing noise and analyzing changing illumination conditions by averaging multitemporal image scenes and (2 enhancing the depth of the desired absorption band by deconvolving every image spectrum with a Gaussian curve while the rest of the spectrum remains unchanged (Richardson-Lucy deconvolution. To evaluate these findings, nine field samples from the Fen complex in Norway were analyzed using handheld X-ray fluorescence devices and by conducting detailed laboratory-based geochemical rare earth element determinations. The result is a qualitative outcrop map that highlights zones that are enriched in neodymium. To reduce the influences of non-optimal illumination, particularly at the studied site, a minimum of seven single acquisitions is required. Sharpening the neodymium absorption band allows for robust mapping, even at the outer zones of enrichment. From the geochemical investigations, we found that iron oxides decrease the applicability of the method. However, iron-related absorption bands can be used as secondary indicators for sulfidic ore zones that are mainly enriched with rare earth elements. In summary, we found that hyperspectral spectroscopy is a noninvasive, fast and cost-saving method for determining neodymium at outcrop surfaces.

  15. Tunable features of magnetoelectric transformers. (United States)

    Dong, Shuxiang; Zhai, Junyi; Priya, Shashank; Li, Jie-Fang; Viehland, Dwight


    We have found that magnetostrictive FeBSiC alloy ribbons laminated with piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) fiber can act as a tunable transformer when driven under resonant conditions. These composites were also found to exhibit the strongest resonant magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of 750 V/cm-Oe. The tunable features were achieved by applying small dc magnetic biases of -5 transformer features can be attributed to large changes in the piezomagnetic coefficient and permeability of the magnetostrictive phase under H(dc).

  16. Applicability analysis of hexahedral hollow profiles as component elements of supporting systems for gondola cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fomin


    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is presentation of features and results of the conducted works on determination of introduction expedience of hexahedral hollow profiles as the component elements of the modern supporting systems of railway freight gondola cars. Methodology. During the research an introduction methodology of different types of profiles as alternative to the existent supporting elements of the body module for freight car was used. This methodology had been developed by the author before. It is oriented to the reduction in material consumption and providing of strength requirements and operating reliability of the car design under study. The developed methodology includes the procedures of admissible values calculation of the resistance moments of the section of the hexahedral hollow profile, which is being introduced. It also includes the determination of optimum (i.e. characterized by the minimum material consumption when meeting the durability requirements values of height and minimum thickness of profile in the conditions of construction limitations. At the same time the admissible resistance moments are calculated as such, which are equal to the value of existent implementation of supporting element or as such that are determined taking into account the surplus design reserve. The first direction is applied in this work. Findings. As a result of the conducted research the introduction expedience of hexahedral hollow profiles as vertical rods of the lateral and latitude belts of the walls of the butt-end freight gondola cars is grounded and the optimum parameters of such replacements are determined. Originality. The problem of the use expedience of hexahedral hollow profiles as the supporting elements of the freight gondola cars bodies was first considered in the article. To solve this problem the mathematical models describing the dependence of basic strength and mass indexes of the proper profiles on varying the geometrical

  17. Tunable Q-Factor RF Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, Mario D. [Fermilab; Yonehara, Katsuya [Fermilab; Moretti, Alfred [Fermilab; Kazakevitch, Gregory [Fermilab


    Intense neutrino beam is a unique probe for researching beyond the standard model. Fermilab is the main institution to produce the most powerful and widespectrum neutrino beam. From that respective, a radiation robust beam diagnostic system is a critical element in order to maintain the quality of the neutrino beam. Within this context, a novel radiation-resistive beam profile monitor based on a gasfilled RF cavity is proposed. The goal of this measurement is to study a tunable Qfactor RF cavity to determine the accuracy of the RF signal as a function of the quality factor. Specifically, measurement error of the Q-factor in the RF calibration is investigated. Then, the RF system will be improved to minimize signal error.

  18. A Signal Based Triangular Structuring Element for Mathematical Morphological Analysis and Its Application in Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowen Chen


    Full Text Available Mathematical morphology (MM is an efficient nonlinear signal processing tool. It can be adopted to extract fault information from bearing signal according to a structuring element (SE. Since the bearing signal features differ for every unique cause of failure, the SEs should be well tailored to extract the fault feature from a particular signal. In the following, a signal based triangular SE according to the statistics of the magnitude of a vibration signal is proposed, together with associated methodology, which processes the bearing signal by MM analysis based on proposed SE to get the morphology spectrum of a signal. A correlation analysis on morphology spectrum is then employed to obtain the final classification of bearing faults. The classification performance of the proposed method is evaluated by a set of bearing vibration signals with inner race, ball, and outer race faults, respectively. Results show that all faults can be detected clearly and correctly. Compared with a commonly used flat SE, the correlation analysis on morphology spectrum with proposed SE gives better performance at fault diagnosis of bearing, especially the identification of the location of outer race fault and the level of fault severity.

  19. Stochastic collocation-based finite element of structural nonlinear dynamics with application in composite structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepahvand K.


    Full Text Available Stochastic analysis of structures having nonlinearity by means of sampling methods leads to expensive cost in term of computational time. In contrast, non-sampling methods based on the spectral representation of uncertainty are very efficient with comparable accurate results. In this pa- per, the application of spectral methods to nonlinear dynamics of structures with random parameters is investigated. The impact of the parameter randomness on structural responses has been consid- ered. To this end, uncertain parameters and the structure responses are represented using the gPC expansions with unknown deterministic coefficients and random orthogonal polynomial basis. The deterministic finite element model of the structure is used as black-box and it is executed on a set of random collocation points. As the sample structure responses are estimated, a nonlinear optimization process is employed to calculate the unknown coefficients. The method has this main advantage that can be used for complicated nonlinear structural dynamic problems for which the deterministic FEM model has been already developed. Furthermore, it is very time efficient in comparison with sampling methods, as MC simulations. The application of the method is applied to the nonlinear transient analysis of composite beam structures including uncertain quadratic random damping. The results show that the proposed method can capture the large range of uncertainty in input parameters as well as in structural dynamic responses while it is too time-efficient.

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Interfacial Debonding in Copper/Diamond Composites for Thermal Management Applications. (United States)

    Zain-Ul-Abdein, Muhammad; Ijaz, Hassan; Saleem, Waqas; Raza, Kabeer; Mahfouz, Abdullah Salmeen Bin; Mabrouki, Tarek


    Copper/diamond (Cu/D) composites are famous in thermal management applications for their high thermal conductivity values. They, however, offer some interface related problems like high thermal boundary resistance and excessive debonding. This paper investigates interfacial debonding in Cu/D composites subjected to steady-state and transient thermal cyclic loading. A micro-scale finite element (FE) model was developed from a SEM image of the Cu/20 vol % D composite sample. Several test cases were assumed with respect to the direction of heat flow and the boundary interactions between Cu/uncoated diamonds and Cu/Cr-coated diamonds. It was observed that the debonding behavior varied as a result of the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansions (CTEs) among Cu, diamond, and Cr. Moreover, the separation of interfaces had a direct influence upon the equivalent stress state of the Cu-matrix, since diamond particles only deformed elastically. It was revealed through a fully coupled thermo-mechanical FE analysis that repeated heating and cooling cycles resulted in an extremely high stress state within the Cu-matrix along the diamond interface. Since these stresses lead to interfacial debonding, their computation through numerical means may help in determining the service life of heat sinks for a given application beforehand.

  1. The fast multipole boundary element methods (FMBEM) and its applications in rolling engineering analysis (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Xiao, Hong


    Fast multipole boundary element methods (FMBEMs) are developed based on the couple of fast multipole algorithm and generalized minimal residual algorithm. The FMBEMs improve the efficiency of conventional BEMs, accelerate the computing, enlarge the solving scale, and it is applied in various engineering fields. The paper tried to do a brief review for the FMBEMs, and focus on the description of basic principles and applications in rolling engineering. The basic principles and main frameworks of two typical methods of FMBEMs (sphere harmonic function multipole BEM and Taylor series multipole BEM) are briefly described, and then the key numerical iterative and preconditioning techniques suitable for the FMBEMs are introduced. The typical numerical examples are presented, including the elasticity problems, the elastic contact problems and the elastoplasticity problems, etc. The validity and effectiveness of FMBEMs are effectively illustrated by engineering analysis examples. The numerical results suggest that the FMBEMs are suitable for the analysis and solution of large scale rolling engineering problems. The implementation process of numerical analysis can provide useful reference for the applications in other engineering fields.

  2. A tunable electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (United States)

    Liu, Fei

    Acoustic liners are used in turbofan engine nacelles for the suppression of engine noise. For a given engine, there are different optimum impedance distributions associated with take-off, cut-back, and approach flight conditions. The impedance of conventional acoustic liners is fixed for a given geometry, and conventional active liner approaches are impractical. This project addresses the need for a tunable impedance through the development of an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR). The device consists of a Helmholtz resonator with the standard rigid backplate replaced by a compliant piezoelectric composite. Analytical models (i.e., a lumped element model (LEM) and a transfer matrix (TM) representation of the EMHR) are developed to predict the acoustic behavior of the EMHR. The EMHR is experimentally investigated using the standard two-microphone method (TMM). The measurement results validate both the LEM and the TM of the EMHR. Good agreement between predicted and measured impedance is obtained. Short- and open-circuit loads define the limits of the tuning range using resistive and capacitive loads. There is approximately a 9% tuning limit under these conditions for the non-optimized resonator configuration studied. Inductive shunt loads result in a 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF) system and an enhanced tuning range of over 47% that is not restricted by the short- and open-circuit limits. Damping coefficient measurements for a piezoelectric backplate in a vacuum chamber are performed and indicate that the damping is dominated by structural damping losses. A Pareto optimization design based on models of the EMHR is performed with non-inductive loads. The EMHR with non-inductive loads has 2DOF and two resonant frequencies. The tuning ranges of the two resonant frequencies of the EMHR with non-inductive loads cannot be optimized simultaneously, so a trade-off (Pareto solution) must be reached. The Pareto solution shows how design trade-offs can be used to satisfy

  3. Widely Tunable Terahertz Phase Modulation with Gate-Controlled Graphene Metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqi Miao


    Full Text Available As the basis of a diverse set of photonic applications, such as hologram imaging, polarization, and wave front manipulation, the local phase control of electromagnetic waves is fundamental in photonic research. However, currently available bulky, passive, range-limited phase modulators pose an obstacle in photonic applications. Here, we propose a new mechanism to achieve a wide phase modulation range, with graphene used as a tunable loss to drive an underdamped to overdamped resonator transition. Based on this mechanism, we present widely tunable phase modulation in the terahertz regime, realized in gate-tuned ultrathin reflective graphene metasurfaces. A one-port resonator model, supported by full-wave simulations, explains the underlying physics of the discovered extreme phase modulation and indicates general strategies for designing tunable photonic devices. As an example, we demonstrate a gate-tunable terahertz (THz polarization modulator with a graphene metasurface. Our findings establish the possibility for photonic applications based on active phase manipulation.

  4. Determination a static limiting load curves for slewing bearing with application of the finite element methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke


    Full Text Available In slewing bearings, a great number of contact pairs are present on the contact surfaces between the rolling elements and raceways of the bearing. Computations to determine the load of the individual rolling elements, taking into account the flexibility of the bearing ring, are most often carried out using the finite element method. Construction of a FEM full model of the bearing, taking into account the shape of the rolling elements and the determination of the contact problem for every rolling element, leads to a singularity of stiffness matrix, which in turn makes the problem impossible to solve. In FEM models the rolling elements are replaced by one-dimensional finite elements (linear elements to simplify the computation procedure and to obtain an optimal time for computations. replaced by truss elements with a material non-linear characteristic located between the raceway centres of the curvatures in their axial section, are presented in the paper

  5. Tunable modulation of refracted lamb wave front facilitated by adaptive elastic metasurfaces (United States)

    Li, Shilong; Xu, Jiawen; Tang, J.


    This letter reports designs of adaptive metasurfaces capable of modulating incoming wave fronts of elastic waves through electromechanical-tuning of their cells. The proposed elastic metasurfaces are composed of arrayed piezoelectric units with individually connected negative capacitance elements that are online tunable. By adjusting the negative capacitances properly, accurately formed, discontinuous phase profiles along the elastic metasurfaces can be achieved. Subsequently, anomalous refraction with various angles can be realized on the transmitted lowest asymmetric mode Lamb wave. Moreover, designs to facilitate planar focal lenses and source illusion devices can also be accomplished. The proposed flexible and versatile strategy to manipulate elastic waves has potential applications ranging from structural fault detection to vibration/noise control.

  6. Tunable and angle-insensitive plasmon resonances in graphene ribbon arrays with multispectral diffraction response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kangwen; Ma, Xunpeng; Zhang, Zuyin; Xu, Yun, E-mail:; Song, Guofeng [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)


    Plasmon resonances in graphene ribbon arrays are investigated numerically by means of the Finite Element Method. Numerical analysis shows that a series of multipolar resonances take place when graphene ribbon arrays are illuminated by a TM polarized electromagnetic wave. Moreover, these resonances are angle-independent, and can be tuned greatly by the width and the doping level of the graphene ribbons. Specifically, we demonstrate that for graphene arrays with several sets of graphene ribbons, which have different widths or doping levels, each of these multipolar resonances will be split into several ones. In addition, as plasmon resonances can confine electromagnetic field at the ribbon edges, graphene ribbons with different widths or doping levels offer intriguing application for electrically tunable spectral imaging.

  7. Amplitude modulation in infrared metamaterial absorbers based on electro-optically tunable conducting oxides (United States)

    Zografopoulos, D. C.; Sinatkas, G.; Lotfi, E.; Shahada, L. A.; Swillam, M. A.; Kriezis, E. E.; Beccherelli, R.


    A class of electro-optically tunable metamaterial absorbers is designed and theoretically investigated in the infrared regime towards realizing free-space amplitude modulators. The spacer between a subwavelength metallic stripe grating and a back metal reflector is occupied by a bilayer of indium tin oxide (ITO) and hafnium oxide (HfO_2). The application of a bias voltage across the bilayer induces free-carrier accumulation at the HfO_2/ITO interface that locally modulates the ITO permittivity and drastically modifies the optical response of the absorber owing to the induced epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) effect. The carrier distribution and dynamics are solved via the drift-diffusion model, which is coupled with optical wave propagation studies in a common finite-element method platform. Optimized structures are derived that enable the amplitude modulation of the reflected wave with moderate insertion losses, theoretically infinite extinction ratio, sub-picosecond switching times and low operating voltages.

  8. Computational issues and applications of line-elements to model subsurface flow governed by the modified Helmholtz equation (United States)

    Bakker, Mark; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.


    Two new approaches are presented for the accurate computation of the potential due to line elements that satisfy the modified Helmholtz equation with complex parameters. The first approach is based on fundamental solutions in elliptical coordinates and results in products of Mathieu functions. The second approach is based on the integration of modified Bessel functions. Both approaches allow evaluation of the potential at any distance from the element. The computational approaches are applied to model transient flow with the Laplace transform analytic element method. The Laplace domain solution is computed using a combination of point elements and the presented line elements. The time domain solution is obtained through a numerical inversion. Two applications are presented to transient flow fields, which could not be modeled with the Laplace transform analytic element method prior to this work. The first application concerns transient single-aquifer flow to wells near impermeable walls modeled with line-doublets. The second application concerns transient two-aquifer flow to a well near a stream modeled with line-sinks.

  9. Tunable on chip optofluidic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakal, Avraham; Vannahme, Christoph; Kristensen, Anders


    A chip scale tunable laser in the visible spectral band is realized by generating a periodic droplet array inside a microfluidic channel. Combined with a gain medium within the droplets, the periodic structure provides the optical feedback of the laser. By controlling the pressure applied to two...

  10. Analysis of a non-standard mixed finite element method with applications to superconvergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.H.


    We show that a non-standard mixed finite element method proposed by Barrios and Gatica in 2007, is a higher order perturbation of the least-squares mixed finite element method. Therefore, it is also superconvergent whenever the least-squares mixed finite element method is superconvergent.

  11. Transposable genetic elements in Spirulina and potential applications for genetic engineering (United States)

    Hiroyuki, Kojima; Qin, Song; Thankappan, Ajith Kumar; Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano


    Transposable elements in cyanobacteria are briefly reviewed. Evidence is presented to show that transposable elements in Spirulina platensis is actually reflected on the phenotype change, i e., helical to straight filaments. Transposition intermediates of DNA were isolated from the extrachromosome and the transposition was related to helical variations in Spirulina. Uses of transposable elements for microalgal recombination are discussed based on the transposition mechanism.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Akimov


    Full Text Available As is well known, the formulation of a multipoint boundary problem involves three main components: a description of the domain occupied by the structure and the corresponding subdomains; description of the conditions inside the domain and inside the corresponding subdomains, the description of the conditions on the boundary of the domain, conditions on the boundaries between subdomains. This paper is a continuation of another work published earlier, in which the formulation and general principles of the approximation of the multipoint boundary problem of a static analysis of deep beam on the basis of the joint application of the finite element method and the discrete-continual finite element method were considered. It should be noted that the approximation within the fragments of a domain that have regular physical-geometric parameters along one of the directions is expedient to be carried out on the basis of the discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM, and for the approximation of all other fragments it is necessary to use the standard finite element method (FEM. In the present publication, the formulas for the computing of displacements partial derivatives of displacements, strains and stresses within the finite element model (both within the finite element and the corresponding nodal values (with the use of averaging are presented. Boundary conditions between subdomains (respectively, discrete models and discrete-continual models and typical conditions such as “hinged support”, “free edge”, “perfect contact” (twelve basic (basic variants are available are under consideration as well. Governing formulas for computing of elements of the corresponding matrices of coefficients and vectors of the right-hand sides are given for each variant. All formulas are fully adapted for algorithmic implementation.

  13. Topology Optimization using the Level Set and eXtended Finite Element Methods: Theory and Applications (United States)

    Villanueva Perez, Carlos Hernan

    Computational design optimization provides designers with automated techniques to develop novel and non-intuitive optimal designs. Topology optimization is a design optimization technique that allows for the evolution of a broad variety of geometries in the optimization process. Traditional density-based topology optimization methods often lack a sufficient resolution of the geometry and physical response, which prevents direct use of the optimized design in manufacturing and the accurate modeling of the physical response of boundary conditions. The goal of this thesis is to introduce a unified topology optimization framework that uses the Level Set Method (LSM) to describe the design geometry and the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) to solve the governing equations and measure the performance of the design. The methodology is presented as an alternative to density-based optimization approaches, and is able to accommodate a broad range of engineering design problems. The framework presents state-of-the-art methods for immersed boundary techniques to stabilize the systems of equations and enforce the boundary conditions, and is studied with applications in 2D and 3D linear elastic structures, incompressible flow, and energy and species transport problems to test the robustness and the characteristics of the method. A comparison of the framework against density-based topology optimization approaches is studied with regards to convergence, performance, and the capability to manufacture the designs. Furthermore, the ability to control the shape of the design to operate within manufacturing constraints is developed and studied. The analysis capability of the framework is validated quantitatively through comparison against previous benchmark studies, and qualitatively through its application to topology optimization problems. The design optimization problems converge to intuitive designs and resembled well the results from previous 2D or density-based studies.

  14. Application of elemental bioimaging using laser ablation ICP-MS in forest pathology: distribution of elements in the bark of Picea sitchensis following wounding. (United States)

    Siebold, Magdalena; Leidich, Patrick; Bertini, Martina; Deflorio, Giuliana; Feldmann, Jörg; Krupp, Eva M; Halmschlager, Erhard; Woodward, Steve


    Element distribution in the bark of two 20-year-old clones of Picea sitchensis following wounding was studied using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Bark was sampled at 0, 3, and 43 days after wounding and analysed using a focused Nd:YAG laser (266 nm). Intensities of (13)C, (25)Mg, (27)Al, (31)P, (32)S, (39)K, (48)Ca, (55)Mn, (57)Fe, (63)Cu and (64)Zn were measured by ICP-MS to study elemental distribution across the bark samples during the wound repair process. A clear accumulation of Mg, P and K at the boundary zone between the lesion and healthy tissue was detected in the wounded samples and was more distinctive at 43 than at 3 days after treatment. This zone of accumulation mapped onto the position of formation of the ligno-suberised boundary zone and differentiation of the wound periderm. These accumulations suggest major roles for Mg, P and K in the non-specific response of Sitka spruce both to wounding, possibly as co-factors to enzymes and energy utilisation. The LA-ICP-MS method developed in this work proved useful to study spatial element distribution across bark samples and has great potential for applications in other areas of plant pathology research.

  15. Application of elemental bioimaging using laser ablation ICP-MS in forest pathology: distribution of elements in the bark of Picea sitchensis following wounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebold, Magdalena [University of Aberdeen, Department of Plant and Soil Science, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology and Forest Protection, Vienna (Austria); Georg-August University Goettingen, Division of Plant Pathology and Crop Protection, Department of Crop Sciences, Goettingen (Germany); Leidich, Patrick; Bertini, Martina; Feldmann, Joerg [University of Aberdeen, TESLA, Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Deflorio, Giuliana; Woodward, Steve [University of Aberdeen, Department of Plant and Soil Science, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Krupp, Eva M. [University of Aberdeen, TESLA, Trace Element Speciation Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); University of Aberdeen, ACES, Aberdeen Centre of Environmental Sustainability, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Halmschlager, Erhard [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology and Forest Protection, Vienna (Austria)


    Element distribution in the bark of two 20-year-old clones of Picea sitchensis following wounding was studied using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Bark was sampled at 0, 3, and 43 days after wounding and analysed using a focused Nd:YAG laser (266 nm). Intensities of {sup 13} C, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 31}P, {sup 32}S, {sup 39}K, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 55}Mn, {sup 57}Fe, {sup 63}Cu and {sup 64}Zn were measured by ICP-MS to study elemental distribution across the bark samples during the wound repair process. A clear accumulation of Mg, P and K at the boundary zone between the lesion and healthy tissue was detected in the wounded samples and was more distinctive at 43 than at 3 days after treatment. This zone of accumulation mapped onto the position of formation of the ligno-suberised boundary zone and differentiation of the wound periderm. These accumulations suggest major roles for Mg, P and K in the non-specific response of Sitka spruce both to wounding, possibly as co-factors to enzymes and energy utilisation. The LA-ICP-MS method developed in this work proved useful to study spatial element distribution across bark samples and has great potential for applications in other areas of plant pathology research. (orig.)

