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Sample records for tuna thunnus orientalis

  1. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Amino Acid Isotope Incorporation and Enrichment Factors in Pacific Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christina J.; Madigan, Daniel J.; Block, Barbara A.; Popp, Brian N.

    2014-01-01

    Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) are largely unknown, limiting the application of CSIA to trophic studies. We determined nitrogen turnover rates of individual amino acids from a long-term (up to 1054 days) laboratory experiment using captive Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (PBFT), a large endothermic pelagic fish fed a controlled diet. Small PBFT (white muscle δ15N∼11.5‰) were collected in San Diego, CA and transported to the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC) where they were fed a controlled diet with high δ15N values relative to PBFT white muscle (diet δ15N∼13.9‰). Half-lives of trophic and source amino acids ranged from 28.6 to 305.4 days and 67.5 to 136.2 days, respectively. The TDF for the weighted mean values of amino acids was 3.0 ‰, ranging from 2.2 to 15.8 ‰ for individual combinations of 6 trophic and 5 source amino acids. Changes in the δ15N values of amino acids across trophic levels are the underlying drivers of the trophic 15N enrichment. Nearly all amino acid δ15N values in this experiment changed exponentially and could be described by a single compartment model. Significant differences in the rate of 15N incorporation were found for source and trophic amino acids both within and between these groups. Varying half-lives of individual amino acids can be applied to migratory organisms as isotopic clocks, determining the length of time an individual has spent in a new environment. These results greatly enhance the ability to interpret compound specific isotope analyses in trophic studies. PMID:24465724

  3. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

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    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  4. Spatial and temporal variability in the trans-Pacific migration of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) revealed by archival tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Ko; Fukuda, Hiromu; Tei, Yaoki; Okamoto, Suguru; Kiyofuji, Hidetada; Furukawa, Seishiro; Takagi, Junichi; Estess, Ethan; Farwell, Charles J.; Fuller, Daniel W.; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Ohshimo, Seiji; Kitagawa, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Archival electronic tags were internally implanted in 713 age-0 Pacific bluefin tuna (PBF) caught in their nursery waters off the southern coast of Japan and in the East China Sea over an extended study period (1995-2015) to clarify the spatial and temporal variability of their trans-Pacific migration. Two hundred twenty-five of these tagged tuna were recaptured by fisheries (31.6%), and we successfully retrieved tag data from 14 of 21 individuals recovered in the Eastern pacific. Furthermore, one archival tag recovered in the Western Pacific revealed that the individual had performed a trans-Pacific migration, so in total 21 tagged PBF were shown to have migrated to the Eastern Pacific (2.9% of the total tags released). We successfully downloaded data from 15 of these 21 archival tags, which revealed that some age-1 PBF migrate rapidly (123.9 ± 82.8 km day-1) and directly from waters offshore of Japan to the eastern Pacific (160.0°E to 130.0°W), a journey that takes an average of 2.5 months (ranging from 1.2 to 5.5 months) through relatively cool waters (14.7 ± 2.0 °C). All juvenile PBF began their trans-Pacific migration shortly after exposure to cooler water temperatures (physiological challenge for this age class. Three patterns were identified in the timing of the departure of juvenile PBF from the western Pacific: departing 12-14 months post-hatch (N = 7) in early summer (May-July), departing 17-19 months post-hatch (N = 7) in late autumn (October-December), and departing 21 months post-hatch (N = 1) in late winter (February). The PBF tagged along the southern coast of Japan (SCJ) arrived in the eastern Pacific earlier than those tagged in the East China Sea (ECS), most likely due to the shorter travel distance. Additionally, the PBF that began their trans-Pacific migration in the earlier period remained in an offshore foraging zone (the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition region) for shorter periods (2.8 months on average) and at lower latitudes (35.0

  5. A validated methodology for genetic identification of tuna species (genus Thunnus.

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    Jordi Viñas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuna species of the genus Thunnus, such as the bluefin tunas, are some of the most important and yet most endangered trade fish in the world. Identification of these species in traded forms, however, may be difficult depending on the presentation of the products, which may hamper conservation efforts on trade control. In this paper, we validated a genetic methodology that can fully distinguish between the eight Thunnus species from any kind of processed tissue.After testing several genetic markers, a complete discrimination of the eight tuna species was achieved using Forensically Informative Nucleotide Sequencing based primarily on the sequence variability of the hypervariable genetic marker mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR, followed, in some specific cases, by a second validation by a nuclear marker rDNA first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1. This methodology was able to distinguish all tuna species, including those belonging to the subgenus Neothunnus that are very closely related, and in consequence can not be differentiated with other genetic markers of lower variability. This methodology also took into consideration the presence of introgression that has been reported in past studies between T. thynnus, T. orientalis and T. alalunga. Finally, we applied the methodology to cross-check the species identity of 26 processed tuna samples.Using the combination of two genetic markers, one mitochondrial and another nuclear, allows a full discrimination between all eight tuna species. Unexpectedly, the genetic marker traditionally used for DNA barcoding, cytochrome oxidase 1, could not differentiate all species, thus its use as a genetic marker for tuna species identification is questioned.

  6. Development of a qPCR Method for the Identification and Quantification of Two Closely Related Tuna Species, Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) and Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares), in Canned Tuna.

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    Bojolly, Daline; Doyen, Périne; Le Fur, Bruno; Christaki, Urania; Verrez-Bagnis, Véronique; Grard, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) are among the most widely used tuna species for canning purposes. Not only substitution but also mixing of tuna species is prohibited by the European regulation for canned tuna products. However, as juveniles of bigeye and yellowfin tunas are very difficult to distinguish, unintentional substitutions may occur during the canning process. In this study, two mitochondrial markers from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II genes were used to identify bigeye tuna and yellowfin tuna, respectively, utilizing TaqMan qPCR methodology. Two different qPCR-based methods were developed to quantify the percentage of flesh of each species used for can processing. The first one was based on absolute quantification using standard curves realized with these two markers; the second one was founded on relative quantification with the universal 12S rRNA gene as the endogenous gene. On the basis of our results, we conclude that our methodology could be applied to authenticate these two closely related tuna species when used in a binary mix in tuna cans.

  7. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Biometrics and Condition.

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    Rodriguez-Marin, Enrique; Ortiz, Mauricio; Ortiz de Urbina, José María; Quelle, Pablo; Walter, John; Abid, Noureddine; Addis, Piero; Alot, Enrique; Andrushchenko, Irene; Deguara, Simeon; Di Natale, Antonio; Gatt, Mark; Golet, Walter; Karakulak, Saadet; Kimoto, Ai; Macias, David; Saber, Samar; Santos, Miguel Neves; Zarrad, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    The compiled data for this study represents the first Atlantic and Mediterranean-wide effort to pool all available biometric data for Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) with the collaboration of many countries and scientific groups. Biometric relationships were based on an extensive sampling (over 140,000 fish sampled), covering most of the fishing areas for this species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the representativeness of sampling and explore the most adequate procedure to fit the weight-length relationship (WLR). The selected model for the WLRs by stock included standardized data series (common measurement types) weighted by the inverse variability. There was little difference between annual stock-specific round weight-straight fork length relationships, with an overall difference of 6% in weight. The predicted weight by month was estimated as an additional component in the exponent of the weight-length function. The analyses of monthly variations of fish condition by stock, maturity state and geographic area reflect annual cycles of spawning and feeding behavior. We update and improve upon the biometric relationships for bluefin currently used by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, by incorporating substantially larger datasets than ever previously compiled, providing complete documentation of sources and employing robust statistical fitting. WLRs and other conversion factors estimated in this study differ from the ones used in previous bluefin stock assessments.

  8. Effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation on Spanish catches of albacore, Thunnus alalunga, and yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, in the North–east Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, C.J.; MacIas, D.; Camiñas, J.A.; Fernandez, I.L.; Baez, J.C.

    2016-07-01

    Tuna are highly migratory pelagic species (HMPS) with great importance in commercial fishing. Several authors have highlighted the effect of climatic oscillations such as the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) on HMPS. This paper analyzes the effects of the NAO on two HMPS: albacore, Thunnus alalunga, and yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares. Fishing data from the Spanish fleet operating in the North Atlantic area were obtained from the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) database. The results show a positive correlation between the NAO index and the Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) for both albacore and yellowfin tuna, depicting a potential effect on their capturability. (Author)

  9. DISTRIBUSI SPASIAL DAN TEMPORAL IKAN TUNA MATA BESAR (Thunnus obesus DI SAMUDERA HINDIA BAGIAN TIMUR

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    Irwan Jatmiko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tuna mata besar (Thunnus obesus merupakan salah satu hasil tangkapan yang penting bagi industri perikanan di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui distribusi spasial dan temporal ikan tuna mata besar di Samudera Hindia Bagian Timur. Pengumpulan data dilakukan oleh pemantau ilmiah (scientific observers pada kapal rawai tuna yang berbasis di Pelabuhan Benoa Bali, mulai Agustus 2005 hingga November 2013. Ikan tuna mata besar yang tertangkap sebanyak 5.340 ekor dan dari jumlah tersebut sebanyak 5.253 ekor diukur panjangnya. Distribusi spasial ikan tuna mata besar yang tertangkap rawai tuna Indonesia membentang dari 0°-33° LS dan 76°-128° BT. Persentase tertinggi ikan tuna mata besar dengan panjang >110 cm (Lm terdapat di sebelah barat Sumatera Barat dan di sebelah selatan Jawa Timur. Laju pancing menurut bulan penagkapan menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata dengan laju pancing tertinggi terjadi pada Agustus sebesar 0,54 ekor/100 mata pancing. Nelayan direkomendasikan untuk melakukan operasi penangkapan di daerah dengan persentase ukuran panjang ikan tuna mata besar >110 cm (Lm tertinggi, sehingga species tersebut mempunyai kesempatan untuk melakukan pemijahan minimal sekali sepanjang hidupnya. Hal ini dimaksudkan untuk menjaga kelestarian sumberdaya ikan tuna mata besar di Samudera Hindia. Big eye tuna (Thunnus obesus is one of the important catch of the fishing industry in Indonesia. The study is aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of big eye tuna in the Eastern Indian Ocean. Data were collected by scientific observers on tuna long line vessels which were mainly based in Port of Benoa Bali from August 2005 to November 2013. Total number of big eye tuna caught were 5,340 individuals and as many as 5,253 of them were measured in length. The spatial distribution of  big eye tuna caught by Indonesia tuna long line are in the area between 0°-33° S and 76°-128° E. The highest percentage of big eye tuna with

  10. Validation of the method spectrophotometer in the histamine determination in fresh tuna (Thunnus Tunna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Silva, F.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate the spectrophotometer method described by Bateman et al. (1994) for the histamine determination in fresh tuna (Thunnus Tunna) and to evaluate the histamine concentration in samples of fresh tuna. To fulfill the recently exposed objectives, the figures of merit were determined like they are it: recovery limits of detection, sensibility and repetitive of the method spectrophotometry and applied the analysis at twenty samples of fresh tuna for copy of the Metropolitan area and three sample like reference of fresh tuna stored 4 degree centigrade by 15 days. The histamine recovery you determines enriching seven ours of fresh tuna with histamine to two levels different 0.613 mg/L and 2.21 mg/L. three samples were left without enriching and you subtract the average to the native histamine. You determines the one it limits of detection using the standard deviation to three levels of concentration of histamine 1.37 mg/L, 2.22 mg/L and 3.22 mg/L, the minimum quantity of hi stamina that you can determine for the method spectrophotometry settling down. The repetitive you determines using the standard deviation for 100 among the average of the histamine values, in seven you replies independent of the same sample. You determines the histamine content, in the fresh tuna Thunnus Tunna of the expends of the Metropolitan Area and in samples of reference stored 4 degrees centigrade by 15 days [es

  11. Discrimination of juvenile yellowfin (Thunnus albacares and bigeye (T. obesus Tunas using mitochondrial DNA control region and liver morphology.

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    Ivane R Pedrosa-Gerasmio

    Full Text Available Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788 and bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839 are two of the most economically important tuna species in the world. However, identification of their juveniles, especially at sizes less than 40 cm, is very difficult, often leading to misidentification and miscalculation of their catch estimates. Here, we applied the mitochondrial DNA control region D-loop, a recently validated genetic marker used for identifying tuna species (Genus Thunnus, to discriminate juvenile tunas caught by purse seine and ringnet sets around fish aggregating devices (FADs off the Southern Iloilo Peninsula in Central Philippines. We checked individual identifications using the Neighbor-Joining Method and compared results with morphometric analyses and the liver phenotype. We tested 48 specimens ranging from 13 to 31 cm fork length. Morpho-meristic analyses suggested that 12 specimens (25% were bigeye tuna and 36 specimens (75% were yellowfin tuna. In contrast, the genetic and liver analyses both showed that 5 specimens (10% were bigeye tuna and 43 (90% yellowfin tuna. This suggests that misidentification can occur even with highly stringent morpho-meristic characters and that the mtDNA control region and liver phenotype are excellent markers to discriminate juveniles of yellowfin and bigeye tunas.

  12. Trace elements in the kidney tissue of Bluefin Tuna ( Thunnus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace elements, namely lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe), found in kidney tissues were analyzed and compared between wild/fattened and female/male bluefin tuna (BFT) in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. One hundred (that is, 50 female and 50 male) individual ...

  13. Screening of biodiesel production from waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.), seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

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    Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Abdillah, Annur Ahadi; Mustikawati, Hutami; Atari, Suci Dwi Purnawa

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages over solar. Compared to solar, biodiesel has more eco-friendly characteristic and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel that is made from animal fats can be produced from fish oil, while other alternative sources from vegetable oils are seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. Waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.) in Indonesia is commonly a side product of tuna canning industries known as tuna precook oil; on the other hand, seaweed Gracilaria sp. and Kappaphycus alvarezii are commonly found in Indonesia's seas. Seaweed waste that was used in the present study was 100 kg and in wet condition, and the waste oil was 10 liter. The seaweed was extracted with soxhletation method that used n-hexane as the solvent. To produce biodiesel, trans esterification was performed on the seaweed oil that was obtained from the soxhletation process and waste tuna oil. Biodiesel manufactured from seaweed K. alvarezii obtained the best score in flash point, freezing point, and viscosity test. However, according to level of manufacturing efficiency, biodiesel from waste tuna oil is more efficient and relatively easier compared to biodiesel from waste K. alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

  14. Polimorfisme Enzim Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase pada Tiga Populasi Tuna Sirip Kuning (Thunnus albacares)

    OpenAIRE

    Permana, Gusti Ngurah; Hutapea, Jhon H.; Moria, Sari Budi; Haryanti, Haryanti

    2006-01-01

    Samples of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) were taken from three locations Bali, North Sulawesi and North Maluku. The glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) was analyzed from liver using allozyme electrophoresis method. Polymorphism of GPI enzyme was observed and four alleles (A, B ,C, D) were found in Bali population, three alleles (A,B,C) were found in North Maluku and North Sulawesi populations. Heterozygosity values, from Bali, North Maluku and North Sulawesi were 0.419; 0.417; 0.143 resp...

  15. Genomic differentiation and demographic histories of Atlantic and Indo-Pacific yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J M I; Damerau, M; Matschiner, M; Jentoft, S; Hanel, R

    2017-04-13

    Recent developments in the field of genomics have provided new and powerful insights into population structure and dynamics that are essential for the conservation of biological diversity. As a commercially highly valuable species, the yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is intensely exploited throughout its distribution in tropical oceans around the world, and is currently classified as near threatened. However, conservation efforts for this species have so far been hampered by limited knowledge of its population structure, due to incongruent results of previous investigations. Here, we use whole-genome sequencing in concert with a draft genome assembly to decipher the global population structure of the yellowfin tuna, and to investigate its demographic history. We detect significant differentiation of Atlantic and Indo-Pacific yellowfin tuna populations as well as the possibility of a third diverged yellowfin tuna group in the Arabian Sea. We further observe evidence for past population expansion as well as asymmetric gene flow from the Indo-Pacific to the Atlantic. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT OF YELLOWFIN TUNA (Thunnus albacares AT DIFFERENT INCUBATION TEMPERATURE

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    Jhon Harianto Hutapea

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in order to figure out the effect of incubation temperature on embryonic development of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares eggs. Five different incubation temperatures were applied as treatments, i.e.: 24°C, 26°C, 28°C, 30°C, and 32°C with 3 replicate each. Ten micro plates with lid (IWAKI, Japan were used; each has 6 well and 10 mL volumes. Five micro plates were used for experiment and five for balance on shaker. Three well of each micro plate were filled with 8 mL ultra violet sterilized sea water and 50 fertilized eggs. Temperature was set using Multi Thermo Incubator which has 5 level racks. Temperatures were set from the lowest to the highest on bottom to upper rack order. To maintain eggs dispersed in the medium, shaker on each rack was operated at 150 RPM. The embryo was monitored every 30-60 minutes depends on embryonic stage development using Microscope which was connected to Digital Camera DXM 1200F. Image analyses by Image Analyzer Program. The results showed, incubation temperature was significantly affect (P<0.05 embryonic development and hatching time of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares eggs. Optimum incubation temperature for embryo development and hatching was 28°C. Decreased on incubation temperature slows down embryo development at all stages, and vice versa, increased on incubation temperature accelerates embryo development.

  17. Evolutionary changes of multiple visual pigment genes in the complete genome of Pacific bluefin tuna

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yoji; Mori, Kazuki; Saitoh, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Sugaya, Takuma; Shigenobu, Yuya; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Muta, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yasuike, Motoshige; Oohara, Ichiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Kobayashi, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Tunas are migratory fishes in offshore habitats and top predators with unique features. Despite their ecological importance and high market values, the open-ocean lifestyle of tuna, in which effective sensing systems such as color vision are required for capture of prey, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic and evolutionary basis of optic adaptation of tuna, we determined the genome sequence of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), using next-generation sequencing tec...

  18. Otolith chemistry discriminates natal signatures of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in the Atlantic Ocean

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    Kitchens, L. L.; Rooker, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the otolith chemistry of young-of-the-year (YOY) yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) was examined to determine whether chemical signatures are distinct across different putative spawning areas in the Atlantic Ocean. Yellowfin tuna is a highly migratory species that is currently managed as a single panmictic stock in the Atlantic Ocean; however, uncertainty remains regarding the population structure of yellowfin in this region, particularly concerning the degree of mixing between spawning populations. Analysis of naturally occurring chemical tracers in otoliths provides a valuable means to reconstruct a fish's environmental history and is thus a promising approach for delineating stock structure of Atlantic yellowfin tuna. YOY yellowfin tuna otoliths were collected from 5 locations in the Atlantic Ocean (Gulf of Mexico, SE Caribbean, Brazil, Cape Verde, and Gulf of Guinea) from 2013-2015 and trace element (Li, Mg, Mn, Co, Cu, Sr, Zn, and Ba) and stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) analyses were conducted to investigate regional variation in otolith chemical composition. Results show significant differences among nursery areas in both trace element (MANOVA, p<0.001) and δ13C and δ18O signatures (ANOVA, p=0.017 and p=0.001, respectively). Particularly high spatial separation was observed based on eastern Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea + Cape Verde) and western Atlantic (Gulf of Mexico + Brazil + Martinique) nursery areas, indicating the approach has promise for distinguishing migrants displaying trans-ocean movement. These chemical signatures will be used to assign adult yellowfin tuna to their nursery of origin, ultimately providing an improved understanding of the stock structure and movement of yellowfin tuna in the Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Form and function of the bulbus arteriosus in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans): static properties.

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    Braun, Marvin H; Brill, Richard W; Gosline, John M; Jones, David R

    2003-10-01

    The juxtaposition of heart and gills in teleost fish means that the Windkessel function characteristic of the whole mammalian arterial tree has to be subserved by the extremely short ventral aorta and bulbus arteriosus. Over the functional pressure range, arteries from blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) have J-shaped pressure-volume (P-V) loops, while bulbi from the same species have r-shaped P-V loops, with a steep initial rise followed by a compliant plateau phase. The steep initial rise in pressure is due to the geometry of the lumen. The interactions between radius, pressure and tension require a large initial pressure to open the bulbar lumen for flow. The plateau is due to the unique organization of the bulbar wall. The large elastin:collagen ratio, limited amount of collagen arranged circumferentially, lack of elastin lamellae and low hydrophobicity of the elastin itself all combine to lower stiffness, increase extensibility and allow efficient recoil. Even though the modulus of bulbus material is much lower than that of an artery, at large volumes the overall stiffness of the bulbus increases rapidly. The morphological features that give rise to the special inflation characteristics of the bulbus help to extend flow and maintain pressure during diastole.

  20. Influences of oceanographic features on the distribution and abundance of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, larvae in the Gulf of Mexico

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    Cornic, M.; Rooker, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Summer ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) from 2007-2010 to characterize patterns of distribution and abundance of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) larvae in this region. Yellowfin tuna larvae were moderately abundant representing 9% of the overall Thunnus larvae collected (18765) and had a percent occurrence ranging from 13 to 57% among surveys. Interannual variations were detected with highest mean densities observed in 2009 (2.2 larvae per 1000m3) and the lowest mean densities observed in 2008 (0.7 larvae per 1000 m3). Generalized additive models were used to investigate the influence of oceanographic conditions on abundance of yellowfin tuna larvae. Increased densities were associated with high sea surface temperatures, positive sea surface heights, and intermediate salinities, revealing that these physicochemical conditions may be favorable for yellowfin tuna larvae. These results indicate that the NGoM is an important spawning and/or nursery habitat for yellowfin tuna and suggest that mesoscale features and physicochemical characteristics of water masses may impact distribution and abundance of yellowfin tuna larvae in the NGoM.

  1. Transectional heat transfer in thermoregulating bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) - a 2D heat flux model.

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    Boye, Jess; Musyl, Michael; Brill, Richard; Malte, Hans

    2009-11-01

    We developed a 2D heat flux model to elucidate routes and rates of heat transfer within bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe 1839 in both steady-state and time-dependent settings. In modeling the former situation, we adjusted the efficiencies of heat conservation in the red and the white muscle so as to make the output of the model agree as closely as possible with observed cross-sectional isotherms. In modeling the latter situation, we applied the heat exchanger efficiencies from the steady-state model to predict the distribution of temperature and heat fluxes in bigeye tuna during their extensive daily vertical excursions. The simulations yielded a close match to the data recorded in free-swimming fish and strongly point to the importance of the heat-producing and heat-conserving properties of the white muscle. The best correspondence between model output and observed data was obtained when the countercurrent heat exchangers in the blood flow pathways to the red and white muscle retained 99% and 96% (respectively) of the heat produced in these tissues. Our model confirms that the ability of bigeye tuna to maintain elevated muscle temperatures during their extensive daily vertical movements depends on their ability to rapidly modulate heating and cooling rates. This study shows that the differential cooling and heating rates could be fully accounted for by a mechanism where blood flow to the swimming muscles is either exclusively through the heat exchangers or completely shunted around them, depending on the ambient temperature relative to the body temperature. Our results therefore strongly suggest that such a mechanism is involved in the extensive physiological thermoregulatory abilities of endothermic bigeye tuna.

  2. Discovering where bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, might go: using environmental and fishery data to map potential tuna habitat in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios Damalas; Persefoni Megalofonou

    2012-01-01

    Based on a dataset derived from commercial fisheries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in 1998-2005, we applied generalized additive models (GAMs) to investigate the relative influence of a range of environmental factors on catch rates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus, 1785). GAM analyses were conducted by separately modelling (1) the probability of making a catch (encountering a school), and (2) the positive catch rates (school size). Results suggested intra-annual variation...

  3. Distinct Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares Stocks Detected in Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO Using DNA Microsatellites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyn D Aguila

    Full Text Available The yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788, covers majority of the Philippines' tuna catch, one of the major fisheries commodities in the country. Due to its high economic importance sustainable management of these tunas has become an imperative measure to prevent stock depletion. Currently, the Philippine yellowfin tuna is believed to be part of a single stock of the greater WCPO though some reports suggest otherwise. This study therefore aims to establish the genetic stock structure of the said species in the Philippines as compared to Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea using nine (9 DNA microsatellite markers. DNA microsatellite data revealed significant genetic differentiation between the Philippine and Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea yellowfin tuna samples. (FST = 0.034, P = 0.016, which is further supported by multilocus distance matrix testing (PCoA and model-based clustering (STRUCTURE 2.2.With these findings, this study posits that the yellowfin tuna population in the Philippines is a separate stock from the Bismarck Sea population. These findings add evidence to the alternative hypothesis of having at least 2 subpopulations of yellowfin tuna in the WCPO and calls for additional scientific studies using other parameters to investigate this. Accurate population information is necessary in formulating a more appropriate management strategy for the sustainability of the yellowfin tuna not only in the Philippines but also in the WCPO.

  4. Evaluation of the proximate quality of the combination of Tuna (Thunnus albacares) and white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yufidasari, H. S.; Prihanto, A. A.; Nurdiani, R.; Jaziri, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Nugget is a processed meat product which has great market demand but need variations to increase its nutritional content. Tuna is rich in omega-3 protein, vitamins, and minerals. White oyster mushrooms have high nutritional content which are about 23-33% protein, 36-68 % carbohydrates and 12-22 % amino acids. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the chemical quality of Tuna nugget (Thunnus albacores) with combination of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Complete Randomized Design (RAL) with parameters of Tuna and white oyster mushroom formulation, TJ1 (70 % Tuna: 30 % white oyster mushroom), TJ2 (50 % Tuna: 50 % white oyster mushroom), TJ3 (30 % Tuna: 70 % white oyster mushroom), and Control or K Treatment (100 % Tuna) is used. Results of Tuna nuggets with white oyster mushroom combination showed the highest value of water content in TJ3 50.14 %, protein K 19.6 %, fat TJ3 22.98 %, ash K 3.99 % and 2.47 % crude fiber. From these results, there is a need for further research on fat, ash and coarse fiber content that is used in the manufacture of fish nuggets combined with oyster mushrooms because it failed to meet Indonesian National Standard (SNI).

  5. First data on growth and nucleic acid and protein content of field-captured Mediterranean bluefin (Thunnus thynnus and albacore (Thunnus alalunga tuna larvae: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto García

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The waters surrounding the Balearic archipelago are considered to be prime spawning habitats of the bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus and other tuna species such as albacore (T. alalunga in the Mediterranean. During the 2003 bluefin and albacore spawning season, a tuna larval survey (TUNIBAL 0703 was carried out to assess the distribution of bluefin larvae in relation to hydrographic mesoscale features. Tuna larvae were collected by means of surface plankton tows with a bongo gear with a quadrangular mouth measuring 1 m diagonally. The otolith microstructure of 157 and 71 field-captured larvae of Mediterranean bluefin and albacore, respectively, were analyzed to estimate the daily growth pattern. Furthermore, biochemical analysis to estimate DNA, RNA and protein content was done on another batch of 114 bluefin and 132 albacore larvae. The size range included pre-flexion to post-flexion larvae, from 2.8 to 8.6 mm in body length. bluefin and albacore larvae grew linearly in standard length (0.35 and 0.33 mm/day, respectively and potentially with respect to dry weight. No significant differences between species were observed in the size-weight relationship, or in the allometric relationship of body size and weight to otolith radius. However, the relationship of DNA and RNA to body size and weight showed a significant difference between species. Bluefin tuna larvae showed a greater nucleic acid content than albacore larvae. Protein content showed no significant differences with respect to body length.

  6. Extracting of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) fish skin gelatin as influenced by alkaline concentration and extraction times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafazah, E. M.; Pranoto, Y.; Rohman, A.

    2018-03-01

    Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) skin is a by-product of the fish processing industry. Yellowfin tuna skin was used as materials for gelatin because it contains collagen. This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of yellowfin tuna skin gelatin (YSG). In this study, YSG was obtained by the extraction process in 0.01 M NaOH solution for 12 h. The results show that the yield of YSG was 12.49 % dry basis, with the gel strength of 291.73 g Bloom, viscosity of 8.6 cPs and melting point of 35 °C. The gel strength and melting point of YSG were lower than commercial bovine gelatin (CBG), which was 309.7401 g Bloom and 36.33 °C, respectively. However, the viscosity of YSG was higher than the CBG which was 5.6 cPs.

  7. PENGARUH PERENDAMAN TULANG IKAN TUNA (Thunnus albacares DALAM LARUTAN NaOH TERHADAP KUALITAS GELATIN HASIL OLAHANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazwir Tazwir

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin tulang ikan tuna (Thunnus albaceres dengan kualitas baik seringkali sulit diperoleh, karena kebanyakan produk ini mengandung lemak dan protein non kolagen yang cukup tinggi. Dalam memproduksi gelatin tulang tuna, lemak, dan protein non kolagen tersebut harus direduksi hingga batas minimum. Dalam penelitian ini dipelajari pengaruh perendaman tulang ikan tuna dalam larutan NaOH sebelum ekstraksi terhadap kualitas gelatin yang dihasilkan. Tahapan yang dilakukan adalah degreasing, pencucian, perendaman dalam NaOH dengan variasi konsentrasi 0; 0,4; dan 0,8%, kemudian perendaman dalam HCl, ekstraksi, filtrasi, evaporasi, dan pengeringan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik gelatin yang terbaik diperoleh dari perendaman tulang dalam NaOH 0,4%, yaitu dengan nilai rendemen 8,37%; viskositas 3,27-3,37 cPs; pH 5,03; dan kekuatan gel 157,8 g Bloom gel strength.

  8. Karakteristik Ikan Tuna sirip biru selatan (Thunnus maccoyii Hasil Tangkapan Kapal Rawai Tuna yang didaratkan di Pelabuhan Benoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Adi Swastana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Southern bluefin tuna (SBT is scientifically known Thunnus maccoyii, and just live in the southern hemisphere. SBT fish classified as the most exploited tuna fish in the southeastern part of the Indian Ocean, so it is protected by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN. The aim of this study is too collected of SBT fish caught during January which is the peak of SBT landing in Benoa port. The study was conducted base on data sampling, observation and interviews on 33 ships were landing SBT fish during January 2016. Based on observations from 33 vessels, we found that the total of SBT fish that landed in Benoa port during January 2016 is 251 fresh fish and 366 frozen fish. However just 251 SBT fresh fish were sampled, and the result indicated the fresh SBT fish is dominated by weigh between 61-70 kg with number 61 fish with a total weight of 19.28 tonne. The SBT were caught dominated by fish that has FL (fork lenght ranging between 151-160 cm with number 69 fish. While the smallest SBT range between 131-140 cm with the number of 5 fish. These results indicate that SBT fish caught in the Souetheast Indian Ocean during January 2016 is generaly relative small fish (130–160 cm FL with a number of 163 fish and mature SBT fish (FL > 162 cm with a number of 88 and young SBT (FL < 130 cm with a number of 5 fish. Based on morphometric analysis, eyeball diameter of SBT range 6-8 cm, the length lateral head from the tip of the mouth to behind the gill cover ranging 46-54 cm, the length of body from the early dorsal or in front of the first dorsal fin ranging between 38-47 cm, the height of fish at the end of the anal or at the end ranging between 34-39 cm, the high of caudal peduncle ranging between 4-5 cm, th length of the dorsal base of the tail fish ranging between 53-63 cm, and the length of the base of tail anal from anal to tail ranging between 41-51 cm. Base on size and age composition, it is shown that the growth of SBT

  9. Karakteristik Ikan Tuna sirip biru selatan (Thunnus maccoyii Hasil Tangkapan Kapal Rawai Tuna yang didaratkan di Pelabuhan Benoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Adi Swastana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Southern bluefin tuna (SBT is scientifically known Thunnus maccoyii, and just live in the southern hemisphere. SBT fish classified as the most exploited tuna fish in the southeastern part of the Indian Ocean, so it is protected by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN. The aim of this study is too collected of SBT fish caught during January which is the peak of SBT landing in Benoa port. The study was conducted base on data sampling, observation and interviews on 33 ships were landing SBT fish during January 2016. Based on observations from 33 vessels, we found that the total of SBT fish that landed in Benoa port during January 2016 is 251 fresh fish and 366 frozen fish. However just 251 SBT fresh fish were sampled, and the result indicated the fresh SBT fish is dominated by weigh between 61-70 kg with number 61 fish with a total weight of 19.28 tonne. The SBT were caught dominated by fish that has FL (fork lenght ranging between 151-160 cm with number 69 fish. While the smallest SBT range between 131-140 cm with the number of 5 fish. These results indicate that SBT fish caught in the Souetheast Indian Ocean during January 2016 is generaly relative small fish (130–160 cm FL with a number of 163 fish and mature SBT fish (FL > 162 cm with a number of 88 and young SBT (FL < 130 cm with a number of 5 fish. Based on morphometric analysis, eyeball diameter of SBT range 6-8 cm, the length lateral head from the tip of the mouth to behind the gill cover ranging 46-54 cm, the length of body from the early dorsal or in front of the first dorsal fin ranging between 38-47 cm, the height of fish at the end of the anal or at the end ranging between 34-39 cm, the high of caudal peduncle ranging between 4-5 cm, th length of the dorsal base of the tail fish ranging between 53-63 cm, and the length of the base of tail anal from anal to tail ranging between 41-51 cm. Base on size and age composition, it is shown that the growth of SBT

  10. Evaluation of three harvest control rules for Bigeye Tuna ( Thunnus obesus) fisheries in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yuhe; Chen, Xinjun; Kolody, Dale

    2014-10-01

    The stock of Bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) in the Indian Ocean supports an important international fishery and is considered to be fully exploited. The responsible management agency, the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC), does not have an explicit management decision-making framework in place to prevent over-fishing. In this study, we evaluated three harvest control rules, i) constant fishing mortality (CF), from 0.2 to 0.6, ii) constant catch (CC), from 60000 to 140000 t, and iii) constant escapement (CE), from 0.3 to 0.7. The population dynamics simulated by the operating model was based on the most recent stock assessment using Stock Synthesis version III (SS3). Three simulation scenarios (low, medium and high productivity) were designed to cover possible uncertainty in the stock assessment and biological parameters. Performances of three harvest control rules were compared on the basis of three management objectives (over 3, 10 and 25 years): i) the probability of maintaining spawning stock biomass above a level that can sustain maximum sustainable yield (MSY) on average, ii) the probability of achieving average catches between 0.8 MSY and 1.0 MSY, and iii) inter-annual variability in catches. The constant escapement strategy ( CE=0.5), constant fishing mortality strategy ( F=0.4) and constant catch ( CC=80000) were the most rational among the respective management scenarios. It is concluded that the short-term annual catch is suggested at 80000 t, and the potential total allowable catch for a stable yield could be set at 120000 t once the stock had recovered successfully. All the strategies considered in this study to achieve a `tolerable' balance between resource conservation and utilization have been based around the management objectives of the IOTC.

  11. Evaluating alternative management strategies for bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus, in the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhe Tong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus support a large commercial fishery in the Indian Ocean. However, explicit management strategies and harvest control rules are yet to be developed for the management of this fishery. We used a stochastic age-structured production model as an operating model to evaluate several potential management strategies under different assumptions of stock productivity. Five management strategies—constant fishing mortality, constant catch, quasi-constant catch, constant escapement, and status-dependent strategies—were evaluated and compared using the performance indicators including average catch, average spawning stock biomass, variation in catch, average fishing mortality and lowest biomass during the time period considered in the simulation. This study shows that (1 for the constant catch strategy, an annual catch of 90000 t would result in a low risk of stock being overfished while obtaining a stable catch; (2 for the constant fishing mortality strategy fishing mortality of 0.3 per year could yield a higher catch, but might have a high probability (64% of stock dropping below the spawning stock biomass (SSB that could achieve maximum sustainable yield (SSBmsy; and (3 for the quasi-constant catch strategy an annual catch of 110000 t was sustainable if the current SSB was higher than SSBmsy. Constant escapement and status-dependent strategies were robust with respect to different levels of virgin recruitment and steepness. This study suggests that it is important to incorporate uncertainties associated with key life history, fisheries and management processes in evaluating management strategies.

  12. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    We measured red cell space with 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, and dextran space with 500 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran), in two groups of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Red cell space was 13.8+/-0.7 ml kg-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.) Assuming a whole- body hematocrit...... for albacore (Thunnus alalunga, 82-197 ml kg-1). Plasma volume within the primary circulatory system (calculated from the 51Cr-labeled red blood cell data) was 32.9+/-2.3 ml kg-1. Dextran space was 37.0+/-3.7 ml kg-1. Because 500 kDa FITC-dextran appeared to remain within the vascular space, these data imply...

  13. Preliminary approach on early post mortem stress and quality indexes changes in large size bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ugolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is very appreciated on Japan and USA market for the preparation of sushi and sahimi. The market price of the fresh product can vary from 8 to 33 Euro/kg (gate farm/producers prices according to size, shape, fat level, meat colour, consistency and freshness (absence of “hyake”, all parameters strictly connected to feeding quality and quantity, rearing and killing stress factors and refrigeration times and conditions after death. Excessive levels of stress during the slaughtering can affect meat quality, contributing to significantly decrease of tuna’s price. The present trial was carried out to evaluate the possible harvesting/slaughtering stress effect on reared bluefin tuna meat quality, starting from the examination of the most important stress and quality parameters changes during the early post mortem period.

  14. The development of the northern European fishery for north Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus during 1900-1950

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Myers, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    North Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, used to migrate to northern European waters (Norwegian Sea, North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and Øresund) where it supported important commercial and sportfisheries. The species disappeared from the region in the early 1960s and the species is now still...... increasing. The species was frequently sighted while fishermen were targeting other species (herring, mackerel) and occasionally was caught as bycatch with these and other species. Information from scientifically trained observers demonstrate that tuna schools were common in the North Sea for 2–3 months...... during the summers of 1923–1931. As fishermen realized that the species had market value, new catch methods were developed and employed. These included harpoon-rifle, improved hook and line methods, and hydraulically operated purse seines. Landings rose sharply as did the number of vessels...

  15. Spawning Dynamics and Size Related Trends in Reproductive Parameters of Southern Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus maccoyii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H Farley

    Full Text Available Knowledge of spawning behaviour and fecundity of fish is important for estimating the reproductive potential of a stock and for constructing appropriate statistical models for assessing sustainable catch levels. Estimates of length-based reproductive parameters are particularly important for determining potential annual fecundity as a function of fish size, but they are often difficult to estimate reliably. Here we provide new information on the reproductive dynamics of southern bluefin tuna (SBT Thunnus maccoyii through the analysis of fish size and ovary histology collected on the spawning ground in 1993-1995 and 1999-2002. These are used to refine previous parameter estimates of spawning dynamics and investigate size related trends in these parameters. Our results suggest that the small SBT tend to arrive on the spawning ground slightly later and depart earlier in the spawning season relative to large fish. All females were mature and the majority were classed as spawning capable (actively spawning or non-spawning with a very small proportion classed as regressing. The fraction of females spawning per day decreased with fish size, but once females start a spawning episode, they spawned daily irrespective of size. Mean batch fecundity was estimated directly at 6.5 million oocytes. Analysis of ovary histology and ovary weight data indicated that relative batch fecundity, and the duration of spawning and non-spawning episodes, increased with fish size. These reproductive parameter estimates could be used with estimates of residency time on the spawning ground as a function of fish size (if known and demographic data for the spawning population to provide a time series of relative annual fecundity for SBT.

  16. Molecular and morphological identification of Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) eggs in hatchery-reared and migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forte-Gil, D.; Holzer, Astrid S.; Pecková, Hana; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Peñalver, J.; Dolores, E.M.; Muñoz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 450, JAN 1 (2016), s. 58-66 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aquaculture * Atlantic bluefin tuna * Blood fluke * Cardicola * Migration * Thunnus thynnus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.570, year: 2016

  17. Physicochemical evaluation of the effects of irradiation and evisceration on the conservation of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Maria L.G.; Marsico, Eliane T. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Veterinaria. Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos], e-mail: marialuciaguerra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: elianee@vm.uff.br; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear], e-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br

    2009-07-01

    Tuna is among the most traded fishes in Brazil, however efficiently delaying its fast deterioration is still a major practical challenge. Irradiation has been proposed as a safe and powerful alternative tool for conservation of seafood. This work investigated the effects of irradiation on the physicochemical quality of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus). Analyses of pH, total volatile bases (TVB-N), ammonia and biogenic amines (histamine, cadaverine and putrescine) were performed in order to determine the degree of conservation. The samples were subjected to four different treatments aiming at evaluating the efficiency of irradiation, evisceration and both combined. The figures measured for those parameters, all of them related to the degree of conservation, were found to increase with time regardless of the treatment. In addition, data for irradiated samples remained consistently lower than for unirradiated ones, indicating a better level of preservation that led to an extended shelf life of 14 days. In contrast, excessive levels of those indicators of degradation were found in unirradiated samples after 7 to 10 days of storage. In addition, some evidence was found that evisceration slightly increased quality, consequently promoting a small extension in shelf life of unirradiated samples. Finally, it can be concluded with basis on the results of the physicochemical parameters studied that treatment of fresh refrigerated blackfin tuna by irradiation with 2.5 kGy efficiently preserved freshness and extended the shelf life of the product from 7 to 14 days. (author)

  18. Physicochemical evaluation of the effects of irradiation and evisceration on the conservation of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Maria L.G.; Marsico, Eliane T.; Vital, Helio C.

    2009-01-01

    Tuna is among the most traded fishes in Brazil, however efficiently delaying its fast deterioration is still a major practical challenge. Irradiation has been proposed as a safe and powerful alternative tool for conservation of seafood. This work investigated the effects of irradiation on the physicochemical quality of refrigerated blackfin tuna (Thunnus atlanticus). Analyses of pH, total volatile bases (TVB-N), ammonia and biogenic amines (histamine, cadaverine and putrescine) were performed in order to determine the degree of conservation. The samples were subjected to four different treatments aiming at evaluating the efficiency of irradiation, evisceration and both combined. The figures measured for those parameters, all of them related to the degree of conservation, were found to increase with time regardless of the treatment. In addition, data for irradiated samples remained consistently lower than for unirradiated ones, indicating a better level of preservation that led to an extended shelf life of 14 days. In contrast, excessive levels of those indicators of degradation were found in unirradiated samples after 7 to 10 days of storage. In addition, some evidence was found that evisceration slightly increased quality, consequently promoting a small extension in shelf life of unirradiated samples. Finally, it can be concluded with basis on the results of the physicochemical parameters studied that treatment of fresh refrigerated blackfin tuna by irradiation with 2.5 kGy efficiently preserved freshness and extended the shelf life of the product from 7 to 14 days. (author)

  19. Heavy metals in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) landed on the Ecuadorian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo, Cristiano V.M., E-mail: cristiano.araujo@icman.csic.es [Central Department of Research (DCI), Ecuadorian Aquatic Ecotoxicology (ECUACTOX) group, Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabí - ULEAM, Manta (Ecuador); Centre of Functional Ecology (CFE), Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Cedeño-Macias, Luis A. [Central Department of Research (DCI), Ecuadorian Aquatic Ecotoxicology (ECUACTOX) group, Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabí - ULEAM, Manta (Ecuador); Faculty of Marine Sciences, Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabí (ULEAM), Manta (Ecuador)

    2016-01-15

    Heavy metals are contaminants of great environmental concern due to their multiple origins (natural and anthropogenic), the ability to accumulate in organs and tissues, and the deleterious effects they can cause in organisms. Studies on the accumulation of metals in seafood, such as fish, have increased in importance due to the risk for human health when consuming fish contaminated by metals. The present work was aimed at verifying the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in the muscular tissue and liver of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) from the Eastern Pacific Ocean landed in Manta city, Ecuador. Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Around half of the muscle samples of both species presented levels of Cd and Hg above the limits considered safe for human consumption established by the European Union. For Pb, most of the muscle samples were considered acceptable for consumption. Results indicate that both species should be consumed with some caution. Considering the tolerable weekly intake recommended for adults by the World Health Organization, results indicate that Hg is the main metal that limits the consumption of yellowfin tuna and common dolphinfish, with a recommended maximum ingestion, respectively, of 191 and 178 g per week for an adult. - Highlights: • Thunnus albacares and Coryphaena hippurus from Eastern Pacific (Ecuador) were sampled. • Muscle and liver of both species were assessed for Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations. • Levels of Pb were considered acceptable for both species. • High levels of Cd and Hg in both species can be considered unsafe for human health. • For both species the recommended maximum ingestion is around 180 g week{sup −1} for an adult.

  20. Mercury accumulation in Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) with regards to muscle type, muscle position and fish size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Adina C; O'Neill, Bernadette; Sigge, Gunnar O; Kerwath, Sven E; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations and relationships between individual mercury species and total mercury were investigated in different muscle parts and sizes of Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Fourteen Yellowfin tuna caught in the South Atlantic off the coast of South Africa had an average total Hg (tHg) concentration of 0.77 mg/kg wet weight. No differences were detected (p > 0.05) in tHg, MethylHg (MeHg) or inorganic Hg (iHg) accumulation among the four white muscle portions across the carcass, but both tHg and iHg were found in higher concentrations (p < 0.001) in dark muscle than white muscle. Positive linear correlations with fish weight were found for both tHg (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) and MeHg (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) concentrations. A prediction model was formulated to calculate toxic MeHg concentrations from measured tHg concentrations and fish weight (cMeHg = 0.073 + 1.365 · tHg-0.008 · w). As sampling sites and subsampling methods could affect toxicity measurements, we provide recommendations for sampling guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in a random sample of Australian aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, D.; Madigan, T.; Kiermeier, A.; Daughtry, B.; Pointon, A. [South Australian Research and Development Inst. (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    To date there has been no published information available on the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in Australian aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii). Southern Bluefin Tuna are commercially farmed off the coast of Port Lincoln in the state of South Australia, Australia. This paper reports the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in muscle tissue samples from 11 randomly sampled aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna collected in 2003. Little published data exists on the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in Australian aquacultureproduced seafood. Wild tuna are first caught in the Great Australian Bight in South Australian waters, and are then brought back to Port Lincoln where they are ranched in sea-cages before being harvested and exported to Japan. The aim of the study was to identify pathways whereby contaminants such as dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs may enter the aquaculture production system. This involved undertaking a through chain analysis of the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in wild caught tuna, seafloor sediment samples from the marine environment, levels in feeds and final harvested exported product. Detailed study was also undertaken on the variation of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs across individual tuna carcases. This paper addresses the levels found in final harvested product. Details on levels found in other studies will be published elsewhere shortly.

  2. Brain morphology and immunohistochemical localization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Palmieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the morphology of the diencephalic nuclei (likely involved in reproductive functions as well as on the distribution of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the rhinencephalon, telencephalon and the diencephalon of the brain of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus by means of immunohistochemistry. Bluefin tuna has an encephalization quotient (QE similar to that of other large pelagic fish. Its brain exhibits well-developed optic tecta and corpus cerebelli. The diencephalic neuron cell bodies involved in reproductive functions are grouped in two main nuclei: the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis. The nucleus preopticus-periventricularis consists of the nucleus periventricularis and the nucleus preopticus consisting of a few sparse multipolar neurons in the rostral part and numerous cells closely packed and arranged in several layers in its aboral part. The nucleus lateralis tuberis is located in the ventral-lateral area of the diencephalon and is made up of a number of large multipolar neurones. Four different polyclonal primary antibodies against salmon (sGnRH, chicken (cGnRH-II (cGnRH-II 675, cGnRH-II 6 and sea bream (sbGnRH were employed in the immunohistochemical experiments. No immunoreactive structures were found with anti sbGnRH serum. sGnRH and cGnRH-II antisera revealed immunoreactivity in the perikarya of the olfactory bulbs, preopticus-periventricular nucleus, oculomotor nucleus and midbrain tegmentum. The nucleus lateralis tuberis showed immunostaining only with anti-sGnRH serum. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to cGnRH and sGnRH sera were found in the olfactory bulbs, olfactory nerve and neurohypophysis. The significance of the distribution of the GnRHimmunoreactive neuronal structures is discussed.

  3. Gamma Irradiation Effects On Thiamin And Riboflavin On Fresh Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) And Salmon (Onchorhynchus gorbuscha)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanhindarto, Rindy P.; Fox, J.B.; Lakritz, L.; Thayer, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment have been conducted on the effect of gamma irradiation on thiamine and riboflavin in fresh tuna and salmon. Samples were irradiated at (20 ± 0,5) oC by gamma rays with doses of 0; 2,5 and 5 kGy. The purpose of the present experiment was to study on changes of thiamine and riboflavin contents on extraction of fresh tuna and salmon after and before irradiation. The results showed that irradiation up to 2,5 kGy changed the thiamine and riboflavin contents on fresh tuna as well as their destruction which was significantly increasing caused by irradiated treatment with the dose of 5 kGy. The fresh salmon did not significantly change of the thiamine and riboflavin contents treated by irradiation up to 5 kGy

  4. Isotopic discrimination factors and nitrogen turnover rates in reared Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (Thunnus thynnus: effects of maternal transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Uriarte

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of stable isotope analysis to study animal diets requires estimates of isotopic turnover rates (half time, t50 and discrimination factors (Δ for an accurate interpretation of trophic patterns. The stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were analysed for eggs and reared larvae of Thunnus thynnus, as well as for the different diets supplied during the experiment. The results showed high values of δ15N in eggs and larvae (n=646 until 4 DAH. After this time lapse, the stable isotope values declined progressively until 12 DAH, when notochord flexion began. The δ13C showed an inverse trend, suggesting that maternal inheritance of the stable isotopes is evident until pre-flexion stages. This study proposes a model for estimating maternal isotopic signatures of bluefin broodstock. After notochord flexion, larvae were fed with aquaculture-bred gilthead seabream, which resulted in a rapid increase of bluefin larvae δ15N values together with a rapid decrease in δ13C values. The estimated nitrogen half-time to reach the steady state from the diet was 2.5±0.3 days and the discrimination factor was 0.4±0.3(‰. These results represent the first data set that has allowed isotopic nitrogen turnover rates and discrimination factors of the larval stages of bluefin tuna to be estimated.

  5. Mercury levels of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) are associated with capture location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklisch, Sascha C T; Bonito, Lindsay T; Sandin, Stuart; Hamdoun, Amro

    2017-10-01

    Mercury is a toxic compound to which humans are exposed by consumption of fish. Current fish consumption advisories focus on minimizing the risk posed by the species that are most likely to have high levels of mercury. Less accounted for is the variation within species, and the potential role of the geographic origin of a fish in determining its mercury level. Here we surveyed the mercury levels in 117 yellowfin tuna caught from 12 different locations worldwide. Our results indicated significant variation in yellowfin tuna methylmercury load, with levels that ranged from 0.03 to 0.82 μg/g wet weight across individual fish. Mean mercury levels were only weakly associated with fish size (R 2  mercury load, and argue for better traceability of fish to improve the accuracy of exposure risk predictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic structuring and migration patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Elena G; Beerli, Peter; Zardoya, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Large pelagic fishes are generally thought to have little population genetic structuring based on their cosmopolitan distribution, large population sizes and high dispersal capacities. However, gene flow can be influenced by ecological (e.g. homing behaviour) and physical (e.g. present-day ocean currents, past changes in sea temperature and levels) factors. In this regard, Atlantic bigeye tuna shows an interesting genetic structuring pattern with two highly divergent mitoc...

  7. Revisiting the vulnerability of juvenile bigeye (Thunnus obesus) and yellowfin (T. albacares) tuna caught by purse-seine fisheries while associating with surface waters and floating objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt Phillips, Joe; Pilling, Graham M; Leroy, Bruno; Evans, Karen; Usu, Thomas; Lam, Chi Hin; Schaefer, Kurt M; Nicol, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Tuna fisheries catch over three million tonnes of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) each year, the majority of which come from purse-seine vessels targeting fish associated with man-made fish aggregating devices (FADs). A significant challenge for fisheries management is to maximize the efficiency of skipjack tuna catches whilst minimizing the bycatch of small and immature bigeye (Thunnus obesus) and yellowfin (T. albacares) tuna, for which long-term sustainability is uncertain in 75% of the world's stocks. To better manage the issues common with this fishing method, an improved understanding of tuna behaviour around FADs is necessary. We probabilistically classified the vertical behavioural patterns of 50 bigeye and 35 yellowfin tuna (mean fork length 72cm and 70cm, respectively) electronically tagged throughout the western and central Pacific Ocean into shallow and deep states, using a state-space modelling approach. The occurrence of surface-association behaviours, defined as an individual remaining in a shallow state for 24-hours, was examined in relation to known capture events and FAD density. In general, surface-association events for both species were short and lasted on average less than three days, although events as long as 28 days were observed, and were more common in yellowfin when in archipelagic waters. Events were longest immediately following tagging in 62% and 17% of bigeye and yellowfin, respectively. Surface-association behaviour was not generally estimated just prior to recapture, being either non-existent or shorter than two days for 85% of bigeye and 74% of yellowfin. Current management measures in purse-seine tuna fisheries involve periodic or spatial closures for FAD use. If the chief benefit to purse-seine fishers of surface-association around floating objects is in locating schools in horizontal space at short-term time-scales, rather than holding fish near the surface for extended periods, controlling the number of sets made on FADs

  8. Revisiting the vulnerability of juvenile bigeye (Thunnus obesus and yellowfin (T. albacares tuna caught by purse-seine fisheries while associating with surface waters and floating objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Scutt Phillips

    Full Text Available Tuna fisheries catch over three million tonnes of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis each year, the majority of which come from purse-seine vessels targeting fish associated with man-made fish aggregating devices (FADs. A significant challenge for fisheries management is to maximize the efficiency of skipjack tuna catches whilst minimizing the bycatch of small and immature bigeye (Thunnus obesus and yellowfin (T. albacares tuna, for which long-term sustainability is uncertain in 75% of the world's stocks. To better manage the issues common with this fishing method, an improved understanding of tuna behaviour around FADs is necessary. We probabilistically classified the vertical behavioural patterns of 50 bigeye and 35 yellowfin tuna (mean fork length 72cm and 70cm, respectively electronically tagged throughout the western and central Pacific Ocean into shallow and deep states, using a state-space modelling approach. The occurrence of surface-association behaviours, defined as an individual remaining in a shallow state for 24-hours, was examined in relation to known capture events and FAD density. In general, surface-association events for both species were short and lasted on average less than three days, although events as long as 28 days were observed, and were more common in yellowfin when in archipelagic waters. Events were longest immediately following tagging in 62% and 17% of bigeye and yellowfin, respectively. Surface-association behaviour was not generally estimated just prior to recapture, being either non-existent or shorter than two days for 85% of bigeye and 74% of yellowfin. Current management measures in purse-seine tuna fisheries involve periodic or spatial closures for FAD use. If the chief benefit to purse-seine fishers of surface-association around floating objects is in locating schools in horizontal space at short-term time-scales, rather than holding fish near the surface for extended periods, controlling the number of sets

  9. Morphological, nutritional and safety traits of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus reared in floating cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Poli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of fattening on morphological, nutritional and safety characteristics, two lots of bluefin tuna were sampled before (November: 2 C, 4 ? and after 5 months of fattening (April: 5 C, 5 ?. The specimens, after death, were refrigerated and analysed at different times over the period of a week for morphological and flesh physico-chemical parameters in six muscle sites. Tuna sampled in April had greater body weight (44.04 vs 36.41kg, trunk length (52.21 vs 48.22cm and minimum and maximum circumferences (13.74 vs 12.77 and 94.90 vs 89.10cm. No differences in other linear measures or body components were found. Fattening did not influence flesh colour or total lipid content, producing small differences in its chemical composition: greater C18:0, C18:1n9 and PUFAn6 percentages; higher putrescine and histamine (0.489 vs 0.335 and 0.666 vs 0.370mg/kg but lower spermine and spermidine (10.598 vs 17.387 and 2.420 vs 3.928mg/kg levels. Large differences in physico-chemical parameters were found between muscle sites and a significant interaction between sampling date and muscle site indicated non homogeneous changes in chemical composition of dorsal, ventral and red muscle after fattening. Sex only influenced fat content in viscera (C 12.84 vs ? 9.84%.

  10. Genetic structuring and migration patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beerli Peter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large pelagic fishes are generally thought to have little population genetic structuring based on their cosmopolitan distribution, large population sizes and high dispersal capacities. However, gene flow can be influenced by ecological (e.g. homing behaviour and physical (e.g. present-day ocean currents, past changes in sea temperature and levels factors. In this regard, Atlantic bigeye tuna shows an interesting genetic structuring pattern with two highly divergent mitochondrial clades (Clades I and II, which are assumed to have been originated during the last Pleistocene glacial maxima. We assess genetic structure patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna at the nuclear level, and compare them with mitochondrial evidence. Results We examined allele size variation of nine microsatellite loci in 380 individuals from the Gulf of Guinea, Canary, Azores, Canada, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. To investigate temporal stability of genetic structure, three Atlantic Ocean sites were re-sampled a second year. Hierarchical AMOVA tests, RST pairwise comparisons, isolation by distance (Mantel tests, Bayesian clustering analyses, and coalescence-based migration rate inferences supported unrestricted gene flow within the Atlantic Ocean at the nuclear level, and therefore interbreeding between individuals belonging to both mitochondrial clades. Moreover, departures from HWE in several loci were inferred for the samples of Guinea, and attributed to a Wahlund effect supporting the role of this region as a spawning and nursery area. Our microsatellite data supported a single worldwide panmictic unit for bigeye tunas. Despite the strong Agulhas Current, immigration rates seem to be higher from the Atlantic Ocean into the Indo-Pacific Ocean, but the actual number of individuals moving per generation is relatively low compared to the large population sizes inhabiting each ocean basin. Conclusion Lack of congruence between mt and nuclear evidences, which

  11. Genetic structuring and migration patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Lowe, 1839).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elena G; Beerli, Peter; Zardoya, Rafael

    2008-09-17

    Large pelagic fishes are generally thought to have little population genetic structuring based on their cosmopolitan distribution, large population sizes and high dispersal capacities. However, gene flow can be influenced by ecological (e.g. homing behaviour) and physical (e.g. present-day ocean currents, past changes in sea temperature and levels) factors. In this regard, Atlantic bigeye tuna shows an interesting genetic structuring pattern with two highly divergent mitochondrial clades (Clades I and II), which are assumed to have been originated during the last Pleistocene glacial maxima. We assess genetic structure patterns of Atlantic bigeye tuna at the nuclear level, and compare them with mitochondrial evidence. We examined allele size variation of nine microsatellite loci in 380 individuals from the Gulf of Guinea, Canary, Azores, Canada, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. To investigate temporal stability of genetic structure, three Atlantic Ocean sites were re-sampled a second year. Hierarchical AMOVA tests, RST pairwise comparisons, isolation by distance (Mantel) tests, Bayesian clustering analyses, and coalescence-based migration rate inferences supported unrestricted gene flow within the Atlantic Ocean at the nuclear level, and therefore interbreeding between individuals belonging to both mitochondrial clades. Moreover, departures from HWE in several loci were inferred for the samples of Guinea, and attributed to a Wahlund effect supporting the role of this region as a spawning and nursery area. Our microsatellite data supported a single worldwide panmictic unit for bigeye tunas. Despite the strong Agulhas Current, immigration rates seem to be higher from the Atlantic Ocean into the Indo-Pacific Ocean, but the actual number of individuals moving per generation is relatively low compared to the large population sizes inhabiting each ocean basin. Lack of congruence between mt and nuclear evidences, which is also found in other species, most likely reflects

  12. Histamine formation and the freshness of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K.K.K. Jinadasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of storage temperatures on the shelf life of yellowfin tuna (YFT loins by studying of microbial, chemical and organoleptic changes. Shelf life of YFT was determined through changes in total aerobic bacterial plate counts (APC, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N trimethylamine (TMA, organoleptic properties and histamine development during storage at 0, 4 and 7°C. Based on TVB-N value indices, YFT maintained an acceptable shelf life for 21, 17 and 12 days at 0, 4 and 7°C, respectively. Nevertheless, YFT was rejected earlier by the sensory panellists than their TVB-N value indicated. Histamine development was found to be lower than the European Union safety level for 100 mg/kg fish during storage at 0 and 7°C for 21 and 17 days, respectively. Aerobic bacteria initially dominated the micro-flora on YFT; however, as storage time increased, aerobic bacteria became dominant at cold storage, but the numbers exceeded the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF limit of 107 cfu/g in storage at 7°C after 17 days. Therefore, it can be concluded that the storage of fresh YFT in below 4°C has good enough to the shelf life of products (two weeks.

  13. Molecular Identification of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus, Scombridae Larvae and Development of a DNA Character-Based Identification Key for Mediterranean Scombrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Neils Puncher

    Full Text Available The Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, is a commercially important species that has been severely over-exploited in the recent past. Although the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock is now showing signs of recovery, its current status remains very uncertain and as a consequence their recovery is dependent upon severe management informed by rigorous scientific research. Monitoring of early life history stages can inform decision makers about the health of the species based upon recruitment and survival rates. Misidentification of fish larvae and eggs can lead to inaccurate estimates of stock biomass and productivity which can trigger demands for increased quotas and unsound management conclusions. Herein we used a molecular approach employing mitochondrial and nuclear genes (CO1 and ITS1, respectively to identify larvae (n = 188 collected from three spawning areas in the Mediterranean Sea by different institutions working with a regional fisheries management organization. Several techniques were used to analyze the genetic sequences (sequence alignments using search algorithms, neighbour joining trees, and a genetic character-based identification key and an extensive comparison of the results is presented. During this process various inaccuracies in related publications and online databases were uncovered. Our results reveal important differences in the accuracy of the taxonomic identifications carried out by different ichthyoplanktologists following morphology-based methods. While less than half of larvae provided were bluefin tuna, other dominant taxa were bullet tuna (Auxis rochei, albacore (Thunnus alalunga and little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus. We advocate an expansion of expertise for a new generation of morphology-based taxonomists, increased dialogue between morphology-based and molecular taxonomists and increased scrutiny of public sequence databases.

  14. Dietary evidence of mesopelagic and pelagic foraging by Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) during autumn migrations to the Iceland Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Droplaug; MacKenzie, Brian; Chosson-P, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT; Thunnus thynnus) is a large highly mobile predator fish species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Knowledge of its trophic role in marine food webs in summer feeding areas is presently based on recent (1980–2010s) sampling in the Bay of Biscay, Gulfs...... of Maine and St. Lawrence, and from historical (1950–1960s) sampling in the Norwegian-North Sea-Kattegat. No study has yet investigated the diets of ABFT in Icelandic waters, where it supported an experimental fishery during 1996–2005, nor in any region north of the Bay of Biscay since the 1960s. However......, north Atlantic temperatures and fish species distributions, including some ABFT prey species (e.g., mackerel) have been changing in the 2000s. New knowledge of ABFT diets in previously understudied parts of the species range will be useful for understanding factors affecting the trophic role, migration...

  15. Ecological role of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) fish farms for associated wild fish assemblages in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagličić, Nika; Šegvić-Bubić, Tanja; Ugarković, Pero; Talijančić, Igor; Žužul, Iva; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Grubišić, Leon

    2017-12-01

    The ecological effects of tuna fish farms are largely undocumented. This study confirmed their high capacity to attract surrounding wild fish. The aggregation effect persisted year round, without detectable seasonal differences. Farm impact was restricted to close proximity of the sea cages, and was more prominent over the bottom than in the water column strata. Tuna fish farms proved to be high energy trophic resources, as indicated by the enhanced fitness status of two focal species, bogue and seabream. Under abundant food supply, seabream appear to allocate the majority of energy reserves to gonad development. Farm associated bogue had greater parasite loads, with no detrimental effect on fitness status. Overall, tuna fish farms can be regarded as population sources for aggregated wild fish, and under the no fishing conditions within the leasehold areas, can serve as functional marine protected areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Physicochemical and sensory characterization of refined and deodorized tuna (Thunnus albacares) by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Dayse A S B; Minozzo, Marcelo G; Licodiedoff, Silvana; Waszczynskyj, Nina

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the effects of chemical refining and deodorization on fatty acid profiles and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the tuna by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated. Enzymatic extraction was conducted for 120 min at 60 °C and pH 6.5 using Alcalase at an enzyme-substrate ratio of 1:200 w/w. The chemical refining of crude oil consisted of degumming, neutralization, washing, drying, bleaching, and deodorization; deodorization was conducted at different temperatures and processing times. Although chemical refining was successful, temperature and chemical reagents favored the removal of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from the oil. Aroma attributes of fishy odor, frying odor, and rancid odor predominantly contributed to the sensory evaluation of the product. Deodorization conditions of 160 °C for 1h and 200 °C for 1h were recommended for the tuna by-product oil, which is rich in PUFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and validation of a spectrophotometry method for the determination of histamine in fresh tuna (Thunnus tunna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon-Silva, Fainier; Barquero-Quiros, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Histamine in foods can promote allergic reactions in sensitive persons. A colorimetric microscale method for histamine determination was developed and validated. Cu 2+ histamine chelation occurs at 9,5 ph. Dichloromethane extraction of the complex as the salt with tetrabromo phenolphthalein ethyl ester, allows photometric quantitation at 515 nm. The validation of micro method was accomplished trough its performance parameters, detection limit, quantitation limit, sensitivity, linearity, precision, recuperation. This methodology was applied to twenty raw tuna samples, collected in San Jose metropolitan area. It was found that 45% of analyzed samples had a histamine content in the range between 100-200 mg/kg. This finding indicates bacterial contamination, 15% of samples analyzed were over 500 mg/kg FDA level of sanitary risk. (Author) [es

  18. Preparation and characterization of protein isolate from Yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares roe by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ji Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP processing allows selective, pH-induced water solubility of proteins with concurrent separation of lipids and removal of materials not intended for human consumption such as bone, scales, skin, etc. Recovered proteins retain functional properties and nutritional value. Four roe protein isolates (RPIs from yellowfin tuna roe were prepared under different solubilization and precipitation condition (pH 11/4.5, pH 11/5.5, pH 12/4.5 and pH 12/5.5. RPIs contained 2.3–5.0 % moisture, 79.1–87.8 % protein, 5.6–7.4 % lipid and 3.0–3.8 % ash. Protein content of RPI-1 and RPI-2 precipitated at pH 4.5 and 5.5 after alkaline solubilization at pH 11, was higher than those of RPI-3 and RPI-4 after alkaline solubilization at pH 12 (P < 0.05. Lipid content (5.6–7.4 % of RPIs was lower than that of freeze-dried concentrate (10.6 %. And leucine and lysine of RPIs were the most abundant amino acids (8.8–9.4 and 8.5–8.9 g/100 g protein, respectively. S, Na, P, K as minerals were the major elements in RPIs. SDS-PAGE of RPIs showed bands at 100, 45, 25 and 15 K. Moisture and protein contents of process water as a 2’nd byproduct were 98.9–99.0 and 1.3–1.8 %, respectively. Therefore, yellowfin tuna roe isolate could be a promising source of valuable nutrients for human food and animal feeds.