  16. Application of elemental bioimaging using laser ablation ICP-MS in forest pathology: distribution of elements in the bark of Picea sitchensis following wounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebold, Magdalena; Leidich, Patrick; Bertini, Martina; Feldmann, Joerg; Deflorio, Giuliana; Woodward, Steve; Krupp, Eva M.; Halmschlager, Erhard


    Element distribution in the bark of two 20-year-old clones of Picea sitchensis following wounding was studied using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Bark was sampled at 0, 3, and 43 days after wounding and analysed using a focused Nd:YAG laser (266 nm). Intensities of 13 C, 25 Mg, 27 Al, 31 P, 32 S, 39 K, 48 Ca, 55 Mn, 57 Fe, 63 Cu and 64 Zn were measured by ICP-MS to study elemental distribution across the bark samples during the wound repair process. A clear accumulation of Mg, P and K at the boundary zone between the lesion and healthy tissue was detected in the wounded samples and was more distinctive at 43 than at 3 days after treatment. This zone of accumulation mapped onto the position of formation of the ligno-suberised boundary zone and differentiation of the wound periderm. These accumulations suggest major roles for Mg, P and K in the non-specific response of Sitka spruce both to wounding, possibly as co-factors to enzymes and energy utilisation. The LA-ICP-MS method developed in this work proved useful to study spatial element distribution across bark samples and has great potential for applications in other areas of plant pathology research. (orig.)

  17. Application of the finite element groundwater model FEWA to three regional aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.F.V.; Yeh, G.T.


    This report documents the calibration with field data and predictive application of a finite element model of water through aquifers (FEWA). FEWA was described in a report written by G.T. Yeh and D.D. Huff in 1983. The model was first compared with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) two-dimensional model and found superior in treating anisotropic media when the coordinates cannot be made to coincide with the principal directions of hydraulic conductivities. In addition, there was no necessity to define nodal points outside the region, as required by the USGS model. FEWA was next calibrated with measured potentiometric surfaces from the Love Canal area in New York and the Conesville area in Ohio. There were satisfactory matches between computed results and available field data. The calibration and predictive runs of FEWA were then accomplished with the Hialeah-Preston well field data over the Biscayne aquifer in south Florida. The calibration run yielded two values of hydraulic conductivity in the area, and the predictive run gave results that matched well with available data. 18 refs., 28 figs.

  18. [The finite element modeling of human pelvis and its application in medicolegal expertise]. (United States)

    Li, Zheng-dong; Zou, Dong-hua; Liu, Ning-guo; Huang, Ping; Chen, Yi-jiu


    To develop a novel three dimensional finite element(FE) model of the human pelvis and investigate the biomechanics of the pelvic injury and explore the applications of FE approach in forensic medicine. The FE model of pelvis including bilateral iliac bones, sacrum, bilateral femurs, joint cartilages and ligaments was developed with Mimics 13.1 based on the CT images. The CT value of material properties were assigned. A static pressure of 600 N was applied at the upper surface of the sacrum endplate downwards along the vertical axis of sacral bone to validate the model. To simulate the side impacts, the lateral forces of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kN were applied to the trochanter surface of right femur, respectively. The von Mises stress contours, displacement contours and stress distribution curves were subsequently calculated. An integrated FE model of pelvis including the joint cartilages and ligaments was successfully established. The model geometry coincided well with the CT images. The stress distributions of pelvis in erect position mainly located near the sacroiliac joints and the greater sciatic notches. Stress concentration was found on the superior and inferior pubis ramus, hip and sacroiliac joints on both sides under side impacts. The established FE model has accurate and reliable biomechanical features. The FE model can be used to simulate injury and provide intuitive and accurate evidence for medicolegal expertise.

  19. Tunable excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, R.C.


    The wide bandwidth nature of the rare-gas halide excimer transitions allow reasonable tuning of the laser oscillation wavelength that makes it useful for a number of applications. At the same time this wide bandwidth makes narrow band operation difficult and special techniques are needed to insure narrow frequency lasing as well as absolute frequency resettability. The author discusses briefly some of the classical frequency narrowing techniques and then goes on to some recent work that require lasers of special frequency characteristics for special applications including KrF laser fusion

  20. Application of a diffractive element-based sensor for detection of latent fingerprints from a curved smooth surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuivalainen, Kalle; Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Myller, Kari


    An optical measurement device, which is a diffractive element-based sensor, is presented for the detection of latent fingerprints on curved objects such as a ballpoint pen. The device provides image and gloss information on the ridges of a fingerprint. The device is expected to have applications in forensic studies. (technical design note)

  1. Band structures tunability of bulk 2D phononic crystals made of magneto-elastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Vasseur


    Full Text Available The feasibility of contactless tunability of the band structure of two-dimensional phononic crystals is demonstrated by employing magnetostrictive materials and applying an external magnetic field. The influence of the amplitude and of the orientation with respect to the inclusion axis of the applied magnetic field are studied in details. Applications to tunable selective frequency filters with switching functionnality and to reconfigurable wave-guides and demultiplexing devices are then discussed.

  2. Development of tunable high pressure CO2 laser for lidar measurements of pollutants and wind velocities (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Guerra, M.; Javan, A.


    The problem of laser energy extraction at a tunable monochromatic frequency from an energetic high pressure CO2 pulsed laser plasma, for application to remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants by Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and of wind velocities by Doppler Lidar, was investigated. The energy extraction principle analyzed is based on transient injection locking (TIL) at a tunable frequency. Several critical experiments for high gain power amplification by TIL are presented.

  3. Application of a nonlinear spring element to analysis of circumferentially cracked pipe under dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.; Scott, P.; Wilkowski, G.M.


    As part of the US NRC's Degraded Piping Program, the concept of using a nonlinear spring element to simulate the response of cracked pipe in dynamic finite element pipe evaluations was initially proposed. The nonlinear spring element is used to represent the moment versus rotation response of the cracked pipe section. The moment-rotation relationship for the crack size and material of interest is determined from either J-estimation scheme analyses or experimental data. In this paper, a number of possible approaches for modeling the nonlinear stiffness of the cracked pipe section are introduced. One approach, modeling the cracked section moment rotation response with a series of spring-slider elements, is discussed in detail. As part of this discussion, results from a series of finite element predictions using the spring-slider nonlinear spring element are compared with the results from a series of dynamic cracked pipe system experiments from the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program

  4. Application of neutron activation analysis technique to the determination of toxic elements in Pakistani foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Mannan, A.; Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Khalid, N.


    In view of well defined physiochemical roles of essential elements and adverse effects of toxic elements, it is important to obtain fundamental data on trace element nutrition, inadequacy, imbalances and toxicity. In order to achieve these objectives, a research project was initiated in 1985 with the collaboration of the IAEA. Three representative diet samples of the inhabitants of Rawalpindi/Islamabad areas were prepared according to the family income and food habits. Twenty one elements were analysed by NAA and AAS. The dietary intake values were estimated and compared with the suggested daily requirement or tolerance limits. In general, it has been observed that the diets are an adequate source of nutrient elements. The toxic element levels are well below the tolerance limits. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  5. A finite element beam propagation method for simulation of liquid crystal devices. (United States)

    Vanbrabant, Pieter J M; Beeckman, Jeroen; Neyts, Kristiaan; James, Richard; Fernandez, F Anibal


    An efficient full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method is presented that uses higher order vector elements to calculate the wide angle propagation of an optical field through inhomogeneous, anisotropic optical materials such as liquid crystals. The full dielectric permittivity tensor is considered in solving Maxwell's equations. The wide applicability of the method is illustrated with different examples: the propagation of a laser beam in a uniaxial medium, the tunability of a directional coupler based on liquid crystals and the near-field diffraction of a plane wave in a structure containing micrometer scale variations in the transverse refractive index, similar to the pixels of a spatial light modulator.

  6. Tunable excitons in bilayer graphene (United States)

    Ju, Long; Wang, Lei; Cao, Ting; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Louie, Steven G.; Rana, Farhan; Park, Jiwoong; Hone, James; Wang, Feng; McEuen, Paul L.


    Excitons, the bound states of an electron and a hole in a solid material, play a key role in the optical properties of insulators and semiconductors. Here, we report the observation of excitons in bilayer graphene (BLG) using photocurrent spectroscopy of high-quality BLG encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride. We observed two prominent excitonic resonances with narrow line widths that are tunable from the mid-infrared to the terahertz range. These excitons obey optical selection rules distinct from those in conventional semiconductors and feature an electron pseudospin winding number of 2. An external magnetic field induces a large splitting of the valley excitons, corresponding to a g-factor of about 20. These findings open up opportunities to explore exciton physics with pseudospin texture in electrically tunable graphene systems​.

  7. Application of paper chromatography to the determination of some elements in minerals and rocks; Application de la chromatographie sur papier a la determination de certains elements dans les mineraux et les roches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrinier, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    This publication describes our work in applying paper chromatography to the fields of mineralogy and geology. We have studied the separation and determination of the following elements: Nb, Ta, Ti, Co, Cu, Mn, Sn, Ge, As, Sb, Bi, U, Th, Be, Au, Pb, Zn, V and Mo. The development of separation methods for these various elements has led us to solve many interference problems. These methods make it possible to separate and measure mineral components. They also enable us to search for trace elements in ores, rocks soils and carbonaceous materials. Finally let us point out that this technique may equally be used for analysis in very radioactive environment. (author) [French] Dans cette etude, nous etendons le champ d'application de la chromatographie sur papier aux domaines de la mineralogie et de la geologie. Nous avons etudie la separation et la determination des elements suivants: Nb, Ta, Ti, Co, Cu, Mn, Sn, Ge, As, Sb, Bi, U, Th, Be, Au, Pb, Zn, V et Mo. La mise au point des methodes de separation concernant ces differents elements nous a amenes a resoudre de nombreux problemes d'interference. Ces methodes permettent la separation et le dosage des constituants des mineraux, ainsi que la recherche d'elements en traces dans les minerais, les roches, les sols et les materiaux carbonnes. Signalons pour terminer que cette technique peut egalement trouver son utilisation dans le domaine de l'analyse en milieu tres radio-actif. (auteur)

  8. Application of Elemental Fingerprinting to Evaluate the Dynamics of Larval Exchange

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levin, Lisa


    ... of connectivity that results from larval dispersal. This study seeks to develop trace elemental fingerprinting methods to assess patterns of exchange among mytilid mussel populations in southern California...

  9. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices (United States)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yunsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.


    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  10. MEMS tunable grating micro-spectrometer (United States)

    Tormen, Maurizio; Lockhart, R.; Niedermann, P.; Overstolz, T.; Hoogerwerf, A.; Mayor, J.-M.; Pierer, J.; Bosshard, C.; Ischer, R.; Voirin, G.; Stanley, R. P.


    The interest in MEMS based Micro-Spectrometers is increasing due to their potential in terms of flexibility as well as cost, low mass, small volume and power savings. This interest, especially in the Near-Infrared and Mid- Infrared, ranges from planetary exploration missions to astronomy, e.g. the search for extra solar planets, as well as to many other terrestrial fields of application such as, industrial quality and surface control, chemical analysis of soil and water, detection of chemical pollutants, exhausted gas analysis, food quality control, process control in pharmaceuticals, to name a few. A compact MEMS-based Spectrometer for Near- Infrared and Mid-InfraRed operation have been conceived, designed and demonstrated. The design based on tunable MEMS blazed grating, developed in the past at CSEM [1], achieves state of the art results in terms of spectral resolution, operational wavelength range, light throughput, overall dimensions, and power consumption.

  11. Stakeholder acceptance analysis: Tunable hybrid plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.


    This report resents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning Tunable Hybrid Plasma (THP) derived from a three-year program of stake holder involvement. THP destroys volatile organic compounds by directing a moderate energy electron beam into a flow of air containing organic contaminants. This report is for technology developers and for those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders' perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of THP to the remediation problems the face. In addition, this report presents data requirements for the technology's field demonstration defined by stakeholders associated with the Hanford site in Washington State, as well as detailed comments on THP from stakeholders from four other sites throughout the western United States

  12. Camphor soot: a tunable light emitter (United States)

    Swapna, M. S.; Saritha Devi, H. V.; Sankararaman, S.


    The work in this paper is the first report on the green synthesis of the blue light emitter from waxy, flammable solid collected from Cinnamomum camphora by controlled combustion for photonic applications. Analysis with field emission scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope provides the morphology, whereas the thermogravimetric analysis gives the thermal stability of the soot. The optical and structural characterizations are done by recording UV-Visible, Photoluminescent, and Raman Spectrum. The CIE plot and the power spectrum of the sample show a blue emission at an excitation of 350 nm at room temperature with a quantum yield of 46.15%. The dependence of luminescent behavior on temperature and excitation wavelength reveals that the material is a tunable blue emitter. This green synthesis of the blue light emitter is highly significant, when the world is in search of a simple, phosphor-free, non-toxic, cost-effective material with good quantum efficiency.

  13. Strain-tunable quantum dot devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastelli, A.; Trotta, R.; Zallo, E.; Atkinson, P.; Magerl, E.; Ding, F.; Plumhof, J.D.; Kumar, S.; Doerr, K.; Schmidt, O.G.


    We introduce a new class of quantum dot-based devices, in which the semiconductor structures are integrated on top of piezoelectric actuators. This combination allows on one hand to study in detail the effects produced by variable strains (up to about 0.2%) on the excitonic emission of single quantum dots and on the other to manipulate their electronic- and optical properties to achieve specific requirements. In fact, by combining strain with electric fields we are able to obtain (i) independent control of emission energy and charge-state of a QD, (II) wavelength-tunable single-QD light-emitting diodes and (III) frequency-stabilized sources of single photons at predefined wavelengths. Possible future extensions and applications of this technology will be discussed.

  14. Tunable Meta-Liquid Crystals. (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Fan, Kebin; Padilla, Willie; Powell, David A; Zhang, Xin; Shadrivov, Ilya V


    Meta-liquid crystals, a novel form of tunable 3D metamaterials, are proposed and experimentally demonstrated in the terahertz frequency regime. A morphology change under a bias electric field and a strong modulation of the transmission are observed. In comparison to conventional liquid crystals, there is considerable freedom to prescribe the electromagnetic properties through the judicious design of the meta-atom geometry. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Self-similar Hierarchical Wrinkles as a Potential Multifunctional Smart Window with Simultaneously Tunable Transparency, Structural Color, and Droplet Transport. (United States)

    Lin, Gaojian; Chandrasekaran, Prashant; Lv, Cunjing; Zhang, Qiuting; Tang, Yichao; Han, Lin; Yin, Jie


    Smart window has immense potential for energy savings in architectural and vehicular applications, while most studies focus on the tunability of a single property of optical transmittance. Here we explore harnessing dynamically tunable hierarchical wrinkles for design of a potential multifunctional smart window with combined structural color and water droplet transport control. The self-similar hierarchical wrinkles with both nanoscale and microscale features are generated on a prestrained poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer through sequential strain release and multistep oxygen plasma treatment. We show that the hierarchically wrinkled elastomer displays both opaqueness and iridescent structural color. We find that restretching/releasing the elastomer leads to the reversible and repeatable switch from opaqueness to transparency, arising from the flattening of large wrinkles (micrometer scale), while a nonvanishing structural color occurs due to the nondisappearing small wrinkles (nanoscale). The unique features of combined reversible large wrinkles and irreversible small wrinkles during hierarchical wrinkling are well reproduced by corresponding finite element simulation. The criteria for generating self-similar hierarchical wrinkles is revealed through a simplified theoretical model and validated by experiments. In addition to its tunable optical property, we further show its ability in control of water droplet transport on demand through mechanical stretching and release. We find that an initially pinned water droplet on the tilted hierarchically wrinkled surface starts to slide when the surface is stretched, and becomes pinned again upon strain release. Such a process is reversible and repeatable. The hierarchically wrinkled surface could find broad potential applications not only in multifunctional smart windows with additional features of aesthetics and water collection, but in microfluidics, design of slippery surfaces, and directional water transportation.

  16. Investigation of graphene-integrated tunable metamaterials in THz regime (United States)

    Demir, S. Mahircan; Yüksek, Yahya; Sabah, Cumali


    A metallic fishnet metamaterial structure in sub-THz region is presented. The proposed structure is based on hexagonal resonators. Simulations have been performed by a 3D full-wave electromagnetic simulator and a negative refractive index has been observed at the frequency range between 0.55 and 0.70 THz with the help of the graphene layer. In order to observe the effect of the graphene layer, the metamaterial structure has been simulated and examined before and after graphene integration. Significant modification in the propagation properties has been observed after the graphene integration. Change in S-parameters with the size variation of hexagonal resonators and alteration in graphene thickness are also presented as a parametric study to show the tunability of the structure. Suitability of the metamaterial for sensor applications has been investigated. The proposed metamaterial structure is promising to be effectively used for tunability and sensor applications.

  17. Electronically Tunable Resistorless Mixed Mode Biquad Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yesil


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new realization of elec¬tronically tunable mixed mode (including transadmittance- and voltage-modes biquad filter with single input, three outputs or three inputs, single output using voltage differ-encing transconductance amplifier (VDTA, a recently introduced active element. It can simultaneously realize standard filtering signals: low-pass, band-pass and high-pass or by selecting input terminals, it can realize all five different filtering signals: low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, band-stop and all-pass. The proposed filter circuit offers the following attractive feature: no requirement of invert-ing type input signal which is require no addition circuit, critical component matching conditions are not required in the design, the circuit parameters ω0 and Q can be set orthogonally or independently through adjusting the bias currents of the VDTAs, the proposed circuit employs two active and minimum numbers of passive components. Fur-thermore, this filter was investigated from the point of view of limited frequency range, stability conditions, effects of parasitic elements and effects of non-ideal and sensitivity. Thus, taking these effects and conditions into considera¬tion, working conditions and boundaries of this filter are determined. We also performed Monte Carlo, THD and noise analyses. Simulation results are given to confirm theoretical analyses.

  18. Electromigration in molten salts and application to isotopic separation of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menes, F.


    The separation of the isotopes of the alkaline-earth elements has been studied using counter-current electromigration in molten bromides. The conditions under which the cathode operates as a bromine electrode for the highest possible currents have been examined. For the separation of calcium, it has been necessary to use a stable CaBr 2 - (CaBr 2 + KBr) 'chain'. In the case of barium and strontium, it was possible to employ the pure bromides. Enrichment factors of the order of 10 for 48 Ca and of the order of 1.5 for the rare isotopes of barium and strontium have been obtained. In the case of magnesium the method is slightly more difficult to apply because of material loss due to the relatively high vapour pressure of the salt requiring the use of electrolyte chains, MgBr 2 - CeBr 3 . A study has been made that has led to a larger-scale application of the method. These are essentially the inhibition of reversible operation of the cathode by traces of water, limiting the intensity which can be tolerated; evacuation of the heat produced by the Joule effect, in the absence of which the separation efficiency is reduced by thermal gradients; corrosion of the materials by molten salts at high temperature. Several cells capable of treating a few kilograms of substance have been put into operation; none of these has lasted long enough to produce a satisfactory enrichment. The method is thus limited actually to yields of the order of a few grams. (author) [fr

  19. Numerical investigation by finite element simulation of the bail punch test: application to tempered martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campitelli, E.; Spatig, P.; Bertsch, J.


    Full text of publication follows: Over the years, the small ball punch test technique has been used to evaluate conventional tensile properties of a variety of materials. The development and use of this type of small specimen techniques is indispensable for an efficient use of the limited irradiation volume of the future fusion material intense neutron source. Up to now, empirical correlations between features of the load-displacement curves of the ball punch test and the mechanical properties, such as the yield stress or the ultimate tensile stress, are established on materials in the unirradiated condition. These correlations are believed to be applicable to irradiated materials and they have been very often used to estimate the irradiation hardening. However, it is well known that the overall constitutive behavior of the materials is generally affected by neutron irradiation. Therefore, there is a need to quantify the effect of the constitutive behavior on the correlations. In this paper, we employ a 3D non-linear finite element model for the ball punch test to address these effects of the irradiation-induced changes on the ball punch test curve. We apply first the model on the tempered martensitic steel EUROFER97 in the unirradiated condition with variations in the post-yield behavior, either in the low strain domain ( 10%). The effects on the ball punch test load deflection curve are outlined. Second, we study the effects of the irradiation hardening on the same constitutive behaviors as those used for the unirradiated condition. We show that that the usual correlations must be considered with great care on irradiated materials since strong variation on the strain-hardening may lead to erroneous estimation of the irradiation hardening. We also propose a novel approach to calibrate the yield stress to features of the ball punch test curve that decreases the uncertainty related to the post-yield behavior and that, as a consequence, makes the technique more

  20. Results of the application of stable isotopes of light elements in geology and hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovan, Zoto


    Stable isotopes of light elements are used for studies in the fields of geology, agriculture, hydrogeology, hydrology, precipitation and geology of petroleum in our country. The results concerning application in geology and hydrology are presented. A - Determination of absolute geological age is very important for geological studies. There are several determination methods, but, for some specific analytical problems the potassium - argon method was used. The 40 K content of the monomineral geological sample is calculated from the content of K in the sample determined by the flame photometer. The 40 Ar content is determined by mass spectrometry. The results of our determination lie between 23.7 x 10 6 - 446.2 x 10 6 years and are in good correlation with the geological evaluations and in good agreement with the determinations of other laboratories. B - The stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen are used in the hydrologic studies in our country, but more interesting is the study of underground connection between Prespa and Ohrid lakes. Prespa and Ohrid lakes are in the East part of Albania at the border between Albania - Greece - Fyr. of Macedonia. The altitudes of Prespa and Ohrid lakes are 850 m and 690 m, respectively and between the lakes there are Mali I Thate and Galitcica mountains. On the side of Ohrid lake there are two big springs, Tushemishti in Albania territory and Sveti Naum in Fyr. of Macedonia territory. According to our data regarding δ 18 O and δ 2 H, an underground connection exists between Prespa lake and the big springs at the side of lake Ohrid. (author)

  1. Highly tunable electronic properties in plasma-synthesized B-doped microcrystalline-to-amorphous silicon nanostructure for solar cell applications (United States)

    Lim, J. W. M.; Ong, J. G. D.; Guo, Y.; Bazaka, K.; Levchenko, I.; Xu, S.


    Highly controllable electronic properties (carrier mobility and conductivity) were obtained in the sophisticatedly devised, structure-controlled, boron-doped microcrystalline silicon structure. Variation of plasma parameters enabled fabrication of films with the structure ranging from a highly crystalline (89.8%) to semi-amorphous (45.4%) phase. Application of the innovative process based on custom-designed, optimized, remote inductively coupled plasma implied all advantages of the plasma-driven technique and simultaneously avoided plasma-intrinsic disadvantages associated with ion bombardment and overheating. The high degree of SiH4, H2 and B2H6 precursor dissociation ensured very high boron incorporation into the structure, thus causing intense carrier scattering. Moreover, the microcrystalline-to-amorphous phase transition triggered by the heavy incorporation of the boron dopant with increasing B2H6 flow was revealed, thus demonstrating a very high level of the structural control intrinsic to the process. Control over the electronic properties through variation of impurity incorporation enabled tailoring the carrier concentrations over two orders of magnitude (1018-1020 cm-3). These results could contribute to boosting the properties of solar cells by paving the way to a cheap and efficient industry-oriented technique, guaranteeing a new application niche for this new generation of nanomaterials.

  2. Useful parasites: the evolutionary biology and biotechnology applications of transposable elements. (United States)

    Bonchev, Georgi N


    Transposable elements usually comprise the most abundant nongenic fraction of eukaryotic genomes. Because of their capacity to selfreplicate and to induce a wide range of mutations, transposable elements have long been considered as 'parasitic' or 'selfish'. Today, we recognize that the findings about genomic changes affected by transposable elements have considerably altered our view of the ways in which genomes evolve and work. Numerous studies have provided evidences that mobile elements have the potential to act as agents of evolution by increasing, rearranging and diversifying the genetic repertoire of their hosts. With large-scale sequencing becoming increasingly available, more and more scientists come across transposable element sequences in their data. I will provide examples that transposable elements, although having signatures of 'selfish' DNA, play a significant biological role in the maintainance of genome integrity and providing novel regulatoty networks. These features, along with the transpositional and mutagenic capacity to produce a raw genetic diversity, make the genome mobile fraction, a key player in species adaptation and microevolution. The last but not least, transposable elements stand as informative DNA markers that may complement other conventional DNA markers. Altogether, transposable elements represent a promising, but still largely unexplored research niche and deserve to be included into the agenda of molecular ecologists, evolutionary geneticists, conservation biologists and plant breeders.

  3. Application of the Tangent-Stiffness Method in the Finite Element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To simulate the behaviour of an interface formed between two contacting bodies using the finite element method, a review of previous approaches employed by other authors who worked with the same finite element method is carried out; their models and experimental data evaluated. A third-degree polynomial ...

  4. The Practical Application of Minor Element Control in Small Scale Melts (United States)

    Jablonski, P. D.; Hawk, J. A.

    Many times small scale melts are made for the purposes of alloy development, component evaluation, or simply economic concerns when "commercial" alloys are unavailable in small quantities. Not only is it critical that the major alloy elements meet the desired levels, but "tramp" elements or trace element additions must also be controlled. Control of tramp and trace elements on the small scale is often done differently simply due to the scale of the melt or the equipment available. In this paper several approaches will be presented that have been used at NETL in manufacturing alloys for in-house research, including, for example, vacuum refining. Also, the relative effectiveness of various gettering elements will be explored. The successes achieved as well as the failures of the various approaches will be discussed in terms of thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. The presentation will conclude with practical alloy examples.

  5. Application of symbolic manipulation for solving partial differential equation with finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Goung Jin; Chang, Soon Heung


    In solving partial differential equations using finite element method, the great parts of the computing time is taken to calculate the local element matrices. Also the much programming efforts are taken for the local element matrices calculations. To reduce the computing time and the efforts of programming, local elements matrices are calculated by symbolic manipulation method. In this study, symbolic manipulation code REDUCE 3.2 is used. As a results, Fortran subroutine form of local element matrices package is obtained. Using this package, programming efforts would be much reduced. Also the computing time is greatly reduced using the developed package. As a conclusion, it can be said that the developed method can be used to solve the partial differential equation with the less computing times and the less programming efforts than the conventional method

  6. Bejing synchrotron radiation TXRF facility and its applications on trace element study of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuying, H.; Yingrong, W.; Limin, Z.; Guangcheng, L.; Wie, H.


    In this paper, Beijing synchrotron radiation TXRF facility and experimental method were described. The minimum detection limits of some elements were tested by using several kinds of standard reference materials. The feasibility of using TXRF in biomedical field is discussed. With this technique small intestine cells of both normal and radiated white mice were analyzed, and the elemental average contents of each single cell are also given. The results indicated that the contents of some trace elements for normal and radiated white mice are greatly different, which may be used to provide valuable reference for clinic medicine. On the other hand, the trace elements of cells of lung and cervix cancer before and after apoptosis were determined by SRTXRF and the changes of trace elements in these cells were discussed. (author)

  7. Application of the control volume mixed finite element method to a triangular discretization (United States)

    Naff, R.L.


    A two-dimensional control volume mixed finite element method is applied to the elliptic equation. Discretization of the computational domain is based in triangular elements. Shape functions and test functions are formulated on the basis of an equilateral reference triangle with unit edges. A pressure support based on the linear interpolation of elemental edge pressures is used in this formulation. Comparisons are made between results from the standard mixed finite element method and this control volume mixed finite element method. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. ?? 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Asymmetric tunable tunneling magnetoresistance in single-electron transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Pirmann, M; Schön, G


    We show that the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of a ferromagnetic single-electron transistor in the sequential tunneling regime shows asymmetric Coulomb blockade oscillations as a function of gate voltage if the individual junction-TMRs differ. The relative amplitude of these oscillations grows significantly if the bias voltage is increased, becoming as large as 30% when the bias voltage is comparable to the charging energy of the single-electron transistor. This might be useful for potential applications requiring a tunable TMR.

  9. Comparison of the thermodynamic databases for radioactive elements in application to the calculation of the solubilities in the porewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Reisuke; Shibata, Masahiro


    To calculate the solubility of radioactive elements which is the important parameter for performance assessment of geological disposal system, the thermodynamic database must be reliable and based on the latest information. In this research, it has been compared in the calculation of the solubilities of the representative radioactive elements in the porewater compositions of the compacted bentonite which were set up in the second progress report (H12) that the thermodynamic database of JNC, OECD/NEA, Nagra/PSI. And the causes of the differences among the results from application of different databases were investigated and discussed. (author)

  10. Major and trace elements regulation in natural granitic waters: Application to deep radioactive waste disposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michard, G.; Negrel, G.; Toulhoat, P.; Beaucaire, C.; Ouzounian, G.


    In order to forecast the evolution of deep groundwaters in the environment of a radioactive waste disposal, one must be able to understand the behaviour of major and trace elements in natural systems. From granitic geothermal and groundwater systems the authors establish that major elements are controlled by mineral precipitation. Regulation levels depend both on equilibration temperature and mobile anion concentration (mainly C1). From empirical laws, the regulation levels with temperature of some trace elements (alkaline and most divalent) elements can be estimated, although a precise explanation for the regulation mechanism is not yet available. They demonstrate that some transition metals are controlled by sulphide precipitation; that uranium is controlled by uraninite solubility; that trivalent and tetravalent metals are present in association with colloidal particles. Maximum regulation levels can be estimated. Such studies can also be useful to forecast the concentration levels of many elements related to nuclear wastes, mainly fission products, uranium, thorium and by analogy artificial actinide elements, as the behaviour of corresponding natural elements can be evaluated

  11. [The expert consensus on clinical application of multi-trace elements]. (United States)


    Trace elements are dietary elements which are needed in very minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism, which play a crucial part in energy metabolism and material transformation. It's generally agreed that trace elements are essential components of parenteral nutrition. These societies for parenteral and enteral nutrition in Europe, the United States and Australia proposed that various trace elements should be provided daily from commencement for all patients receiving parenteral nutrition and published some guidelines on adult trace elements recommendations for parenteral nutrition. This consensus is commissioned by the Chinese Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, based on the principles of evidence-based medicine. This consensus summarizes the latest available evidence and refers to some recommendations in guidelines both at home and abroad. The detailed evidence-based recommendations include the recommended dose for trace elements supplement of parenteral nutrition by international societies, severe traumatic and perioperative patients, critically ill patients and major burns, cancer patients, liver disease patients, pediatric patients and other parts. The goal is to provide guidance and advice about the supplement of trace elements for patients receiving parenteral nutrition.

  12. Application of activation analysis for determination of some elements in cassiterite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre


    This work consists in the development of an analytical method using activation by thermal neutrons for the determination of some minor elements and traces present in cassiterite (tin ore). This method was then applied to determine these elements in samples of cassiterite from different regions of Brazil. An analysis was made of the mineralogy characteristic of cassiterite as well as of the minerals most commonly associated with it. Four main types of interference were found to occur in the analysis by activation of trace elements in samples of cassiterite. The method involves the analysis without chemical separation for the determination of some elements and the analysis with chemical separation for the determination of other elements. The steps involved in both types of analysis are described. In the analysis with chemical separation the matrix element (tin) is separated by distillation in an H 2 SO 4 -HBr medium, after fusion of the ore with Na 2 O 2 . Arsine and antimony are determined in the distilled, whereas some lanthanide elements and uranium are determined in the distillation residue by separating them as a group by precipitation with lanthanum fluoride. A discussion on the precision, accuracy and sensibility of the method is also included. (author)

  13. Application of micro-PIXE analysis to investigate trace elements in deciduous teeth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igari, K.; Takahashi, A.; Ando, H.


    The early life environment has widespread consequences for later health and disease. To prevent the disease in later life, the assessment of fetal environment is very important. In Japan, birthweight has fallen rapidly during recent two decades. The reduction of birthweight represents reduced fetal nutrition. Deciduous tooth enamel contains pre- and postnatal enamel and its chemical composition reflects the status of metabolism of trace elements during formation period. Deciduous tooth enamel is considered to be a suitable indicator of trace elements exposure in utero. We applied micro-PIXE analysis to investigate the trace elemental content in deciduous tooth enamel. Two deciduous canines from one healthy Japanese boy were used for this study. The enamel section including pre- and postnatal enamel was prepared for micro-PIXE analysis. Five trace elements (Na, Mg, Cl, Zn, and Sr) were detected in the scanning area of tooth. The distribution profiles of 5 elements were obtained as X-ray maps. The distribution profiles of zinc and chlorine were specific, and showed higher concentration in surface enamel. No elements showed different profiles of X-ray maps between pre- and postnatal enamel in this sample. The results of this study suggested that micro-PIXE analysis would be able to estimate the trace elements in prenatal and postnatal enamel, respectively. (author)

  14. Determination of element levels in human serum: Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applications (United States)

    Majewska, U.; Łyżwa, P.; Łyżwa, K.; Banaś, D.; Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.; Stabrawa, I.; Braziewicz, J.; Pajek, M.; Antczak, G.; Borkowska, B.; Góźdź, S.


    Deficiency or excess of elements could disrupt proper functioning of the human body and could lead to several disorders. Determination of their concentrations in different biological human fluids and tissues should become a routine practice in medical treatment. Therefore the knowledge about appropriate element concentrations in human organism is required. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Pb) in human serum and to define the reference values of element concentration. Samples of serum were obtained from 105 normal presumably healthy volunteers (66 women aged between 15 and 78 years old; 39 men aged between 15 and 77 years old). Analysis has been done for the whole studied population and for subgroups by sex and age. It is probably first so a wide study of elemental composition of serum performed in the case of Świętokrzyskie region. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) method was used to perform the elemental analysis. Spectrometer S2 Picofox (Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH) was used to identify and measure elemental composition of serum samples. Finally, 1st and 3rd quartiles were accepted as minimum and maximum values of concentration reference range.

  15. Thermally tunable VO2-SiO2 nanocomposite thin-film capacitors (United States)

    Sun, Yifei; Narayanachari, K. V. L. V.; Wan, Chenghao; Sun, Xing; Wang, Haiyan; Cooley, Kayla A.; Mohney, Suzanne E.; White, Doug; Duwel, Amy; Kats, Mikhail A.; Ramanathan, Shriram


    We present a study of co-sputtered VO2-SiO2 nanocomposite dielectric thin-film media possessing continuous temperature tunability of the dielectric constant. The smooth thermal tunability is a result of the insulator-metal transition in the VO2 inclusions dispersed within an insulating matrix. We present a detailed comparison of the dielectric characteristics of this nanocomposite with those of a VO2 control layer and of VO2/SiO2 laminate multilayers of comparable overall thickness. We demonstrated a nanocomposite capacitor that has a thermal capacitance tunability of ˜60% between 25 °C and 100 °C at 1 MHz, with low leakage current. Such thermally tunable capacitors could find potential use in applications such as sensing, thermal cloaks, and phase-change energy storage devices.

  16. Application of paper chromatography to the determination of some elements in minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrinier, H.


    This publication describes our work in applying paper chromatography to the fields of mineralogy and geology. We have studied the separation and determination of the following elements: Nb, Ta, Ti, Co, Cu, Mn, Sn, Ge, As, Sb, Bi, U, Th, Be, Au, Pb, Zn, V and Mo. The development of separation methods for these various elements has led us to solve many interference problems. These methods make it possible to separate and measure mineral components. They also enable us to search for trace elements in ores, rocks soils and carbonaceous materials. Finally let us point out that this technique may equally be used for analysis in very radioactive environment. (author) [fr

  17. Effect of Parasitic Element on 408 MHz Antenna for Radio Astronomy Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radial Anwar


    Full Text Available Antenna is one of the important subsystem components in a radio telescope system. In this paper, analysis on the effect of parasitic element on 408 MHz antenna in a radio telescope system is presented. Higher gain up to 10.24 dBi with reduction on beamwidth size has been achieved by optimizing the position of parasitic element relative to the driven element. The proposed antenna is suitable to be utilized in a transient radio telescope array.

  18. Multi-scale simulation method with coupled finite/discrete element model and its application (United States)

    Fang, Xiwu; Liu, Zhenyu; Tan, Jianrong; Qiu, Chan; Chen, Fengbei


    The existing research on continuous structure is usually analyzed with finite element method (FEM) and granular medium with discrete element method (DEM), but there are few researches on the coupling interaction between continuous structure and discrete medium. To the issue of this coupling interaction, a multi-scale simulation method with coupled finite/discrete element model is put forward, in their respective domains of discrete and finite elements, the nodes follow force law and motion law of their own method, and on the their interaction interface, the touch type between discrete and finite elements is distinguished as two types: full touch and partial touch, the interaction force between them is calculated with linear elastic model. For full touch, the contact force is proportional to the overlap distance between discrete element and finite element patch. For partial touch, first the finite element patch is extended on all sides indefinitely to be a complete plane, the full contact force can be obtained with the touch type between discrete element and plane being viewed as full touch, then the full overlap area between them and the actual overlap area between discrete element and finite element patch are computed, the actual contact force is obtained by scaling the full contact force with a factor η which is determined by the ratio of the actual overlap area to the full overlap area. The contact force is equivalent to the finite element nodes and the force and displacement on the nodes can be computed, so the ideal simulation results can be got. This method has been used to simulate the cutter disk of the earth pressure balance shield machine (EPBSM) made in North Heavy Industry (NHI) with its excavation diameter of 6.28 m cutting and digging the sandy clay layer. The simulation results show that as the gradual increase of excavating depth of the cutter head, the maximum stress occurs at the roots of cutters on the cutter head, while for the soil, the

  19. Application of Finite Element Method in Traffic Injury and Its Prospect in Forensic Science. (United States)

    Liu, C G; Lu, Y J; Gao, J; Liu, Q


    The finite element method (FEM) is a numerical computation method based on computer technology, and has been gradually applied in the fields of medicine and biomechanics. The finite element analysis can be used to explore the loading process and injury mechanism of human body in traffic injury. FEM is also helpful for the forensic investigation in traffic injury. This paper reviews the development of the finite element models and analysis of brain, cervical spine, chest and abdomen, pelvis, limbs at home and aboard in traffic injury in recent years. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  20. Ion Implantation-Modified Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide by Zirconium with Continuously Tunable Work Function and Its Application in Perovskite Solar Cells. (United States)

    Han, Dong; Wu, Cuncun; Zhao, Yunbiao; Chen, Yi; Xiao, Lixin; Zhao, Ziqiang


    In recent years, perovskite solar cells have drawn a widespread attention. As an electrode material, fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) is widely used in various kinds of solar cells. However, the relatively low work function (WF) (∼4.6 eV) limits its application. The potential barrier between the transparent conductive oxide electrode and the hole transport layer (HTL) in inverted perovskite solar cells results in a decrease in device performance. In this paper, we propose a method to adjust WF of FTO by implanting zirconium ions into the FTO surface. The WF of FTO can be precisely and continuously tuned between 4.59 and 5.55 eV through different dopant concentration of zirconium. In the meantime, the modified FTO, which had a WF of 5.1 eV to match well the highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene):polystyrene sulfonate, was used as the HTL in inverted planar perovskite solar cells. Compared with the pristine FTO electrode-based device, the open circuit voltage increased from 0.82 to 0.91 V, and the power conversion efficiency increased from 11.6 to 14.0%.

  1. Rare earth-based quaternary Heusler compounds MCoVZ (M = Lu, Y; Z = Si, Ge with tunable band characteristics for potential spintronic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Wang


    Full Text Available Magnetic Heusler compounds (MHCs have recently attracted great attention since these types of material provide novel functionalities in spintronic and magneto-electronic devices. Among the MHCs, some compounds have been predicted to be spin-filter semiconductors [also called magnetic semiconductors (MSs], spin-gapless semiconductors (SGSs or half-metals (HMs. In this work, by means of first-principles calculations, it is demonstrated that rare earth-based equiatomic quaternary Heusler (EQH compounds with the formula MCoVZ (M = Lu, Y; Z = Si, Ge are new spin-filter semiconductors with total magnetic moments of 3 µB. Furthermore, under uniform strain, there are physical transitions from spin-filter semiconductor (MS → SGS → HM for EQH compounds with the formula LuCoVZ, and from HM → SGS → MS → SGS → HM for EQH compounds with the formula YCoVZ. Remarkably, for YCoVZ EQH compounds there are not only diverse physical transitions, but also different types of spin-gapless feature that can be observed with changing lattice constants. The structural stability of these four EQH compounds is also examined from the points of view of formation energy, cohesive energy and mechanical behaviour. This work is likely to inspire consideration of rare earth-based EQH compounds for application in future spintronic and magneto-electronic devices.

  2. Dynamically tunable transformation thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Meca, Carlos; Barceló, Carlos


    Recently, the introduction of transformation thermodynamics has provided a way to design thermal media that alter the flow of heat according to any spatial deformation, enabling the construction of novel devices such as thermal cloaks or concentrators. However, in its current version, this technique only allows static deformations of space. Here, we develop a space–time theory of transformation thermodynamics that incorporates the possibility of performing time-varying deformations. This extra freedom greatly widens the range of achievable effects, providing an additional degree of control for heat management applications. As an example, we design a reconfigurable thermal cloak that can be opened and closed dynamically, therefore being able to gradually adjust the temperature distribution of a given region. (paper)

  3. Application of Boundary Element Method in Galvanic Corrosion Analysis for Metallic Materials used in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaifol Samsu; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin


    Boundary element method (BEM) is a numerical technique that used for modeling infinite domain as is the case for galvanic corrosion analysis. This paper presents the application of boundary element method for galvanic corrosion analysis between two different metallic materials. Aluminium (Al), and zinc (Zn) alloys were used separately coupled with the Carbon Steel (CS) in natural seawater. The measured conductivity of sea water is 30,800 μS/ cm at ambient temperature. Computer software system based on boundary element likes BEASY and ABAQUS can be used to accurately model and simulate the galvanic corrosion. However, the BEM based BEASY program will be used reasonably for predicting the galvanic current density distribution of coupled Al-CS and Zn-CS in this study. (author)

  4. Applications of condensed matter understanding to medical tissues and disease progression: Elemental analysis and structural integrity of tissue scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.A., E-mail: [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Farquharson, M.J. [Department of Radiography, School of Community and Health Sciences, City University, London (United Kingdom); Gundogdu, O. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Al-Ebraheem, Alia [Department of Radiography, School of Community and Health Sciences, City University, London (United Kingdom); Che Ismail, Elna [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kaabar, W., E-mail: [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bunk, O. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Pfeiffer, F. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Falkenberg, G. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Bailey, M. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)


    The investigations reported herein link tissue structure and elemental presence with issues of environmental health and disease, exemplified by uptake and storage of potentially toxic elements in the body, the osteoarthritic condition and malignancy in the breast and other soft tissues. Focus is placed on application of state-of-the-art ionizing radiation techniques, including, micro-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (mu-SXRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission/Rutherford backscattering mapping (mu-PIXE/RBS), coherent small-angle X-ray scattering (cSAXS) and X-ray phase-contrast imaging, providing information on elemental make-up, the large-scale organisation of collagen and anatomical features of moderate and low atomic number media. For the particular situations under investigation, use of such facilities is allowing information to be obtained at an unprecedented level of detail, yielding new understanding of the affected tissues and the progression of disease.

  5. Application of PIXE, NAA and other techniques to the determination of toxic elements in Bangladesh foodstuffs and drinking waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarafdar, S.A.; Khan, A.H.


    The main objective of the food monitoring programme is to study the applicability of PIXE, XRF, NAA and other related methods to toxic and essential trace elements analyses in foodstuffs and drinking water under the coordinated research programme of the IAEA and to collect baseline data on the status of such elements in foodstuffs and drinking water. The commonly consumed representative foodstuffs selected for Bangladesh are: rice, wheat, green vegetables, fish, milk and egg. In the previous year, only food items were studied but in this report drinking water is also included. The elements required by the project protocol are Cu, Cr, Fe, As, Se, Sb, Cd, Pb and Hg. In this report, the results obtained during the last contract period are presented with a plan for future work. 4 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Seed-mediated synthesis of acanthosphere-like gold microstructures with tunable LSPR in the NIR region using gemini surfactants as directing agents for SERS applications (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Gao, Zhinong; Liao, Xueming; Wei, Wanying; Pan, Chenchen


    Acanthosphere-like gold microstructures (AGMs) were synthesized using a facile, two-step, seed-mediated method and butanediyl-1,4- bis(dimethylhexadecylammonium bromide) (16-4-16) as a structure-directing agent. The morphologies and sizes of the products were controlled during the synthesis process by adjusting the concentrations of 16-4-16, the AgNO3 feed, HAuCl4, ascorbic acid, the amount of Ag seeds and the types of gemini surfactants used through systematic inquiry; particle sizes ranging from 130 to 800 nm were well prepared. Correspondingly, the morphology of the products changed between regular and irregular AGMs, and the products presented a number of new morphologies, such as open-mouthed submicrostructures and ribbon nanowires. In particular, with the increase in the 16-4-16 concentration, the structural morphology of the thorns clearly changed from a tip to a lamellar structure. A UV-vis spectroscopic analysis indicated that the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak of the AGMs could be adjusted by changing the above factors, which extended from 500 to 1350 nm in the near-infrared (NIR) region, enabling a tremendous potential for using the AGMs as platforms for various biomedical applications. Based on the intermediate products, we propose a two-stage growth mechanism for the AGMs in which their solid cores and tips are generated successively. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements indicate that the AGMs can serve as sensitive SERS substrates; a SERS detection limit of 5 × 10-7 M is presented for rhodamine B molecules. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. A finite element method for netting application to fish cages and fishing gear

    CERN Document Server

    Priour, Daniel


    This book describes a finite element method for netting that describes the relation between forces and deformation of the netting and takes into account forces due to the twine elasticity, the hydrodynamic forces, the catch effect, the mesh opening stiffness.

  8. Application of energy dispersive XRF-spectrometry to analyse nutritional elements in relation to cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hota, P.K.; Vijayan, V.; Singh, L.P.


    Food is the principal media for intake of elements from environment to human body. Thus, it is felt important to determine the daily dietary intake of such elements in the field of toxicity and nutrition, the deficiency or sufficiency of which may lead to various diseases, disorders and allergies in human health. In this study, the elements present in commonly used cereals, pulses, noodles, some condiments/spices, tobacco products, some common leaves used in herbal medicine and tea leaves have been analyzed using EDXRF spectrometry technique. Elemental concentrations of K, Ca, Fe, Sr, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Se are detected and quantified in all the samples using this method. The results are discussed in relation to cancer. (author)

  9. Applications of the lateral shearing interferometer in measurement of synchrotron radiation optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wu-ming; Takacs, P.Z.; Siddons, D.P.