  19. Chemical composition of protein concentrate prepared from Yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares roe by cook-dried process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ji Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Roe is the term used to describe fish eggs (oocytes gathered in skeins and is one of the most valuable food products from fishery sources. Thus, means of processing are required to convert the underutilized yellowfin tuna roes (YTR into more marketable and acceptable forms as protein concentrate. Roe protein concentrates (RPCs were prepared by cooking condition (boil-dried concentrate, BDC and steam-dried concentrate, SDC, respectively and un-cooking condition (freeze-dried concentrate, FDC from yellowfin tuna roe. The yield of RPCs was in the range from 22.2 to 25.3 g/100 g of roe. RPCs contained protein (72.3–77.3 %, moisture (4.3–5.6 %, lipid (10.6–11.3 % and ash (4.3–5.7 % as the major constituents. The prominent amino acids of RPCs were aspartic acid, 8.7–9.2, glutamic acid, 13.1–13.2, and leucine, 8.5–8.6 g/100 g of protein. Major differences were not observed in each of the amino acid. K, S, Na, and P as minerals were the major elements in RPCs. No difference noted in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein band (15–100 K possibly representing partial hydrolysis of myosin. Therefore, RPCs from YTR could be use potential protein ingredient for human food and animal feeds.

  20. Standardization of a geo-referenced fishing data set for the Indian Ocean bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (1952-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Teja A.; Lehodey, Patrick; Senina, Inna

    2017-02-01

    Geo-referenced catch and fishing effort data of the bigeye tuna fisheries in the Indian Ocean over 1952-2014 were analyzed and standardized to facilitate population dynamics modeling studies. During this 62-year historical period of exploitation, many changes occurred both in the fishing techniques and the monitoring of activity. This study includes a series of processing steps used for standardization of spatial resolution, conversion and standardization of catch and effort units, raising of geo-referenced catch into nominal catch level, screening and correction of outliers, and detection of major catchability changes over long time series of fishing data, i.e., the Japanese longline fleet operating in the tropical Indian Ocean. A total of 30 fisheries were finally determined from longline, purse seine and other-gears data sets, from which 10 longline and 4 purse seine fisheries represented 96 % of the whole historical geo-referenced catch. Nevertheless, one-third of total nominal catch is still not included due to a total lack of geo-referenced information and would need to be processed separately, accordingly to the requirements of the study. The geo-referenced records of catch, fishing effort and associated length frequency samples of all fisheries are available at PANGAEA.864154" target="_blank">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.864154.

  1. Accounting for age uncertainty in growth modeling, the case study of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares of the Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Dortel

    Full Text Available Age estimates, typically determined by counting periodic growth increments in calcified structures of vertebrates, are the basis of population dynamics models used for managing exploited or threatened species. In fisheries research, the use of otolith growth rings as an indicator of fish age has increased considerably in recent decades. However, otolith readings include various sources of uncertainty. Current ageing methods, which converts an average count of rings into age, only provide periodic age estimates in which the range of uncertainty is fully ignored. In this study, we describe a hierarchical model for estimating individual ages from repeated otolith readings. The model was developed within a Bayesian framework to explicitly represent the sources of uncertainty associated with age estimation, to allow for individual variations and to include knowledge on parameters from expertise. The performance of the proposed model was examined through simulations, and then it was coupled to a two-stanza somatic growth model to evaluate the impact of the age estimation method on the age composition of commercial fisheries catches. We illustrate our approach using the sagittal otoliths of yellowfin tuna of the Indian Ocean collected through large-scale mark-recapture experiments. The simulation performance suggested that the ageing error model was able to estimate the ageing biases and provide accurate age estimates, regardless of the age of the fish. Coupled with the growth model, this approach appeared suitable for modeling the growth of Indian Ocean yellowfin and is consistent with findings of previous studies. The simulations showed that the choice of the ageing method can strongly affect growth estimates with subsequent implications for age-structured data used as inputs for population models. Finally, our modeling approach revealed particularly useful to reflect uncertainty around age estimates into the process of growth estimation and it can

  2. Habitat use, vertical and horizontal behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea in relation to oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert Klaus; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Demarcq, Hervé; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the habitat utilization, vertical and horizontal behaviour of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (ABFT) in relation to oceanographic conditions in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, based on 36 pop-up archival tags and different environmental data sets. Tags were deployed on early mature ABFT (127-255 cm) between July and November in 2007-2014, on the shelf area off Marseille, France. The data obtained from these tags provided 1643 daily summaries of ABFT vertical behaviour over 8 years of tag deployment. Based on a hierarchical clustering of this data, we could identify four principle daily vertical behaviour types, representing surface (≦ 10 m) and subsurface (10-100 m) orientation, moderate (50-200 m) and deep (≧ 200 m) diving behaviour. These vertical behaviour types showed seasonal variations with partly opposing trends in their frequencies. Accordingly, ABFT were more surface orientated during summer, while moderate diving behaviour was more common during winter. Depth time series data further revealed inverted day-night patterns for both of these periods. Tagged ABFT frequented the surface waters more regularly during daytime and deeper waters during the night in summer, while the opposite pattern was found in winter. Seasonal changes in the vertical behaviour of ABFT were accompanied by simultaneous changes in environmental conditions (SST, chla, thermal stratification). Accordingly, surface orientation and moderate diving behaviour appeared to be triggered by the thermal stratification of the water column, though less pronounced than previously reported for ABFT in the North Atlantic, probably indicating adaptive vertical behaviour related to the availability of epipelagic food resources (anchovies and sardines). Deep diving behaviour was particularly frequent during months of high biological productivity (February-May), although one recovered tag showed periodic and unusual long spike dives during summer-autumn, in relation to

  3. Significant histamine formation in tuna ( Thunnus albacares ) at 2 degrees C - effect of vacuum- and modified atmosphere-packaging on psychrotolerant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Jette; Laursen, B. G.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2005-01-01

    Occurrence and importance of psychrotolerant histamine producing bacteria in chilled fresh tuna were demonstrated in the present study. The objective was to evaluate microbial formation of histamine and biogenic amines in chilled fresh tuna from the Indian Ocean and stored either vacuum-packed (VP...

  4. A full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jusup

    Full Text Available We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and reproduction from food availability and temperature in the environment. We calibrated the model to emulate physiological characteristics of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, hereafter PBT, a species which has received considerable scientific attention due to its high economic value. Computer simulations suggest that (i the main cause of different growth rates between cultivated and wild PBT is the difference in average body temperature of approximately 6.5°C, (ii a well-fed PBT individual can spawn an average number of 9 batches per spawning season, (iii food abundance experienced by wild PBT is rather constant and sufficiently high to provide energy for yearly reproductive cycle, (iv energy in reserve is exceptionally small, causing the weight-length relationship of cultivated and wild PBT to be practically indistinguishable and suggesting that these fish are poorly equipped to deal with starvation, (v accelerated growth rate of PBT larvae is connected to morphological changes prior to metamorphosis, while (vi deceleration of growth rate in the early juvenile stage is related to efficiency of internal heat production. Based on these results, we discuss a number of physiological and ecological traits of PBT, including the reasons for high Feed Conversion Ratio recorded in bluefin tuna aquaculture.

  5. Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) sequence conservation and variation patterns in the yellowfin and longtail tunas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunal, S.P.; GirishKumar

    within and between tuna Thunnus species and its application to species identification. J Fish Biol. 58, 1646–1657. 8 Terol, J., Mascarell, R., Fernandez-Pedrosa, V., Perez-Alonso, M. (2002) Statistical validation of the identification of tuna...

  6. Evolutionary changes of multiple visual pigment genes in the complete genome of Pacific bluefin tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoji; Mori, Kazuki; Saitoh, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Sugaya, Takuma; Shigenobu, Yuya; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Muta, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yasuike, Motoshige; Oohara, Ichiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Sano, Motohiko; Wada, Tokio; Tashiro, Kosuke; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hattori, Masahira; Kuhara, Satoru; Gojobori, Takashi; Inouye, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-02

    Tunas are migratory fishes in offshore habitats and top predators with unique features. Despite their ecological importance and high market values, the open-ocean lifestyle of tuna, in which effective sensing systems such as color vision are required for capture of prey, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic and evolutionary basis of optic adaptation of tuna, we determined the genome sequence of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 26,433 protein-coding genes were predicted from 16,802 assembled scaffolds. From these, we identified five common fish visual pigment genes: red-sensitive (middle/long-wavelength sensitive; M/LWS), UV-sensitive (short-wavelength sensitive 1; SWS1), blue-sensitive (SWS2), rhodopsin (RH1), and green-sensitive (RH2) opsin genes. Sequence comparison revealed that tuna's RH1 gene has an amino acid substitution that causes a short-wave shift in the absorption spectrum (i.e., blue shift). Pacific bluefin tuna has at least five RH2 paralogs, the most among studied fishes; four of the proteins encoded may be tuned to blue light at the amino acid level. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene conversions have occurred in each of the SWS2 and RH2 loci in a short period. Thus, Pacific bluefin tuna has undergone evolutionary changes in three genes (RH1, RH2, and SWS2), which may have contributed to detecting blue-green contrast and measuring the distance to prey in the blue-pelagic ocean. These findings provide basic information on behavioral traits of predatory fish and, thereby, could help to improve the technology to culture such fish in captivity for resource management.

  7. A large outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning associated with eating yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) at a military mass catering in Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoncheaux, J-P; Michel, R; Mazenot, C; Duflos, G; Iacini, C; de Laval, F; Delaval, F; Saware, E M; Renard, J-C

    2012-06-01

    On 26 November 2010, an outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning occurred in the French Armed Forces in Dakar, Senegal. This chemical intoxication, due to high histamine concentration in fish, is often mistaken for an allergic reaction. A case-control study was undertaken including the 71 cases and 78 randomly selected controls among lunch attendees. The usual symptoms for scombroid fish poisoning were observed in cases, i.e. flushing (85.9%), headache (83.1%), rapid/weak pulse (59.1%) and diarrhoea (47.9%). Symptoms occurred from within a few minutes to up to 3 h following the meal. Most patients quickly recovered with antihistamine and/or symptomatic treatment. Tuna was the only food item positively associated with illness (odds ratio 36.3, 95% confidence interval 6.3-210.0), with the risk of illness increasing with the quantity of fish consumed. No bacterial contamination was found in leftover food, but histamine concentration in tuna was found to be 4900 mg/kg, almost 50-fold higher than the concentration allowed by European regulations. This report is unique because of the large size of the case series - to our knowledge, the largest event of scombroid fish poisoning ever reported - and the chemical and bacteriological analyses results obtained on leftover food.

  8. Incorporation of habitat information in the development of indices of larval bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the Western Mediterranean Sea (2001-2005 and 2012-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, G. Walter; Alvarez-Berastegui, Diego; Reglero, Patricia; Balbín, Rosa; García, Alberto; Alemany, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    Fishery independent indices of bluefin tuna larvae in the Western Mediterranean Sea are presented utilizing ichthyoplankton survey data collected from 2001 through 2005 and 2012 through 2013. Indices were developed using larval catch rates collected using two different types of bongo sampling, by first standardizing catch rates by gear/fishing-style and then employing a delta-lognormal modeling approach. The delta-lognormal models were developed three ways: 1) a basic larval index including the following covariates: time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year; 2) a standard environmental larval index including the following covariates: mean water temperature over the mixed layer depth, mean salinity over the mixed layer depth, geostrophic velocity, time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year; and 3) a habitat-adjusted larval index including the following covariates: a potential habitat variable, time of day, a systematic geographic area variable, month and year. Results indicated that all three model-types had similar precision in index values. However, the habitat-adjusted larval index demonstrated a high correlation with estimates of spawning stock biomass from the previous stock assessment model, and, therefore, is recommended as a tuning index in future stock assessment models.

  9. Trophic ecology of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus [corrected] larvae from the Gulf of Mexico and NW Mediterranean spawning grounds: A Comparative Stable Isotope Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Laiz-Carrión

    Full Text Available The present study uses stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon (δ15Nandδ13C as trophic indicators for Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae (BFT (6-10 mm standard length in the highly contrasting environmental conditions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM and the Balearic Sea (MED. These regions are differentiated by their temperature regime and relative productivity, with the GOM being significantly warmer and more productive. MED BFT larvae showed the highest δ15N signatures, implying an elevated trophic position above the underlying microzooplankton baseline. Ontogenetic dietary shifts were observed in the BFT larvae from the GOM and MED which indicates early life trophodynamics differences between these spawning habitats. Significant trophic differences between the GOM and MED larvae were observed in relation to δ15N signatures in favour of the MED larvae, which may have important implications in their growth during their early life stages.These low δ15N levels in the zooplankton from the GOM may be an indication of a shifting isotopic baseline in pelagic food webs due to diatrophic inputs by cyanobacteria. Lack of enrichment for δ15N in BFT larvae compared to zooplankton implies an alternative grazing pathway from the traditional food chain of phytoplankton-zooplankton-larval fish. Results provide insight for a comparative characterization of the trophic pathways variability of the two main spawning grounds for BFT larvae.

  10. Entrenamiento: “Cambios ontogénicos a la tolerancia de estresores a bajas y altas temperaturas en larvas y juveniles de PBT (Thunnus orientalis).” Nara, Japón 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal, Yazmin

    2015-01-01

    Dentro de las actividades a desarrollar bajo el marco del Proyecto “Estudio comparativo de la biología reproductiva y del ciclo vital temprano del atún aleta amarilla y el atún aleta azul para el manejo de estos recursos”, se estableció un plan de trabajo, donde incluía el entrenamiento técnico-científico del personal de la Autoridad de los Recursos Acuáticos de Panamá (ARAP). Se acordó las visitas para realizar ensayos con esta especie en las Estaciones de cultivo de atún aleta azul (Thunnus...

  11. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. OPTIMASI KONDISI PEMURNIAN ASAM LEMAK OMEGA-3 DARI MINYAK HASIL SAMPING PENEPUNGAN TUNA (Thunnus sp DENGAN KRISTALISASI UREA [Optimizing Conditions for the Purification of Omega-3 Fatty Acids from By-product of Tuna (Thunnus sp Meal Processing by Urea Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih1*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (-3 are proven to have health beneficial effects. Some effort had been done to obtained oil high in -3 fatty acids. Among the methods developed, urea crystallization was preferred because it is simple, economic, and result in high purity of fatty acids. A source that had not been widely explored for -3 fatty acids production is the by-product of tuna meal processing. This research studied the optimization condition for separation and purification of -3 fatty acids from the by-product of tuna meal processing by urea crystallization. Crystallization reaction conditions of urea inclusion were optimized using the response surface methodology, and the model was developed.Optimization result showed a quadratic polynomial regression equation of Y= 140,52677X1 + 8,38203X2 – 19,85850X12 – 0,12173X22 – 0,74000X1X2 – 240,33546 with X1=urea to fatty acid ratio and X2=crystallization time. Maximum response was obtained at urea to fatty acid ratio of 3,07:1,crystallization time of 25,10 hours, and predicted response was 80,60%. Analysis of variance showed that urea to fatty acid ratio and crystallization time affected response. Under optimal conditions, the product was 3.89 times concentrated and the purity of -3 fatty acids was 81,98%. Verification result revealed that the predicted value from this model was reasonably close to the experimentally observed value. Urea crystallization process changed quality parameters that were oxidation level (peroxide value, anisidin value, and totox value, Fe and Cu content, P content, and water content. The changes were caused by adsorption of primary and secondary oxidation products, part of metals, and phosphoric compound onto unsaponifiable matters or soluble into water.

  13. Spawning of bluefin tuna in the black sea: historical evidence, environmental constraints and population plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, Brian R; Mariani, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    The lucrative and highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758; Scombridae), used to be distributed widely throughout the north Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Its migrations have supported sustainable fisheries and impacted local cultures since antiquity...

  14. STOMACH CONTENT OF THREE TUNA SPECIES IN THE EASTERN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Setyadji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habit of tuna in Indian Ocean has been described around Sri Lanka, Indian Waters, Andaman Sea, western Indian Ocean (Seychelles Islands, western equatorial Indian Ocean whereas the tunas feeding habit study in Eastern Indian Oceanis merely in existence. The purpose of this study is to investigate the stomach content of three tuna species (bigeye tuna, yellowfin tuna, and skipjack tuna, apex predator in the southern part of Eastern Indian Ocean. The study was conducted in March – April, 2010 on the basis of catches of commercial tuna longline vessel based in Port of Benoa. A total of 53 individual fishes were collected, consisting of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus, yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores, and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis. Stomach specimens were collected and analyzed.Analysis was conducted on the basis of index of preponderance method. The diet of the three tuna species showed fishes as the main diet (56–82%, followed by cephalopods (squids as the complementary diet (0–8%, and crustaceans (shrimps as the additional diet (2–4%. Fish prey composed of 6 families i.e. Alepisauridae, Bramidae, Carangidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae, and Scombridae.

  15. Pelagic shark bycatch in the tuna- and swordfish-directed longline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capture of pelagic sharks as bycatch of the South African pelagic longline fleet targeting tuna Thunnus spp. and swordfish Xiphias gladius was investigated during the period 1998–2005. In all, 26 species were caught, of which six are listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as Vulnerable and ...

  16. [Association of the abundance and vertical distribution of tuna and beakfish in the southeast of the Caribbean sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslava, Nora; González, Leo W; Gaertner, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    The longline hooks suspension depth was estimated using the Mechanic Imitation of Flexible Systems method. The vertical distribution of tunas and billfish was determined by the relative abundance index, obtained from the catch by 11 to 25 m -long longline vessels, -based at Cumaná, Venezuela, South-eastern Caribbean Sea in depths of 65 to 142 m. The CPUE was evaluated per species, according to depth. High values were found for most of the captured species in the layer from 105 to 125 m. Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) showed the highest yield (3.37 fish/100 hooks) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) the lowest (0.04 fish/100 hooks). However, the statistical comparison did not allow to reject the hypothesis of lack of depth efect (Kruskal-Wallis p > .05), and demonstrated a homogeneous distribution of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), sailfish (Istiophorus albicans), white marlin (Tetrapturus albidus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the water column. The conclusion is that fish concentration in the Southern border of the Caribbean Sea is possibly due to several hydroclimatic factors--which affect tuna and billfish catching--such as water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration which limit the distribution according to depth.

  17. Keragaman Spesies Ikan Tuna di Pasar Ikan Kedonganan Bali dengan Analisis Sekuen Kontrol Daerah Mitokondria DNA (SPECIES DIVERSITY OF TUNA FISH USING MITOCHONDRIAL DNA CONTROL REGION SEQUENCE ANALYSIS AT KEDONGANAN FISH MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Steven Triyomi Hariyanto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuna is an export commodity which has very high economic value. However, some tuna speciesare threatened with extinction. The purpose of this study was to identify the tuna species that aresold in Kedonganan Fish Market. The research method was polymerase chain reaction technique(PCR using the marker sequence mitochondrial DNA control region. Samples were obtained fromthe Fish Market tuna Kedonganan, Kuta, Badung, Bali. The total number of samples are 28specimens. Sequence from each sample was obtained through sequencing techniques. Sequencesobtained were run in BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool and subsequently analyzed withMEGA 5 for species confirmation. Three species of tuna that are identified in the Kedonganan FishMarket is: Thunnus albacares, T. obesus, and Katsuwonus pelamis. All three species have highgenetic variation HD = 1. This study needed to be continued with more number of samples todetermine the species of tuna sold in Kedonganan Fish Market.

  18. MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF THUNNUS GENUS FOUR SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pepe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An accurate identification of similar fish species is necessary to prevent illegal substitution and is imposed by labeling regulations in UE countries (1. The genus Thunnus comprises many species of different quality and commercial value. The increasing trade of fish preparations of the species included in this genus and the consequent loss of the external anatomical and morphological features enables fraudulent substitutions. This study reports data relating to the proteomic analysis of four tuna species (T. thynnus, T. alalunga, T. albacares, T. obesus. Sarcoplasmic proteins were studied by mono and two dimensional electrophoresis. The most significant proteins for the characterization of the species were analyzed by mass spectrometric techniques. As reported in a previous study (2, an accurate identification of the species seems possible, owing to the polymorphism displayed by the species of the Thunnus genus.

  19. SEBARAN HASIL TANGKAPAN MADIDIHANG (Thunnus albacares Bonnaterre, 1788 DI SAMUDERA HINDIA BAGIAN TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Wujdi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ikan Madidihang (Thunnus albacares Bobbaterre, 1788 merupakan salah satu komoditaspenting bagi industri perikanan di Indonesia dimana hasil tangkapannya merupakan yang tertinggi dibandingkan jenis tuna lainnya. Saat ini, kondisi stok madidihang berada dalam kondisi yang baik. Namun, untuk menjaga kelangsungan pemantaatan stok ikan tuna, diperlukan upaya pengelolaan sumber daya tuna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui distribusi laju tangkap madidihang di Samudera Hindia Bagian Timur. Pengumpulan data dilakukan oleh pemantau ilmiah pada kapal rawai tuna komersial yang berbasis di Benoa, Pelabuhanratu dan Bungus dari Agustus 2005 sampai Desember 2013; serta program monitoring pendaratan tuna yang berbasis di Benoa tahun 2010-2013. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa laju pancing bervariasi secara bulanan dan tahunan. Rata-rata bulanan laju pancing tertinggi terjadi pada Mei (0,17 ekor/100 pancing dan terendah pada Februari (0,01 ekor/100 pancing, sedangkan rata-rata laju pancing tahunan tertinggi pada 2006 (0,11 ekor/100 pancing dan terendah pada 2011 (0,06 ekor/100 pancing. Rata-rata laju pancing tahunan cenderung mengalami penurunan sebesar 29,48%/ tahun. Ikan madidihang tertangkap oleh rawai tuna Indonesia tersebar dari 0°-34° LS dan 76°-134° BT. Sebaran spasial laju pancing tertinggi berada di sekitar Kepulauan Mentawai dan selatan Jawa Timur hingga Nusa Tenggara. Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares Bobbaterre, 1788 is one of the important commodity for the fishing industry in Indonesia because it has the highest catches compared with other tunas. Nowadays, the yellowfin stock is currently in good condition (not overfished and not subject to overfishing. However, management measure was required to support sustainability of tuna fishery. This study aims to determine the hook rate distribution of yellowfin tuna in the Eastern Indian Ocean. Data was obtained by scientific observers on commercial tuna longline vessels

  20. A spatial ecosystem and populations dynamics model (SEAPODYM) Modeling of tuna and tuna-like populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehodey, Patrick; Senina, Inna; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2008-09-01

    An enhanced version of the spatial ecosystem and population dynamics model SEAPODYM is presented to describe spatial dynamics of tuna and tuna-like species in the Pacific Ocean at monthly resolution over 1° grid-boxes. The simulations are driven by a bio-physical environment predicted from a coupled ocean physical-biogeochemical model. This new version of SEAPODYM includes expanded definitions of habitat indices, movements, and natural mortality based on empirical evidences. A thermal habitat of tuna species is derived from an individual heat budget model. The feeding habitat is computed according to the accessibility of tuna predator cohorts to different vertically migrating and non-migrating micronekton (mid-trophic) functional groups. The spawning habitat is based on temperature and the coincidence of spawning fish with presence or absence of predators and food for larvae. The successful larval recruitment is linked to spawning stock biomass. Larvae drift with currents, while immature and adult tuna can move of their own volition, in addition to being advected by currents. A food requirement index is computed to adjust locally the natural mortality of cohorts based on food demand and accessibility to available forage components. Together these mechanisms induce bottom-up and top-down effects, and intra- (i.e. between cohorts) and inter-species interactions. The model is now fully operational for running multi-species, multi-fisheries simulations, and the structure of the model allows a validation from multiple data sources. An application with two tuna species showing different biological characteristics, skipjack ( Katsuwonus pelamis) and bigeye ( Thunnus obesus), is presented to illustrate the capacity of the model to capture many important features of spatial dynamics of these two different tuna species in the Pacific Ocean. The actual validation is presented in a companion paper describing the approach to have a rigorous mathematical parameter optimization

  1. Modelling retention and dispersion mechanisms of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian; Iudicone, D.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of early life history of most fish species in the Mediterranean Sea is sparse and processes affecting their recruitment are poorly understood. This is particularly true for bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, even though this species is one of the world's most valued fish species. Here we...... develop, apply and validate an individually based coupled biological-physical oceanographic model of fish early life history in the Mediterranean Sea. We first validate the general structure of the coupled model with a 12-day Lagrangian drift study of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae in the Catalan...... mesoscale processes in the Balearic area and thus potentially affect bluefin tuna larvae. These modelling approaches can increase understanding of bluefin tuna recruitment processes and eventually contribute to management of bluefin tuna fisheries....

  2. Mercury in tunas and blue marlin in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevnick, Paul E; Brooks, Barbara A

    2017-05-01

    Models and data from the North Pacific Ocean indicate that mercury concentrations in water and biota are increasing in response to (global or hemispheric) anthropogenic mercury releases. In the present study, we provide an updated record of mercury in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) caught near Hawaii that confirms an earlier conclusion that mercury concentrations in these fish are increasing at a rate similar to that observed in waters shallower than 1000 m. We also compiled and reanalyzed data from bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) caught near Hawaii in the 1970s and 2000s. Increases in mercury concentrations in bigeye tuna are consistent with the trend found in yellowfin tuna, in both timing and magnitude. The data available for blue marlin do not allow for a fair comparison among years, because mercury concentrations differ between sexes for this species, and sex was identified (or reported) in only 3 of 7 studies. Also, mercury concentrations in blue marlin may be insensitive to modest changes in mercury exposure, because this species appears to have the ability to detoxify mercury. The North Pacific Ocean is a region of both relatively high rates of atmospheric mercury deposition and capture fisheries production. Other data sets that allow temporal comparisons in mercury concentrations, such as pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in Alaskan waters and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) off the US Pacific coast, should be explored further, to aid in understanding human health and ecological risks and to develop additional baseline knowledge for assessing changes in a region expected to respond strongly to reductions in anthropogenic mercury emissions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1365-1374. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. Tuna Species Substitution in the Spanish Commercial Chain: A Knock-On Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gordoa

    Full Text Available Intentional mislabelling of seafood is a widespread problem, particularly with high-value species like tuna. In this study we examine tuna mislabelling, deliberate species substitution, types of substitution and its impact on prices. The survey covered the commercial chain, from Merca-Barna to fishmongers and restaurants in the Spanish Autonomous Community of Catalonia. To understand the geographic extent of the problem we also sampled Merca-Madrid, Europe's biggest fish market, and Merca-Málaga for its proximity to the bluefin tuna migratory route and trap fishery. Monthly surveys were carried out over one year. The results showed a high deficiency in labelling: 75% of points of sale and 83% of restaurants did not specify the species, and in those cases the name of the species had to be asked. A total of 375 samples were analysed genetically, the largest dataset gathered in Europe so far. The identified species were Thunnus albacares, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus obesus. Species substitution began at suppliers, with 40% of observed cases, increasing to 58% at fishmongers and 62% at restaurants. The substitution was mainly on bluefin tuna (T. thynnus, 73% of cases. At restaurants, only during the bluefin fishing season, we observed a decrease of Bluefin tuna substitution and an increase of reverse substitution revealing some illegal fishing. The effect of species substitution on species prices was relevant: T. obesus increased its price by around €12 kg-1 when it was sold as bluefin. In view of the deficiency of labelling, the abuse of generic names and the lack of the bluefin catch document, we conclude that the Spanish regulations are ineffective, highlighting the need for policy execution, and the urgent need for information campaigns to Spanish consumers.

  4. Application of the Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) for Pre-grading Tuna Freshness On-board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheevaporanapivat, Mongkol; Sakai, Hisaharu; Mine, Yuuji; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    Application of ORP as a rapid indicator for grading tuna's freshness on the ship was studied. The long line trawling process was used for catching the sample tuna in the South Pacific Ocean. All captured sample tuna were weighed, gender identified and investigated for their mortality, then measured ORP and K value. Three species of tuna were caught: blue marlin (Makaira mazara), yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and swordfish (Xiphia gladius). Most of the fish captured were male and they had been dead after picking onboard. The measured ORP values of blue marlin varied in the range of 0.295-0.362 Volt, with pH between 5.35-5.84. Both ORP and pH of swordfish was similar to that of blue marlin. But for yellow fin tuna, the ORP value was about the same as blue marlin while its pH was significantly higher. ORP value in all species tended to increase with pH of the fish meat decrease. It is interesting that ORP value of tuna increased in correlation with K value. These results suggested that ORP and pH change, which are measured in the short time, are the effective indicators for grading tuna's freshness on-board.

  5. FLUKTUASI DAN KOMPOSISI HASIL TANGKAPAN TUNA NERITIK TERTANGKAP JARING INSANG DI PERAIRAN LAUT CINA SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Wujdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini tuna neritik merupakan komoditas penting perikanan di Indonesia, namun ketersediaan data dan informasi hasil tangkapan jenis tuna ini masih tergolong kurang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh informasi mengenai sebaran daerah penangkapan, fluktuasi hasil tangkapan tuna neritik yang tertangkap jaring insang yang beroperasi di Laut Cina Selatan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui program enumerasi monitoring hasil tangkapan harian di Pemangkat pada tahun 2011-2012. Hasil menunjukkan daerah penangkapan tersebar di perairan Laut Cina Selatan pada koordinat 01°03’ LS-04°57’ LU; dan 104°65’-110°00’ BT. Hasil tangkapan jenis tuna neritik menunjukan variasi yang cenderung sama dimana puncak hasil tangkapan terjadi pada bulan Oktober dan November. Pola CPUE berfluktuasi dan cenderung mengalami peningkatan dan puncaknya terjadi pada bulan November 2011 dan 2012, yaitu 402,85 dan 444,57 kg/hari/trip. Secara statistik hasil tangkapan pada periode 2011-2012 tidak berbeda nyata (p<0,05. Komposisi hasil tangkapan bulanan jenis tuna neritik bervariasi berdasarkan atas spesies yang didominasi oleh Euthynnus affinis (49,7% diikuti dengan Thunnus tonggol (33,4%; Scomberomorus commerson (15,9%; dan Scomberomorus guttatus (1%. Kelimpahan Euthynnus affinis terjadi pada musim timur hingga musim peralihan 2 (Juni- November, sedangkan kelimpahan Thunnus tonggol terjadi pada musim barat (Januari-Februari. Nowadays, neritic tuna just become an important commodity Indonesia. However, the information about catch of tuna neritic species in Indonesia still quite lacks. This This study aims to obtain information about catch fluctuation, monthly catch per unit of effort, and catch composition of neritic tuna species caught by gill net operated in the South China Sea. Data was collected by daily catch monitoring program by enumerator in Pemangkat during period 2011-2012. The result showed that gillnetter fishing ground is scattered between 01°03

  6. RAD-seq derived genome-wide nuclear markers resolve the phylogeny of tunas

    KAUST Repository

    Díaz-Arce, Natalia

    2016-06-07

    Although species from the genus Thunnus include some of the most commercially important and most severely overexploited fishes, the phylogeny of this genus is still unresolved, hampering evolutionary and traceability studies that could help improve conservation and management strategies for these species. Previous attempts based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers were unsuccessful in inferring a congruent and reliable phylogeny, probably due to mitochondrial introgression events and lack of enough phylogenetically informative markers. Here we infer the first genome-wide nuclear marker-based phylogeny of tunas using restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) data. Our results, derived from phylogenomic inferences obtained from 128 nucleotide matrices constructed using alternative data assembly procedures, support a single Thunnus evolutionary history that challenges previous assumptions based on morphological and molecular data.

  7. Modelling retention and dispersion mechanisms of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae in the northwest Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Iudicone, Daniele; Bozec, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    Knowledge of early life history of most fish species in the Mediterranean Sea is sparse and processes affecting their recruitment are poorly understood. This is particularly true for bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, even though this species is one of the world’s most valued fish species. Here we develop, apply and validate an individually based coupled biological-physical oceanographic model of fish early life history in the Mediterranean Sea. We first validate the general structure of the coupled model with a 12-day Lagrangian drift study of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae in the Catalan Sea. The model reproduced the drift and growth of anchovy larvae as they drifted along the Catalan coast and yielded similar patterns as those observed in the field. We then applied the model to investigate transport and retention processes affecting the spatial distribution of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae during 1999-2003, and we compared modelled distributions with available field data collected in 2001 and 2003. Modelled and field distributions generally coincided and were patchy at mesoscales (10s-100s km); larvae were most abundant in eddies and along frontal zones. We also identified probable locations of spawning bluefin tuna using hydrographic backtracking procedures; these locations were situated in a major salinity frontal zone and coincided with distributions of an electronically tagged bluefin tuna and commercial bluefin tuna fishing vessels. Moreover, we hypothesized that mesoscale processes are responsible for the aggregation and dispersion mechanisms in the area and showed that these processes were significantly correlated to atmospheric forcing processes over the NW Mediterranean Sea. Interannual variations in average summer air temperature can reduce the intensity of ocean mesoscale processes in the Balearic area and thus potentially affect bluefin tuna larvae. These modelling approaches can increase understanding of bluefin tuna recruitment processes and

  8. Precooking as a Control for Histamine Formation during the Processing of Tuna: An Industrial Process Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Farzana; Nolte, Fred; Colton, James; De Beer, John; Weddig, Lisa

    2018-02-23

    An experiment to validate the precooking of tuna as a control for histamine formation was carried out at a commercial tuna factory in Fiji. Albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) were brought on board long-line catcher vessels alive, immediately chilled but never frozen, and delivered to an on-shore facility within 3 to 13 days. These fish were then allowed to spoil at 25 to 30°C for 21 to 25 h to induce high levels of histamine (>50 ppm), as a simulation of "worst-case" postharvest conditions, and subsequently frozen. These spoiled fish later were thawed normally and then precooked at a commercial tuna processing facility to a target maximum core temperature of 60°C. These tuna were then held at ambient temperatures of 19 to 37°C for up to 30 h, and samples were collected every 6 h for histamine analysis. After precooking, no further histamine formation was observed for 12 to 18 h, indicating that a conservative minimum core temperature of 60°C pauses subsequent histamine formation for 12 to 18 h. Using the maximum core temperature of 60°C provided a challenge study to validate a recommended minimum core temperature of 60°C, and 12 to 18 h was sufficient to convert precooked tuna into frozen loins or canned tuna. This industrial-scale process validation study provides support at a high confidence level for the preventive histamine control associated with precooking. This study was conducted with tuna deliberately allowed to spoil to induce high concentrations of histamine and histamine-forming capacity and to fail standard organoleptic evaluations, and the critical limits for precooking were validated. Thus, these limits can be used in a hazard analysis critical control point plan in which precooking is identified as a critical control point.

  9. Global trophic ecology of yellowfin, bigeye, and albacore tunas: Understanding predation on micronekton communities at ocean-basin scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Leanne M.; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Young, Jock W.; Olson, Robert J.; Logan, John M.; Goñi, Nicolas; Romanov, Evgeny; Allain, Valerie; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Abecassis, Melanie; Choy, C. Anela; Hobday, Alistair J.; Simier, Monique; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Potier, Michel; Ménard, Frederic

    2017-06-01

    Predator-prey interactions for three commercially valuable tuna species: yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), bigeye (T. obesus), and albacore (T. alalunga), collected over a 40-year period from the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans, were used to quantitatively assess broad, macro-scale trophic patterns in pelagic ecosystems. Analysis of over 14,000 tuna stomachs, using a modified classification tree approach, revealed for the first time the global expanse of pelagic predatory fish diet and global patterns of micronekton diversity. Ommastrephid squids were consistently one of the top prey groups by weight across all tuna species and in most ocean bodies. Interspecific differences in prey were apparent, with epipelagic scombrid and mesopelagic paralepidid fishes globally important for yellowfin and bigeye tunas, respectively, while vertically-migrating euphausiid crustaceans were important for albacore tuna in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Diet diversity showed global and regional patterns among tuna species. In the central and western Pacific Ocean, characterized by low productivity, a high diversity of micronekton prey was detected while low prey diversity was evident in highly productive coastal waters where upwelling occurs. Spatial patterns of diet diversity were most variable in yellowfin and bigeye tunas while a latitudinal diversity gradient was observed with lower diversity in temperate regions for albacore tuna. Sea-surface temperature was a reasonable predictor of the diets of yellowfin and bigeye tunas, whereas chlorophyll-a was the best environmental predictor of albacore diet. These results suggest that the ongoing expansion of warmer, less productive waters in the world's oceans may alter foraging opportunities for tunas due to regional changes in prey abundances and compositions.

  10. The imprint of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on Atlantic bluefin tuna otoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, Igaratza; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Kölling, Martin; Santos, Miguel Neves; Macías, David; Addis, Piero; Dettman, David L.; Karakulak, Saadet; Deguara, Simeon; Rooker, Jay R.

    2016-06-01

    Otoliths of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) collected from the Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean were analyzed to evaluate changes in the seawater isotopic composition over time. We report an annual otolith δ13C record that documents the magnitude of the δ13C depletion in the Mediterranean Sea between 1989 and 2010. Atlantic bluefin tuna in our sample (n = 632) ranged from 1 to 22 years, and otolith material corresponding to the first year of life (back-calculated birth year) was used to reconstruct seawater isotopic composition. Otolith δ18O remained relatively stable between 1989 and 2010, whereas a statistically significant decrease in δ13C was detected across the time interval investigated, with a rate of decline of 0.05‰ yr- 1 (- 0.94‰ depletion throughout the recorded period). The depletion in otolith δ13C over time was associated with the oceanic uptake of anthropogenically derived CO2.

  11. Relative growth pattern and hard tissue of vertebral centra by microradiography of bluefin tuna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Y.; Asano, H.

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the growth feature and the structure of hard tissue, we studied the vertebral centrum of three species, bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus, bigeye tuna T. obesus and skipjack Katsuwonus pelamis (BL: 44.2, 39.5 and 40.0cm respectively). We examined the ratio of cetrum length to diameter in each vertebral centrum and obtained the value of 0.9-1.3 in most centra among three species. This indicates that the examined species belong to the equivalent type of the relative growth pattern of vertebral centra. The hard tissue was observed by microradiography, with the longitudinal and cross sections (about 100 μm) cut through the center of notochordal pore. The major centra of the vertebral column were composed of characteristic simple structure like a cross, when seen in the microradiographs of cross sections. Microradiographs indicated that the bone has complicated canals with minute spaces like the bone cavities

  12. Abundance and Distribution Patterns of Thunnus albacares in Isla del Coco National Park through Predictive Habitat Suitability Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gonzáles-Andrés

    Full Text Available Information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically and commercially important species is essential for their management and protection. This is especially important as climate change, pollution, and overfishing change the structure and functioning of pelagic ecosystems. In this study, we used Bayesian hierarchical spatial-temporal models to map the Essential Fish Habitats of the Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares in the waters around Isla del Coco National Park, Pacific Costa Rica, based on independent underwater observations from 1993 to 2013. We assessed if observed changes in the distribution and abundance of this species are related with habitat characteristics, fishing intensity or more extreme climatic events, including the El Niño Southern Oscillation, and changes on the average sea surface temperature. Yellowfin tuna showed a decreasing abundance trend in the sampled period, whereas higher abundances were found in shallow and warmer waters, with high concentration of chlorophyll-a, and in surrounding seamounts. In addition, El Niño Southern Oscillation events did not seem to affect Yellowfin tuna distribution and abundance. Understanding the habitat preferences of this species, using approaches as the one developed here, may help design integrated programs for more efficient management of vulnerable species.

  13. Effect of tuna skin gelatin-based coating enriched with seaweed extracts on the quality of tuna fillets during storage at 4 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Vala

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, consumers demand high quality food products with an extended shelf-life without chemical additives. Edible coatings (EC containing natural compounds are a promising preservation technology for raw seafood without compromising fresh-like appeal and nutritional content.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Thunnus obesus skin gelatin-based EC containing Codium spp. or Fucus vesiculosus extracts on raw tuna preservation. Three gelatin-based EC (gelatin (5 % + glycerol (25 %; gelatin (5 % + Codium spp. (1 % + glycerol (25 %; gelatin (5 % + Fucus vesiculosus (1 % + glycerol (25 % were applied directly on the surface of tuna fillets. Functional properties of gelatin and gelatin-based EC containing seaweed extracts were also studied. The gelatin was extracted by an acid-swelling process in the presence/absence of pepsin, followed by subsequent heating/refrigeration, after a pre-treatment with NaOH. The type of acid, temperature and concentration of NaOH greatly influence the process yield. The higher extraction yield was achieved using acetic acid in the presence of pepsin by subsequent refrigeration, especially when skins were previously treated with NaOH (0.2 M. Tuna quality was assessed over 12 days of storage at 4 ± 1 °C in terms of chemical and microbial indices. Results showed that tuna skin gelatin-based EC avoids tuna deterioration. Microbial growth, assessed by total viable counts, and total volatile basic nitrogen were maintained below the maximum limits recommended, contrarily to the control. Additionally, the use of EC increased the stability of red colour during storage. 

  14. Identification of parvalbumin and two new thermolabile major allergens of Thunnus tonggol using a proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmilah, Misnan; Shahnaz, Murad; Meinir, Jones; Masita, Arip; Noormalin, Abdullah; Jamaluddin, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The longtail tuna (Thunnus tonggol) is widely consumed in Asia. Parvalbumin, the main major allergen of fish, has been well identified in multiple fish species, yet little is known about the allergenic proteins in T. tonggol. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the major allergens of T. tonggol using a proteomics approach. Raw and boiled extracts of the fish were prepared. Fish proteins were separated by means of SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis. 1-DE immunoblotting of raw extract was performed with sera from fish-allergic patients. Ten sera were further analysed by 2-DE immunoblotting. Selected major allergenic protein spots were excised, trypsin digested and analysed by means of mass spectrometry. SDS-PAGE of raw extract revealed 26 protein fractions, while boiled extract demonstrated fewer bands. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract further fractionated the protein bands to more than 100 distinct protein spots. 1-DE immunoblotting of raw extract exhibited two thermolabile protein fractions of 42 and 51 kDa as the major allergens, while the boiled extract only revealed a single IgE-binding band at 151 kDa. 2-DE immunoblotting of raw extract further detected numerous major IgE-reactive spots of 11-13, 42 and 51 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the peptides generated from the 12, 42 and 51 kDa digested spots indicated that these spots were parvalbumin, creatine kinase and enolase, respectively. In addition to parvalbumin, two new thermolabile allergens were identified as major allergenic proteins of T. tonggol. This study proved that both thermostable and thermolabile proteins are important in local tuna allergy and should be included in diagnostic strategies.

  15. The Real maccoyii: Identifying Tuna Sushi with DNA Barcodes – Contrasting Characteristic Attributes and Genetic Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Jacob H.; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of DNA barcodes for the identification of described species is one of the least controversial and most promising applications of barcoding. There is no consensus, however, as to what constitutes an appropriate identification standard and most barcoding efforts simply attempt to pair a query sequence with reference sequences and deem identification successful if it falls within the bounds of some pre-established cutoffs using genetic distance. Since the Renaissance, however, most biological classification schemes have relied on the use of diagnostic characters to identify and place species. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we developed a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I character-based key for the identification of all tuna species of the genus Thunnus, and compared its performance with distance-based measures for identification of 68 samples of tuna sushi purchased from 31 restaurants in Manhattan (New York City) and Denver, Colorado. Both the character-based key and GenBank BLAST successfully identified 100% of the tuna samples, while the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) as well as genetic distance thresholds, and neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree building performed poorly in terms of species identification. A piece of tuna sushi has the potential to be an endangered species, a fraud, or a health hazard. All three of these cases were uncovered in this study. Nineteen restaurant establishments were unable to clarify or misrepresented what species they sold. Five out of nine samples sold as a variant of “white tuna” were not albacore (T. alalunga), but escolar (Lepidocybium flavorunneum), a gempylid species banned for sale in Italy and Japan due to health concerns. Nineteen samples were northern bluefin tuna (T. thynnus) or the critically endangered southern bluefin tuna (T. maccoyii), though nine restaurants that sold these species did not state these species on their menus. Conclusions/Significance The Convention on International Trade

  16. Biological performance of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. heartwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren Terzi; S. Nami Kartal; Claudia Marcela Ibáñez; Coþkun Köse; Rachel Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick. Green III

    2012-01-01

    New approaches for wood protection based on green technologies have increased interest in using heartwood portions of certain wood species for the effects (toxic and antioxidant properties, chelate formation, hydrophobicity) of extractives located in heartwood. This study evaluated the biological performance of heartwood of Liquidambar orientalis...

  17. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals three stocks of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788) in Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunal, S.P.; GirishKumar; Menezes, M.R.; Meena, R.M.

    was sequenced and analysed for 321 yellowfin samples. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance showed significant genetic differentiation among three groups (VE); (AG); (KO, TU, PO, VI, PB) analyzed (Theta sub(ST)=0.03844, P less than or equal to 0...

  18. [Fatty acid variation in yellowfin tuna, spotted weakfish and Florida pompano when submitted to six cooking techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, María Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Romo Pérez-Gil, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of six cooking techniques (steamed, foiled, foiled with banana leaf, baked, microwave-cooked and light frying) in the fatty acid content of Thunnus albacore (yellowfin tuna), Cynoscionnebulosus (spotted weakfish) and Trachinotuscarolinus (Florida pompano). After cooking the fish fillets, fatty acid analyses were performed using gas chromatography. Total lipids increased in all cooking techniques in tunaand spotted weakfish. Saturated fatty acids of tuna and spotted weakfish increased in three cooking techniques, while in Florida pompano only gas oven raised their content. Lightly frying generated the highest content of n-3 in tuna and spotted weakfish, and the lowest in Florida pompano, specie that presented less variation. In tuna fish, the most recommended cooking techniques are foiled with aluminum and microwave oven; for spotted weakfish, foiled with banana leaf; while Florida pompano can be prepared using all cooking methods except gas oven. This information is useful to enrich data from chemical composition tables, in which concentrations are usually presented in raw food.

  19. Preliminary forecasts of Pacific bigeye tuna population trends under the A2 IPCC scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehodey, P.; Senina, I.; Sibert, J.; Bopp, L.; Calmettes, B.; Hampton, J.; Murtugudde, R.

    2010-07-01

    An improved version of the spatial ecosystem and population dynamics model SEAPODYM was used to investigate the potential impacts of global warming on tuna populations. The model included an enhanced definition of habitat indices, movements, and accessibility of tuna predators to different vertically migrant and non-migrant micronekton functional groups. The simulations covered the Pacific basin (model domain) at a 2° × 2° geographic resolution. The structure of the model allows an evaluation from multiple data sources, and parameterization can be optimized by adjoint techniques and maximum likelihood using fishing data. A first such optimized parameterization was obtained for bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) in the Pacific Ocean using historical catch data for the last 50 years and a hindcast from a coupled physical-biogeochemical model driven by the NCEP atmospheric reanalysis. The parameterization provided very plausible biological parameter values and a good fit to fishing data from the different fisheries, both within and outside the time period used for optimization. We then employed this model to forecast the future of bigeye tuna populations in the Pacific Ocean. The simulation was driven by the physical-biogeochemical fields predicted from a global marine biogeochemistry - climate simulation. This global simulation was performed with the IPSL climate model version 4 (IPSL-CM4) coupled to the oceanic biogeochemical model PISCES and forced by atmospheric CO 2, from historical records over 1860-2000, and under the SRES A2 IPCC scenario for the 21st century (i.e. atmospheric CO 2 concentration reaching 850 ppm in the year 2100). Potential future changes in distribution and abundance under the IPCC scenario are presented but without taking into account any fishing effort. The simulation showed an improvement in bigeye tuna spawning habitat both in subtropical latitudes and in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) where the surface temperature becomes optimal for

  20. Food-web inferences of stable isotope spatial patterns in copepods and yellowfin tuna in the pelagic eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Robert J.; Popp, Brian N.; Graham, Brittany S.; López-Ibarra, Gladis A.; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy E.; Bocanegra-Castillo, Noemi; Wallsgrove, Natalie J.; Gier, Elizabeth; Alatorre-Ramírez, Vanessa; Ballance, Lisa T.; Fry, Brian

    2010-07-01

    Evaluating the impacts of climate and fishing on oceanic ecosystems requires an improved understanding of the trophodynamics of pelagic food webs. Our approach was to examine broad-scale spatial relationships among the stable N isotope values of copepods and yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares), and to quantify yellowfin tuna trophic status in the food web based on stable-isotope and stomach-contents analyses. Using a generalized additive model fitted to abundance-weighted-average δ 15N values of several omnivorous copepod species, we examined isotopic spatial relationships among yellowfin tuna and copepods. We found a broad-scale, uniform gradient in δ 15N values of copepods increasing from south to north in a region encompassing the eastern Pacific warm pool and parts of several current systems. Over the same region, a similar trend was observed for the δ 15N values in the white muscle of yellowfin tuna caught by the purse-seine fishery, implying limited movement behavior. Assuming the omnivorous copepods represent a proxy for the δ 15N values at the base of the food web, the isotopic difference between these two taxa, “ ΔYFT-COP,” was interpreted as a trophic-position offset. Yellowfin tuna trophic-position estimates based on their bulk δ 15N values were not significantly different than independent estimates based on stomach contents, but are sensitive to errors in the trophic enrichment factor and the trophic position of copepods. An apparent inshore-offshore, east to west gradient in yellowfin tuna trophic position was corroborated using compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids conducted on a subset of samples. The gradient was not explained by the distribution of yellowfin tuna of different sizes, by seasonal variability at the base of the food web, or by known ambit distances (i.e. movements). Yellowfin tuna stomach contents did not show a regular inshore-offshore gradient in trophic position during 2003-2005, but the trophic

  1. The Southern Oscillation, Hypoxia, and the Eastern Pacific Tuna Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D.; Kiefer, D.; Lam, C. H.; Harrison, D. P.; Armstrong, E. M.; Hinton, M.; Luo, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Pacific tuna fishery, which is one of the world's major fisheries, covers thousands of square kilometers. The vessels of this fishery are registered in more than 30 nations and largely target bigeye (Thunnus obesus), skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), and yellowfin (T. albacores) tuna. In both the Pelagic Habitat Analysis Module project, which is sponsored by NASA, and the Fishscape project, which is sponsored by NSF, we have attempted to define the habitat of the three species by matching a 50 year time series on fish catch and effort with oceanographic information obtained from satellite imagery and from a global circulation model. The fishery time series, which was provided by the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, provided spatial maps of catch and effort at monthly time steps; the satellite imagery of the region consisted of sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and height from GHRSST, SEAWiFS, and AVISO products, and the modeled flow field at selected depths was output from ECCO-92 simulations from 1992 to present. All information was integrated and analyzed within the EASy marine geographic information system. This GIS will also provides a home for the Fishscape spatial simulation model of the coupled dynamics of the ocean, fish, fleets, and markets. This model will then be applied to an assessment of the potential ecological and economic impacts of climate change, technological advances in fleet operations, and increases in fuel costs. We have determined by application of EOF analysis that the ECCO-2 simulation of sea surface height fits well with that of AVISO imagery; thus, if driven properly by predictions of future air-sea exchange, the model should provide good estimates of circulation patterns. We have also found that strong El Nino events lead to strong recruitment of all three species and strong La Nina events lead to weak recruitment. Finally, we have found that the general spatial distribution of the Eastern Pacific fishing grounds

  2. Governance innovation networks for sustainable tuna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, A.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Governance Innovation Networks for Sustainable Tuna

    Alice M.M. Miller

    Tuna fisheries are among the most highly capitalised and valuable fisheries in the world and their exploitation will continue for the foreseeable future. This means the sustainability of tuna

  3. A reconstructed database of historic bluefin tuna captures in the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué M. Polanco-Martínez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data paper presents a reconstruction of a compilation of a small but consistent database of historical capture records of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus; BFT hereafter from the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean (Portugal, Spain and Italy. The compilation come from diverse historical and documentary sources and span the time interval from 1525 to 1936 covering a period of 412 years. There is a total of 3074 datum, which reach up to 67.83% of the total implying a 32.17% of missing data. However, we have only reconstructed the captures for the time interval 1700–1936 and we provide these reconstructions only for this time interval and for 9 out of 11 series due to the scarcity and inhomogeneity of the two oldest capture time series. This reconstructed database provides an invaluable opportunity for fisheries and marine research as well as for multidisciplinary research in climate change. Keywords: Data reconstructions, DINEOF, Missing data, Historic Bluefin tuna captures, Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

  4. ESTIMATION OF YELLOWFIN TUNA PRODUCTION LANDED IN BENOA PORT WITH WEIGHT-WEIGHT, LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS AND CONDITION FACTOR APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Jatmiko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares is one of the important catch for the fishing industry in Indonesia. Length-weight relationship study is one of important tools to support fisheries management. However it could not be done to yellowfin tuna landed in Benoa port since they are in the form of gilled-gutted condition. The objectives of this study are to determine the relationship between gilled-gutted weight (GW and whole weight (WW, to calculate length weight relationship between fork length (FL and estimated whole weight (WW and to assess the relative condition factor (Kn of yellowfin tuna in Eastern Indian Ocean. Data were collected from three landing sites i.e. Malang, East Java; Benoa, Bali and Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara from January 2013 to February 2014. Linear regression analysis applied to test the significance baseline between weight-weight relationships and log transformed length weight relationship. Relative condition factor (Kn used to identify fish condition among length groups and months. The results showed a significant positive linear relationships between whole weight (WW and gilled-gutted weight (GW of T. albacares (p<0.001. There was a significant positive linier relationships between log transformed fork length and log transformed whole weight of T. albacares (p<0.001. Relative condition factor (Kn showed declining pattern along with length increase and varied among months. The findings from this study provide data for management of yellowfin tuna stock and population.

  5. Tuna and dolphin associations in the North-east Atlantic: Evidence of different ecological niches from stable isotope and heavy metal measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.; Lepoint, G.; Loizeau, V.; Debacker, V.; Dauby, P.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Associations of tunas and dolphins in the wild are quite frequent events and the question arises how predators requiring similar diet in the same habitat share their environmental resources. As isotopic composition of an animal is related to that of its preys, stable isotope ( 13 C/ 12 C and 15 N/ 14 N) analyses were performed in three predator species from the North-east Atlantic: the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, the common dolphin Delphinus delphis and the albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, and compared to their previously described stomach content. Heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu and Fe) are mainly transferred through the diet and so, have been determined in the tissues of the animals. Tuna muscles display higher δ 15 N than in common and striped dolphins (mean: 11.4 vs. 10.3%o and 10.4%o, respectively) which reflects their higher trophic level nutrition. Higher δ 13 C are found in common (-18.4%o) and striped dolphin (-18.1%o) muscles than in albacore tuna (-19.3%o) probably in relation with its migratory pattern. The most striking feature is the presence of two levels of cadmium concentrations in the livers of the tunas (32 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) vs. 5 mg kg -1 DW). These two groups also differ by their iron concentrations and their δ 15 N and δ 13 C liver values. These results suggest that in the Biscay Bay, tunas occupy two different ecological niches probably based on different squid inputs in their diet

  6. A continuous time delay-difference type model (CTDDM) applied to stock assessment of the southern Atlantic albacore Thunnus alalunga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Baochao; LIU Qun; ZHANG Kui; Abdul BASET; Aamir Mahmood MEMON; Khadim Hussain MEMON; HAN Yanan

    2016-01-01

    A continuous time delay-difference model (CTDDM) has been established that considers continuous time delays of biological processes.The southern Atlantic albacore (Thunnus alalunga) stock is the one of the commercially important tuna population in the marine world.The age structured production model (ASPM) and the surplus production model (SPM) have already been used to assess the albacore stock.However,the ASPM requires detailed biological information and the SPM lacks the biological realism.In this study,we focus on applying a CTDDM to the southern Atlantic albacore (T.alalunga) species,which provides an alternative method to assess this fishery.It is the first time that CTDDM has been provided for assessing the Atlantic albacore (T.alalunga) fishery.CTDDM obtained the 80% confidence interval of MSY (maximum sustainable yield) of(21510 t,23118 t).The catch in 2011 (24100 t) is higher than the MSY values and the relative fishing mortality ratio (F2011/FMSY) is higher than 1.0.The results of CTDDM were analyzed to verify the proposed methodology and provide reference information for the sustainable management of the southern Atlantic albacore stock.The CTDDM treats the recruitment,the growth,and the mortality rates as all varying continuously over time and fills gaps between ASPM and SPM in this stock assessment.

  7. Relationships between tuna catch and variable frequency oceanographic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Ormaza-González

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Skipjack (Katsuwunus pelamis, yellow fin (Thunnus albacares and albacore (Thunnus alulunga tunas landed in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO countries and Ecuador were correlated to the Indexes Oceanic El Niño (ONI and Multivariate Enso Index (MEI. The temporal series 1983–2012, and 1977–1999 (warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO, and 2000–2012 (cold PDO were analyzed. Linear correlation showed that at least 11 % of the total landings were associated with the MEI, with a slightly negative gradient from cold to warm conditions. When non-linear regression (n  =  6, the R2 was higher up to 0.304 (MEI, r =  0.551. The correlation shows high spread from −0.5 to +0.5 for both MEI/ONI; the highest landings occurred at 0.34–0.45; both indexes suggested that at extreme values < −1.0 and > 1.1 total landings tend to decrease. Landings were associated up to 21.9 % (MEI in 2000–2012, 1983–1999 rendered lower R2 (< 0.09; i.e., during cold PDO periods there was a higher association between landings and oceanographic conditions. For the non-linear regression (n  =  6 a R2 of 0.374 (MEI and 0.408 (ONI were registered, for the 2000–2012, a higher R2 was observed in 1983–1999, 0.443 and 0.711 for MEI and ONI respectively, suggesting that is better to analyze split series (1983–1999, 2000–2012 than as a whole (1983–2012, due to noise produced by the transition from hot to cold PDOs. The highest landings were in the range −0.2 to 0.5 for MEI/ONI. The linear regression of skipjack landings in Ecuador gave an R2 of 0.140 (MEI and 0.066 (ONI and the non-linear were 0.440 and 0.183 respectively. Total landings in the EPO associated to oceanographic events of high and low frequencies could be used somehow as predictors of the high El Niño o La Niña. There is a clear evidence that tuna fish biomass are at higher levels when the PDO is on cold phase (2000–2030 and vice versa on warm phase (1980–1999. The

  8. Value Chain Model Development of Tuna and Tuna Alike In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateng Supriatna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of tuna and tuna alike fisheries depend on chain value system formed by stakeholders ranging from product fishing, processing/diversification, distribution, and marketing. The objective of this research was to create chain value system model of tuna and tuna alike fisheries, to predict the interaction pattern of stakeholders and to formulate the precise strategy to minimize the synergy resistance of chain value system development strategy of tuna and tuna alike fisheries. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM was applied to analyze the chain value model. The stakeholders/the players of tuna and tuna alike fisheries basically have positive interaction (CE>0.The negative interaction occured on retailers and consumers. Interaction of retailers with consumers is significant (p<0.05 0.01. Interaction pattern of fishermen, retailers, collectors, and exporters affected significantlly by pricing and the level of role played by the stakeholders. The strategy to minimize the sinergy resistance of chain value system development are respectivelly the strategy of involving the group of fishermen on products pricing (CE= 1,176 and P= 0,000, the strategy of involving the seller groups on products pricing (CE-PE=1,08, CE-PB= 0,766, CE EKS= 2,028 AND P= 0,000, and the strategy on guaranteeing flexible interaction between retailer and consumers (CE= 0,179 and p = 0,01.Keywords: tuna and tuna alike, interaction, tuna and tuna alike stakeholders, and value chain

  9. Mapping Risks of Indonesian Tuna Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karningsih, P. D.; Anggrahini, D.; Kurniati, N.; Suef, M.; Fachrur, A. R.; Syahroni, N.

    2018-04-01

    Due to its high economic value and is produced by many countries, Tuna is considered as one of the world’s popular fish. Demand for Tuna species are very high and it usually sells in three form: fresh, frozen or canned. Competition in Tuna trading is challengin with the potential risk of price and supply fluctuations. With recent focus of Indonesia government that see the future of Indonesia civilization depend on the oceans and as the three biggest Tuna producing country, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries should ensure sustainability and competitiveness of Indonesian tuna. Therefore, there is a great need to develop a proper and effective strategy to manage potential risks in Indonesian Tuna supply chain. This paper is aimed at identifying and mapping potential Tuna supply chain risks and its interrelationships that would assist government in determining proper strategies to manage Indonesian Tuna. A framework for identifying Tuna supply chain risks is proposed. Generic risk structure of Supply Chain Risk Identification System is adopted and modified to match with particular object, which is Indonesian Tuna. The proposed model consists of hierarchical and causal structure that encompass potential risks of Tuna supply chain operations from fishing, trading, processing and distribution. The causal structure consist of risk events and its risk agents which is the cause of risk events. To ensure the root cause of risk events are identified properly, five why’s analysis is utilized to obtain risk agents. This proposed model also captures risk interrelationship between internal and external environment of Tuna supply chain. Preliminary result of this study identifies 15 risk events and 13 risk factors on fishing and trading operations and maps their interrelationships.

  10. Thawing of Frozen Tuna Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takeo; Nishiwaki, Kôji; Kakuda, Kitonari; Tomimatsu, Takao

    Frozen southern bluefin tuna meat discolors easily and sometimes contracts when thawed caused by thaw rigor. These phenomenon often become problematic in the transaction or handling of this kind of frozen tuna. Frozen meat blocks of southern Bluefin tuna were thawed separately by air thawing, running water thawing and microwave thawing. Changes occurring during thawing were checked for meat color by met-myoglobin ratio determination and for contract by microscopic observation. Results are as follows : (1) Discoloration scarcely occurred in the process of running water thawing (at 10°C for 50 min, or at 0°C for 6 hr). (2) No contraction was observed during thawing with running water described above and air thawing (at 18-20°C for 6 hr). (3) Discoloration and contraction seemed to be minimized, as to latently contractile blocks, when meat temperature passed through rapidly between -10°C and -5°C, and slowly (for 5-6 hr) between -5°C and -1°C. When the block was originally not contractile, discloration was minimized by rising meat temperature rapidly from -10°C to -l°C.

  11. UTILITY OF FISHERY HIGH SCHOOL DATA IN EXAMINING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL CATCH AND EFFORT TRENDS IN THE INDONESIAN LONGLINE TUNA FISHERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Sadiyah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the endeavours to address the shortage of catch per unit effort (CPUE information from the Indonesian Indian Ocean tuna fishery is the collation of a large amount of catch and effort data collected by Indonesian Fisheries High School students (“FHS data”. This paper attempts to investigate spatial-temporal patterns of catch and effort of the FHS data for the main tuna species caught by the fishery: bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus - BET, yellowfin tuna (T. albacares - YFT, albacore (T. alalunga - ALB and southern bluefin tuna (T.maccoyii - SBT. Reported sets occurred in the Eastern Indian Ocean, north and south of 20°S. Recorded effort from the FHS data set was concentrated within the only known SBT spawning ground. However, within this data set, SBT were recorded in the lowest catch proportion relative to BET, YFT and ALB. The catch composition data suggested that YFT and ALB were predominantly targeted by the fishery, with ALB and SBT most predominantly recorded south of 20°S, whereas BET and YFT were mostly recorded north of 20°S. Unfortunately, there was no strong information on targeting practices reported by this data set, limiting any attempts to understand the factors that influenced those results. As the sampling predominantly occurred in between July and December, the data are not representative of fishing activities throughout the entire year, and any seasonal patterns from the FHS data set are biased. In addition, the FHS data set is prone to observation error and uncertainty in terms of fish identification and fishing location. Therefore, the FHS data set needs to be interpreted with caution.

  12. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Wimmonds, Iona; Francis , Stewart; Kearney, Michael T.; Hansen, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC)and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon®, bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in theiglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums.

  13. Mercury in fish products: what's the best for consumers between bluefin tuna and yellowfin tuna?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammilleri, Gaetano; Vazzana, Mirella; Arizza, Vincenzo; Giunta, Francesca; Vella, Antonio; Lo Dico, Gianluigi; Giaccone, Vita; Giofrè, Salvatore V; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Cicero, Nicola; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2018-02-01

    A total of 205 bluefin and yellowfin tuna samples were examined for mercury detection in order to verify possible differences and have a detailed risk assessment of the two tuna species. The results showed significant higher mercury concentration in muscle tissue of bluefin tuna respect yellowfin tuna (p < 0.001) with mean concentration of 0.84 mg/kg and maximum value of 1.94 mg/kg. These differences can be due the different biological and ecological aspects of the two tuna species and to different oceanographic aspects between Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean sea. The results obtained in this study suggest an advisable containment of the sources of pollution and further studies on the closed-loop farming of bluefin tuna, in order to ensure the product safety.