    The use of a single plate shearing, or Murty, interferometer for measuring the surface quality of several optical elements is reviewed and several results are given. The principle of the Murty interferometer is also explained

  10. Application of diffractive elements for improving the efficiency of systems for cylindrical surface inspection (United States)

    Zavyalov, P. S.; Karlin, V. E.; Kravchenko, M. S.; Finogenov, L. V.; Khakimov, D. R.


    An improved method of structural lighting for increasing the efficiency of inspection of the cylindrical object surface appearance is considered. The method is based on using a diffractive optical element to reduce the amount of recorded data due to illuminating the test object at an angle to the image recording plane, which is normal to the inspected surface. Implementation of the proposed method implies the use of several identical channels. For this reason, one channel is considered in the present study. Calculations of diffractive elements, a description of the experimental setup, and results of experiments aimed at determining the depth of surface defects on objects simulating fuel pellets and fuel elements are presented. Implementation of the investigated method with defect depth determination in industrial systems of inspection of fuel pellets and fuel elements is expected to improve the quality of the fuel for atomic power stations.

  11. Isolation and characterization of repeat elements of the oak genome and their application in population analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluch, S.; Burg, K.


    Four minisatellite sequence elements have been identified and isolated from the genome of the oak species Quercus petraea and Quercus robur. Minisatellites 1 and 2 are putative members of repeat families, while minisatellites 3 and 4 show repeat length variation among individuals of test populations. A 590 base pair (bp) long element has also been identified which reveals individual-specific autoradiographic patterns when used as probe in Southern hybridisations of genomic oak DNA. (author)

  12. A maximal element theorem in FWC-spaces and its applications. (United States)

    Lu, Haishu; Hu, Qingwen; Miao, Yulin


    A maximal element theorem is proved in finite weakly convex spaces (FWC-spaces, in short) which have no linear, convex, and topological structure. Using the maximal element theorem, we develop new existence theorems of solutions to variational relation problem, generalized equilibrium problem, equilibrium problem with lower and upper bounds, and minimax problem in FWC-spaces. The results represented in this paper unify and extend some known results in the literature.

  13. Application of the dual reciprocity boundary element method for numerical modelling of solidification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak


    Full Text Available The dual reciprocity boundary element method is applied for numerical modelling of solidification process. This variant of the BEM is connected with the transformation of the domain integral to the boundary integrals. In the paper the details of the dual reciprocity boundary element method are presented and the usefulness of this approach to solidification process modelling is demonstrated. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  14. A new adaptive multiscale finite element method with applications to high contrast interface problems


    Millward, Raymond


    In this thesis we show that the finite element error for the high contrast elliptic interface problem is independent of the contrast in the material coefficient under certain assumptions. The error estimate is proved using a particularly technical proof with construction of a specific function from the finite dimensional space of piecewise linear functions.We review the multiscale finite element method of Chu, Graham and Hou to give clearer insight. We present some generalisations to extend t...

  15. Vegetable fiber as reinforcing elements for cement based composite in housing applications – a Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Correia Viviane da


    resulting materials and components in real applications exposed to different environmental conditions as roofing, partitioning or ceiling elements. It can be concluded that more sustainable and high performance components based on engineered natural raw materials for civil construction can bring valuable contributions for the affordable housing in particular to developing region.

  16. A triangular finite element with first-derivative continuity applied to fusion MHD applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.


    We describe properties of the reduced quintic triangular finite element. The expansion used in the element will represent a complete quartic polynomial in two dimensions, and thus the error will be of order h 5 if the solution is sufficiently smooth. The quintic terms are constrained to enforce C 1 continuity across element boundaries, allowing their use with partial differential equations involving derivatives up to fourth order. There are only three unknowns per node in the global problem, which leads to lower rank matrices when compared with other high-order methods with similar accuracy but lower order continuity. The integrations to form the matrix elements are all done in closed form, even for the nonlinear terms. The element is shown to be well suited for elliptic problems, anisotropic diffusion, the Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation, and the time-dependent MHD or extended MHD equations. The element is also well suited for 3D calculations when the third (angular) dimension is represented as a Fourier series

  17. Porous ZrO2-TiO2 ceramics for applications as sensing elements in the air humidity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo de Matos; Nono, Maria do Carmo de Andrade


    The environmental monitoring requires versatile, reliable and lower cost instruments. The chemical superficial absorption/adsorption capability of water molecules by several ceramic oxides makes them excellent candidates for this application. In this way, many efforts have been made for the development of porous ceramics, manufactured from mechanical mixture of ZrO 2 and TiO 2 powders, for application as air humidity sensing elements. The sintered ceramics were characterized as for crystalline phases (X-ray diffraction) and pores structure (scanning electron microscopy and mercury porosimetry). The relative humidity curves for the ceramics were obtained from measurements with RLC bridge in climatic chamber. The behavior of these curves were comparatively analyzed with the aid of pores sizes distribution curves, obtained through mercury porosimetry. The results evidenced that the air humidity ceramic sensing elements are very promising ones. (author)

  18. On the implementation of the continuum shell finite element SHB8PS and application to sheet forming simulation (United States)

    Salahouelhadj, A.; Abed-Meraim, F.; Chalal, H.; Balan, T.


    In this contribution, the formulation of the SHB8PS continuum shell finite element is extended to anisotropic elastic-plastic behavior models with combined isotropic-kinematic hardening at large deformations. The resulting element is then implemented into the commercial implicit finite element code Abaqus/Standard via the UEL subroutine. The SHB8PS element is an eight-node, three-dimensional brick with displacements as the only degrees of freedom and a preferential direction called the thickness. A reduced integration scheme is adopted using an arbitrary number of integration points along the thickness direction and only one integration point in the other directions. The hourglass modes due to this reduced integration are controlled using a physical stabilization technique together with an assumed strain method for the elimination of locking. Therefore, the element can be used to model thin structures while providing an accurate description of the various through-thickness phenomena. Its performance is assessed through several applications involving different types of non-linearities: geometric, material and that induced by contact. Particular attention is given to springback prediction for a NUMISHEET benchmark problem.

  19. Artificial Oxide Heterostructures with Tunable Band Gap (United States)


    tunable band gap and band structures in epitaxial grown CaMnO3. The efforts have been devoted to (1) the thin film growth; (2) the tunable optical...plan to pursue a claim for personal or organizational intellectual property? Changes in research objectives (if any): Change in AFOSR Program Officer

  20. Tunable synthesis of copper nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniukov, E; Yakimchuk, D; Kozlovsky, A; Shlimas, D; Zdorovets, M; Kadyrzhanov, K


    Simple method of tunable synthesis of copper nanotubes based on template synthesis was developed. A comprehensive study of the structural, morphological and electrical characteristics of the obtained nanostructures was carried out. Characterization of structural features was made by methods of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry analysis. Evaluation of wall thickness is made by methods of gas permeability. Electrical conductivity of nanotubes was define in the study of their current-voltage characteristics. The possibility to control of copper nanotubes physical properties by variation of the deposition parameters was shown. (paper)

  1. Changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after an application of straw and elemental sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant


    Full Text Available The changes in the content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil after the application of straw and elemental sulphur (ES were explored in a 2-year vegetation pot experiment. The following variants were included in the experiment: 1 unfertilised control; 2 wheat straw; 3 rape straw; 4 ES; 5 wheat straw + ES; 6 rape straw + ES. The two types of straw were applied in a dose of 32 g of dry matter and elemental sulphur was applied in a dose of 0.42 g per pot, i.e. 6 kg of soil. The unsatisfactory C:N ratio in the straw was optimised to 25:1 by adding nitrogen in urea. Soil samples were taken prior to sowing of the model plant (spring wheat in 2005 and white mustard in 2006 and then in regular monthly intervals until harvesting (5 times a year. The content of water-soluble sulphur in the soil was evaluated by multifactorial analysis of variance monitoring the effect of the crop, date of soil sampling, application of straw and elemental sulphur.The contents of water-soluble sulphur differed statistically significantly (P > 0.999 when growing the individual model plants. When growing white mustard in 2006 the amount of available sulphur was by 1/5 higher and could have been partly affected by the warm year 2006, as compared to 2005 when spring wheat was grown. Significant differences (P > 0.999 were also discovered among the dates of soil sampling; higher values were detected before the sowing of model plants, i.e. after incubation in the winter, during vegetation the content of water-soluble sulphur decreased and sulphur showed the significantly highest values at the harvest of model plants. When wheat straw was applied the sulphur content did not increase and this may be associated with the wide C:S ratio, whereas after the application of rape straw the content of water-soluble sulphur increased by one third more than in the unfertilised control. The application of elemental sulphur also significantly increased the amount of water-soluble sulphur in

  2. [Application of ICP-MS to Detect Rare Earth Elements in Three Economic Macroalgaes in China]. (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-fang; Shang, De-rong; Zhai, Yu-xiu; Ning, Jin-song; Ding, Hai-yan; Sheng, Xiao-feng


    In order to investigate the content and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in main economic macroalgaes in our country, fifteen rare earth elements in three economic macroalgaes (including 30 samples of kelp, 30 samples of laver and 15 samples of Enteromorpha) were detected using ICP-MS method. Results showed that the total content of REE in different species of macroalgaes was different. The highest total content of REE was in Enteromorpha (16,012.0 ng · g⁻¹), while in kelp and laver, the total REE was similar for two macroalgaes (3887.4 and 4318.1 ng · g⁻¹ respectively). The content of fifteen rare earth elements in kelp ranged from 7.9 to 1496.4 ng · g⁻¹; in laver, it ranged from 8.2 to 1836.6 ng · g⁻¹. For Enteromorpha, the concentration of 15 rare earth elements were between 19.2 and 6014.5 ng · g⁻¹. In addition, the content and distribution of different rare earth elements in different macroalgaes was also different. For kelp, the highest content of REE was Ce (1 496.4 ng · g⁻¹), and the second was La (689.1 ng · g⁻¹). For laver, the highest was Y (1836.6 ng · g⁻¹), and the second was Ce (682.2 ng · g⁻¹). For Enteromorpha, the highest was Ce (6014.5 ng · g⁻¹), and the second was La (2902.9 ng · g⁻¹). Present results also showed that three macroalgaes accumulated the light rare earth elements much more than the high rare earth elements. The light rare earth elements occupied 90.9%, 87.3% and 91.1% for kelp, laver and Enteromorpha respectively. The result that the Enteromorpha had high content of rare earth elements could provide important support for opening new research directions for the utilization of Enteromorpha.

  3. LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping and its application to geochemical transport in garnet (United States)

    Raimondo, Tom; Wade, Ben; Payne, Justin; Hand, Martin; Clark, Chris; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Reid, Anthony


    Existing instrumentation used to interrogate trace element distributions in geological samples includes EPMA, TEM, SEM, SIMS and synchrotron XRF/XRD analysis. Each technique has its inherent strengths and limitations, whether they relate to detection limits, analytical volumes, sample preparation, and/or instrumentation cost and accessibility. Traditionally, LA-ICP-MS has been used to quantify trace element (wt%-ppb) content in a wide variety of materials via spot analysis. However, its utility as an imaging tool has recently emerged to allow 2D mapping with excellent detection limits (ppb) over a wide isotopic range (7Li to 238U), with minimal sample preparation required. This is achieved by rastering of the focused laser beam in linear transects, which are then stitched together by post-acquisition processing to form a quantified or semi-quantified image of the trace element distribution. Large suites of isotopes are able to be collected simultaneously, allowing access to substantially increased geochemical information from analysed samples. We demonstrate the use of the LA-ICP-MS imaging technique to reveal complex trace element zonation patterns in a variety of garnets affected by fluid-rock interaction, including those from metasomatised mid-crustal shear zones and a calcsilicate skarn deposit. Such detailed geochemical records shed light on trace element behaviour during metasomatic processes, including their impact on Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology. Ultimately, this allows for the construction of coupled P -T -t-fluid histories from individual samples.

  4. Application-oriented discussion of the operating and load following behavior of LWR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, R. von; Klinger, W.


    The evaluation of experience gained in operation on fuel elements is often affected by irregularities in operation and variations in load change behaviour owing to certain systems. A number of facts and aspects shall therefore be compiled in order to facilitate the use of experience gained. To this end, we will confine ourselves to those fuel element types for LWR-type reactors that will with KWU and on a worldwide level prevail even after the year 2000; fuel elements for PWR-type reactors in 14x14 up to 17x17/18x18 assembly and fuel elements for BWR-type reactors in 8x8/9x9 assembly. Right now statistically relevant operational experience exists for those types of fuel in front of the diagonal (abbreviated PWR and BWR 8x8). Our evaluations refer to all of KWU's experience and the information we were able to gather an experience gained with these fuel element types since 1979 throughout the world. (orig.) [de

  5. Efficient Fatigue Analysis of Helix Elements in Umbilicals and Flexible Risers: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Skeie


    Full Text Available Fatigue analysis of structural components such as helix tensile armors and steel tubes is a critical design issue for dynamic umbilicals and flexible pipes. The basis for assessment of fatigue damage of such elements is the long-term stress cycle distribution at critical locations on the helix elements caused by long-term environmental loading on the system. The long-term stress cycle distribution will hence require global dynamic time domain analysis followed by a detailed cross-sectional analysis in a large number of irregular sea states. An overall computational consistent and efficient fatigue analysis scheme is outlined with due regard of the cross-sectional analysis technique required for fatigue stress calculation with particular attention to the helix elements. The global cross-section is exposed to pure bending, tensile, torsion, and pressure loading. The state of the different cross-section elements is based on the global response. Special emphasis is placed on assessment of friction stresses caused by the stick-slip behavior of helix elements in bending that are of special importance for fatigue life assessments. The described cross-sectional analysis techniques are based on an extensive literature survey and are hence considered to represent industry consensus. The performance of the described calculation scheme is illustrated by case studies.

  6. A dynamically-tunable graphene-based fano metasurface

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad


    A planar graphene metasurface with rectangular holes, which is capable of supporting a dynamically tunable Fano resonance at Terahertz (THz) frequencies, is proposed. The rectangular hole is patterned asymmetrically within the metasurface\\'s unit cell to \\'brighten\\' an originally-dark quadrupolar surface plasmon mode. Fano resonance is achieved via the destructive interference of this mode with a dipolar surface plasmon. The spectral location and line shape of the Fano resonance can be dynamically tuned via a gate voltage applied to the metasurface to change graphene\\'s optical properties. The dynamic tunability of the Fano resonance suggests the applicability of the proposed metasurface in designing THz wave modulators and band-pass filters. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Application of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique to trace elements determination in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Navarrete, M.; Tejeda, S.


    Many studies have identified an important number of toxic elements along with organic carcinogen molecules and radioactive isotopes in tobacco. In this work we have analyzed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence 9 brands of cigarettes being manufactured and distributed in the Mexican market. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology standards and a blank were equally treated at the same time. Results show the presence of some toxic elements such as Pb and Ni. These results are compared with available data for some foreign brands, while their implications for health are discussed. It can be confirmed that the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence method provides precise (reproducible) and accuracy (trueness) data for 15 elements concentration in tobacco samples

  8. Advanced finite element simulation with MSC Marc application of user subroutines

    CERN Document Server

    Javanbakht, Zia


    This book offers an in-depth insight into the general-purpose finite element program MSC Marc, which is distributed by MSC Software Corporation. It is a specialized program for nonlinear problems (implicit solver) which is common in academia and industry. The primary goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive introduction to a special feature of this software: the user can write user-subroutines in the programming language Fortran, which is the language of all classical finite element packages. This subroutine feature allows the user to replace certain modules of the core code and to implement new features such as constitutive laws or new elements. Thus, the functionality of commercial codes (‘black box’) can easily be extended by linking user written code to the main core of the program. This feature allows to take advantage of a commercial software package with the flexibility of a ‘semi-open’ code. .

  9. Application of neutron activation analysis for determination of trace element Pt in the rat's tissue sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardani, S.; Mulyaningsih, R.


    The neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been developed as an analytical method with fast, high sensitivity, high accuracy and high precision for medical research purposes to determine the trace elements in the rat's tissue sample. Determination of the trace elements Pt and Se have done using bovine liver standard of NBS as a reference. This standard has used also as a tool to verify an equipment and method will be used further. The measurement results shows that using the available equipment and method, the lower limit of detection for Pt was 1 ppm. Distribution of the trace elements Pt and Se in the different rat's tissue previously treated with cisplatin can be determined. The results shows that Pt content in the several rat's tissue previously treated cisplatin plus sodium selenite is much bigger than that previously treated with cisplatin only. (author)

  10. About solution of multipoint boundary problem of static analysis of deep beam with the use of combined application of finite element method and discrete-continual finite element method. part 1: formulation of the problem and general principles of approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyakhovich Leonid


    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to formulation and general principles of approximation of multipoint boundary problem of static analysis of deep beam with the use of combined application of finite element method (FEM discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM. The field of application of DCFEM comprises structures with regular physical and geometrical parameters in some dimension (“basic” dimension. DCFEM presupposes finite element approximation for non-basic dimension while in the basic dimension problem remains continual. DCFEM is based on analytical solutions of resulting multipoint boundary problems for systems of ordinary differential equations with piecewise-constant coefficients.

  11. Practical application of inverse boundary element method to sound field studies of tyres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas


    An approach based on boundary element modelling of sound sources and regularisation techniques was compared with Near-field Acoustical Holography in a study of vibration patterns on a rolling tyre [1]. In the present paper, a further investigation of this Inverse Boundary Element Method (IBEM...... of the reconstruction process is to feed our model of the problem with as much a priori knowledge as possible, e.g. in the sense of known velocity data on some surfaces. In the modelling of the tyre this can be done by imposing a boundary condition to the nodes belonging to the rim structure, where the normal surface...

  12. Application of radiometric method for element migration determination from plastic packaging to food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, E.P.; Saiki, M.


    In the present study, a radiometric method was applied for element migration determination from food plastic packaging to simulating solutions and foodstuffs. This method consisted of irradiating plastics with neutrons, its exposure for migration and radioactivity measurements in the food or food-simulating solutions. The migration was studied for water, juice, soft drinks, acidic fatty food and dairy product plastic packages. The results indicated Co, Cr and Sb migration to the simulating solutions and food. However, the contamination of these elements in food from packaging material was lower than the maximum limit values established by the Brazilian Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) legislation. (author)

  13. Application of neutron activation analysis to trace element determinations in lung samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocero, Sizue Ota


    The purpose of this work was to apply the instrumental neutron activation analysis method to determine trace elements in lung samples from smokers and non smokers. Samples of lung tissues and lymph nodes from pulmonary hilum analyzed were collected from autopsies by researchers from the Medicine College of the University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Adequate conditions for preparation and analysis of samples were previously established. The preparation of samples consisted of homogenization, lyophilization and sterilization in 60 Co source. The samples and standards were irradiated in the IEA-R1 reactor under thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10 11 -2 .s -1 for 30 min to determine Cl, K, Mn and Na and for 16 h under flux of 10 19 -2 .s -1 for the determination of Au, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Th and Zn. The counting were carried out with a hiperpure (ge) detector connected to a 4096 channels analyzer and a microcomputer. the results obtained for lung sample analyses indicated a good reproducibility of the method for most of the elements determined with relative standard deviations lower than 10.5%. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing reference materials such as IAEA Animal Muscle H-4, NIST Bovine Liver 1577a, IUPAC Bowen's Kale and NIES Vehicle Exhaust Particulates. The results obtained from these analyzes agreed with the values of the literature for several elements with relative errors less than 20%. Less precise and accurate results were obtained for elements with concentrations at the Mup/Kg levels. Elemental concentrations obtained in the lung tissue analyses were within the range of reference values for normal subjects presented in the literature, except for the Cl concentrations for non smokers, Hf in both groups and Sb for the smokers. By comparing results obtained for lung samples from smokers and non smokers, the concentrations of Ce, Cr and Sb were higher in lungs from smokers and the others elements were

  14. A novel network of chaotic elements and its application in multi-valued associative memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Chunbo; Liu Xiangdong; Tang Yunyu; Zhang Yuhe


    We give a novel chaotic element model whose activation function composed of Gauss and Sigmoid function. It is shown that the model may exhibit a complex dynamic behavior. The most significant bifurcation processes, leading to chaos, are investigated through the computation of the Lyapunov exponents. Based on this model, we propose a novel network of chaotic elements, which can be applied in associative memory, and then investigate its dynamic behavior. It is worth noting that multi-valued associative memory can also be realized by this network

  15. Application of the Single Hardening Model in the Finite Element Program ABAQUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    or in combined deformation and flow problems. Today, many of these problems are solved using various finite element computer softwares, capable of handling both geometric and material non-linearities. The latter is especially important in soil mechanics and soil-structure interaction problems. Despite the feat...... model, developed by Lade and Kim (Kim & Lade 1988, Lade & Kim 1988a, Lade & Kim 1988b) is implemented as a user defined material module, UMAT, in the commercial finite element program, ABAQUS. The advantages of the Single Hardening Model Iie in its ability to predict elastic and plastic displacements...

  16. Reconfigurable and tunable compact comb filter and (de)interleaver on silicon platform. (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Shuang; Long, Yun; Ruan, Zhengsen; Shen, Li; Wang, Jian


    We propose and demonstrate a reconfigurable and tunable chip-scale comb filter and (de)interleaver on a silicon platform. The silicon-based photonic integrated device is formed by Sagnac loop mirrors (SLMs) with directional couplers replaced by multi-mode interference (MMI) assisted tunable Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) couplers. The device can be regarded as a large SLM incorporating two small SLMs which form a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. By appropriately adjusting the micro-heaters in tunable MZI couplers and cavity, switchable operation between comb filter and (de)interleaver and extinction ratio and wavelength tunable operations of comb filter and (de)interleaver are achievable by thermo-optic tuning. Reconfigurable comb filter and (de)interleaver is demonstrated in the experiment. The central wavelength shifts of comb filter and (de)interleaver are demonstrated with wavelength tuning efficiencies of ~0.0224 nm/mW and ~0.0193 nm/mW, respectively. The 3-dB bandwidth of the comb filter is ~0.032 nm. The 3-dB and 20-dB bandwidths of the (de)interleaver passband are ~0.225 nm and ~0.326 nm. The obtained results indicate that the designed and fabricated device provides switchable comb filtering and interleaving functions together with extinction ratio and wavelength tunabilities. Reconfigurable and tunable silicon-based comb filter and (de)interleaver may find potential applications in robust wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) optical communication systems.

  17. Application of nuclear analytical techniques to investigate trace element content in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.


    The study performed as a joint project with the IAEA includes those foodstuffs which are being used widely in Iran. It was investigated their nutritional requirements, interrelations and the role of their trace elements in metabolism. Various analytical techniques was assessed and compared. The methods involved in the study were ASS, PIXE and NAA (instrumental and radiochemical)

  18. Applications of Taylor-Galerkin finite element method to compressible internal flow problems (United States)

    Sohn, Jeong L.; Kim, Yongmo; Chung, T. J.