  14. Global habitat preferences of commercially valuable tuna

    KAUST Repository

    Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Dufour, Florence; Kell, Laurence T.; Merino, Gorka; Ibaibarriaga, Leire; Chust, Guillem; Irigoien, Xabier; Santiago, Josu; Murua, Hilario; Fraile, Igaratza; Chifflet, Marina; Goikoetxea, Nerea; Sagarminaga, Yolanda; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Herrera, Miguel Angel; Marc Fromentin, Jean; Bonhomeau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    In spite of its pivotal role in future implementations of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, current knowledge about tuna habitat preferences remains fragmented and heterogeneous, because it relies mainly on regional or local studies that have used a variety of approaches making them difficult to combine. Therefore in this study we analyse data from six tuna species in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans in order to provide a global, comparative perspective of habitat preferences. These data are longline catch per unit effort from 1958 to 2007 for albacore, Atlantic bluefin, southern bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tunas. Both quotient analysis and Generalised Additive Models were used to determine habitat preference with respect to eight biotic and abiotic variables. Results confirmed that, compared to temperate tunas, tropical tunas prefer warm, anoxic, stratified waters. Atlantic and southern bluefin tuna prefer higher concentrations of chlorophyll than the rest. The two species also tolerate most extreme sea surface height anomalies and highest mixed layer depths. In general, Atlantic bluefin tuna tolerates the widest range of environmental conditions. An assessment of the most important variables determining fish habitat is also provided. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Global habitat preferences of commercially valuable tuna

    KAUST Repository

    Arrizabalaga, Haritz

    2015-03-01

    In spite of its pivotal role in future implementations of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management, current knowledge about tuna habitat preferences remains fragmented and heterogeneous, because it relies mainly on regional or local studies that have used a variety of approaches making them difficult to combine. Therefore in this study we analyse data from six tuna species in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans in order to provide a global, comparative perspective of habitat preferences. These data are longline catch per unit effort from 1958 to 2007 for albacore, Atlantic bluefin, southern bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin and skipjack tunas. Both quotient analysis and Generalised Additive Models were used to determine habitat preference with respect to eight biotic and abiotic variables. Results confirmed that, compared to temperate tunas, tropical tunas prefer warm, anoxic, stratified waters. Atlantic and southern bluefin tuna prefer higher concentrations of chlorophyll than the rest. The two species also tolerate most extreme sea surface height anomalies and highest mixed layer depths. In general, Atlantic bluefin tuna tolerates the widest range of environmental conditions. An assessment of the most important variables determining fish habitat is also provided. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Trade-Based Estimation of Bluefin Tuna Catches in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagern, Antonius; van den Bergh, Jeroen; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid

    2013-01-01

    The Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock of Bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (BFTE) has long been considered overfished and at risk of collapse. Although ICCAT quotas for this stock have decreased considerably over the past years, uncertainty exists about the degree of catch beyond this quota. The extent of such catch is an important piece of information in stock assessment models as well as being an indicator of the effectiveness of fisheries management. We present a model using Bluefin tuna trade data to infer actual catches. Basing our calculations on 25 countries involved in BFTE trade, we estimate that between 2005 and 2011, allowable quotas were exceeded by 44 percent. This gap between catch and quotas has slightly increased over past years, leading to estimated excess catches of 57 percent for the period between 2008 and 2011. To improve assessments, preparation and design of BFTE management, we suggest that the estimated total removals reported in this paper be included in stock assessment models for BFTE. An implication of our findings is that ICCAT member states should take stronger measures to monitor and enforce compliance with quotas. PMID:23922870

  17. Keterpaduan Pasar Tuna Segar Benoa/Bali, Indonesia Dan Pasar Sentral Tuna Tokyo, Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    SITORUS, EDYANTO

    2007-01-01

    Tuna fish is which forming life and horde in tropical territorial water until subtropics. Tuna type which important in commerce is Yellowfin, Bigeye, Poor Southern Bluefin, Northern Bluefin, Albacore and of Skipjack (Cakalang). Objective of this research is analyze integrity of market that happened between local market (Market of Benoa, Bali) with reference market (Tuna Central Market of Tokyo, Japan), It is seen from the research that in Benoa there are 3 system of selling fresh tu...

  18. Histamine development and bacterial diversity in microbially-challenged tonggol (Thunnus tonggol) under temperature abuse during canning manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongpattarakere, Tipparat; Buntin, Nirunya; Nuylert, Aem

    2016-01-01

    Histamine formation and bacteriological changes caused by temperature abuse commonly occurring in the manufacturing process of standard canned tuna was assessed in microbiologically challenged tonggol (Thunnus tonggol). The in situ challenge was performed by water-soaking at 26-28 °C for 7 h to ensure the multiplication and active phase of fish microflora. Right after pre-cooking to back-bone temperature (BBT) of 50-52 °C, histamine dropped to 5.17 ± 2.71 ppm, and slowly reached 6.84 ± 1.69 ppm at 16 h abuse. On the contrary, histamine was reduced to 2.87 ± 1.23 ppm and eventually reached 5.01 ± 1.32 ppm at 24 h abuse in the pre-cooked fish previously frozen. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobactericeae, psychrotroph, histamine forming bacteria (HFB) and diversity of fish microflora were revealed by cultural and nested PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques. Interestingly, frozen storage effectively halted histamine formation in raw fish throughout 16 h abuse despite the presence of HFB. These included the prolific strains of Morganella morganii, Proteus penneri, Proteus mirabilin, Citrobacter spp. The nested PCR-DGGE profile confirmed the presence of M. morganii and Citrobacter spp. in raw fish. These prolific strains were hardly observed in the precooked fish previously frozen. Frozen storage did not only promote even histamine distribution throughout fish muscle but also enhanced histamine loss during thawing and pre-cooking. Therefore, pre-cooking and frozen storage were proven to be the effective combined hurdles not only to reduce but also prolong histamine formation of the challenged toggol throughout 24 h of temperature abuse during canning process.

  19. The Antimicrobial Activity of Aliquidambar orientalis mill. Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plants are an important source of substances which are claimed to induce antimicrobial, antimutagenic and antioxidant effects. Many plants have been used due to their antimicrobial treatments. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of L. orientalis have not been reported to the present day. The aim ...

  20. Essential oil composition and bioactivity of Thuja orientalis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger apparatus from aerial parts of Thuja orientalis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in Ondo State, Nigeria was analysed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry technique. Toxicity of the essential oils using anti-feedant and ...

  1. Global integration of European tuna markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Toribio, Ramòn; Guillotreau, Patrice; Mongruel, Rémi

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the degree of integration between the world market and the major European marketplaces of frozen and canned tuna through both vertical and horizontal price relationships. Spatial linkages are investigated horizontally in order to estimate the connection between the European market and the world-wide market on the primary stage of the value chain. One of the key results is the high level of market integration at the ex-vessel stage, and the price leadership of yellowfin tuna over skipjack tuna. The same approach is applied at the ex-factory level. Basically, the European market for final goods appears to be segmented between the Northern countries consuming low-priced canned skipjack tuna imported from Asia (mainly Thailand) and the Southern countries (Italy, Spain) processing and importing yellowfin-based products sold at higher prices. France appears to be an intermediate market where both products are consumed. The former market is found to be well integrated to the world market and can be considered to be competitive, but there is a suspicion of market power being exercised on the latter. Price relationships are therefore tested vertically between the price of frozen tuna paid by the canneries and the price of canned fish in both Italy and France. The two species show an opposite pattern in prices transmission along the value chain: price changes along the chain are far better transmitted for the “global” skipjack tuna than for the more “European” yellowfin tuna. The results are discussed, along with their implications for the fishing industry.

  2. Feeding Preferences of the Endangered Diving Beetle Cybister tripunctatus orientalis Gschwendtner (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ya Ohba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of Cybister tripunctatus orientalis Gschwendtner diving beetles are declining in most regions of Japan, and it is included in the Red Data List of species in 34 of 47 prefectures of Japan. However, basic ecological information about C. tripunctatus orientalis, such as its feeding habits, remains unknown. In order to elucidate the feeding habits of C. tripunctatus orientalis larvae, feeding preference experiments were carried out in 2nd and 3rd instar larvae. The number of Odonata nymphs consumed was significantly higher than the number of tadpoles consumed, indicating that C. tripunctatus orientalis larvae prefer Odonata nymphs to tadpoles. In addition, all the first instar larvae of C. tripunctatus orientalis developed into second instars when they were supplied with motionless Odonata nymphs, but their survival rate was lower when they were supplied with motionless tadpoles. These results suggest that C. tripunctatus orientalis larvae prefer insects to vertebrates.

  3. Cloning and Expression of Cyclophilin from Platanus orientalis Pollens in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Sankian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allergy is a clinical disorder affecting the human population with wide geographical distribution. Platanus orientalis (P. orientalis trees are planted in many countries and their pollen causes allergic reactions. Cyclophilin has recently been identified as one of the most important allergens of P. orientalis pollen. We aimed to clone and purify this allergen in Escherichia coli for further studies and therapeutic and diagnostic purposes for allergy to P. orientalis. Methods: RNA was extracted from P. orientalis. A full-length fragment encoding cyclophilin was prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the first-strand cDNA synthesized from P. orientalis RNA. The cDNA was inserted into the pET32b (+ vector, and the construct transformed into E. coli Top10 and BL21 cells. The expressed protein was purified by the CuSO4 method. Results: The cDNA for the cyclophilin of P. orientalis pollen was cloned, and a specific reactivity of recombinant cyclophin was confirmed by immunoblotting using sera from patients allergic to P. orientalis pollen. Conclusion: The recombinant cyclophilin has a potential for immunologic assays for evaluation of allergy to P. orientalis pollen.

  4. [Otolith microchemistry of tuna species: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guo-ping

    2011-08-01

    Microchemistry analysis of trace elements and isotopes in fishes' calcified substances is an emerging approach to analyze the population structure, life history, and migration environmental history of fishes. With the increasing improvement of the researches and applications of otolith microchemistry, this approach has been a good tool for studying the ecology of tuna species. Currently, the research contents of tuna species' otolith microchemistry mainly include trace elements and isotopes, and the former is the emphasis and hotspot in applied research, playing a vital role in the researches of population partitioning, natal origin, migration environmental history, and life history of tuna species, especially bluefin tuna. However, most of the researches are focusing on the variation of otolith's Sr/Ca ratio, and there is no final conclusion on the relationships between the fractionation of isotopes C and O in otolith and the temperature. For the sake of exploiting the huge value of otolith microchemistry, it would be necessary to strengthen the researches on the deposition mechanisms of trace elements in otolith, and to analyze the spatio-temporal variations of various trace elements in otolith by comprehensive research methods.

  5. 21 CFR 161.190 - Canned tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identity. (1) Canned tuna is the food consisting of processed flesh of fish of the species... deemed to be safe if it is not a food additive as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), or if it is a food additive as so defined, it is used in conformity with...

  6. Pathological manifestation of the Acanthocephalus dirus in Thunnus albacares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagarsamy Sakthivel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the pathological manifestation of the Acanthocephalus dirus (A. dirus infestation in Thunnus albacares (T. albacares from southeast coast of India. Methods: The parasite-infested fishes were collected from Nagapattinam landing centre of Tamil Nadu from southeast coast of India. The Acanthocephala morphology, gross pathology, histopathology and histochemistry were investigated. Results: T. albacares were severely infested with A. dirus, the group of Acanthocephala attached to the posterior region of the intestine. The adult worm proboscis was cylindrical and the length and width ranging between 2.7–6.4 mm and 0.8–1.3 mm, respectively. Histopathologically, the infested intestinal mucosal epithelium, stratum granulosum, lamina propria, muscular and serosa layers were highly degraded. The lesions were infiltrating with basophil-like inflammatory cells. The parasite-affected lesions were histochemically positive for alcian blue, azo dye, toluidine blue and oil red O. Conclusions: This is the new host for the parasite A. dirus in T. albacares. On the basis of histological and histochemical findings, the lesions were highly damaged due to the parasitic infestation. The high density of the parasite and severe penetration of the proboscis into the intestinal tissues are the main reason for the pathogenicity in the host.

  7. Using stable isotopes of albacore tuna and predictive models to characterize bioregions and examine ecological change in the SW Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Young, Jock W.; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Farley, Jessica H.

    2015-05-01

    Broad-scale food web inferences of 534 albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the south-west Pacific Ocean in 2009 and 2010 were made using bulk nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotopes. Condition was also examined for the same fish using C:N ratios. A Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM) approach was used to analyze spatio-temporal, biological and environmental drivers that impact the distribution of tuna isotopes and to create oceanographic maps. Based on model formulations, five bioregions with distinct isotopic signatures were identified and were related to known biological, nutrient cycling and oceanographic (temperature, primary productivity and eddy) features associated with the East Australian Current. δ15N values showed a large-scale, uniform latitudinal gradient decreasing from the south to north, in a region encompassing oligotrophic waters in the Coral Sea. In contrast, δ13C values were lower in the nutrient rich Tasman Sea waters and offshore East Australia. C:N ratios suggested that albacore occupying southern and offshore waters were in better condition. Ontogenetic trends in all three biochemical parameters were identified and related to differences in size distribution. Regional-specific temporal variations were detected including similar monthly changes for both isotopes and significantly less enriched δ13C (by 1.9‰) than in previous work undertaken in 2006, potentially signifying a substantial shift in the carbon cycle that supports food webs off central east Australia. Our results showed that isotopic measurements in tuna and the GAM framework provide powerful tools to assess ecosystem functioning and change by linking sources of nutrients and organic matter to local food web assembly. Such knowledge is vital to support an ecosystem based approach to fisheries management including biogeochemical whole-of-ecosystem models and monitoring programs at regional and landscape-scales.

  8. Report of Didymocystis wedli Ariola, 1902 (Digenea; Didymozoidae from Thunnus albacares in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kohn

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Didymocystis wedli a parasite from the gills of Thunnus albacares from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, is described by use of light and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first report of this species in Brazil and South America. New data are presented on the surface topography as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Depressed resilience of bluefin tuna in the western atlantic and age truncation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, D H; Rooker, J R; Gahagan, B I; Siskey, M R; Wingate, R W

    2015-04-01

    Following intense overfishing in the 1970s, the western stock of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) experienced a long period of depressed abundance, which has been attributed to failure of the population to periodically produce large numbers of juveniles, the western stock mixing with the more highly exploited eastern stock (fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea), and regime shift in the population's ecosystem resulting in lower replacement rates. To evaluate the presence of relatively strong years of juvenile production, we analyzed age structure from a recent sample of otoliths (ear stones) collected from the western stock (2011-2013, North Carolina, U.S.A., winter fishery). Mixing levels for the recent sample were analyzed using otolith stable isotopes to test whether age structure might be biased through immigration of eastern stock bluefin tuna. Age structure from historical samples collected from United States and Canadian fisheries (1975-1981) was compared with more recent samples (1996-2007) to examine whether demographic changes had occurred to the western stock that might have disrupted juvenile production. Relatively high juvenile production occurred in 2003, 2005, and 2006. Otolith stable isotope analysis showed that these recruitments were mostly of western stock origin. However, these high recruitments were >2-fold less than historical recruitment. We found substantial age truncation in the sampled fisheries. Half the historical sample was >20 years old (mean age = 20.1 [SD 3.7]; skewness = -0.3), whereas 20 years old (mean age = 13.4 [SD 3.8]; skewness = 1.3). Loss of age structure is consistent with changes in fishing selectivity and trends in the stock assessment used for management. We propose that fishing, as a forcing variable, brought about a threshold shift in the western stock toward lower biomass and production, a shift that emulates the regime shift hypothesis. An abbreviated reproductive life span

  10. PCR detection and identification of histamine-forming bacteria in filleted tuna fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Chiara; Pegollo, Chiara; Ricci, Giovanni; Borgo, Francesca; Fortina, M Grazia

    2012-02-01

    Total of 14 filleted yellowfin tuna fish (Thunnus albacares) sold in wholesale fish market and supermarkets in Milan, Italy, were purchased and tested to determine microbial count, histamine level, histamine-forming bacteria, and their ability to produce histamine in culture broth. Although histamine level was less than 10 ppm, many samples showed high total viable bacterial and enterobacterial counts that reached dangerous levels after temperature abuse for short periods of time. A PCR assay targeting a 709-bp fragment of the histidine decarboxylase gene (hdc) revealed that 30.5% of the 141 enteric bacteria isolated from samples were positive and potentially able to produce histamine. The hdc positive strains were mainly isolated from fish bought at wholesale fish market, where we observed several possible risk factors, such as handling in poor and non-refrigerated conditions during fillet preparation. These positive strains were identified as Citrobacter koseri/Enterobacter spp. and Morganella morganii, by 16S/23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer amplification and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The strains showed a variable ability of histamine production, with Morganella morganii being the most active histamine-producing species. A direct DNA extraction from fish and a PCR targeting the hdc gene showed a high degree of concordance with the results obtained through microbiological and chemical analyses, and could aid in the prompt detection of potentially contaminated fish products, before histamine accumulates. The use of methods for the early and rapid detection of bacteria producing biogenic amines is important for preventing accumulation of these toxic substances in food products. In this study, we used a molecular approach for the detection of histamine-forming bacteria in fish. PCR-based methods require expensive equipment and a high degree of training for the user, but are fast (marketing and can be used in the investigation of risk reduction strategies.

  11. Modificaciones en la grasa del atún blanco (Thunnus alalunga debidas a la fabricación y almacenamiento de su conserva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, María P.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Modifications in fatty acid composition in white tuna (Thunnus alalunga ocurring at each stage of the cannig process, boiling and sterilization in soybean oil, were studied. Boiling was performed in brine and two sterilization times (55 and 90 minutes as well as the effects of storage for one year were tested. Boiling had no effect on fatty acid composition or the n-3/n-6 ratio. However canned tuna absorbed soybean oil during sterilization, causing an increase of the percentage of C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 and a decrease in C20:5 and C22:6. Therefore, unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PS/S ratio changed and the n-3/n-6 ratio declined from 7.03 to 0.59 compared with raw tuna. Due to the whole fat enrichment, canned fish showed a slight loss of PUFA (C20:5 and C22:6 and a increase of C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3. The latter effect was more marked in the preserves as a consequence of one year storage. The convenience of using for cannig an oil containing a lower amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid in order to remain the original n-3/n-6 ratio of the raw tuna is discussed.Se estudiaron los cambios que se producen en la grasa del atún blanco en cada una de las etapas que intervienen en el proceso de fabricación y almacenamiento de su conserva: cocción en salmuera y esterilización practicada en aceite de soja. Se estudiaron dos tiempos diferentes de esterilización (55 y 90 minutos y el almacenamiento por espacio de 1 año. La cocción en salmuera no afectó a la composición en ácidos grasos de los lípidos del pescado ni a la relación n-3/n-6. Sin embargo, durante la esterilización, el atún absorbió el aceite utilizado como cobertura, lo que produjo un aumento porcentual en el nivel de C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 y una disminución en C20:5 y C22:6. La relación ácidos grasos insaturados a saturados (PS/S cambió y la n-3/n-6 disminuyó desde 7,03 a 0,59 comparado con atún crudo. En el pescado en conserva, debido al enriquecimiento total

  12. Addition of different tuna meal levels to pizza dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abreu Vasconcelos Campelo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop pizza dough with different levels of tuna meal (Tunnus spp.. In order to produce tuna meal, tuna torsos without fins were used, cooked for 1 hour, pressed, milled and dehydrated for 24 hours at 60 °C. Pizza dough was produced without (0% or with the addition of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of tuna meal, calculated based on the quantity of wheat flour. The tuna meal and different pizza pastries were analyzed for moisture content, crude protein, total lipids, ash, carbohydrates, caloric value and fatty acid profiles. Microbiological and sensory analyses were also carried out on the pizza pastries. The increasing addition of tuna meal resulted in gains in the crude protein (10.89 to 18.94%, total lipid (4.63 to 5.89% and ash (2.54 to 3.54% contents of the pizza pastries, not influencing the moisture content or caloric value. The inclusion of tuna meal linearly increased the quantity of n-3 series fatty acids in the pizza pastry, from 1.56 to 5.93 g/kg with the addition of 20% tuna meal. The ratio between the polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the tuna meal and pizza pastries varied from 1.21 to 1.85. The microbiological analyses showed that the pizza pastries were produced under proper hygiene conditions. It was also observed that the addition of 5 to 20% of tuna meal to the pizza pastry did not significantly (p>0.05 alter the parameters of aroma, flavor, overall impression and purchase intention. It was therefore concluded that the addition of 5 to 20% tuna meal is effective in improving the nutritional value and fatty acid profile of pizza pastry.

  13. KEBIJAKAN PENGELOLAAN HASIL TANGKAPAN SAMPINGAN TUNA LONGLINE DI SAMUDERA HINDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Nugraha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuna longline atau rawai tuna merupakan salah satu alat tangkap yang sangat efektif untuk menangkap tuna. Selain efektif alat tangkap ini juga merupakan alat tangkap yang selektif terhadap hasil tangkapannya. Namun demikian, alat tangkap ini masih menimbulkan suatu masalah dimana ikan hasil tangkapan yang diperoleh tidak semuanya merupakan hasil tangkapan utama (target species, ada sebagian yang merupakan hasil tangkapan sampingan (by-catch. Sebagian besar hasil tangkapan sampingan tuna longline memiliki nilai ekonomis, hanya jenis pari lumpur dan ikan naga yang tidak memiliki nilai ekonomis. Namun demikian, justru yang tidak memiliki nilai ekonomis mendominasi hasil tangkapan sampingan pada perikanan tuna longline. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya tindak lanjut dengan menyusun peraturan atau regulasi yang terkait dengan pengelolaan ikan hasil tangkapan sampingan dan pengelolaan yang benar terhadap hasil tangkapan tersebut beserta habitatnya agar terjaga kelestarian sumberdayanya dan juga tetap menjadi sumber pendapatan masyarakat.Tulisan ini membahas secara ringkas tentang isu hasil tangkapan sampingan pada perikanan tuna longline, komposisi jenisnya, pemanfaatannya dan kebijakannya. Tuna longline is one of the most effective fishing gears to catch tuna. In addition, this fishing gear is selective to catch tuna. However, this gear is still causing a problem where some species other than their target species were caught as by-catch. Most of by-catch species from the tuna longliners have an economic value, except pelagic stingrays and lancetfish. In fact, these by-catch species (non economical-valued species dominated the longline catch. Therefore, it is needed to develop rules or regulations related to the management of the fish by-products, and properly manage the fishing activities on these by-catch species and habitat preservation to preserve its resources and also remain as a source of income. This paper briefly discusses the issue of by

  14. Prospect of trema orientalis as a pulping raw material in bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry in Bangladesh is looking for new raw materials with high productivity per hectare. Currently, bamboo and Gmelina arborea are the main pulping raw materials for the pulp and paper industry of the country. Trema orientalis is one of the fastest growing woods in the tropical region. This paper reviews the literature on the topic, in particular, related to the chemical, morphological and physical properties of T. orientalis and its suitability for pulping. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of various ulping processes proposed in the literature were critically analyzed. It was concluded that T. orientalis is a potential pulp wood for the Bangladesh pulp and paper industry. (author)

  15. Mercury in canned tuna: white versus light and temporal variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2004-01-01

    There are abundant data and advisories for mercury levels in wild fish, but far fewer for commercial fish that compose a large majority of the fish most people eat. Until recently, relatively little attention has been devoted to examining mercury in canned tuna, despite its great importance in human diets. There is substantial media coverage of the benefits and risk from fish consumption, but few peer-reviewed data on canned tuna, the most commonly consumed fish in the United States. In this paper, we examine the levels of total mercury in canned tuna obtained from a New Jersey grocery store from 1998 to 2003, looking for temporal consistency within this data set and particularly for comparison with the Food and Drug Administration's 1991 study. We analyzed 168 cans individually for total mercury. All values are reported as parts per million (=μg/g) on a wet weight basis. In a subset of samples analyzed for total and inorganic mercury, the inorganic mercury was below detection levels; hence at least 89% of the mercury can be considered methylmercury. We found that white-style tuna had significantly more total mercury (mean 0.407 ppm) than light-style tuna (mean 0.118 ppm), presumably reflecting that 'white' tuna is albacore, a species relatively larger than the skipjack tuna, which is commonly available as 'light' or 'chunk light'. The maximum mercury in a can was 0.997 ppm, but 25% of white tuna samples exceeded 0.5 ppm. Data suggest a slight increase in levels since 1991, and mercury levels were significantly higher in 2001 than in other years. The mean level of mercury in white tuna (mean 0.407 ppm) was significantly higher than the mean value of 0.17 ppm currently used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its risk assessment and public information. There were no significant differences in mercury levels in tuna packed in oil compared to water. Draining contents had no effect on mercury levels, and the fluid, both oil and water, contained little

  16. 76 FR 13583 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... address concerns raised in a recent decision by a NOAA Administrative Law Judge (see Atlantic Tunas Transfer at Sea section for case reference). NMFS has prepared a draft Environmental Assessment (EA... subtraction of these allocations directly from the TAC, the recommendation allocates the remainder to the UK...

  17. Bioenergetics, Trophic Ecology, and Niche Separation of Tunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R J; Young, J W; Ménard, F; Potier, M; Allain, V; Goñi, N; Logan, J M; Galván-Magaña, F

    Tunas are highly specialized predators that have evolved numerous adaptations for a lifestyle that requires large amounts of energy consumption. Here we review our understanding of the bioenergetics and feeding dynamics of tunas on a global scale, with an emphasis on yellowfin, bigeye, skipjack, albacore, and Atlantic bluefin tunas. Food consumption balances bioenergetics expenditures for respiration, growth (including gonad production), specific dynamic action, egestion, and excretion. Tunas feed across the micronekton and some large zooplankton. Some tunas appear to time their life history to take advantage of ephemeral aggregations of crustacean, fish, and molluscan prey. Ontogenetic and spatial diet differences are substantial, and significant interdecadal changes in prey composition have been observed. Diet shifts from larger to smaller prey taxa highlight ecosystem-wide changes in prey availability and diversity and provide implications for changing bioenergetics requirements into the future. Where tunas overlap, we show evidence of niche separation between them; resources are divided largely by differences in diet percentages and size ranges of prey taxa. The lack of long-term data limits the ability to predict impacts of climate change on tuna feeding behaviour. We note the need for systematic collection of feeding data as part of routine monitoring of these species, and we highlight the advantages of using biochemical techniques for broad-scale analyses of trophic relations. We support the continued development of ecosystem models, which all too often lack the regional-specific trophic data needed to adequately investigate climate and fishing impacts. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring future scenarios for the global supply chain of tuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullon, C.; Guillotreau, P.; Galbraith, E. D.; Fortilus, J.; Chaboud, C.; Bopp, L.; Aumont, O.; Kaplan, D.

    2017-06-01

    The abundance of tuna, an important top predator that ranges throughout tropical and subtropical oceans, is now largely determined by fishing activity. Fishing activity, in turn, is determined by the interaction of fish availability, fishing capacity, fishing costs and global markets for tuna products. In the face of overfishing, the continued sustainable supply of tuna is likely to require improved global governance, that would benefit from modeling frameworks capable of integrating market forces with the availability of fish in order to consider alternative future projections. Here we describe such a modeling framework, in which we develop several simple, contrasting scenarios for the development of the tuna supply chain in order to illustrate the utility of the approach for global evaluation of management strategies for tuna and other complex, stock-structured fisheries. The model includes multiple national and multi-national fishing fleets, canneries and fresh/frozen markets, and connects these to global consumers using a network of flows. The model is calibrated using recent data on fish catch, cannery and fresh/frozen production, and consumption. Scenarios explore the control on future outcomes in the global tuna fishery by representing, in a simple way, the effects of (1) climate change, (2) changes in the global demand for tuna, and (3) changes in the access to fishing grounds (marine reserves). The results emphasize the potential importance of increasing demand in provoking a global collapse, and suggest that controlling tuna production by limiting technical efficiency is a potential countermeasure. Finally we discuss the outcomes in terms of potential extensions of the scenario approach allowed by this global network model of the tuna supply chain.

  19. Characterization of Fish Skin Gelatin Yellowfin Tuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Nurilmala

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is one of the products which become a necessity for various industries, i.e. food and non-food industries. The application of gelatin has been increasing year by year in Indonesia. However, there is nogelatin industry in Indonesia so far. Thus, it is necessary to find an alternative source of gelatin, especially from fishery by products.Thus, the purpose of this research was to extract fish skin gelatin of yellowfin tuna with temperature treatments (55, 65 and 75oC. In addition, the properties of resulted gelatin were determined including yield, pH, gel strength, viscosity, functional groups, molecular weight profiles, and amino acid composition. The extraction at 75oC was chosen as the best result. The yield was 17%; pH 5.3; gel strength 1789.55 gf, viscosity 104.2 Cp, respectively. There was functional group amide A, I, II, dan III. SDS-PAGE showed β, α1 dan α2 bands for tuna skin gelatin. In addition, the main amino acids were glycine and proline.

  20. Tuna Cannery Points, Tutuila AS, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — American Samoa's primary industry is tuna processing by the Samoa Packing Co., user of the "Chicken of the Sea" label, and StarKist Samoa. Canneries thrive in this...

  1. The bioeroding sponge Cliona orientalis will not tolerate future projected ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsby, Blake D; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Smith, Hillary A; Whalan, Steve; Webster, Nicole S

    2018-05-29

    Coral reefs face many stressors associated with global climate change, including increasing sea surface temperature and ocean acidification. Excavating sponges, such as Cliona spp., are expected to break down reef substrata more quickly as seawater becomes more acidic. However, increased bioerosion requires that Cliona spp. maintain physiological performance and health under continuing ocean warming. In this study, we exposed C. orientalis to temperature increments increasing from 23 to 32 °C. At 32 °C, or 3 °C above the maximum monthly mean (MMM) temperature, sponges bleached and the photosynthetic capacity of Symbiodinium was compromised, consistent with sympatric corals. Cliona orientalis demonstrated little capacity to recover from thermal stress, remaining bleached with reduced Symbiodinium density and energy reserves after one month at reduced temperature. In comparison, C. orientalis was not observed to bleach during the 2017 coral bleaching event on the Great Barrier Reef, when temperatures did not reach the 32 °C threshold. While C. orientalis can withstand current temperature extremes (<3 °C above MMM) under laboratory and natural conditions, this species would not survive ocean temperatures projected for 2100 without acclimatisation or adaptation (≥3 °C above MMM). Hence, as ocean temperatures increase above local thermal thresholds, C. orientalis will have a negligible impact on reef erosion.

  2. Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinyanjui Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli, T. orientalis (ikeda, T. orientalis (chitose and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP or type C (SSU rRNA. The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak.

  3. Vulnerability of teleosts caught by the pelagic tuna longline fleets in South Atlantic and Western Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena-Frédou, Flávia; Kell, Laurie; Frédou, Thierry; Gaertner, Daniel; Potier, Michel; Bach, Pascal; Travassos, Paulo; Hazin, Fábio; Ménard, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Productivity and Susceptibility Analysis (PSA) is a methodology for evaluating the vulnerability of a stock based on its biological productivity and susceptibility to fishing. In this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of 60 stocks of tuna, billfishes and other teleosts caught by the tuna longline fleets operating in the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean using a semi-quantitative PSA. We (a) evaluated the vulnerability of the species in the study areas; (b) compared the vulnerability of target and non-target species and oceans; (c) analyzed the sensitivity of data entry; and (d) compared the results of the PSA to other fully quantitative assessment methods. Istiophoridae exhibited the highest scores for vulnerability. The top 10 species at risk were: Atlantic Istiophorus albicans; Indian Ocean Istiompax indica; Atlantic Makaira nigricans and Thunnus alalunga; Indian Ocean Xiphias gladius; Atlantic T. albacares, Gempylus serpens, Ranzania laevis and X. gladius; and Indian Ocean T. alalunga. All species considered at high risk were targeted or were commercialized bycatch, except for the Atlantic G. serpens and R. laevis which were discarded, and may be considered as a false positive. Those species and others at high risk should be prioritized for further assessment and/or data collection. Most species at moderate risk were bycatch species kept for sale. Conversely, species classified at low risk were mostly discarded. Overall, species at high risk were overfished and/or subjected to overfishing. Moreover, all species considered to be within extinction risk (Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable) were in the high-risk category. The good concordance between approaches corroborates the results of our analysis. PSA is not a replacement for traditional stock assessments, where a stock is assessed at regular intervals to provide management advice. It is of importance, however, where there is uncertainty about catches and life history parameters, since it can

  4. EPG monitoring of the probing behaviour of the common brown leafhopper Orosius orientalis on artificial diet and selected host plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebicki, P.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Harding, R.M.; Rodoni, B.C.; Powell, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    The common brown leafhopper Orosius orientalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is a polyphagous vector of a range of economically important pathogens, including phytoplasmas and viruses, which infect a diverse range of crops. Studies on the plant penetration behaviour by O. orientalis were conducted using

  5. Spatial Patterns and Temperature Predictions of Tuna Fatty Acids: Tracing Essential Nutrients and Changes in Primary Producers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi R Pethybridge

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are among the least understood nutrients in marine environments, despite their profile as key energy components of food webs and that they are essential to all life forms. Presented here is a novel approach to predict the spatial-temporal distributions of fatty acids in marine resources using generalized additive mixed models. Fatty acid tracers (FAT of key primary producers, nutritional condition indices and concentrations of two essential long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 fatty acids (EFA measured in muscle of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, sampled in the south-west Pacific Ocean were response variables. Predictive variables were: location, time, sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll-a (Chla, and phytoplankton biomass at time of catch and curved fork length. The best model fit for all fatty acid parameters included fish length and SST. The first oceanographic contour maps of EFA and FAT (FATscapes were produced and demonstrated clear geographical gradients in the study region. Predicted changes in all fatty acid parameters reflected shifts in the size-structure of dominant primary producers. Model projections show that the supply and availability of EFA are likely to be negatively affected by increases in SST especially in temperate waters where a 12% reduction in both total fatty acid content and EFA proportions are predicted. Such changes will have large implications for the availability of energy and associated health benefits to high-order consumers. Results convey new concerns on impacts of projected climate change on fish-derived EFA in marine systems.

  6. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Liquidambar Orientalis Mill. Various Extracts Against Bacterial Pathogens Causing Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülten Ökmen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is being constantly developed worldwide. Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS and Staphylococcus aureus are common causes of bovine subclinical mastitis. Bioactive compound of medicinal plants shows anti-microbial, anti-mutagenic and anti-oxidant effects. The anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activities of Liquidambar orientalis (L. orientalis extracts on subclinical mastitis causing bacteria in cows have not been reported to date. The aim of the present study was to examine anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant effects of L. orientalis leaf extracts on S. aureus and CNS isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis symptoms. In this study, 3.2 mg/mL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ethanol extracts of L. orientalis has shown to be a most potent anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant for all isolated bacterial species from mastitis cows. In this study, it was investigated anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potentials of acetone, methanol and ethanol extracts of the L. orientalis. The acetone extract showed maximum inhibition zone against S. aureus numbered 17 (12 mm. In addition to anti-bacterial properties, anti-oxidant activity of L. orientalis extract was examined by ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] free radical assay. Trolox was used as a positive control anti-oxidant. Ethanol extract exhibited a strong anti-oxidant activity like Trolox anti-oxidant which was effective at 2.58 mM concentration. Bioactive compounds of sweet gum may be useful to screening mastitis causing bacteria for clinical applications.

  7. Etiologi Penyebab Malformasi Tunas Ranting Kakao di Kulonprogo, DIY dan Segayung, Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susamto Somowiyarjo

    2014-12-01

    insektisida hasilnya tunas muda yang tumbuh berikutnya tidak menunjukan adanya gejala malformasi. Diduga bahwa malformasi pada tunas dan ranting tersebut disebabkan oleh racun yang ditularkan oleh serangga. Penelitian lebih lanjut untuk karakterisasi penyebab penyakit secara molekuler saat ini sedang dilakukan.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Oriental Hornet, Vespa orientalis F. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Al-Nakeeb, Kosai Ali Ahmed; Petersen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    The Oriental Hornet (Vespa orientalis) is a social insect belonging to the Vespiade family (Wasps, Hornets, Yellowjackets), genus Vespa (true Hornets). The oriental hornet is a scavenger and an agricultural pest, especially to bee farmers, but is also recently described as a harvester of solar...... energy. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the Oriental Hornet, Vespa orientalis F., which may play a vital role in understanding this wasp biology, light trapping and generation of electricity. The mitochondrial genome of this hornet is 16,099 bp in length, containing 13 protein...

  9. [Study on HPLC-FPS of raw and processed fructus polygoni orientalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanjun; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Hui; Chu, Zhengyun; Kang, Tingguo

    2010-03-01

    To establish the HPLC fingerprint method of Fructus Polygoni Orientalis before and after processed by choosing taxifolin as reference to compare the changes of chemical composition. HPLC method was emplyed with a gradient elution phase in a flow rate of 1 mL x min(-1) and the detection wavelength of 270 nm. Twenty marker peaks were marked out in the raw samples and 33 marker peaks in the processed product. Methodology met was consistent with the requirement, similarity was exceeded 0.9. This method is stationary, precise and feasible, which provide references of quality control for Fructus Polygoni Orientalis.

  10. Fungi isolated from phyllosphere of fodder galega (Galega orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambrozik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the experiment was fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam. cultivated in 2001-2003 as field crop on three plots: 1. without fertilization, 2. 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1, 3. 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1. During the dry and warm vegetation season of 2002 almost two times fewer isolates were obtained from the leaves than in 2003 that was the most abundant in fungi. Yeasts-like fungi (30% of the total number of isolates and saprotrophic fungi with dominated species: Acremonium strictum (8.5%, genus Epicoccum (7.8%, Humicola (9.5% and Penicillium (18.9% were the fungi most frequently populating the leaves of galega. The share of pathogens in the total number of isolates obtained from the phyllosphere was 10.6%. They were represented by fungi of Ascochyta spp., Botrytis cinerea, genus Fusarium, Phoma medicaginis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Reduction by 1.9 to 4.6% in the number of fungi isolated from the phyllosphere of galega without fertilization as compared to galega cultivated in combinations with fertilization was recorded. Generally, the smallest number of pathogens was recovered from galega fertilized with 40 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 80 kg K2O × ha-1. B. cinerea most frequently populated galega in combination without fertilization, genus Fusarium fungi in combination without fertilization and with fertilization with 80 kg P2O5 × ha-1 and 160 kg K2O × ha-1, while Ascochyta spp. were isolated from galega with fertilization only.

  11. Genetic homogeneity in longtail tuna Thunnus tonggol (Bleeker, 1851) from the northwest coast of India inferred from direct sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunal, S.P.; GirishKumar; Menezes, M.R.; Meena, R.M.

    of population differentiation showed no significant genetic differentiation between the two sampling localities (~HST = 0.005, P = 0.200) Results were further corroborated by a non-significant nearest-neighbour statistic (Snn = 0.489, P = 0...

  12. Genetic variation in Yellowfin Tuna Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788) along Indian coast using PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA D–Loop region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunal, S.P.; GirishKumar; Menezes, M.R.

    stream_size 33493 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_J_Scient_Res_3_25.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_J_Scient_Res_3_25.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 IJSR... - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 25 Volume : 3 | Issue : 1 | January 2014 • ISSN No 2277 - 8179 Research Paper Biology Swaraj Priyaranjan Kunal National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004, India Girish Kumar National Institute...

  13. 50 CFR 216.95 - Official mark for “Dolphin-safe” tuna products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official mark for âDolphin-safeâ tuna... AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.95 Official mark for “Dolphin-safe... Department of Commerce that may be used to label tuna products that meet the “dolphin-safe” standards set...

  14. Trophic impact of Atlantic bluefin tuna migrations in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Patrizio; Andersen, Ken Haste; Lindegren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    and the stability of the fish community. The impact of a migrating top-predator is investigated here for Atlantic bluefin tuna in the North Sea. Bluefin tuna has been absent from the region for half-century, but recent years have seen recovery of migrations and a return of bluefin tuna in the area. We use a size...

  15. Feeding Partitioning among Tuna Taken in Surface and Mid-water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crustaceans were the almost exclusive food source of surface-swimming bigeye tuna, with the stomatopod (Natosquilla investigatoris) being the sole prey item recorded in this category. The diet of deep-swimming yellowfin tuna was balanced between epipelagic fish, crustaceans and cephalopods. Bigeye tuna fed ...

  16. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC 50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries. - Highlights: ► Radiation was applied for the hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein. ► The degree of hydrolysis were increased by irradiation and the antioxidant activity of hydrolysate was higher than protein. ► This result suggest that radiation is useful method for the hydrolysis of protein.

  17. Crescimento de Siegesbeckia orientalis sob diferentes condições de luminosidade Growth of Siegesbeckia orientalis under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, objetivou-se contrastar os efeitos de sombreamento sobre o crescimento de S. orientalis, utilizando a análise de crescimento. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em vasos, a pleno sol (A e sob sombrite 50% (B. As plantas tiveram seus índices de crescimento determinados aos 14, 28, 42, 56, 80, 94 e 108 dias após o transplante (DAT, para A; e aos 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 108, 122 e 136 DAT, para B. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise de regressão. Os modelos foram escolhidos com base na significância dos coeficientes de regressão, utilizando-se o teste t até 10%, no coeficiente de determinação e no fenômeno em estudo. As plantas apresentaram comportamento semelhante em A e B para a maioria das variáveis analisadas, embora as plantas sombreadas (radiação média de 218 µmol m-² s-¹ tivessem maior duração do ciclo cultural, cerca de 140 DAT, retardando os valores máximos e/ou mínimos, em relação às plantas a luz plena (média de 658 µmol m-² s-¹, com aproximadamente 110 DAT. Em B, foram obtidas também as maiores médias para a maioria dos índices avaliados - área foliar, altura, números de folhas e capítulos florais, biomassa seca total, taxa de crescimento absoluto, taxa de crescimento relativo, razão de peso foliar, razão de área foliar e área foliar específica -, sugerindo que a espécie é favorecida pelo sombreamento.This study aimed to contrast the effects of shading on the growth of S. orientalis by applying growth analysis. The experiments were conducted in pots under full sunlight (A and 50% shading (B. Plant growth indices were determined at 14, 28, 42, 56, 80, 94 and 108 days after transplant (DAT for A and at 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 108, 122, 136 DAT for B. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four repetitions. Data were analyzed by means of regression analysis. The models were

  18. Development of functional canned and pouched tuna products added inulin for commercial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueangwatcharin, U; Wichienchot, S

    2015-08-01

    Four formulas of canned tuna in spring water and tuna in mayonnaise and pouched tuna in salad cream and tuna in thousand island cream with added inulin were developed for commercial production. The effects of the addition of a prebiotic (inulin, Orafti®-HP) on the color and sensory properties of these products were studied. For inulin concentrations studied (3, 5, 7 and 10 %, w/w) caused more intensed yellow and red colors. Hedonic sensory values of tuna packed in spring water and in mayonnaise showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) among products with different inulin addition levels (3, 5, 7 and 10 %, w/w) in terms of color, flavor, sweetness and overall characteristics. However, when packed in thousand island cream, significant differences (p < 0.05) in color and overall characteristics were found when inulin was added higher than 7 %. Tuna in salad cream showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in color, flavor, sweetness and overall characteristics at higher than 7 % inulin. The panelists showed acceptable overall liking scores at upto 7 % inulin of all tuna products. The thermal sterilization process resulted in approximately 20 % decrease in final inulin content. The calculated residual fructans of finished products at shelf life of 3 years were 3.01, 2.78, 2.90 and 2.84 % for tuna in spring water, tuna in mayonnaise, tuna in thousand island and tuna in salad cream, respectively. Considering formula cost in a commercial production and the recommended daily intake (RDI) of inulin in the finished product at end of shelf life (≥3 g/d), an addition of 5 % inulin for tuna in spring water and 7 % inulin for tuna in mayonnaise, tuna in thousand island and tuna in salad cream are recommended.

  19. Evaluation of Fungal Deterioration in Liquidambar orientalis Mill. heartwood by FT-IR and light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nural Yilgor; Dilek Dogu; Roderquita Moore; Evren Terzi; S. Nami Kartal

    2013-01-01

    The chemical and morphological changes in heartwood specimens of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. caused by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor and the brown-rot fungi Tyromyces palustris and Gloeophyllum trabeum were studied by wet chemistry, FT-IR, GC-MS analyses, and photo-...

  20. Emergence of new genotype and diversity of Theileria orientalis parasites from bovines in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Neena; Bhandari, Vasundhra; Reddy, D Peddi; Sharma, Paresh

    2015-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a serious threat to livestock worldwide. Uncertainty around species prevalence, antigenic diversity and genotypes of strains make it difficult to assess the impact of this parasite and to provide necessary treatment. We aimed to characterize genotypic diversity, phylogeny and prevalence of Theileria orientalis parasites from the states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India by collecting bovine blood samples from the major districts of the two states. Bioinformatic analysis identified antigenic diversity among the prevalent parasite strains using major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene. Our study revealed a prevalence rate of 4.8% (n=41/862) of T. orientalis parasites in bovine animals and a new genotype of T. orientalis parasite which was not previously reported in India. The emergence of these new genotypes could be an explanation for the frequent outbreaks of bovine theileriosis. Further, whole genome sequencing of T. orientalis strains will help to elucidate the genetic factors relevant for transmissibility and virulence as well as vaccine and new drug development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hematological Changes Associated with Theileria orientalis Infection in Korean Indigenous Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhee; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Kang, Sung-Woo; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Bae-Keun; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Jinho

    2017-10-01

    Tick-borne pathogens can cause serious problems in grazing cattle. However, little information is available on tick-mediated diseases in cattle grazing on mountains. Thus, this study aimed to understand the potential problems related to tick-borne diseases in grazing cattle through the investigation of prevalent tick-transmitted infections, and their associated hematological changes, in terms of season and grazing type in Korean indigenous cattle (=Hanwoo). Hanwoo cattle from 3 regions of the Republic of Korea (=Korea) were either maintained indoors or placed on grassy mountains from spring to fall of 2014 and 2015. Cattle that grazed in mountainous areas showed a greater prevalence of tick-borne infections with an increased Theileria orientalis infection rate (54.7%) compared to that in non-grazing cattle (16.3%) (Pcattle were significantly lower than those of non-grazing cattle throughout the season (Pcattle in mountainous areas is closely associated with an increase in T. orientalis infection (RR=3.4, Pcattle in mountainous areas of Korea are at a high risk of infection by T. orientalis, which can lead to hematological alterations. This study highlights the necessity of preventive strategies that target T. orientalis infection.

  2. Second species of tree frog, Hyla orientalis (formely H. arborea) from Iran confirmed by acoustic data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gvoždík, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2010), s. 41-44 ISSN 2071-5773 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Hyla orientalis * Hyla savignyi * Distribution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Nutrient enrichment effects on photosynthesis in the wetland plants Typha orientalis and Phormium tenax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans; Tanner, Chris

    -growing species raupo (Typha orientalis) and slower-growing flax (Phormium tenax). Photosynthesis was compared between 9 field locations differing in nutrient availability where the two species co-existed, and in an outdoor growth experiment. Raupo accumulated higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and especially...

  4. Predicting Impacts of Future Climate Change on the Distribution of the Widespread Conifer Platycladus orientalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ge Hu

    Full Text Available Chinese thuja (Platycladus orientalis has a wide but fragmented distribution in China. It is an important conifer tree in reforestation and plays important roles in ecological restoration in the arid mountains of northern China. Based on high-resolution environmental data for current and future scenarios, we modeled the present and future suitable habitat for P. orientalis, evaluated the importance of environmental factors in shaping the species' distribution, and identified regions of high risk under climate change scenarios. The niche models showed that P. orientalis has suitable habitat of ca. 4.2×106 km2 across most of eastern China and identified annual temperature, monthly minimum and maximum ultraviolet-B radiation and wet-day frequency as the critical factors shaping habitat availability for P. orientalis. Under the low concentration greenhouse gas emissions scenario, the range of the species may increase as global warming intensifies; however, under the higher concentrations of emissions scenario, we predicted a slight expansion followed by contraction in distribution. Overall, the range shift to higher latitudes and elevations would become gradually more significant. The information gained from this study should be an useful reference for implementing long-term conservation and management strategies for the species.

  5. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Nigella orientalis L. seeds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokoška, L.; Havlík, J.; Valterová, Irena; Nepovím, Aleš; Rada, V.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2005), s. 419-420 ISSN 0882-5734 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/02/0257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Nigella orientalis L. * ranunculaceae * essential oil composition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2005

  6. Evolutionary History of the Genus Capsella (Brassicaceae - Capsella orientalis , New for Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Neuffer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the evolutionary history of the genus Capsella , we included the hitherto poorly known species C. orientalis and C. thracica into our studies together with C. grandifl ora , C. rubella , and C. bursa-pastoris . We sequenced the ITS, and four loci of noncoding cpDNA regions (trnL – F, rps16, trnH – psbA, trnQ – rps16. In common garden fi eld experiments C. orientalis turned out as early fl owering with a specifi c leaf type. The crossing ability of the species was tested in pollen germination experiments. Capsella orientalis (self-compatible, SC; 2n = 16 forms a clade (eastern lineage with C . bursa-pastoris (SC; 2n = 32, which is a sister clade (western lineage to C. grandifl ora (self-incompatible, SI; 2n = 16 and C. rubella (SC; 2n = 16. Capsella bursa-pastoris is an autopolyploid species of multiple origin, whereas the Bulgarian endemic C. thracica (SC; 2n = 32 is allopolyploid and emerged from interspecifi c hybridisation between C. bursa-pastoris and C. grandifl ora . The common ancestor of the two lineages was diploid and SI, and its distribution ranged from eastern Europe to central Asia, predominantly confi ned to steppe like habitats. Biogeographic dynamics during the Pleistocene caused geographic and genetic subdivisions within the common ancestor giving rise to the two extant lineages. Capsella orientalis is verifi ed at several positions in western Mongolia.

  7. Molecular prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine Theileria orientalis in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawm, Saw; Shimizu, Kohei; Hirota, Jun-Ichi; Tosa, Yusuke; Htun, Lat Lat; Maw, Ni Ni; Thein, Myint; Kato, Hirotomo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Theileria orientalis is a causative agent of benign theileriosis in cattle and distributed in mainly Asian countries. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of T. orientalis infection by PCR based on the major piroplasm surface protein gene (MPSP) sequences in cattle in Myanmar, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the MPSP genes. The MPSP gene was amplified in 258 of 713 (36.2%) cattle blood DNA samples collected from five cities in different geographical regions of Myanmar. Phylogenetic analysis of MPSP sequences from 54 T. orientalis-positive DNA samples revealed the presence of six allelic genotypes, including Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, and N-3. Types 5 and 7 were the predominant types detected. Sequences of the MPSP genes detected in Myanmar were closely related to those from Thailand, Vietnam or Mongolia. These findings suggest that movement of animals carrying T. orientalis parasites between Southeast Asian countries could be a reason for the similar genotype distribution of the parasites in Myanmar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. First identification of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis causing mortality in Mexican tilapia Oreochromis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Cesar; Mancera, Gerardo; Enríquez, Ricardo; Vargas, Augusto; Martínez, Simón; Fajardo, Raúl; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Navarrete, María José; Romero, Alex

    2016-08-09

    Francisellosis, an emerging disease in tilapia Oreochromis spp., is caused by the facultative, intracellular bacterium Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, which is present in various countries where tilapia farming is commercially important. We confirmed the presence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures in association with an outbreak during the second semester of 2012. Broodstock fish presented a mortality rate of approximately 40%, and disease was characterized by histologically classified granulomas, or whitish nodules, in different organs, mainly the spleen and kidney. Through DNA obtained from infected tissue and pure cultures in a cysteine heart medium supplemented with hemoglobin, F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis was initially confirmed through the amplification and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes demonstrated close similarity with previously reported F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis sequences obtained from infected tilapia from various countries. The identification of this subspecies as the causative agent of the outbreak was confirmed using the iglC gene as a target sequence, which showed 99.5% identity to 2 F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis strains (Ethime-1 and Toba04). These findings represent the first documented occurrence of francisellosis in Mexican tilapia cultures, which highlights the importance of establishing preventative measures to minimize the spread of this disease within the Mexican aquaculture industry.

  9. Composition and Biological Activity of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis Seed and Cone Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The increasing consumption of natural products lead us to discover and study new plant materials, such as conifer seeds and cones, which could be easily available from the forest industry as a waste material, for their potential uses. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis was fully characterized by GC and GC/MS methods. Seed and cone oils of both tree species were composed mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, among which limonene, α- and β-pinene were the major, but in different proportions in the examined conifer essential oils. The levorotary form of chiral monoterpene molecules was predominant over the dextrorotary form. The composition of oils from P. pungens seeds and cones was similar, while the hydrodistilled oils of P. orientalis seeds and cones differed from each other, mainly by a higher amount of oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes and by other higher molar mass terpenes in seed oil. The essential oils showed mild antimicrobial action, however P. orientalis cone oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial properties against tested bacterial species than those of P. pungens. Effects of the tested cone essential oils on human skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were similar: in a concentration of 0 - 0.075 μl/ml the oils were rather safe for human skin fibroblasts and 0 - 0.005 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. IC 50 value of Picea pungens oils was 0.115 μl/ml, while that of Picea orientalis was 0.105 μl/ml. The value of IC 50 of both oils were 0.035 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. The strongest effect on cell viability had the oil from Picea orientalis cones, while on DNA synthesis the oil from Picea pungens cones. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  10. Direct quantification of energy intake in an apex marine predator suggests physiology is a key driver of migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Rebecca E; Hazen, Elliott L; Walli, Andreas; Farwell, Charles; Bograd, Steven J; Foley, David G; Castleton, Michael; Block, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) are highly migratory apex marine predators that inhabit a broad thermal niche. The energy needed for migration must be garnered by foraging, but measuring energy intake in the marine environment is challenging. We quantified the energy intake of Pacific bluefin tuna in the California Current using a laboratory-validated model, the first such measurement in a wild marine predator. Mean daily energy intake was highest off the coast of Baja California, Mexico in summer (mean ± SD, 1034 ± 669 kcal), followed by autumn when Pacific bluefin achieve their northernmost range in waters off northern California (944 ± 579 kcal). Movements were not always consistent with maximizing energy intake: the Pacific bluefin move out of energy rich waters both in late summer and winter, coincident with rising and falling water temperatures, respectively. We hypothesize that temperature-related physiological constraints drive migration and that Pacific bluefin tuna optimize energy intake within a range of optimal aerobic performance.

  11. DISKRIMINASI KELAMIN PADA IKAN TUNA SIRIP KUNING, Yellowfin tuna MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DOT BLOT DAN ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pemahaman tentang penentuan jenis kelamin dalam populasi induk merupakan hal yang sangat penting bagi keberhasilan program pembenihan. Pengukuran reaksi antibodi dan aktivitas hormon testosterone, serta estradiol adalah metode dengan potensi yang secara akurat dapat menentukan jenis kelamin ikan tanpa mematikan ikan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui akurasi metode dot blot dan ELISA dengan 11-ketotestorsterone (11-KT yang tersedia secara komersial EIA-kit untuk membedakan jenis kelamin ikan tuna sirip kuning. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa metode dot blot menghasilkan ekspresi vitelogenin tampak jelas pada individu betina dan efek plasma terlihat transparan, jika dibandingkan dengan individu jantan. Interpretasi dari metode ini memerlukan pengalaman dan keahlian dalam akurasi pembacaan hasil. Aktivitas hormon 11-KT dengan sampel klip sirip dan plasma memberikan hasil yang baik dengan aktivitas hormon terlihat jelas.

  12. Bluefin tuna fishing and ranching: a difficult management problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefano, de V.; Heijden, van der P.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The fish processing industry and consumers in Japan are willing to pay high (and sometimes outrageous) prices for fresh bluefin tuna with fat content and flesh colour just right to be served raw as sashimi or sushi. This willingness was and still is the economic incentive for a high fishing pressure

  13. Radiation hydrolysate of tuna cooking juice with enhanced antioxidant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Sung, Nak-Yun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    Tuna protein hydrolysates are of increasing interest because of their potential application as a source of bioactive peptides. Large amounts of tuna cooking juice with proteins and extracts are produced during the process of tuna canning, and these cooking juice wastes cause environmental problems. Therefore, in this study, cooking juice proteins were hydrolyzed by irradiation for their utilization as functional additives. The degree of hydrolysis of tuna cooking juice protein increased from 0% to 15.1% at the absorbed doses of 50 kGy. To investigate the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate, it was performed the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The FRAP values increased from 1470 μM to 1930 μM and IC50 on superoxide anion was decreased from 3.91 μg/mL to 1.29 μg/mL at 50 kGy. All of the antioxidant activities were increased in the hydrolysate, suggesting that radiation hydrolysis, which is a simple process that does not require an additive catalysts or an inactivation step, is a promising method for food and environmental industries.

  14. A full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jusup, M.; Klanjscek, T.; Matsuda, H.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and

  15. Production of aspartic peptidases by Aspergillus spp. using tuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of extracellular aspartic peptidase by the fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori was carried out in a shake flask and in stirred tank submerged fermentations using tuna cooked wastewater, an industrial effluent, as nitrogen source for culture medium. In stirred tank fermentation, biomass production ...

  16. Penanganan penyu yang tertangkap rawai tuna di Samudera Hindia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Nugraha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Turtle is one of the vulnerable of megafauna and as a by-catch in tuna longline fisheries, however, management practices have not been done yet. This paper described the efforts to avoid the capture of turtles on the tuna longline fishery and its handling recommendation. It has been written based on the research results and observer programs of activities that have been implemented since 2005. It’s also including a literature review rules and regulations regarding the management of sea turtles. The record results during 2005 - 2014 conducted by an independent scientific board on tuna longline in the Indian Ocean with 72 times number of setting and 89,441number of hooks. There are 105 turtles caught, which are leatherback, olive ridley turtles, hawksbill, loggerhead sea turtles as well as the unknown green turtle where the current status of turtles in the Indian Ocean is in a state of vulnerable, endangered, critically even endangered. The olive ridley turtle, loggerhead and leatherback turtles are in a vulnerable status. While, the green turtles are in a state endangered and even hawksbill in a state extremely endangered. Policy measures for handling of turtles in tuna longline fishery needs to be taken in order to be implemented include the socialization of the use of intensified circle hooks and if necessary the government issued regulations regarding the use of circle hooks, the implementation of the placement of fishing monitoring (observer aboard the tuna longline in order to assist the skippers monitoring the catch of turtles and turtle handling training for the skippers and crew in order to hold the caught turtles can be handled directly on the boat to reduce the mortality turtles which can be released back into the sea alive. Penyu merupakan salah satu biota yang rawan punah dan sebagai hasil tangkapan sampingan pada perikanan rawai tuna dimana pengelolaannya belum banyak dilakukan. Makalah ini membahas tentang upaya bagaimana

  17. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  18. Redescription de l'holotype de Ephemera orientalis Mclachlan, 1875 (Insecta, Ephemeroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, G.

    1965-01-01

    En 1875, R. McLachlan décrivit Ephemera orientalis d'après un unique exemplaire ♂, capturé au Japon par P. F. von Siebold. Depuis lors, l'espèce a été signalée à nouveau, non seulement du Japon, mais de Sibérie orientale, et ce par divers auteurs. Mais aucune iconographie n'en a été donnée. En 1952,

  19. Pharmacological and phytochemical screening of Palestinian traditional medicinal plants Erodium laciniatum and Lactuca orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal; AlMasri, Motasem; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Othman, Dua'a Ghazi

    2017-09-01

    Various epidemiological studies showed that herbal remedies containing polyphenols may protect against various diseases such as cancers, vascular diseases and inflammatory pathologies. Currently, such groups of bioactive compounds have become a subject of many antimicrobials and antioxidant investigations. Accordingly, the current study aimed to conduct biological and phytochemical screening for two Palestinian traditional medicinal plants, Erodium laciniatum and Lactuca orientalis. Current plants phytoconstituents and their antioxidant activities were evaluated by using standard phytochemical methods; meanwhile, antimicrobial activities were estimated by using several types of American Type Culture Collection and multidrug resistant clinical isolates by using agar diffusion well-variant, agar diffusion disc-variant and broth microdilution methods. Phytochemical screenings showed that L. orientalis and E. laciniatum contain mixtures of secondary and primary metabolites Moreover, total flavonoid, tannins and phenols content in E. laciniatum extract were higher than the L. orientalis extracts with almost the same antioxidant potentials. Additionally, both plants organic and aqueous extracts showed various potentials of antimicrobial activity Conclusions: Overall, the studied species have a mixture of phytochemicals, flavonoids, phenols and tannins also have antioxidant and antimicrobial activities which approved their folk uses in treatments of infectious and Alzheimer diseases and simultaneously can be used as therapeutic agents in the pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Pseudomonas orientalis F9: A Potent Antagonist against Phytopathogens with Phytotoxic Effect in the Apple Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Zengerer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of public concerns over the use of pesticides and antibiotics in plant protection and the subsequent selection for spread of resistant bacteria in the environment, it is inevitable to broaden our knowledge about viable alternatives, such as natural antagonists and their mode of action. The genus Pseudomonas is known for its metabolic versatility and genetic plasticity, encompassing pathogens as well as antagonists. We characterized strain Pseudomonas orientalis F9, an isolate from apple flowers in a Swiss orchard, and determined its antagonistic activity against several phytopathogenic bacteria, in particular Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. P. orientalis F9 displayed antagonistic activity against a broad suite of phytopathogenic bacteria in the in vitro tests. The promising results from this analysis led to an ex vivo assay with E. amylovora CFBP1430Rif and P. orientalis F9 infected detached apple flowers. F9 diminished the fire blight pathogen in the flowers but also revealed phytotoxic traits. The experimental results were discussed in light of the complete genome sequence of F9, which revealed the strain to carry phenazine genes. Phenazines are known to contribute to antagonistic activity of bacterial strains against soil pathogens. When tested in the cress assay with Pythium ultimum as pathogen, F9 showed results comparable to the known antagonist P. protegens CHA0.

  1. Evaluation of effects of photooxidized Vespa orientalis venom on memory and learning in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mukund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wasp venom is mixture of complex proteins that have several physical and pharmacological properties. The photochemical detoxification of Vespa orientalis venom is expected to generate photooxidized venom sac extract (PVSE. Antigenically active PVSE is obtained by exposing the venom sac extract (VSE of Vespa orientalis to ultraviolet radiation in the presence of methylene blue. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of PVSE on learning and memory of rats. Detoxification of PVSE was evident since treated mice had longer survival time than the group of mice treated with VSE. Photooxidized VSE of V. orientalis revealed enhancement on learning and memory by shortening the time to reach food (TRF in T-maze. In a 28-day study with rats, we observed that PVSE significantly decreased transfer latency (TL in elevated plus maze (EPM, significantly increased step down latency (SDL, diminished step down errors (SDE and time spent in shock zone (TSS in step down avoidance test. Thus, we concluded that although there is a possibility of employing PVSE in the treatment of Alzheimer, dementia or neurodegenerative illness as a non-herbal and non-synthetic alternative for patients who do not respond to available therapy, further investigation is still required.

  2. Pseudomonas orientalis F9: A Potent Antagonist against Phytopathogens with Phytotoxic Effect in the Apple Flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengerer, Veronika; Schmid, Michael; Bieri, Marco; Müller, Denise C; Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Ahrens, Christian H; Pelludat, Cosima

    2018-01-01

    In light of public concerns over the use of pesticides and antibiotics in plant protection and the subsequent selection for spread of resistant bacteria in the environment, it is inevitable to broaden our knowledge about viable alternatives, such as natural antagonists and their mode of action. The genus Pseudomonas is known for its metabolic versatility and genetic plasticity, encompassing pathogens as well as antagonists. We characterized strain Pseudomonas orientalis F9, an isolate from apple flowers in a Swiss orchard, and determined its antagonistic activity against several phytopathogenic bacteria, in particular Erwinia amylovora , the causal agent of fire blight. P. orientalis F9 displayed antagonistic activity against a broad suite of phytopathogenic bacteria in the in vitro tests. The promising results from this analysis led to an ex vivo assay with E. amylovora CFBP1430 Rif and P. orientalis F9 infected detached apple flowers. F9 diminished the fire blight pathogen in the flowers but also revealed phytotoxic traits. The experimental results were discussed in light of the complete genome sequence of F9, which revealed the strain to carry phenazine genes. Phenazines are known to contribute to antagonistic activity of bacterial strains against soil pathogens. When tested in the cress assay with Pythium ultimum as pathogen, F9 showed results comparable to the known antagonist P. protegens CHA0.

  3. Hubungan Antara Body Image Dan Self-esteem Pada Dewasa Awal Tuna Daksa

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Dahlia Nur Permata

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini meneliti mengenai pengaruh body image terhadap selfesteem pada dewasa awal tuna daksa. Hipotesis pada penelitian ini adalah adanya hubungan positif antara body image dan self-esteem pada dewasa awal tuna daksa. Semakin positif body image maka semakin tinggi self-esteem yang dimiliki, begitu juga sebaliknya, semakin negatif body image maka semakin rendah self-esteem yang dimiliki. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 30 dewasa awal tuna daksa yang memiliki cacat tubuh seteleh kelahiran. D...

  4. GENETIC IDENTIFICATION FOR TUNA AND RAINBOW RUNNER CAPTURE IN NORTH BALI WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gondol Research Institute for Mariculture identification of tuna and rainbow runner was an objective in this current study. Samples of five species were collected from territorial water of North Bali. The method used in this study was allozyme electrophoresis. The results showed that buffer of CAPM-6 (citric acid aminoprophylmorpholine resulted in a sharp and clear banding pattern. The species could be differentiated in six diagnostic isozyme patterns Idh* (isocitrate dehydrogenase, 6Pgd* (6 phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, Gpi* (glucose phosphate isomerase, Mdh* (malate dehydrogenase, Est* (esterase, and Sp* (sarcoplasmic protein. All species were in Hardy-weinberg equilibrium. Heterozygosities of species were ranged from 0.00 to 0.099. Yellowfin tuna has the highest heterozigosity compared with the other species. Clustering samples according to pairs revealed that genetic distance of Bullet tuna (A. rochei and Eastern little tuna (E. affinis had small value (0.001. By contrast, the largest value was observed between yellowfin tuna, T. albacares and rainbow runner, E. bipunnulata (0.007. This value indicated that Bullet tuna (A. rochei and Eastern little tuna (E. affinis closed relation, while among yellowfin tuna, skipjack tuna, and rainbow runner, were separated phylogenically.

  5. Dynamic optimal foraging theory explains vertical migrations of bigeye tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Sommer, Lene; Evans, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Bigeye tuna are known for remarkable daytime vertical migrations between deep water, where food is abundant but the water is cold, and the surface, where water is warm but food is relatively scarce. Here we investigate if these dive patterns can be explained by dynamic optimal foraging theory...... behaves such as to maximize its energy gains. The model therefore provides insight into the processes underlying observed behavioral patterns and allows generating predictions of foraging behavior in unobserved environments...