    A two-step Taylor-Galerkin finite element method with Lapidus' artificial viscosity scheme is applied to several test cases for internal compressible inviscid flow problems. Investigations for the effect of supersonic/subsonic inlet and outlet boundary conditions on computational results are particularly emphasized.

  19. Finite element implementation and numerical issues of strain gradient plasticity with application to metal matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksson, Per; Gudmundson, Peter; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard


    of quadrilateral type are examined and a few numerical issues are addressed related to these elements as well as to strain gradient plasticity theories in general. Numerical results are presented for an idealized cell model of a metal matrix composite under shear loading. It is shown that strengthening due...

  20. Optimal Layout Design using the Element Connectivity Parameterization Method: Application to Three Dimensional Geometrical Nonlinear Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Joung, Young Soo; Kim, Yoon Young


    The topology design optimization of “three-dimensional geometrically-nonlinear” continuum structures is still a difficult problem not only because of its problem size but also the occurrence of unstable continuum finite elements during the design optimization. To overcome this difficulty, the ele...

  1. Applications of mixed Petrov-Galerkin finite element methods to transient and steady state creep analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Loula, A.F.D.


    The mixed Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation is applied to transiente and steady state creep problems. Numerical analysis has shown additional stability of this method compared to classical Galerkin formulations. The accuracy of the new formulation is confirmed in some representative examples of two dimensional and axisymmetric problems. (author) [pt

  2. Two fluid space-time discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. Part II: Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollie, W.E.H.; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.


    The numerical method for two fluid flow computations presented in Sollie, Bokhove \\& van der Vegt, Two Fluid Space-Time Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method. Part I: Numerical Algorithm is applied to a number of one and two dimensional single and two fluid test problems, including a magma -

  3. Application and Analysis of Sandwich Elements in the Primary Structure of Large Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Branner, Kim; Jensen, Jacob Fisker


    The present work studies the advantages of applying a sandwich construction as opposed to traditional single skin composites in the flanges of a load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. A parametric finite element model is used to analyze two basic designs with single skin...

  4. Application of surface activation of machine elements in a cyclotron aiming at tribological diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosinova, M.


    The results of estimation of wear of machine elements using their activation with charged particles accelerated in the cyclotron are presented. The results of bench tests are given. It is shown that wear of sleeves, hominged with plateau formation, is twice less than that of sleeves hominged in a standard way. 7 refs.; 3 figs

  5. Application of LIBS in Detection of Antihyperglycemic Trace Elements in Momordica charantia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rai, N.K.; Rai, P.K.; Pandhija, S.; Watal, G.; Rai, A.K.; Bicanic, D.D.


    The present study exploits the information based on concentration of trace elements and minerals in understanding the role/mechanism of action of freeze-dried fruit powder suspended in distilled water of Momordica charantia (family: Cucurbitaceae) in diabetes treatment. Laser-induced break down

  6. Application of neutron activation analysis to the detrmination of toxic elements in Australian foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.; Gorman, T.F.; Bowles, C.H.; Tan Mingguang


    Recent measurements in our laboratory have indicated that the average selenium content in the plasma of Australians is 0.09 mg L -1 which is significantly lower than that found in the inhabitants of most other Western countries with the exception of New Zealand. Research aimed at explaining these low levels had begun when an invitation was received from the IAEA to join a Coordinated Research Programme on Nuclear Techniques for Toxic Elements in Foodstuffs. The investigation was widened, therefore, to include other toxic elements, arsenic, mercury, zinc and antimony and the suite of trace elements determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques. To complete the survey of toxic elements, the lead and cadmium of the chosen foodstuffs are being analysed by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and soon will be examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Drinking water from a number of locations were sampled in cleaned, screw-top polystyrene containers, frozen and stored in a freezer until ready for analysis. 7 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Application of alpha spectrometry to the discovery of new elements by heavy-ion-beam bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.


    Starting with polonium in 1898, α-spectrometry has played a decisive role in the discovery of new, heavy elements. For even-even nuclei, α-spectra have proved simple to interpret and exhibit systematic trends that allow extrapolation to unknown isotopes. The early discovery of the natural α-decay series led to the very powerful method of genetically linking the decay of new elements to the well-established α-emission of daughter and granddaughter nuclei. This technique has been used for all recent discoveries of new elements including Z = 109. Up to mendelevium (Z = 101), thin samples suitable for α-spectrometry were prepared by chemical methods. With the advent of heavy-ion accelerators new sample preparation methods emerged. These were based on the large momentum transfer associated with heavy-ion reactions, which produced energetic target recoils that, when ejected from the target, could be thermalized in He gas. Subsequent electrical deposition or a He-jet technique yielded samples that were not only thin enough for α-spectroscopy, but also for α- and #betta#-recoil experiments. Many variations of these methods have been developed and are discussed. For the synthesis of element 106 an aerosol-based recoil transport technique was devised. In the most recent experiments, α-spectrometry has been coupled with the magnetic analysis of the recoils. The time from production to analysis of an isotope has thereby been reduced to 10 - 6 s; while it was 10 - 1 to 10 0 s for He-jets and 10 1 to 10 3 s for rapid chemical separations. Experiments are now in progress to synthesize super heavy elements (SHE) and to analyze them with these latest techniques. Again, α-spectrometry will play a major role since the expected signature for the decay of a SHE is a sequence of α-decays followed by spontaneous fission

  8. Effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on fruit yield and accumulation of nutrient elements in Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari


    Full Text Available Cucurbitaceae is one of the largest families in vegetable kingdom consisting of largest number of edible type species. Momordica charantia is one such important vegetable that belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceae. In order to evaluate the effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on M. charantia, a field experiment was conducted at the University of Zabol in Iran during 2011 growing season. The experiment was laid out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Three levels of nitrogen rates consisting of: N1 = 75, N2 = 150 and N3 = 225 kg N ha−1 as main plot and three time application including: T1 = 1/2 at 3 and 4 leaves and 1/2 before flowering, T2 = 1/2 at 3 and 4 leaves and 1/2 after fruit to start, and T3 = 1/3 at 3 and 4 leaves, 1/3 before flowering, and 1/3 after fruit to start were used as sub plot. The results revealed that both rate and time of nitrogen application had a significant effect on fruit yield. The highest fruit yield was recorded at the rate of N3 and time of nitrogen application in T3 treatment. In this study, by increasing nitrogen levels from 75 to 225 kg N ha−1, the values of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in fruit increased. The time of nitrogen application and interaction between rate and time of nitrogen treatments had no significant effect on the amounts of these three elements. Nitrogen level had a significant effect on the amounts of calcium, manganese and zinc elements. The highest values of calcium and zinc were obtained at N2 and manganese at N3 nitrogen level. Time of nitrogen application treatment in this experiment had only significant effect on the amounts of calcium and zinc elements and had no significant effect on the other elements.

  9. Integrated source of tunable nonmaximally mode-entangled photons in a domain-engineered lithium niobate waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Yang; Wu, Zi-jian; Xu, Fei, E-mail:; Lu, Yan-qing, E-mail: [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Cui, Guo-xin [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Nanoapplications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215000 (China); Tan, Ai-hong [Laboratory for Quantum Information, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)


    The nonmaximally entangled state is a special kind of entangled state, which has important applications in quantum information processing. It has been generated in quantum circuits based on bulk optical elements. However, corresponding schemes in integrated quantum circuits have been rarely considered. In this Letter, we propose an effective solution for this problem. An electro-optically tunable nonmaximally mode-entangled photon state is generated in an on-chip domain-engineered lithium niobate (LN) waveguide. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion and electro-optic interaction are effectively combined through suitable domain design to transform the entangled state into our desired formation. Moreover, this is a flexible approach to entanglement architectures. Other kinds of reconfigurable entanglements are also achievable through this method. LN provides a very promising platform for future quantum circuit integration.

  10. Integrated source of tunable nonmaximally mode-entangled photons in a domain-engineered lithium niobate waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Yang; Wu, Zi-jian; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing; Cui, Guo-xin; Tan, Ai-hong


    The nonmaximally entangled state is a special kind of entangled state, which has important applications in quantum information processing. It has been generated in quantum circuits based on bulk optical elements. However, corresponding schemes in integrated quantum circuits have been rarely considered. In this Letter, we propose an effective solution for this problem. An electro-optically tunable nonmaximally mode-entangled photon state is generated in an on-chip domain-engineered lithium niobate (LN) waveguide. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion and electro-optic interaction are effectively combined through suitable domain design to transform the entangled state into our desired formation. Moreover, this is a flexible approach to entanglement architectures. Other kinds of reconfigurable entanglements are also achievable through this method. LN provides a very promising platform for future quantum circuit integration

  11. Synchrotron Radiation and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Applications on Elemental Distribution in Human Hair and Bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Marques, A.F.; Brito, J.


    This work is an application of synchrotron microprobe X- Ray fluorescence in order to study elemental distribution along human hair samples of contemporary citizens. Furthermore, X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry is also used to analyse human bones of different historical periods: Neolithic and contemporary subjects. The elemental content in the bones allowed us to conclude about environmental contamination, dietary habits and health status influence in the corresponding citizens. All samples were collected post-mortem. Quantitative analysis was performed for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. Mn and Fe concentration were much higher in bones from pre-historic periods. On the contrary, Pb bone concentrations of contemporary subjects are much higher than in pre-historical ones, reaching 100 μg g-1, in some cases. Very low concentrations for Co, Ni, Br and Rb were found in all the analysed samples. Cu concentrations, allows to distinguish Chalcolithic bones from the Neolithic ones. The distribution of trace elements along human hair was studied for Pb and the obtained pattern was consistent with the theoretical model, based on the diffusion of this element from the root and along the hair. Therefore, the higher concentrations in hair for Pb of contemporary individuals were also observed in the bones of citizens of the same sampling sites. All samples were analysed directly without any chemical treatment

  12. Finite element analysis of hollow out-of-plane HfO2microneedles for transdermal drug delivery applications. (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Hua; A Campbell, Stephen; Karthikeyan, Sreejith


    Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) based on microneedles is an excellent approach due to its advantages of both traditional transdermal patch and hypodermic syringes. In this paper, the fabrication method of hollow out-of-layer hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) microneedles mainly based on deep reactive ion etching of silicon and atomic layer deposition of HfO 2  is described, and the finite element analysis of the microneedles based on ANSYS software is also presented. The fabrication process is simplified by using a single mask. The finite element analysis of a single microneedle shows that the flexibility of the microneedles can be easily adjusted for various applications. The finite element analysis of a 3 × 3 HfO 2 microneedle array applied on the skin well explains the "bed of nail" effect, i.e., the skin is not liable to be pierced when the density of microneedles in array increases. The presented research work here provides useful information for design optimization of HfO 2 microneedles used for TDD applications.

  13. Confined Growth of ZIF-8 Nanocrystals with Tunable Structural Colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Bingdong; Yang, Yuanqing; Jansen, Henri


    -8 synthesis, and the dispersion of gold nanoparticles as inhibitors for the following crystallization transformation of ZIF-8 crystals. By choosing the concentration of gold nanoparticles, the density of ZIF-8 nanocrystals can be controlled and the sizes of individual ZIF-8 crystals can be scaled......Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF-8) have promising applications as sensors or catalysts due to their highly porous crystalline structures. While most of the previous studies are based on ZIF-8 crystals either in isolated particles in aqueous environments or in a compact colloidal form, here...... nanocrystals empowered with tunable optical properties paves a new way to explore the promising applications in nanophotonics and bionanotechnology....

  14. GPGPU-based explicit finite element computations for applications in biomechanics: the performance of material models, element technologies, and hardware generations. (United States)

    Strbac, V; Pierce, D M; Vander Sloten, J; Famaey, N


    Finite element (FE) simulations are increasingly valuable in assessing and improving the performance of biomedical devices and procedures. Due to high computational demands such simulations may become difficult or even infeasible, especially when considering nearly incompressible and anisotropic material models prevalent in analyses of soft tissues. Implementations of GPGPU-based explicit FEs predominantly cover isotropic materials, e.g. the neo-Hookean model. To elucidate the computational expense of anisotropic materials, we implement the Gasser-Ogden-Holzapfel dispersed, fiber-reinforced model and compare solution times against the neo-Hookean model. Implementations of GPGPU-based explicit FEs conventionally rely on single-point (under) integration. To elucidate the expense of full and selective-reduced integration (more reliable) we implement both and compare corresponding solution times against those generated using underintegration. To better understand the advancement of hardware, we compare results generated using representative Nvidia GPGPUs from three recent generations: Fermi (C2075), Kepler (K20c), and Maxwell (GTX980). We explore scaling by solving the same boundary value problem (an extension-inflation test on a segment of human aorta) with progressively larger FE meshes. Our results demonstrate substantial improvements in simulation speeds relative to two benchmark FE codes (up to 300[Formula: see text] while maintaining accuracy), and thus open many avenues to novel applications in biomechanics and medicine.

  15. Poly(ethylene glycol)/carbon quantum dot composite solid films exhibiting intense and tunable blue–red emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yanling; Gan, Zhixing; Xu, Jiaqing; Wu, Xinglong; Chu, Paul K.


    Highlights: • Poly(ethylene glycol)/carbon quantum dots (PEG/CQDs) composite solid films exhibiting strong and tunable blue–red emission were prepared. Successful preparation of tunable emitting CQDs solid films can extend the application of carbon quantum dots in photoelectric devices. • The mechanism of the tunable emission from the PEG/CQDs composite solid films was discussed. • On the basis of the characteristics of the PL from solid films in this work, the complex PL origins of CQDs were further defined. The PL mechanism provides insights into the fluorescence mechanism of CQDs and may promotes their applications. • Poly(ethylene glycol); carbon quantum dots; Strong and tunable blue-red emission; The fluorescent quantum yield of 12.6%. - Abstract: Although carbon quantum dots (CQDs) possess excellent luminescence properties, it is a challenge to apply water-soluble CQDs to tunable luminescent devices. Herein, quaternary CQDs are incorporated into poly(ethylene glycol) to produce poly(ethylene glycol)/CQD composite solid films which exhibit strong and tunable blue–red emission. The fluorescent quantum yield reaches 12.6% which is comparable to that of many liquid CQDs and the photoluminescence characteristics are determined to elucidate the fluorescence mechanism. The CQD solid films with tunable optical properties bode well for photoelectric devices especially displays

  16. Finite element simulations with ANSYS workbench 14 theory, applications, case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Huei-Huang


    Finite Element Simulations with ANSYS Workbench 14 is a comprehensive and easy to understand workbook. It utilizes step-by-step instructions to help guide readers to learn finite element simulations. Twenty seven case studies are used throughout the book. Many of these cases are industrial or research projects the reader builds from scratch. An accompanying DVD contains all the files readers may need if they have trouble. Relevant background knowledge is reviewed whenever necessary. To be efficient, the review is conceptual rather than mathematical, short, yet comprehensive. Key concepts are inserted whenever appropriate and summarized at the end of each chapter. Additional exercises or extension research problems are provided as homework at the end of each chapter. A learning approach emphasizing hands-on experiences spreads though this entire book. A typical chapter consists of 6 sections. The first two provide two step-by-step examples. The third section tries to complement the exercises by providing a mo...

  17. Radioactive indium labelling of the figured elements of blood. Method, results, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducassou, D.; Nouel, J.P.

    Following the work of Thakur et al. the authors became interested in red corpuscle, leucocyte and platelet labelling with indium 111 or 113m (8 hydroxyquinolein-indium). For easier labelling of the figured elements of blood the technique described was modified. The chelate is prepared by simple contact at room temperature of indium 111 or 113m chloride and water-soluble 8 hydroxyquinolein sulphate, in the presence of 0.2M TRIS buffer. The figured element chosen suspended in physiological serum is added directly to the solution obtained, the platelets and leucocytes being separated out beforehand by differential centrifugation. While it gives results similar to those of Thabur et al. the method proposed avoids the chloroform extraction of the radioactive chelate and the use of alcohol, liable to impair the platelet regation capacity [fr

  18. Symplectic finite element scheme: application to a driven problem with a regular singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletzer, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)


    A new finite element (FE) scheme, based on the decomposition of a second order differential equation into a set of first order symplectic (Hamiltonian) equations, is presented and tested on one-dimensional, driven Sturm-Liouville problem. Error analysis shows improved cubic convergence in the energy norm for piecewise linear `tent` elements, as compared to quadratic convergence for the standard and hybrid FE methods. The convergence deteriorates in the presence of a regular singular point, but can be recovered by appropriate mesh node packing. Optimal mesh packing exponents are derived to ensure cubic (respectively quadratic) convergence with minimal numerical error. A further suppression of the numerical error by a factor proportional to the square of the leading exponent of the singular solution, is achieved for a model problem based on determining the nonideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of a fusion plasma. (author) 7 figs., 14 refs.

  19. Finite Element Analysis of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) for NDE Applications (United States)

    Singh, Manvinder; Kommareddy, Vamshi; Kumar, Manoj; Ramaswamy, Sivaramanivas; Fan, Ying; Barshinger, James; Tian, Wei-Cheng; Kishore, Kuna


    This paper presents a comparison of three Finite Element approaches for modeling the behavior of a Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT). CMUTs have become very popular over the last decade because of the comparable bandwidth, sensitivity and dynamic range with its piezoelectric counterparts. The ease of fabrication is an added advantage. Modeling of CMUTs is a coupled physics problem, which involves solving Electrostatics and Structural interactions simultaneous. Finite Element models of the CMUT are constructed using the commercial code ANSYS (9.0). Three different approaches of solving the coupled field problem are discussed and the results are compared for resonance frequency, collapse voltage, capacitance and electromechanical coupling coefficient. The approaches discussed involve sequentially coupled-field analysis, direct coupled-field analysis and reduced order modeling. Detailed results have been presented for the effect of variation in geometrical factors as predicted by the three models.

  20. Finite element simulations with ANSYS workbench 17 theory, applications, case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Huei-Huang


    Finite Element Simulations with ANSYS Workbench 17 is a comprehensive and easy to understand workbook. Printed in full color, it utilizes rich graphics and step-by-step instructions to guide you through learning how to perform finite element simulations using ANSYS Workbench. Twenty seven real world case studies are used throughout the book. Many of these case studies are industrial or research projects that you build from scratch. Prebuilt project files are available for download should you run into any problems. Companion videos, that demonstrate exactly how to perform each tutorial, are also available. Relevant background knowledge is reviewed whenever necessary. To be efficient, the review is conceptual rather than mathematical. Key concepts are inserted whenever appropriate and summarized at the end of each chapter. Additional exercises or extension research problems are provided as homework at the end of each chapter. A learning approach emphasizing hands-on experiences spreads though this entire boo...

  1. Finite element simulations with ANSYS workbench 15 theory, applications, case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Huei-Huang


    Finite Element Simulations with ANSYS Workbench 15 is a comprehensive and easy to understand workbook. It utilizes step-by-step instructions to help guide you to learn finite element simulations. Twenty seven real world case studies are used throughout the book. Many of these cases are industrial or research projects you build from scratch. An accompanying DVD contains all the files you may need if you have trouble. Relevant background knowledge is reviewed whenever necessary. To be efficient, the review is conceptual rather than mathematical, short, yet comprehensive. Key concepts are inserted whenever appropriate and summarized at the end of each chapter. Additional exercises or extension research problems are provided as homework at the end of each chapter. A learning approach emphasizing hands-on experiences spreads through this entire book. A typical chapter consists of 6 sections. The first two provide two step-by-step examples. The third section tries to complement the exercises by providing a more sy...

  2. Dual Band Parasitic Element Patch Antenna for LTE/WLAN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAG Biplab


    Full Text Available In this paper, a single layer coaxial fed dual band slotted microstrip antenna is proposed. The proposed antenna consists of two direct couple parasitic elements and L-shape slots on the main resonating element. Two resonant modes are excited and it covers 4G LTE and WLAN middle band. The -10dB impedance bandwidth for resonant frequency of 2.35GHz and 5.28GHz are 140MHz (2.25-2.39GHz and 570MHz (5.18-5.75GHz, respectively. The measured VSWR at 2.35GHz is 1.27 and at 5.28GHz is 1.41. The proposed antenna is simple in design and compact in size. The simulated and measured results are in good agreement.

  3. Application of micro-PIXE to fish life history analyses: trace element analysis of otoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfman, M.; Limburg, K.E.; Kristiansson, P.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.


    Otoliths are biogenic, carbonate concretions which form part of the hearing/balance system in fishes. The radial growth of otoliths and the variation of trace elements along the radius appear to capture important aspects of fishes' environmental history. At the Lund Nuclear Microprobe Laboratory, we have begun to use Proton-Induced X-ray Emission spectroscopy (PIXE) for micro-elemental analysis of otoliths. The experimental procedure is discussed and a number of examples of what can be investigated are presented. In particular, movement of diadromous species (eel, menhaden, and anadromous brown trout) can be detected between fresh and brackish water by Sr/Ca ratio. This technique has also been used to identify fish that were raised in freshwater hatcheries and then released to brackish water (pike-perch example)

  4. Finite-element-model updating using computational intelligence techniques applications to structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi


    Finite element models (FEMs) are widely used to understand the dynamic behaviour of various systems. FEM updating allows FEMs to be tuned better to reflect measured data and may be conducted using two different statistical frameworks: the maximum likelihood approach and Bayesian approaches. Finite Element Model Updating Using Computational Intelligence Techniques applies both strategies to the field of structural mechanics, an area vital for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering. Vibration data is used for the updating process. Following an introduction a number of computational intelligence techniques to facilitate the updating process are proposed; they include: • multi-layer perceptron neural networks for real-time FEM updating; • particle swarm and genetic-algorithm-based optimization methods to accommodate the demands of global versus local optimization models; • simulated annealing to put the methodologies into a sound statistical basis; and • response surface methods and expectation m...

  5. Development of a finite element model of the shoulder: application during a side impact




    The shoulder is the most complex joint on the human body. Once shoulder injury occurs it can induce strong instability and a long rehabilitation period. Many studies in both fields of automotive safety and orthopaedic surgery have highlighted the fragility and the frequent injuries of the shoulder. To complete the understanding of shoulder biomechanics through usual experimental approaches, Finite Element simulation appears to be a valuable tool to investigate mechanical behaviour and failure...

  6. Application of the cracked pipe element to creep crack growth prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brochard, J.; Charras, T.


    The modification of a computer code for leak before break analysis is very briefly described. The CASTEM2000 code was developed for ductile fracture assessment of piping systems with postulated circumferential through-wall cracks under static or dynamic loading. The modification extends the capabilities of the cracked pipe element to the determination of fracture parameters under creep conditions (C*, {phi}c and {Delta}c). The model has the advantage of evaluating significant secondary effects, such as those from thermal loading.

  7. A framework for developing finite element codes for multi-disciplinary applications.


    Dadvand, Pooyan


    The world of computing simulation has experienced great progresses in recent years and requires more exigent multidisciplinary challenges to satisfy the new upcoming demands. Increasing the importance of solving multi-disciplinary problems makes developers put more attention to these problems and deal with difficulties involved in developing software in this area. Conventional finite element codes have several difficulties in dealing with multi-disciplinary problems. Many of these codes are d...