  6. Molecular epidemiology of bovine Babesia spp. and Theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand

  7. Convergent evolution in mechanical design of lamnid sharks and tunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Jeanine M; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Konstantinidis, Peter; Gemballa, Sven; Shadwick, Robert E

    2004-05-06

    The evolution of 'thunniform' body shapes in several different groups of vertebrates, including whales, ichthyosaurs and several species of large pelagic fishes supports the view that physical and hydromechanical demands provided important selection pressures to optimize body design for locomotion during vertebrate evolution. Recognition of morphological similarities between lamnid sharks (the most well known being the great white and the mako) and tunas has led to a general expectation that they also have converged in their functional design; however, no quantitative data exist on the mechanical performance of the locomotor system in lamnid sharks. Here we examine the swimming kinematics, in vivo muscle dynamics and functional morphology of the force-transmission system in a lamnid shark, and show that the evolutionary convergence in body shape and mechanical design between the distantly related lamnids and tunas is much more than skin deep; it extends to the depths of the myotendinous architecture and the mechanical basis for propulsive movements. We demonstrate that not only have lamnids and tunas converged to a much greater extent than previously known, but they have also developed morphological and functional adaptations in their locomotor systems that are unlike virtually all other fishes.

  8. 50 CFR 216.92 - Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna... MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.92 Dolphin-safe requirements for tuna harvested in the ETP by large purse seine vessels. (a) U.S...

  9. Anatomia e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis, em estrutura primária, enfatizando a caracterização e histoquímica de suas estruturas secretoras. Folhas, caules e raízes foram fixados em FAA50 e em sulfato ferroso e estocados em etanol 70%. Cortes transversais e longitudinais foram submetidos ao azul-de-toluidina pH 4,0, ao vermelho-de-rutênio, à reação de PAS, ao reativo Xylidine Ponceau, ao Sudan Black B e ao reativo Dragendorff. Anatomicamente, os órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis são semelhantes aos caracteres descritos para Asteraceae. As raízes laterais são triarcas e o caule, um eustelo. Ductos estão ausentes na raiz e presentes no caule e na folha. Estas estruturas são de pequeno diâmetro, sendo delimitadas por quatro a cinco células epiteliais. No caule, os ductos estavam presentes no córtex, próximos à endoderme e na medula; nas folhas, associados aos feixes vasculares, tanto para o lado do xilema quanto para o do floema. As folhas são dorsiventrais e anfiestomáticas. Três tipos de estruturas secretoras foram observados: ductos, hidatódios e tricomas glandulares. Os testes histoquímicos aplicados demonstraram a presença de compostos fenólicos e alcalóides nos ductos e, nos tricomas, de compostos lipofílicos e fenólicos. Esses resultados indicam a complexidade da secreção produzida pelas estruturas secretoras na espécie.The anatomy of the vegetative organs of S. orientalis in primary structure was described, emphasizing the characterization and histochemistry of its secretory structures. Leaves, stems and roots were fixed in FAA50 and ferrous sulphate and stored in 70% ethanol. Cross and longitudinal sections were submitted to toluidine blue pH 4.0, ruthenium red, PAS reaction, Ponceau Xylidine reactive, Sudan Black B and Dragendorff reactive. Anatomically, S. orientalis vegetative organs are similar to the characters described for the Asteraceae. The lateral roots are triarches and

  10. Clinical haematology and biochemistry profiles of cattle naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Forsyth, S F; Vaatstra, B L; McFadden, Amj; Pulford, D J; Govindaraju, K; Pomroy, W E

    2018-01-01

    To present the haematology and biochemistry profiles for cattle in New Zealand naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type and investigate if the results differed between adult dairy cattle and calves aged cattle which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type by PCR, that were submitted to veterinary laboratories in New Zealand between October 2012 and November 2014. Data sets for haematology and biochemistry results were prepared for adult dairy cattle (n=62 and 28, respectively) and calves aged cattle and calves cattle than for beef or dairy calves, for both haematology (pcattle and calves aged cattle infected with T. orientalis Ikeda type were consistent with extravascular haemolytic anaemia. Adult dairy cattle were more likely to be severely anaemic than calves. There were differences in haematology and biochemistry profiles between adult dairy cattle and calves, but most of these differences likely had a physiological rather than pathological basis. Overall, the haematological changes in calves aged cattle.

  11. Diet of larval albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre, 1788 off Mallorca Island (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Alberto Catalán

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available These are the first data on the feeding of larval albacore (Thunnus alalunga Bonnaterre, 1788 in the Mediterranean. Specimens were gathered from day-time bongo-hauls conducted over the SW Mallorcan (Balearic Islands shelf-slope. Ninety eight percent of 101 individuals ranging from 2.65 to 9.4 mm standard length (SL contained 1 to 15 prey items per gut. Mean number of prey/gut was 3.55 ± 2.19 (SD. A positive correlation was found between larval SL and the number of prey/gut. The analysis of frequency of occurrence (F, numerical frequency (N, weight frequency (W and the Index of Relative Importance (IRI showed a dominance of copepodites and nauplii in the smallest size-class. As larvae grew, cladocerans and Calanoida copepodites dominated the diet, and cladocerans and copepodites were important in F, N and W. Piscivory was observed after notochord flexion and was important in terms of W. A positive correlation between mean prey size and both SL and lower jaw length (LJL was observed. The niche breadth (S did not vary with LJL, but the raw prey size range did. Larger copepodites, the absence of nauplii and the incorporation of fish larvae and a larger number of cladocerans in the diet accounted for the increase in mean prey size through increased larval size.

  12. Can Cooperative Management of Tuna Fisheries in the Western Pacific Solve the Growth Overfishing Problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, M.L.; Rashid Sumaila, U.; Martell, S.J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Tuna fisheries in the western and central Pacific Ocean are important globally for both food and economic security. Yellowfin and bigeye tuna stocks in this region are declining, in part due to the juvenile bycatch of these species by the purse seine fishery using floating objects and fish

  13. 77 FR 73969 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... overfishing of the stock. DATES: Comments must be submitted in writing by January 11, 2013. A public hearing... effort quotas are an important step for reducing the overfishing of bluefin tuna. In 2011, NMFS determined overfishing is occurring on Pacific bluefin tuna based on stock assessment results of the...

  14. 76 FR 283 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Vessel Capacity Limit in the Purse Seine Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... of implementing a capacity management regime, the United States chose to further limit its fleet... Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) Resolution on the Capacity of the Tuna Fleet Operating.... industry consistent with the IATTC management framework. DATES: These regulations become effective on...

  15. 77 FR 24669 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Public Conference Call Regarding Recreational Yellowfin Tuna...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... collection in the U.S. recreational yellowfin tuna fishery and the relationship to international yellowfin...-XB162 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Public Conference Call Regarding Recreational Yellowfin Tuna... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public conference call. SUMMARY: In order to better inform the...

  16. Seasonal N changes in alnus orientalis and populus nigra and N2 fixation by exotic alder species in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted.The first was to study nodulation and N 2 fixation of several introduced alder species (Alnus glutinosa, A. incana, A. rubra and A. viridis) grown in soil from beneath Alnus orientalis. The second was to determine pattern of N changes in leaves and bark of Alnus orientalis and populus nigra natural stands during two successive years. Results showed that frankia in soil from underneath Alnus orientalis nodulated and fixed nitrogen on roots of local alder as well as on roots of introduced alder species from distant and ecologically diverse localities. However, differences were found among species in the number of nodules formed and amount of nitrogen fixed. Percentages of nitrogen derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa) ranged from 5% in A.viridis to 66% in A. orientalis. Microscopic study of Alnus orientalis nodules showed the presence of vesicles, and frankia belonging to Sp-type. Foliar N concentration was higher in alder than in poplar. Total N concentration in alder leaves remained relatively constant at about 3% during summer, whereas N concentration in poplar decreased sharply in leaves and increased in bark. No substantial increase in N concentration was found in alder bark, and the fallen leaves were rich in nitrogen. During autumn, leaf N concentration in poplar decreased by 43% and 51% for the first and the second year, respectively, whereas N concentrations in bark increased by 71% and 100%. Total N concentrations in alder leaves decreased only by 8-16% while, values in the adjacent bark remained stable. In contrast to poplar, it seems that Alnus orientalis does not exhibit net leaf retranslocation to bark tissues.(author)

  17. Perilaku Tuna Fungsi Auditor: Pengujian atas Karakteristik Personal dan Penilai Kinerja Auditor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprina Nugrahesthy Sulistya Hapsari

    2016-12-01

      Fenomena perilaku tuna fungsi yang dilakukan oleh auditor makin dianggap lazim di lingkup audit. Hubungan antara karakteristik personal, karakteristik non personal dan perilaku tuna fungsi menjadi sesuatu hal yang menarik untuk diteliti. Penelitian ini menguji hubungan antara karakteristik personal berupa locus of control, tingkat kinerja pribadi karyawan, komitmen organisasi dan turnover intention dan penilai kinerja auditor sebagai faktor diluar karakteristik personal terhadap penerimaan perilaku tuna fungsi dalam lingkup audit. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui kuisioner dari responden yaitu auditor di KAP Kota Semarang dan Surakarta dengan metode convenience sampling karena populasi auditor yang bekerja tidak diketahui dengan pasti. Analisis data dengan menggunakan Model Persamaan Struktural. Hasil dari pengujian hipotesis mengindikasikan bahwa tidak ada hubungan antara karakteristik personal dengan penerimaan perilaku tuna fungsi dalam ruang lingkup audit. Sementara itu di lain sisi terdapat hubungan antara penilai kinerja auditor dengan penerimaan perilaku tuna fungsi dalam ruang lingkup audit.

  18. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING PULP FROM TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA) BY PREHYDROLYSIS KRAFT AND SODA-ETHYLENEDIAMINE (EDA) PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Quaiyyum; A. Noori; Labooni Ahsan; M. Sarwar Jahan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study for the production of dissolving pulp from Trema orientalis (Nalita). Water prehydrolysis kraft and soda-ethylenediamine (EDA) pulping for the production of dissolving pulp from T. orientalis was investigated. Prehydrolysis at 150 and 170 oC did not produce pulp with high α-cellulose content when using the kraft process. But addition of 0.25 % H2SO4 in prehydrolysis liquor increased the purity of the pulp with the sacrifice of pulp yield and viscosity. ...

  19. Influence of Environmental Pollution on Leaf Properties of Urban Plane Trees, Platanus orientalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rastin, Nayerah; Olbrich, Andrea; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether leaves of plane trees (Platanus orientalis) are damaged by traffic pollution, trees from a megacity (Mashhad, Iran) and a rural area were investigated. Soil and air from the urban centre showed enrichment of several toxic elements, but only lead was enriched in leaves. Leaf size and stomata density were lower at the urban site. At the urban site leaf surfaces were heavily loaded by dust particles but the stomata were not occluded; the cuticle was thinner; other anatomical properties were unaffected suggesting that plane trees can cope with traffic exhaust in megacities. PMID:20577871

  20. Monitoring Theileria orientalis (Ikeda)-associated bovine anaemia in affected cattle over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Amj; Hart, M; Bueno, I M; Ha, H J; Heath, Acg; Pulford, D J

    2017-10-15

    The aim of the study was to observe changes in haematocrit (HCT) over time in a New Zealand South Island dairy herd affected by an outbreak of Theileria-associated bovine anaemia (TABA; Ikeda). A secondary aim was to relate individual cow HCTs to the amount of Theileria orientalis Ikeda DNA present in the blood, as measured by cycle threshold values, using a quantitative PCR (qPCR). Over a 6 month period, blood samples from 19 randomly selected cattle were monitored from a herd of 600 dairy cows. The sampling interval was approximately fortnightly for the first six weeks, followed by sampling at between four and six week intervals. At the initial report of the outbreak, two from six cattle were anaemic (HCTcattle 11 days later showed that 57% (95% CI 33-77%) of the cattle sampled were anaemic. Of the 19 cattle that went on to be monitored, 12 (63% 95% CI=41-81%) developed anaemia at some point during the period of monitoring. One of the anaemic animals did not meet the case definition for TABA Ikeda. For individual cattle, the average number of days between when cattle were first detected as anaemic and when HCT returned to normal was 53days (median=47 days, range=6-92 days). At the point of notification the amount of T. orientalis Ikeda DNA in the blood of the six cattle tested was low (Cq median=36), but 11days later the amount of DNA in blood of 14 additional cows tested was relatively high (Cq median=24). Levels of all 19 cows monitored continued to remain moderately high through the period of testing (Cq median=29). This was despite a general improvement in the HCT of affected cattle. In four of the 15 cattle positive to T. orientalis Ikeda where blood fractions (plasma and whole blood) were tested, it appeared that T. orientalis Ikeda (as measured by qPCR) dropped more rapidly in plasma fractions than in whole blood at the point that HCT started to return to normal levels. Despite the assumption that tick populations were low in the Canterbury region of the

  1. Goat’s rue (Galega orientalis Lam., a potential pasture legume for temperate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Varis

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a perennial legume Galega orientalis Lam. (goat’s rue, is presented. This unselected forage legume originating from regions with a Mediterranean climate, grows well in North-European conditions in Finland. It seems to be very persistent and produces yields that equal or even exceed those of red clover in quantity and quality. The trials on management practices and feeding carried out at the University of Helsinki are reported here. The research will be continued on mass selection for low alcaloid and fiber contents, seed production and use of grass-mixtures for making hay or silage.

  2. An evaluation of management strategies for Atlantic tuna stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Kell

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available International agreements for the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT convention area imply that Atlantic tuna stocks should be managed by strategies based on maximum sustainable yield (MSY; however, there is concern whether this will actually ensure sustainability with sufficiently high probability consistent with the principals of the precautionary approach. Therefore, the performance of MSY management strategies based on current assessment procedures was evaluated using a computer simulation framework. The framework includes the data collection, assessment, prediction, and management processes, as well as the implementation of management regulations. It therefore provides an integrated way to evaluate the relative importance of and the interactions between each component of the system with regard to the overall success of the management strategy. The study elucidates guidelines about assessment and management that are general enough to be applied to all tunas in the Atlantic Ocean. It does so by comparing different hypotheses about management and assessment for three stocks (North Atlantic albacore, Atlantic bigeye and East Atlantic skipjack, which are representative of the variety encountered (i.e. from data rich to poor and tropical to temperate waters in ICCAT stocks. Management performance was especially sensitive to the carrying capacity of the stock. The type of proxy used for MSY was more important to the success of the procedure than the frequency of assessment or the number of indices used in the assessment. Whilst the procedure was successful at achieving the management objectives for albacore, it was only partially successful for bigeye and was too conservative for skipjack.

  3. Tuna cannery energy conservation interventions: Technical/economic feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G. (Calabria Univ. Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    An energy audit was conducted on a 230,000 can (x 80 g)/day tuna cannery to determine where technically and economically feasible energy savings interventions could be made. The plant is equipped with an oil fired boiler which supplies steam for cooking and sterilization purposes. In the energy/cost analysis, it was found that the most significant and cost effective energy savings could be obtained by the substitution of the four sterilization chambers with three sets of twin sterilization/heat exchange chambers.

  4. Predicting the Distribution of Yellowfin Tuna in Philippine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, G. J. P.; Leonardo, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Philippines is considered as a major tuna producer in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, both for domestic consumption and on industrial scale. However, with the ever-increasing demand of growing population, it has always been a challenge to achieve sustainable fishing. The creation of satellite-derived potential fishing zone maps is a technology that has been adopted by advanced countries for almost three decades already and has led to reduction in search times by up to 40%. In this study, a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) is developed to predict the distribution of the Yellowfin tuna species in seas surrounding the Philippines based on the Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE) index. Level 3 gridded chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are the main input parameters of the model. Chlorophyll-a is linked with the presence of phytoplankton, which indicates primary productivity and suggests potential regions of fish aggregation. Fish also prefers to stay in regions where the temperature is stable, thus the sea surface temperature fronts serve as a guide to locate concentrations of fish school. Historical monthly tuna catch data from Western and Central Pacific Commissions (WCPFC) is used to train the model. The resulting predictions are converted to potential fishing zone maps and are evaluated within and beyond the historical time range of the training data used. Diagnostic tests involving adjusted R2 value, GAM residual plots and root mean square error value are used to assess the accuracy of the model. The generated maps were able to confirm locations of known tuna fishing grounds in Mindanao and other parts of the country, as well us detect their seasonality and interannual variability. To improve the performance of the model, ancillary data such as surface winds reanalysis from National Centers for

  5. Siegesbeckia orientalis Extract Inhibits TGFβ1-Induced Migration and Invasion of Endometrial Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Type II endometrial carcinoma typically exhibits aggressive metastasis and results in a poor prognosis. Siegesbeckia orientalis Linne is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb with several medicinal benefits, including the cytotoxicity against various cancers. This study investigates the inhibitory effects of S. orientalis ethanol extract (SOE on the migration and invasion of endometrial cancer cells, which were stimulated by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ. The inhibitory effects were evaluated by determining wound healing and performing the Boyden chamber assay. This study reveals that SOE can inhibit TGFβ1-induced cell wound healing, cell migration, and cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner in RL95-2 and HEC-1A endometrial cancer cells. SOE also reversed the TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, including the loss of the cell-cell junction and the lamellipodia-like structures. Western blot analysis revealed that SOE inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and Akt, as well as the expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and u-PA in RL95-2 cells dose-dependently. The results of this investigation suggest that SOE is a potential anti-metastatic agent against human endometrial tumors.

  6. Transplantation immunity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana: the rejection of integumentary grafts from Blatta orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, R D; Meade, C C

    1993-01-01

    The results from several previous studies have indicated that the American cockroach is able to respond to integumentary xenografts, but doubt remained as to whether cockroaches could effectively discriminate between self and allogeneic differences. This was emphasized by the fact that while one study reported that Periplaneta americana responded to grafts donated by the closely related genus Blatta orientalis, the data reported elsewhere, using a different assay system, found no such reactivity. Since we have subsequently reported, using a direct histological assay, that Periplaneta can in fact recognize and destroy integumentary allografts, we initiated a study to hopefully sort out the enigma presented by previous data using Blatta as a transplant donor. Integument from Blatta orientalis was transplanted orthotopically onto Periplaneta americana, and at various time points post-transplant, scored histologically for the survival of the subcuticular epidermal layer. The results clearly demonstrated that Periplaneta reacted to the Blatta tissue, because approximately 82% of the grafts had the epidermal layer destroyed by day 7 posttransplant. The kinetics of the response to Blatta was more in line with our allograft data, which would be in agreement with other work indicating that the closer the donor and recipient are on the phylogenetic tree, the less intense the reactivity to the foreign transplant.

  7. Specific features of ontogeny of Iris orientalis Mill. introduced to the south-east Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Marina Aleksandrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research findings on the ontogeny of Iris orientalis Mill. introduced to the Donetsk Botanical Garden. It was established, that in the course of four years, plantlets subsequently pass the following stages: germinating seedling, juvenile, immature, virginal and young generative stages, reaching mature generative stage in their fifth or sixth year. Typical features of a seedling: bond with a seed, significant structural changes in the course of the development―formation of one or two assimilative leaves, growth and branching of the main root. Juvenile age stage is indicated by formation of three-leaf fan and one or two additional roots, immature stage―by a complete leaf fan of five or seven leaves and by development of additional root system. Virginal stage is distinct due to the transition from monopodial growth to sympodial one with a primary bush formation. Generative stage is marked by biomorph formation, flowering and fruitage. Ontogeny of this species when it is cultivated is characterized by dynamic polyvariety, caused by heterogeneity of individual seedling growth rates. Based on these findings, a seed propagation of I. orientalis is suggested for obtaining a lot of high-grade planting material for landscaping in two or three years after sowing the seeds.

  8. Platycladus orientalis leaves: a systemic review on botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming-Qiu; Shang, Jing; Ding, An-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Platycladus orientalis leaves (Cebaiye) have been used for thousands of years as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the theory of TCM, they are categorized as a blood-cooling and hematostatic herb. In clinical practice, they were usually prescribed with heat-clearing herbs to reinforce the efficacy of hemostasis. The review provides the up-to-date information from 1980 to present that is available on the botany, processing research, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the leaves. The information is collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Pubmed and CNKI). Through literature reports, we can find that the leaves show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, disinsection, anticancer, diuretic, hair growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antifibrotic activities. Diterpene and flavonoids would be active constituents in P. orientalis leaves. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a great need for additional studies to elucidate the mechanism of blood-cooling and hematostatic activity of the leaves. Therefore, the present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies of this herb.

  9. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Highland Ranch, CO; Pentilla, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI; Koivuranta, Kari [Vantaa, FI; Roberg-Perez, Kevin [Minneapolis, MN

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  10. Global pollution monitoring of butyltin compounds using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, D.; Inoue, S.; Takahashi, S.; Ikeda, K.; Tanaka, H.; Subramanian, A.N.; Fillmann, G.; Lam, P.K.S.; Zheng, J.; Muchtar, M.; Prudente, M.; Chung, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2004-01-01

    Global pollution monitoring of butyltin in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator. - Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono- (MBT), di- (DBT), tri-butyltin (TBT) and total tin (ΣSn), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from Asian offshore waters (off-Japan, the Japan Sea, off-Taiwan, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, off-Philippines, off-Indonesia, the Bay of Bengal), off-Seychelles, off-Brazil and open seas (the North Pacific). BTs were detected in all the skipjack tuna collected, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs even in offshore waters and open seas on a global scale. Considering specific accumulation, Sex-, body length- differences and migration of skipjack tuna did not seem to affect BT concentrations, indicating rapid reflection of the pollution levels in seawater where and when they were collected. Skipjack tuna is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of BTs in offshore waters and open seas. High concentrations of BTs were observed in skipjack tuna from offshore waters around Japan, a highly developed and industrialized region (up to 400 ng/g wet weight). Moreover skipjack tuna collected from offshore waters around Asian developing countries also revealed the levels comparable to those in Japan (up to 270 ng/g wet weight) which may be due to the recent improvement in economic status in Asian developing countries. High percentages (almost 90%) of BTs in total tin (ΣSn: sum of inorganic tin+organic tin) were found in the liver of skipjack tuna from offshore waters around Asian developing countries. This finding suggests that the anthropogenic BTs represent the major source of Sn accumulation in skipjack tuna from these regions

  11. Global pollution monitoring of butyltin compounds using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, D.; Inoue, S.; Takahashi, S.; Ikeda, K.; Tanaka, H.; Subramanian, A.N.; Fillmann, G.; Lam, P.K.S.; Zheng, J.; Muchtar, M.; Prudente, M.; Chung, K.; Tanabe, S

    2004-01-01

    Global pollution monitoring of butyltin in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator. - Butyltin compounds (BTs) including mono- (MBT), di- (DBT), tri-butyltin (TBT) and total tin ({sigma}Sn), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from Asian offshore waters (off-Japan, the Japan Sea, off-Taiwan, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, off-Philippines, off-Indonesia, the Bay of Bengal), off-Seychelles, off-Brazil and open seas (the North Pacific). BTs were detected in all the skipjack tuna collected, suggesting widespread contamination of BTs even in offshore waters and open seas on a global scale. Considering specific accumulation, Sex-, body length- differences and migration of skipjack tuna did not seem to affect BT concentrations, indicating rapid reflection of the pollution levels in seawater where and when they were collected. Skipjack tuna is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of BTs in offshore waters and open seas. High concentrations of BTs were observed in skipjack tuna from offshore waters around Japan, a highly developed and industrialized region (up to 400 ng/g wet weight). Moreover skipjack tuna collected from offshore waters around Asian developing countries also revealed the levels comparable to those in Japan (up to 270 ng/g wet weight) which may be due to the recent improvement in economic status in Asian developing countries. High percentages (almost 90%) of BTs in total tin ({sigma}Sn: sum of inorganic tin+organic tin) were found in the liver of skipjack tuna from offshore waters around Asian developing countries. This finding suggests that the anthropogenic BTs represent the major source of Sn accumulation in skipjack tuna from these regions.

  12. Skipjack tuna as a bioindicator of contamination by perfluorinated compounds in the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kimberly; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tao, Lin; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-09-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have emerged as global environmental contaminants. Studies have reported the widespread occurrence of PFCs in biota from marine coastal waters and in remote polar regions. However, few studies have reported the distribution of PFCs in biota from offshore waters and open oceans. In this study, concentrations of nine PFCs were determined in the livers of 60 skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters and the open ocean along the Pacific Rim, including the Sea of Japan, the East China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Western North Pacific Ocean, during 1997-1999. At least one of the nine PFCs was found in every tuna sample analyzed. Overall, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were the predominant compounds found in livers of tuna at concentrations of ocean locations, concentrations of PFUnDA were greater than the concentrations of PFOS. The profiles and concentrations of PFCs in tuna livers suggest that the sources in East Asia are dominated by long-chain perfluorocarboxylates, especially PFUnDA. High concentrations of PFUnDA in tuna may indicate a shift in sources of PFCs in East Asia. The spatial distribution of PFOS in skipjack tuna reflected the concentrations previously reported in seawater samples from the Pacific and Indian Oceans, suggesting that tuna are good bioindicators of pollution by PFOS. Despite its predominance in ocean waters, PFOA was rarely found in tuna livers, indicative of the low bioaccumulation potential of this compound. Our study establishes baseline concentrations of PFCs in skipjack tuna from the oceans of the Asia-Pacific region, enabling future temporal trend studies of PFCs in oceans.

  13. Some aspects of entomological determinants of Phlebotomus orientalis in highland and lowland visceral leishmaniasis foci in northwestern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Aklilu

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is one of the major public health problems in northwest Ethiopia, mainly in Libo-Kemkem and Metema districts, where Phlebotomus orientalis is the most probable vector of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological age, host preference and vectorial potential of P. orientalis in the highland and lowland foci of the region. Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps between May 2011 and April 2012 in Libo-Kemkem and October 2012 and September 2013 in Metema from household compounds, farm field and mixed forest. Females belonging to Phlebotomus were dissected for physiological age determination and Leishmania detection and isolation. Leishmania infections in sand flies were investigated using molecular methods. Freshly fed Phlebotomus females were tested to identify blood meal sources using PCR-RLB and ELISA. A total of 1149 (936 from Libo-Kemkem and 213 from Metema blood unfed female P. orientalis were dissected for age determination. The parity rate was 45.6% and 66.2% in Libo-Kemkem and Metema, respectively. None of 798 female P. orientalis dissected (578 from Libo-Kemkem and 220 from Metema was infected with Leishmania parasites. A total of 347 P. orientalis specimens collected from Libo-Kemkem were processed using PCR, of which 10 (2.8% specimens were found with DNA of Leishmania spp. Of a total 491 freshly fed female P. orientalis analyzed for blood meal origins by RLB-PCR and ELISA, 57.6% (67.8% from Libo-Kemkem and 49.8% from Metema were found to contain bovine blood while 4.9% (3.7% from Libo-Kemkem and 5.7% from Metema were of human blood. In conclusion, the present study showed parity difference between the two populations of P. orientalis and that both populations have strong zoophilic behavior. Based on the presented evidences, the species is strongly implicated as a vector of kala-azar in both areas. Therefore, vector control should be a component of a strategy to manage

  14. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody-mediated reactions also in other host species.

  15. Mechanical transfer of Theileria orientalis: possible roles of biting arthropods, colostrum and husbandry practices in disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jade Frederick; Jenkins, Cheryl; Bogema, Daniel; Emery, David

    2016-01-22

    The intracellular protozoal parasite Theileria orientalis has rapidly spread across South-eastern Australia, substantially impacting local cattle industries since 2006. Haemaphysalis longicornis appears to be a biological vector in the endemic regions. Mechanical transfer of blood by biting arthropods, in colostrum or iatrogenic transmission though husbandry procedures is another possible mode of transmission. This study assesses the risk of these mechanical modes of transmission. Blood was collected from a T. orientalis Ikeda positive Angus steer, and was inoculated into the jugular vein of 9 calves in 3 treatment groups, each with 3 animals. Calves in Group 1 received 10 ml of cryopreserved blood, while those in Groups 2 and 3 received 1 ml (fresh blood) and 0.1 ml (cryopreserved), respectively. An additional three animals remained as negative controls and the donor calf was also followed as a positive control. Blood was collected over 3 months, and analysed via qPCR for the presence of the parasite. Samples of the sucking louse Linognathus vituli were collected opportunistically from calves 5 months after inoculation and tested for T. orientalis. For the colostral transmission study, 30 samples of blood and colostrum were collected from cows at calving in an endemic herd. These samples along with blood from their calves were tested by qPCR for T. orientalis and for antibodies to the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP). Eight of the nine inoculated calves became positive for T. orientalis. The prepatent period of these infections was inversely correlated with inoculation dose. All negative control calves remained negative and the positive control calf remained positive. Samples of L. vituli tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda, while some samples of colostrum were also shown to be qPCR and anti-MPSP positive. All calves in the colostral study tested qPCR negative although one was antibody-positive. T. orientalis is capable of being mechanically transferred

  16. KAPASITAS PENANGKAPAN PANCING ULUR TUNA DI KEPULAUAN BANDA NEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baihaqi Baihaqi

    2016-04-01

    Fishing capacity is an approach to fishery management relating to restrictions on fishing effort capacity. The effort capacity is determined by several variables such as vessel  and engine sizes, the size of the nets, and fishing tool technology. Study of fishing capacity based fisheries management is an alternative approach to control the input factors that are not efficiently used in fishing effort. Through the research capacity, it is expected to know the level of technical efficiency of fishing tuna fishing fleet in the Banda Sea. Fishing capacity was examined using analysis technique Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA using a linear programming. The results show that the tuna line fisheries in the Banda Neira with single output approach (catch weight, was generally at the level of efficiency that is far under from the optimal level with the current input has exceeded the optimal capacity. To achieve the production potential of the third fishing grounds, reductions of the capacity of 33%, 42% and 45% for Hatta Island, Manukang Island and Rhum Island, respectively should be done.

  17. Treatment of tuna cooking juices by nano filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walha, K. a.; Ben Amar, R.; Bourseau, P.; Jaouen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Canned tuna is among the largest commercial canned fishery product in Tunisia. This industry rejects many aqueous effluents (washing, thawing, rinsing and cooking waters). Cooking juice represents 50 pour cent of the total effluent volume. It has a high organic load and a very high salt content. For consequence, discarding directly the effluent in the environment is not possible and need further treatment. However, the juice seems to contain interesting flavour compounds. In this work, a membrane process system consisting in nano filtration was used to reduce the pollution load and to concentrate flavour compounds of tuna cooking juice. The NF membrane tested in this work concentrate the organic matter since the retentions are high, starting at 74 pour cent for total circulation and increasing up to 85 pour cent for volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5. The membrane undergoes severe fouling, it can be effectively cleaned through a complete basic-acid washing cycle. The effect of three chemical reagents was studied for the regeneration of the fouled membrane. In the future, we will focus on the concentrates obtained by NF: sensory analysis with a panel of trained tasters and analysis of aromatic molecules should allow to value the quality of the flavouring concentrates.

  18. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and prophylactic potentials of extract and fractions of Trema orientalis (Linn.) stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanlokun, John Oludele; David, Oluwole Moses; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2017-08-15

    Trema orientalis (T. orientalis Linn) has been used in the management of malaria in the western part of Nigeria and despite its application in ethnomedicine, there is dearth of scientific evidence to justify the acclaimed prophylactic antimalarial usage of the plant. The aim of this study is to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial cell-free assay and chemopreventive efficacy of the methanol extract of the stem bark of T. orientalis and its fractions as a prophylactic regimen for malaria prevention. Also, the antimicrobial activities of the extract and the fractions were investigated. Vacuum liquid chromatography was used to obtain dichloromethane, ethylacetate and methanol fractions from the methanol extract of T. orientalis. The fractions were tested for their prophylactic and cell-free antimalarial activity using murine models and β-hematin formation assay respectively. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extract and its fractions against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the prophylactic experiment, dichloromethane (DCMF), methanol fraction (MF) and extract (ME) (in this order) showed significant chemopreventive effects against P. berghei invasion of the red blood cells when compared with both Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) and untreated controls. Results of the in vitro study showed that the DCMF had the highest effect in preventing the formation of β-hematin when compared with other fractions. The DCMF also had the highest percentage inhibition of β-hematin formation when compared with chloroquine. The extract and fractions showed a concentration dependent antibacterial activity. Methanol extract had a pronounced inhibitory effect on Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Serratia mercescens ATCC 9986 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 19582 were the most susceptible bacteria. The results obtained showed that both extract and fractions of T. orientalis possessed

  19. Nickel affects gill and muscle development in oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan, E-mail: mcgye@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Nickel inhibited the development of external gill in B. orientalis embryos. • The 168 h LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} values of nickel were 33.8 and 5.4 μM, respectively, in embryos. • Nickel induced abnormal tail development of embryos. • NF stage 26–31 was the most sensitive window for embryos to nickel exposure. • Nickel affected the calcium-dependent myogenic gene expression in embryos. - Abstract: The developmental toxicity of nickel was examined in the embryos of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian in Korea. Based on a standard frog embryo teratogenesis assay, the LC{sub 50} and EC{sub 50} for malformation of nickel after 168 h of treatment were 33.8 μM and 5.4 μM, respectively. At a lethal concentration (100 μM), nickel treatment decreased the space between gill filaments and caused epithelial swelling and abnormal fusion of gill filaments. These findings suggest that nickel affects the functional development of gills, leading to embryonic death. At sublethal concentrations (1–10 μM), nickel produced multiple embryonic abnormalities, including bent tail and tail dysplasia. At 10 μM, nickel significantly decreased tail length and tail muscle fiber density in tadpoles, indicating inhibition of myogenic differentiation. Before hatching, the pre-muscular response to muscular response stages (stages 26–31) were the most sensitive period to nickel with respect to tail muscle development. During these stages, MyoD mRNA was upregulated, whereas myogenic regulatory factor 4 mRNA was downregulated by 0.1 μM nickel. Calcium-dependent kinase activities in muscular response stage embryos were significantly decreased by nickel, whereas these activities were restored by exogenous calcium. In tadpoles, 10 μM nickel significantly decreased the expression of the myosin heavy chain and the 12/101 muscle marker protein in the tail. Expression was restored by exogenous calcium. Our results indicate that nickel affects muscle development by

  20. SWFSC/MMTD/ETP: Dolphin-Tuna Tracking Studies (DTTS) 1992-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was designed to better understand the nature of the dolphin-tuna bond in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. In this study, researchers attempted to...

  1. 75 FR 33531 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XW79 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine..., recent Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate that charter/headboat BFT landings constitute...

  2. GENERAL ASSESMENT OF SEED STANDS OF ORIENTAL SPRUCE (Picea orientalis L. Link.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Turna

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds for afforestation studies with oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.Link. populations are usually gathered from already established seed stands. This study showed that most of the seed stands were not selected appropriately and some of them were not properly protected and maintained when evaluated according to the “criteria for selection and management of seed stands”. The average slope of seed stands was as high as 43% and the average size varied from 33.5 ha to 147.5 ha Since the stands were open to social disturbances and wind effects, the number of trees per ha decreased 51% and the number of seed trees dropped to a level of 56%. In conclusion, seeds collected from poorly established seed stands will likely jeopardize the success in reforestation studies in the future.

  3. Tuna Park Shopping Centre A comparative study of marketing communication tools

    OpenAIRE

    Wongrattanavichit, Teewin; Wang, Haiyan

    2008-01-01

    Date: 2008 June 08 Course: Master thesis Authors: Haiyan Wang, Teewin Wongrattanavichit Tutor: Jan Löwstedt Title: The study of marketing communication effectiveness and customer perception of Tuna Park shopping centre Introduction: The research about the effectiveness of marketing communication tool and customer perception was studied in Tuna Park shopping center, Eskilstuna. The marketing strategy and objective was to compare with the results from the questionnaire in order to measure the e...

  4. Ocorrência de Halysidota orientalis Rothschild (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) em amoreira (Morus alba L.) no Estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Soto, Saúl; Romano, Fabiana C.B.; Nakano, Octavio

    2004-01-01

    É registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência de lagartas de Halysidota orientalis Rothschild em plantas de amoreira (Morus alba L.) no estado de São Paulo. Alguns aspectos da morfologia externa do adulto, larva e pupa são descritos. The occurrence of larvae of Halysidota orientalis Rothschild on mulberry plants (Morus alba L.) is recorded for the first time in São Paulo, Brazil. Morphological aspects of adult, larva and pupa are described.

  5. [Foliar water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis sapling under different soil water contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E; Yu, Xin Xiao; Chen, Li Hua; Jia, Guo Dong; Zhao, Na; Li, Han Zhi; Chang, Xiao Min

    2017-07-18

    The determination of plant foliar water use efficiency will be of great value to improve our understanding about mechanism of plant water consumption and provide important basis of regional forest ecosystem management and maintenance, thus, laboratory controlled experiments were carried out to obtain Platycladus orientalis sapling foliar water use efficiency under five different soil water contents, including instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE gs ) derived from gas exchange and short-term water use efficiency (WUE cp ) caculated using carbon isotope model. The results showed that, controlled by stomatal conductance (g s ), foliar net photosynthesis rate (P n ) and transpiration rate (T r ) increased as soil water content increased, which both reached maximum va-lues at soil water content of 70%-80% field capacity (FC), while WUE gs reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Both δ 13 C of water-soluble leaf and twig phloem material achieved maximum values at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). Besides, δ 13 C values of leaf water-soluble compounds were significantly greater than that of phloem exudates, indicating that there was depletion in 13 C in twig phloem compared with leaf water-soluble compounds and no obvious fractionation in the process of water-soluble material transportation from leaf to twig. Foliar WUE cp also reached a maximum of 7.26 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 at the lowest soil water content (35%-45% FC). There was some difference between foliar WUE gs and WUE cp under the same condition, and the average difference was 0.52 mmol·m -2 ·s -1 . The WUE gs had great space-time variability, by contrast, WUE cp was more representative. It was concluded that P. orientalis sapling adapted to drought condition by increasing water use efficiency and decreasing physiological activity.

  6. CULTURAL MEMORY OF VICTORY OF LAS TUNAS CITY' LODGES FROM 1930 TO 1945 / MEMORIA CULTURAL DE LAS LOGIAS DE VICTORIA DE LAS TUNAS 1930-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Medina Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultural memory of the lodges of Victoria de Las Tunas (1930-1945, it constitutes the topic of the present investigation. The thematic of the lodges has been approached for studious and investigating, not alone of the town but of several parts of the world. Still when these studies exist, the related with the cultural memory of the lodges of the territory, is in the pages of the documents of the time that which leaves to the light starting from this investigation, to show yesterday's Tunas, rich in histories and anecdotes. In the town during the investigated period the lodges Masonic Children of Hiram existed, Vicente García No. 27, the young AJEF, the lodge Teosófica Esperanza, the Children of East No. 54 of the Odd Independent Fellows, the lodge Cucalambé of the Odd United Fellows and the lodge Victoria de Las Tunas No. 78 of the Luz's Order Gentlemen.

  7. Quality Changes of Light Flesh Tuna at Water of Tomini Bay, Gorontalo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wila Rumina Nento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuna is one of the mainstay fisheries commodities that involve many of the ordinary fishermen. The handling usually still not follows the principles of good handling that causing the poor quality as the result.The aims of this research were to analyze and to determine the quality of tuna meat (the abdominal wall, dorsal fin, and caudal fin. Raw material yellowfin tuna meat prepared for the light, the meat section of the abdominal wall, dorsal fin, and caudal fin. The result of organoleptic analysis showed that the tuna meat was above the minimum value for the criteria of fresh fish. The result of TVB analysis showed that the meat on the caudal fin had the highest value and significantly different with the other, but still exist on the safe limits and on the fresh category. For the result of analysis in histamine, it shown that at the fourth hour the meat at the dorsal fin had the histamine content which were above the minimum that have been recommended. For the result of analysis in peroxide number, it shown that the tuna meat did not sustain the fat damage until the fourth hour after the catching process. And for the result of analysis in TPC, it showed that at the fourth hour the tuna meat on the pectoral fin had the highest number of total colony and significantly different with the other.Keywords: handling, histamine, light flesh, microbiology, yellowfin

  8. Characterization of the Boundary Layer on Full-Scale Bluefin Tuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Brian; Cipolla, Kimberly; Henoch, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The physics that enable tuna to cross large expanses of ocean while feeding and avoiding predators is not presently understood, and could involve complex control of turbulent boundary layer transition and drag reduction. Typical swimming speeds of Bluefin tuna are 1-2 m/s, but can be higher during strong accelerations. The goal of this work is to experimentally determine the approximate lateral location at which transition to turbulence occurs on the tuna for various speeds. The question is whether laminar flow or an advanced propulsion mechanism (or both) allows them to swim at high speeds. Uncertainties include the surface roughness of the skin, local favorable and adverse pressure gradients, and discontinuities such as the open mouth or juncture at the fins. Historically, much of the fluid mechanics work in the area of fish locomotion has focused on vortex shedding issues rather than the boundary layer. Here, the focus is obtaining information on the boundary layer characteristics of a rigid tuna model. A full scale model of a Pacific Bluefin tuna was fabricated using a mold made from an actual deceased tuna, preserving the surface features and details of the appendages. The model was instrumented with 32 wall pressure sensors and experiments performed in a tow tank. Results from flow visualization, drag and wall pressure measurements over a range of speeds and varying angles of attack will be presented.

  9. DAYA SAING EKSPOR TUNA KALENG INDONESIA DI UNI EROPA TAHUN 2003-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Wahono

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Perbedaan tarif yang diberikan antara Indonesia yang lebih tinggi sebesar 20.5% dibandingkan dengan negara pesaing utamanya yang tergabung dalang Africa, Caribbean, Pasific (ACP Countries dengan pelayanan tarif impor hingga 0% ke pasar Uni Eropa (UE. Keadaan ini mampu menyebabkan menghilangnya distorsi perbedaan harga sesungguhnya yang seharusnya menjadi keuntungan lebih atas keunggulan komparatif yang dimiliki. Hal ini mampu melemahkan daya saing komoditi ekspor akibat dampak kenaikan harga terhadap tarif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk gambaran daya saing komoditas tuna kaleng Indonesia terhadap negara pesaingnya dipasar UE pada periode 2003-2013. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitin ini adalah metode Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA yang kemudian nilai RCA dikomparasikan tiap-tiap negara pengekspor utama tuna kaleng di pasar UE untuk melihat posisi daya saing relatifnya. Sedangkan untuk mendekomposisikan determinan pertumbuhan ekspor tuna kaleng Indonesia ke UE digunankan metode Constant Market Share (CMS. Hasil perhitungan nilai RCA tuna kaleng Indonesia periode 2003-2013 di pasar UE memiliki daya saing dengan rata-rata nilai RCA 4.27. Namun masih dibawah rata-rata nilai RCA negara ACP Countries. Perbedaan pelayanan tarif impor oleh UE untuk komoditas tuna kaleng Indonesia tidak berdampak terhadap penurunan daya saing. The difference between the rates given Indonesia which is higher by 20.5% compared to its main competitor countries that joined the mastermind Africa, Caribbean, Pacific (ACP Countries with service import tariffs to 0% to the European Union (EU. This situation is capable of causing the disappearance of the distortion of the true price difference should be more advantages over comparative advantage. It is capable of undermining the competitiveness of export commodities due to the impact of price increases on tariffs. This study aims to illustrate the competitiveness of commodities Indonesian canned tuna to the EU market of

  10. Studies on sand fly fauna and ecological analysis of Phlebotomus orientalis in the highland and lowland foci of kala-azar in northwestern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Aklilu

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL also known as kala-azar is a growing health problem in Ethiopia with an estimated annual VL incidence between 3700 and 7400. The disease is mainly endemic in northwestern parts of the country. The aim of the current study was to determine the sand fly fauna and ecology of Phlebotomus orientalis in two endemic and ecologically distinct areas of northwestern Ethiopia.Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps, sticky traps and pyrethrum spray catches from peri-domestic, mixed forest, farm field and indoor habitats from both Libo-Kemkem (May 2011-April 2012 and Metema (October 2012-September 2013 districts.A total of 51,411 sand fly specimens were collected and identified (10,776 from highland and 40, 635 from the lowland areas. Seven species were found in the highland area: two Phlebotomus spp. (P. orientalis and P. rodhaini and five Sergentomyia species. Whereas 19 species were found in the lowland area: six Phlebotomus (P. orientalis, P. rodhaini, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P. papatasi and P. martini and 13 Sergentomyia species. Of the Phlebotomus spp., P. orientalis was the predominant species in both the highland (99.9% and lowland (93.7% areas. Indoor collections using pyrethrum spray catches and sticky traps indicated that P. orientalis has a strong exophilic and exophagic behaviors in both districts. In both areas, this species showed seasonal occurrence and showing abundance during the dry months (March-May/June of the year and increasing in numbers till the rain season, when numbers dropped dramatically. Mean density of P. orientalis in the two areas had positive and significant correlation with mean temperature in light trap collections (P0.05. Regarding the rainfall pattern, density of P. orientalis had negative and statistically insignificant correlation (for light trap collections for both areas and significant correlation (for sticky trap collections for lowland area.The current study indicated the

  11. Population structure and reproductive biology of Mesopodopsis orientalis (Crustacea: Mysida) in a tropical mangrove ecosystem in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    to prevent excessive changes in their internal environment by maintain their blood hyper/ hypo-osmotic to the medium. As in many other mysid species, M. orientalis presented considerable fluctuation in its abundance. Principle factor of seasonal abundance... in the Malaysian sandy beach. These observations suggest that the intensity of breeding varies within different population of the same species. The water temperature significantly affects the periodicity and reproductive biology of mysids (Mauchline, 1980...

  12. JENIS, UKURAN DAN DAERAH PENANGKAPAN HIU THRESHER (FAMILI ALOPIIDAE YANG TERTANGKAP RAWAI TUNA DI SAMUDERA HINDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus Anung Widodo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai anggota Indian Ocean Tuna Commision (IOTC Indonesia wajib mengadopsi isi Resolusi IOTC 10/12 yang mengatur pengelolaan sumberdaya ikan hiu thresher (famili Alopiidae. Secara spesifik Indonesia belum melaksanakan pengelolaan sumberdaya hiu thresher karena spesies tersebut belum mendapatkan perhatian serius. Tulisan ini bermaksud menyampaikan hasil penelitian tentang ikan hiu thresher (Famili Alopiidae yang tertangkap rawai tuna di Samudera Hindia berbasis di Cilacap. Data diperoleh dari kegiatan pengambilan contoh di pelabuhan tahun 2010, kegiatan observasi di atas kapal rawai tuna bulan Januari 2010 dan laporan statistik PPS Cilacap tahun 2006-2010. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa: (a di perairan Indonesia ada dua spesies dari tiga spesies hiu thresher yang ada di dunia, yaitu hiu monyet atau pelagic thresher (Alopias pelagicus Nakamura 1935 dan hiu paitan atau bigeye thresher (A. superciliosus Lowe 1840. Satu spesies lainnya yang belum pernah ditemukan adalah thinfin thresher (A.vulpinus Bonnaterre1788.  Dilihat dari teknologi rawai tuna yang digunakan, daerah sebaran hiu thresher sama dengan tuna di Samudera Hindia, sehingga sulit untuk menghindari tidak tertangkapnya hiu thresher oleh rawai tuna. Jumlah dari jenis hiu monyet yang tertangkap rawai tuna di Samudera Hindia berkisar 0,1-0,6 % dan hiu paitan berkisar 0,1-1,3 % dari total tangkapan. Ukuran hiu thresher yang tertangkap rawai tuna umumnya ikan yang telah dewasa (berkisar 54-74% dan diduga telah mengalami pemijahan. Hampir semua bagian hiu thresher dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan pangan dan farmasi. Selain dipasarkan di dalam negeri, ikan hiu thresher juga diekspor terutama siripnya ke manca negara dan terbanyak ke China.   As a member of IOTC, Indonesia is obliged to implement all IOTC’s resolutions including resolution 10/12 on the conservation of thresher sharks (Family Alopiidae caught in association with fisheries in the IOTC area of competence. Indonsia has not

  13. Involvement of Acetobacter orientalis in the production of lactobionic acid in Caucasian yogurt ("Caspian Sea yogurt") in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, T; Kiso, T; Nakano, H; Ooe, K; Kimura, T; Murakami, H

    2009-01-01

    Lactobionic acid was first found in a Caucasian fermented milk product popularly known as "Caspian Sea yogurt" in Japan. The presence of lactobionic acid in the fermented milk was indicated by the results of both high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic analysis with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometric analysis. Thereafter, the acid was purified from the yogurt and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. A substantial amount of lactobionic acid was found to be accumulated in the upper layer of the yogurt, especially within 10 mm from the surface. A total of 45 mg of lactobionic acid per 100 g of the upper yogurt layer was collected after 4 d of fermentation. The annual intake of lactobionic acid in individuals consuming 100 g of the yogurt every day would be 0.5 to 1.0 g. A lactose-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from the fermented milk and was identified as Acetobacter orientalis. Washed A. orientalis cells oxidized monosaccharides such as d-glucose at considerable rates, although their activities for substrates such as lactose, maltose, and cellobiose were much lower. When A. orientalis cells were cultivated in cow's milk, they exhibited lactose-oxidizing activity, suggesting that this bacterium was the main organism involved in the production of lactobionic acid in the yogurt.

  14. Projections of climate-driven changes in tuna vertical habitat based on species-specific differences in blood oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislan, K A S; Deutsch, Curtis A; Brill, Richard W; Dunne, John P; Sarmiento, Jorge L

    2017-10-01

    Oxygen concentrations are hypothesized to decrease in many areas of the ocean as a result of anthropogenically driven climate change, resulting in habitat compression for pelagic animals. The oxygen partial pressure, pO 2 , at which blood is 50% saturated (P 50 ) is a measure of blood oxygen affinity and a gauge of the tolerance of animals for low ambient oxygen. Tuna species display a wide range of blood oxygen affinities (i.e., P 50 values) and therefore may be differentially impacted by habitat compression as they make extensive vertical movements to forage on subdaily time scales. To project the effects of end-of-the-century climate change on tuna habitat, we calculate tuna P 50 depths (i.e., the vertical position in the water column at which ambient pO 2 is equal to species-specific blood P 50 values) from 21st century Earth System Model (ESM) projections included in the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Overall, we project P 50 depths to shoal, indicating likely habitat compression for tuna species due to climate change. Tunas that will be most impacted by shoaling are Pacific and southern bluefin tunas-habitat compression is projected for the entire geographic range of Pacific bluefin tuna and for the spawning region of southern bluefin tuna. Vertical shifts in P 50 depths will potentially influence resource partitioning among Pacific bluefin, bigeye, yellowfin, and skipjack tunas in the northern subtropical and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, the Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal. By establishing linkages between tuna physiology and environmental conditions, we provide a mechanistic basis to project the effects of anthropogenic climate change on tuna habitats. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. KERAGAMAN PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT GEMPOL(Nauclea orientalis L. DARI BEBERAPA POHON INDUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawati Purwaka Putri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gempol (Nauclea orientalis L. is one of the fast growing species that potential to be developed in agroforestry system. These species used as wood production and also Jabon, which is the alternative for sengon wood. Gempol adapted growth at wet and drylands such as at riverbanks, rice fields and yards. The constrained of the development of community forests of gempol for high productivity is the availability of good quality seed sources. Seeds and seedlings are largely determined by the quality of the parent tree, hence the diversity of the mother plant will affect the seeds it produces. The purpose of this study was to determine the diversity of the growth of seedlings in the nursery gempol of 64 parent trees from Majalengka and Banten. The study design used was completely randomized design consisting of 64 trees parent gempol, with three replications and each replication consisted of six seedlings. The variables measured were the diameter and height of seedlings. The results showed that significantly affected the parent tree diameter and height of seedlings gempol. Growth in diameter is the best demonstrated by the parent tree 16 at 5.4 cm. The high growth (32.88 cm produced by seeds from the parent tree 10. Gempol (Nauclea orientalis L. merupakan salah satu tanaman cepat tumbuh yang potensial untuk dikembangkan dengan pola agroforestry.. Jenis tanaman ini dimanfaatkan khususnya masyarakat Jawa Barat sebagai pohon penghasil kayu pertukangan selain sengon dan jabon.Gempol mampu beradaptasi pada lahan basah maupun kering seperti di bantaran sungai, pematang sawah, tegalan dan pekarangan.  Pengembangan hutan rakyat gempol yang produktifitas tinggi terkendala ketersediaan sumber benih yang berkualitas. Benih dan bibit yang berkualitas sangat ditentukan oleh pohon induknya, oleh karena itu keragaman pada pohon induk akan berpengaruh terhadap bibit yang dihasilkannya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui keragaman pertumbuhan bibit gempol di

  16. Molecular detection and genetic diversity of bovine Babesia spp., Theileria orientalis, and Anaplasma marginale in beef cattle in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Efstratiou, Artemis; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2017-02-01

    Babesia spp., Theileria orientalis, and Anaplasma marginale are significant tick-borne pathogens that affect the health and productivity of cattle in tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we used PCR to detect the presence of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, and T. orientalis in 279 beef cattle from Western Thailand and A. marginale in 608 beef cattle from the north, northeastern, and western regions. The PCRs were performed using species-specific primers based on the B. bovis spherical body protein 2 (BboSBP2), B. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a (BbiRAP-1a), T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein (ToMPSP), and A. marginale major surface protein 4 (AmMSP4) genes. To determine the genetic diversity of the above parasites, amplicons of B. bovis and B. bigemina ITS1-5.8s rRNA gene-ITS2 regions (B. bovis ITS, B. bigemina ITS), ToMPSP, and AmMSP4 genes were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. PCR results revealed that the prevalence of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. orientalis, and A. marginale in the Western region was 11.1, 12.5, 7.8, and 39.1 %, respectively. Coinfections of two or three parasites were observed in 17.9 % of the animals sampled. The study revealed that the prevalence of A. marginale in the western region was higher than in the north and northeastern regions (7 %). Sequence analysis showed the BboSBP2 gene to be more conserved than B. bovis ITS in the different isolates and, similarly, the BbiRAP-1a was more conserved than B. bigemina ITS. In the phylogenetic analysis, T. orientalis MPSP sequences were classified into types 3, 5, and 7 as previously reported. A. marginale MSP4 gene sequences shared high identity and similarity with each other and clustered with isolates from other countries. This study provides information on the prevalence and genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens in beef cattle and highlights the need for effective strategies to control these pathogens in Thailand.

  17. Notes on helminth parasites of tuna fishes (Scombridae in Brazil Notas sobre los helmintos parásitos del atún (Scombridae en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Nascimento-Justo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Scombridae from the coast of Rio de Janeiro, southwest Atlantic Ocean were found to be parasitized with species of Didymozoidae (Digenea: Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson a new host record for Nephrodidymotrema ahi Yamaguti, 1970, Didymocystis neothunni (Yamaguti, 1970, and Didymozoon longicolle (Yamaguti, 1970; Thunnus obesus (Lowe parasitized by Didymozoon longicolle and reported as a new host for Nephrodidymotrema ahi; Thunnus albacares (Bonaterre parasitized by Nephrodidymotrema ahi, and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus by Didymozoon longicolle. Measurements, figures, and parameters of infection are presented.Cuatro especies de Scombridae de la costa de Río de Janeiro, suroeste del océano Atlántico, se reportan parasitados con diferentes especies de Didymozoidae (Digenea: Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson un registro de nuevo huésped para Nephrodidymotrema ahi Yamaguti, 1970, Didymocystis neothunni (Yamaguti, 1970 y para Didymozoon longicolle (Yamaguti, 1970; Thunnus obesus (Lowe parasitado por Didymozoon longicolle, se indica como nuevo huésped para Nephrodidymotrema ahi; Thunnus albacares (Bonaterre parasitados por Nephrodidymotrema ahi y Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus por Didymozoon longicolle. Se presentan las mediciones, las figuras y los parámetros de la infección.

  18. Mercury in canned tuna marketed in Cartagena, Colombia, and estimation of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcala-Orozco, Maria; Morillo-Garcia, Yenifer; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2017-12-01

    The presence of mercury in tuna is ubiquitous, so national authorities should guarantee food safety of canned tuna available on the market, according to legal regulations. The objective of this survey was to assess total mercury (T-Hg) levels in brands of canned tuna marketed in Cartagena, Colombia, and determine fish consumption-based risks after ingestion. For that purpose, 252 cans of tuna were collected, representing 6 brands (A-F), in 2 mediums (water and oil). Mean T-Hg levels were 0.66 ± 0.05 and 0.61 ± 0.05 µg g -1 wet weight, for water and oil, respectively. High T-Hg concentrations were measured in brands B and D. Only brands E and F guaranteed low risk for Hg-related health problems. According to Colombia's legislation, 15.5% of the samples exceeded the maximum level of 1.0 µg g -1 for mercury and 18.3% was higher than limits as recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organisation (0.5 µg g -1 ). It was concluded that consumption of canned tuna could represent a high risk for the Colombian population, particularly to vulnerable groups.

  19. Effects of frozen storage on survival of Staphylococcus aureus and enterotoxin production in precooked tuna meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xulei; Su, Yi-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in precooked tuna meat for producing canned products during frozen storage (-20 ± 2 °C) as well as its growth and enterotoxin production at 35 to 37 °C after the storage. Samples (50 ± 5 g) of precooked albacore (loin, chunk, and flake) and skipjack (chunk and flake) tuna were inoculated with 5 enterotoxin-producing strains of S. aureus at a level of approximately 3.5 log CFU/g and individually packed in a vacuum bag after 3 h incubation at 35 to 37 °C. Vacuum-packed samples were stored in a freezer (-20 ± 2 °C) for 4 wk. The frozen samples were then thawed in 37 °C circulating water for 2 h and incubated at 35 to 37 °C for 22 h. Populations of S. aureus in all precooked tuna samples decreased slightly (canned tuna within 6 to 8 h of thawing to avoid product spoilage and potential enterotoxin production by S. aureus in contaminated precooked tuna meat. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Modelling the spatial behaviour of a tropical tuna purse seine fleet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K Davies

    Full Text Available Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures.

  1. Génesis de la medicina familiar en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Rodríguez Peña

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación desde los presupuestos de la historia social integral, con el objetivo de analizar momentos importantes de la historia de la medicina familiar en la localidad de Las Tunas. Para la investigación se consultaron diversas fuentes documentales, orales, iconográficas, patrimoniales y bibliográficas, entre ellas la obra de los historiadores de la ciudad y del Ministerio de Salud Pública, así como resultados científicos de proyectos de investigación. Los métodos empleados partieron de la observación, el análisis histórico-lógico, la síntesis, la inducción y la deducción de la información, que permitieron la sistematización y determinación de los momentos más importantes de este proceso desde su origen en la comunidad primitiva, transitando por diferentes etapas hasta 1984, con la puesta en práctica del Programa del Médico y la Enfermera de la Familia, para el fortalecimiento de la atención primaria de salud, con marcado acento preventivo

  2. Genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jussila, Minna M.; Jurgens, German; Lindstroem, Kristina; Suominen, Leena

    2006-01-01

    A collection of 50 indigenous meta-toluate tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis on selective medium was characterized and identified by classical and molecular methods. 16S rDNA partial sequencing showed the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. Gram-positive Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter and gram-negative Pseudomonas were the most abundant genera. Only one-fifth of the strains that tolerated m-toluate also degraded m-toluate. The inoculum Pseudomonas putida PaW85 was not found in the rhizosphere samples. The ability to degrade m-toluate by the TOL plasmid was detected only in species of the genus Pseudomonas. However, a few Rhodococcus erythropolis strains were found which were able to degrade m-toluate. A new finding was that Pseudomonas migulae strains and a few P. oryzihabitans strains were able to grow on m-toluate and most likely contained the TOL plasmid. Because strain specific differences in degradation abilities were found for P. oryzihabitans, separation at the strain level was important. For strain specific separation (GTG) 5 fingerprinting was the best method. A combination of the single locus ribotyping and the whole genomic fingerprinting techniques with the selective partial sequencing formed a practical molecular toolbox for studying genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere. - Bacterial diversity during rhizoremediation in oil-contaminated soil is characterized by a combination of molecular methods

  3. Removal of Chloramphenicol from Aqueous Solution Using Low-Cost Activated Carbon Prepared from Typha orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost and efficient activated carbon (AC was prepared from Typha orientalis via phosphoric acid activation for chloramphenicol (CAP removal. The adsorption capacity and mechanisms of CAP on AC were investigated. The physicochemical properties of AC were characterized by an N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, elemental analysis, Boehm’s titration and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The effects of experimental parameters were investigated to study the adsorption behaviors of CAP on AC, including contact time, initial concentration, ionic strength, and initial pH. AC had a micro-mesoporous structure with a relatively large surface area (794.8 m2/g. The respective contents of acidic and basic functional groups on AC were 2.078 and 0.995 mmol/g. The adsorption kinetic that was well described by a pseudo-second-order rate model implied a chemical controlling step. The adsorption isotherm was well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model, and the maximum CAP adsorption capacity was 0.424 mmol/g. The ionic strength and pH had minimal effects on CAP adsorption. The dominant CAP adsorption mechanisms on AC were evaluated and attributed to π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA interaction, hydrophobic interaction, in conjunction with hydrogen-bonding interaction. Additionally, AC exhibited an efficient adsorption performance of CAP in a realistic water environment.

  4. Predicting Future Seed Sourcing of Platycladus orientalis (L. for Future Climates Using Climate Niche Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ge Hu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate niche modeling has been widely used to assess the impact of climate change on forest trees at the species level. However, geographically divergent tree populations are expected to respond differently to climate change. Considering intraspecific local adaptation in modeling species responses to climate change will thus improve the credibility and usefulness of climate niche models, particularly for genetic resources management. In this study, we used five Platycladus orientalis (L. seed zones (Northwestern; Northern; Central; Southern; and Subtropical covering the entire species range in China. A climate niche model was developed and used to project the suitable climatic conditions for each of the five seed zones for current and various future climate scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways: RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5. Our results indicated that the Subtropical seed zone would show consistent reduction for all climate change scenarios. The remaining seed zones, however, would experience various degrees of expansion in suitable habitat relative to their current geographic distributions. Most of the seed zones would gain suitable habitats at their northern distribution margins and higher latitudes. Thus, we recommend adjusting the current forest management strategies to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change.

  5. CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS IN A WILD FAR EASTERN LEOPARD ( PANTHERA PARDUS ORIENTALIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulikhan, Nadezhda S; Gilbert, Martin; Blidchenko, Ekaterina Yu; Naidenko, Sergei V; Ivanchuk, Galina V; Gorpenchenko, Tatiana Yu; Alshinetskiy, Mikhail V; Shevtsova, Elena I; Goodrich, John M; Lewis, John C M; Goncharuk, Mikhail S; Uphyrkina, Olga V; Rozhnov, Vyatcheslav V; Shedko, Sergey V; McAloose, Denise; Miquelle, Dale G

    2018-01-01

    The critically endangered population of Far Eastern leopards ( Panthera pardus orientalis) may number as few as 60 individuals and is at risk from stochastic processes such as infectious disease. During May 2015, a case of canine distemper virus (CDV) was diagnosed in a wild leopard exhibiting severe neurologic disease in the Russian territory of Primorskii Krai. Amplified sequences of the CDV hemagglutinin gene and phosphoprotein gene aligned within the Arctic-like clade of CDV, which includes viruses from elsewhere in Russia, China, Europe, and North America. Histologic examination of cerebral tissue revealed perivascular lymphoid cuffing and demyelination of the white matter consistent with CDV infection. Neutralizing antibodies against CDV were detected in archived serum from two wild Far Eastern leopards sampled during 1993-94, confirming previous exposure in the population. This leopard population is likely too small to maintain circulation of CDV, suggesting that infections arise from spillover from more-abundant domestic or wild carnivore reservoirs. Increasing the population size and establishment of additional populations of leopards would be important steps toward securing the future of this subspecies and reducing the risk posed by future outbreaks of CDV or other infectious diseases.

  6. Anti-Proliferative Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract on Human Endometrial RL-95 Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is a common malignancy of the female genital tract. This study demonstrates that Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE significantly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells. Treating RL95-2 cells with SOE caused cell arrest in the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis of RL95-2 cells by up-regulating Bad, Bak and Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. Treatment with SOE increased protein expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 dose-dependently, indicating that apoptosis was through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, SOE was also effective against A549 (lung cancer, Hep G2 (hepatoma, FaDu (pharynx squamous cancer, MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer, and especially on LNCaP (prostate cancer cell lines. In total, 10 constituents of SOE were identified by Gas chromatography-mass analysis. Caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene are largely responsible for most cytotoxic activity of SOE against RL95-2 cells. Overall, this study suggests that SOE is a promising anticancer agent for treating endometrial cancer.

  7. Heat inactivation kinetics of Hypocrea orientalis β-glucosidase with enhanced thermal stability by glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Qi; Shi, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Zhan, Xi-Lan; Zhou, Han-Tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2015-11-01

    Thermal inactivation kinetics of Hypocrea orientalis β-glucosidase and effect of glucose on thermostability of the enzyme have been determined in this paper. Kinetic studies showed that the thermal inactivation was irreversible and first-order reaction. The microscopic rate constants for inactivation of free enzyme and substrate-enzyme complex were both determined, which suggested that substrates can protect β-glucosidase against thermal deactivation effectively. On the other hand, glucose was found to protect β-glucosidase from heat inactivation to remain almost whole activity below 70°C at 20mM concentration, whereas the apparent inactivation rate of BG decreased to be 0.3×10(-3)s(-1) in the presence of 5mM glucose, smaller than that of sugar-free enzyme (1.91×10(-3)s(-1)). The intrinsic fluorescence spectra results showed that glucose also had stabilizing effect on the conformation of BG against thermal denaturation. Docking simulation depicted the interaction mode between glucose and active residues of the enzyme to produce stabilizing effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Leaching of Oil from Tuna Fish Liver by Using Solvent of Methyl-Ethyl Ketone

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    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of oil leaching from Tuna Fish Liver has been carried out by extracting of tuna fish liver in soxhlet by using methyl-ethyl ketone as solvent. Liver of fresh tuna fish is blended, put into soxhlet, and extracted at temperatures of 60oC, 65oC, 70oC, 75oC, and 80oC. After obtaining the oil, separation between solvent and oil is carried out by distillation. Oil obtained is analyzed by testing the yield, acid number, Iodine value, viscosity, and its impurities content. Yield obtained is influenced by temperature and time of leaching. Both variables indicates that the higher the variables, the more fish liver oil obtained. Maximum yield obtained is 25.552% at operating condition of leaching temperature 80oC, and leaching duration of 5 hours.

  9. Autolytic degradation of skipjack tuna during heating as affected by initial quality and processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Nicola J; Amato, Penny M; Giesbrecht, Francis; Lanier, Tyre C

    2012-02-01

    Several factors were studied as affecting protein degradation and texture of skipjack tuna muscle following ambient pressure thermal processing (precooking). These included degree of mushy tuna syndrome (MTS) evidenced in the raw meat, raw meat pH, abusive thawing/holding, and precooking temperature/time. Slurries and intact pieces from frozen skipjack tuna, either tempered for 2 h or thawed and held at 25 °C for 22 h (abusive treatment) were heated at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C for up to 2 h, and also at 90 °C for 1 h, with or without prior adjustment of pH to 5 or 7 to favor cathepsin or calpain activity, respectively. Proteolysis of precooked samples was monitored by Lowry assay and SDS-PAGE; cooked texture of intact meat was measured using a Kramer shear press and by sensory profile analysis. Proteolysis maximally occurred in slurries of skipjack tuna muscle that had been abusively stored (22 h at 25 °C) and adjusted to pH 5 prior to heating at 55 °C. Intact pieces of tuna abusively thawed/held for 22 h with subsequent heating at 55 °C also evidenced the most proteolysis and were the least firm in texture. Raw fish that evidenced higher severity of MTS when raw displayed higher levels of proteolysis prior to cooking, which were further increased after cooking at 55 °C. The kinetic data presented here can be used to optimize processing conditions for skipjack tuna canning to minimize textural degradation and optimize quality. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    OpenAIRE

    Ernani S. Sant’Anna; Luiz H. Beirão; Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi

    2004-01-01

    During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition...

  11. Synthesis of Monoacylglycerol Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Tuna Oil with Immobilized Lipase AK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawongrat, Ratchapol; Xu, Xuebing; H-Kittikun, Aran

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce monoacylglycerols (MAG) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), by glycerolysis of tuna oil with lipase AK from Pseudomonas fluorescence immobilized on Accurel EP-100 (IM-AK). tert...... on tuna oil. The temperature was controlled at 45 degrees C. Under these conditions, with a 24 h reaction, the yield of MAG was 24.6%, but containing 56.0 wt% PUFA (EPA and DHA). Stability of the IM-AK was also studied. The hydrolytic activity of the enzyme remained at 88% and 80% of initial activity...

  12. The concentration and variability of selenium and mercury measured in vacuum-packed tuna fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockman, J.D.; Sharp, N.; Ngwenyama, R.A.; Shelnutt, L.D.; McElroy, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Methylmercury (meHg) is a known toxin commonly found in fish. Fish is also a rich source of the trace nutrient selenium which has been hypothesized to modify the toxicity of meHg. We analyzed 28 samples of commercially packaged albacore and light tuna fish for selenium and mercury using standard comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis. Significant differences in the concentration of mercury and selenium were associated with the type of fish, brand and batch. Fish consumers should vary the brand of tuna fish to avoid routine consumption of a brand high in mercury. (author)

  13. Developing high throughput quantitative PCR assays for diagnosing Ikeda and other Theileria orientalis types common to New Zealand in bovine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Gias, E; Bueno, I M; McFadden, Amj

    2016-01-01

    To develop rapid, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis and type-specific TaqMan assays for identifying the prevalent types of Theileria orientalis found in New Zealand cattle; and to evaluate their analytical and diagnostic characteristics compared with other assays for T. orientalis. Nucleotide sequences aligned with T. orientalis Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda types, obtained from DNA extracted from blood samples from infected cattle, were used to design HRM and type-specific probe-based qPCR assays. The three type-specific assays were also incorporated into a single-tube multiplex qPCR assay. These assays were validated using DNA extracted from blood samples from cattle in herds with or without clinical signs of T. orientalis infection, other veterinary laboratory samples, as well as plasmids containing T. orientalis type-specific sequences. Diagnostic specificity (DSp) and sensitivity (DSe) estimates for the qPCR assays were compared to blood smear piroplasm results, and other PCR assays for T. orientalis. Copy number estimates of Ikeda DNA in blood were determined from cattle exhibiting anaemia using the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay. The T. orientalis type-specific and the HRM qPCR assays displayed 100% analytical specificity. The Ikeda-specific qPCR assay exhibited linearity (R(2) = 0.997) with an efficiency of 94.3%. Intra-assay CV were ≤0.08 and inter-assay CV were ≤0.095. For blood samples from cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis, the DSp and DSe of the multiplex probe qPCR assay were 93 and 96%, respectively compared with blood smears, and 97 and 100%, respectively compared with conventional PCR assays. For the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay, the number of positive samples (n=66) was slightly higher than a conventional PCR assay (n=64). The concentration of Ikeda genomes in blood samples from 41 dairy cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis ranged between 5.6 × 10(4) and 3.3 × 10(6) genomes per

  14. Cluster analysis of the clinical histories of cattle affected with bovine anaemia associated with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Forsyth, S F; Vaatstra, B L; McFadden, Amj; Pulford, D J; Govindaraju, K; Pomroy, W E

    2017-11-01

    AIM To determine the most commonly used words in the clinical histories of animals naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type; whether these words differed between cases categorised by age, farm type or haematocrit (HCT), and if there was any clustering of the common words in relation to these categories. METHODS Clinical histories were transcribed for 605 cases of bovine anaemia associated with T. orientalis (TABA), that were submitted to laboratories with blood samples which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type infection by PCR analysis, between October 2012 and November 2014. χ 2 tests were used to determine whether the proportion of submissions for each word was similar across the categories of HCT (normal, moderate anaemia or severe anaemia), farm type (dairy or beef) and age (young or old). Correspondence analysis (CA) was carried out on a contingency table of the frequency of the 28 most commonly used history words, cross-tabulated by age categories (young, old or unknown). Agglomerative hierarchical clustering, using Ward's method, was then performed on the coordinates from the correspondence analysis. RESULTS The six most commonly used history words were jaundice (204/605), lethargic (162/605), pale mucous membranes (161/605), cow (151/605), anaemia (147/605), and off milk (115/605). The proportion of cases with some history words differed between categories of age, farm type and HCT. The cluster analysis indicated that the recorded history words were grouped in two main clusters. The first included the words weight loss, tachycardia, pale mucous membranes, anaemia, lethargic and thin, and was associated with adult (pcluster included the words deaths, ill-thrift, calves, calf and diarrhoea, and was associated with young (pCluster analysis of words recorded in clinical histories submitted with blood samples from cases of TABA indicates that two potentially different disease syndromes were associated with T. orientalis Ikeda type

  15. A comparative study of thermal calcination and an alkaline hydrolysis method in the isolation of hydroxyapatite from Thunnus obesus bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Ryu, BoMi; Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se Kwon; Qian Zhongji

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) was isolated from Thunnus obesus bone using alkaline hydrolysis and thermal calcination methods. The obtained ceramic has been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction analysis, cytotoxic analysis and cell proliferation analysis. The results indicate that there are significant differences between the ceramics and T. obesus bone. FT-IR and TGA results affirmed that the collagen and organic moieties have been eliminated by both the proposed methods. XRD results were in agreement with JCPDS data. TEM and selective area diffraction images have signified that the thermal calcination method produces good crystallinity with dimensions 0.3-1.0 μm, whereas the alkaline hydrolysis method produces nanostructured HAp crystals with 17-71 nm length and 5-10 nm width. Biocompatibility of HAp crystals was evaluated by cytotoxicity and cell proliferation with human osteoblast-like cell MG-63.

  16. A comparative study of thermal calcination and an alkaline hydrolysis method in the isolation of hydroxyapatite from Thunnus obesus bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Ryu, BoMi; Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se Kwon [Department of Chemistry, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Qian Zhongji, E-mail: sknkim@pknu.ac.kr [Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) was isolated from Thunnus obesus bone using alkaline hydrolysis and thermal calcination methods. The obtained ceramic has been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction analysis, cytotoxic analysis and cell proliferation analysis. The results indicate that there are significant differences between the ceramics and T. obesus bone. FT-IR and TGA results affirmed that the collagen and organic moieties have been eliminated by both the proposed methods. XRD results were in agreement with JCPDS data. TEM and selective area diffraction images have signified that the thermal calcination method produces good crystallinity with dimensions 0.3-1.0 {mu}m, whereas the alkaline hydrolysis method produces nanostructured HAp crystals with 17-71 nm length and 5-10 nm width. Biocompatibility of HAp crystals was evaluated by cytotoxicity and cell proliferation with human osteoblast-like cell MG-63.

  17. Genotype and Phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus Derived from Wild Sheep (Ovis orientalis) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ali; Meshgi, Behnam; Jalousian, Fatemeh; Rahmani, Shima; Salari, Mohammad Ali

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the characteristics of genotype and phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus derived from wild sheep and to compare them with the strains of E. granulosus sensu stricto (sheep-dog) and E. granulosus camel strain (camel-dog) in Iran. In Khojir National Park, near Tehran, Iran, a fertile hydatid cyst was recently found in the liver of a dead wild sheep (Ovis orientalis). The number of protoscolices (n=6,000) proved enough for an experimental infection in a dog. The characteristics of large and small hooks of metacestode were statistically determined as the sensu stricto strain but not the camel strain (P=0.5). To determine E. granulosus genotype, 20 adult worms of this type were collected from the infected dog. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 subunit (COX1) of the mitochondrial DNA were amplified from individual adult worm by PCR. Subsequently, the PCR product was sequenced by Sanger method. The lengths of ITS2 and COX1 sequences were 378 and 857 bp, respectively, for all the sequenced samples. The amplified DNA sequences from both ribosomal and mitochondrial genes were highly similar (99% and 98%, respectively) to that of the ovine strain in the GenBank database. The results of the present study indicate that the morpho-molecular features and characteristics of E. granulosus in the Iranian wild sheep are the same as those of the sheep-dog E. granulosus sensu stricto strain.

  18. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ORIENTAL SPRUCE (PICEA ORIENTALIS ECOSYSTEMS IN EASTERN BLACKSEA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Tüfekçioğlu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has been getting more attention from scientific community recently. Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey will get significant influences from the climate change according to regional climate model (RegCM3. Oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L. is an important tree species of Turkey and it only grows in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. With the increase in global warming, spruce forests started to have serious bark beetle problems. More than 200 000 trees died in the region recently due to bark beetle attack. We used existing literature related to oriental spruce and future climate of the region and field observations done in the different times to assess current status of the spruce stands. Future climate of the region has been predicted using RegCM3 regional climate model. Climate change could significantly influence distribution, diversity, structure and stability of the oriental spruce ecosystems. According to RegCM3 regional climate model, the temperatures will increase 2-4 °C in the region in the next century. Future climate scenarios predict 200-300 mm increases in precipitation in the eastern part of the region while the western part won't have any increase in precipitation in the next century. Temperature increases in the western part of the region can cause more stress on spruce trees and would probably increase bark beetle attacks. Also, fire could become an important threat in the western part of the region. It is possible to observe 400-800 m upward shift in the spruce belt in the western part. Treeline of spruce stands would probably move upward both in western and eastern part of the North-eastern Blacksea Region.

  19. MUTU FISIK, FISIOLOGIS, DAN KANDUNGAN BIOKIMIA BENIH TREMA (Trema orientalis Linn. Blume BERDASARAN TINGKAT KEMASAKAN BUAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naning Yuniarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trema (Trema orientalis Linn. Blume merupakan tanaman serba guna karena semua bagian pohon dapat digunakan. Dalam pengembangan tanaman ini, diperlukan benih bermutu, dimana salah satu syarat untuk menentukan benih bermutu adalah benih harus berasal dari buah yang sudah masak fisiologis. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui mutu fisik, mutu fisiologis, dan kandungan biokimia (lemak, karbohidrat dan protein benih trema berdasarkan tingkat kemasakan buah. Benih trema yang digunakan berasal dari Badung, Bali. Buah trema dikelompokkan menjadi 3 warna (hijau, coklat, hitam. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan parameter yang diamati : ukuran buah dan benih, berat buah dan benih, kadar air buah dan benih, kandungan biokimia (protein, lemak, karbohidrat, daya berkecambah, dan kecepatan berkecambah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan : (1 Tingkat kemasakan buah berpengaruh nyata terhadap mutu fisik (ukuran buah dan benih, berat buah dan benih, kadar air buah dan benih, fisiologis (daya berkecambah, kecepatan berkecambah, dan kandungan biokimia (lemak, karbohidrat, protein benih trema, (2 Mutu fisik dan fisiologis benih yang berasal dari buah yang berwarna hitam lebih baik dibandingkan dengan buah berwarna hijau dan coklat, (3 Kandungan lemak, karbohidrat dan protein benih trema berbeda dari masing-masing tingkat kemasakan (hijau, coklat, hitam, (4 Buah trema yang sudah mencapai masak fisiologis adalah buah berwarna hitam, dengan kriteria yaitu : panjang buah 3,87 ± 0,05 mm dan lebar 3,41 ± 0,02 mm; panjang benih 2,10 ± 0,05 mm dan lebar 1,81 ± 0,06 mm; berat 1000 butir buah 25,6883 gr; berat 1000 butir benih 3,8288 gr; kadar air buah 54,74%; kadar air benih 12,03%; daya berkecambah 78%; kecepatan berkecambah 3,05%/Etmal; kandungan karbohidrat 20,10%; kandungan protein 2,84%; kandungan lemak 0,65%.

  20. Identifying ecological corridors for Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V

    2015-07-01

    The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Cloisonné kidney in mouflon sheep (Ovis orientalis musimon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervás, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a case of cloisonné kidney associated with infection by Babesia ovis in a wild mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimonj found dead in year in eastern Sierra Morena (Andalusia, Spain. The major macroscopic lesions were a icteric coloration in ocular and oral mucosa, and b dark metal coloration on the kidneys' external surface. Intense dark coloration alternating with intense greyish strips was observed on renal cortex sections. Blood samples were collected for haematological and parasitological analyses, as well as samples from various organs for histopathological examination. Infection by B. ovis was confirmed by using the Polymerase Chain Reaction test (PCR. Histopathological examination revealed tubulonephrosis associated with thickening of the basal membrane of the convoluted portions of the renal tubules (both proximal and distal, which took on an intense brownish pigmentation. These renal lesions have been described as "cloisonné" kidney. Cloisonné kidneys show uncommon coloring of the renal tubular system, associated with ferritin and hemosiderin deposits in these structures resulting from a chronic hemolitic process (hemoparasites, toxins, etc.. In our case, hemolitic phenomena are associated with infection by B. ovis. The seroprevalence of this hemoparasite in wild mouflon populations in other regions of Spain (Catalonia is up to 15%.

    [fr]
    Nous étudions un cas de rein cloisonné associé à l'infection par Babesia ovis sur un mouflon sauvage (Ovis orientalis musimon qui a été trouvé la même année dans la partie orientale de la Sierra Morena (Andalousie, Espagne. Les principales lésions macroscopiques étaient: a coloration ictérique sur les muqueuses oculaire et orale, et b coloration métallique foncée sur la partie extérieure du rein. Cette coloration foncée intense alternait avec des bandes grisâtres dans les sections du cortex rénal. Nous avons pris

  2. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani S. Sant’Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition of 2 and 4 % of glucose, respectively. The dark tuna meat was inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB and fermented at 10 °C for 30 days. The fermentation process was monitored through bacteriological and chemical analyses, when an increase of acidity and the corresponding decrease of pH were observed due to the prevalence of LAB. Sensorial analysis, using a test of multiple comparison, was carried out with pastes of fermented dark tuna meat and presented a significant difference when compared to the paste control, indicating the reduction of bitter taste.

  3. Microbiological quality and safety of Skipjack tuna loins (Katsuwonus Pelamis intented for canning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuna is a food widely consumed fresh and canned as well. After catching and filleting, a pre-cooking step is normally followed by freezing and shipping to canning industry as loins. The aim of this paper was to assess the microbiological quality and safety of tuna loins (50 samples imported by an Italian canned tuna producer from two different FAO fishing areas. Total bacterial count (TBC, Coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, pH measurement, S. aureus enterotoxin and histamine levels were evaluated. Significant differences were evidenced for TBC, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Coliforms and pH between fishing areas. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in all the samples tested at 1 to 3 Log cfu/g; Staphylococcus warneri, S. saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. intermedius, S. vitulinus and S. sciuri were also identified. Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin were not detected. Histamine ranged between 0 to 5 mg/kg. The tuna loins analysed in this paper have to be considered safe; staphylococci presence represents a possible concern and has to been taken in account when risk analysis is carried out.

  4. Gender Transformations and Colonial Displacements in Laura Antillano's "Tuna de mar"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alana

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the trajectories of two characters in Laura Antillano's short story, "Tuna de mar" (1991), as they navigate interrelated systems of power and attempt to position themselves closer to, or further away from, the margins. Set in the late eighteenth century, the tale features a female protagonist who escapes prostitution…

  5. Nisin Migration in Shelf Stable, Tuna-Filled Tortillas During Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-22

    INGREDIENTS AND PROCESSING ..........................................................................4 2.4 TUNA WRAP STORAGE...Leung, 1986 and Taub, 2003), meat (Pavey, 1972; Powers, 1981; Yang, 1997 and Richardson, 1995), seafood (Dymsza, 1979), eggs (Richardson, 2008 and...Incorporation of Preservatives, such as nitrites and antioxidants. (4) Thermal pasteurization by baking. (5) Appropriate Packaging, such as the

  6. 77 FR 19175 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quota Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file... active member of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), the United States implements binding ICCAT recommendations to comply with this international treaty. ATCA authorizes...

  7. 78 FR 2273 - Canned Tuna Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... introduces or causes the introduction of one or more of the test products into interstate commerce, but not... permit covers limited interstate marketing tests of products identified as ``no drain canned tuna... permit provides for the temporary marketing of a total 533,333 cases of 12 x 4 ounce cans (totaling 6.4...

  8. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (Makaira nigricans (blue marlin).

  9. CONCENTRATION AND RECOVERY OF PROTEIN FROM TUNA COOKING JUICE BY FORWARD OSMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHONGNAKORN W.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuna cooking processing plants generate large amount of cooking juice containing a significant content of protein. Recovery and concentrating process of this valuable compound together with a low energy consumption process are of interest regarding full utilization concept and green process approach. Forward osmosis (FO was employed in this work to recover and concentrate tuna cooking juice. FO process could increase the protein concentration up to 9% with an average permeate flux of 2.54 L/m2h. The permeate flux however tended to decrease as protein concentration increased due to the impact of osmotic pressure of the feed and fouling on the membrane surface. Since tuna cooking juice consists of protein and minerals, membrane analyses indicated that fouling was more severe compared to the fouling caused by standard bovine serum albumin pure protein. However, the presence of minerals rendered it a quicker and lower energy process by comparison. These results indicated that FO is a promising technique in the recovery and concentration of tuna cooking juice protein.

  10. V ITER chrání zimu tuna stříbra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řípa, Milan

    Říjen (2016) ISSN 2464-7888 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * tokamak * ITER * thermal shield * silver * superconductivity Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.3pol.cz/cz/rubriky/jaderna-fyzika-a-energetika/1922-v-iter-chrani-zimu-tuna-stribra

  11. 77 FR 21015 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 [Docket No. 110210132-1275-02] RIN 0648-XB116 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... to their ability to attract customers. In addition, 2011 Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate...

  12. 78 FR 20258 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 [Docket No. 120306154-2241-02] RIN 0648-XC593 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... retention limit is vital to their ability to attract customers. In addition, 2012 Large Pelagics Survey...

  13. 76 FR 18416 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 [Docket No. 100317152-0176-01] RIN 0648-XA327 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY... ability to attract customers. In addition, recent Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate that charter...

  14. Closing the Incentive Gap: The Role of Public and Private Actors in Governing Indonesia's Tuna Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, M.L.; Miller, A.M.M.; Bush, S.R.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Wiryawan, B.

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the world's largest tuna producing countries, yet regulatory oversight remains weak and management is poor. Incentive-based approaches are a way to improve state-based resource management, but they often require strong government regulation. In this paper, we use principal–agent

  15. Quantitative analysis on dose to humans as a result of consuming tuna fish contaminated by cesium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khani, J.; Donev, J.M.K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative empirical data is presented on the dose exposure to North Americans consuming tuna fish that have accumulated concentrations of radioactive isotopes. The two particular radioactive isotopes of interest are cesium-137 and cesium-134. Though biological effects of radiation are a widely debatable topic, the consumption of tuna fish does not support significant increased risk of cancer to humans. An important comparison is made between the elevated levels of radioactive cesium concentrations to naturally occurring radionuclides, namely potassium-40 and polonium-210. It is calculated that naturally occurring radioactive isotopes are in the orders of magnitude greater than the cesium radionuclides in tuna fish. (author)

  16. Quantitative analysis on dose to humans as a result of consuming tuna fish contaminated by cesium radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khani, J.; Donev, J.M.K.C., E-mail: jykhani@ucalgary.ca, E-mail: jason.donev@ucalgary.ca [Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative empirical data is presented on the dose exposure to North Americans consuming tuna fish that have accumulated concentrations of radioactive isotopes. The two particular radioactive isotopes of interest are cesium-137 and cesium-134. Though biological effects of radiation are a widely debatable topic, the consumption of tuna fish does not support significant increased risk of cancer to humans. An important comparison is made between the elevated levels of radioactive cesium concentrations to naturally occurring radionuclides, namely potassium-40 and polonium-210. It is calculated that naturally occurring radioactive isotopes are in the orders of magnitude greater than the cesium radionuclides in tuna fish. (author)

  17. HASIL TANGKAP SAMPINGAN (HTS KAPAL RAWAI TUNA DI SAMUDERA HINDIA YANG BERBASIS DI BENOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Setyadji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hasil tangkap sampingan (HTS hampir terdapat pada semua jenis perikanan tangkap di Indonesia, termasuk pada perikanan rawai tuna di Samudera Hindia. Kebanyakan jenis HTS merupakan spesies yang tidak diinginkan atau jenis ikan target tapi ukurannya di bawah standar yang diinginkan (yuwana atau ikan muda dan pada kasus tertentu merupakan jenis ikan yang terancam keberadaannya (Endangered species. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi tentang komposisi hasil tangkap sampingan, laju pancing dan hubungan antara tuna dengan ikan yang berasosiasi dengannya pada area penangkapan yang sama. Pengamatan dilakukan pada bulan Maret – Juli 2010 dengan mengikuti kegiatan operasi penangkapan 2 kapal rawai tuna komersial yang berbasis di Pelabuhan Benoa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat 18 jenis hasil tangkap sampingan yang  didominasi dari family Alepisauridae; ikan naga (Alepisaurus sp.; Gempylidae; ikan gindara (oilfish, dan Dasyatidae; pari lumpur (Dasyatis spp.. Jenis ikan lain adalah ikan paruh panjang (billfish, berbagai jenis cucut dan pari, ikan teleostei, serta penyu lekang. Kebanyakan dari hasil tangkap sampingan merupakan by-product yang mempunyai nilai ekonomis tinggi kecuali jenis ikan naga dan pari lumpur yang merupakan discard/buangan.   By-catch products are mostly available in every kind of capture fisheries in Indonesia including tuna longline fisheries in Indian Ocean. Most of these are unwanted species or juvenile target fish, sometimes endangered species. The research intended to reveal the by-catch from tuna fisheries and its relationship between tuna and its associate in the same fishing ground. Surveillance was conducted on March – July, 2010 by following two commercial tuna longliners vessel based in Port of Benoa. The result showed that there were 18 by-catch species that managed to be retrieved and indentified, family Alepisauridae; lancetfish (Alepisaurus sp.; Gempylidae; oilfish (Ruvettus pretiosus, and

  18. La flexión de la notocorda en larvas de atún rojo, Thunnus thynnus (L, 1758) cultivadas a diferentes temperaturas

    OpenAIRE

    de-la-Gándara, F. (Fernando); Ortega-García, A. (Aurelio); Blanco, E. (Edurne); Viguri, F.J. (Francisco Javier); Reglero, P. (Patricia)

    2013-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el desarrollo ontogénico de las larvas de atún rojo, Thunnus thynnus, especialmente el momento de la flexión de la notocorda y su relación con la temperatura. El cultivo larvario se ha realizado en tanques replicados en un medio controlado. Los resultados contribuyen a mejorar el conocimiento existente sobre el desarrollo larvario del atún rojo en la naturaleza. Este trabajo se ha realizado en el marco del proyecto ATAME-IEO (Plan Nacional de I+D+i 2008-2011).

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, Ashok D.; Dickhut, Rebecca M.; Dockum, Bruce W.; Brill, Richard W.; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6 years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  20. Visualizing the Food-Web Effects of Fishing for Tunas in the Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson T. Hinke

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We use food-web models to develop visualizations to compare and evaluate the interactions of tuna fisheries with their supporting food webs in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP and the central north Pacific (CNP Oceans. In the ETP and CNP models, individual fisheries use slightly different food webs that are defined by the assemblage of targeted tuna species. Distinct energy pathways are required to support different tuna species and, consequently, the specific fisheries that target different tuna assemblages. These simulations suggest that catches of tunas, sharks, and billfishes have lowered the biomass of the upper trophic levels in both systems, whereas increases in intermediate and lower trophic level animals have accompanied the decline of top predators. Trade-offs between fishing and predation mortality rates that occur when multiple fisheries interact with their respective food webs may lead to smaller changes in biomass than if only the effect of a single fishery is considered. Historical simulations and hypothetical management scenarios further demonstrate that the effects of longline and purse seine fisheries have been strongest in upper trophic levels, but that lower trophic levels may respond more strongly to purse-seine fisheries. The apex predator guild has responded most strongly to longlining. Simulations of alternative management strategies that attempt to rebuild shark and billfish populations in each ecosystem reveal that (1 changes in longlining more effectively recover top predator populations than do changes in purse seining and (2 restrictions on both shallow-set longline gear and shark finning may do more to recover top predators than do simple reductions in fishing effort.

  1. Assessment of DNA quality in processed tuna muscle tissues

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    Zora Piskatá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Authentication of tuna fish products is necessary to assure consumers of accurate labelling of food products. The quality of species specific DNA crucially affects the efficiency of amplification during the subsequent PCR. The problem in DNA detection in canned products lies in the possibility of the fragmentation of DNA during the processing technologies and the use of ingredients (oil, salt, spice, that may inhibit the PCR reaction. In this study three DNA extraction methods were compared: DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit, DNeasy mericon Food Kit and Chemagic DNA tissue 10 Kit. The quantity and quality of DNA were evaluated by measuring DNA concentration and ratios A260/A280. Several parameters were estimated: the effect of whole and mechanically treated muscle, sterilization procedure used in canned process (high temperature in combination with high pressure and addition of raw materials. The highest DNA concentrations were observed in non-processed muscle that is not influenced by the sterilization process. Canned whole muscle demonstrated lower DNA yield, and furthermore, the mechanical treatment (canned ground resulted in lower values of DNA concentration that was registered by using all three types of DNA extraction kits. DNeasy mericon Food Kit produced DNA of higher concentration in non-processed sample, Chemagic DNA tissue 10 Kit delivered higher DNA yields than kits DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit and DNeasy mericon Food Kit in canned samples, although the purity was lower, but still within the range 1.7 - 2.0. DNA was considered to be satisfactorily pure in all three types of samples and using all three types of DNA isolation. In case of the samples enriched of ingredients and treated with sterilization process as whole or ground muscle Chemagic DNA tissue 10 Kit produced in all samples (whole and ground muscle the highest values of DNA concentration, but almost all values of A260/A280 were lower than 1.7. Therefore DNeasy mericon Food Kit

  2. Reproductive biology and seasonality of the Indo-Australasian mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Crustacea: Mysida) in a tropical mangrove estuary, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanamura, Yukio; Siow, Ryon; Chee, Phaik-Ean

    2008-04-01

    A year-round survey of the tropical shallow-water mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Tattersall, 1908) (Crustacea, Mysidacea) was conducted in the Merbok mangrove estuary, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. The mysid formed dense aggregations at the river's edge close to the mangrove forest during the daytime, but very few were captured elsewhere in the estuary system. The sampled population was found in a wide range of salinities from 16 to 32, demonstrating broad euryhalinity, and the number of the catch at the littoral zone ranged from 11.8 to 2273 ind m -2. The overall annual mean was 709.2 ind m -2. Females predominated over males in the entire population, and brooding females were present at every monthly sample, indicating that reproduction is continuous year round. The clutch size positively correlated with female body length. The diameter of eggs (Stage I embryos) was unaffected by the seasonality and independent of the maternal size within an observed size range. The life history pattern of the estuarine population of M. orientalis showed close similarity to that of the coastal counterpart. However, the former was found to produce fewer but larger eggs, and the specimens in this population were larger than those in the coastal population at the embryo, juvenile, and adult stages. This evidence indicates that the life history features of the estuarine population would differ to some degree from those of the coastal counterpart.

  3. Floral nectar production and carbohydrate composition and the structure of receptacular nectaries in the invasive plant Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisow, Bożena; Masierowska, Marzena; Antoń, Sebastian

    2016-11-01

    The data relating to the nectaries and nectar secretion in invasive Brassicacean taxa are scarce. In the present paper, the nectar production and nectar carbohydrate composition as well as the morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure of the floral nectaries in Bunias orientalis were investigated. Nectary glands were examined using light, fluorescence, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The quantities of nectar produced by flowers and total sugar mass in nectar were relatively low. Total nectar carbohydrate production per 10 flowers averaged 0.3 mg. Nectar contained exclusively glucose (G) and fructose (F) with overall G/F ratio greater than 1. The flowers of B. orientalis have four nectaries placed at the base of the ovary. The nectarium is intermediate between two nectary types: the lateral and median nectary type (lateral and median glands stay separated) and the annular nectary type (both nectaries are united into one). Both pairs of glands represent photosynthetic type and consist of epidermis and glandular tissue. However, they differ in their shape, size, secretory activity, dimensions of epidermal and parenchyma cells, thickness of secretory parenchyma, phloem supply, presence of modified stomata and cuticle ornamentation. The cells of nectaries contain dense cytoplasm, plastids with starch grains and numerous mitochondria. Companion cells of phloem lack cell wall ingrowths. The ultrastructure of secretory cells indicates an eccrine mechanism of secretion. Nectar is exuded throughout modified stomata.

  4. Antioxidant and glucose metabolizing potential of edible insect, Brachytrupes orientalis via modulating Nrf2/AMPK/GLUT4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prachurjya; Dey, Tapan; Dihingia, Anjum; Manna, Prasenjit; Kalita, Jatin

    2017-11-01

    Brachytrupes orientalis (Gryllidae) is a common edible insect species eaten by the different tribes of North East India. This study investigated the potentiality of Brachytrupes orientalis extracts in different solvent hydro-alcoholic (AEBO), hexane (HEBO) and ethyl acetate (EEBO) on glucose utilization and cell viability in high glucose (HG) treated myotubes. It has been observed that AEBO supplementation significantly increased the glucose utilization against HG exposure; however, treatment HEBO and EEBO have no significant effect. AEBO also increased the intercellular glucose-6-phosphate level and the protein expression of both phospho-AMPK and GLUT4 in HG treated myotubes in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, supplementation with AEBO decreased the intercellular ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and up-regulated the protein expression of Nrf2 and GST. Chromatography and Spectroscopic analyses of AEBO also suggest that Ursolic acid may be one of the bioactive principles with rich potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF SUBSTANCES WITH REDUCTION POTENTIAL AT LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA, PICEA ABIES (L. KARST. AND THUJA ORIENTALIS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Anca Ieremia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica, Picea abies (L. Karst and Thuja orientalis L. The treatment was applied in one variant, germinated seeds in ascorbic acid, riboflavin, citric acid and sodium bisulphit in 3 concentrations.

  6. Del cultivo basado en capturas, a la acuicultura independiente y la domesticación del atún rojo, Thunnus thynnus. Principales resultados, conclusiones y recomendaciones del Proyecto SELFDOTT

    OpenAIRE

    de-la-Gándara, F. (Fernando)

    2012-01-01

    Principales resultados, conclusiones y recomendaciones del Proyecto SELFDOTT (Del cultivo basado en capturas, a la acuicultura independiente y la domesticación del atún rojo, Thunnus thynnus.) Comisión Europea 7º PM (KBBE-2007-1-2-09 Cooperation Work Programme: Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, and Biotechnology), Versión de editor 0

  7. Unexpected presence of Fagus orientalis complex in Italy as inferred from 45,000-year-old DNA pollen samples from Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffetti, Donatella; Vettori, Cristina; Caramelli, David; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Paganelli, Arturo; Paule, Ladislav; Giannini, Raffaello

    2007-08-16

    Phylogeographic analyses on the Western Euroasiatic Fagus taxa (F. orientalis, F. sylvatica, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) is available, however, the subdivision of Fagus spp. is unresolved and there is no consensus on the phylogeny and on the identification (both with morphological than molecular markers) of Fagus Eurasiatic taxa. For the first time molecular analyses of ancient pollen, dated at least 45,000 years ago, were used in combination with the phylogeny analysis on current species, to identify the Fagus spp. present during the Last Interglacial period in Italy. In this work we aim at testing if the trnL-trnF chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) region, that has been previously proved efficient in discriminating different Quercus taxa, can be employed in distinguishing the Fagus species and in identifying the ancient pollen. 86 populations from 4 Western Euroasistic taxa were sampled, and sequenced for the trnL-trnF region to verify the efficiency of this cpDNA region in identifying the Fagus spp.. Furthermore, Fagus crenata (2 populations), Fagus grandifolia (2 populations), Fagus japonica, Fagus hayatae, Quercus species and Castanea species were analysed to better resolve the phylogenetic inference. Our results show that this cpDNA region harbour some informative sites that allow to infer relationships among the species within the Fagaceae family. In particular, few specific and fixed mutations were able to discriminate and identify all the different Fagus species. Considering a short fragment of 176 base pairs within the trnL intron, 2 transversions were found able in distinguishing the F. orientalis complex taxa (F. orientalis, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) from the remaining Fagus spp. (F. sylvatica, F. japonica, F. hayataea, F. crenata and F. grandifolia). This permits to analyse this fragment also in ancient samples, where DNA is usually highly degraded. The sequences data indicate that the DNA recovered from ancient pollen belongs to the F. orientalis complex since

  8. Source identification of heavy metals in atmospheric dust using Platanus orientalis L. leaves as bioindicator

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    Samira Norouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on atmospheric dust have been limited by the high cost of instrumental monitoring methods and also sampling difficulties. The use of organisms acting as bioaccumulators has recently been proposed. In this study, the leaves of Platanus orientalis L., as a possible biomonitor of heavy metals in atmospheric dust, were evaluated to understand the likely source(s of pollution in Isfahan, Iran. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Ni and Mn and Magnetic susceptibility (χlf were determined in washed (WL and unwashed leaves (UL, monthly sampled from May to Nov., 2012. By subtracting the amount of metal concentrations and χlf in UL and WL, the amount of these parameters in dust deposited on the leaves (UL-WL were calculated. Enrichment factor analysis (EF, correlation coeficient, principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA on the UL-WL data were employed to trace the heavy metals sources. Results showed that the metal concentration in UL and WL in primary sampling times was not statistically different. As time passed, this difference became more noticeable. Seasonal accumulation trends of elements concentration in UL-WL, referred to as accumulative biomonitors showing the accumulation of dust on the leaves are considerable and the contamination of plants by metal occurs mainly by retention of particulate matter. All the heavy metals are well correlated with χlf, indicating the potential of magnetic measurement as an inexpensive and less laborious method to estimate heavy metals. Cu and Zn exhibited a very strong correlation with each other and the highest correlation with χlf, suggesting an anthropogenic nature of these two metals. High EF of Cu and Zn showed that anthropogenic sources contribute a substantial amount of these metals to dust deposited on leaves. Whereas, less EF for Mn and Ni shows that natural source and local polluted soils might be the main origins of these metals. PCA results showed 2 principal components. Factor 1 with

  9. Effects of odors on behaviors of captive Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis

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    Shangying YU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Captive environments often fail to resemble the wild environment in respects of limited space, unchanging habitat, lack of stimulus and contingency. Common animal welfare problems which occur in captive animals include low behavioral diversity, abnormal behavior and excessive inactivity. Environmental enrichment, as an effective strategy to tackle these problems and promote mental health of captive animals, has been recognized as an important principal for captive animal management. Among all the enrichment techniques, olfactory enrichment is a simple and effective method for improving the well-being of the olfactory sensitive felids. Behavioral problems were observed in six Amur leopards Panthera pardus orientalis at Beijing Zoological Garden. These were held in the older type exhibits which have now been rebuilt. These behaviors include stereotypic behavior and excessive inactivity caused by the spatially limited enclosures with low levels of stimuli. To determine the effects of predator, prey, and herb odors as potential enrichment materials for captive leopards, we conducted olfactory enrichment experiments for the leopards and tested the effects of nutmeg Myristica fragrans, feces of roe deer Capreolus capreolus and urine of Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica to test for an increase in behavioral repertoire and activity. Odors provided in this study were also believed to improve the psychological and physiological health of individuals. To standardize the method of presentation the odors were introduced to the enclosures by rubbing or spraying onto a clean towel. Our results show that the selected three odors effectively increased the behavioral diversity. Ten new behavior types were observed in the nutmeg experiment, eight in the feces of roe deer experiment and six in the tiger urine experiment. Among the three odors, cats responded to nutmeg for the longest duration, followed by tiger urine and feces of roe deer. Leopards showed more

  10. Influence of physical damage and freezing on histamine concentration and microbiological quality of yellowfin tuna during processing

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    Gonzalo García-Tapia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellowfin tuna has a high level of free histidine in their muscle, which can lead to histamine formation by microorganisms if temperature abuse occurs during handling and further processing. The objective of this study was to measure levels of histamine in damaged and undamaged thawed muscle to determine the effect of physical damage on the microbial count and histamine formation during the initial steps of canning processing and to isolate and identify the main histamine-forming microorganisms present in the flesh of yellowfin tuna. Total mesophilic and psicrophilic microorganisms were determined using the standard plate method. The presence of histamine-forming microorganisms was determined in a modified Niven's agar. Strains were further identified using the API 20E kit for enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacilli. Physically damaged tuna did not show higher microbiological contamination than that of undamaged muscle tuna. The most active histamine-forming microorganism present in tuna flesh was Morganella morganii. Other decarboxylating microorganisms present were Enterobacter agglomerans and Enterobacter cloacae. Physical damage of tune during catching and handling did not increase the level of histamine or the amount of microorganisms present in tuna meat during frozen transportation, but they showed a higher risk of histamine-forming microorganism growth during processing.

  11. Are Consumers Willing to Pay More for Sustainable Products? A Study of Eco-Labeled Tuna Steak

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    Guzhen Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A high demand for seafood leads to overfishing, harms the long-term health of seafood stocks, and threatens environmental sustainability in oceans. Sustainability certification is one of the major sustainability movements and is known as eco-labeling. For instance, in the tuna industry, leading tuna brands have committed to protecting sea turtles by allowing the tracing of the source of their tuna “from catch to can.” This paper relies on an Internet survey on consumers from Kentucky conducted in July 2010. The survey investigates household-level tuna steak (sashimi grade consumption and examines consumer preferences for eco-labeling (“Certified Turtle Safe” (CTS in this study while mimicking individuals’ seafood procurement processes. A random parameter logit model is utilized, and willingness-to-pay measures are calculated based on model estimation results. It was found that respondents on average preferred turtle-safe-labeled tuna steak and were likely to pay more for it; however, they were less likely to purchase wild-caught species, and insignificant results were found for pre-frozen. Moreover, significant heterogeneities were found across individuals regarding tuna steak purchases. The findings indicate evidence of public support for environmental friendliness, particularly with regard to eco-labeling.

  12. Oligonucleotide indexing of DNA barcodes: identification of tuna and other scombrid species in food products

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    Botti Sara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA barcodes are a global standard for species identification and have countless applications in the medical, forensic and alimentary fields, but few barcoding methods work efficiently in samples in which DNA is degraded, e.g. foods and archival specimens. This limits the choice of target regions harbouring a sufficient number of diagnostic polymorphisms. The method described here uses existing PCR and sequencing methodologies to detect mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in complex matrices such as foods. The reported application allowed the discrimination among 17 fish species of the Scombridae family with high commercial interest such as mackerels, bonitos and tunas which are often present in processed seafood. The approach can be easily upgraded with the release of new genetic diversity information to increase the range of detected species. Results Cocktail of primers are designed for PCR using publicly available sequences of the target sequence. They are composed of a fixed 5' region and of variable 3' cocktail portions that allow amplification of any member of a group of species of interest. The population of short amplicons is directly sequenced and indexed using primers containing a longer 5' region and the non polymorphic portion of the cocktail portion. A 226 bp region of CytB was selected as target after collection and screening of 148 online sequences; 85 SNPs were found, of which 75 were present in at least two sequences. Primers were also designed for two shorter sub-fragments that could be amplified from highly degraded samples. The test was used on 103 samples of seafood (canned tuna and scomber, tuna salad, tuna sauce and could successfully detect the presence of different or additional species that were not identified on the labelling of canned tuna, tuna salad and sauce samples. Conclusions The described method is largely independent of the degree of degradation of DNA source and can thus be applied to

  13. Oligonucleotide indexing of DNA barcodes: identification of tuna and other scombrid species in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Sara; Giuffra, Elisabetta

    2010-08-23

    DNA barcodes are a global standard for species identification and have countless applications in the medical, forensic and alimentary fields, but few barcoding methods work efficiently in samples in which DNA is degraded, e.g. foods and archival specimens. This limits the choice of target regions harbouring a sufficient number of diagnostic polymorphisms. The method described here uses existing PCR and sequencing methodologies to detect mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in complex matrices such as foods. The reported application allowed the discrimination among 17 fish species of the Scombridae family with high commercial interest such as mackerels, bonitos and tunas which are often present in processed seafood. The approach can be easily upgraded with the release of new genetic diversity information to increase the range of detected species. Cocktail of primers are designed for PCR using publicly available sequences of the target sequence. They are composed of a fixed 5' region and of variable 3' cocktail portions that allow amplification of any member of a group of species of interest. The population of short amplicons is directly sequenced and indexed using primers containing a longer 5' region and the non polymorphic portion of the cocktail portion. A 226 bp region of CytB was selected as target after collection and screening of 148 online sequences; 85 SNPs were found, of which 75 were present in at least two sequences. Primers were also designed for two shorter sub-fragments that could be amplified from highly degraded samples. The test was used on 103 samples of seafood (canned tuna and scomber, tuna salad, tuna sauce) and could successfully detect the presence of different or additional species that were not identified on the labelling of canned tuna, tuna salad and sauce samples. The described method is largely independent of the degree of degradation of DNA source and can thus be applied to processed seafood. Moreover, the method is highly flexible

  14. Detection of pelagic habitat hotspots for skipjack tuna in the Gulf of Bone-Flores Sea, southwestern Coral Triangle tuna, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Mukti; Farhum, Aisjah; Safruddin, Safruddin; Selamat, Muhammad Banda; Sudirman, Sudirman; Nurdin, Nurjannah; Syamsuddin, Mega; Ridwan, Muhammad; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Using remote sensing of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) together with catch data, we investigated the detection and persistence of important pelagic habitat hotspots for skipjack tuna in the Gulf of Bone-Flores Sea, Indonesia. We analyzed the data for the period between the northwest and southeast monsoon 2007-2011. A pelagic hotspot index was constructed from a model of multi-spectrum satellite-based oceanographic data in relation to skipjack fishing performance. Results showed that skipjack catch per unit efforts (CPUEs) increased significantly in areas of highest pelagic hotspot indices. The distribution and dynamics of habitat hotspots were detected by the synoptic measurements of SST, SSHA and Chl-a ranging from 29.5° to 31.5°C, from 2.5 to 12.5 cm and from 0.15 to 0.35 mg m-3, respectively. Total area of hotspots consistently peaked in May. Validation of skipjack CPUE predicted by our model against observed data from 2012 was highly significant. The key pelagic habitat corresponded with the Chl-a front, which could be related to the areas of relatively high prey abundance (enhanced feeding opportunity) for skipjack. We found that the area and persistence of the potential skipjack habitat hotspots for the 5 years were clearly identified by the 0.2 mg m-3 Chl-a isopleth, suggesting that the Chl-a front provides a key oceanographic indicator for global understanding on skipjack tuna habitat hotspots in the western tropical Pacific Ocean, especially within Coral Triangle tuna.

  15. CULTURAL MEMORY OF VICTORY OF LAS TUNAS CITY' LODGES FROM 1930 TO 1945 / MEMORIA CULTURAL DE LAS LOGIAS DE VICTORIA DE LAS TUNAS 1930-1945

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Medina Pérez

    2012-01-01

    The cultural memory of the lodges of Victoria de Las Tunas (1930-1945), it constitutes the topic of the present investigation. The thematic of the lodges has been approached for studious and investigating, not alone of the town but of several parts of the world. Still when these studies exist, the related with the cultural memory of the lodges of the territory, is in the pages of the documents of the time that which leaves to the light starting from this investigation, to show yesterday's Tun...

  16. Low-temperature transitions in cod and tuna determined by differential scanning calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristina Nedenskov; Jørgensen, Bo; Nielsen, Jette

    2003-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry measurements have revealed different thermal transitions in cod and tuna samples. Transition temperatures detected Lit -11degreesC, -15degreesC and -21degreesC were highly dependent on the annealing temperature. In tuna muscle an additional transition was observed...... at -72degreesC. This transition appeared differently than the thermal events observed at higher temperatures, as it spanned a broad temperature interval of 25degreesC. The transition was comparable to low-temperature glass transitions reported in protein-rich systems. No transition at this low...... temperature was detected in cod samples. The transitions observed at higher temperatures (-11degreesC to -21degreesC) may possibly stein from a glassy matrix containing muscle proteins. However, the presence of a glass transition at - 11degreesC was in disagreement with the low storage stability at -18degrees...

  17. Readiness Assessment Towards Smart Manufacturing System for Tuna Processing Industry in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggrahini, D.; Kurniati, N.; Karningsih, P. D.; Parenreng, S. M.; Syahroni, N.

    2018-04-01

    Marine product processing is one of the top priority clusters in the national development. Tuna, as a kind of deep ocean fishes, has the highest number of production that significantly increased throughout the years. Indonesia government encourages tuna processing industry, which are mostly dominated by small to medium enterprises, to grow continuously. Nowadays, manufacturers are facing substantial challenges in adopting modern system and technology that will lead a significant improvement through the internet of things (IoT). A smart factory transform integrated manufacturing process, in a high speed processing to respond customer needs. It has some positive impacts, such as increasing productivity, reducing set up time, shortening marketing and other support activities, hence the process is being more flexible and efficient. To implement smart manufacturing system, factories should know the readiness at any level of them, technology capability and strategy appropriateness. This exploratory study aims to identify the criterias, and develop an assessment tools to measure the level towards smart factory.

  18. Improving the safety and quality of raw tuna fillets by x-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, raw tuna fillet (25 g) samples were inoculated by immersing in 0.1% peptone water that contained 108-9 CFU ml-1 of a three-strain mixture of Salmonella enterica for 1 min. The samples were then air dried at 22 oC for 30 min and were packaged separately in sterilized bags prior to X-ra...

  19. Pengaruh Penggunaan Formalin terhadap Kerusakan Protein Daging Ikan Tuna (Thunus sp)

    OpenAIRE

    Apituley, Daniel A. N.

    2012-01-01

    Formaldehyde is used on handling and processing of fishery product by some fisher at some coastal region of Indonesia was one that promotes protein oxidation and modification of protein structure of fish meat which give direct impact on nutritional quality of fish primarily the amino acids. This experiment was done in vitro experiment by using model of protein preparat of red and white meat of tuna. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of formaldehyde concentration and impact ...

  20. EVALUASI IMPLEMENTASI MANAJEMEN BERBASIS SEKOLAH (MBSDI SMK TELEKOMUNIKASI TUNAS HARAPAN KABUPATEN SEMARANG (STUDI TENTANG PEMBELAJARAN PAKEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Widyatmoko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating (a the design of implementation of PAKEM learning in SMK Telekomunikasi Tunas Harapan, (b the installation of implementation of PAKEM learning in SMK Telekomunikasi Tunas Harapan, (c the process of implementation of PAKEM learning in SMK Telekomunikasi Tunas Harapan, and (d the product evaluation of implementation of PAKEM learning in SMK Telekomunikasi Tunas Harapan. This is a evaluative research employing Discrepency Evaluation Model. Techniques of collecting data used are interview, queationaires, documentations study, and observation. Triangulation technique is used to support data validity. The results of this study are (a the design of implementation of PAKEM learning has been formulated with regard to educators criteria including input, process, and output aspects, (b there is still 2% discrepency in teachers’ certificates. Qualifications of teachers’ academic and teachers’ competencies in PAKEM learning are in line with the standards determined, (c criteria of succesful PAKEM learning program have not been fulfiled entirely. Syllabus and lesson plan preparation reach 85%. Active learning process goes to low discrepency (13%. Creative learning process goes to moderate discrepency (31%. Effective learning process goes to low discrepency (18%. Fun learning process goes to low discrepency (15%. In learning achievement assessment, teachers have done their responsibilities well, (d the products in PAKEM learning include achievement in affective aspect where 90% students gain predicate “good”, cognitive aspect where 80% students gain B-, and psychomotoric aspect where 79% students gain B-.

  1. Cytokinin-producing, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that confer resistance to drought stress in Platycladus orientalis container seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

    2013-10-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms through which plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant growth is the production of plant growth regulators, especially cytokinin. However, little information is available regarding cytokinin-producing PGPR inoculation on growth and water stress consistence of forest container seedlings under drought condition. This study determined the effects of Bacillus subtilis on hormone concentration, drought resistance, and plant growth under water-stressed conditions. Although no significant difference was observed under well-watered conditions, leaves of inoculated Platycladus orientalis (oriental thuja) seedlings under drought stress had higher relative water content and leaf water potential compared with those of noninoculated ones. Regardless of water supply levels, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids and organic acids, significantly increased because of B. subtilis inoculation. Water stress reduced shoot cytokinins by 39.14 %. However, inoculation decreased this deficit to only 10.22 %. The elevated levels of cytokinins in P. orientalis shoot were associated with higher concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). Stomatal conductance was significantly increased by B. subtilis inoculation in well-watered seedlings. However, the promoting effect of cytokinins on stomatal conductance was hampered, possibly by the combined action of elevated cytokinins and ABA. B. subtilis inoculation increased the shoot dry weight of well-watered and drought seedlings by 34.85 and 19.23 %, as well as the root by 15.445 and 13.99 %, respectively. Consequently, the root/shoot ratio significantly decreased, indicative of the greater benefits of PGPR on shoot growth than root. Thus, inoculation of cytokinin-producing PGPR in container seedlings can alleviate the drought stress and interfere with the suppression of shoot growth, showing a real potential to perform as a drought stress inhibitor in arid environments.

  2. Are eavesdroppers multimodal? Sensory exploitation of flo-ral signals by a non-native cockroach Blatta orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. VERGARA, Alejandra TORRES-ARANEDA, Diego A. VILLAGRA, Robert A. RAGUSO, Mary T. K. ARROYO, Cristian A. VILLAGRA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of multi-modal communication has only recently been extended to innate and learned interactions between flowers and their animal visitors, and usually only to pollinators. Here we studied the relevance of floral scent and visual display of a night blooming, putatively hawkmoth-pollinated plant Oenothera acaulis (Onagraceae in the attraction of non-native cockroaches Blatta orientalis (Blattodea: Blattidae, which function as facultative floral larcenists in coastal habitats of central Chile. We experimentally decoupled visual (corolla and olfactory (fragrance stimuli by presenting paper corollas and green mesh bags, with or without a freshly-picked natural flower inside. We then contrasted the behavioral responses of roaches in these treatments with those to the natural combination of traits in actual flowers and their respective control treatments, measuring the roaches’ frequency of first visits, mean and total residence time spent in each treatment. The roaches primarily used olfactory cues when approaching O. acaulis flowers at two biologically relevant spatial scales. In addition, the presence of conspecific roaches had a strong influence on recruitment to the experimental arena, increasing the statistical differences among treatments. Our results suggest a primacy of floral fragrance over visual stimuli in the foraging responses of B. orientalis. Olfactory cues were necessary and sufficient to attract the roaches, and the visual cues presented in our manipulations only marginally increased their attraction within a 20 cm diameter of the stimulus. The full spectrum of floral visitation behavior was not elicited by the artificial flowers, suggesting the need for additional tactile or contact chemosensory stimuli not provided by paper. Although the nitrogenous scent compounds that we found in O. acaulis flowers are almost exclusively found in hawkmoth-pollinated flowers, the attractiveness of these compounds to a non

  3. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Tuna Fisheries in Fiji Islands and Kiribati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, Asbjoern; Sygna, Linda

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses the possible economic consequences of a change in the tuna fisheries in the Pacific Ocean resulting from climate change. On the background of Lehodey's (2000) study of potential changes in the tuna fisheries, we survey possible economic impacts in terms of quantities and values and give examples of macroeconomic impacts. The two main effects of climate change on tuna fishing are likely to be a decline in the total stock and a migration of the stock westwards. This will lead to various changes in the catch in different countries. The price of the fish in the export market may also change as a result. The Pacific islands are generally dependent on fisheries, and may therefore be vulnerable to these changes, although some will probably gain while others will lose. Based on a very simple macroeconomic model, it is shown that the resulting effects for the national economy in general may diverge substantially from the expected. This applies, in particular, if the national economies are inflexible and a large part of the population relies on subsistence production, which is the case for many developing countries. (author)

  4. Isolation of 137-Cs in tuna fish by ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumiarti; Surtipanti, S.

    1988-01-01

    The isolation of 137-Cs in tuna fish (Neithunnus macroptenus) has been carried out using AMP. The energy of 137-Cs was measure using NaI(T1) detector connected to a Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA). In standard solution of 137-Cs with activity 160.74 and 80.37 pCi, the addition of 120 mg AMP and 7 hours of absorption time, caused 97% of 137-Cs in the solution was absorbed. The destruction of tuna fish was carried out using two methods namely by wet destruction with sulfuric acid, nitrit acid and hydrogen peroxid mixture and by wet destruction with hydrogen peroxide. The applications of this technique of tuna fish was carried out by spiking 137-Cs standard into the fish before being destructed. The recovery obtained from wet destruction with H2O2 was about 80%, while from destruction with acid mixtures and H2O2 was only about 47%. (authors). 3 refs, 3 tabs

  5. Optimization of Processing Conditions of Traditional Cured Tuna Loins–Muxama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Esteves

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Muxama is a traditional highly-valued food product prepared from dry-cured tuna loins in southern Portugal and Spain. The production procedure has seen little change over the last centuries. The muxama’s stability is due to reduced water activity. In addition, the drying method has secondary effects on characteristics of flavor, color, and the nutritional value of the product. Our objectives were to describe the dynamics of important physicochemical parameters such as moisture content, water activity (aW, NaCl concentration (as water–phase salt, ZNaCl, pH and color, during the salting and drying stages of muxama production, and to test the effect(s of changes in the traditional processing conditions followed in southern Portugal, aiming at optimizing the production procedure. The lowest values of moisture and aW and highest ZNaCl obtained after drying tuna loins for seven days at 20 °C exceeded the values reported for commercial products and have impact on the appearance (color of the product. Therefore, drying tuna loins at lower temperatures (ca. 14 °C is probably more appropriate. The results obtained in this study could be used in the design of future experiments at other conditions and to assess other quality parameters, e.g., total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS, microorganism abundance and sensory attributes, and subsequent validation trials.

  6. Effects Of Using Fermented Tuna Innards In Fish Feed Formula To Pangasius Pangasius Sp. Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander KorinusMarantika

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to determine the best dosage of the tuna innards fermentation powder substitution based on its survival rate specific growth rate and the conversion ratio of pangasius fish Pangasius sp. fish feed. The fish feed test formula contained 30 of raw protein. The tested fish feed consisted of fish powder mixed with substitution powder from fermented tuna innards. The substitution in fish feed A0 B10 C20 and D30. The number of pangasius fish thrown into 50x30x30 cm aquarium was 20 fish with average weight 3.120.03g. Fish feeding frequency was 5 5 three times a day at 0800 1300 and 1900 for 40 days. The results showed that with the added fermented tuna innards protein powder substitution dosage until 20 of the fish feed the survival rate improved reaching 100 the best specific growth rate was at 3.36 BB and the fish feed conversion ratio declined at the lowest 1.55 gg.

  7. Thermal characterisation of gelatin extracted from yellowfin tuna skin and commercial mammalian gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur; Al-Saidi, Ghalib Said; Guizani, Nejib

    2008-05-15

    Glass transition and other thermal characteristics of gelatin from different sources were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and modulated DSC (MDSC). The initial glass transition temperatures of equilibrated gelatin samples at 11.3% relative humidity, determined from reversible heat flow thermogram of MDSC, were 23, 75 and 59°C, respectively, for tuna skin, bovine and porcine gelatin. When gelatin samples were equilibrated at higher relative humidity of 52.9%, glass transition temperature of fish skin and bovine gelatin decreased to -3 and 57°C, respectively. Further increase of equilibration relative humidity to 75.3% showed increased value in the case of tuna skin, whereas bovine and porcine did not show any significant change. DSC and MDSC results indicated that tuna gelatin showed lower glass transition compared to mammalian source gelatin equilibrated at the same constant relative humidity. In general glass transition measured by DSC was found lower than the values measured by MDSC. The results in this study showed that the degree of plasticization varied with the source of gelatin as well as their extraction methods. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CPUE TRENDS OF THE INDONESIA’S TUNA LONGLINE FISHERY: LESSONS LEARNED FROM A TRIAL OBSERVER PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Sadiyah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to address a shortage of reliable CPUE information, and as a preliminary step to a broader observer program, Indonesia established a Trial Observer Program (TOP for the industrial tuna long line fishery based at Benoa Fishing Port, Bali, in mid 2005. The objectives of this paper are i to describe spatial and temporal catch and effort trends from the Indonesian Indian Ocean industrial tuna long line fishery based at Benoa Fishing Port, and ii to provide an understanding of the fishing strategies used by different companies and of the environmental conditions that may influence catch trends. The observed effort covered areas both north and south of 20°S, with a concentration within 10°-20°S; 105°-120°E which overlaps with the only known spawning grounds of southern bluefin tuna (SBT. This data set showed that SBT comprised the lowest catch proportion, relative to the other three tuna species caught, bigeye tuna (BET, yellowfin tuna (YFT and albacore (ALB. BET and ALB had been suggested as the main target species for the fishery, but this varied by region. The TOP data set suggests that different tuna fishing companies targeted different species and used different fishing practices, including differences in bait used, areas fished, start time of setting, and the number of hooks between floats (HBF. It is a priority to improve the spatial and temporal coverage of the observer program before the data can be considered to be representative of the fleet, particularly given the high degree of variability in fishing practices between companies.

  9. Comportamiento de la retinopatía de la prematuridad en la provincia Las Tunas Performance of retinopathy of prematurity in Las Tunas province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunia Herbania Labrada Rodríguez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo transversal en la provincia de Las Tunas en el período comprendido desde enero de 2002 a diciembre de 2004. El universo estuvo constituido por 14 503 nacidos vivos, la muestra la integraron 227 recién nacidos prematuros a los cuales se les realizó oftalmoscopia indirecta. La tasa de incidencia de retinopatía de la prematuridad fue de 0,10. Los factores de riesgo más relevantes fueron la prematuridad y el bajo peso al nacer. La retinopatía de la prematuridad fue más frecuente en recién nacidos de peso menor o igual a 1 500 g y la edad gestacional entre 30 y 34 semanas. La retinopatía de la prematuridad estadio I predominó en la serieAn observational cross-sectional study was conducted in Las Tunas province from January 2002 to December 2004. The universe of study was made up of 14 503 live births and the sample was composed by 227 premature newborns, who were performed indirect ophtalmoscopy. The incidence rate was 0,10. The most relevant risk factors were prematurity and low birthweight. Retinopathy of prematurity was more frequent in newborns weighing 1 500 g or less at birth and in gestational age of 30-34 weeks. Retinopathy of prematurity stage 1 predominated

  10. Baja visión en la población pediátrica de Las Tunas Low vision of the pediatric population in Las Tunas province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunia Herbania Labrada Rodríguez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un estudio descriptivo en 35 pacientes ciegos y débiles visuales matriculados en la Escuela de Ciegos de la provincia Las Tunas. Los pacientes fueron agrupados según categoría visual, sexo, y etiología de baja visión. El sexo masculino fue el más afectado, el mayor número de pacientes eran débiles visuales y las etiologías más frecuentes de baja visión fueron la catarata congénita y la retinopatía de la prematuridadThe results of a descriptive study of 35 blind and impaired vision patients, who study at the School for Blind People in Las Tunas province were presented in this paper. The patients were grouped according to their visual category, sex and etiology of low vision. Males were the most affected, the highest number of patients had impaired vision and the most common causes of low vision were congenital cataract and prematurity retinopathy

  11. Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG dan Penginderaan Jauh untuk Pemetaan Daerah Penangkapan Ikan Tuna Mata Besar di Selatan Jawa dan Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Bagus Padmaningrat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bigeye tuna is the dominant species of tuna caught in the territorial waters of the Indian Ocean and a productive tropical species which accounts for more than 10% of the total catch in the whole world. Distribution of bigeye tuna can be predicted through optimum temperature associated with the presence of bigeye tuna and distribution of chlorophyll-a is associated with the presence of small pelagic fish. The distribution of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a can be detected through remote sensing systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a by the number of bigeye tuna catches in the waters south of Java and Bali, and mapped the area catching bigeye tuna in the waters south of Java and Bali. The method used is a second order polynomial regression analysis to determine the effect of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a by the number of bigeye tuna catches as well as correlation analysis to determine the relationship of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a by the number of bigeye tuna catches. Sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a is related to the number of bigeye tuna catches.  The results of the analysis showed a strong relationship between sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a by the number of bigeye tuna catches. Bigeye tuna fishing grounds in the waters south of Java and Bali are in a position 12oS-15oS and 106°E-118°E.

  12. Utilization of tuna roe and using inulin as oil replacer for producing value added omega-3 mayonnaise product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanrawee Hunsakul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fishery industry has been important for Thailand’s economy for more than 30 years. For example, Thailand isthe world’s largest canned tuna producer and exporter. However, onlyordinary meat or white meatis usedfor raw materialin canned tuna products. Whileroe, viscera, head and dark meataresold at cheap prices,with theseby-products being usedto feed plant or local human food,its nutritive values withfat,protein and minerals arestill high. It is well known that tuna is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, including Eicosapentaenoicacid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA.People around the world pay more attention to eatingsaladsconsisting of fruits and vegetables, in addition todressing. Generally, mayonnaise, a kind of salad dressing, consists of chicken egg yolk(12-15% and soybean oil (30-65%. Both of these ingredients contain very high saturated fatty acid contents. Therefore, because normal mayonnaise is high in fat content and low in polyunsaturated fatty acid, this product is not ideal for people on a diet or those who are trying to control their weight. Objective: To increase omega-3 through tuna roe substitution and to replace fat content using inulin gel. Methods: Tuna roe was prepared by soaking in galangalsolutionextracted with 95% ethanol for removal fishy/rancidity odor. Inulin powder 45 g was suspended in 55 ml of water before being brought to heat at temperature 80oC for 30min to form a gel and stored at 4oC. Treatment ofmakingomega-3 mayonnaise product was started using 100% tuna roe substitution for egg yolk. Thereafter, inulin gel was added to replace vegetable oil at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Basic mayonnaise containing egg yolk and 0% inulin gel (100% soy bean oil was used asthecontrol sample. Color and emulsion stability testswere monitored for physical quality. pH value, peroxide value (PV and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were used for chemical qualityanalyses. Total viable

  13. Isolation and bioactivities of the flavonoids morin and morin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from Acridocarpus orientalis-A wild Arabian medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Javid; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Jabeen, Farah; Kim, Jong-Sang; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2014-10-31

    Acridocarpus orientalis is an important medicinal plant for some of the locals of Arabian region. Very little is known about its phytochemical constituents. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bioactive chemicals from the crude methanolic extract of the aerial parts of A. orientalis. The extraction and isolation resulted in the purification of two flavonoids: morin (1) and morin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure elucidation was carried out by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with the reported data for the known constituents. The pure isolates were subjected to various biological assays for their bioactivities. The compounds 1 and 2 were significantly active against the growth of various pathogenic fungi and phytotoxic against lettuce seed at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the free radical scavenging activities, anti-lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxic effects against HepG2, HT29, and HCT116 cancer cell lines were also assayed and the results are presented in this paper.

  14. Effect of electron irradiation and bayberry polyphenols on the quality change of yellowfin tuna fillets during refrigerated storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, Tingting; Jin, Yang; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jinjie; Xu, Dalun; Yang, Wenge; Lou, Qiaoming

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the synergistic effect of bayberry polyphenols and electron irradiation in controlling the chemical, microbiological and sensory changes of raw yellowfin tuna fillets at 4 °C for 7 days. The results indicated that the initial values of each index were dose-dependent. The dose of 5 kGy notably accelerated adenosine triphosphate degradation and lipid oxidation, while the doses of 1 and 3 kGy had acceptable sensory quality and yielded a shelf-life of 5 days. The addition of bayberry polyphenols had evident effect in inhibiting freshness breakdown, bacteria growth, histamine formation, and discoloration of tuna fillets. Bayberry polyphenols, as an antioxidant, could inhibit lipid oxidation and sensory side-effects made by irradiation up to 3 kGy. The dose of 1–3 kGy coupled with bayberry polyphenols was optimum to preserve tuna fillets which prolonged the shelf-life to 7 days. - Highlights: • Electron irradiation inhibited bacteria growth and histamine formation. • Electron irradiation increased the red color of tuna fillets. • 5 kGy irradiation decreased the sensory quality of raw tuna fillets. • Bayberry polyphenols combined with irradiation could retard the quality change. • Bayberry polyphenols could be used as natural antioxidant and color fixative.