  8. Amendment application in a multicontaminated mine soil: Effects on trace element mobility


    Manzano, Rebeca; Peñalosa, Jesús Manuel; Esteban, Elvira


    The final publication is available at Springer via Several amendments were tested for their effectiveness in aiding plant growth and immobilising contaminants in pots containing soil from an arsenopyrite mine contaminated with arsenic and heavy metals. Trace element solubility in pore water was monitored using Rhizon samplers for five weeks. Results showed that amendments containing ferrous sulphate and ferrous sulphate combined with paper mill l...

  9. Application of a circulation model in bays, using the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, R.


    The circulation of water was studied in different areas in 'Baia de Sepetiba', in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The method applied on the mathematical studies was Galerkin's method and ths originated a system of equations which described all the water motions. The Finite Element method used, had great sensitivity to modifications of input data. Comparison between computed and measured data was made in order to verify the conclusions. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Trace elements in two Oxisols after annual application of sewage sludge for thirteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Gomes de Andrade


    Full Text Available This experiment aim was to evaluate the contamination of the trace elements (TE arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc considered in the CONAMA resolution 375 after 13 years long using sewage sludge (SS as fertilizer in two soils: an Eutroferric Clayed Red Latosol (Rhodic Eutrudox – RE and a Dystrophic Red Latosol (Typic Haplorthox – TH. Experiment in the field under maize cultivation had four treatments (0, 5, 10, and 20 t of SS ha-1, dry weight, five replications and an experimental design in randomized blocks. The agrochemicals (dolomitic limestone, single superphosphate, and potassium chloride, SS, soils, and the certified reference materials were digested according to the USEPA 3051A method and the chemical elements were quantified by ICP OES. The TE contents found in the agrochemicals used should not cause immediate environmental impact. The higher TE values were found in the RE and they did not reach the agricultural (more stringent Investigation Level (IL yet, according to 420 CONAMA resolution. Persisting the actual SS fertilization amount applied in the soil and the TE concentration in the SS is foreseen that Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn will be the first elements to reach the IL in the RE.

  11. Experimentally determined subsolidus metal-olivine element partitioning with applications to pallasites (United States)

    Donohue, Patrick H.; Hill, Eddy; Huss, Gary R.


    Pallasite meteorites, which consist primarily of olivine and metal, may be remnants of disrupted core-mantle boundaries of differentiated asteroids or planetesimals. The early thermal histories of pallasites are potentially recorded by minor- and trace-element zonation in olivine. However, constraining this history requires knowledge of element behavior under the conditions of pallasite formation, which is lacking for many of the main elements of interest (e.g., Co, Cr, Mn). In this study, we experimentally determined metal/olivine partition coefficients for Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, and Mn in a pallasite analogue at subsolidus temperatures. Metal/olivine partition coefficients (KM) increase in the order KMn rims varies significantly for the investigated transition metals. We suggest rim zonation results from partial re-equilibration during late stage crystallization of minor phases (e.g., chromite, phosphates). This re-equilibration occurred over short timescales relative to overall pallasite cooling, likely tied to initial cooling rates on the order of 100-300 °C/Myr.

  12. Finite Element Method Application in Areal Rainfall Estimation Case Study; Mashhad Plain Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irani


    Full Text Available Introduction: The hydrological models are very important tools for planning and management of water resources. These models can be used for identifying basin and nature problems and choosing various managements. Precipitation is based on these models. Calculations of rainfall would be affected by displacement and region factor such as topography, etc. Estimating areal rainfall is one of the basic needs in meteorological, water resources and others studies. There are various methods for the estimation of rainfall, which can be evaluated by using statistical data and mathematical terms. In hydrological analysis, areal rainfall is so important because of displacement of precipitation. Estimating areal rainfall is divided to three methods: 1- graphical. 2-topographical. 3-numerical. This paper represented calculating mean precipitation (daily, monthly and annual using Galerkin’s method (numerical method and it was compared with other methods such as kriging, IDW, Thiessen and arithmetic mean. In this study, there were 42 actual gauges and thirteen dummies in Mashhad plain basin which is calculated by Galerkin’s method. The method included the use of interpolation functions, allowing an accurate representation of shape and relief of catchment with numerical integration performed by Gaussian quadrature and represented the allocation of weights to stations. Materials and Methods:The estimation of areal rainfall (daily, monthly,… is the basic need for meteorological project. In this field ,there are various methods that one of them is finite element method. Present study aimed to estimate areal rainfall with a 16-year period (1997-2012 by using Galerkin method ( finite element in Mashhad plain basin for 42 station. Therefore, it was compared with other usual methods such as arithmetic mean, Thiessen, Kriging and IDW. The analysis of Thiessen, Kriging and IDW were in ArcGIS10.0 software environment and finite element analysis did by using of Matlab

  13. Analysis of transmission lines loaded with pairs of coupled resonant elements and application to sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqui, J.; Su, L., E-mail:; Mata, J.; Martín, F., E-mail:


    This paper is focused on the analysis of transmission lines loaded with pairs of magnetically coupled resonators. We have considered two different structures: (i) a microstrip line loaded with pairs of stepped impedance resonators (SIRs), and (ii) a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line loaded with pairs of split ring resonators (SRRs). In both cases, the line exhibits a single resonance frequency (transmission zero) if the resonators are identical (symmetric structure with regard to the line axis), and this resonance is different to the one of the line loaded with a single resonator due to inter-resonator coupling. If the structures are asymmetric, inter-resonator coupling enhances the distance between the two split resonance frequencies that arise. In spite that the considered lines and loading resonators are very different and are described by different lumped element equivalent circuit models, the phenomenology associated to the effects of coupling is exactly the same, and the resonance frequencies are given by identical expressions. The reported lumped element circuit models of both structures are validated by comparing the circuit simulations with extracted parameters with both electromagnetic simulations and experimental data. These structures can be useful for the implementation of microwave sensors based on symmetry properties. - Highlights: • Magnetic-coupling between resonant elements affects transmission properties. • Inter-resonant coupling enhances the distance of two resonant frequencies. • The structures are useful for sensors and comparators, etc.

  14. Application of Fast Neutron Activation to Determinate of N, P and K Element Contents in the Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyatni E; Yazid M; Nuraini E; Sunardi


    The application of fast neutron activation to determinate of N, P and K element contents in the sludge has been performed. The aim of this research is to determine the content of N, P and K elements in the sludge for the possibility of reuse as organic fertilizer. Sludge sample was taken from waste water retainer at Bantul Waste Water Treatment Plant. The sample was dried and ground, then irradiated using 14.7 MeV fast neutron from neutron generator. Result was qualitatively and quantitatively analyses using gamma spectrometer. The result showed that the sludge contains N with energy 511 keV, P with energy 1778 keV and K with energy 1273 keV. The concentration of N is (4.101 ± 0.007) mg/g, P is = (640.510 ± 14.34) mg/g and K = (3.045 ± 0.064) mg/g. (author)

  15. Catalytic polarographic currents of platinum metal complexes and their application to determination of trace concentrations of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezerskaya, N.A.; Kiseleva, I.N.


    Several types of catalytic electrode processes with the participation of platinum metal complexes and used for the determination of the element microconcentrations have been considered in the review. It is pointed out that to measure catalytic currents of hydrogen solutions nitroso compounds, which are prepared by heating chloride complexes of Ru(3) and (4) with NaNO 2 are used. The method is applicable for ruthenium determination in commercial nitric acid solutions. Ru determination in solution of ruthenium (4) dimeric chloride complex on graphite electrode, using catalytic currents of hydrogen, surpasses in sensitivity the determination of the element, using the method of inversion voltammetry. Certain other complexes of Ru and determination methods of ruthenium in them are considered. Hydrogen catalytic currents in the complexes solutions with organic ligands are the most perspective for analysis

  16. Deuterides of light elements: low-temperature thermonuclear burn-up and applications to thermonuclear fusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, A.M.; Smith, V.H.; Smith, G.T.


    Thermonuclear burn-up and thermonuclear applications are discussed for a number of deuterides and DT hydrides of light elements. These deuterides and corresponding DT hydrides are often used as thermonuclear fuels or components of such fuels. In fact, only for these substances thermonuclear energy gain exceeds (at some densities and temperatures) the bremsstrahlung loss and other high-temperature losses, i.e., thermonuclear burn-up is possible. Herein, thermonuclear burn-up in these deuterides and DT hydrides is considered in detail. In particular, a simple method is proposed to determine the critical values of the burn-up parameter x c for these substances and their mixtures at different temperatures and densities. The results for equimolar DT mixtures coincide quite well with the results of previous calculations. Also, the natural or Z limit is determined for low-temperature thermonuclear burn-up in the deuterides of light elements. (author)

  17. Infrared metasurface with tunable composite right/left-handed dispersion (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Luo, Yi; Wu, Xuefei; Xu, Hongyan; Jing, Hongwei; Wu, Zhiming; Jiang, Yadong; Liu, Zhijun


    The distinctive dispersion of composite right/left-handed transmission-line metamaterial offers a unique way of manipulating electromagnetic waves across a wide spectral range from microwave to the infrared. In this paper, we present a tunable mid-infrared composite right/left-handed metasurface based on the phase-change material of vanadium dioxide. The metasurface consists of an array of ‘H’-shaped gold pads separated from a metallic ground plane by a film of vanadium dioxide. As the insulator-to-metal phase transition is thermally triggered, both right-handed and left-handed metasurface modes redshift with reduced absorbance before they are eventually switched off. The tunabilities of right-handed mode frequency and left-handed mode frequency are measured to be approximately 3.6% and 2.7%, respectively. Our demonstrated metasurface with tunable composite right/left-handed dispersion could be useful for beam scanning for a fixed frequency in mid-infrared applications.

  18. Tunable Fabry-Pérot interferometer with subwavelength grating reflectors for MWIR microspectrometers (United States)

    Meinig, Marco; Kurth, Steffen; Seifert, Mario; Hiller, Karla; Wecker, Julia; Ebermann, Martin; Neumann, Norbert; Gessner, Thomas


    This report presents recent advances in the design and fabrication of a tunable Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) with subwavelength grating (SWG) reflectors, as well as measurement results and applications. The FPI is designed as wavelength selecting element for highly miniaturized mid-wave infrared spectrometers. The optical resonator of the FPI is built between two highly reflecting mirrors. The mirrors are integrated in a supporting MEMS structure with one electrostatically movable and one fixed mirror carrier. The FPI is fabricated in a bulk micromachining batch process on wafer level from two silicon substrates. The substrates are bonded together with an intermediate SU-8 layer. The reflectors are made of aluminum subwavelength gratings, structured on a thin LP-Si3N4 membrane by nanoimprint lithography. The subwavelength structures build a frequency selective surface with high reflectance and low absorbance in a defined spectral range. Simulations and optimization of the design were done using finite element method with a 3D EM frequency domain solver. Comparison of simulation results and measurements of fabricated reflectors and FPIs are in very good agreement. The FPIs are used in the 5th interference order and can be tuned from 3.5 μm to 2.9 μm electrically. The measured maximum transmittance is between 70 % and 50 % and the measured FWHM bandwidth is lower than 50 nm. The new subwavelength grating reflectors can be integrated in a MEMS batch process more cost-efficient than previously used reflectors of dielectric layer stacks.

  19. Nonlinear, tunable and active metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri


    Metamaterials, artificial electromagnetic media achieved by structuring on the subwave-length-scale were initially suggested for the negative index and superlensing. They became a paradigm for engineering electromagnetic space and controlling propagation of waves. The research agenda is now shifting on achieving tuneable, switchable, nonlinear and sensing functionalities. The time has come to talk about the emerging research field of metadevices employing active and tunable metamaterials with unique functionalities achieved by structuring of functional matter on the subwave-length scale. This book presents the first systematic and comprehensive summary of the reviews written by the pioneers and top-class experts in the field of metamaterials. It addresses many grand challenges of the cutting edge research for creating smaller and more efficient photonic structures and devices.

  20. The multi-element probabilistic collocation method (ME-PCM): Error analysis and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, Jasmine; Wan Xiaoliang; Karniadakis, George Em


    Stochastic spectral methods are numerical techniques for approximating solutions to partial differential equations with random parameters. In this work, we present and examine the multi-element probabilistic collocation method (ME-PCM), which is a generalized form of the probabilistic collocation method. In the ME-PCM, the parametric space is discretized and a collocation/cubature grid is prescribed on each element. Both full and sparse tensor product grids based on Gauss and Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature rules are considered. We prove analytically and observe in numerical tests that as the parameter space mesh is refined, the convergence rate of the solution depends on the quadrature rule of each element only through its degree of exactness. In addition, the L 2 error of the tensor product interpolant is examined and an adaptivity algorithm is provided. Numerical examples demonstrating adaptive ME-PCM are shown, including low-regularity problems and long-time integration. We test the ME-PCM on two-dimensional Navier-Stokes examples and a stochastic diffusion problem with various random input distributions and up to 50 dimensions. While the convergence rate of ME-PCM deteriorates in 50 dimensions, the error in the mean and variance is two orders of magnitude lower than the error obtained with the Monte Carlo method using only a small number of samples (e.g., 100). The computational cost of ME-PCM is found to be favorable when compared to the cost of other methods including stochastic Galerkin, Monte Carlo and quasi-random sequence methods

  1. Application of neutron activation analysis technique in elemental determination of lichen samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko Prakoso Dwi Atmodjo; Syukria Kurniawati; Woro Yatu Niken Syahfitri; Nana Suherman; Dadang Supriatna


    Lichen is one of the biological materials as pollution monitor that can give information about level, direction, and history of various pollutants in environment. Small sample weights and elemental content of lichens is on the order of ppm, so that its characterization requires advanced analytical techniques that has high sensitivity and capable of analyzing samples with weight of - 25 mg, such as neutron activation analysis. In this research, determination of elements was done in lichen samples obtained from Kiaracondong and Holis areas in Bandung city, to understanding the difference of industrial exposure level on surrounding environment. Samples were irradiated in RSG GA Siwabessy, Serpong, at 15 MW for 1-2 and 60 minutes for short irradiation and long irradiation, respectively. The samples were then counted using HPGe detector with GENIE 2000 software. The level of element in lichen for Kiaracondong area were Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, Sc, and V in the range of 0.55-0.86, 1.47-2.57, 0.87-1.19, 540-1005, 949-1674, 34.91-45.94, 0.08-0.14, 0.16-0.31, and ≤ 2.33 mg/kg, respectively, while for Holis area were 1.04-2.37, 4.41-10.36, 0.41-0.89, 3166-709, 1131-1422, 40.97-72.51, 0.33-0.50, 0.98-2.18, and 5.30-13.05 mg/kg respectively. From these results, it is known that pollution exposure from the semi industrial area Holis provide greater influence than in the semi industrial area Kiaracondong. (author)

  2. Application of the full 3-D collision probability method to randomly distributed spherical fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajoie, M-A.; Marleau, G.


    The analysis of VHTR fuel tends to be difficult when using deterministic methods currently employed in lattice codes notably because of limitations on geometry representation and the stochastic positioning of spherical elements. The method proposed here and implemented in the lattice code DRAGON is to generate the positions of multi-layered spheres using random sequential addition, and to analyze the resulting geometry using a full three-dimensional spherical collision probability method. The preliminary validation runs are consistent with results obtained using a Monte-Carlo method, for both regularly and randomly positioned pins. (author)

  3. Application of solid phase extraction procedures for rare earth elements determination in environmental samples. (United States)

    Pyrzynska, Krystyna; Kubiak, Anna; Wysocka, Irena


    Determination of rare earth elements in environmental samples requires often pre-concentration and separation step due to a low metal content and high concentration of the interfering matrix components. A solid phase extraction technique with different kind of solid sorbents offers a high enrichment factor, rapid phase separation and the possibility of its combination with various detection techniques used either in on-line or off-line mode. The recent developments in this area published over the last five years are presented and discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of an enhanced discrete element method to oil and gas drilling processes (United States)

    Ubach, Pere Andreu; Arrufat, Ferran; Ring, Lev; Gandikota, Raju; Zárate, Francisco; Oñate, Eugenio


    The authors present results on the use of the discrete element method (DEM) for the simulation of drilling processes typical in the oil and gas exploration industry. The numerical method uses advanced DEM techniques using a local definition of the DEM parameters and combined FEM-DEM procedures. This paper presents a step-by-step procedure to build a DEM model for analysis of the soil region coupled to a FEM model for discretizing the drilling tool that reproduces the drilling mechanics of a particular drill bit. A parametric study has been performed to determine the model parameters in order to maintain accurate solutions with reduced computational cost.

  5. PHEMT as a circuit element for high impedance nanopower amplifiers for ultra-low temperatures application (United States)

    Korolev, A. M.; Shulga, V. M.; Gritsenko, I. A.; Sheshin, G. A.


    In this work, high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was studied as a circuit element for amplifiers operating at temperatures of the order of 10-100 mK. To characterize the HEMT, the relative parameters are proposed to be used. HEMT characteristics were measured at a temperature of 50 mK for the first time. It follows from the reported studies that the power consumption of high-impedance HEMT-based amplifiers can be reduced down to hundreds of nanowatt or even lower.

  6. Application of the distinct element method to the analysis of the concrete members under impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuya, Hiroshi; Kajikawa, Yasuo; Nakata, Yoshihiko


    In this paper, the distinct element method is applied to the analysis of the behavior of a structure under impact. At first, this method is applied to the one-dimensional wave propagation problem by comparing with the experimental results and the theoretical results. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by including not only elastic behavior but also the fracture of a structural member. Second, this method is developed to two-dimensional problems to simulate the behavior of a simply supported beam under an impact load. Finally, it could be shown that this method is effective to simulate wide phenomena from elastic behavior to a fracture under impact. ((orig.))

  7. Introduction of polycrystal constitutive laws in a finite element code with applications to zirconium forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, P.J.; Tome, C.N.; Kaschner, G.C.; Gray, G.T. III


    In this work the authors simulate the compressive deformation of heavily textured zirconium sheet using a finite element code with the constitutive response given by a polycrystal self-consistent model. They show that the strong anisotropy of the response can be explained in terms of the texture and the relative activity of prismatic (easy) and pyramidal (hard) slip modes. The simulations capture the yield anisotropy observed for so-called through-thickness and in-plane compression tests in terMs of the loading curves and final specimen geometries

  8. High fidelity equivalent circuit representation of induction motor determined by finite elements for electric vehicle drive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamvakari, A.; Kandianis, A.; Kladas, A.; Manias, S. (National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece))


    The paper presents the methodology for determination of an induction motor model suitable for harmonic representation on inverter supply. Harmonic iron losses are considered by convenient modifications of the standard equivalent circuit while the parameter variations for different operating conditions are determined by finite element modelling. The proposed motor representation is particularly important in cases that the drive efficiency is of major concern over a wide range of operating conditions such as in electrical vehicle applications. The method is illustrated with respect to an experimental set-up involving a 1,5 kW squirrel cage induction motor supplied by a PWM inverter.

  9. Numerical Methods Application for Reinforced Concrete Elements-Theoretical Approach for Direct Stiffness Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ciprian Catinas


    Full Text Available A detailed theoretical and practical investigation of the reinforced concrete elements is due to recent techniques and method that are implemented in the construction market. More over a theoretical study is a demand for a better and faster approach nowadays due to rapid development of the calculus technique. The paper above will present a study for implementing in a static calculus the direct stiffness matrix method in order capable to address phenomena related to different stages of loading, rapid change of cross section area and physical properties. The method is a demand due to the fact that in our days the FEM (Finite Element Method is the only alternative to such a calculus and FEM are considered as expensive methods from the time and calculus resources point of view. The main goal in such a method is to create the moment-curvature diagram in the cross section that is analyzed. The paper above will express some of the most important techniques and new ideas as well in order to create the moment curvature graphic in the cross sections considered.

  10. A new variational formulation of kinetic plasma theory and the application of moving finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.


    A new variational formulation has been developed for the system of equations governing kinetic plasmas and electromagnetic fields. It is used to apply the method of Moving Finite Elements to the electromagnetic fields. The fields are expanded in a basis of linear finite elements on a movable, unstructured grid of triangles in 2D or tetrahedra in 3D, while the plasma distribution function is expanded in a basis of super particles. Minimization of the variational with respect to the time derivatives of the field quantities yields a coupled system of equations for simultaneously advancing the amplitudes and node positions, resulting in adaptive grid motion. The adaptivity of the grid may save a large factor in the size of the grid and the number of particles required in many problems. Minimization of the variational with respect to the time derivatives of the particle positions and velocities gives the equations of motion, providing consistent prescriptions for assigning particles to the grid and fields to the particles. Orthogonality conditions on the particles are derived as conditions for keeping their equations of motion independent. Collisions can be included in a natural way. The relationship between PIC methods and alternative methods of discretizing phase space is clarified

  11. Application of neutron activation analysis for the determination of essential elements in egg samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Bruna G.; Maihara, Vera A.; Avegliano, Roseane P.


    The eggs are among the twenty foods consumed by the population of the five major regions of Brazil. Among the types of eggs, there are differences in nutritional value, which can vary according to the food of the bird. This study evaluating the elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na considered essential micronutrients in food, because they are fundamental in several metabolic processes necessary for the maintenance and training of the human body. We analyzed three types of eggs: egg whites, of the quail, and the colonial in cooked and raw form, using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method (INAA). The egg samples were lyophilized and pulverized before analysis. To validate the methodology, reference materials NIST RM 8415 Whole Egg Powder and NIST SRM 1567 Wheat Flour were analyzed. The samples, reference materials and standards of the elements were irradiated for 20 seconds under a thermal neutron flux of 6,6x10 12 cm -2 s -1 in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-CNEN / SP. The results were consistent with the values of the Brazilian Table of Food Composition (TACO)

  12. a Quadratic Layer Element for Analyzing Stress Waves in Fgms and its Application in Material Characterization (United States)

    HAN, X.; LIU, G. R.; LAM, K. Y.; OHYOSHI, T.


    A novel method is presented for investigating elastic waves in functionally graded material (FGM) plates excited by plane pressure waves. The FGM plate is first divided into quadratic layer elements (QLEs). A general solution for the equation of motion governing the QLE has been derived. The general solution is then used together with the boundary and continuity conditions to obtain the displacement and stress in the frequency domain for an arbitrary FGM plate. The response of the plate to an incident pressure wave is obtained using the Fourier transform techniques. Results obtained by the present method are compared with an existing method using homogeneous layer elements. Numerical examples are presented to investigate stress waves in FGM plates. The relationship between the surface displacement response and the material property of quadratic FGM plates has been analytically obtained for the material characterization. A computational inverse technique is also presented for characterizing material property of an arbitrary FGM plate from the surface displacement response data, using present QLE method as forward solver and genetic algorithm as the inverse operator. This technique is utilized to reconstruct the material property of an actual SiC-C FGM.

  13. A high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor for finite element applications (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Taylor, B. K.