  15. Influence of geology and human activity on the genetic structure and demography of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jonathan J; Li, Pi-Peng; Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Zheng-Yan; Leaché, Adam D; Min, Mi-Sook; Waldman, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    The Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) is a commonly used study organism, but knowledge of its evolutionary history is incomplete. We analyze sequence data from four genetic markers (mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome b, and 12S-16S rRNA; nuDNA gene encoding recombination activating gene 2) from 188 individuals across its range in Northeast Asia to elucidate phylogeographic patterns and to identify the historic events that shaped its evolutionary history. Although morphologically similar across its range, B. orientalis exhibits phylogeographic structure, which we infer was shaped by geologic, climatic, and anthropogenic events. Phylogenetic and divergence-dating analyses recover four genetically distinct groups of B. orientalis: Lineage 1-Shandong Province and Beijing (China); Lineage 2-Bukhan Mountain (Korea); Lineage 3-Russia, Northeast China, and northern South Korea; and Lineage 4-South Korea. Lineage 2 was previously unknown. Additionally, we discover an area of secondary contact on the Korean Peninsula, and infer a single dispersal event as the origin of the insular Jeju population. Skyline plots estimate different population histories for the four lineages: Lineages 1 and 2 experienced population decreases, Lineage 3 remained stable, while Lineage 4 experienced a sharp increase during the Holocene. The timing of the population expansion of Lineage 4 coincides with the advent of rice cultivation, which may have facilitated the increase in population size by providing additional breeding habitat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Entrapped by the uneven central and Middle Eastern terrains: Genetic status of populations of Hirudo orientalis (Annelida, Clitellata, Hirudinida) with a phylogenetic review of the genus Hirudo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi-Darestani, Kaveh; Sari, Alireza; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Utevsky, Serge

    2018-04-01

    Phylogenetic relationships between species of the genus Hirudo plus genetic variation in the entire distribution range of Hirudo orientalis were investigated based on mitochondrial (COI and 12S rDNA) and nuclear (ITS1+5.8S+ITS2) genome regions. The sister relationship of Hirudo orientalis and H. medicinalis was revealed with a high posterior probability. A broad and patchy distribution with minor genetic differences was observed in populations of H. orientalis along the central and Middle Eastern parts of Asia. The known distribution range occurred in topographically heterogeneous landscapes around the Caspian Sea. The demographic analysis suggests the selection of the COI locus under unfavourable respiratory conditions, but population size expansion cannot be fully rejected. The genetic variation trend indicated northward dispersal. Higher haplotype diversity in the South Caspian region potentially suggests the area as a historical refugium for the species. The vast dispersal is assumed to occur after the Pleistocene glaciations via vertebrate hosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of electron irradiation and bayberry polyphenols on the quality change of yellowfin tuna fillets during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Tingting; Jin, Yang; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jinjie; Xu, Dalun; Yang, Wenge; Lou, Qiaoming

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the synergistic effect of bayberry polyphenols and electron irradiation in controlling the chemical, microbiological and sensory changes of raw yellowfin tuna fillets at 4 °C for 7 days. The results indicated that the initial values of each index were dose-dependent. The dose of 5 kGy notably accelerated adenosine triphosphate degradation and lipid oxidation, while the doses of 1 and 3 kGy had acceptable sensory quality and yielded a shelf-life of 5 days. The addition of bayberry polyphenols had evident effect in inhibiting freshness breakdown, bacteria growth, histamine formation, and discoloration of tuna fillets. Bayberry polyphenols, as an antioxidant, could inhibit lipid oxidation and sensory side-effects made by irradiation up to 3 kGy. The dose of 1-3 kGy coupled with bayberry polyphenols was optimum to preserve tuna fillets which prolonged the shelf-life to 7 days.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Dockum, Bruce W; Brill, Richard W; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-04-15

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  19. Prediction of Potential Fishing Zones for Skipjack Tuna During the Northwest Monsoon Using Remotely Sensed Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Zainuddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of economically important fish in the Bay of Bone is Skipjack tuna which their distribution and migration are influenced by surrounding environment.  This study aims to investigate the relationship between skipjack tuna and their environments, and to predict potential fishing zones (PFZs for the fish in the Bone Bay-Flores Sea using satellite-based oceanography and catch data. Generalized additive models (GAMs were used to assess the relationship. A generalized linear model(GLM constructed from GAMs was used for prediction. Monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll-a during the northwest monsoon (December-January together with catch data were used for the year 2012-2013. We used the GAMs to assess the effect of the environment variables on skipjack tuna CPUE (catch per unit effort. The best GLM was selected to predict skipjack tuna abundance.  Results indicated that the highest CPUEs (fish/trip occurred in areas where SST and chlorophyll-a ranged from 29.5°-31.5°C and 0.15 - 0.25 mg m-3, respectively. The PFZs for skipjack were closely related to the spatial distribution of the optimum oceanographic conditions and these mainly developed in three locations, northern area of Bone Bay in December, in the middle area of the bay (4°-5.5°S and 120.5°-121.5°E during January and moved to the Flores Sea in February. The movement of skipjack concentration was consistent with the fishery data.  This suggests that the dynamics of the optimum oceanographic signatures provided a good indicator for predicting feeding grounds as hotspot areas for skipjack tuna in Bone Bay-Flores Sea during northwest monsoon.   Keywords:  skipjack tuna, potential fishing zones, satellite based-oceanographic data, Northwest monsoon

  20. Some epidemiological and clinical characteristics of solid malignant tumors in children from Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Laffita Estévez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: cancer has kept up as the second cause of death in Las Tunas pediatric population.Objective: to characterize clinical and epidemiological variables of the cases diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in children seen and treated in the onco-pediatric consultation of “Mártires de Las Tunas” Pediatric Hospital from 2010 to 2014.Methods: a descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in 62 patients with solid malignant tumors in the pediatric population of Las Tunas province, from January, 2010 to December, 2014. The variables considered were: presumptive diagnosis, age, family history of tumors, clinical signs of alarm related to the tumor at the moment of diagnosis and investigations to confirm the diagnosis.  Results: non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the most frequently diagnosed tumor, with a 19, 35% of the patients. The most affected age group was between 11 and 14 years old, with a 33, 87%. The 16, 13% of the patients had family history of solid malignant tumors. The most frequent form of presentation was the abdominal tumor, with 29, 03 %. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized axial tomography were the most used complementary diagnostic means, both in the 17, 74% of the patients. Biopsy was used to confirm the 96, 77% of the cases.Conclusions: the clinical and epidemiological variables were characterized in pediatric patients diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in Las Tunas. Children between 11 and 14 years old and family history of malignant tumors were the most significant findings.

  1. Projecting the impacts of climate change on skipjack tuna abundance and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueri, Sibylle; Bopp, Laurent; Maury, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Climate-induced changes in the physical, chemical, and biological environment are expected to increasingly stress marine ecosystems, with important consequences for fisheries exploitation. Here, we use the APECOSM-E numerical model (Apex Predator ECOSystem Model - Estimation) to evaluate the future impacts of climate change on the physiology, spatial distribution, and abundance of skipjack tuna, the worldwide most fished species of tropical tuna. The main novelties of our approach lie in the mechanistic link between environmental factors, metabolic rates, and behavioral responses and in the fully three dimensional representation of habitat and population abundance. Physical and biogeochemical fields used to force the model are provided by the last generation of the IPSL-CM5 Earth System Model run from 1990 to 2100 under a 'business-as-usual' scenario (RCP8.5). Our simulations show significant changes in the spatial distribution of skipjack tuna suitable habitat, as well as in their population abundance. The model projects deterioration of skipjack habitat in most tropical waters and an improvement of habitat at higher latitudes. The primary driver of habitat changes is ocean warming, followed by food density changes. Our projections show an increase of global skipjack biomass between 2010 and 2050 followed by a marked decrease between 2050 and 2095. Spawning rates are consistent with population trends, showing that spawning depends primarily on the adult biomass. On the other hand, growth rates display very smooth temporal changes, suggesting that the ability of skipjack to keep high metabolic rates in the changing environment is generally effective. Uncertainties related to our model spatial resolution, to the lack or simplification of key processes and to the climate forcings are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The oxidative stability of chilled and frozen pilchards used as feed for captive southern bluefin tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitz-Gerald, C.H.; Bremner, Allan

    1998-01-01

    . Vacuum packaging in a film of low permeability to oxygen was less effective than glazing and is not recommended due to cost. Pilchards in which oxidation had commenced before freezing continued to oxidise in frozen storage irrespective of whether they were glazed or vacuum packed. It was thus thoroughly...... demonstrated that the oil in the pilchards is very readily oxidised and careful handling, chilling, freezing and storage procedures need to be adopted to provide a product which is a nutritionally sound feed material for captive tuna. The demerit point scoring system was found to be a rapid evaluative...

  3. A cascade of warming impacts brings bluefin tuna to Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Payne, Mark; Boje, Jesper

    Rising ocean temperatures are causing marine fish species to shift spatial distributions and ranges, and are altering predator-prey dynamics in food-webs. Most documented cases of species shifts so far involve relatively small species at lower trophic levels, and consider individual species...... since 1985, when temperatures began to rise. The presence of bluefin tuna in this region is likely due to a combination of warm temperatures that are physiologically more tolerable and immigration of an important prey species into the region. We conclude that a cascade of climate change impacts...

  4. Kinetics of heat-induced color change of a tuna-vegetable mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Erika; Sandoval, Aleida J; Barreiro, José A

    2009-01-01

    Heat induced color change kinetics in a tuna-vegetable mixture was evaluated by measuring color parameter "L" (Hunter-Lab) and 5-hydroxi-methyl-furfural (5-HMF) accumulation. For this purpose small reusable stainless steel TDT cans were used and the kinetic studies performed in a temperature range characteristic of thermal processing of low acid canned foods (110-125°C). The color parameter L was better described by a pseudo zero order while a pseudo first order reaction was found for 5-HMF a...

  5. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-352 radionuclides in tuna fish flesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Lopez, J.J.; Noshkin, V.

    1990-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a sample of tuna fish flesh from the Mediterranean Sea, IAEA-352, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 63 laboratories from 31 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for the most frequently measured radionuclides (Reference data: 1 January 1989): 137 Cs 2.7 Bq kg -1 , 90 Sr 0.2 Bq Kg -1 , 40 K 391 Bq Kg -1 , 210 Pb 0.6 Bq Kg -1 , 210 Po 2.2 Bq Kg -1 . Tabs

  6. Historia del Boxeo en la provincia de las Tunas hasta 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Etián Jiménez Espinosa; Guillermo Montero Quesada; Luís Fidel Velásquez Ortega

    2009-01-01

    La presente investigación hace un estudio sobre los antecedentes, génesis, evolución y desarrollo del boxeo en la provincia en Las Tunas, el cual se realiza a partir de una periodización hasta nuestros días. El estudio responde a una de las problemáticas más complejas y necesarias del territorio, que responde a la carencia de información bibliográfica para impartir con la calidad pertinente la asignatura Historia del Deporte, en todos sus ámbitos – internacional, nacional y local- y con un en...

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of animal waste: swine manure and tuna fish waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, L.; Alvarez, J. A.; Lema, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion has become an established and proven technology for the treatment of solid wastes. Co-digestion offers several possible ecological, technology and economical advantages. Anaerobic co-digestion can increase CH{sub 4} production of manure diesters in a 50-200% according to the operation conditions and the co-substrates used. Last September 2007, PROBIOGAS project started up with the objective of improving the production and use of biogas from co-digestion of farming, agricultural and industrial waste. Our research group takes part in the study of co-digestion of swine manure firstly with tuna fish waste and secondly with glycerine (bio diesel production waste). (Author)

  8. OPTIMASI JUMLAH RUMPON, UNIT ARMADA DAN MUSIM PENANGKAPAN PERIKANAN TUNA DI PERAIRAN PRIGI, JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfind Nurdin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai alat bantu penangkapan ikan, rumpon berfungsi untuk menarik kelompok ikan agar berkumpul di sekitarnya. Dalam jangka pendek rumpon dapat meningkatkan produksi hasil tangkapan, efisiensi dan efektivitas operasi penangkapan ikan. Namun rumpon juga dapat berdampak negatif terhadap keberlajutan stok sumberdaya. Penelitian ini dilakukan di PPN Prigi, Jawa Timur, dengan tujuan untuk mengkaji status pemanfaatan perikanan tuna, optimasi jumlah unit armada dan rumpon serta musim penangkapan ikan.  Beberapa analisis yang digunakan antara lain linear goal programming (LGP, fishing power indeks (FPI, catch per unit of effort (CPUE, maximum sustainable yield (MSY, dan untuk mengetahui pola musim tangkap menggunakan Metode Persentase Rata-rata. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat indikasi pemanfaatan perikanan tuna yang berlebih pada tingkat pengupayaan yang melampaui batas maksimum (MSY = 2334,9 ton/tahun.  Jumlah optimum untuk armada jaring insang sebanyak 43 unit, pancing tonda 63 unit dan rumpon 33 unit pada luasan area penelitian 8.940 km². Musim tangkap berlangsung pada Bulan Juni sampai Desember dengan puncak musim di bulan Juli.    Fish Aggregating Device (FADs has a function to attract and aggregate fish schooling. In short term, the advantage of FADs used is to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of fishing operations and the fish caught by the fishers; however FADs might also result a negative impact on the sustainability of fish stock.This study was conducted in fishing area of Prigi National Fishing Port, East Java. The objective of this study is to investigate the tuna fisheries status, optimization number of fishing units and number of FADs. Some analysis methods applied in this study were linear goal programming (LGP, fishing power index (FPI, catch per unit of effort (CPUE, maximum sustainable yield (MSY, and analysis of fishing season using the Average Percentage Methods. The results showed that the tuna fisheries in

  9. Expansion of the known distribution of Asiatic mouflon (Ovis orientalis) in the Late Pleistocene of the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Lisa; Martin, Louise; Richter, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Wild sheep (Ovis orientalis) bones recovered from the Natufian site of Shubayqa 1 demonstrate a wider distribution of mouflon in the Late Pleistocene of the Southern Levant than previously known. Early Epipalaeolithic sites are common in the limestone steppe region of eastern Jordan but have yielded only a handful of caprine bones that cannot be identified to species level and few faunal remains from excavated Late Epipalaeolithic sites have been reported. Analysis of animal bone from Shubayqa 1 suggests a significant population of wild sheep could be found concentrated in the basalt desert environment of eastern Jordan during the Late Pleistocene, especially where higher rainfall over the Jebel Druze provided more water. A population of wild sheep was still present in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A when the nearby site of Shubayqa 6 was occupied. Hunting of diverse, locally available resources including wild sheep at the end of the Pleistocene illustrates the flexible and adaptive exploitation strategies that hunter-forager groups engaged in. This provides further evidence to the increasing body of data showing the creative and opportunistic approach of terminal Pleistocene groups allowing continued occupation even in more marginal environments in a period of environmental change.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon hunted in central Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heddergott Mike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing consumption of mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon meat in Germany, there is currently no surveillance of Toxoplasma gondii infection in populations of these animals and generally little knowledge about the prevalence of this protozoan in German wild ungulates. Between 2011 and 2015, we collected 138 blood samples from a free-living mouflon population in central German and tested sera for the presence of T. gondii antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:20. Antibodies were detected in 31 of the 138 samples (22.46%. There was a significant difference in seroprevalence between the different age classes, with antibodies to T. gondii more frequent in adults. In contrast, there was no significant difference in seroprevalence depending on sex and year of sample collection. Game meat is frequently consumed as raw or undercooked meat and may therefore represent a potential source of human infection with T. gondii.

  11. Activities of some enzymes of lignin formation in reaction wood of Thuja orientalis, Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Robinia pseudoacacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuki, H; Higuchi, T

    1981-07-01

    The activities of the following five enzymes which are involved in the formation of lignin have been compared in reaction wood and in opposite wood: phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.5), caffeate 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.-), p-hydroxycinnamate: CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.12), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.-) and peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7). The activities of the four first-named enzymes in the compression wood of Thuja orientalis L. and Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng were 2.8±1.4-fold and 2.6±1.5-fold higher than those in opposite wood, respectively, whereas peroxidase had the same level of activity in either type of wood. On the other hand, no differences were observed in the activities of the five enzymes between tension and opposite woods of Robinia pseudoacacia L. These findings are well in accord with the chemical structure of lignin in the compression and tension woods of the three species studied: high content of lignin rich in condensed units in compression wood, and little difference in lignin between tension and opposite woods.

  12. Natural coinfection by Streptococcus agalactiae and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, G B N; Tavares, G C; Pereira, F L; Figueiredo, H C P; Leal, C A G

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) are important pathogens for farm-raised tilapia worldwide. There are no reports of coinfection caused by S. agalactiae and Fno in fish. This study aimed to determine the aetiology of atypical mortalities in a cage farm of Nile tilapia and to characterize the genetic diversity of the isolates. Fifty-two fish were sampled and subjected to parasitological and bacteriological examination. The S. agalactiae and Fno isolates were genotyped using MLST and REP-PCR, respectively. Whole-genome sequencing was performed to confirm the MLST results. Seven fish were shown coinfected by S. agalactiae and Fno. Chronic hypoxia and a reduction in the water temperature were determined as risk factors for coinfection. Fno isolates were shown clonally related in REP-PCR. The MLST analysis revealed that the S. agalactiae isolates from seven coinfected fish were negative for the glcK gene; however, these were determined to be members of clonal complex CC-552. This is the first description of coinfection by S. agalactiae and Fno in farm-raised Nile tilapia. The coinfection was predisposed by chronic hypoxia and was caused by the main genotypes of S. agalactiae and Fno reported in Brazil. Finally, a new S. agalactiae genotype with glcK gene partially deleted was described. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Quantification of Pla or 3, a Platanus orientalis Allergen, Grown under Different Environmental Conditions, by Sandwich ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghy, Farnaz; Sankian, Mojtaba; Moghadam, Maliheh; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2016-10-01

    Platanus species are widely cultured around the world and considered an important cause of allergic reactions. In the present study, we developed a sandwich ELISA to quantify Pla or 3 allergen in P. orientalis pollen extracts grown near high-traffic roads and compared it to pollen extracts collected from rural areas as control. Pollen samples were collected from three polluted and two unpolluted sites in Mashhad, northeast Iran. Recombinant Pla or 3 was expressed and used for polyclonal antibody production in rabbit. A sandwich ELISA was developed and validated to quantify Pla or 3 levels in pollen extracts from the different sites. The coefficients of variation (CVs) for the intra- and inter- day assays were less than 5 and 18%, respectively. The working range of the standard curve was between 0.1 and 25 ng/ml, with the detection limit being 0.037 ng/ml. The recovery percentage was 88-106.4% at working concentrations from 0.31 to 26.5 ng/ml. Pla or 3 levels were significantly greater in pollens grown near high-traffic roads than in those grown in rural regions (p Pla or 3 in pollen extracts. Using this validated ELISA, we showed a substantial difference between the amounts of Pla or 3 in pollens grown in different environments. This finding should be considered in developing public policies to reduce traffic pollution, which leads to reduced allergic reactions in atopic subjects.

  14. Efecto del proceso de esterilización en conservas de atún al natural | Effect of the sterilization process canned tuna in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pino Hernández

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the sterilization process in natural canned tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis. Three treatments were carried out: A1: precooked tuna at 110°C x 110 min, A2: tuna sterilized at 117.77°C x 55 min and A3: tuna sterilized at 117.77°C x 70 min. The canned tuna samples were analyzed microbiologically, the parameters pH, color, texture, in addition to the proximal composition were determined and a sensory difference test was performed paired with a trained panel. All results were compared through ANOVA and Duncan test. The results of the microbiological tests show that there were no risks to the health of consumers. pH had a significant difference between the treatments studied. The color of the tuna tablet presented significant differences in L* and a* coordinates, resulting in A2 with a tendency towards light reds. As for b*, there were no significant differences. The treatments had no significant difference in texture (TPA. The moisture content and proteins had a significant difference, due to the thermal process, but not for fats, ashes and total carbohydrates. There were no significant differences in the sensory test. The A2 treatment is proposed as a production alternative because it minimizes the adverse effects on the characteristics evaluated in canned tuna.

  15. Heavy metal content and molecular species identification in canned tuna: Insights into human food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Copat, Chiara; Ferrito, Venera; Grasso, Alfina; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-05-01

    Canned tuna in olive oil and in brine of the most popular brands sold in Italian markets were analyzed to verify the authentication of transformed products, with the aim to unveil commercial frauds due to the substitutions of high value species with species of low commercial value, and to assess the health risk of consumers related to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) contents. Species authentication was evaluated with amplification of COI DNA barcode and confirmed the declared species. Among tested metals, Hg had the highest concentrations, followed by Cd and Pb. None of the tested samples surpassed the European regulatory limits no. 1881/2006 fixed for Hg and Pb, whereas one batch of canned tuna in olive oil exceeded standard for Cd. Risk for human health was evaluated by the metals daily intake and target hazard quotient (THQ). As a result, Cd and Pb did not exceed the toxicological reference values established by World Health Organization (WHO) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Conversely, Hg content suggests a consumption no more than once a week and a continuous surveillance of this fishery products for consumer protection.

  16. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Extracts of Marine Algae Halimeda tuna Collected from the Chabahar Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taheri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Seaweeds are one of the richest sources of natural antioxidants. Antioxidants are main factors of free radical scavenging, which prevent from chronic diseases and food deterioration. These compounds can also be extracted from seaweeds. In this study, the antioxidant activity of the extracts from marine algae Halimeda tuna collected from the coast of Chabahar, was evaluated. Methods: This is an in vitro study. The antioxidant activity of methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-hexanic extracts of the algae, were evaluated using three methods of DPPH, ferrous ion chelating activity, and reduction power methods. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey test at the probability level of 95%. Results: In this study, the highest antioxidant capacity according to DPPH, was related to the chloroform extract (72.85% inhibition at the concentration of 1mg/ml. In the ferrous ion chelating activity, the highest percentage of chelating was allocated to the methanol extract (81.46%. Based on the data from the reduction power test, the highest reduction activity was related to the methanol extract with absorption of 0.553 (concentration, 1mg/ml. Conclusion: Based on the results of this research, the extracts of Halimeda tuna have the potential for application in medicine and pharmaceutical industry and must be confirmed by preclinical and clinical studies.

  17. PENYULUHAN METODE PAP SMEAR TERHADAP TINGKAT PENGETAHUAN DAN SIKAP WANITA TUNA SUSILA DALAM PENDETEKSIAN KANKER SERVIKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismi Wulandari AS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effectiveness Of Pap smear Test’s Counseling Regarding To The Level Of Knowledge And Behaviour In Prostitution Worker For Detection Of Cervical Cancer In Bintang Mas Kubu Raya 2014. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectivity of counseling toward knowledge and behavior. in prostitution worker about pap smear and cervical cancer. This research was quasi-experimental with one group pretest-postest design. There are 38 respondents. McNemar test showed there are significant. improvement of knowledge (p<0.05, and significance behavior change (p<0.05 in all respondents before and after counseling. Keyword : knowledge, behaviour, cervical cancer, pap smear Abstrak : Penyuluhan Metode Pap smear Terhadap Tingkat Pengetahuan Dan Sikap Wanita Tuna Susila Dalam Pendeteksian Kanker Serviks. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk melihat efektivitas terhadap pengetahuan dan sikap melalui penyuluhan mengenai pap smear kepada para wanita tuna susila. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah quasi eksperimental dengan rancangan one group pretest-postest design. Besar sampel berjumlah 38 orang. Hasil menunjukkan uji McNemar menunjukkan terdapat signifikansi yang bermakna untuk pengetahuan (p < 0,05 dan signifikansi untuk perubahan sikap (p<0.05 pada responden sebelum dan setelah penyuluhan. Kata kunci : pengetahuan, sikap, kanker serviks, pap smear

  18. IMPACT OF CLIMATE ANOMALY ON CATCH COMPOSITION OF NERITIC TUNA IN SUNDA STRAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol komo/kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis and tenggiri (Scomberomerus guttatus are commonly caught by mini purseiners operated in Sunda Straits and landed in Labuan, West Java. This species inhabits coastal water and has preference staying in relatively warm water. Oceanography parameters commonly influencing the distribution of Euthynnus affinis are temperature, current, and salinity. The oceanography of Sunda Strait is influenced by water masses coming from the north that mainly originated from the Java Sea and water masses from the south mainly originated from Indian Ocean. The internal oceanography of Sunda Strait is also influenced by upwelling and monsoon as regional climate anomaly (ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. This paper describes the influence of Dipole Mode (positive and negative event and ENSO (El- Nino/La-Nina to the catch dynamics of neritic tuna particularly in Sunda Straits waters. The results shown that regional climate anomaly influenced neritic tuna catch and its composition. The catches Euthynnus affinis in phase negative dipole mode or La-Nina were higher and dominated the catch composition of pelagic fishes of Sunda Strait. Similar situation also is showen by Scomberomorus commerson.

  19. Microbiological stability of canned tuna produced in Italy and in non-European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study on the microbiological stability of canned tuna produced by Italian companies and similar canned products manufactured in countries outside Europe are reported herein. The study involved 38 samples of canned tuna of various brands, of which 14 were produced by companies outside Europe and 24 by Italian companies. Qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests were conducted for the following parameters: bacterial colony counts at 30°C, total coliforms, total Enterobacteriaceae, sulphite-reducing anaerobes, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and molds. Bacterial loads and mold contamination were respectivelyin found in 8/14 (57% samples from outside EU and 7/24 (29% Italian samples. The bacterial flora was represented by Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus lentus, Streptococcus mitis, Enterococcus faecalis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Gram-negative bacteria (Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Acinetobacter iwoffii, Rhizobium radiobacter, spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus vallismortis, while the fungal species was represented by Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Alternaria spp. Excluding anomalies in the thermal treatment process of products and any contamination after treatment, the contaminations encountered in both cases were most likely due to insufficient production quality standards and the quality of the raw material used. These results may require a redefinition of the concept of commercial stability as hitherto stated.

  20. Optimisation of the microencapsulation of tuna oil in gelatin-sodium hexametaphosphate using complex coacervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Adhikari, Benu; Barrow, Colin J

    2014-09-01

    The microencapsulation of tuna oil in gelatin-sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) using complex coacervation was optimised for the stabilisation of omega-3 oils, for use as a functional food ingredient. Firstly, oil stability was optimised by comparing the accelerated stability of tuna oil in the presence of various commercial antioxidants, using a Rancimat™. Then zeta-potential (mV), turbidity and coacervate yield (%) were measured and optimised for complex coacervation. The highest yield of complex coacervate was obtained at pH 4.7 and at a gelatin to SHMP ratio of 15:1. Multi-core microcapsules were formed when the mixed microencapsulation system was cooled to 5 °C at a rate of 12 °C/h. Crosslinking with transglutaminase followed by freeze drying resulted in a dried powder with an encapsulation efficiency of 99.82% and a payload of 52.56%. Some 98.56% of the oil was successfully microencapsulated and accelerated stability using a Rancimat™ showed stability more than double that of non-encapsulated oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement of color and physiological properties of tuna-processing by-product by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Seok; Chun, Byeong-Soo; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Although the by-products from fishery industry had many nutrients, it is being wasted or only used as bacteria media. In this study, the effect of a gamma irradiation on the cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (CDT) was investigated to examine the possible use of the cooking drips as a functional material for food and cosmetic composition. Total aerobic bacteria, and yeasts/molds from CDT were detected at the level of 2.79 and 2.58 Log CFU/mL, respectively. But, CDT was efficiently sterilized by a gamma irradiation at a low dose of 1 kGy. The Hunter L* value of the gamma-irradiated ethanol extract of CDT was increased, and the a* and b* values were decreased compared to the non-irradiated extract, showing color improvement. Antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of CDT was increased by a gamma irradiation depending on the irradiation dose. The increased contents of polyphenolic compounds and proteins in CDT extract by gamma irradiation may be the reason of the increased biological activity. These results suggested that the wasted cooking drips can be successfully used as functional components with gamma irradiation treatment.

  2. Proteomic analysis of processing by-products from canned and fresh tuna: identification of potentially functional food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartín, Esther; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; Iloro, Ibon; Escuredo, Kepa; Elortza, Felix; Moreno, F Javier

    2012-09-15

    Proteomic approaches have been used to identify the main proteins present in processing by-products generated by the canning tuna-industry, as well as in by-products derived from filleting of skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna. Following fractionation by using an ammonium sulphate precipitation method, three proteins (tropomyosin, haemoglobin and the stress-shock protein ubiquitin) were identified in the highly heterogeneous and heat-treated material discarded by the canning-industry. Additionally, this fractionation method was successful to obtain tropomyosin of high purity from the heterogeneous starting material. By-products from skeletal red muscle of fresh tuna were efficiently fractionated to sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions, prior to the identification based mainly on the combined searching of the peptide mass fingerprint (MALDI-TOF) and peptide fragment fingerprinting (MALDI LIFT-TOF/TOF) spectra of fifteen bands separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Thus, the sarcoplasmic fraction contained myoglobin and several enzymes that are essential for efficient energy production, whereas the myofibrillar fraction had important contractile proteins, such as actin, tropomyosin, myosin or an isoform of the enzyme creatine kinase. Application of proteomic technologies has revealed new knowledge on the composition of important by-products from tuna species, enabling a better evaluation of their potential applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Canned bluefin tuna, an in vitro cardioprotective functional food potentially safer than commercial fish oil based pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Calabrese, Giorgio; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

    2014-09-01

    Commercial canned fish species typical in the Italian market were evaluated for their lipid profile. Bluefin tuna samples showed the highest content in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) among the canned fish samples analyzed. Tests on H9C2 cardiomyocytes revealed that bluefin tuna n-3 PUFA may responsible for a significant cell protection against both physiological and doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Analogous tests performed by incubating cardiac cells with n-3 PUFA ethyl esters, of which most of fish oil pharmaceutical formulations (FOPF) are based, showed cytotoxicity at high doses. Our results highlighted that n-3 PUFA contents in a 50 g canned bluefin tuna portion would be almost equivalent to and potentially safer than those of 1 FOPF capsule (1000 mg)/die usually suggested for hyperlipidaemic subjects. Thus, Italian commercial canned bluefin tuna could be indicated as a functional food with potential health benefits for the prevention and care of cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fisher-Level Decision Making to Participate in Fisheries Improvement Projects (FIPs) for Yellowfin Tuna in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolentino-Zondervan, F.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Bush, S.R.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies the capabilities needed by small-scale fishers to participate in Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs) for yellowfin tuna in the Philippines. The current literature provides little empirical evidence on how different models, or types of FIPs, influence the participation of

  5. Certification of total arsenic, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine contents in a tuna fish powder (BCR-CRM 627)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagarde, F.; Amran, M. B.; Leroy, M. J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Tuna fishes were collected in the Straits of Messina (Italy), were dissected and dorsal muscles minced, freeze-dried, ground and sieved. The obtained powder was stabilised by gamma-irradiation and filled into brown glass bottles. The homogeneity and stability at +20 degrees C and +40 degrees C we...

  6. Determination of multi-element composition of Vietnamese marine sediment and tuna fish by k0-standardized neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manh-Dung Ho; Quang-Thien Tran; Van-Doanh Ho; Thi-Sy Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    The k 0 -standardized neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) has been applied for determination of multiple elements (25 elements: Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Na, Rb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V and Zn) in marine sediment and tuna fish. About 50 marine sediment and 9 tuna fish samples were collected in two coastal areas of Vietnam. The health risk index (HRI) values of As and Br were higher than 1.0 for the tuna fish. Also, HRI value of Hg was 8.92 × 10 -1 indicating a relatively high potential health risk, whiles Co and Mn with HRIs = 1.56 × 10 -4 and 8.56 × 10 -4 , respectively, have the lowest potential health risks. Average enrichment factors using Al as a reference element (EF Al ) were higher than 1.5 for Eu, La, Zn, Th, Cs and As in which the highest EF Al value for As was higher than 10. This study showed that the HRI value of As in the tuna fish correlated positively with the EF Al value for the element in the marine sediment. (author)

  7. Substitutions in the Glycogenin-1 Gene Are Associated with the Evolution of Endothermy in Sharks and Tunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciezarek, Adam G; Dunning, Luke T; Jones, Catherine S; Noble, Leslie R; Humble, Emily; Stefanni, Sergio S; Savolainen, Vincent

    2016-10-05

    Despite 400-450 million years of independent evolution, a strong phenotypic convergence has occurred between two groups of fish: tunas and lamnid sharks. This convergence is characterized by centralization of red muscle, a distinctive swimming style (stiffened body powered through tail movements) and elevated body temperature (endothermy). Furthermore, both groups demonstrate elevated white muscle metabolic capacities. All these traits are unusual in fish and more likely evolved to support their fast-swimming, pelagic, predatory behavior. Here, we tested the hypothesis that their convergent evolution was driven by selection on a set of metabolic genes. We sequenced white muscle transcriptomes of six tuna, one mackerel, and three shark species, and supplemented this data set with previously published RNA-seq data. Using 26 species in total (including 7,032 tuna genes plus 1,719 shark genes), we constructed phylogenetic trees and carried out maximum-likelihood analyses of gene selection. We inferred several genes relating to metabolism to be under selection. We also found that the same one gene, glycogenin-1, evolved under positive selection independently in tunas and lamnid sharks, providing evidence of convergent selective pressures at gene level possibly underlying shared physiology. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Spatially explicit estimates of stock sizes, structure and biomass of herring and blue whiting, and catch data of bluefin tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Trenkel, V.

    2015-01-01

    The North Atlantic is a productive marine region which has supported important commercial fisheries for centuries. Many of these fisheries have exploited the pelagic species, including herring, blue whiting and tuna. Here we present data on the distribution of herring and blue whiting based on th...

  9. Seasonal Variations of Oceanographic Variables and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) Catches in the North Indramayu Waters Java Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Mega; Sunarto; Yuliadi, Lintang

    2018-02-01

    The remotely derived oceanographic variables included sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) catches are used as a combined dataset to understand the seasonal variation of oceanographic variables and Eastern Little Tuna catches in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The fish catches and remotely sensed data were analysed for the 5 years datasets from 2010-2014. This study has shown the effect of monsoon inducing oceanographic condition in the study area. Seasonal change features were dominant for all the selected oceanographic parameters of SST and Chl-a, and also Eastern Little Tuna catches, respectively. The Eastern Little Tuna catch rates have the peak season from September to December (700 to 1000) ton that corresponded with the value of SST ranging from 29 °C to 30 °C following the decreasing of Chl-a concentrations in September to November (0.4 to 0.5) mg m-3. The monsoonal system plays a great role in determining the variability of oceanographic conditions and catch in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The catches seemed higher during the northwest monsoon than in the southeast monsoon for all year observations except in 2010. The wavelet spectrum analysis results confirmed that Eastern Little Tuna catches had seasonal and inter-annual variations during 2012-2014. The SST had seasonal variations during 2010-2014. The Chl-a also showed seasonal variations during 2010-2011 and interannual variations during 2011-2014. Our results would benefit the fishermen and policy makers to have better management for sustainable catch in the study area.

  10. Trophic niches of sympatric tropical tuna in the Western Indian Ocean inferred by stable isotopes and neutral fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardenne, Fany; Bodin, Nathalie; Chassot, Emmanuel; Amiel, Aurélien; Fouché, Edwin; Degroote, Maxime; Hollanda, Stéphanie; Pethybridge, Heidi; Lebreton, Benoit; Guillou, Gaël; Ménard, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the trophic ecology of three sympatric tropical tuna species (bigeye BET, skipjack SKJ, and yellowfin YFT) sampled in the Western Indian Ocean throughout 2013. Specifically we explored inter-specific resource partitioning and ontogenetic variability using neutral fatty acids and stable isotope analysis of liver and muscle from small (⩽100 cm fork length, FL) and large (>100 cm FL) tuna collected in mixed schools at the surface by purse-seine. Both biochemical tracers were used to calculate trophic niche indices that collectively revealed high potential for resource overlap, especially among small tuna. Resource overlap appeared strongest between BET and YFT, with SKJ tissues having high carbon isotope (δ13C) values (-17 ± 0.3‰), lower nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values (11.4 ± 0.6‰), and higher relative proportion of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than the two other species, indicating a different diet. Size was found to be a strong predictor for most biochemical tracers in the three species with δ13C, δ15N and total lipid content in the liver. In the larger species (YFT and BET), proportions of mono-unsaturated fatty acids typically increased with size, while quantities of PUFA decreased. In addition to ontogenetic variability, trophic markers were shown to vary between sampling area and season: higher lipid reserves and δ15N values, and lower δ13C values occurred during monsoon periods around Seychelles than in the Mozambique Channel (parted from about 1500 km). Our multi-tracer approach reveals the magnitude of potential competitive interactions in mixed tropical tuna schools at both small and large sizes and demonstrates that ontogenetic niche differentiation acts as a major factor of coexistence in tropical tuna.

  11. Efficiency of biodegradable EDDS, NTA and APAM on enhancing the phytoextraction of cadmium by Siegesbeckia orientalis L. grown in Cd-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jichuan; Zhang, Shirong; Lin, Haichuan; Li, Ting; Xu, Xiaoxun; Li, Yun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

    2013-05-01

    Chelant assisted phytoextraction has been proposed to enhance the efficiency of remediation. This study evaluated the effects of biodegradable ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDDS), nitrilotriacetic (NTA) and anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) on the tolerance and uptake of Siegesbeckia orientalis L. at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd-contaminated soils. On the 80th and 90th days of transplanting, pots were treated with EDDS and NTA at 0 (control), 1 and 2 mmol kg(-1) soils, and APAM at 0 (control), 0.07 and 0.14 g kg(-1). Generally, the root and shoot biomass of S. orientalis in all treatments reduced not significantly compared with the control, and the activities of peroxidase and catalase in leaves generally increased by the application of chelants (P<0.05). The concentrations of Cd in the shoots were increased significantly by addition of all chelants. As a result, the Cd accumulation of S. orientalis under treatments with higher dosages of the three chelants on the 80th day were 1.40-2.10-fold and 1.12-1.25-fold compared to control at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd, respectively. Under the addition of 2 mmol kg(-1) NTA on the 80th day, the highest metal extraction ratio reached 1.2% and 0.4% at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd soils, respectively. Therefore, the applications of EDDS, NTA and APAM may provide more efficient choices in chemical-enhanced phytoextraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Formation of a local Abramis brama orientalis (BERG) population in the zone of hot effluent from the Konakovo hydroelectric power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappo, G B

    1976-01-01

    Bream (Abramis brama orientalis) inhabitating the part of the Ivan'kovo Reservoir directly exposed to effluent from the Konakovo Hydroelectric Power Plant are smaller and become sexually mature sooner than elsewhere in the reservoir. Moreover, they have longer tail peduncles and anal, thoracic, and dorsal fins than other bream. And, in contrast with the latter, many (20 percent) have two rows of pharyngeal teeth. Thus, the differences in ecological (growth rate, condition factor, spawning times, etc.) and meristic and plastic characters (branched rays, enlarged fins, etc.) as well as in composition of parasites point to the development of an isolated bream population.

  13. A Satellite Imagery, Ecosystem-Based GIS Study of Bluefin Tuna and Right Whale Distribution and Movements in the Gulf of Marine and NW Atlantic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lutcavage, Molly

    2002-01-01

    The goals of this research were to develop a GIS workstation to examine the distribution, relative abundance, and behavior of Atlantic bluefin tuna and the Northern right whale in relation to their environment and prey...

  14. Genetic variation in skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis (L.) using PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Ikeda, M.; Taniguchi, N.

    Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34, 231–251. Sharp, G. D. & Pirages, S. W. (1978). The distribution of enzymes of red, white and heart muscle: distributional characteristics in selected scombrid fishes. In The Physiological Ecology of Tunas...

  15. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong [Dongwon Research and Development Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young Jung [Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Jin [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB.

  16. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong; Hwang, Young Jung; Chung, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB

  17. Population genetic structure of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis from the Indian coast using sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Kumar, G.; Kunal, S.P.

    Biology (2012) 80, 2198–2212 doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03270.x, available online at wileyonlinelibrary.com Population genetic structure of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis from the Indian coast using sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D...-loop region M. R. Menezes*, G. Kumar and S. P. Kunal Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR), Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India (Received 26 May 2011, Accepted 14 February 2012) Genetic structure of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus...

  18. Assessment of radioactive elements in canned tuna marketed in Saudi Arabia after Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhomashi, N.; Alyousif, A.A.S.; Walied Alotibi; Alkhorayef, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, 32 brands of canned tuna that were purchased in supermarkets in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analysed to quantify the activity levels of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 40 K. These samples were processed in Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Europe and the Middle East in 2011 and 2012. The samples were analysed using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The highest activity concentrations of all three radionuclides were obtained in the samples that were processed in Japan in 2011 a few months after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. However, the activity concentrations of radiocaesium in all the samples in this study were far below the limit for food and beverages of 100 Bq/kg, which is the standard limit in the Japan. (author)

  19. Hydraulic control of tuna fins: A role for the lymphatic system in vertebrate locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Vadim; Rosental, Benyamin; Hansen, Nathaniel F; Beers, Jody M; Parish, George; Rowbotham, Ian; Block, Barbara A

    2017-07-21

    The lymphatic system in teleost fish has genetic and developmental origins similar to those of the mammalian lymphatic system, which is involved in immune response and fluid homeostasis. Here, we show that the lymphatic system of tunas functions in swimming hydrodynamics. Specifically, a musculo-vascular complex, consisting of fin muscles, bones, and lymphatic vessels, is involved in the hydraulic control of median fins. This specialization of the lymphatic system is associated with fish in the family Scombridae and may have evolved in response to the demand for swimming and maneuvering control in these high-performance species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  20. Petrological and geochemical studies of alkaline rocks from continental Brazil. The tunas massif, state of Parana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, C.B.; Barbieri, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Tunas massif, outcropping 80 km from the city of Curitiba, Parana State, southern Brazil, covers about 22 km 2 . It intruded into Precambrian metaigneous and metasedimentary units about 80 Ma ago (K/Ar and Rb/Sr data); five subcircular volcanic structures are recognized. Syenites and alkali syenites (plus some pulaskites) are the main rock-types, with subordinate alkali gabbros, syenogabbros, essexites and syenodiorites; small late syenitic dikes are also found. Magmatic breccias containing clasts of all rock-types are widespread. Main minerals are feldspars (both alkali feldspars and plagioclases, varying from bytownite to more sodic members), Ca-pyroxenes (Ti-salites grading towards ferrosalites and aegirine-augites), amphiboles (mainly pargasites, although kaersutites and katophorites are also present), Fe-biotites (sometimes enriched in Ti), olivines (hortonolites to ferrohortonolites), quartz and feldspathoids (both fresh and altered nephelines and sodalites); main accessories are Ti-magnetites (with exsolved ilmenite) and apatite. In the AFM diagram, whole rock chemistry depicts a typical alkaline trend. Binary variation diagrams (D.I. vs. several elements) show positive correlation for Si, Na and K, and negative slopes for Mg and Ca. The variation in the amounts of Ni, Cr and V with differentiation can be explained by withdrawal of olivine, Ca-pyroxenes and magnetite, and that of Sr and Ba by the fractionation of feldspars. The rocks are also relatively enriched in REE, a trend which is more pronounced for the light REE. Mass balance calculations show that the overall differentiation trend of the Tunas rocks can be explained by crystal fractionation, although several complexities arise and point to more complex genetic patterns. Isotopic Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with a mantle origin for the parental magma; dike rocks, however, with 87 Sr 86 Sr i = 0.70777 - 0.70806, were probably contaminated by crustal material. (author) [pt

  1. Incidencia prenatal de los defectos congénitos en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Lupe Muñoz Callol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los defectos congénitos son la principal causa de morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal en casi todo el mundo. La introducción del diagnóstico prenatal y el establecimiento de estrategias preventivas en la atención primaria de salud han logrado la disminución de la prevalencia al nacimiento de defectos congénitos y de la mortalidad infantil en nuestro país. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal de los casos diagnosticados o confirmados prenatalmente en la consulta de genética provincial, con el objetivo de describir la incidencia prenatal de los defectos congénitos en la provincia Las Tunas, durante el período de enero 2013 a mayo 2014. De un universo de 9462 embarazadas de la provincia, en el periodo de estudio; se escogió una muestra de 110 gestantes que presentaron defectos fetales en diferentes órganos y sistemas. La información se obtuvo del registro provincial, donde se analizaron las variables: comportamiento de defectos congénitos por áreas de salud, edad de las madres por defectos congénitos, defectos congénitos por programas prenatales y los defectos congénitos por sistemas. El mayor número de casos se diagnosticó en el segundo trimestre del embarazo, siendo el sistema cardiovascular donde se encontró un número mayor de defectos congénitos, seguido del sistema digestivo, genitourinarias y del sistema nervioso central. Las edades maternas estuvieron comprendidas entre 21 y 30 años, siendo el municipio Tunas el que aportó un número significativo de afectados

  2. Towards sustainable mobile systems configurations: Application to a tuna purse seiner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rellán, A; Vázquez Brea, C; Bello Bugallo, P M

    2018-08-01

    Fishing is one of the most important marine activities. It contributes to both overfishing and marine pollution, the two main threats to the ocean environment. In this context, the aim of this work is to investigate and validate methodologies for the identification of more sustainable operating configurations for a tuna purse seiner. The proposed methodology is based on a previous one applied to secondary industrial systems, taking into account the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control focus, developed for the most potentially industrial polluting sources. The idea is to apply the same type of methodologies and concepts used for secondary industrial punctual sources, to a primary industrial mobile activity. This methodology combines two tools: "Material and Energy Flow Analysis" (a tool from industrial metabolism), and "Best Available Techniques Analysis". The first provides a way to detect "Improvable Flows" into de system, and the second provides a way to define sustainable options to improve them. Five main Improvable Flows have been identified in the selected case study, the activity of a purse seiner, most of them related with energy consumption and air emission, in different stages of the fishing activity. Thirty-one Best Available Techniques candidates for the system have been inventoried, that potentially could improve the sustainability of the activity. Seven of them are not implemented yet to the case study. The potential improvements of the system proposed by this work are related to energy efficiency, waste management, prevention and control of air emissions. This methodology demonstrates to be a good tool towards sustainable punctual systems, but also towards sustainable mobile systems such as the fishing activity in oceans, as the tuna purse seiner validated here. The practical application of the identified technologies to fishing systems will contribute to prevent and reduce marine pollution, one of the greatest threats of today's oceans

  3. COMPARISON OF CHITIN STRUCTURES DERIVED FROM THREE COMMON WASP SPECIES (Vespa crabro LINNAEUS, 1758, Vespa orientalis LINNAEUS, 1771 and Vespula germanica (FABRICIUS, 1793)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Bağrıaçık, Nil; Seyyar, Osman; Baran, Talat

    2015-08-01

    There has been no study on the chitin structure of wasp species. Here, we selected the three most common wasp species belonging to the family Vespidae for chitin extraction and characterization. Chitin was isolated from each wasp species and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental analysis (EA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chitin contents of Vespa crabro, Vespa orientalis, and Vespula germanica were 8.3, 6.4, and 11.9%, respectively. The crystalline index (CrI) values for the chitin extracted from each species were 69.88, 53.92, and 50%, respectively. The most important finding of the study is that although the same method was used to extract chitin from each of the three wasp species, the degree of acetylation was different: for V. crabro and V. orientalis it was 96.85 and 99.82% (the chitin was extremely pure), respectively, whereas that for V. germanica the chitin was 79.83%. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARZIEH BEGYOM-FAGHIR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haddadi-Moghaddam H, Begyom-Faghir M, Abedi T. 2013. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 14: 89-94.This study was conducted to investigate the influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran province. Fifteen gaps in small, medium, and large sizes were randomly selected. Abundance of tree saplings, shrubs and herbaceous species were counted on 4 m2 micro-plots within the gaps. Diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Mc Arthur's N1, Hill's N2, species richness and Smith-Wilson’s evenness index were computed. The results revealed that there was significant difference among three gap categories in terms of diversity. The highest diversity values of tree and herbaceous species were obtained in the large gaps, while the highest diversity value of shrub species was in the medium gaps. Species composition of small gaps (28 species: 7 trees and 21 herbaceous, medium gaps (37 species: 7 trees, 5 shrubs and 25 herbaceous and large gaps (40 species: 7 trees, 4 shrubs and 29 herbaceous were recognized. Therefore, based on the results of this study, it is recommended that in order to maintain plant diversity and composition up to 400 m2 gap size cloud be used in this forests.

  5. Comparison of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production of Ectothermic and Endothermic Fish Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Wiens

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently we demonstrated that the capacity of isolated muscle mitochondria to produce reactive oxygen species, measured as H2O2 efflux, is temperature-sensitive in isolated muscle mitochondria of ectothermic fish and the rat, a representative endothermic mammal. However, at physiological temperatures (15° and 37°C for the fish and rat, respectively, the fraction of total mitochondrial electron flux that generated H2O2, the fractional electron leak (FEL, was far lower in the rat than in fish. Those results suggested that the elevated body temperatures associated with endothermy may lead to a compensatory decrease in mitochondrial ROS production relative to respiratory capacity. To test this hypothesis we compare slow twitch (red muscle mitochondria from the endothermic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis with mitochondria from three ectothermic fishes [rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens] and the rat. At a common assay temperature (25°C rates of mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 efflux were similar in tuna and the other fishes. The thermal sensitivity of fish mitochondria was similar irrespective of ectothermy or endothermy. Comparing tuna to the rat at a common temperature, respiration rates were similar, or lower depending on mitochondrial substrates. FEL was not different across fish species at a common assay temperature (25°C but was markedly higher in fishes than in rat. Overall, endothermy and warming of Pacific Bluefin tuna red muscle may increase the potential for ROS production by muscle mitochondria but the evolution of endothermy in this species is not necessarily associated with a compensatory reduction of ROS production relative to the respiratory capacity of mitochondria.

  6. Halimeda tuna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cas

    Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, ... secondary metabolites characterised by a broad spectrum of biological ... 4°C. These bacterial and fungal strains were isolated and obtained.

  7. Factores de discriminación y tasas de renovación isotópica de nitrógeno en larvas de atún rojo de cultivo (Thunnus thynnus): efectos de la transferencia materna

    OpenAIRE

    Uriarte, Amaya; García, Alberto; Ortega, Aurelio; de la Gándara, Fernando; Quintanilla, José; Laiz-Carrión, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    El análisis de isótopos estables para estudiar la dieta de los animales requiere estimaciones de las tasas de rotación isotópicas (tiempo medio, t50) y factores de discriminación (Δ) para una correcta interpretación de los patrones tróficos. Los isótopos estables de carbono y nitrógeno se analizaron en los huevos y larvas criadas de Thunnus thynnus, así como para las diferentes dietas suministradas durante el experimento. Los resultados mostraron altos valores de δ15N en huevos y larvas (n=64...

  8. Action of sulfurous acid on pollen. [Hepatica triloba; Helleborus orientalis; Vinca minor; Viola tricolor; Primula officinalis; Lilium candidum; Petunia; Pisum; Helleborus viridus; Galanthus nivealis; Vinca major; Convallaria maialis; Narcissus poeticus; Caltha palustris; Cystisus laburnum; Orchis maculata; Bilbergia; Eranthus; Crocus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabachnikoff, V

    1912-01-23

    The following ornamental plants: Hepatica triloba, Helleborus orientalis, Vinca minor, Viola tricolor, Primula officinalis, Lilium candidum, Petunia, Pisum, Helleborus viridus, Galanthus nivealis, Vinca major, Convallaria maialis, Narcissus poeticus, Caltha palustris, Cystisus laburnum, Orchis maculata, Bilbergia, Eranthus, and Crocus were tested for seed production. Exposure to sulfuric acid ranged from three to forty-eight hours. Responses were noted for varying concentrations.

  9. The influence of moonlight and lunar periodicity on the efficacy of CDC light trap in sampling Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis Parrot, 1936 and other Phlebotomus sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Kirstein, Oscar David; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-02-15

    Phlebotomus orientalis is the main sandfly vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the north and northwest of Ethiopia. CDC light traps and sticky traps are commonly used for monitoring sandfly populations. However, their trapping efficiency is greatly influenced by various environmental factors including moonlight and lunar periodicity. In view of that, the current study assessed the effect of moonlight and lunar periodicity on the performance of light traps in collecting P. orientalis. Trapping of P. orientalis and other Phlebotomus spp. was conducted for 7 months between December 2012 and June 2013 using CDC light traps and sticky traps from peri-domestic and agricultural fields. Throughout the trapping periods, collections of sandfly specimens were carried out for 4 nights per month, totaling 28 trapping nights that coincided with the four lunar phases (viz., first quarter, third quarter, new and full moon) distributed in each month. In total, 13,533 sandflies of eight Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. bergeroti, P. rodhaini, P. duboscqi, P. papatasi, P. martini, P. lesleyae and P. heischi) were recorded. The predominant species was P. orientalis in both trapping sites and by both methods of collection in all lunar phases. A significant difference (P lunar phases. The highest mean number (231.13 ± 36.27 flies/trap/night) of P. orientalis was collected during the new moon phases, when the moonlight is absent. Fewer sandflies were attracted to light traps during a full moon. However, the number of P. orientalis and the other Phlebotomus spp. from sticky traps did not differ in their density among the four lunar phases (P = 0.122). Results of the current study demonstrated that the attraction and trapping efficiency of CDC light traps is largely influenced by the presence moonlight, especially during a full moon. Therefore, sampling of sandflies using light traps to estimate population density and other epidemiological studies in the field should take

  10. A Polyphasic Approach for Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of the Fastidious Aquatic Pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Ramírez-Paredes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno is the causative agent of piscine francisellosis, an emerging infectious disease in Asia and Latin America. In this study two outbreaks of francisellosis were diagnosed in the UK on the basis of histopathology, electron microscopy, PCR, bacterial isolation and fulfillment of Koch's postulates. Furthermore, a phenotypic fingerprint based on biochemical analyses, metabolic activity, chemotaxonomic composition, and antimicrobial assays was generated for the novel isolates, the Fno type strain Ehime-1 from Asia and other Fno from Latin America. The genetic relatedness between the novel Fno and other Francisellaceae species was investigated by sequencing and comparing the 16SrRNA gene, 8 housekeeping genes (individually and concatenated and the 16SrRNA-ITS-23SrRNA sequence. The phenotypic profiling indicated a high degree of similarity among the Fno strains as all were able to metabolize dextrin, N-acetyl-D glucosamine, D-fructose, α-D-glucose, D-mannose, methyl pyruvate, acetic acid, α-keto butyric acid, L-alaninamide, L-alanine, L-alanylglycine, L-asparagine, L-glutamic acid, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, inosine, uridine, glycerol, D L-α-glycerol phosphate, glucose-1-phosphate, and glucose-6-phosphate. The chemotaxonomic analyses indicated that 24:1 (20.3%, 18:1n-9 (16.9%, 24:0 (13.1% 14:0 (10.9%, 22:0 (7.8%, 16:0 (7.6%, and 18:0 (5.5% were the predominant structural fatty acids in Fno. The antimicrobial assays showed little variation between the isolates and high susceptibility to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, nitrofurantoin, tobramycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, florfenicol, oxolinic acid, and streptomycin in all the Fno analyzed. In all the phylogenetic trees the Fno strains clustered together in independent branches confirming a high degree of homogeneity. Interestingly in five of the 11 trees i.e., mutS, putA, rpo

  11. The Tunas Formation (Permian) in the Sierras Australes foldbelt, east central Argentina: evidence for syntectonic sedimentation in a foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gamundi, O. R.; Conaghan, P. J.; Rossello, E. A.; Cobbold, P. R.

    1995-04-01

    The Tunas Formation, extensively exposed in the Sierras Australes foldbelt of eastern central Argentina, completes the sedimentation of the Gondwanan (Late Carboniferous-Permian) sequence, locally known as the Pillahuincó Group. The underlying units of the Group show an integrated depositional history which can be explained in terms of glaciomarine sedimentation (Sauce Grande Formation) and postglacial transgression (Piedra Azul and Bonete Formations). This succession also has a rather uniform quartz-rich, sand-sized composition indicative of a cratonic provenance from the Tandilia Massif to the northeast. Early to Late Permian deformation folded and thrusted the southwestern basin margin (Sierras Australes) and triggered the deposition of a 1,500 m — thick, synorogenic prograding wedge, the Tunas Formation, in the adjacent foreland basin (Sauce Grande or Claromecó Basin). Sandstone detrital modes for the Tunas deposits show moderate to low contents of quartz and abundant lithics, mostly of volcanic and metasedimentary origin. Paleocurrents are consistently from the SW. Tuffs interbedded with sandstones in the upper half of Tunas Formation (Early — early Late? Permian) are interpreted as being derived from volcanic glass-rich tuffs settled in a body of water. Extensive rhyolitic ignimbrites and consanguineous airborne tuffaceous material erupted in the northern Patagonian region during that period. The age constraints and similarities in composition between these volcanics and the tuffaceous horizons present in the Sauce Grande, Parana and Karoo Basins suggest a genetic linkage between these two episodes. The intimate relationship between volcanic activity inboard of the paleo-Pacific margin, deformation in the adjacent orogenic belt and subsidence and sedimentation in the contiguous foreland basin constitutes a common motif in the Sauce Grande and Karoo Basins of southwestern Gondwana.

  12. Distribution and transportability of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the Asia-Pacific region using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Daisuke [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (Canada) and Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Ehime (Japan)]. E-mail: ueno@qg8.so-net.ne.jp; Alaee, Mehran [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Marvin, Chris [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Macinnis, Gordia [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Reiner, Eric [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Crozier, Patrick [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Furdui, Vasile I. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Fillmann, Gilberto [Department of Oceanography, Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Zheng, Gene J. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta (Indonesia); Razak, Hamidah [Research and Development Center for Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta (Indonesia); Prudente, Maricar [Science Education Department, De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines); Chung, Kyu-hyuck [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea (Korea); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Ehime (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    The geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was investigated through analysis of muscle tissue of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters of Asia-Pacific region (Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, Brazil, Japan Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Indian Ocean and North Pacific Ocean). HBCD was detected in almost all samples analyzed (<0.1 to 45 ng/g lipid weight basis), indicating widespread presence of this compound in the marine environment. Elevated concentrations of HBCD were found in skipjack tuna from areas around Japan, which have the larger modern industrial/urban societies, and implicated these areas as primary regional sources. All three individual HBCD isomers ({alpha}-, {gamma}- and {beta}-HBCD) were detected in almost all samples; the percentage contribution of the {alpha}-isomer to total HBCD increased with increasing latitude. The estimated empirical 1/2 distance for {alpha}-HBCD was 8500 km, which is one of the highest atmospheric transportability among various halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs). - Geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in offshore water of Asia-Pacific region was investigated using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

  13. Distribution and transportability of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the Asia-Pacific region using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Daisuke; Alaee, Mehran; Marvin, Chris; Muir, Derek C.G.; Macinnis, Gordia; Reiner, Eric; Crozier, Patrick; Furdui, Vasile I.; Subramanian, Annamalai; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K.S.; Zheng, Gene J.; Muchtar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    The geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was investigated through analysis of muscle tissue of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters of Asia-Pacific region (Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, Brazil, Japan Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Indian Ocean and North Pacific Ocean). HBCD was detected in almost all samples analyzed (<0.1 to 45 ng/g lipid weight basis), indicating widespread presence of this compound in the marine environment. Elevated concentrations of HBCD were found in skipjack tuna from areas around Japan, which have the larger modern industrial/urban societies, and implicated these areas as primary regional sources. All three individual HBCD isomers (α-, γ- and β-HBCD) were detected in almost all samples; the percentage contribution of the α-isomer to total HBCD increased with increasing latitude. The estimated empirical 1/2 distance for α-HBCD was 8500 km, which is one of the highest atmospheric transportability among various halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs). - Geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in offshore water of Asia-Pacific region was investigated using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator

  14. Cadmium, lead, tin, total mercury, and methylmercury in canned tuna commercialised in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Esther Lima; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Milani, Raquel Fernanda

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this work was to determine levels of inorganic contaminants in 30 samples of five commercial brands of canned tuna, acquired on the local market in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2015. Total mercury and methylmercury (MeHg+) were determined by atomic absorption with thermal decomposition and amalgamation; and cadmium, lead, and tin were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results indicated that 20% of the tuna samples surpassed limits determined by the Brazilian and European Commission legislation for cadmium; for lead, the maximum value found was 59 µg kg -1 and tin was not detected in any samples. The maximum values found for total Hg and MeHg+ were 261 and 258 µg kg -1 , respectively. As from the results obtained, it was estimated that the consumption of four cans per week (540 g) of tuna canned in water could surpass the provisional tolerable monthly intake for MeHg + by 100%.

  15. First attempt to assess the viability of bluefin tuna spawning events in offshore cages located in an a priori favourable larval habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reglero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Atlantic bluefin tuna caught by the purse-seine fleet in the Mediterranean Sea are transferred alive into transport cages and towed to coastal facilities where they are fattened. This major fishery is targeting aggregations of reproductive bluefin tuna that continue spawning within the transport cages. Our study is the first attempt to assess the viability of the spawning events within transport cages placed offshore in a priori favourable locations for larval survival. The study was conducted in June 2010 in the Balearic Sea, a main spawning area for bluefin tuna in the Mediterranean. The location of two transport cages, one with wild and one with captive tuna, coincide with the situation of the chlorophyll front using satellite imagery as a proxy for the salinity front between resident surface waters and those of recent Atlantic origin. The results showed that bluefin tuna eggs were spawned almost every day within the two cages but few or no larvae were found. The expected larval densities estimated after applying mortality curves to the daily egg densities observed in the cages were higher than the sampled larval densities. The trajectories of the eggs after hatching estimated from a particle tracking model based on observed geostrophic currents and a drifter deployed adjacent to the cage suggest that larvae were likely to be caught close to the cages within the sampling dates. Spawning events in captive tuna in transport cages may hatch into larvae though they may experience higher mortality rates than expected in natural populations. The causes of the larval mortality are further discussed in the text. Such studies should be repeated in other spawning areas in the Mediterranean if spawning in cages located offshore in areas favourable a priori for larval survival is likely to be considered a management measurement to minimize the impact of purse-seine fishing on tuna.

  16. Stereological comparison of oocyte recruitment and batch fecundity estimates from paraffin and resin sections using spawning albacore (Thunnus alalunga) ovaries as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Sámar; Macías, David; Ortiz de Urbina, Josetxu; Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd

    2015-01-01

    Traditional histological protocols in marine fish reproductive laboratories using paraffin as the embedding medium are now increasingly being replaced with protocols using resin instead. These procedures entail different degrees of tissue shrinkage complicating direct comparisons of measurement results across laboratories or articles. In this work we selected ovaries of spawning Mediterranean albacore (Thunnus alalunga) as the subject of our study to address the issue of structural changes, by contrasting values on oocyte recruitment and final batch fecundity given from the same tissue samples in both paraffin and resin. A modern stereological method, the oocyte packing density (OPD) theory, was used supported by initial studies on ovarian tissue sampling and measurement design. Examples of differences in the volume fraction of oocyte stages, free space and connective tissue were found between the embedding media. Mean oocyte diameters were smaller in paraffin than in resin with differences ranging between 0.5% in primary growth and 24.3% in hydration (HYD) stage oocytes. Fresh oocyte measurements showed that oocytes shrank as a consequence of the embedding process, reaching the maximal degree of shrinkage for oocytes in the HYD stage (45.8% in paraffin and 26.5% in resin). In order to assess the effect of oocyte shrinkage on the OPD result, and thereby on relative batch fecundity (Fr), oocyte diameters corrected and uncorrected for shrinkage, were used for estimations. Statistical significant differences were found (P based on either oocytes in the germinal vesicle migration stage or HYD stage. As a valuable adjunct, the present use of the OPD theory made it possible to document that the oocyte recruitment of spawning ovaries of Mediterranean albacore followed the typical pattern of an asynchronous oocyte development and indeterminate fecundity.