    Optical linear processors are computationally efficient computers for solving matrix-matrix and matrix-vector oriented problems. Optical system errors limit their dynamic range to 30-40 dB, which limits their accuray to 9-12 bits. Large problems, such as the finite element problem in structural mechanics (with tens or hundreds of thousands of variables) which can exploit the speed of optical processors, require the 32 bit accuracy obtainable from digital machines. To obtain this required 32 bit accuracy with an optical processor, the data can be digitally encoded, thereby reducing the dynamic range requirements of the optical system (i.e., decreasing the effect of optical errors on the data) while providing increased accuracy. This report describes a new digitally encoded optical linear algebra processor architecture for solving finite element and banded matrix-vector problems. A linear static plate bending case study is described which quantities the processor requirements. Multiplication by digital convolution is explained, and the digitally encoded optical processor architecture is advanced.

  14. Application of Dynamic Analysis in Semi-Analytical Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu


    Full Text Available Analyses of dynamic responses are significantly important for the design, maintenance and rehabilitation of asphalt pavement. In order to evaluate the dynamic responses of asphalt pavement under moving loads, a specific computational program, SAFEM, was developed based on a semi-analytical finite element method. This method is three-dimensional and only requires a two-dimensional FE discretization by incorporating Fourier series in the third dimension. In this paper, the algorithm to apply the dynamic analysis to SAFEM was introduced in detail. Asphalt pavement models under moving loads were built in the SAFEM and commercial finite element software ABAQUS to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the SAFEM. The verification shows that the computational accuracy of SAFEM is high enough and its computational time is much shorter than ABAQUS. Moreover, experimental verification was carried out and the prediction derived from SAFEM is consistent with the measurement. Therefore, the SAFEM is feasible to reliably predict the dynamic response of asphalt pavement under moving loads, thus proving beneficial to road administration in assessing the pavement’s state.

  15. Expanded Mixed Multiscale Finite Element Methods and Their Applications for Flows in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, L.


    We develop a family of expanded mixed multiscale finite element methods (MsFEMs) and their hybridizations for second-order elliptic equations. This formulation expands the standard mixed multiscale finite element formulation in the sense that four unknowns (hybrid formulation) are solved simultaneously: pressure, gradient of pressure, velocity, and Lagrange multipliers. We use multiscale basis functions for both the velocity and the gradient of pressure. In the expanded mixed MsFEM framework, we consider both separable and nonseparable spatial scales. Specifically, we analyze the methods in three categories: periodic separable scales, G-convergent separable scales, and a continuum of scales. When there is no scale separation, using some global information can significantly improve the accuracy of the expanded mixed MsFEMs. We present a rigorous convergence analysis of these methods that includes both conforming and nonconforming formulations. Numerical results are presented for various multiscale models of flow in porous media with shale barriers that illustrate the efficacy of the proposed family of expanded mixed MsFEMs. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Application of the Recursive Finite Element Approach on 2D Periodic Structures under Harmonic Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Yassine


    Full Text Available The frequency response function is a quantitative measure used in structural analysis and engineering design; hence, it is targeted for accuracy. For a large structure, a high number of substructures, also called cells, must be considered, which will lead to a high amount of computational time. In this paper, the recursive method, a finite element method, is used for computing the frequency response function, independent of the number of cells with much lesser time costs. The fundamental principle is eliminating the internal degrees of freedom that are at the interface between a cell and its succeeding one. The method is applied solely for free (no load nodes. Based on the boundary and interior degrees of freedom, the global dynamic stiffness matrix is computed by means of products and inverses resulting with a dimension the same as that for one cell. The recursive method is demonstrated on periodic structures (cranes and buildings under harmonic vibrations. The method yielded a satisfying time decrease with a maximum time ratio of 1 18 and a percentage difference of 19%, in comparison with the conventional finite element method. Close values were attained at low and very high frequencies; the analysis is supported for two types of materials (steel and plastic. The method maintained its efficiency with a high number of forces, excluding the case when all of the nodes are under loads.

  17. Application of Dynamic Analysis in Semi-Analytical Finite Element Method. (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Xing, Qinyan; Wang, Dawei; Oeser, Markus


    Analyses of dynamic responses are significantly important for the design, maintenance and rehabilitation of asphalt pavement. In order to evaluate the dynamic responses of asphalt pavement under moving loads, a specific computational program, SAFEM, was developed based on a semi-analytical finite element method. This method is three-dimensional and only requires a two-dimensional FE discretization by incorporating Fourier series in the third dimension. In this paper, the algorithm to apply the dynamic analysis to SAFEM was introduced in detail. Asphalt pavement models under moving loads were built in the SAFEM and commercial finite element software ABAQUS to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the SAFEM. The verification shows that the computational accuracy of SAFEM is high enough and its computational time is much shorter than ABAQUS. Moreover, experimental verification was carried out and the prediction derived from SAFEM is consistent with the measurement. Therefore, the SAFEM is feasible to reliably predict the dynamic response of asphalt pavement under moving loads, thus proving beneficial to road administration in assessing the pavement's state.

  18. Electro-Optic Tunable Laser Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop a compact, rugged, rapidly and widely tunable laser based on a quantum cascade diode laser at...

  19. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites.......We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  20. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron


    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium.......We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  1. Tunable Multifunction Filter Using Current Conveyor


    Kumar, Manish; Srivastava, M. C.; Kumar, Umesh


    The paper presents a current tunable multifunction filter using current conveyor. The proposed circuit can be realized as on chip tunable low pass, high pass, band pass and elliptical notch filter. The circuit employs two current conveyors, one OTA, four resistors and two grounded capacitors, ideal for integration. It has only one output terminal and the number of input terminals may be used. Further, there is no requirement for component matching in the circuit. The resonance frequency ({\\om...

  2. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for elemental analysis in environmental, cultural heritage and space applications: a review of methods and results. (United States)

    Gaudiuso, Rosalba; Dell'Aglio, Marcella; De Pascale, Olga; Senesi, Giorgio S; De Giacomo, Alessandro


    Analytical applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), namely optical emission spectroscopy of laser-induced plasmas, have been constantly growing thanks to its intrinsic conceptual simplicity and versatility. Qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed by LIBS both by drawing calibration lines and by using calibration-free methods and some of its features, so as fast multi-elemental response, micro-destructiveness, instrumentation portability, have rendered it particularly suitable for analytical applications in the field of environmental science, space exploration and cultural heritage. This review reports and discusses LIBS achievements in these areas and results obtained for soils and aqueous samples, meteorites and terrestrial samples simulating extraterrestrial planets, and cultural heritage samples, including buildings and objects of various kinds.

  3. Accumulation of Biomass and Mineral Elements with Calendar Time by Corn: Application of the Expanded Growth Model (United States)

    Overman, Allen R.; Scholtz, Richard V.


    The expanded growth model is developed to describe accumulation of plant biomass (Mg ha−1) and mineral elements (kg ha−1) in with calendar time (wk). Accumulation of plant biomass with calendar time occurs as a result of photosynthesis for green land-based plants. A corresponding accumulation of mineral elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium occurs from the soil through plant roots. In this analysis, the expanded growth model is tested against high quality, published data on corn (Zea mays L.) growth. Data from a field study in South Carolina was used to evaluate the application of the model, where the planting time of April 2 in the field study maximized the capture of solar energy for biomass production. The growth model predicts a simple linear relationship between biomass yield and the growth quantifier, which is confirmed with the data. The growth quantifier incorporates the unit processes of distribution of solar energy which drives biomass accumulation by photosynthesis, partitioning of biomass between light-gathering and structural components of the plants, and an aging function. A hyperbolic relationship between plant nutrient uptake and biomass yield is assumed, and is confirmed for the mineral elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). It is concluded that the rate limiting process in the system is biomass accumulation by photosynthesis and that nutrient accumulation occurs in virtual equilibrium with biomass accumulation. PMID:22194842

  4. Accumulation of biomass and mineral elements with calendar time by corn: application of the expanded growth model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen R Overman

    Full Text Available The expanded growth model is developed to describe accumulation of plant biomass (Mg ha(-1 and mineral elements (kg ha(-1 in with calendar time (wk. Accumulation of plant biomass with calendar time occurs as a result of photosynthesis for green land-based plants. A corresponding accumulation of mineral elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium occurs from the soil through plant roots. In this analysis, the expanded growth model is tested against high quality, published data on corn (Zea mays L. growth. Data from a field study in South Carolina was used to evaluate the application of the model, where the planting time of April 2 in the field study maximized the capture of solar energy for biomass production. The growth model predicts a simple linear relationship between biomass yield and the growth quantifier, which is confirmed with the data. The growth quantifier incorporates the unit processes of distribution of solar energy which drives biomass accumulation by photosynthesis, partitioning of biomass between light-gathering and structural components of the plants, and an aging function. A hyperbolic relationship between plant nutrient uptake and biomass yield is assumed, and is confirmed for the mineral elements nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K. It is concluded that the rate limiting process in the system is biomass accumulation by photosynthesis and that nutrient accumulation occurs in virtual equilibrium with biomass accumulation.

  5. Electrothermally actuated tunable clamped-guided resonant microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Alcheikh, Nouha


    We present simulation and experimental investigation demonstrating active alteration of the resonant and frequency response behavior of resonators by controlling the electrothermal actuation method on their anchors. In-plane clamped-guided arch and straight microbeams resonators are designed and fabricated with V-shaped electrothermal actuators on their anchors. These anchors not only offer various electrothermal actuation options, but also serve as various mechanical stiffness elements that affect the operating resonance frequency of the structures. We have shown that for an arch, the first mode resonance frequency can be increased up to 50% of its initial value. For a straight beam, we have shown that before buckling, the resonance frequency decreases to very low values and after buckling, it increases up to twice of its initial value. These results can be promising for the realization of different wide–range tunable microresonator. The experimental results have been compared to multi-physics finite-element simulations showing good agreement among them.

  6. Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials. (United States)

    Ju, Long; Geng, Baisong; Horng, Jason; Girit, Caglar; Martin, Michael; Hao, Zhao; Bechtel, Hans A; Liang, Xiaogan; Zettl, Alex; Shen, Y Ron; Wang, Feng


    Plasmons describe collective oscillations of electrons. They have a fundamental role in the dynamic responses of electron systems and form the basis of research into optical metamaterials. Plasmons of two-dimensional massless electrons, as present in graphene, show unusual behaviour that enables new tunable plasmonic metamaterials and, potentially, optoelectronic applications in the terahertz frequency range. Here we explore plasmon excitations in engineered graphene micro-ribbon arrays. We demonstrate that graphene plasmon resonances can be tuned over a broad terahertz frequency range by changing micro-ribbon width and in situ electrostatic doping. The ribbon width and carrier doping dependences of graphene plasmon frequency demonstrate power-law behaviour characteristic of two-dimensional massless Dirac electrons. The plasmon resonances have remarkably large oscillator strengths, resulting in prominent room-temperature optical absorption peaks. In comparison, plasmon absorption in a conventional two-dimensional electron gas was observed only at 4.2 K (refs 13, 14). The results represent a first look at light-plasmon coupling in graphene and point to potential graphene-based terahertz metamaterials.

  7. Patchy polymer colloids with tunable anisotropy dimensions. (United States)

    Kraft, Daniela J; Hilhorst, Jan; Heinen, Maria A P; Hoogenraad, Mathijs J; Luigjes, Bob; Kegel, Willem K


    We present the synthesis of polymer colloids with continuously tunable anisotropy dimensions: patchiness, roughness, and branching. Our method makes use of controlled fusion of multiple protrusions on highly cross-linked polymer particles produced by seeded emulsion polymerization. Carefully changing the synthesis conditions, we can tune the number of protrusions, or branching, of the obtained particles from spheres with one to three patches to raspberry-like particles with multiple protrusions. In addition to that, roughness is generated on the seed particles by adsorption of secondary nucleated particles during synthesis. The size of the roughness relative to the smooth patches can be continuously tuned by the initiator, surfactant, and styrene concentrations. Seed colloids chemically different from the protrusions induce patches of different chemical nature. The underlying generality of the synthesis procedure allows for application to a variety of seed particle sizes and materials. We demonstrate the use of differently sized polyNIPAM (poly-N-isopropylacrylamide), as well as polystyrene and magnetite filled polyNIPAM seed particles, the latter giving rise to magnetically anisotropic colloids. The high yield together with the uniform, anisotropic shape make them interesting candidates for use as smart building blocks in self-assembling systems.

  8. An investigation of shape memory alloys as actuating elements in aerospace morphing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Stamatelos, Dimtrios; Kappatos, Vasileios


    Two innovative actuating concepts for aerospace morphing applications, based on Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs), are proposed. The first concept investigates a composite plate incorporating embedded SMA wires. A Nonlinear Auto Regressive with eXogenous excitation (NARX) model is proposed for controlling...

  9. Electrothermal System for Microwave Heating. Elements of Computer Aided Design of the Applicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMAN Ovidiu Gabriel


    Full Text Available Within this study was elaborated a program made with Matlab software to design an applicator of parallelepiped shape for dielectric materialsprocessing in microwave field. The program calculates and posts transmission modes, the value of the power density and of the electric field in the dielectric.

  10. Elemental line scanning of an increment core using EDXRF: from fundamental research to environmental forensics applications (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jean Christophe Balouet; Gil Oudijk


    Environmental forensics seeks to determine the responsible parties for contamination from leaks or spills of petroleum or other toxic products. Dendrochemistry contributes to environmental forensics at the intersection of analytical chemistry, tree biology, and environmental responsibility. To be useful, dendrochemistry requires the rigorous application of analytical...

  11. Application of multi-element clustering techniques of five Egyptian industrial sugar products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadallah, R.M.; Mohamed, A.E.


    The concentration of 18 elements in different cane sugar products, i.e., cane sugar plants, crude and syrup juices, molasses, and the end products of the consumer sugar, were analyzed and processed. The samples were collected from five cities, i.e., Kom Ombo, Edfu, Armant, Deshna and Naga Hammady in Upper Egypt where the main Egyptian sugar industry factories are located. INAA was applied for the determination of Al, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, and Sc, while Cu, Li, P, Sn, V and Zn were determined by ICP-AES and Pb and As were determined by AAS. These three analytical methods were applied to optimize the sensitivity and the accuracy of the measurements in order to provide a sound basis for the obtention of reliable clustering results. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Application of equivalent medium parameters in finite element models of microwave metamaterials (United States)

    Hewitt, C.; Alves, F.; Luscombe, J.; Grbovic, D.


    Simulated or experimentally measured reflection and transmission are used to obtain effective permittivity (ɛ), permeability (μ), and conductivity (σ) for a planar microwave metamaterial. These parameters are then used in a finite element model of macro-scale metamaterial objects, where the metamaterial is taken to be a homogeneous layer with frequency-dependent ɛ, μ, and σ. We demonstrate good agreement between reflection and absorption of metamaterial structure and those obtained from modeling homogenized, macro-scale metamaterials. We further demonstrate use of the method for geometrically scaled, oddly shaped macroscopic objects. This method significantly reduces computation requirements and enables modeling of metamaterial-made, large area objects without modeling their actual intricate metamaterial structure.

  13. Application of Abaqus to analysis of the temperature field in elements heated by moving heat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Piekarska


    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of thermal phenomena occurring during laser beam heating is presented in this paper. Numerical models of surface andvolumetric heat sources were presented and the influence of different laser beam heat source power distribution on temperature field wasanalyzed. Temperature field was obtained by a numerical solution the transient heat transfer equation with activity of inner heat sources using finite element method. Temperature distribution analysis in welded joint was performed in the ABAQUS/Standard solver. The DFLUXsubroutine was used for implementation of the movable welding heat source model. Temperature-depended thermophysical properties for steelwere assumed in computer simulations. Temperature distribution in laser beam surface heated and butt welded plates was numericallyestimated.

  14. Using spectral element method to solve variational inequalities with applications in finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradipour, M.; Yousefi, S.A.


    Under the Black–Scholes model, the value of an American option solves a time dependent variational inequality problem (VIP). In this paper, first we discretize the variational inequality of American option in temporal direction by applying the Rannacher time stepping and achieve a sequence of elliptic variational inequalities. Second we discretize the spatial domain of variational inequalities by using spectral element methods with high order Lagrangian polynomials introduced on Gauss–Legendre–Lobatto points. Also by computing integrals by the Gauss–Legendre–Lobatto quadrature rule we derive a sequence of the linear complementarity problems (LCPs) having a positive definite sparse coefficient matrix. To find the unique solutions of the LCPs, we use the projected successive over-relaxation (PSOR) algorithm. Furthermore we present some existence and uniqueness theorems for the variational inequalities and LCPs. Finally, theoretical results are verified on the relevant numerical examples.

  15. An Innovative Structural Mode Selection Methodology: Application for the X-33 Launch Vehicle Finite Element Model (United States)

    Hidalgo, Homero, Jr.


    An innovative methodology for determining structural target mode selection and mode selection based on a specific criterion is presented. An effective approach to single out modes which interact with specific locations on a structure has been developed for the X-33 Launch Vehicle Finite Element Model (FEM). We presented Root-Sum-Square (RSS) displacement method computes resultant modal displacement for each mode at selected degrees of freedom (DOF) and sorts to locate modes with highest values. This method was used to determine modes, which most influenced specific locations/points on the X-33 flight vehicle such as avionics control components, aero-surface control actuators, propellant valve and engine points for use in flight control stability analysis and for flight POGO stability analysis. Additionally, the modal RSS method allows for primary or global target vehicle modes to also be identified in an accurate and efficient manner.

  16. Nano-memory-element applications of carbon nanocapsule encapsulating potassium ions: molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Hwang, Ho Jung


    We investigated the internal dynamics of ionic fluidic shuttle memory elements consisting of potassium ions encapsulated in C 640 nanocapsules. The systems proposed were the encapsulated-ion shuttle memory devices such as (13 K + ) at C 640 , (3 K + -C 60 -2 K + ) at C 640 and (5 K + -C 60 ) at C 640 . The energetics and the operating responses of ionic fluidic shuttle memory devices, such as transitions between the two states of the C 640 capsule, were examined by using classical molecular dynamics simulations of the shuttle media in the C 640 capsule under external force fields. The operating force fields for stable operations of the shuttle memory device were investigated.

  17. SRXRF analysis of elemental distribution in the olfactory bulbs of rat after intranaris application of manganese chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Rui; Wang Xuxia; Lei Hao; Liu Nianqing; Huang Yuying; He Wei


    Manganese is a calcium analog, and it can enter activated neurons through voltage-gated calcium channel. Overexposure to manganese often result in its accumulation in the brain, causing symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease One of the routes by which manganese enters brain is the olfactory pathway. In this work, elementary distribution in the olfactory bulbs (OB) of rats after intranaris application of MnCl 2 solution was measured by SRXRF, and the effect of exogenous Mn on the distribution of other elements, particularly calcium, in the OB was also investigated. Four SD male rats were decapitated 9 hrs after intranaris application of MnCl 2 solution (5 μl, 400 mmol/L) in the right nasal cavity. The OB were removed, frozen by liquid nitrogen, cut into 100 m-thick sections with a microtome, and put onto polycarbonate films specially designed for SRXRF examination. It has been shown that unilateral intranaris application of MnCl 2 only results in manganese deposition in the ipsilateral hemisphere of the OB. The left hemisphere of the OB was therefore used as the control. All SRXRF spectra collected with a beam spot size of 60 m x 80 m were normalized to the acquisition time and the counting of the ion chambers, and the contribution from the supporting polycarbonate film was subtracted. The X-ray peak area for each element (A) and the Compton scattering intensity (B) for the whole OB section were obtained. The relative content for each element was taken as the ratio of A to B and analyzed by the SPSS software. The average Mn and Ca contents were found significantly higher in the ipsilateral hemisphere than in the contralateral hemisphere. The Mn content was found to be the highest in the glomerular layer (GL) of the ipsilateral OB hemisphere, consistent with previous findings obtained by magnetic resonance imaging detection. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that the distribution of Mn and Ca in the ipsilateral hemisphere had higher degree of correlation

  18. Application of the X-ray analyses on bioaccumulation and biomineralization for the specific elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numako, Chiya [Tokushima Univ., Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Tokushima (Japan)


    Specific accumulation of the elements by biological activity has a large influence on a material recycling on the earth. Some non-distractive characterizations by X-ray spectroscopy, XRF and/or XAFS measurements with synchrotron radiation have been applied to some solid state specimens which accumulate heavy metals at high concentration in order to elucidate its mechanism or purpose of the phenomena for each marine creature. It has been known that a few bivalves including giant clams stock kidney granules that accumulate Mn and Zn specifically. The results of two-dimensional elemental analyses by EPMA indicate zoning structures of the concentration of Mn, Zn and Mg negative correlation between Mg and (Mn + Zn) inside of a granule. Fluorescence XAFS analyses for Mn and Zn in the kidney granules, held at BL-7C, PF, KEK, shows that Mn and Zn exist as divalent cations in amorphous calcium phosphate matrix. It is considered that Mn and Zn have got a detoxication by substitution for Mg into amorphous calcium phosphate with flexible crystal structure. The teeth of chiton, which accumulate magnetite as a major substance of the teeth, have been also studied by SR-XRF and micro XAFS technique with microbeam focused in 6 {mu}m {phi} from undulator at SPring-8, BL-39XU. In the early stage of the teeth formation, abrupt accumulation of Fe into a feeding plane of a tooth, while the concentration of Ca has been remained equally at the back of a tooth. Micro-XAFS measurement for Fe in the teeth indicates that a major material of the feeding plane is magnetite while trivalent iron compounds appears along the junction zone of the tooth and a base membrane. There is a complex scheme in the tooth formation of chiton, which is available to create some kinds of iron species and allocates those into different positions in a tooth. (author)

  19. Life cycle assessment of the production of rare earth elements for energy applications: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eNavarro


    Full Text Available Rare earth elements (REEs are a group of seventeen elements with similar chemical properties, including fifteen in the lanthanide group, yttrium, and scandium. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties REEs gain increasing importance in many new energy technologies and systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion (e.g., wind turbine, electric vehicles, high efficiency lighting, batteries, and hydrogen storage. However, it is well known that production of REEs is far from environmentally sustainable as it requires significant material and energy consumption while generating large amounts of air/water emissions and solid waste. Although life cycle assessment (LCA has been accepted as the most comprehensive approach to quantify the environmental sustainability of a product or process, to date, there have been only very limited LCA studies on the production of REEs. With the continual growth of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, global production of REEs will increase. Therefore reducing environmental footprints of REE production becomes critical and identifying environmental hotspots based on a holistic and comprehensive assessment on environmental impacts serves as an important starting point. After providing an overview of LCA methodology and a high-level description of the major REE production routes used from 1990s to today, this paper reviews the published LCA studies on the production of REEs. To date, almost all the LCA studies are based on process information collected from the operation of Mountain Pass facility in U.S. in 1990s and the operation of facilities in Bayan Obo, China. Knowledge gaps are identified and future research efforts are suggested to advance understanding on environmental impacts of REE production from the life cycle perspective.