  17. Assessing the performance of multiplexed tandem PCR for the diagnosis of pathogenic genotypes of Theileria orientalis using pooled blood samples from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Gasser, Robin B; Stevenson, Mark A; McGrath, Sean; Jabbar, Abdul

    2017-02-01

    Oriental theileriosis caused by multiple genotypes of Theileria orientalis is an important tick-borne disease of bovines. Here, we assessed the performance of an established multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) for the diagnosis of the two recognized, pathogenic genotypes (chitose and ikeda) of T. orientalis in cattle using pooled blood samples. We used a total of 265 cattle blood samples, which were divided into two groups according to previous MT-PCR results for individual samples. Samples in group 1 (n = 155) were from a herd with a relatively high prevalence of T. orientalis infection; and those in group 2 (n = 110) were from four herds with a low prevalence. For group 1, 31 and 15 batches of five- and ten-pooled samples (selected at random), respectively, were formed. For group 2, 22 and 11 batches of five- and ten-pooled samples (selected at random), respectively, were formed. DNAs from individual pooled samples in each batch and group were then tested by MT-PCR. For group 1, the apparent prevalences estimated using the 31 batches of five-pooled samples (97%) and 15 batches of ten-pooled samples (100%) were significantly higher compared with individual samples (75%). For group 2, higher apparent prevalences (9% and 36%) were also recorded for the 22 and 11 batches of pooled samples, respectively, compared with individual samples (7%). Overall, the average infection intensity recorded for the genotypes of chitose and ikeda were considerably lower in pooled compared with individual samples. The diagnostic specificities of MT-PCR were estimated at 95% and 94%, respectively, when batches of five- and ten-pooled samples were tested, and 94% for individual samples. The diagnostic sensitivity of this assay was estimated at 98% same for all individual, five- and ten-pooled samples. This study shows that screening batches of five- and ten-pooled blood samples from cattle herds are similar to those obtained for individual samples, and, importantly, that the reduced cost

  18. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Issatchenkia orientalis GPI-Anchored Protein, IoGas1, Required for Resistance to Low pH and Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Matsushika

    Full Text Available The use of yeasts tolerant to acid (low pH and salt stress is of industrial importance for several bioproduction processes. To identify new candidate genes having potential roles in low-pH tolerance, we screened an expression genomic DNA library of a multiple-stress-tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis (Pichia kudriavzevii, for clones that allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to grow under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0. A genomic DNA clone containing two putative open reading frames was obtained, of which the putative protein-coding gene comprising 1629 bp was retransformed into the host. This transformant grew significantly at pH 2.0, and at pH 2.5 in the presence of 7.5% Na2SO4. The predicted amino acid sequence of this new gene, named I. orientalis GAS1 (IoGAS1, was 60% identical to the S. cerevisiae Gas1 protein, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein essential for maintaining cell wall integrity, and 58-59% identical to Candida albicans Phr1 and Phr2, pH-responsive proteins implicated in cell wall assembly and virulence. Northern hybridization analyses indicated that, as for the C. albicans homologs, IoGAS1 expression was pH-dependent, with expression increasing with decreasing pH (from 4.0 to 2.0 of the medium. These results suggest that IoGAS1 represents a novel pH-regulated system required for the adaptation of I. orientalis to environments of diverse pH. Heterologous expression of IoGAS1 complemented the growth and morphological defects of a S. cerevisiae gas1Δ mutant, demonstrating that IoGAS1 and the corresponding S. cerevisiae gene play similar roles in cell wall biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that two conserved glutamate residues (E161 and E262 in the IoGas1 protein play a crucial role in yeast morphogenesis and tolerance to low pH and salt stress. Furthermore, overexpression of IoGAS1 in S. cerevisiae remarkably improved the ethanol fermentation ability at pH 2.5, and at pH 2.0 in the

  19. THE SEASONAL VARIABILITY OF CPUE AND CATCH-AT-SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF TROLL AND HANDLINE TUNA FISHERIES LANDED IN LABUHAN LOMBOK

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    Bram Setyadji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Troll and hand line tuna fisheries is one of the major fishing gears landed in Labuhan Lombok coastal fishing port (PPP Labuhan Lombok west Nusa Tenggara Barat province.  Both fisheries are strongly associated with fish aggregating devices (FAD’s. The main fishing ground is Indian Ocean southern part of this province.  Several source of data has been collected regularly. Data analysis comprised of monthlycatch and effort data samples based onport monitoring program during 2012 to 2015. The result showed the diclining of CPUE of yellow fin and skipjack tuna presumably related to fishing intensity of fleets and its variability that landed in PPP Labuhan Lombok.  The increasing CPUE of skipjack tuna in 2014 was predicted due to increasing aggregation around the FADs. Constrasting seasonal fishing index pattern between yellowfin and skipjack tuna foundin 4-month cycles, started in January.A length-weight relationship suggested that yellowfin tuna caught bysmall-scale fisheries were performing allometric growth pattern (b=2.963, r2=0.9737.

  20. Liquidambar orientalis Mill.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... as in the chemical and cosmetic industry. Unfortunately ..... enzyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA loci in black spruce. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. ... Preparation of DNA from single rice seedlings. Rice. Genet.

  1. Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnusalbacares Fishing Ground Forecasting Model Based On Bayes Classifier In The South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wei-feng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the yellowfin tuna (Thunnusalbacares,YFTlongline fishing catch data in the open South China Sea (SCS provided by WCPFC, the optimum interpolation sea surface temperature (OISST from CPC/NOAA and multi-satellites altimetric monthly averaged product sea surface height (SSH released by CNES, eight alternative options based on Bayes classifier were made in this paper according to different strategies on the choice of environment factors and the levels of fishing zones to classify the YFT fishing ground in the open SCS. The classification results were compared with the actual ones for validation and analyzed to know how different plans impact on classification results and precision. The results of validation showed that the precision of the eight options were 71.4%, 75%, 70.8%, 74.4%, 66.7%, 68.5%, 57.7% and 63.7% in sequence, the first to sixth among them above 65% would meet the practical application needs basically. The alternatives which use SST and SSH simultaneously as the environmental factors have higher precision than which only use single SST environmental factor, and the consideration of adding SSH can improve the model precision to a certain extent. The options which use CPUE’s mean ± standard deviation as threshold have higher precision than which use CPUE’s 33.3%-quantile and 66.7%-quantile as the threshold

  2. Anaerobic digestion of tuna waste for the production of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Penabad, Noela; Kennes, Christian; Veiga, Maria C

    2017-10-01

    Fish canning industries generate a significant amount of solid waste that can be digested anaerobically into volatile fatty acids (VFA). The aim of this research was to study the effect of various pHs, ranging from 5.0 to 10.0, and percentage of total solids on the anaerobic digestion of tuna waste into VFA, both in batch assays and continuous reactor. The production of VFA was affected by pH and was significantly higher under alkaline conditions. At pH 8.0, the VFA production reached 30,611mgCOD/L. The VFA mainly consisted of acetic, propionic, n-butyric and i-valeric acids. Acetic acid was the main product at all the pHs tested. In terms of total solids (TS) the best results were obtained with 2.5% total solids, reaching 0.73gCOD VFA /gCOD waste . At higher TS concentrations (5 and 8% TS) lower yields were reached probably due to inhibition at high VFA concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pertinencia del esquema terapéutico antimicrobiano en las infecciones del tracto urinario, Las Tunas

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    Maité Rúa del Toro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, de utilización de medicamentos de tipo indicación-prescripción con elementos de esquema terapéutico, con el objetivo de evaluar la pertinencia del esquema terapéutico de antimicrobianos, para el tratamiento de las infecciones del tracto urinario en la atención primaria de salud en el municipio Las Tunas, en el período comprendido entre enero a diciembre de 2012. El universo estuvo constituido por el total de pacientes con prescripción médica de antimicrobianos por impresión diagnóstica de sepsi o infección urinaria, la muestra fue de 120 pacientes. Los datos se obtuvieron de fuentes primarias y secundarias, procesados por estadística descriptiva, a través del análisis porcentual.  Las infecciones del tracto urinario, baja y alta no complicadas, fueron las que más afectaron a la población. Los antimicrobianos más utilizados: cotrimoxazol, ciprofloxacina y ácido nalidíxico. A la mayoría de los pacientes se les prescribieron terapéuticas antimicrobianas no pertinentes, debido a la selección inadecuada.

  4. Morbidity rate due to renal malformations in patients from Las Tunas province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Laffita Estévez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The urogenital congenital malformations represent the first place within the genetic malformations in the province of Las Tunas.Objective: To characterize the renal congenital malformations in pediatric patients of the herein mentioned province, from 2010 to 2014.Methods: A descriptive study was carried out with 283 paediatric patients with renal and urinary tract congenital malformation, in the province and period herein stated. The variables included: sex, clinical manifestations, more frequent malformations, which of them needed surgical treatment, the positive results of the radiological studies, and the malformations that developed into chronic renal failure. The data were analyzed according to descriptive statistics.Results: The male sex represented a 63,96 %. A 57,95 % of the children were asymptomatic. Within the congenital malformations ectasia prevailed with a 49,47 %. 100 % of the cases with a compromise of the ureteovesiccal union, ureterocele and shell of the posterior urethra, 78 % of the patients with stenosis of the ureteropyelic union and 4,76 % of the patients with vesicoureteric reflux needed surgical treatment. The radiological studies were highly positive. 1,41 % of the patients developed chronic renal failure.Conclusions: Most of the patients with renal and urinary tract congenital malformations were diagnosed before the 5 years of age. Only four patients developed chronic renal failure.

  5. Post-column derivatization capillary electrochromatography for detection of biogenic amines in tuna-meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Shigeyuki; Okuya, Yukie; Yanase, Yukiko; Suzuki, Sayaka

    2008-08-15

    A system to perform post-column derivatization capillary electrochromatography (CEC) was developed for the first time. The system mainly included a 4-microm (O.D.) silica packed column (200 mm effective length x 0.1 mm inner diameter I.D.) with micro-magnetic particles (MMPs) frits, a T-junction connector, an in-line fluorescence detector and a high-voltage power supply. The system was evaluated by using histamine (HA) as a standard biogenic amine for this study. A 5 microM HA solution was loaded at the anodic site of the capillary column by applying 3 kV for 5s. Then, HA was electrophoretically eluted with a 20mM phosphate buffer (pH 7) by applying 3 kV, and was derivatized with 3mM o-phthalaldehyde (OPA)/N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in 100 mM borate (pH 10), which was continuously delivered through the reagent-loading capillary tube by gravity into the T-junction connector. HA derivative was finally detected with the in-line fluorescence detector (lambda(Ex)=340 nm, lambda(Em)=450 nm) at 9.7 min after sample loading. To test the utility of this system, it was next employed for its ability to detect the presence of HA and other kinds of biogenic amines, including cadaverine (Cad), spermidine (Spm) and tyramine (Tyr) in tuna-meat, once the validity of the method had been confirmed.

  6. Characteristics and nutritional value of whole wheat cracker fortified with tuna bone bio-calcium powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Karnjanapratum, Supatra

    2018-09-01

    Whole wheat cracker fortified with tuna bone bio-calcium (Bio-Ca) powder was developed as health-promoting food rich in calcium. Fortification with different levels of Bi-Ca, over the range of 0-50% of whole wheat flour (w/w) on quality and sensory properties of crackers, were determined. Color, thickness, weight and textural properties of crackers varied with the different levels of Bio-Ca powder added, but it was found that up to 30% could be added without detrimental effect on sensory properties. Scanning electron microscopic images showed that the developed crackers were less porous and had a denser structure, compared to the control. Based on scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (SEM-EDX), the cracker containing Bio-Ca powder had calcium and phosphorous distribution with higher intensity, compared to the control. The fortified crackers were rich in calcium and phosphorous with higher protein content but lower fat, carbohydrate, cholesterol and energy value, compared to the control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Banning is not enough: The complexities of oceanic shark management by tuna regional fisheries management organizations

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    Mariana Travassos Tolotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, declining populations of several pelagic shark species have led to global conservation concerns surrounding this group. As a result, a series of species-specific banning measures have been implemented by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs in charge of tuna fisheries, which include retention bans, finning bans and trading bans. There are both positive and negative aspects to most management measures, but generally, the positive aspects outweigh the negatives, ensuring the measure is beneficial to the resource and its users in the long term. Banning measures are a good first step towards the conservation of pelagic shark species, especially since they improve conservation awareness among fishers, managers and the public. Measures that impose total bans, however, can lead to negative impacts that may jeopardize the populations they were intended to protect. The majority of pelagic shark catches are incidental and most sharks die before they reach the vessel or after they are released. The legislation set out by RFMOs only prevents retention but not the actual capture or the mortality that may occur as a result. Managers should be fully aware that the development and implementation of mitigation measures are critical for a more effective conservation strategy.

  8. Arte, cultura y lucha contra el cáncer en Las Tunas

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    Juan Ernesto Pérez Reyes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Los avances científicos de hoy están permitiendo que el cáncer no se convierta en una sentencia inexorable de muerte. La cronificación del tratamiento plantea retos a los sistemas sanitarios, en su compromiso por ofrecer al enfermo el apoyo para enfrentar su nueva situación y devolverlo a la vida normal. Las complicaciones producto de los tratamientos, los efectos físicos secundarios, la modificación de las rutinas y el sentir que se vive bajo una amenaza, desestabilizan el balance emocional de muchos enfermos. El arte puede captar los más personales aspectos en la experiencia del cáncer. La creación artística puede unir a pacientes, familiares, amigos, al equipo sanitario y a la comunidad en su conjunto, aportando nuevos caminos para ayudar al paciente. La labor artística puede proveer de otros modos de expresión que no se encuentran en las formas tradicionales de tratamiento, permitiendo explorar temas intrínsecos del enfermo de forma creativa y personal. El arte puede comunicar con los aspectos más silenciados de la enfermedad, ayudando a las personas con escasas posibilidades para confesar sus experiencias. Bajo esta premisa el recientemente fundado capítulo provincial de la Sociedad cubana de oncología, radioterapia y medicina nuclear ha efectuado en Las Tunas varias actividades a partir del día tres de febrero del actual año, comenzando con la inauguración de la Jornada provincial de lucha contra el cáncer. La estrategia divulgativa contó con la colaboración del Grupo provincial para el control del cáncer, el Centro provincial del cine y el proyecto FILOARTMED de la Universidad médica de Las Tunas, quienes se han interesado en elevar la producción científica de los profesionales de la salud, que luchan por controlar el cáncer en el territorio. En la sala cinematográfica Titón del Teatro Tunas, se dieron cita los miembros del capítulo provincial de la Sociedad cubana de oncología, radioterapia y medicina

  9. Genetic Structure of Bluefin Tuna in the Mediterranean Sea Correlates with Environmental Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Giulia; Stagioni, Marco; Landi, Monica; Ferrara, Giorgia; Barbujani, Guido; Tinti, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    Background Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ABFT) shows complex demography and ecological variation in the Mediterranean Sea. Genetic surveys have detected significant, although weak, signals of population structuring; catch series analyses and tagging programs identified complex ABFT spatial dynamics and migration patterns. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the genetic structure of the ABFT in the Mediterranean is correlated with mean surface temperature and salinity. Methodology We used six samples collected from Western and Central Mediterranean integrated with a new sample collected from the recently identified easternmost reproductive area of Levantine Sea. To assess population structure in the Mediterranean we used a multidisciplinary framework combining classical population genetics, spatial and Bayesian clustering methods and a multivariate approach based on factor analysis. Conclusions FST analysis and Bayesian clustering methods detected several subpopulations in the Mediterranean, a result also supported by multivariate analyses. In addition, we identified significant correlations of genetic diversity with mean salinity and surface temperature values revealing that ABFT is genetically structured along two environmental gradients. These results suggest that a preference for some spawning habitat conditions could contribute to shape ABFT genetic structuring in the Mediterranean. However, further studies should be performed to assess to what extent ABFT spawning behaviour in the Mediterranean Sea can be affected by environmental variation. PMID:24260341

  10. Teenage pregnancy, epidemiological behavior in Las Tunas during the period 2012 - 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelis Reyes Reyes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: teenage pregnancy is a medical risk to be considered, not only for determining an increase of maternal morbidity and an estimated of 2 to 3 times infant mortality, but also as one of the most important factors in the occurrence of congenital malformations.Objective: to determine the epidemiological behavior of teenage pregnancy in Las Tunas province during the period 2012 - 2014.Methods: a descriptive, observational and retrospective study of the behavior of teenage pregnancy was carried out in the province and time period previously stated. The study was performed in municipalities and People's Councils. The universe consisted of 148 169 women of childbearing age and the sample comprised 3 309 pregnant female teenagers from 12 to 19 years old.Results: the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy continues, but the province and its municipalities show favorable data; 2013 was the one of the most negative results, being Manatí and Amancio municipalities the most significant ones; in all the municipalities there are People's Councils with results that are higher than municipal and provincial averages. The adolescent fertility rate in the province was between 39.0 and 45.2 per 1000, being 2013 and Amancio municipality the ones with the highest incidence.Conclusions: although the teenage pregnancy continues, the province and its municipalities show favorable data, resulting from an integrated and successful health programs, involving Provincial Genetics Network work.

  11. Historia del Boxeo en la provincia de las Tunas hasta 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etián Jiménez Espinosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación hace un estudio sobre los antecedentes, génesis, evolución y desarrollo del boxeo en la provincia en Las Tunas, el cual se realiza a partir de una periodización hasta nuestros días. El estudio responde a una de las problemáticas más complejas y necesarias del territorio, que responde a la carencia de información bibliográfica para impartir con la calidad pertinente la asignatura Historia del Deporte, en todos sus ámbitos – internacional, nacional y local- y con un enfoque de análisis totalizador. Se rescata la memoria histórica en su expresión deportiva como parte de la identidad cultural de la región. Las fuentes de la información fueron obtenidas de una acuciosa búsqueda en todos los medios de prensa local, antes y después del Triunfo de la Revolución, de una veintena de especialistas y conocedores del hecho histórico deportivo objeto de estudio. Además, se consultaron numerosas fuentes bibliográficas sobre la historia de este deporte en su manifestación a nivel nacional e internacional.

  12. Into the deep blue sea: Commons theory and international governance of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Epstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to understand how to sustainably govern oceanic fisheries has become increasingly urgent as their contribution to global food security and livelihoods are threatened by declining stocks. Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (ABFT is a prominent example of the complexities associated with widely distributed oceanic resources, extending in this case to include much of the North-Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. This distribution has led to limited attention from commons theorists that tend to focus on small-scale social ecological systems. Therefore in order to explore the fit between theories of the commons developed in small-scale systems, we apply the Social-Ecological Systems Meta-Analysis Database (SESMAD to systematically analyze ABFT governance over a 22 year period. The results, which focus on the effects of resource characteristics, broadly correspond to the expectations of commons theory. Interestingly, however, the addition of resource storage in the form of ABFT ranches appears to be contributing to unsustainable harvests. This stands in contrast to previous findings in the commons literature that storage tends to enhance prospects for sustainable governance. Therefore several alternative hypotheses are developed by comparing and contrasting attributes of ABFT and canal irrigation storage. These hypotheses may be used in future research to evaluate the conditions in which storage enhances prospects for sustainable governance.

  13. Estabilidad en el almacenamiento congelado de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo (Thunnus sp. empacadas en atmósfera modificada con CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Luisa Medina Bracamonte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La disponibilidad atún rojo fresco, entero y rebanado, como todo producto pesquero fresco está restringida para los consumidores en zonas distantes a los centros de producción por su estabilidad limitada en el almacenamiento. Por ello la industria pesquera en general, en la época de mayor producción, recurre a la congelación para conservar el excedente de producción, y al empacado para protegerlo del ambiente frío y seco del congelador, evitar su deshidratación y “quemaduras por frío”. El surgimiento del Empacado en Atmósfera Modificada como alternativa para incrementar la vida útil de productos alimenticios despertó la inquietud de evaluar la estabilidad de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo (Thunnus sp. fresco, congeladas y empacadas con 100 % de CO2 durante su almacenamiento a las temperaturas convencionales para su distribución y venta, -10 y -18 ºC, evaluando la estabilidad química, física, microbiológica y sensorial de las rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo durante ≈ 4 meses de almacenamiento congelado. El 50 % de las rebanadas se congeló a -10 ºC (Tratamiento 1 y el 50 % restante a -18 ºC (Tratamiento 2. Las rebanadas congeladas se empacaron individualmente, el 50 % en atmósfera de 100 % de CO2 conservando la proporción 1:2 (rebanada:gas y el 50 % restante en atmósfera de aire. Se almacenaron a la temperatura correspondiente: Tratamiento 1 a -10 ºC y Tratamiento 2 a -18 ºC durante 111 días. Al final del almacenamiento el tratamiento P2 (100 % CO2 ofreció mejor barrera a la pérdida de humedad, favoreció la estabilidad de la fracción de proteínas solubles en solución salina. Las muestras P2 tuvieron mayor aceptación sensorial, fueron las más oscuras y rojas, con menor recuento microbiológico, coincidiendo con el menor contenido en bases volátiles totales. A -10 ºC la atmósfera de 100 % de CO2 no evitó la “quemadura por frío” y los panelistas percibieron el “olor a pescado”.

  14. Characterization of tuna cooking effluents generated in seafood canning industries; Caracterizacion de los efluentes de coccion de atum generados en la industrias conserveras de productos marinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Paz, D.; Torres Ayaso, A. B.; Vieites Baptista de Sousa, J. M.

    2006-07-01

    Tuna cooking effluents from different factories were analyzed, in this work. It has been analyzed effluents form water cooking and steam cooking processes. Steam cooking effluents are more appropriate for protein recovery due to the higher protein concentrations (up to 10 g/l, in some cases) and lower volume. Besides, steam cooking effluents, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) were up to 50 and 5 g/l, respectively. Different correlations between the main parameters the main parameters have been found, for example protein and TKN concentrations of a tuna cooking effluent can be estimated from COD concentrations. (Author) 9 refs.

  15. Assessment of health risk of exposure to mercury through intake under canned tuna in health registration process period January 2010-December 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, M.; Tovar, M.; Alvarez, J.; Arraez, M.; Hordziejewicz, I.; Loreto, I.

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation is about: Assessing the health risk due to exposure to mercury through ingestion canned tuna under sanitary registration process in the country, using the risk assessment tool recommended by the Codex Alimentarius establishing safety according to the use of local diets. The analytical method appied was Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry Amalgamation (SS TDA AS). As a recommendation was important to maintain an ongoing program of monitoring of mercury in tuna as being a highly recommended food as being excellent source of protein and fatty acids beneficial to health can also be a source of mercury poisoning in cases of people who have a high consumption thereof in the diet

  16. Comportamiento de la lepra en la provincia de Las Tunas, 2003-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha O León Cabrales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, para determinar algunas características epidemiológicas de la incidencia de la lepra, que es una enfermedad transmisible, tan antigua como el hombre mismo. El universo estuvo constituido por los 103 casos notificados con lepra en la provincia de Las Tunas, en el período de enero de 2003 a diciembre de 2012. La información se obtuvo por las encuestas epidemiológicas existentes en el Departamento de Estadística de la Dirección Provincial de Salud y en el Centro Provincial de Higiene, Epidemiología y Microbiología. Se creó una base de datos en Epinfo versión 3.3.3, donde se tabularon los datos de las encuestas. El análisis de los resultados se expresó en números absolutos, tasas y porcentajes para su mejor interpretación, obteniéndose como resultado que la tasa de detección de casos tiene un comportamiento irregular, el año de mayor incidencia fue el 2009, con 20 casos. Se notificaron tres casos de lepra infantil; las formas paucibacilares representaron el 51,5%; el modo de detección más frecuente fue el espontáneo. Existe transmisión activa y todo ello puede ser reflejo de la ausencia de un trabajo consolidado en el programa de control de la enfermedad

  17. Certification of Trace Elements and Methylmercury Mass Fractions in Tuna Fish Flesh Homogenate IAEA-436A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of the IAEA Environment Laboratories is to assist Member States in the use of both stable and radioactive isotope analytical techniques to understand, monitor and protect the marine environment. The major impact of large coastal cities on marine ecosystems is a primary concern for the IAEA. The Marine Environment Studies Laboratory, as a part of IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco, acts as the analytical support centre for Member State laboratories and is the pillar of the quality assurance programme for the determination of non-nuclear pollutants, trace elements and organic contaminants in the marine environment. The marine pollution assessments required to understand such impacts depend on accurate knowledge of contaminant concentrations in various environmental compartments. Good laboratory practice and quality assurance and control are essential components of the analytical process for the production of data. Quality control procedures are commonly based on analyses of certified reference materials to assess reproducibility and measurement biases and uncertainties. Certified reference materials are key tools for quality assurance. They are used to validate analytical methods and to establish traceability to internationally agreed references. They are cornerstones for laboratory accreditation and the correct implementation of national and international regulations. In the development and validation of new methods, certified reference materials play a vital role in state of the art technologies where measurements are critical. The IAEA supports the development and production of environmental certified reference materials for monitoring laboratories in Member States. The reference material IAEA-436, characterized for trace elements and methylmercury mass fractions in tuna fish flesh homogenate, was produced by the IAEA in Monaco in 2006. This publication describes the production of certified reference material IAEA-436A, which is based on the

  18. Rasgos epidemiológicos de ciegos y débiles visuales por retinosis pigmentaria en la provincia Las Tunas Epidemiologic traits of the blind and visually handicapped due to retinitis pigmantosa in the province of Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa González Hess

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 325 pacientes con el diagnóstico retinosis pigmentaria en la provincia Las Tunas. De ellos, se encontró que el 24,9 y el 10 % eran ciegos y débiles visuales respectivamente, donde se obtuvo una tasa de ciegos por retinosis pigmentaria de 1,45 x 10 000 habitantes y de débiles visuales de 0,6 x 10 000 habitantes. El tipo de herencia que predominó en ambos grupos fue la autosómica recesiva.325 patients with the diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa were studied in the province of Las Tunas. Of them, it was found that 24.9 % and 10 % were blind and visually handicapped, respectively. A rate of blind patients caused by retinitis pigmentosa of 1.45 x 10 000 inhabitants and of visually handicapped of 0.6 x 10 000 inhabitants was obtained. The type of inheritance predominating in both groups was the autosomal recessive inheritance.

  19. Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of cadmium, lead and mercury residual levels in meat of canned light tuna ( Katsuwonus pelamis and Thunnus albacares ) and fresh little tunny ( Euthynnus alletteratus ) in Libya. ... Surveillance for mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination in tuna products is crucial for consumer food safety.

  20. 76 FR 31556 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA... Species Act Listing Determination for Atlantic Bluefin Tuna AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.'' The...

  1. Proactive Conservation Program: Species of Concern :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invertebrates & Plants Species of Concern Threatened & Endangered Health & Stranding Marine Mammals : Species of Concern Species of Concern List | Grants and Technical Resources/Links bluefin tuna Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Photo: NOAA Species of Concern are those species about which we have some

  2. Valorisation of tuna processing waste biomass for recovery of functional and antioxidant peptides using enzymatic hydrolysis and membrane fractionation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Sami; Ben Amar, Raja

    2016-10-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis using Prolyve BS coupled to membrane process (Ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF)) is a means of biotransformation of tuna protein waste to Tuna protein hydrolysate (TPH) with higher added values. This method could be an effective solution for the production of bioactive compounds used in various biotechnological applications and minimizing the pollution problems generated by the seafood processing industries. The amino acid composition, functional and antioxidant properties of produced TPH were evaluated. The results show that the glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, alaline, valine and leucine were the major amino acids detected in the TPH profile. After membrane fractionation process, those major amino acids were concentrated in the NF retentate (NFR). The NFR and NF permeate (NFP) have a higher protein solubility (>95 %) when compared to TPH (80 %). Higher oil and water binding capacity were observed in TPH and higher emulsifying and foam stability was found in UF retentate. The NFP showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (65 %). The NFR contained antioxidant amino acid (30.3 %) showed the highest superoxide radical and reducing power activities. The TPH showed the highest iron chelating activity (75 %) compared to other peptide fractions. The effect of the membrane fractionation on the molecular weight distribution of the peptide and their bioactivities was underlined. We concluded that the TPH is a valuable source of bioactive peptides and their peptide fractions may serve as useful ingredients for application in food industry and formulation of nutritional products.

  3. FISHING GROUND, CACTH COMPOSITION, HOOK RATE AND LENGTH DISTRIBUTION OF BILLFISHES CAUGHT BY TUNA LONG LINE IN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathur Rochman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Billfishes area by cacth of tuna long line vessels in Indian Ocean. Billfish are consist of swordfish Xiphias gladius, black marlin Makaira indica, indo facific blue marlin Makaira mazara, stripe marlin Tetrapturus audax, indo facific sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and shortbill spearfish Tetrapturus angustirostris. Besides that, billfishes also have important economic value compared with tuna as an exsported species such as swordfish and marlin. To optimize the catch of billfishes in Indian Ocean, data and information of potential fishing ground, size and catch composition of this species are needed. The billfishes cacth composition collected in 2011 were dominated by 45% swordfish, 20% black marlin, 19% blue marlin,9% short bill spearfish, 6% sailfish and 1%stripe marlin. The billfishes size range which were caught between 60 - 280 cm LJFL (Lower Jaw Fork Length. The sword fish average length was 150 cm, blue marlin 197 cm, black Marlin 189 cm, sailfish 150cm ,short bill spearfish 144 cm and stripe marlin159 cm. From this observation, it was found that most of billfishes caught were in mature.

  4. The age of the Tunas formation in the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina): Implications for the Permian evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar; Fildani, Andrea; Weislogel, Amy; Rossello, Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    New SHRIMP radiogenic isotope dating on zircons in tuffs (280.8 ± 1.9 Ma) confirms the Early Permian (Artinskian) age of the uppermost section of the Tunas Formation. Tuff-rich levels in the Tunas Formation are exposed in the Ventana foldbelt of central Argentina; they are part of a deltaic to fluvial section corresponding to the late overfilled stage of the Late Paleozoic Sauce Grande foreland basin. Recent SHRIMP dating of zircons from the basal Choiyoi volcanics exposed in western Argentina yielded an age of 281.4 ± 2.5 Ma (Rocha-Campos et al., 2011). The new data for the Tunas tuffs suggest that the volcanism present in the Sauce Grande basin can be considered as the distal equivalent of the earliest episodes of the Choiyoi volcanism of western Argentina. From the palaeoclimatic viewpoint the new Tunas SHRIMP age confirms that by early Artinskian glacial conditions ceased in the Sauce Grande basin and, probably, in adajacent basins in western Gondwana.

  5. Genetic stock structure of frigate tuna (Auxis thazard) along Indian coast based on PCR-RFLP analyses of mtDNA D-Loop region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    GirishKumar; Kunal, S.P.; Menezes, M.R.

    : 547-572. Pillai, N.G.K. and Mallia, J.V. 2007. Bibliography on Tunas. CMFRI Special Publication No. 92: 325 pp Pillai, P.P. and Gopakumar, G. 2003. In: M. Mohan Joseph, A.A. Jayaprakash, (Eds.), Status of exploited marine fishery resources...

  6. Chemical Constituents and Toxicity of Essential Oils of Oriental Arborvitae, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, against Three Stored-Product Beetles Componentes Químicos y Toxicidad de Aceites Esenciales de Tuya Oriental, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, contra Tres Escarabajos de Productos Almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or biological activity against insects. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils of leaves and fruits from oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae was investigated against adults of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab., rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L., and red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Fresh leaves and fruits were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oils was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Twenty-six compounds (92.9% and 23 constituents (97.8% were identified in the leaf and the fruit oils, respectively. The major components of both leaves and fruits oils were α-pinene (35.2%, 50.7%, α-cedrol (14.6%, 6.9% and Δ-3-carene (6.3%, 13.8%, respectively. Both oils in the same concentration were tested for their fumigant toxicity on each species. Results showed that leaf oils were more toxic than fruit oils against three species of insects. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than S. oryzae and T. castaneum. LC510 values of the leaf and the fruit oils at 24 h were estimated 6.06 and 9.24 μL L¹ air for C. maculatus, 18.22 and 21.56 μL L-1 air for S. oryzae, and 32.07 and 36.58 μL L4 air for T. castaneum, respectively. These results suggested that P. orientalis oils may have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae, and T. castaneum.Los metabolitos secundarios de las plantas juegan un papel importante en las interacciones planta-insecto, y por lo tanto pueden tener actividad insecticida o biológica en los insectos. La toxicidad fumigante de los aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos del árbol oriental de la vida (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae fue investigada contra adultos de gorgojo del guisante (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab

  7. An individual-based model of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) movement in the tropical Pacific ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt Phillips, Joe; Sen Gupta, Alex; Senina, Inna; van Sebille, Erik; Lange, Michael; Lehodey, Patrick; Hampton, John; Nicol, Simon

    2018-05-01

    The distribution of marine species is often modeled using Eulerian approaches, in which changes to population density or abundance are calculated at fixed locations in space. Conversely, Lagrangian, or individual-based, models simulate the movement of individual particles moving in continuous space, with broader-scale patterns such as distribution being an emergent property of many, potentially adaptive, individuals. These models offer advantages in examining dynamics across spatiotemporal scales and making comparisons with observations from individual-scale data. Here, we introduce and describe such a model, the Individual-based Kinesis, Advection and Movement of Ocean ANimAls model (Ikamoana), which we use to replicate the movement processes of an existing Eulerian model for marine predators (the Spatial Ecosystem and Population Dynamics Model, SEAPODYM). Ikamoana simulates the movement of either individual or groups of animals by physical ocean currents, habitat-dependent stochastic movements (kinesis), and taxis movements representing active searching behaviours. Applying our model to Pacific skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), we show that it accurately replicates the evolution of density distribution simulated by SEAPODYM with low time-mean error and a spatial correlation of density that exceeds 0.96 at all times. We demonstrate how the Lagrangian approach permits easy tracking of individuals' trajectories for examining connectivity between different regions, and show how the model can provide independent estimates of transfer rates between commonly used assessment regions. In particular, we find that retention rates in most assessment regions are considerably smaller (up to a factor of 2) than those estimated by this population of skipjack's primary assessment model. Moreover, these rates are sensitive to ocean state (e.g. El Nino vs La Nina) and so assuming fixed transfer rates between regions may lead to spurious stock estimates. A novel feature of the

  8. Efficient expression of a soluble lipid transfer protein (LTP) of Platanus orientalis using short peptide tags and structural comparison with the natural form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Farhad; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Chamani, Jamshidkhan; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Ketabdar, Hanieh; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Successful recombinant allergen-based immunotherapy has drawn a great deal of attention to use recombinant allergens for new therapeutic and/or diagnostic strategies. The Escherichia coli expression system is frequently used to produce recombinant allergens; however, protein expression in E. coli often results in inclusion bodies. Here, we focused on the expression of two recombinant soluble forms of Pla or 3 using solubility-enhancing peptide tags, human immune deficiency virus type 1 transactivator of transcription core domain and poly-arginine-lysine: rTAT-Pla or 3 and rPoly-Arg-Lys-Pla or 3. Structural characteristics and IgE reactivity of purified recombinant proteins were compared with natural Pla or 3 (nPla or 3) isolated from Platanus orientalis using circular dichroism spectra, fluorescence spectroscopy, and immunoblotting. Likewise, intrinsic viscosity and Stokes radius of the natural and recombinant Pla or 3 allergens were determined to analyze structural compactness in aqueous media. The results indicate high-level solubility and efficient expression of the fusion proteins (rTAT-Pla or 3 and rPoly-Arg-Lys-Pla or 3) compared with the wild-type recombinant. Furthermore, the similar structural characteristics and IgE-binding activities of the fusion proteins to nPla or 3 provide a promising tool for allergy diagnosis and treatment. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. UNIVERSITAS: A PROJECT WITH A HUMANIST AND INTEGRAL CULTURE APPROACH IN LAS TUNAS UNIVERSITY CENTER / UNIVERSITAS: PROYECTO POR UN PERFIL HUMANISTA Y DE CULTURA INTEGRAL EN EL CENTRO UNIVERSITARIO DE LAS TUNAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Macías Reyes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available UNIVERSITAS is a project of sociocultural transformation in Las Tunas university center, with the aim to impel the development of the integral culture in the university community. The knowledge and deepening in the needs, interests, hoping, ways of thinking and acting; in an analysis of the reality, ease the elaboration of the project; which enriches the cultural spectrum of the university community. It is supported by a body of theoretical and methodological budget. Its system of actions is based on newness ideas bind to mechanism of supervisory as: the coordinator group of the project, the orientation bureau, and at the same time the functioning of fixed spaces as: the university theater, the room for exhibitions, Univideo, student’ house, ropes, voices, university and creators, a date with craftsman, dance and music.

  10. Selected-ion storage GC-MS analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in palm dates and tuna fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Omair, A.; Helaleh, M.I.H. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research (KISR), Central Analytical Lab. (CAL), Safat (Kuwait)

    2004-06-01

    A rapid analytical method based on Soxhlet extraction has been developed for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in palm dates and tuna fish. The method is based on selected ion-storage gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the work discussed we were interested in the analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) regarded by the EPA as priority pollutants. Soxhlet extraction of real, fortified, and blank samples, with hexane as solvent, was used to extract the analytes of interest. An excellent detection limit and good relative standard deviations (RSD) were obtained and analysis time was short. The linearity and sensitivity of the method for measurement of these analytes at trace levels are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Specific activity and derived intervention levels for cesium-137 in Costa Rican export goods: tuna fish, coffee and powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, L.G.; Mora, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Cesium-137 is a fission product of 235 U and 239 Pu. After a major nuclear accident, it is released into the atmosphere and in the far field region it will produce radioactively contaminated food and drinking water. This paper will study the specific activity of 137 Cs in three Costa Rican export products: tuna fish, coffee and powdered milk. The average specific activities found are as follows: 0.89 ± 0.41, 1.16 ± 0.76 and 4.53 ± 2.00 Bq kg -1 . They represent low values compared to their derived intervention levels: 1.25 x 10 7 , 1.25 x 10 7 and 2.44 x 10 5 Bq kg -1 , respectively. (Author)

  12. Evaluación del estado mental de los pacientes centenarios en Las Tunas, diciembre 2007- agosto 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisset del Carmen Romero Portelles

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento de la población en Cuba es similar al de muchos países desarrollados, y se encuentra entre los que tienen un índice más elevado dentro del grupo de países en desarrollo. Se realizó un trabajo descriptivo observacional  en la provincia de Las Tunas, en el período diciembre 2007- agosto 2008, con el propósito de caracterizar el estado cognitivo-afectivo de los centenarios. El universo estuvo  constituido por 97 ancianos; una vez validada su edad, la muestra quedó conformada con 95 centenarios. Se aplicaron los instrumentos Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE y Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR y se estudiaron las siguientes variables: estado cognitivo, estado de ánimo, satisfacción con la vida, nivel de tensión y la percepción de eventos vitales. El dato primario provino de las entrevistas realizadas, y para el análisis estadístico se creó una hoja de cálculo en Excel. Se utilizaron técnicas de distribución de frecuencias; para las variables cuantitativas se empleó la proporción en porcentaje. En la muestra de individuos centenarios que vivían en la provincia de Las Tunas, al momento del estudio, predominaron los que no presentaban deterioro cognitivo ni depresión, tuvieron  satisfacción alta con la vida, nivel bajo de tensión y no se afectaban con los eventos vitales. Las positivas características psicológicas y de resiliencia, unidas a un entorno psicosocial favorable, se relacionan con la larga supervivencia de los individuos estudiados.

  13. EL FENÓMENO SOCIO RELIGIOSO EN LAS TUNAS. EL PENTECOSTALISMO Y SU INFLUENCIA PARA UNA CONCEPCIÓN IDENTITARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Antonio Lalana Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El pentecostalismo como componente del campo religioso del territorio de Victoria de Las Tunas, los aportes a la identidad cultural son los hilos conductores de este trabajo. Comprende además un análisis del proceso de asentamiento y desarrollo del mismo a partir del análisis de las fuentes históricas y socioculturales. Su génesis primaria responde a condicionantes propias de las transformaciones de Europa Occidental durante el siglo XVI y, consciente o no sus fundadores promulgaron las bases para el correlato religioso del nuevo orden socio económico que se gestaba: el capitalismo. Las implicaciones a la identidad cultural en las regiones donde se asentaron y desarrollaron este tipo de denominaciones generaron comportamientos interesantes que constituyen un importante objeto de estudio para su mejor comprensión. ABSTRACT Pentecostalism as a component of the religious field of the territory of Victoria de Las Tunas, contributions to cultural identity are the threads of this work. It includes an analysis of the process of settlement and development of the same from the analysis of historical and sociocultural sources. Its primary genesis responds to own conditions of transformations of Western Europe during the sixteenth century and, consciously or not its founders enacted the basis for the religious correlate the new socioeconomic order that was brewing: capitalism. The implications for cultural identity in the regions where they settled and developed this kind of names generated interesting behaviors that constitute an important object of study for better understanding.

  14. Assessing Anthropogenic Impacts on Tunas, Sharks and Billfishes with Direct Observations of Human Fishers on the High Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, B.; Ferretti, F.; White, T.; De Leo, G.; Hazen, E. L.; Bograd, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic impacts on marine predators have been examined within exclusive economic zones, but few data sets have enabled assessing human fishing impacts on the high seas. By combining large electronic tagging databases archiving mobile predator movements (e.g. Tagging of Pacific Pelagics, TAG A Giant, Animal Telemetry Network) with the global fishing catch and fishing effort data, from satellite tracks of vessels on the high seas (AIS), a better understanding of human use and exploitation at a global scale can be obtained. This capacity to combine the movements of mobile ocean predators (tunas, sharks, billfishes) with analyses of their human predator's behaviors, via examination of the global fishing fleet activities is unprecedented due to the new access researchers are garnering to these big satellite derived AIS databases. Global Fishing Watch is one example of such a data provider, that now makes accessible, the AIS data from the global community of maritime vessels, and has developed along with researchers new algorithms that delineate distinct types of fishing vessel behaviors (longline, purse seiner) and effort. When combined with satellite tagging data of mobile apex predators, oceanographic preferences, records of fishing fleets catches, targeted species and economic drivers of fisheries, new quantitative insights can be gained about the catch reporting of fleets, and the pelagic species targeted at a global scale. Research communities can now also examine how humans behave on the high seas, and potentially improve how fish stocks, such as tunas, billfishes, and sharks are exploited. The capacity to gather information on diverse human fishing fleets and behaviors remotely, should provide a wealth of new tools that can potentially be applied toward the resource management efforts surrounding these global fishing fleets. This type of information is essential for prioritizing regions of conservation concern for megaufauna swimming in our oceans.

  15. El Niño revisited: the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on the world's largest tuna fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Receveur, A.; Simon, N.; Menkes, C.; Tremblay-Boyer, L.; Senina, I.; Lehodey, P.

    2016-12-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives global climate on inter-annual scales and impacts the ecosystem structure in the warm-pool and cold-tongue of the Pacific Ocean. During the El Niño phase of ENSO, the warm-pool can stretch from the western equatorial Pacific to the eastern Pacific allowing species associated with the warm-pool to correspondingly spread eastwards. Conversely, during the la Niña phase the warm-pool is pushed to the far western equatorial Pacific by the cold-tongue allowing species associated with this ecosystem to spread westwards. Consequently, ENSO dynamics are likely to be critical for understanding the ecological processes supporting fisheries in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Surface inhabiting tuna, such as skipjack, are thought to track the convergence of the warm-pool and cold-tongue with fishing vessels tracking this tuna behavior. Given the reliance of Pacific Island economies on tuna fisheries, knowing when tunas are more likely to be present in high density in their territorial waters is beneficial for harvest control policies such as effort trading between nations. We use the SEAPODYM model to investigate the response of bigeye and skipjack tuna species to the phases of ENSO. SEAPODYM is an age structured model that integrates fisheries dependent and independent data with environmental data. We analyze the outputs of SEAPODYM using wavelets to assess the impact of environmental and biotic variables on the abundance and distribution of adult and juvenile age classes and to study time series cycle and temporal lags to ENSO. The main result for skipjack is the eastward or westward movement of the biomass pattern which is significantly lagged with the warm pool ENSO displacement. That lag ranges from 8 months for juvenile up to 18 months for adults. Such delayed response, can be traced in the model. Higher temperature in the central Pacific during El Niño leads to better recruitment which leads to lagged increase of juvenile

  16. Evolutionary melting pots: a biodiversity hotspot shaped by ring diversifications around the Black Sea in the Eastern tree frog (Hyla orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Leuenberger, Julien; Ghali, Karim; Zinenko, Oleksandr; Stöck, Matthias; Perrin, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Hotspots of intraspecific genetic diversity, which are of primary importance for the conservation of species, have been associated with glacial refugia, that is areas where species survived the Quaternary climatic oscillations. However, the proximate mechanisms generating these hotspots remain an open issue. Hotspots may reflect the long-term persistence of large refugial populations; alternatively, they may result from allopatric differentiation between small and isolated populations, that later admixed. Here, we test these two scenarios in a widely distributed species of tree frog, Hyla orientalis, which inhabits Asia Minor and southeastern Europe. We apply a fine-scale phylogeographic survey, combining fast-evolving mitochondrial and nuclear markers, with a dense sampling throughout the range, as well as ecological niche modelling, to understand what shaped the genetic variation of this species. We documented an important diversity centre around the Black Sea, composed of multiple allopatric and/or parapatric diversifications, likely driven by a combination of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex regional topography. Remarkably, this diversification forms a ring around the Black Sea, from the Caucasus through Anatolia and eastern Europe, with terminal forms coming into contact and partially admixing in Crimea. Our results support the view that glacial refugia generate rather than host genetic diversity and can also function as evolutionary melting pots of biodiversity. Moreover, we report a new case of ring diversification, triggered by a large, yet cohesive dispersal barrier, a very rare situation in nature. Finally, we emphasize the Black Sea region as an important centre of intraspecific diversity in the Palearctic with implications for conservation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparative Agronomic Performance and Reaction to Fusarium wilt of Lens culinaris × L. orientalis and L. culinaris × L. ervoides derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohar Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgressive phenotype in the segregating populations has been speculated to contribute to niche divergence of hybrid lineages, which occurs most frequently at larger genetic distances. Wild Lens species are considered to be more resistant against major biotic and abiotic stresses than that of the cultivated species. In the present study, we assessed the comparative agronomic performance of lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris inter-sub-specific (L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and interspecific (L. ervoides derivatives, also discussed its probable basis of occurrence. The F3, F4, and F5 inter sub-specific and interspecific populations of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30, respectively revealed a substantial range of variation for majority of agro-morphological traits as reflected by the range, mean and coefficient of variation. A high level of fruitful heterosis was also observed in F3 and F4 progeny for important traits of interest. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV was higher in magnitude than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV in all generations for several quantitative characters. The results showed high heritability estimates for majority of traits in conjunction with low to high genetic advance in F3 and F4 generations. Further, F5 progeny of ILL10829 × ILWL30, manifested resistant disease reaction for fifteen recombinant inbred lines (RILs against (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (Vasd. Srin. Gord.. The multilocation agronomic evaluation of both crosses showed better results for earliness, desirable seed yield and Fusarium wilt resistance under two agro-ecological regions of north-western India. These better performing recombinants of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30 can be advanced for further genetic improvement and developing high yielding disease resistant cultivars of lentil.

  18. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, D.; Watanabe, M.; Subraminian, A.N.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Tanaka, H. [National Research Inst. of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, G. [Fundacao Univ. Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, P.K.S.; Zheng, G.J. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Muchtar, M.; Razak, H. [Indonesian Inst. of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, M. [De La Salle Univ. (Philippines); Chung, K. [Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide contamination by dioxins and related compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of great concern due to their persistency in the environment, highly bioaccumulative nature and adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Several studies on air samples and marine organisms from open seas suggested a long range transport of these compounds through atomosphere. Although several investigators have monitored dioxins pollution in localized areas, information on the global distribution of dioxins which can explain their atomospheric transport, behavior and fate are still limited. Skipjack tuna is primarily distributed from offshore waters to open seas in tropical and temperate regions almost all over the world such as the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans6. This species is an important commercial fish and its ecology and biology has been well studied. Moreover, suitability of skipjack tuna for global monitoring of organic pollutants (DDTs, HCHs PBDEs, organotins, etc.) has been established in our previous report, indicating that migration pattern, growth stage and sex of these animals have no or little effect on the variations of POPs residue levels in their bodies. Hence this species reflected POPs pollution levels in seawater when and where they were collected, caused by the rapid equilibrium partitioning between seawater and body lipid. These facts made skipjack tuna a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the contamination status of dioxins and related compounds. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins (PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) in offshore waters and open seas, and to understand the transport and behaviour of these chemicals using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  19. Aniversario XXX de la creación del Centro Provincial de Información de Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenny Reina Castillo Montes de Oca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El 4 de enero de 1984 se inauguró el Centro Provincial de Información de Ciencias Médicas de Las Tunas, lo que permitió organizar la Red Provincial de Bibliotecas Médicas y con ello crear nuevos escenarios para desarrollar la actividad científico - informativa en el territorio; con la apertura de una biblioteca en cada unidad de salud. El Centro inicialmente estuvo ubicado en un pequeño local cercano a la biblioteca del Hospital “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna”. En el año 1988; con la misión, la visión y los objetivos de trabajo de su objeto social bien definidos, fue trasladado para la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Zoilo Marinello Vidaurreta”, de la provincia de Las Tunas y al crearse la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas en esta provincia, el Centro Provincial de Información pasa a ser una dependencia directa de la misma. En la primera década se sentaron las bases de lo que es hoy el Sistema Provincial de Información de Ciencias de la Salud, constituido por 25 bibliotecas médicas distribuidas en toda la geografía tunera, con la misión de: “garantizar la prestación de servicios de información científico tecnológica a la comunidad de profesionales que conforman el sector de la salud en la provincia, con el fin de elevar la calidad de la asistencia, la investigación, la docencia, la dirección y la cultura médica nueva y propiciar el hallazgo de soluciones que posibiliten enfrentar los problemas de salud”. Durante estos 30 años, los trabajadores de la información en el territorio han laborado con verdadera dedicación para cumplir cada tarea encomendada, asumir los retos del desarrollo continuo de la ciencia, asimilar las nuevas tecnologías y brindar a nuestros usuarios servicios y productos de alto valor informacional. La movilización de recursos lograda a través de los proyectos de la Red Nacional de Salud INFOMED, entre los cuales figuran: Proyecto SIDA, Proyecto para la Promoción de Publicaciones

  20. Hibernation impact on the catalytic activities of the mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in liver and brain tissues of jerboa (Jaculus orientalis

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    Hafiani Assia

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jerboa (Jaculus orientalis is a deep hibernating rodent native to subdesert highlands. During hibernation, a high level of ketone bodies i.e. acetoacetate (AcAc and D-3-hydroxybutyrate (BOH are produced in liver, which are used in brain as energetic fuel. These compounds are bioconverted by mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH E.C. 1.1.1.30. Here we report, the function and the expression of BDH in terms of catalytic activities, kinetic parameters, levels of protein and mRNA in both tissues i.e brain and liver, in relation to the hibernating process. Results We found that: 1/ In euthemic jerboa the specific activity in liver is 2.4- and 6.4- fold higher than in brain, respectively for AcAc reduction and for BOH oxidation. The same differences were found in the hibernation state. 2/ In euthermic jerboa, the Michaelis constants, KM BOH and KM NAD+ are different in liver and in brain while KM AcAc, KM NADH and the dissociation constants, KD NAD+and KD NADH are similar. 3/ During prehibernating state, as compared to euthermic state, the liver BDH activity is reduced by half, while kinetic constants are strongly increased except KD NAD+. 4/ During hibernating state, BDH activity is significantly enhanced, moreover, kinetic constants (KM and KD are strongly modified as compared to the euthermic state; i.e. KD NAD+ in liver and KM AcAc in brain decrease 5 and 3 times respectively, while KD NADH in brain strongly increases up to 5.6 fold. 5/ Both protein content and mRNA level of BDH remain unchanged during the cold adaptation process. Conclusions These results cumulatively explained and are consistent with the existence of two BDH enzymatic forms in the liver and the brain. The apoenzyme would be subjected to differential conformational folding depending on the hibernation state. This regulation could be a result of either post-translational modifications and/or a modification of the mitochondrial membrane state

  1. Caracterización de los pacientes con cirrosis hepática atendidos en Las Tunas

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    Alina Torreblanca Xiques

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, con el objetivo de caracterizar los pacientes con cirrosis hepática (CH, atendidos en el servicio de gastroenterología del Hospital General Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna”, Las Tunas, Cuba, en el período comprendido entre febrero de 2012 y febrero de 2014. Se estudiaron 55 pacientes con cirrosis hepática diagnosticada por laparoscopia. Predominaron los pacientes del grupo de edad entre 50 y 59 años, siendo el sexo masculino el más afectado. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas que se apreciaron en estos pacientes fueron la ascitis y los edemas en miembros inferiores, así como las complicaciones más frecuentemente encontradas, la ascitis y la hemorragia digestiva alta. El alcoholismo y la etiología viral por virus C se presentaron con mayor frecuencia, predominando el primero. En el mayor por ciento de los pacientes debutó la enfermedad con al menos una complicación

  2. Evolutionary origin of the Scombridae (tunas and mackerels: members of a paleogene adaptive radiation with 14 other pelagic fish families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Miya

    Full Text Available Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences and (ii subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae "Pelagia" in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families.

  3. Evaluation of the oxidative status in Oreochromis niloticus fed with tuna by-product meal: possible human health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saїdi, Saber Abdelkader; Azaza, Mohamed Salah; van Pelt, Jos; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2014-10-01

    The influence of tuna by-product meal (TBM) diets on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the muscles, gill and kidney of tilapia was evaluated. The control diet (A0) used fish meal (FM) as the sole source of animal protein and the other three diets (A10-A30), 33%-100% of FM was substituted by TBM at 10% increments. The cytotoxicity of liver and muscles cytosol extracts in human liver cell HepG2 was undertaken. The activities of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and TBARS values in the kidney of fish fed with diet A30 were significantly different (p<0.05) and no alterations were observed in muscle and gill anti-oxidant activities. Our study has confirmed that the cytosol extract does not exhibit cytotoxic effects on the HepG2 cells. These results indicate that the use of TBM as a total replacement for FM into tilapia diets seems to have oxidative stress, thus generating effect on fish metabolism.

  4. Use of a counterfactual approach to evaluate the effect of area closures on fishing location in a tropical tuna fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K Davies

    Full Text Available Spatial closures are widely used in marine conservation and fisheries management and it is important to understand their contribution to achieving management objectives. Many previous evaluations of closed area effects have used before-after comparisons, which, without controlling for a full range of factors, cannot ascribe changes in fleet behaviour to area closures per se. In this study we used a counterfactual approach to disentangle the effect of two closed areas on fishing location from other competing effects on the behaviour of the Indian Ocean tuna purse seine fishery. Our results revealed an inconsistent effect of the one of the closed areas between years, after taking into account the influence of environmental conditions on fleet behaviour. This suggests that the policy of closing the area per se was not the main driver for the fleet allocating its effort elsewhere. We also showed a marked difference in effect between the two closed areas resulting from their different locations in the fishery area. These findings highlight the need to account for other key fleet behavioural drivers when predicting or evaluating the contribution of area closures to achieving conservation and fishery management objectives.

  5. In vitro calcium availability in bakery products fortified with tuna bone powder as a natural calcium source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Mahnaz; Kamilah, Hanisah; Huda, Nurul; Ariffin, Fazilah

    2015-08-01

    Avoidance of dairy products due to lactose intolerance can lead to insufficiency of calcium (Ca) in the body. In an approach to address this problem, tuna bone powder (TBP) was formulated as a calcium supplement to fortify bakery products. In a study, TBP recovered by alkaline treatment contained 38.16 g/100 g of calcium and 23.31 g/100 g of phosphorus. The ratio of Ca:P that was close to 2:1 was hence comparable to that in human bones. The availability of calcium in TBP was 53.93%, which was significantly higher than most calcium salts, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) being the exception. In vitro availability of calcium in TBP-fortified cookies or TCP-fortified cookies were comparable at 38.9% and 39.5%, respectively. These values were higher than the readings from TBP-fortified bread (36.7%) or TCP-fortified bread (37.4%). Sensory evaluation of bakery products containing TBP or TCP elicited comparable scores for the two additives from test panels. Hence, TBP could be used in the production of high calcium bakery products that would enjoy consumer acceptance.

  6. Efectividad de la acupuntura en el tratamiento del síndrome del túnel del carpo, Las Tunas

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    Aydelián Jevey González

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención con el objetivo de determinar la efectividad de la acupuntura en el tratamiento del Síndrome del Túnel del Carpo, en pacientes que fueron atendidos en el Policlínico Docente Manuel Piti Fajardo del municipio de Las Tunas, en el período comprendido desde enero hasta diciembre de 2008. La muestra la conformaron 50 pacientes mayores de 14 años. Se les aplicó un tratamiento con acupuntura diario en un total de quince sesiones, utilizando los puntos: IG-4, IG-11, ID-3, P-7 y TR-5, conjuntamente con la terapia medicamentosa. Los resultados fueron satisfactorios, la casi totalidad de los pacientes (49 tuvo una evolución clínica positiva, al disminuir los síntomas y signos. Las recaídas fueron mínimas luego de treinta días de aplicado el tratamiento, el consumo de medicamentos disminuyó de forma discreta y los efectos adversos al tratamiento acupuntural fueron mínimos. El tratamiento fue efectivo

  7. Complex coacervation with whey protein isolate and gum arabic for the microencapsulation of omega-3 rich tuna oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eratte, Divya; Wang, Bo; Dowling, Kim; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu P

    2014-11-01

    Tuna oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids was microencapsulated in whey protein isolate (WPI)-gum arabic (GA) complex coacervates, and subsequently dried using spray and freeze drying to produce solid microcapsules. The oxidative stability, oil microencapsulation efficiency, surface oil and morphology of these solid microcapsules were determined. The complex coacervation process between WPI and GA was optimised in terms of pH, and WPI-to-GA ratio, using zeta potential, turbidity, and morphology of the microcapsules. The optimum pH and WPI-to-GA ratio for complex coacervation was found to be 3.75 and 3 : 1, respectively. The spray dried solid microcapsules had better stability against oxidation, higher oil microencapsulation efficiency and lower surface oil content compared to the freeze dried microcapsules. The surface of the spray dried microcapsules did not show microscopic pores while the surface of the freeze dried microcapsules was more porous. This study suggests that solid microcapsules of omega-3 rich oils can be produced using WPI-GA complex coacervates followed by spray drying and these microcapsules can be quite stable against oxidation. These microcapsules can have many potential applications in the functional food and nutraceuticals industry.

  8. Evaluación de los componentes de la biodiversidad en la finca agroecológica "Las Palmitas" del municipio Las Tunas Evaluation of the biodiversity components in the agroecological farm "Las Palmitas", Las Tunas municipality

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    Yamilka Salmón

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar los componentes de la biodiversidad funcional y su contribución a la productividad y la eficiencia de la producción en la finca "Las Palmitas" (en la provincia Las Tunas, Cuba. Esta tiene un área de 15,44 ha y se dedica a la producción diversificada de cultivos, frutales y animales. Se realizó una caracterización agroecológica y se evaluó la funcionalidad de la biodiversidad, a partir del diseño de un modelo de análisis como guía de la investigación que incluyó los componentes: diversidad de árboles, diversidad de la producción y riqueza de especies. A través del diagnóstico se cuantificó el número de individuos de cada especie agrícola y pecuaria, y se caracterizaron de acuerdo con su funcionalidad dentro del sistema agroproductivo. Las fuentes de información primaria fueron la observación directa, las entrevistas informales y la aplicación de una encuesta semiestructurada, que incluyó las variables de interés para el diagnóstico. Se calcularon los índices de Shannon (2,8 y Margalef (5,70, los que permitieron visualizar la contribución de la diversidad al incremento de la productividad. Los indicadores de diversidad del agroecosistema alcanzaron valores óptimos para los sistemas diversificados, los cuales contribuyeron a la autosufiencia alimentaria, la eficiencia y la productividad. Los resultados indican una relevancia económica y social, que le confiere sostenibilidad y resiliencia al sistema agroecológico evaluado, por lo que constituye un modelo para su diseminación en condiciones locales o similares a las de este estudio.The objective of the work was to evaluate the components of functional biodiversity and their contribution to the productivity and efficiency of production in the farm "Las Palmitas" (Las Tunas province, Cuba. It has an area of 15,44 ha and it is dedicated to diversified crop, fruit and animal production. An agroecological characterization was made and

  9. Benitez Bustamante, Carmen MatildeEstudio de factibilidad para la creación de una empresa dedicada a la producción y comercialización de mermelada y jugo de tuna para el mercado exterior.

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez Bustamante, Carmen Matilde

    2010-01-01

    El presente proyecto consiste en la realización de un estudio de prefactibilidad para verificar la viabilidad de la creación de una empresa dedicada a la producción y comercialización de mermelada y jugo de tuna para el mercado exterior. Se desarrollaron los estudios de mercado, técnico, organizacional y financiero. La empresa llevará el nombre de ECUATUNA Cía. Ltda., y producirá mermelada y jugo de tuna; cuyos nombres comunes serán: cactus jam y juice jam, respectivamente. Y el nombre com...

  10. BIOSORCIÓN DE Cd, Pb y Zn POR BIOMASA PRETRATADA DE ALGAS ROJAS, CÁSCARA DE NARANJA Y TUNA

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    Lissette Vizcaíno Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a su movilidad en los ecosistemas y a su toxicidad para las formas superiores de vida,los metales pesados Cd, Pb y Zn son priorizados como unos de los contaminantes inorgánicosmás importantes debido al alto riesgo que representan para el medio ambiente. Con el objeto dedisminuir su concentración se diseñó un sistema para evaluar su remoción empleando biomasade algas rojas, cáscaras de naranja (Citrus sp. y tuna guajira (Opuntia sp.. Se estudió la influenciadel pretratamiento y el empaquetamiento mediante ensayos tipo batch, en los que se emplearonsoluciones de sodio y calcio. Se obtuvo como resultado una mayor capacidad de sorción de lasalgas modificadas con NaOH 0.1 N y de la naranja y la tuna con modificación sucesiva con NaOH yCaCl20.2 M, y una afección poco significativa (≤1% del proceso de sorción al empacar la biomasael placas planas de tul poliéster. La eficiencia de remoción se determinó mediante un reactor deflujo continuo de columna fija con un volumen líquido de 400 mL, 75 g de biomasa y tiemposde retención promedio de 1 y 2 h. Los resultados mostraron una eficiencia similar de las tresbiomasas para remover Cd y Pb, con promedios superiores al 95%, mientras que el Zn se removiócon mejor eficiencia (62% al emplear tuna modificada como sorbente. Finalmente, el materialse calcinó a 700 °C con lo que se obtuvo una ceniza estable frente a soluciones ácidas, lo cualgarantiza la captura de los metales removidos.

  11. PERCEPCIÓN DE PRODUCTORES DE TABACO SOBRE INSECTOS PLAGAS Y SU MANEJO EN EL MUNICIPIO JESÚS MENÉNDEZ (LAS TUNAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, A; Rivas, R; Hinojosa, D; Pérez, J.C; Méndez, A; Martínez, M.A

    2012-01-01

    El tránsito hacia un desarrollo agrario sostenible requiere un acercamiento inicial al estado del conocimiento y a la sensibilización de los actores en relación con los problemas de su entorno local. Con el objetivo de evaluar la percepción fitoproteccionista de productores de tabaco acerca de los insectos plagas en el cultivo y su manejo en el municipio Jesús Menéndez (provincia Las Tunas), se desarrolló el presente estudio. Se utilizó como método la entrevista semi estructurada aplicada a u...

  12. Nivel de conocimientos de médicos generales integrales de Las Tunas sobre nutrición humana

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    Eslhey Sánchez Domínguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La nutrición humana es un instrumento imprescindible a la hora de realizar intervenciones de salud, para ello se requiere de profesionales con un nivel adecuado de conocimientos sobre esta materia. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal, en las cuatro áreas de salud del municipio de Las Tunas, en el período comprendido entre septiembre de 2010 y febrero de 2011. El objetivo de la investigación fue caracterizar los niveles de conocimientos sobre nutrición humana que tienen los especialistas y los residentes en medicina general integral. La muestra quedó conformada por 162 profesionales, a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario estructurado en cinco temas. Se realizó el análisis porcentual de los resultados y, de acuerdo al análisis integral del cuestionario, el 56,2% demostró conocimientos en los niveles medio y alto, el resto evidenció insuficiencias significativas (71 profesionales. Por el tipo de pregunta, el 49,4% (80 profesionales reveló dificultades en diferentes aspectos que constituyen generalidades de nutrición humana. En contraste con ello, el 62,3% demostró niveles de conocimientos medios y altos acerca del empleo de la nutrición en la prevención y tratamiento de enfermedades. Por temas, las deficiencias se centraron en: Aspectos generales y Alimentos, con el 51,2 y 58,7%, respectivamente. Se concluye que en los profesionales incluidos en el estudio existió un discreto predominio de los que poseen niveles de conocimientos medios y altos sobre nutrición humana. Las mayores deficiencias cognoscitivas estuvieron al relacionar los nutrientes con los alimentos y en aspectos generales de nutrición, que es necesario tener presente a la hora de promocionar estilos de vida saludables

  13. Factores de riesgo para la enteropatía parasitaria en niños del municipio Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Fajardo Ochoa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico de tipo caso control, con el objetivo de determinar los factores de riesgo para la enteropatía parasitaria, como principal causa del síndrome de malabsorción intestinal en niños del municipio de Las Tunas durante el año 2011. El mismo fue realizado en el Hospital Pediátrico Provincial “Mártires de Las Tunas”, con una muestra de 87 pacientes que formaron parte del grupo de estudio, cuyos datos se recolectaron de la consulta médica de gastroenterología en el policlínico de consulta externa de dicha unidad asistencial y 174 en el grupo control, tomados de pacientes que acudieron a la consulta de urología, paralela en tiempo y contigua a la de gastroenterología. A cada grupo se le realizó un interrogatorio y examen físico exhaustivo, que permitió recoger todos los posibles factores de riesgo existentes. Para la determinación de los factores de riesgo se utilizaron los paquetes de programas estadísticos Epinfo versión 6, en el que se realizaron análisis univariados y se evaluó el ODDS RATIO, intervalo de confianza y probabilidad. El procesamiento de los datos se realizó con un 95% de confiabilidad. Los factores de riesgo asociados a la enteropatía parasitaria fueron: pertenecer al sexo masculino, los hábitos higiénicos inadecuados, estado nutricional inadecuado, la ingestión de agua sin hervir y la evacuación de excretas no sanitarias. Se recomienda realizar estudios analíticos para determinar la asociación de otros factores de riesgo, con vistas a establecer programas de intervención en estos pacientes.

  14. Comportamiento del síndrome de inmovilización. Hogar de Ancianos, Las Tunas, 2011

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    Mirian Thomas Santiesteban

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para describir el comportamiento de la inmovilización en el Hogar de Ancianos Carlos Pupo Font, de la provincia de Las Tunas, durante el año 2011. El universo lo constituyeron la totalidad de pacientes institucionalizados y la muestra estuvo conformada por 98 pacientes con algún tipo de inmovilización. Las variables a medir fueron: tipo de inmovilidad, edad, sexo, raza, hábitos tóxicos, estado mental, cambios fisiológicos ocurridos con el envejecimiento, enfermedades frecuentes, complicaciones y factores sociales. La información se obtuvo de la revisión de historias clínicas, fue procesada estadísticamente usando el Microsoft Excel, los resultados se mostraron a través de tablas y gráficos y se compararon con la literatura nacional e internacional. Se obtuvo predominio de pacientes con inmovilización relativa; el grupo de edad más afectado fue de 75 a 84 años, el sexo femenino, la raza blanca y el estado mental correspondiente a los demenciados; el hábito tóxico predominante fue el café; los cambios fisiológicos con el envejecimiento y las enfermedades más frecuentes corresponden a las del aparato músculo esquelético; las complicaciones predominantes fueron las digestivas seguidas por las respiratorias.

  15. Data reconstruction can improve abundance index estimation: An example using Taiwanese longline data for Pacific bluefin tuna.