  20. Defining fish nursery habitats: an application of otolith elemental fingerprinting in Tampa Bay, Florida (United States)

    Ley, Janet A.; McIvor, Carole C.; Peebles, Ernst B; Rolls, Holly; Cooper, Suzanne T.


    Fishing in Tampa Bay enhances the quality of life of the area's residents and visitors. However, people's desire to settle along the Bay's shorelines and tributaries has been detrimental to the very habitat believed to be crucial to prime target fishery species. Common snook (Centropomus undecimalis) and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) are part of the suite of estuarine fishes that 1) are economically or ecologically prominent, and 2) have complex life cycles involving movement between open coastal waters and estuarine nursery habitats, including nursery habitats that are located within upstream, low-salinity portions of the Bay?s tidal tributaries. We are using an emerging microchemical technique -- elemental fingerprinting of fish otoliths -- to determine the degree to which specific estuarine locations contribute to adult fished populations in Tampa Bay. In ongoing monitoring surveys, over 1,000 young-of-the-year common snook and red drum have already been collected from selected Tampa Bay tributaries. Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we are currently processing a subsample of these archived otoliths to identify location-specific fingerprints based on elemental microchemistry. We will then analyze older fish from the local fishery in order to match them to their probable nursery areas, as defined by young-of-the-year otoliths. We expect to find that some particularly favorable nursery locations contribute disproportionately to the fished population. In contrast, other nursery areas may be degraded, or act as 'sinks', thereby decreasing their contribution to the fish population. Habitat managers can direct strategic efforts to protect any nursery locations that are found to be of prime importance in contributing to adult stocks.

  1. Modeling reservoir geomechanics using discrete element method : Application to reservoir monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alassi, Haitham Tayseer


    Understanding reservoir geomechanical behavior is becoming more and more important for the petroleum industry. Reservoir compaction, which may result in surface subsidence and fault reactivation, occurs during reservoir depletion. Stress changes and possible fracture development inside and outside a depleting reservoir can be monitored using time-lapse (so-called '4D') seismic and/or passive seismic, and this can give valuable information about the conditions of a given reservoir during production. In this study we will focus on using the (particle-based) Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model reservoir geomechanical behavior during depletion and fluid injection. We show in this study that DEM can be used in modeling reservoir geomechanical behavior by comparing results obtained from DEM to those obtained from analytical solutions. The match of the displacement field between DEM and the analytical solution is good, however there is mismatch of the stress field which is related to the way stress is measured in DEM. A good match is however obtained by measuring the stress field carefully. We also use DEM to model reservoir geomechanical behavior beyond the elasticity limit where fractures can develop and faults can reactivate. A general technique has been developed to relate DEM parameters to rock properties. This is necessary in order to use correct reservoir geomechanical properties during modeling. For any type of particle packing there is a limitation that the maximum ratio between P- and S-wave velocity Vp/Vs that can be modeled is 3 . The static behavior for a loose packing is different from the dynamic behavior. Empirical relations are needed for the static behavior based on numerical test observations. The dynamic behavior for both dense and loose packing can be given by analytical relations. Cosserat continuum theory is needed to derive relations for Vp and Vs. It is shown that by constraining the particle rotation, the S-wave velocity can be

  2. Photoacoustic microbeam-oscillator with tunable resonance direction and amplitude (United States)

    Wu, Qingjun; Li, Fanghao; Wang, Bo; Yi, Futing; Jiang, J. Z.; Zhang, Dongxian


    We successfully design one photoacoustic microbeam-oscillator actuated by nanosecond laser, which exhibits tunable resonance direction and amplitude. The mechanism of laser induced oscillation is systematically analyzed. Both simulation and experimental results reveal that the laser induced acoustic wave propagates in a multi-reflected mode, resulting in resonance in the oscillator. This newly-fabricated micrometer-sized beam-oscillator has an excellent actuation function, i.e., by tuning the laser frequency, the direction and amplitude of actuation can be efficiently altered, which will have potential industrial applications.

  3. Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing for the Characterization of Extracellular Vesicles. (United States)

    Maas, Sybren L N; Broekman, Marike L D; de Vrij, Jeroen


    Accurate characterization of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, is essential to obtain further knowledge on the biological relevance of EVs. Tunable resistive pulse sensing (tRPS) has shown promise as a method for single particle-based quantification and size profiling of EVs. Here, we describe the technical background of tRPS and its applications for EV characterization. Besides the standard protocol, we describe an alternative protocol, in which samples are spiked with polystyrene beads of known size and concentration. This alternative protocol can be used to overcome some of the challenges of direct EV characterization in biological fluids.

  4. Moving finite element method: Applications to general partial differential equations with multiple large gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Miller, K.


    The moving finite element (MFE) method has been reduced to practice in the automatic solution program DYLA for general systems of transient partial differential equations (PDEs) in 1-D. Several test examples are presented which illustrate the unique node movement and systematic control features which are intrinsic in the MFE method. Computational dilemmas of numerical diffusion, Gibbs overshooting and undershooting, zone tangling, and grid remap (or re-connection) aliasing, which occur frequently in conventional PDE methods, are essentially eliminated in the MFE mehtod. Arbitrarily large gradients (or shocks) can be solved with extremely high resolution and accuracy for non-coincident, or even counterdirected, propagating wavefronts. Boundary layers of arbitrarily small dimensions are solved with high accuracy simultaneously with the large-scale structures in reactive and non-reactive fluid calculations. The MFE method requires a small fraction of the grid nodes which are used in conventional PDE solution methods because the nodes migrate continuously and systematically to those positions where they are most needed in order to yield accurate PDE solutions on entire problem domains. Courant--Friedrichs--Lewy time-step limits are exceeded by wide margins (by factors of two to several thousand). Finally, the extension of the MFE method to 2-D is briefly discussed

  5. The Application Research of Inverse Finite Element Method for Frame Deformation Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhao


    Full Text Available A frame deformation estimation algorithm is investigated for the purpose of real-time control and health monitoring of flexible lightweight aerospace structures. The inverse finite element method (iFEM for beam deformation estimation was recently proposed by Gherlone and his collaborators. The methodology uses a least squares principle involving section strains of Timoshenko theory for stretching, torsion, bending, and transverse shearing. The proposed methodology is based on stain-displacement relations only, without invoking force equilibrium. Thus, the displacement fields can be reconstructed without the knowledge of structural mode shapes, material properties, and applied loading. In this paper, the number of the locations where the section strains are evaluated in the iFEM is discussed firstly, and the algorithm is subsequently investigated through a simple supplied beam and an experimental aluminum wing-like frame model in the loading case of end-node force. The estimation results from the iFEM are compared with reference displacements from optical measurement and computational analysis, and the accuracy of the algorithm estimation is quantified by the root-mean-square error and percentage difference error.

  6. The Shock Pulse Index and Its Application in the Fault Diagnosis of Rolling Element Bearings. (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Liao, Yuhe; Lin, Jin


    The properties of the time domain parameters of vibration signals have been extensively studied for the fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings (REBs). Parameters like kurtosis and Envelope Harmonic-to-Noise Ratio are the most widely applied in this field and some important progress has been made. However, since only one-sided information is contained in these parameters, problems still exist in practice when the signals collected are of complicated structure and/or contaminated by strong background noises. A new parameter, named Shock Pulse Index (SPI), is proposed in this paper. It integrates the mutual advantages of both the parameters mentioned above and can help effectively identify fault-related impulse components under conditions of interference of strong background noises, unrelated harmonic components and random impulses. The SPI optimizes the parameters of Maximum Correlated Kurtosis Deconvolution (MCKD), which is used to filter the signals under consideration. Finally, the transient information of interest contained in the filtered signal can be highlighted through demodulation with the Teager Energy Operator (TEO). Fault-related impulse components can therefore be extracted accurately. Simulations show the SPI can correctly indicate the fault impulses under the influence of strong background noises, other harmonic components and aperiodic impulse and experiment analyses verify the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed method.

  7. Application of the wave finite element method to reinforced concrete structures with damage (United States)

    El Masri, Evelyne; Ferguson, Neil; Waters, Timothy


    Vibration based methods are commonly deployed to detect structural damage using sensors placed remotely from potential damage sites. Whilst many such techniques are modal based there are advantages to adopting a wave approach, in which case it is essential to characterise wave propagation in the structure. The Wave Finite Element method (WFE) is an efficient approach to predicting the response of a composite waveguide using a conventional FE model of a just a short segment. The method has previously been applied to different structures such as laminated plates, thinwalled structures and fluid-filled pipes. In this paper, the WFE method is applied to a steel reinforced concrete beam. Dispersion curves and wave mode shapes are first presented from free wave solutions, and these are found to be insensitive to loss of thickness in a single reinforcing bar. A reinforced beam with localised damage is then considered by coupling an FE model of a short damaged segment into the WFE model of the undamaged beam. The fundamental bending, torsion and axial waves are unaffected by the damage but some higher order waves of the cross section are significantly reflected close to their cut-on frequencies. The potential of this approach for detecting corrosion and delamination in reinforced concrete beams will be investigated in future work.

  8. Indicator electrodes from d-elements for application in different types of potentiometric analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kunasheva


    Full Text Available The article covers the use of metal electrodes from titanium, tungsten, molybdenum as indicator electrodes at potentiometric method of analysis. The condition of measuring operation in dependence on pH, ionic strength of solutions is described in the article. Electrode potential of testing electrodes are measured in the interval of concentration of salts from 0,1∙10-1 mole/l till 0,1∙10-6 mole/l. The results of testing of electrical-analytical description of metal electrodes made of d-elements, in particular, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum in solutions of cations of some metals and anions were mentioned. As ions of metal cations Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+ and anions Cl-, I-, F- were chosen.It is identified that titanic electrode has different response to ions of copper (II, zinc and cadmium. However, dependence of electrode potential on concentration of ions of metal is rectilinear, that is vequired of indicator electrodes in the direct potential metrics.  

  9. Kinetics of Evaporation of Alloying Elements under Vacuum: Application to Ti alloys in Electron Beam Melting (United States)

    Choi, Wonjin; Jourdan, Julien; Matveichev, Alexey; Jardy, Alain; Bellot, Jean-Pierre


    Vacuum metallurgical processes such as the electron beam melting are highly conducive to volatilization. In titanium processing, it concerns the alloying elements which show a high vapor pressure with respect to titanium matrix, such as Al. Two different experimental approaches using a laboratory electron beam furnace have been developed for the estimation of volatilization rate and activity coefficient of Al in Ti64. The first innovative method is based on the deposition rate of Al on Si wafers located at different angles θ above the liquid bath. We found that a deposition according to a cos2(π/2-θ) law describes well the experimental distribution of the weight of the deposition layer. The second approach relies on the depletion of aluminum in the liquid pool at two separate times of the volatilization process. Both approaches provide values of the Al activity coefficient at T=1, 860 °C in a fairly narrow range [0.044-0.0495], in good agreement with the range reported in the literature. Furthermore numerical simulation of the Al behavior in the liquid pool reveals (in the specific case of electron beam button melting) a weak transport resistance in the surface boundary layer.

  10. Application of equivalent elastic methods in three-dimensional finite element structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.P.; Gordon, J.L.; Hutula, D.N.; Holliday, J.E.; Jandrasits, W.G.


    This paper describes use of equivalent solid (EQS) modeling to obtain efficient solutions to perforated material problems using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA) programs. It is shown that the accuracy of EQS methods in 3D-FEA depends on providing sufficient equivalent elastic properties to allow the EQS material to respond according to the elastic symmetry of the pattern. Peak stresses and ligament stresses are calculated from the EQS stresses by an appropriate 3D-FEA submodel approach. The method is demonstrated on the problem of a transversely pressurized simply supported plate with a central divider lane separating two perforated regions with circular penetrations arranged in a square pattern. A 3D-FEA solution for a model that incorporates each penetration explicitly is used for comparison with results from an EQS solution for the plate. Results for deflection and stresses from the EQS solution are within 3% of results from the explicit 3D-FE model. A solution to the sample problem is also provided using the procedures in the ASME B and PV Code. The ASME B and PV Code formulas for plate deflection were shown to overestimate the stiffening effects of the divider lane and the outer stiffening ring

  11. Application of Grounded Theory in Determining Required Elements for IPv6 Risk Assessment Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Athirah


    Full Text Available The deployment of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6 has raised security concerns among the network administrators. Thus, in strengthening the network security, administrator requires an appropriate method to assess the possible risks that occur in their networks. Aware of the needs to calculate risk in IPv6 network, it is essential to an organization to have an equation that is flexible and consider the requirements of the network. However, the existing risk assessment equations do not consider the requirement of the network. Therefore, this paper presents the adaptation of grounded theory to search for elements that are needed to develop IPv6 risk assessment (IRA6 equation. The attack scenarios’ experiments; UDP Flooding, TCP Flooding and Multicast attacks were carried out in different network environment to show how the IPv6 risk assessment equation being used. The result shows that the IRA6 equation is more flexible to be used regardless the network sizes and easier to calculate the risk value compared to the existing risk assessment equations. Hence, network administrators can have a proper decision making and strategic planning for a robust network security.

  12. Application of diffractive optical elements for inspection of complicated through holes (United States)

    Chugui, Yuri V.; Lemeshko, Yuri A.; Zav'yalov, Peter S.


    The inspection of geometrical parameters of through holes with different configurations is one of the urgent tasks in industry. The majority of the existing noncontact inspection methods doesn't allow measuring the holes of complicated (noncylindrical) configurations with good performances. Two simple developed methods based on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) make possible to inspect the through holes (with the diameter from 5 to 100 mm) both cylindrical and complicated configurations with acceptable lateral and axial (longitudinal) resolution. First method, based on the scanning of inner hole surface by light ring, takes a mechanical displacement of the inspected article along its axis. The second holes inspection method uses the DOE as the diffractive focuser, which generates N light rings simultaneously along the hole axis with ring spacing Δz. In this case no need for mechanical displacement of inspected articles, output image contains full measuring information about 3D article hole configuration. We have fabricated some binary DOEs using circular laser writing system CLWS-300, developed and produced at the TDI SIE SB RAS. The obtained results have been used under the development of universal automatic inspection system of nuclear reactors fuel assemblies spacer grids.

  13. Application of three dimensional finite element modeling for the simulation of machining processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.E.; Wu, W.T.; Chigurupati, P.; Jinn, J.T.


    For many years, metal cutting simulations have been performed using two dimensional approximations of the actual process. Factors such as chip morphology, cutting force, temperature, and tool wear can all be predicted on the computer. However, two dimensional simulation is limited to processes which are orthogonal, or which can be closely approximated as orthogonal.Advances in finite element technology, coupled with continuing improvement in the availability of low cost, high performance computer hardware, have made the three dimensional simulation of a large variety of metal cutting processes practical. Specific improvements include efficient FEM solvers, and robust adaptive remeshing. As researchers continue to gain an improved understanding of wear, material representation, tool coatings, fracture, and other such phenomena, the machining simulation system also must adapt to incorporate these evolving models.To demonstrate the capabilities of the 3D simulation system, a variety of drilling, milling, and turning processes have been simulated and will be presented in this paper. Issues related to computation time and simulation accuracy will also be addressed

  14. Application of the neutron activation analysis technique in trace elements analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Somel, N.


    The main objective in this study is the implementation k 0 -standardization method (single comparator method) using gold comparator as a routine method in neutron activation analysis laboratory in Engineering Nuclear Department. Cadmium ratio Rcd; Cd-ratio = [A s p/(A s p) C d] and the nuclear reactor constants (f=φ t h/φ e pi subcadimum thermal- to- epithermal neutron flux ratio and α with describing the φ e (E)∼ 1/E 1+α neutron flux distribution) were determined in the inner and outer irradiation sites at MNS Reactor. K 0 -IAEA software, which provided by the Agency, has been installed and applied in our laboratory. Trace elements in many kinds of samples (biological, environmental, alloy ...etc) were determined using K 0 -IAEA software. The results of standard reference materials (SRM's) obtained in this work show a good agreement with the certified values, and we got these results with a good accuracy closer to results which we got from relative NAA method. (author)

  15. Some Applications of X-Ray Based Elemental Analysis Methods for Romanian Gold Minerals Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan, D.; Constantinescu, B.; Pauna, C.; Neacsu, A.; Popescu, G.


    The elemental composition of gold, gold minerals and gold associated minerals releases important information's both from scientific (geologic) and economic point of view. In the present work, we focused on samples from Rosia Montana and Musariu ore deposits, from so called T ransylvanian gold of the golden q uadrilateral , Metaliferi Mountains. Our investigation started using optical microscopy. On the sample from Rosia Montana native gold band could be macroscopically seen. Gold occurs also like native gold in carbonate minerals, or associated with galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and quartz. The sample from Musariu shows native gold distributed at the border of sphalerite, native gold enclosed and along the margins of sphalerite and native gold between quartz grains. Three X-ray (the emission of characteristic lines spectra for each element present in the sample) based elemental analysis methods were also used: X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), micro Synchrotron Radiation induced X-Ray Fluorescence (micro-SR-XRF) and micro Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (micro-PIXE). Our XRF methods are based on Xray tube spectrometers: a portable one - X-MET 3000TX and a stationary one - Spectro MIDEX. The two Rosia Montana and Musariu gold samples were studied using the micro-PIXE technique at the AN2000 accelerator of Laboratory Nazionale di Legnaro (LNL), INFN, Italy - maps and point spectra. The experiment was carried out with a 2 MeV proton microbeam (9 μm 2 beam area), maximum beam current 400 pA. The characteristic X-rays were measured with a Canberra HPGe detector (with 180 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV). Complementary experiments on the samples due the improved condition offered by the high energy X-rays, namely -Sb, Sn, Te detection, were performed at BESSY Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Berlin - point spectra. During the experiment, point spectra were acquired at 35 keV, excitation energy, using a spatially resolved synchrotron-radiation XRF setup detected to analyses. The XRF

  16. Application of the method finite elements by numerical modeling stress-strain state in conveyor belts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maras Michal


    Full Text Available Solving problems connected with damaging a conveyor belt at the transfer points is conditioned by knowing laws of this phenomenon. Acquiring the knowledge on this phenomen is possible to be gained either by experimental research or by the numerical model GEM 22, which enables to determine the distribution of stresses and strains in a suitably selected cross-section of a conveyor belt. The paper begins by defining the problem, determining the boundary model conditions and continues by modelling the dynamic force acting on the conveyor belt. In the conclusions of the paper there are given table and graphical results of the numerical modelling aimed at solving the problems connected with the damaging of a conveyor belt. By numerical modelling, in this case the finite element method, in the given way can be realized the parametric studies with changing values of input parameters, especially: - stretching force, - thickness of cover layers of the conveyor belt and strain properties of the rubber, - parameters of the steel cord of the conveyor belt.

  17. Nonlinear finite element simulations of injuries with free boundaries: application to surgical wounds. (United States)

    Valero, C; Javierre, E; García-Aznar, J M; Gómez-Benito, M J


    Wound healing is a process driven by biochemical and mechanical variables in which a new tissue is synthesised to recover original tissue functionality. Wound morphology plays a crucial role in this process, as the skin behaviour is not uniform along different directions. In this work, we simulate the contraction of surgical wounds, which can be characterised as elongated and deep wounds. Because of the regularity of this morphology, we approximate the evolution of the wound through its cross section, adopting a plane strain hypothesis. This simplification reduces the complexity of the computational problem; while allows for a thorough analysis of the role of wound depth in the healing process, an aspect of medical and computational relevance that has not yet been addressed. To reproduce wound contraction, we consider the role of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, collagen and a generic growth factor. The contraction phenomenon is driven by cell-generated forces. We postulate that these forces are adjusted to the mechanical environment of the tissue where cells are embedded through a mechanosensing and mechanotransduction mechanism. To solve the nonlinear problem, we use the finite element method (FEM) and an updated Lagrangian approach to represent the change in the geometry. To elucidate the role of wound depth and width on the contraction pattern and evolution of the involved species, we analyse different wound geometries with the same wound area. We find that deeper wounds contract less and reach a maximum contraction rate earlier than superficial wounds. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications : final report for the Arquin Corporation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Armando, Sr. (Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM); Bibeau, Tiffany A.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei


    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical vertical masonry wall subject to different lateral loads with and without continuous horizontal filament ties laid between rows of concrete blocks. A static loading analysis and cost comparison were also performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Simulations of vertical walls subject to static loads representing 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and a seismic event (0.66 psi) showed that the simulated walls performed similarly and adequately when subject to these loads with and without the ties. Additional simulations and tests are required to assess the performance of actual walls with and without the ties under greater loads and more realistic conditions (e.g., cracks, non-linear response).

  19. Finite element analyses of continuous filament ties for masonry applications: final report for the Arquin Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, Sr., Armando [Arquin Corporation, La Luz, NM (United States); Bibeau, Tiffany A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ho, Clifford Kuofei


    Finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the response of a hypothetical masonry shear wall with and without continuous filament ties to various lateral loads. The loads represented three different scenarios: (1) 100 mph wind, (2) explosive attack, and (3) an earthquake. In addition, a static loading analysis and cost comparison were performed to evaluate optimal materials and designs for the spacers affixed to the filaments. Results showed that polypropylene, ABS, and polyethylene (high density) were suitable materials for the spacers based on performance and cost, and the short T-spacer design was optimal based on its performance and functionality. Results of the shear-wall loading simulations revealed that simulated walls with the continuous filament ties yielded factors of safety that were at least ten times greater than those without the ties. In the explosive attack simulation (100 psi), the simulated wall without the ties failed (minimum factor of safety was less than one), but the simulated wall with the ties yielded a minimum factor of safety greater than one. Simulations of the walls subject to lateral loads caused by 100 mph winds (0.2 psi) and seismic events with a peak ground acceleration of 1 ''g'' (0.66 psi) yielded no failures with or without the ties. Simulations of wall displacement during the seismic scenarios showed that the wall with the ties resulted in a maximum displacement that was 20% less than the wall without the ties.

  20. Effect of fertilizer application on Urtica dioica and its element concentrations in a cut grassland (United States)

    Müllerová, Vladimíra; Hejcman, Michal; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Pavlů, Vilém


    Little is known about the effects of nutrient availability in cut grasslands on growth characteristics of Urtica dioica and its aboveground chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of N, P and K application on the growth of U. dioica were studied over five years in a Dactylis glomerata grassland cut twice per year under unfertilized control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments (300, 80 and 200 kg of N, P and K ha-1 per year). Nitrogen application in the form of NH4NO3 over five years decreased the soil pH, while P and K application increased P and K availability in the soil. Over five years, cover of U. dioica increased from 1% initially to 7, 9, 58, 83 and 99% in the control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments, respectively. Concentrations of N, P and Ca in the aboveground biomass of U. dioica were very high in comparison to other species and concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were comparable with other grassland species. N and P limitation of U. dioica growth was expected if concentrations of N and P in the aboveground biomass were lower than 25 g N kg-1 and 4 g P kg-1 in the phenological stage of flowering. We concluded that two cuts per year are not sufficient to suppress expansion of U. dioica under high N, P and K availability. This probably explains why U. dioica survive also in frequently cut intensive grasslands under adequately high nutrient supply.