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    Shui-Kai Chang

    Full Text Available Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE is often the main piece of information used in fisheries stock assessment; however, the catch and effort data that are traditionally compiled from commercial logbooks can be incomplete or unreliable due to many reasons. Pacific bluefin tuna (PBF is a seasonal target species in the Taiwanese longline fishery. Since 2010, detailed catch information for each PBF has been made available through a catch documentation scheme. However, previously, only market landing data with a low coverage of logbooks were available. Therefore, several nontraditional procedures were performed to reconstruct catch and effort data from many alternative data sources not directly obtained from fishers for 2001-2015: (1 Estimating the catch number from the landing weight for 2001-2003, for which the catch number information was incomplete, based on Monte Carlo simulation; (2 deriving fishing days for 2007-2009 from voyage data recorder data, based on a newly developed algorithm; and (3 deriving fishing days for 2001-2006 from vessel trip information, based on linear relationships between fishing and at-sea days. Subsequently, generalized linear mixed models were developed with the delta-lognormal assumption for standardizing the CPUE calculated from the reconstructed data, and three-stage model evaluation was performed using (1 Akaike and Bayesian information criteria to determine the most favorable variable composition of standardization models, (2 overall R2 via cross-validation to compare fitting performance between area-separated and area-combined standardizations, and (3 system-based testing to explore the consistency of the standardized CPUEs with auxiliary data in the PBF stock assessment model. The last stage of evaluation revealed high consistency among the data, thus demonstrating improvements in data reconstruction for estimating the abundance index, and consequently the stock assessment.

  16. Identification of factors influencing shark catch and mortality in the Marshall Islands tuna longline fishery and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhead, D; Clarke, S; Hoyle, S; Muller, B; Sharples, P; Harley, S

    2012-04-01

    Recent average annual catches of sharks by tuna longline vessels fishing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) are estimated to be between 1583 and 2274 t. Although 22 shark species have been recorded by the observer programme for this fishery, 80% of the annual catch comprises only five species: blue shark Prionace glauca, silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis, bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus, pelagic thresher shark Alopias pelagicus and oceanic whitetip shark Carcharhinus longimanus. Wire leaders (i.e. branch lines or traces) were also used by nearly all observed vessels. Generalized additive model (GAM)-based analyses of catch rates indicated that P. glauca and A. superciliosus are caught in higher numbers when vessels fish in relatively cooler waters, at night, close to the full moon, when the 27° C thermocline is close to the surface and during El Niño conditions. In contrast, C. falciformis, A. pelagicus and C. longimanus are caught in higher numbers when shark lines are used (all three species) or hooks are set at a shallow depth (A. pelagicus and C. longimanus and, also, P. glauca). These findings are generally consistent with current knowledge of these species' habitat preferences, movement and distribution. The results of these analyses were combined with information pertaining to shark condition and fate upon capture to compare the likely effectiveness of a range of potential measures for reducing shark mortality in the longline fishery. Of the options considered, the most effective would be to combine measures that reduce the catch rate (e.g. restrictions on the use of wire leaders, shark baits and shark lines) with measures that increase survival rates after post-capture release (e.g. finning bans). © 2012 Secrtariat of the Pacific Community. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Alteraciones genéticas cutáneas diagnosticadas en la infancia, Las Tunas 2010-2012

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    Yordania Velázquez Ávila

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades genéticas y los defectos genéticos con afectación cutánea son causa frecuente de estigmatización de las personas que las padecen, afectando su adecuada inserción en la sociedad y con ello su calidad de vida. Se estableció una consulta especializada y multidisplinaria en el hospital pediátrico provincial “Mártires de Las Tunas”, fundamentalmente con especialistas de dermatología, genética y pediatría. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo, en el período del año 2010 al 2012, para caracterizar a estos pacientes. Las variables estudiadas relacionadas fueron el sexo, la edad biológica al diagnóstico, el municipio de procedencia y la mortalidad. Los resultados se expusieron en tablas de contingencia de N x N. Existió predominio de las genodermatosis, seguido de los defectos congénitos y pocas enfermedades genéticas con afectación cutánea, siendo estas últimas responsables de la mayoría de las muertes. Las genodermatosis más representadas fueron la ictiosis, las mastocitosis y las neurofibromatosis, la edad más frecuente al diagnóstico fue el grupo de los menores de dos años; prevaleció el sexo femenino. La mortalidad fue baja y los municipios más afectados por genodermatosis fueron Las Tunas, Majibacoa y Colombia

  18. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Daisuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, Gilberto [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zheng, Gene J. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Indonesia); Razak, Hamidah [Research and Development Center for Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, Maricar [Science Education Department, De La Salle University (Philippines); Chung, Kyu-Hyuck [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2005-07-15

    In order to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins and related compounds, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, levels of these compounds were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters and open seas near Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were detected in almost all the specimens collected from all the locations surveyed, indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Higher concentrations of dioxins and coplanar PCBs were detected in the samples from temperate Asian regions, plausibly due to larger usage and anthropogenic generation in highly industrialized countries around the East China Sea and the South China Sea, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and coastal China. - Global pollution monitoring of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  19. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Daisuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K.S.; Zheng, Gene J.; Muchtar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    In order to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins and related compounds, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, levels of these compounds were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters and open seas near Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were detected in almost all the specimens collected from all the locations surveyed, indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Higher concentrations of dioxins and coplanar PCBs were detected in the samples from temperate Asian regions, plausibly due to larger usage and anthropogenic generation in highly industrialized countries around the East China Sea and the South China Sea, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and coastal China. - Global pollution monitoring of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

  20. Reconstruction of spatiotemporal capture data by means of orthogonal functions: the case of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis in the central-east Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai Ganzedo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The information provided by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT on captures of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis in the central-east Atlantic has a number of limitations, such as gaps in the statistics for certain fleets and the level of spatiotemporal detail at which catches are reported. As a result, the quality of these data and their effectiveness for providing management advice is limited. In order to reconstruct missing spatiotemporal data of catches, the present study uses Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions (DINEOF, a technique for missing data reconstruction, applied here for the first time to fisheries data. DINEOF is based on an Empirical Orthogonal Functions decomposition performed with a Lanczos method. DINEOF was tested with different amounts of missing data, intentionally removing values from 3.4% to 95.2% of data loss, and then compared with the same data set with no missing data. These validation analyses show that DINEOF is a reliable methodological approach of data reconstruction for the purposes of fishery management advice, even when the amount of missing data is very high.

  1. THE FORMATION OF THE LOCAL MUSICAL IDENTITY OF THE CITIZEN FROM LAS TUNAS / LA FORMACIÓN DE LA IDENTIDAD MUSICAL LOCAL DEL TUNERO

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    Elemnia Álvarez Merino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The local music identity, part of the system of identity values, encourages contributing to training in the art instructors of the Bachelor of Education Art Instructor specialty. This paper aims to demonstrate how you can promote the teaching and learning of music from the study of the contents of the musical works of the town, musicians, composers, groups of small and large format and repertoire, Web Site by: Music and musicians from Las Tunas, made for this purpose and offers detailed information on major music events occurred in the town of Las Tunas, since the 40's to today where we find also images and sound with processed information form of hypertext, standard format for you to view information, also offers a proposal made by the authors in order to treat this content in the classroom and beyond, to achieve success in social and cultural transformations that allow to transmit their knowledge maintain its historical and cultural identity, improve the quality of their educational work taking into account the technical scientific advances, in the student to the historical and musical knowledge, experiences, experiential and cultural contributions they receive will contribute to the formation of the identity in the process of forming intentional, organized and systematic.

  2. Colagenosis con afectación dermatológica en edades pediátricas en Las Tunas, 2010 - 2012

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    Katiuska Tamayo Mariño

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las enfermedades del colágeno en edades pediátricas es relativamente joven y no se cuenta en Las Tunas con archivos que permitan evaluar su comportamiento, por ello se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y prospectivo en el período comprendido entre los años 2010 al 2012, para caracterizar a los pacientes ingresados con estas enfermedades en el hospital pediátrico Mártires de Las Tunas. Inicialmente se determinaron las conectivopatias diagnosticadas con más frecuencia y luego se estudiaron las variables: sexo, edad, color de la piel, procedencia geográfica y antecedentes patológicos familiares de colagenosis, Los resultados fueron expuestos en tablas y expresados en porcientos. Predominaron la artritis idiopática juvenil, seguido de la fiebre reumática y la morfea. El sexo más frecuente fue el femenino, el grupo de edad más afectado fueron los adolescentes mayores de 13 años, el color de la piel que prevaleció fue el blanco y predominaron los pacientes sin antecedentes patológicos familiares de colagenosis

  3. Mineralización de talco asociada a los cuerpos ultramáficos de la Faja del Río de Las Tunas, Cordillera Frontal de Mendoza

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    Gargiulo, María Florencia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Talc mineralization related to the ultramafic bodies of the Río de Las Tunas belt, Frontal Cordillera of Mendoza province. This contribution shows the main characteristics of the talc mineralization related to the Río de Las Tunas ultramafic bodies in the Salamanca Mining District, Frontal Cordillera of Mendoza province. According to the parageneses defined on the studied samples, three generations of talc were established: 1º crystallized in metaperidotites and related to the prograde stage of the regional metamorphism; 2º crystallized inreaction zones (mostly in the talc zone developed at the boundary between metaperidotites and their country-rocks.These reaction zones evidence a metasomatic process due to geochemical gradient between the ultramafic body and their country-rocks. This process was developed during the retrogression of the regional metamorphic cycle. 3º Talc present in shear-zones that cut across the ultramafic bodies. The extreme serpentinization of the ultramaficbodies is concentrated in shear-zones where the serpentine is subsequently replaced by talc ± carbonates related with a hydrothermal stage. Aqueous fluids relatively enriched in CO2 flowed through these shear-zones causing the cease of serpentine formation favoring the talc and/or carbonates. Mined talc deposits are those in shear zones and reaction zones. They are mostly industrial-, asbestine- or talcschist-type. The talc related to the hydrothermal stage can locally reach first and extra qualities.

  4. Comportamiento de la polifarmacia en el hogar de ancianos “Carlos Font Pupo”, Las Tunas, 2011

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    Sahily de la Caridad Rojas Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento conlleva a un mayor consumo de fármacos en los ancianos, elevando la probabilidad de ocurrencia de interacciones medicamentosas y reacciones adversas, afectando la calidad de vida de este tipo de paciente. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para caracterizar la polifarmacia en el Hogar de Ancianos “Carlos Pupo Font”, en Las Tunas, durante el año 2011. El universo estuvo constituido por la totalidad de pacientes institucionalizados y la muestra por 102 ancianos con criterio de selección de consumo de tres o más medicamentos de forma simultánea en el período de estudio. Se caracterizó la edad y sexo de los ancianos, frecuencia de polifarmacia, los grupos farmacológicos implicados, las principales afecciones clínicas y las posibles interacciones medicamentosas por las prescripciones realizadas. La información se obtuvo de la revisión de historias clínicas y fue procesada mediante la estadística descriptiva. El sexo femenino y el grupo de edad entre 75 y 84 años fueron los predominantes. Un 47% de los ancianos consumió cuatro medicamentos simultáneamente. Los antihipertensivos fueron los medicamentos más usados, seguidos por los AINEs. El 72% de la muestra padece afecciones cardiorrespiratorias y el 68% afecciones músculo esqueléticas. Se identificaron posibles interacciones medicamentosas relacionadas con el proceso de absorción, dadas por uniones de ácidos y bases débiles y por interacciones con alimentos, específicamente con la leche. La polimedicación puede ser racionalizada a través de un uso adecuado de los medicamentos, teniendo en cuenta el intervalo de dosificación, las características químicas de los fármacos, la dosis y las características individuales del paciente.

  5. Efectividad del tratamiento acupuntural en la Parálisis Facial Periférica. Puerto Padre, Las Tunas

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    Dorania Cera Barea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio experimental en pacientes mayores de 19 años, con Parálisis Facial Periférica, que fueron atendidos en el Policlínico "Romárico Oro Peña" del municipio de Puerto Padre, provincia de Las Tunas; en el período comprendido entre enero y diciembre del año 2011. La muestra quedó conformada por 40 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión establecidos, a los que se les aplicó el método acupuntural, con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad del mismo en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad. Los puntos de acupuntura utilizados fueron: Extra 1, 2, 3; Estómago 2, 4, 6, 7; Vaso Concepción 24; Vaso Gobernador 26 y Vesícula Biliar 14. Se aplicó tonificación en el lado sano y dispersión de la energía en el lado de la parálisis. Se recogió la información a través de micro-historias clínicas, donde se incluyeron todas las variables de manera independiente. Los datos se analizaron a través de la estadística descriptiva y el análisis porcentual. Se concluyó que la enfermedad predominó en el sexo femenino y el grupo etáreo de 40 a 49 años; la exposición al frío y/o al calor resultó el factor desencadenante que más incidió; el mayor número de pacientes presentó una evolución clínica favorable; solo se presentaron dos efectos adversos relativos al uso de la acupuntura, demostrando la inocuidad del tratamiento.

  6. Skipjack Tuna Availability for Purse Seine Fisheries Is Driven by Suitable Feeding Habitat Dynamics in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans

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    Jean-Noël Druon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An Ecological Niche model was developed for skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis, SKJ in the Eastern Central Atlantic Ocean (AO and Western Indian Ocean (IO using an extensive set of presence data collected by the European purse seine fleet (1998–2014. Chlorophyll-a fronts were used as proxy for food availability while mixed layer depth, sea surface temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, current intensity, and height anomaly variables were selected to describe SKJ's abiotic environmental preferences. The resultant ecological niche included both mesoscale eddy-type productive features that displayed latitudinal range in the IO to large scale upwelling systems that shrink and swell seasonally in the AO. Overall, 83% of all free swimming school sets (FSC and 75% of drifting fish aggregating device sets (dFAD that contained SKJ occurred within 25 km of favorable feeding habitat. In the AO, 34% of dFAD sets were made more than 100 km away from this habitat, mostly in the surface chlorophyll-a poor environment of the Guinea Current. These distant sets represent 10% of dFAD sets in the IO and 8% of all FSC sets. Our results suggest that the Mozambique Channel in the IO, with its simultaneously favorable feeding and spawning conditions, may seasonally offer a better SKJ nursery habitat than the Guinea Current which shows a substantially poorer feeding capacity. With the exception of this latter area, our results also suggest that fishing accessibility will be higher in months where the size of the favorable feeding habitats are reduced, likely because this reduction drives a geographical contraction in SKJ populations. The observed relationship between the annual size of favorable feeding habitat and both annual catch rates and total catches in the IO is consistent with the near-full exploitation of this stock that has occurred since the 2000s. Moreover, it suggests that annual habitat size could be used as an indicator of growth capacity for this

  7. Estabilidad química, física y microbiológica de lomo de atún (Thunnus sp. rebanado. Empacado, congelado y almacenado a -20 ºC

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    Romaim De Berardinis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La globalización ha introducido en Venezuela el consumo de pescado crudo, principalmente atún rojo (Thunnus sp. para elaborar sushi y sashimi. Esto ha despertado el interés en conservar el atún fresco, congelado, para disponer de él a lo largo del año con los atributos que definen la calidad del atún fresco. El pescado congelado se empaca para protegerlo del ambiente frío y seco del congelador, evitar su deshidratación y quemaduras en la superficie del tejido muscular que modificarían la apariencia (color, textura, el sabor y el valor nutritivo durante el almacenamiento. El empaque, además debe ofrecer barrera al paso del oxígeno. Los filetes individuales de pescados magros pueden conservarse en almacenamiento congelado 6 meses a -18 ºC y hasta 9 meses a -24 ºC. Con este trabajo se propuso determinar el efecto del la operación de empacado antes y después de la operación de congelación de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo. Tratamiento 1: empacadas al vacío y congeladas a -20 ºC (V1; control: empacadas a presión atmosférica y congeladas a -20 ºC (C1. Tratamiento 2: congeladas a -20 ºC y empacadas al vacío después (V2; control: congeladas a -20 ºC y empacadas a presión atmosférica después (C2. Para el empacado se recurrió a bolsas multilaminadas (PE/PA/PE, impermeables al O2 del aire, al vapor de agua y con resistencia mecánica a bajas temperaturas. El tratamiento V1 mantuvo la estabilidad química, microbiológica y sensorial de las rebanadas de lomo de atún, a 90 días de almacenamiento a -20 ºC, la cuales fueron más rojas (a, menos amarillas (b y más oscuras (L, con la menor producción de malonaldehído (0,64 mg/kg de todos los tratamientos, y la mayor estabilidad de la fracción de proteínas solubles (10,03 %.

  8. Estabilidad química, física y microbiológica de lomo de atún (Thunnus sp. rebanado. Empacado, congelado y almacenado a -20 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaim De Berardinis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La globalización ha introducido en Venezuela el consumo de pescado crudo, principalmente atún rojo (Thunnus sp. para elaborar sushi y sashimi. Esto ha despertado el interés en conservar el atún fresco, congelado, para disponer de él a lo largo del año con los atributos que definen la calidad del atún fresco. El pescado congelado se empaca para protegerlo del ambiente frío y seco del congelador, evitar su deshidratación y quemaduras en la superficie del tejido muscular que modificarían la apariencia (color, textura, el sabor y el valor nutritivo durante el almacenamiento. El empaque, además debe ofrecer barrera al paso del oxígeno. Los filetes individuales de pescados magros pueden conservarse en almacenamiento congelado 6 meses a -18 ºC y hasta 9 meses a -24 ºC. Con este trabajo se propuso determinar el efecto del la operación de empacado antes y después de la operación de congelación de rebanadas de lomo de atún rojo. Tratamiento 1: empacadas al vacío y congeladas a -20 ºC (V1; control: empacadas a presión atmosférica y congeladas a -20 ºC (C1. Tratamiento 2: congeladas a -20 ºC y empacadas al vacío después (V2; control: congeladas a -20 ºC y empacadas a presión atmosférica después (C2. Para el empacado se recurrió a bolsas multilaminadas (PE/PA/PE, impermeables al O2 del aire, al vapor de agua y con resistencia mecánica a bajas temperaturas. El tratamiento V1 mantuvo la estabilidad química, microbiológica y sensorial de las rebanadas de lomo de atún, a 90 días de almacenamiento a -20 ºC, la cuales fueron más rojas (a, menos amarillas (b y más oscuras (L, con la menor producción de malonaldehído (0,64 mg/kg de todos los tratamientos, y la mayor estabilidad de la fracción de proteínas solubles (10,03 %.

  9. SINTESIS FOSFOLIPID MENGANDUNG ASAM LEMAK w-3 DARI FOSFOLIPID KEDELAI DAN MINYAK KAYA ASAM LEMAK w-3 DARI HASIL SAMPING PENGALENGAN TUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of Phospholipid Containing w-3 Fatty Acids from Soy Phospholipidsand Fish Oil Enriched with w-3 Fatty Acids from Tuna Canning Processing Teti Estiasih, Moch. Nur, Jaya Mahar Maligan, Satrio Maulana ABSTRAK Keunggulan fosfolipid dapat ditingkatkan dengan menggabungkan asam lemak w-3, terutama EPA (eicosapentaenoicacid, C20:5w-3 dan DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, C22:6w-3, pada struktur fosfolipid sehingga diperoleh fosfolipidterstruktur. Strukturisasi fosfolipid kedelai komersial dilakukan dengan cara mengganti asam lemak dari fosfolipidkedelai dengan asam lemak w-3 dari minyak kaya asam lemak w-3 dari hasil samping pengalengan tuna. Sintesisfosfolipid terstruktur dilakukan secara asidolisis enzimatis dengan menggunakan lipase dari R. miehei. Faktor yangdikaji pada proses sintesis ini adalah konsentrasi enzim dan lama sintesis. Tingkat inkorporasi EPA dan DHA padastruktur fosfolipid dipengaruhi oleh konsentrasi enzim. Pada konsentrasi enzim yang rendah, peningkatan lama reaksisetelah tingkat inkoporasi optimum tercapai cenderung menyebabkan penurunan tingkat inkorporasi EPA+DHA. Padakonsentrasi enzim yang tinggi, lama reaksi tampaknya tidak mempengaruhi tingkat inkorporasi. Tingkat inkorporasiDHA lebih tinggi dari EPA sehingga fosfolipid terstruktur yang dihasilkan sangat sesuai digunakan untuk produk panganyang memerlukan kadar DHA tinggi. Ada preferensi inkorporasi EPA+DHA pada fosfatidiletanolamin dibandingkanjenis fosfolipid yang lain.Kata kunci: Fosfolipid terstruktur, asam lemak w-3, EPA, DHA, asidolisis enzimatis ABSTRACT The superiority of soy phospholipids could be obtained by incorporation of w-3 fatty acids into phospholipids structure,especially EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5w-3 and DHA docosahexaenoic acid, C22:6w-3. Structurization ofcommercial soy phospholipids was conducted by replacement of natural fatty acids in soy phospholipids by w-3 fattyacids from w-3 fatty acids enriched Þ sh oil from tuna canning processing

  10. Identification of enolases and aldolases as important fish allergens in cod, salmon and tuna: component resolved diagnosis using parvalbumin and the new allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, C; Lehners-Weber, C; Codreanu-Morel, F; Morisset, M; Metz-Favre, C; Pauli, G; de Blay, F; Revets, D; Muller, C P; Vogel, L; Vieths, S; Hentges, F

    2013-07-01

    The majority of fish-allergic patients are sensitized to parvalbumin, known to be the cause of important IgE cross-reactivity among fish species. Little is known about the importance of fish allergens other than parvalbumin. The aim of this study was to characterize hitherto undefined fish allergens in three commonly consumed fish species, cod, salmon and tuna, and to evaluate their importance for in vitro IgE-diagnosis in addition to parvalbumin and fish gelatin. Sixty-two patients were diagnosed by clinical history, skin prick tests and specific IgE to fish extracts. Two new fish allergens from cod, salmon and tuna were identified by microsequencing. These proteins were characterized by immunoblot, ELISA and mediator release assay. Purified parvalbumin, enolase, aldolase and fish gelatin were used for quantification of specific IgE in ELISA. Parvalbumin and two other allergens of 50 and 40 kDa were detected in IgE-immunoblots of cod, salmon and tuna extracts by most patient sera. The 50 and 40 kDa proteins were identified as beta-enolase and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A respectively. Both purified enzymes showed allergenic activity in the mediator release assay. Indeed, 72.6% of the patients were sensitized to parvalbumin, 20% of these had specific IgE to salmon parvalbumin only. IgE to enolases were found in 62.9% (0.5-95.0 kUA /L), to aldolases in 50.0% (0.4-26.0 kUA /L) and to fish gelatin in 19.3% (0.4-20.0 kUA /L) of the patients. Inter-species cross-reactivity, even though limited, was found for enolases and aldolases by IgE-inhibition ELISA. Fish enolase and aldolase have been identified as important new fish allergens. In fish allergy diagnosis, IgE to enolase and aldolase are especially relevant when IgE to parvalbumin are absent. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. U-Pb age constraints for the La Tuna Granite and Montevideo Formation (Paleoproterozoic, Uruguay): Unravelling the structure of the Río de la Plata Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamoukaghlián, Karina; Gaucher, Claudio; Frei, Robert; Poiré, Daniel G.; Chemale, Farid; Frei, Dirk; Will, Thomas M.

    2017-11-01

    The Río de la Plata Craton is a continental block that crops out in Uruguay, eastern Argentina, southernmost Brazil and Paraguay. It comprises in Uruguay the Piedra Alta, Tandilia and Nico Pérez terranes, separated by the Colonia and the Sarandí del Yí megashears. The La Tuna Granite, which intrudes the Araminda metasandstones in the Tandilia Terrane, was considered Cambrian in age and the intruded sandstones were assigned to the Neoproterozoic Piedras de Afilar Formation. We show that the granite is Paleoproterozoic in age and that the host metasandstones do not belong to the Piedras de Afilar Formation, but to the Paleoproterozoic Montevideo Formation. U-Pb LA ICP-MS of zircon ages for the La Tuna Granite yielded a concordant crystallization age of 2156 ± 26 Ma. Furthermore a metamorphic event at 2010 ± 9 Ma is revealed by Pb stepwise leaching dating of monazites. U-Pb detrital zircon ages of the host Araminda metasandstone yield an upper intercept discordia age of 2152 ± 29 Ma, which marks the intrusion of the La Tuna pluton, and which is in accordance with the zircon U-Pb LA ICP MS constraints. A concordant U-Pb detrital zircon age of 2465 ± 40 Ma provides a maximum depositional age constraint for the metapsammites. Comparing quartz arenites of the Ediacaran Piedras de Afilar Formation with the Araminda metaquartzites, we conclude that they are very similar regarding petrology but they differ in age and metamorphic overprint. Detrital zircons in quartz arenites of the Piedras de Afilar Formation show youngest ages of 1.0 Ga. On the other hand, detrital zircons recovered from the Araminda metasandstones and the age of the intruding granite allow interpreting a depositional age between 2465 and 2150 Ma. Nd model ages show crustal residence times in average more than 200 myr older for the Tandilia Terrane both in Uruguay and Argentina, with a significant Neoarchean component, which is lacking in the Piedra Alta Terrane. Whereas the Piedra Alta Terrane was

  12. Formulación de una mermelada a partir de pulpa y cáscara de tunas (Opuntia spp. elaborada a nivel planta piloto Formulación de una mermelada a partir de pulpa y cáscara de tunas (Opuntia spp. elaborada a nivel planta piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Magaña Ramírez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available After a series of experimental tests of jam pulp-based and peel of prickly pear fruit at a laboratory level, generated from previous research projects, and based on results of sensory evaluation, microbiological and physicochemical analysis, it was selected a formulation for a jam from a mixture of pulp and peel of prickly pear fruit “reyna” variety, and “xoconostle” prickly pear fruit pulp for processing at the pilot platform. The jam produced was characterized by physicochemical analysis and microbiological. In the physicochemical analysis, it was included the determination of dietetic fiber (4.35 g dietetic fiber/15 g jam, being one of the most important evaluation, which value comes mainly from the skin of prickly pear fruit. From the physicochemical analysis, it was designed a label for the jam produced. Based on the specifications required by the “Norma Oficial Mexicana”, the product can be considered suitable for consumption and marketing purposes. Después de una serie de pruebas experimentales de mermeladas a base de pulpa y cás­cara de tunas a nivel laboratorio, generados de proyectos de investigación anteriores, y con base en resultados de evaluación sensorial, análisis microbiológico y fisicoquímico, se seleccionó una formulación de mermelada a partir de una mezcla de pulpa y cáscara de tuna variedad reyna, y pulpa de tuna variedad xoconostle para su procesamiento a nivel planta piloto. La mermelada elaborada fue caracterizada mediante análisis fisicoquímico y microbiológico. Dentro de los análisis fisicoquímicos se incluyó la determinación de Fibra Dietética (4.35 g de fibra dietética/15 g de mermelada, siendo éste uno de los análisis más importantes, cuyo valor procede principalmente de la cáscara de las tunas. Basados en las especificaciones exigidas por la Norma Oficial Mexicana, el producto puede considerarse apto para su consumo y para propósitos de comercialización.

  13. Analysis of Social and Emotional Development of Orphaned Youth in terms of Self Concept and Resilience: Study at Child Care Children's Home (PSAA Tunas Bangsa Pati

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    Santoso Santoso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the development of the Young Social da Emotional Self-concept and in terms of resilience in the PSAA Tunas Bangsa Pati. The method used is descriptive research with this type of development studies dab data obtained will be analyzed by cross sectional method. The results showed that the concept of self-possessed teenager PSAA is not good, it can be seen from the description of several indicators show that the concept of self-assessment of her teenage less well because many feel insecure and inferiority. Judging from the resilience, the general adolescent PSAA good enough. It can be seen from the emotion management capabilities of any events that are considered less menyengakan life. So overall it can be concluded that the social development of adolescents PSAA poorly and emotional development PSAA pretty good when viewed from the concept of self and resilience.

  14. REPOSITORIO DIGITAL PARA UNA MEJOR GESTIÓN DE LA INFORMACIÓN CIENTÍFICA EN LA UNIVERSIDAD LAS TUNAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunior Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda la importancia de la implementación de un repositorio digital para una mejor gestión de la información científica en la Universidad de Las Tunas, donde podamos socializar y consultar las tesis de grado, maestría y doctorado, resultados de proyectos de investigación, libros, revistas, manuscritos creados en nuestra Universidad e incluso digitalizar libros de única edición y de difícil acceso. Se ofrecen definiciones de varios autores así como los antecedentes de la gestión de información científica en nuestra universidad, además de las ventajas de su creación. También se muestra el diagnóstico y la estrategia para si implementación.

  15. Mitochondrial genome of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection provides novel genetic information about two subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Lin, Haoran; Meng, Zining

    2016-09-01

    Previously morphological studies supported the division of the bullet tuna into the two subspecies, Auxis rochei rochei and A. rochei eudorax. As a cosmopolitan species, A. rochei rochei ranges in the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while A. rochei eudorax inhabits in eastern Pacific region. Here, we used the HiSeq next-generation sequencing technique to determine the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection, and then compared our data with mitogenomic sequences of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific retrieved from NCBI database. Results showed the mitogenome of A. rochei from three geographic collections shared the same genes and gene order, similar to typical teleosts. Also, we examined a low level of nucleotide diversity among these mitogenomic sequences. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity of intra-subspecies (Atlantic versus Indo-West) was higher than that of inter-subspecies (Atlantic versus eastern Pacific, Indo-West versus eastern Pacific).

  16. Nutrient intake in the third instar larvae of Anomala cuprea and Protaetia orientalis submarmorea (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) from a mixture of cow dung and wood chips: Results from stable isotope analyses of nitrogen and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Masahito; Iwata, Ryutaro; Yamane, Akiomi; Katase, Takao; Ueda, Shingo

    2003-01-01

    The nutrient intake of the third instar larvae of Anomala cuprea (Ac) and Protaerita orientalis submarmorea (Pos) (Colepotera: Scarabaeidae) from a mixture of cow dung and wood chips of two wood species (Cryptomeria japonica and Quercus mongolica), was assayed by the stable isotope technique. The values of δ 15 N and δ 13 C (deviations of 15 N/ 14 N and 13 C/ 12 C from the standard materials) were measured in the following samples: (1) the integument plus the head of the 3rd instar larvae of both species reared in 1999 autumn fed with a mixture of cow dung and wood chips or with leaf mold, (2) cow dung, (3) wood ships, and (4) leaf mold as the larval food before onset of rearing. The δ values of bodies of larvae fed with leaf mold differed with the beetle species. The δ 15 N values of the larval bodies of both species fed with the mixture were close to those of cow dung, whereas the δ 13 C values were in between those of cow dung and wood chips. Therefore, both species were presumed to obtain almost all their nitrogen from cow dung, and their carbon from both dung and wood chips. (author)

  17. Feleucin-BO1: a novel antimicrobial non-apeptide amide from the skin secretion of the toad, Bombina orientalis, and design of a potent broad-spectrum synthetic analogue, feleucin-K3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaojuan; Du, Qiang; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Guo, Can; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Feleucins-BV1 and -BV2 are recently described prototypes of a novel antimicrobial non-apeptide (AMP) family identified in the skin secretion of the bombinid toad, Bombina variegata. They are encoded on different precursors that also encode a novel bombinin. Here we describe the identification of feleucin-BO1 (FLGLLGSLLamide) which is co-encoded with a different novel bombinin, named feleucin precursor-associated bombinin (FPA-bombinin-BO), from the skin secretion of Bombina orientalis. Synthetic feleucin-BO1 displayed activity against a reference Gram-positive bacterium. Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 34 μm) but was inactive (> 250 μm) against the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, and the yeast, Candida albicans. This pattern of activity was similar to that of the prototypes. Design and synthesis of a cationicity-enhanced analogue, feleucin-K3 (F-K3), in which the amino acid residues at positions 3 (G), 6 (G) and 7 (S) of feleucin-BO1 were substituted with Lys (K) residues, resulted in a peptide with significantly enhanced potency and spectrum of activity. The MICs of F-K3 against the reference micro-organisms were 7 μm (S. aureus), 14 μm (E. coli) and 7 μm (C. albicans). These data indicate that the skin secretions of amphibians can continue to provide novel peptide templates for the rational design of analogues with possible therapeutic utility. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. THE CRAFT LIKE A CULTURAL PRACTICE THAT CONFIGURES SOCIOCULTURAL PROCESSES: THE BASKETWORK IN THE TUNAS AT THE PRESENT TIME / LA ARTESANÍA COMO UNA PRÁCTICA CULTURAL CONFIGURADORA DE PROCESOS SOCIOCULTURALES: LA CESTERÍA EN LAS TUNAS EN LA ACTUALIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumairys Diamela Candó Gámez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the handmade movement in The Tunas is an important cultural fact in which has left condensing the conserved information and renovated in the cultural memoirs of the tunero, as long as it is identity that reflective characteristic that distinguish it and very authentic revealing knowledge and specific creation of a societal group. The years ninety represented a stagnation in the popular craft, it altered and it confused the true sense of the handmade production. The market entered as an element of deregulation of the qualities. He fell in the temptation of the commercialization without control. The art is confused with something easy, the legitimate and necessary commercialization of the productions with the marketing of the candongas, the artisan with the worker self-employed, the promoter with the merolico. The institucionalization of the culture starting from the revolutionary victory with the cultural politics's application in Cuba, together to the economic crisis in the decade of the 90 are sociocultural factors that condition to the craft as that it configures of sociocultural processes that are evidenced in the inherited cultural practices or institutionalized, remunerated (professionals or not remunerated (fans, as approaches that it configures of groups. The types of craft, the techniques, the ethnic composition of the representative groups, the professional formation, the origin (field, city, periphery, and composition of the groups for gender and number (grupal or singular they are indicative that allow to conceptualize the characteristics and types of the craft as cultural practice in The Tunas.

  19. Turtle bycatch in the pelagic longline fishery off southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capture by pelagic longline fisheries has been identified as a key threat to turtle populations. This study is the first assessment of turtle bycatch in the South African pelagic longline fishery for tunas Thunnus spp. and swordfish Xiphias gladius. A total of 181 turtles was caught on observed sets between 1998 and 2005, at a ...

  20. Tuna Genetics Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These samples are collected in order to gain a better understanding of the biological and ecological aspects of this group of fish in this area. It will be used to...

  1. Present and future potential habitat distribution of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata by-catch species in the tropical tuna purse-seine fishery under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea eLezama Ochoa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By-catch species from tropical tuna purse seine fishery have been affected by fishery pressures since the last century; however, the habitat distribution and the climate change impacts on these species are poorly known. With the objective of predicting the potential suitable habitat for a shark (Carcharhinus falciformis and a teleost (Canthidermis maculata in the Indian, Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans, a MaxEnt species distribution model (SDM was developed using data collected by observers in tuna purse seiners. The relative percentage of contribution of some environmental variables (depth, sea surface temperature, salinity and primary production and the potential impact of climate change on species habitat by the end of the century under the A2 scenario (scenario with average concentrations of carbon dioxide of 856 ppm by 2100 were also evaluated. Results showed that by-catch species can be correctly modelled using observed occurrence records and few environmental variables with SDM. Results from projected maps showed that the equatorial band and some coastal upwelling regions were the most suitable areas for both by-catch species in the three oceans in concordance with the main fishing grounds. Sea surface temperature was the most important environmental variable which contributed to explain the habitat distribution of the two species in the three oceans in general. Under climate change scenarios, the largest change in present habitat suitability is observed in the Atlantic Ocean (around 16% of the present habitat suitability area of Carcharhinus falciformis and Canthidermis maculata, respectively whereas the change is less in the Pacific (around 10% and 8% and Indian Oceans (around 3% and 2 %. In some regions such as Somalia, the Atlantic equatorial band or Peru’s coastal upwelling areas, these species could lose potential habitat whereas in the south of the equator in the Indian Ocean, the Benguela System and in the Pacific coast of

  2. Large-Scale Examination of Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (dFADs) from Tropical Tuna Fisheries of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maufroy, Alexandra; Chassot, Emmanuel; Joo, Rocío; Kaplan, David Michael

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, massive use of drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (dFADs) to aggregate tropical tunas has strongly modified global purse-seine fisheries. For the first time, a large data set of GPS positions from buoys deployed by French purse-seiners to monitor dFADs is analysed to provide information on spatio-temporal patterns of dFAD use in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during 2007-2011. First, we select among four classification methods the model that best separates "at sea" from "on board" buoy positions. A random forest model had the best performance, both in terms of the rate of false "at sea" predictions and the amount of over-segmentation of "at sea" trajectories (i.e., artificial division of trajectories into multiple, shorter pieces due to misclassification). Performance is improved via post-processing removing unrealistically short "at sea" trajectories. Results derived from the selected model enable us to identify the main areas and seasons of dFAD deployment and the spatial extent of their drift. We find that dFADs drift at sea on average for 39.5 days, with time at sea being shorter and distance travelled longer in the Indian than in the Atlantic Ocean. 9.9% of all trajectories end with a beaching event, suggesting that 1,500-2,000 may be lost onshore each year, potentially impacting sensitive habitat areas, such as the coral reefs of the Maldives, the Chagos Archipelago, and the Seychelles.

  3. PERANCANGAN PROGRAM APLIKASI PEMBELAJARAN IPA MATERI SISTEM PERNAPASAN BERBASIS MULTIMEDIA UNTUK SISWA SDLB BAGIAN B TUNA RUNGU MENGGUNAKAN OBJECT ORIENTED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Effendi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tunarungu, samahalnya dengan difabel yang lain yang merupakan warganegara Indonesia berhak memperoleh pendidikan. Seperti diketahui Anak Berkebutuhan Khusus (ABK membutuhkan perhatian lebih untuk meningkatkan fokus terhadap proses belajar. Saat ini dalam kegiatan belajar mengajar di objek penelitian yaitu SDLB Bagian (B Cidendo Bandung dilakukan secara konvensional, dimana guru menjelaskan materi pelajaran menggunakan buku sebagai alat bantu dalam pengajaran. Keterbatasan media alat bantu yang tepat untuk mengajaranak tuna rungu menjadi masalah bagi para guru untuk mampu menjelaskan materi pelajaran yang dibebankan kepada siswa. Terutama pada mata pelajaran IPA/Sains yang cukup komplek, contohnya materi sistem pernapasan pada manusia dan hewan sangat membutuhkan bantuan alat yang lebih ke arah visual. Untuk mengatasi hal tersebut, dalam penelitian ini dibuatlah rancangan program aplikasi alat bantu pembelajaran IPA/Sains untuk SDLB bagian B khususnya materi sistem pernapasan manusia dan hewan menggunakan metode penelitian Research Development, metode pendekatan berbasis objek (object-oriented approach, dengan alat bantu perancangan menggunakan Unified Modeling Language (UML yaitu Use Case, Sequence Diagram, Class Diagram.Sedangkan model pengembangan sistem menggunakan prototype. Rancangan tersebut meliputi rancangan proses, rancangan user interface program aplikasi yang disesuaikan dengan aplikasi berbasis multimedia. Berdasarkan rancangan tersebut, nantinya diharapkan dapat diimplementasikan menggunakan software Adobe Flash Cs3 Proffesional yang berbasiskan multimedia, dimana dengan multimedia memungkinkan suatu materi yang tidak dapat disampaikan secara verbal atau kejadian, dapat direkayasa sedemikian rupa sehingga bisa disajikan dengan terperinci dan sangat menarik bagi siswa. Kata kunci: anak berkebutuhan khusus (ABK, tunarungu, IPA/sains, sistem pernapasan manusia dan hewan.

  4. Caracterización del claustro de profesores de la carrera de Estomatología en la provincia de Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maydelyn Ureña Espinosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Conocer las características de un claustro contribuye a mejorar su proceso de superación. La caracterización facilita el poder identificar los rasgos personales, profesionales, laborales y otros, que influyen en el trabajo y permiten organizar con calidad la superación, teniendo en cuenta algunos elementos individuales importantes para el mejoramiento pedagógico profesional. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar el claustro de profesores de la carrera de Estomatología en la provincia de Las Tunas, en el período 2010-2014. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, en el mencionado claustro, en todas las sedes universitarias de la provincia, en el referido período de estudio. La población de estudio estuvo conformada por los 106 profesores que imparten clases en cualquier asignatura correspondiente a esta especialidad. Se aplicó un instrumento de recogida de datos a la totalidad de los profesores de forma individual. Como resultado se obtuvo que el grupo de edad que predominó fue el de 35 a 44 años y el sexo femenino; en cuanto a la profesión, prevalecen los estomatólogos y los profesores asistentes; el número de doctores en ciencias es insuficiente, así como, las publicaciones y la participación de los docentes en los eventos

  5. Control de la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico de geohelmintos intestinales en la provincia Las Tunas

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    Rebeca Margarita Laird Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico de los geohelmintos intestinales, se realizó un control de la calidad externo activo en la provincia de Las Tunas, de abril a junio de 2012. Se evaluaron las habilidades de 22 profesionales de la Atención Primaria de Salud, para realizar el procedimiento de Kato Katz, la identificación parasitaria e informe de resultados y se les midió el nivel de conocimientos sobre aspectos de interés del diagnóstico de estos gusanos. Se realizaron evaluaciones cualitativas de cada parámetro y se estableció un esquema general de calificación. Las principales deficiencias se presentaron en el informe de resultados, específicamente en la identificación de las especies antropozoonóticas (72,7% evaluados de regular, mientras que la mayoría tuvo resultados favorables en la realización de Kato Katz (54,5% excelente y 27,2% bien y en el nivel de conocimientos (13,6% excelente y 54,5% bien.

  6. Aspectos clínicos endoscópicos, relacionados con la diverticulosis de colon. Las Tunas, enero 2011 – diciembre 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Fonseca Chong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de series de casos, en el Hospital “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de Las Tunas, con el objetivo de caracterizar los aspectos clínicos endoscópicos de la diverticulosis del colon, en el periodo comprendido desde enero 2011 a diciembre 2012. El universo quedó constituido por todos los pacientes a los que se les realizó colonoscopia, y la muestra por todos los pacientes con diagnóstico endoscópico de enfermedad diverticular. Para la obtención de los datos primarios se revisaron los expedientes clínicos de 101 pacientes con esta enfermedad, efectuando un cuestionario, en el cual se recogieron, analizaron y tabularon las variables, utilizando como medida de resumen el porcentaje. Se procesaron los datos y se interpretaron los resultados, concluyendo que en el grupo de pacientes estudiados predominaron las mujeres de más de 65 años, con dolor abdominal como síntoma principal y las hemorroides, como enfermedad que más se asoció a esta padecimiento, siendo el colon sigmoides el más afectado.

  7. Vigilancia inmunoepidemiológica del sarampión, rubéola, parotiditis, poliomielitis y tos ferina en la provincia Las Tunas, 2010-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelis Reyes Reyes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La inmunoepidemiología se ha convertido en imprescindible en el sistema de vigilancia moderno de salud, en la evaluación de los programas de vacunación, en la definición de la inmunidad poblacional y en su papel en la prevención de enfermedades. Este estudio describe el comportamiento en la provincia de Las Tunas de la vigilancia inmunoepidemiológica de cinco enfermedades prevenibles: sarampión, rubéola, parotiditis, poliomielitis y tos ferina. La investigación cubrió el periodo desde el año 2010 hasta el 2013. Los resultados muestran la eficacia de las vacunas empleadas, sin ningún caso positivo registrado y avalan a la vigilancia inmunoepidemiológica establecida desde la atención primaria de salud hasta la red de higiene y epidemiología del municipio, la provincia y la nación. Este sistema es necesario para evaluar con antelación posibles riesgos de enfermedades y la decisión oportuna de medidas de intervención

  8. Susceptibility of dry-cured tuna to oxidative deterioration and biogenic amines generation: I. Effect of NaCl content, antioxidant type and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseiro, L C; Santos, C; Gonçalves, H; Serrano, C; Aleixo, C; Partidário, A; Lourenço, A R; Dias, M Abreu; da Ponte, D J B

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess lipid oxidation and biogenic amine (BA) development in "muxama", a dry-cured tuna muscle product, as affected by salt content, antioxidant type and ageing time. Overall, BA contents decreased with NaCl level (2785.1mgkg -1 , 1148.1mgkg -1 and 307.7mgkg -1 ) and increased with ageing time (366.2mgkg -1 , 1711.8mgkg -1 and 2959.2mgkg -1 in the final product (T0), and after 1 (T1) and 3 (T3) months of ageing, respectively). Regardless of the test conditions, the most concentrated BA was always tyramine. For the ageing periods considered in the present study, malondialdehyde formation was affected by the NaCl level, with the saltiest samples exhibiting lower content. Rosemary and sage extracts represented promising technological options for preserving muxama from oxidation and to minimize the presence of a fishy flavour and odour, but this treatment may cause the colour to lose some of its redness and become less appealing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Caracterización de la trombosis protésica en el servicio de cardiología de Las Tunas. 2006-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Santos Medina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en el Servicio de Cardiología del Hospital “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de la provincia de Las Tunas, con el objetivo de caracterizar la trombosis de prótesis valvular en el período entre 2006 y 2011. El universo estuvo conformado por los 34 pacientes ingresados en el servicio por sospecha de trombosis protésica y la muestra por los 29 casos con diagnóstico definitivo de trombosis valvular protésica. Se utilizó la estadística descriptiva a través del análisis porcentual. La edad promedio de los casos fue de 47 años. Predominaron los pacientes del sexo femenino, con prótesis en posición mitral, con anticoagulación inadecuada y con ritmo sinusal en el electrocardiograma al ingreso. El edema agudo del pulmón fue la forma de presentación de disfunción ventricular izquierda que predominó. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron tratados con estreptoquinasa, lográndose resolución de la trombosis en la mayoría de los casos, con un número escaso de complicaciones tras el tratamiento trombolítico.

  10. Utilización del mucílago de tuna (opuntia ficus-indica) en el mejoramiento de la calidad del agua de consumo humano, en la comunidad de Pusir Grande, provincia del Carchi

    OpenAIRE

    Morejón Díaz, Bayro Javier

    2017-01-01

    Mejorar la calidad del agua de consumo humano utilizando mucílago de tuna (Opuntia ficus-indica) en la comunidad de Pusir Grande, Provincia del Carchi. Dentro del proceso para tratamiento de agua para consumo humano, se utilizan coagulantes químicos como el Sulfato de Aluminio Al2 (SO4)3, sin embargo, según estudios realizados, se ha comprobado que este insumo deja aluminio residual, el mismo que podría causar enfermedades como el Alzheimer. En la naturaleza, existen especies vegetativa...

  11. Aspectos clínicos y endoscópicos del adenocarcinoma gástrico en pacientes de Las Tunas, enero de 2013 a enero de 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Fonseca Chong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, con el objetivo de caracterizar los pacientes atendidos por adenocarcinoma gástrico en el Hospital General Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de provincia de Las Tunas, durante el periodo comprendido entre el 1 de enero de 2013 y el 1 de enero de 2014. El universo quedó constituido por todos los pacientes a los que se les realizó biopsia de estómago, por lesión sospechosa de adenocarcinoma gástrico, y la muestra por todos los pacientes con diagnóstico histológico de esta enfermedad. Para la obtención de los datos primarios se revisaron los expedientes clínicos de 23 pacientes con biopsia positiva. A partir de un cuestionario se recogieron y procesaron los datos y se interpretaron los resultados. Se encontró un predominio en el sexo masculino (69,5%, en los mayores de 51 años (30,4% y en la población de raza negra (47,8% con antecedentes de infección por helicobacter pylori (69,5%. El 43,4% de los pacientes debutó con una dispepsia prolongada, como síntoma predominante, y la imagen endoscópica más observada fue la úlcera cancerosa (12 casos, en relación con el patrón histológico difuso

  12. Sistema\tde ejercicios para elevar el rendimiento deportivo de las lanzadoras de Softball de la categoría juvenil en la provincia Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Isabel Báez Rojas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Para un Equipo de Softball el lanzador ocupa la posición mas difícil y principal a la defensiva, tanto es así que en la mayoría de los casos el éxito o el fracaso de un partido dependen de sus habilidades. La presente investigación, sistema de ejercicios para las lanzadoras de Softball se comenzó aplicar en el curso escolar 2006/2007 en la categoría juvenil de la provincia de Las Tunas, tomando como muestra 4 lanzadoras de apenas un año de experiencia.A través de los instrumentos de diagnóstico, la encuesta y la entrevista aplicados a atletas y entrenadores de la categoría juvenil del sexo femenino se constato que las lanzadoras presentaban grandes insuficiencias en la realización de los elementos técnicos de lanzar, producto a la no existencia de un trabajo técnico enla  primera  etapa  de  formación  a  largo  plazo  del  atleta,  trayendo  como consecuencia resultados discretos. La aplicación del sistema de ejercicios permitió a las lanzadoras juveniles elevar el rendimiento deportivo en correspondencia con sus edades. Para dar cumplimiento a las tareas planteadas y al desarrollo de esta investigación se utilizaron varios métodos, pero el de mayor incidencia en el resultado fue el método empírico, la observación, permitiendo evaluar la calidad de la ejecución en la técnica de lanzar en cada una de las fases propuestas.

  13. Large-Scale Examination of Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (dFADs from Tropical Tuna Fisheries of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maufroy

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, massive use of drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (dFADs to aggregate tropical tunas has strongly modified global purse-seine fisheries. For the first time, a large data set of GPS positions from buoys deployed by French purse-seiners to monitor dFADs is analysed to provide information on spatio-temporal patterns of dFAD use in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during 2007-2011. First, we select among four classification methods the model that best separates "at sea" from "on board" buoy positions. A random forest model had the best performance, both in terms of the rate of false "at sea" predictions and the amount of over-segmentation of "at sea" trajectories (i.e., artificial division of trajectories into multiple, shorter pieces due to misclassification. Performance is improved via post-processing removing unrealistically short "at sea" trajectories. Results derived from the selected model enable us to identify the main areas and seasons of dFAD deployment and the spatial extent of their drift. We find that dFADs drift at sea on average for 39.5 days, with time at sea being shorter and distance travelled longer in the Indian than in the Atlantic Ocean. 9.9% of all trajectories end with a beaching event, suggesting that 1,500-2,000 may be lost onshore each year, potentially impacting sensitive habitat areas, such as the coral reefs of the Maldives, the Chagos Archipelago, and the Seychelles.

  14. Estimation of the nopal cactus (Opuntia cochenillifera for color removal in drinking water Evaluación de la tuna (Opuntia cochenillifera para la remoción del color en agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Jiménez Antillón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of nopal cactus to remove color in river and artificial waters for human consumption was evaluated. The performance of nopal was compared with that of aluminum sulfate coagulant and a cationic flocculant.The river water was cha- racterized by high color, low turbidity, alkalinity and hardness, and a high percentage of dissolved oxygen. The cactus leaves showed no activity as unique coa- gulant to be evaluated only in river water. In artificial water, as a sole treatment (45 mg/l, an efficiency of 94% in color removal was observed, slightly higher than that of the conventional treatment (20 mg/l Al2 (SO43 and 2 mg/l of cationic flocculant with a removal of 89%. However, water treated with nopal left a residual COD value doubled (21 mg/l compared to con- ventional treatment. In the treatment of artificial water, nopal as a flocculant showed a color removal of 92% and a residual COD of 31.5 mg /l applied at a dose of 22.5 mg/l and 7 mg/l of Al2 (SO43. The nopal was not very effective to remove the color produced by humic substances in waters of low turbidity and alkalinity, but its applicability as a coagulant/flocculant in waters of high turbidity and alkalinity is promising. It is recommended to extract the active ingredients of natural products to reduce the organic load of treated water and prevent the formation of disin- fection byproducts.El estudio evaluó la eficiencia del cactus de la tuna para remover el color en agua de río y agua artificial para el consumo humano. Se comparó su desem- peño con el coagulante sulfato de aluminio y un floculante catiónico. El agua fluvial se caracterizó por presentar alto color, baja turbidez, alcalinidad y dureza y alto porcentaje de oxígeno disuelto. Las hojas de tuna no mostraron actividad como coagulante único al ser evaluadas en agua de río. Se observó una eficiencia de remoción de color del 94% en agua artificial, cuando se aplicó como tratamiento único (45 mg/l, poco

  15. Duae novae Staphylinidae ex India Orientali (Sumatra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauvel, A.

    1881-01-01

    Ad sectionem fulgidi referendus, prope nasutum Harold (africanum) collocandus. Multo major et robustior. Elougatus, parallelus, nitidissimus, elytris paulo minus, convexus; niger, antennis pedibusque nigro-piceis, palpis tarsisque rufescentibus, elytris rufis, segmentorum 6 et 7 apice rufo-testaceo;

  16. Kritik Makna Islam Perspektif Orientalis dan Liberal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsi Wal Qamar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Islam is a name religion with clear explanation based on the arguments that are normative and historically, the Qur’an, Hadith and history of preaching Prophet Muhammad when spread this religion. Of course this naming is permanent so it will not be changed until the end of time later. But for Wilfreid Cantwell Smith and Muhammad Shahrur which are the thinkers of the West and the Muslim Orientalist Liberals are trying to recontruction naming them. For Smith, Islam is only submission to God to be obedient and submissive to the shari’ah religion are shared by humans, as judging that the word Islam is derived from the word aslama means surrender or submission. Meanwhile, according Shahrur, Islam is taught by the shari’ah of the Prophet Muhammad who was also taught by the previous Prophets such as Abraham, Moses, Jesus and others. So according Shahrur Muslim person can be said without having to follow and believe in the Shari’ah as taught by the Prophet Muhammad. From this a second thought leaders cause various problems, such as Islamic religious truth is relative or inclusive or decontructed concept and the Shari’ah of Islam. So in this paper the authors will describe how Smith and Shahrur view of the meaning of Islam, the background of their thinking and their implications for the Islamic religion, and a refutation of their thinking.

  17. Pengaruh Orientalis terhadap Liberalisasi Pemikiran Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mansur Tammam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of Islamic thought, which is considered and proclaimed as “renewal of Islamic thought,” did not come from the core concepts of Islam, it came from the outside of Islamic concepts (read: Western. Initially, the Western-Christian liberalism is an extension of the sophism, with ever implicated in Greece. Among the important figures is Heraclitus, Democritos and Protagoras. Although they received fierce opposition from Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, but liberalism got a new fresh air in the heyday of the Roman. This sophism trend, later gave birth to the relativism of truth, which is also the spirit of liberalism itself. Worse, liberalism was brought to Islam, the emergence of which can be traced to the Arabian Peninsula, Albania, and Syria. While in Egypt, Sultan Abdul Hamid II gave a note that a few Egyptian stunned with Western ideas, taking liberalism as a way of salvation. By using justifications of Qur’anic verses and hadiths, interpreted unilaterally, the liberalist thought was a tajdid to Islamic thought. The spirit (power of liberalism is in the distribution process of using old methods, that is the tradition of orientalism, misionarism, and imperialism. The basis of liberalist support can be traced to some of the states concerned with it, such as the United States, Britain and France. Finally, this simple article will briefly try to uncover how this all happened.

  18. Impacto de la mastoplastia reductiva con técnicas de mínima incisión. Las Tunas, 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Alain Dieppa Ramírez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio experimental, con el objetivo de evaluar la utilidad de la Mastoplastia reductiva con técnicas de mínima incisión, en el Servicio de Cirugía Plástica del Hospital Provincial Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna” de la ciudad de Las Tunas; en el periodo comprendido de abril de 2008 a marzo de 2010. El universo estuvo constituido por las 281 pacientes con diagnóstico de hipertrofia mamaria, acompañada o no de ptosis mamaria, y la muestra quedó constituida por las 136 pacientes con diagnóstico de hipertrofia mamaria, grado I, II o III, con criterio quirúrgico estético y/o funcional, las cuales tributaban a la realización de la cirugía con técnicas de mínima incisión durante el período de estudio. Para lograr los objetivos, los datos fueron recogidos de fuentes primarias y secundarias a través del interrogatorio directo, examen físico y de la historia clínica de cada paciente. Todos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva mediante el análisis porcentual. Los principales resultados mostraron un predominio del grupo de 23 a 35 años de edad, el tipo de deformidad más operada fue la hipertrofia mamaria moderada, asimismo el tipo de anestesia más usada fue la local. A pesar de ser la dehiscencia de la herida quirúrgica la más frecuente complicación, las operadas se mostraron altamente satisfechas de acuerdo al tamaño, forma, simetría y sensibilidad; siendo la reducción de la cicatriz resultante el parámetro de mayor impacto.

  19. Características de pacientes con cáncer de mama diagnosticado en el año 2013 en el municipio de Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Nicolás Milián Mosquera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer de mama constituye la primera causa de muerte de las mujeres en el mundo. El diagnostico precoz y el tratamiento oportuno de las lesiones mamarias constituyen pilares fundamentales en la evolución y pronóstico de este tipo de cáncer. Objetivo: describir las características clínico-epidemiológicas de las pacientes con cáncer de mama del municipio de Las Tunas, provincia del mismo nombre, Cuba; en el periodo de enero a diciembre de 2013. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional-descriptivo y transversal. La población de estudio estuvo constituida por las 59 pacientes que se les diagnosticó cáncer de mama. Se estudiaron los antecedentes patológicos personales, antecedentes patológicos familiares de patología mamaria, menopausia, ingestión de hormonas y otros factores asociados. Se definió el BIRADS (por las siglas en inglés de Breast Imaging reporting and data system mamográfico y se determinó la etapa clínica en que estaban las pacientes cuando se realizó el diagnóstico. Para la recolección de la información fueron utilizados datos estadísticos, historias clínicas individuales, hojas de cargo y resultados de las biopsias y se procesaron por el método estadístico porcentual. Resultados: en la muestra predominó el grupo de edad entre los 50-59 años, los principales factores de riesgo asociados estuvieron relacionados con los antecedentes familiares de haber padecido esta enfermedad, la categoría mamográfica predominante fue la BIRADS IV, y la etapa clínica II. Conclusiones: el mayor por ciento de pacientes se diagnosticó de forma tardía, a pesar de los esfuerzos del sistema nacional de salud para aumentar la pesquisa del cáncer de mama.

  20. Estudio de cinco años en pacientes de Las Tunas con cáncer cutáneo no melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys Rufina Peña Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el cáncer cutáneo no melanoma ha mostrado un incremento paulatino a nivel mundial, en Las Tunas, Cuba, existe un comportamiento similar.Objetivo: caracterizar los pacientes diagnosticados histopatológicamente con cáncer cutáneo no melanoma, cuyas biopsias fueron analizadas en el departamento de anatomía patológica del Hospital General Docente "Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna", en el período comprendido entre enero de 2010 a diciembre 2014.Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 3970 pacientes, atendidos en el lugar y período de tiempo antes señalado, se utilizó el modelo oficial de biopsia como fuente secundaria de recolección de la información. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva.Resultados: la frecuencia de aparición de este cáncer en el 2010 fue de 15,6 %, se incrementó en el 2011 a 21,7 %, en 2012 y 2013 osciló, con valores de 20,62 % y 22,5 %, respectivamente, y en el 2014 mostró una disminución de los casos positivos a 19,5 %. El tipo histológico predominante fue el carcinoma basocelular, por encima del 50 % en todos los años y estuvo presente en el 65,4 % del total de la muestra estudiada. Se obtuvieron cifras muy cercanas entre ambos sexos: masculino (51,5 % y femenino (48,5 %. El grupo de edad de mayores de 60 años predominó, con el 61,2 % del total de pacientes. La mayoría procedían de las consultas de atención secundaria (76,62 % y la especialidad que más biopsias indicó fue dermatología con un 42,84 %.Conclusiones: la variedad histológica que predominó en los pacientes con cáncer cutáneo no melanoma fue el carcinoma basocelular y su frecuencia fue mayor en pacientes con más de 60 años, la atención primaria no constituyó el principal eslabón de pesquisa y tratamiento de esta afección y los pacientes fueron mayormente atendidos por dermatólogos y cirujanos maxilofaciales.

  1. Aplicación de la psicoterapia sistémica en la atención primaria de salud. Municipio de Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Lastre Arrieta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención con un grupo de pacientes neuróticos en tratamiento ambulatorio, del municipio de Las Tunas, donde se empleó como modalidad terapéutica la Psicoterapia Sistémica de Modificación de Predisposiciones, con el objetivo de modificar las actitudes y los síntomas básicos. En la consulta externa de psiquiatría se seleccionaron a los pacientes que integrarían el grupo de psicoterapia, entre los meses de octubre a diciembre del año 2009, con las características de tener un coeficiente intelectual normal, que no presentaran síntomas obsesivos, ni organicidad cerebral. El grupo de trabajo estuvo formado por psiquiatras, un psicólogo clínico, psicometristas y una enfermera psiquiátrica. A todos los pacientes se les realizó una entrevista, con los objetivos de selección y diagnóstico, se les llenó una encuesta teniendo en cuenta los objetivos propuestos y se les indicaron pruebas psicológicas. El grupo se reunió con una frecuencia semanal, empleando un tiempo de hora y media, durante seis meses, de enero a junio de 2010. Se logró la modificación de los síntomas básicos en los pacientes del estudio con esta forma de psicoterapia, valorando también la modificación de actitudes en relación a las problemáticas fundamentales. Se recomienda el tratamiento en este medio, teniendo en cuenta sus características y lo que se quiere lograr, donde los enfermeros y técnicos de salud tengan un papel activo y que además de la modificación sintomática, se mejore la forma de actuar en la vida ante situaciones de conflicto.

  2. Decision Support System For Approval New Student And Majoring Selection Based On Student’s Interest And Talent By Fuzzy Multiple Decision Making, Simple Additive Weighting And Buble Sort Method In SMK Telekomunikasi Tunas Harapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nurdiyah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision Support System for New Student Acceptance aims to simplify the Decision Maker who is the Committee of New Student Acceptance to select prospective new students based on eight criteria. That is registration number, the average value of National Examinations, medical tests, interview, their achievements, salary of parents per month, number of siblings who are still in school and administration department and give recommendations for the major of accepted students based on their interests and talents. There are four major in SMK Telekomunikasi Tunas Harapan, these are Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak (RPL, Teknik Komputer dan Jaringan (TKJ, Multimedia and Teknik Kendaraan Ringan (TKR. And the talents be measured by math test, electro test, daw test and physics test.

  3. Estimating animal behaviour and residency from movement data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Patterson, Toby Alexander; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2011-01-01

    probability distribution of location and behavior at each point in time. With this, the behavioral state of the animal can be associated to regions in space, thus revealing migration corridors and residence areas. We demonstrate the inferential potential of the method by analyzing satellite-linked archival...... tag data from a southern bluefin tuna Thunnus maccoyii where longitudinal coordinates inferred from daylight are supplemented by latitudinal information in recorded sea surface temperatures....

  4. Tuna fishery research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Kumar, G.; Kunal, S.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Enviroscan_Newslett_2_7.pdf.txt stream_source_info Enviroscan_Newslett_2_7.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. Análisis de plasmas inducidos por láser con excitación multipulso para el proceso de ablación de areolas de Tuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Flores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La técnica de análisis de plasmas inducidos por láser (LIBS, posee importantes ventajas como son que la muestra no requiere preparación previa, puede estar en fase sólida, liquida o gaseosa y tener cualquier forma y dimensión, se requiere una cantidad mínima de material y, finalmente, el análisis se realiza en tiempo real. Estas ventajas, hacen posible el seguimiento en tiempo real de un proceso de ablación láser, incluso para muestras de composición compleja. Para el monitoreo de un proceso industrial, esta herramienta sería más adecuada, si se cuenta con una calibración del equipo y un protocolo particular definido. En el trabajo, se ejemplifica esta posibilidad para el caso de la ablación láser de areolas de Tuna (fruto de el Opuntia ficus-indica. Método: Se realiza el análisis LIBS de muestras de tuna, tanto en las areolas como en la corteza. Para la excitación del plasma se emplea un láser de Nd:YAG en régimen de Q:Switch con tren de pulsos. Con el objeto de asegurar el reconocimiento de las líneas en los espectros LIBS, se realizaron análisis en patrones de composición conocida, estableciéndose un protocolo para la interpretación de los espectros. Resultados: Se logró una clara lectura de la línea de H ubicada en 656.2 nm. Se estableció un protocolo para la interpretación de los espectros, que permitió la identificación de 49 picos característicos. Finalmente, se determina la composición para la corteza y la areola y se lleva a cabo una comparación cualitativa entre éstas. Discusión: Se muestra que la excitación láser en forma de tren de pulsos, entendido este régimen como modalidad particular del Q:Switch, permite la determinación eficiente de elementos, con una adecuada relación señal-ruido. Por otra parte, que es posible determinar diferencias composicionales evidentes entre corteza y la areola, lo cual permite monitorear un proceso de ablación de areolas con láser de manera

  6. Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) eyeball oil exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activation in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and croton oil-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da-Hyun; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Kim, Min-Ji; Kang, Bo-Kyeong; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2016-11-01

    The effect of tuna eyeball oil (TEO) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in macrophage cells was investigated. TEO had no cytotoxicity in cell viability as compared to the control in LPS induced RAW 264.7 cells. TEO reduced the levels of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by up to 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of NF-κB and MAPKs as well as iNOS and COX-2 proteins was reduced by TEO, which suggests that its anti-inflammatory activity is related to the suppression of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. The rate of formation of ear edema was reduced compared to that in the control at the highest dose tested. In an acute toxicity test, no mice were killed by TEO doses of up to 5000mg/kg body weight during the two week observation period. These results suggested that TEO may have a significant effect on inflammatory factors and be a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Níveis de mercúrio em atum sólido enlatado comercializado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro Total mercury levels in canned tuna fish commercialized at the Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegra YALLOUZ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, estudou-se o nível de mercúrio em atum sólido enlatado, comercializado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisadas 39 amostras, pertencente a 5 marcas e lotes distintos, utilizando-se a espectrometria de absorção atômica pela técnica de vapor-frio. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que 53% das amostras apresentaram um teor acima do máximo recomendado, sendo que somente uma entre as cinco marcas estudadas apresentou todas as amostras com níveis dentro dos limites tolerados. Tais resultados demonstram a necessidade de um maior controle da qualidade destes produtos.The present study investigated the mercury levels in canned tuna fish, commercialized in the Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. Thirty nine samples from five different makers were analyzed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that 53% of the samples presented levels above the WHO (World Health Organization recommended value, and only one from the five suppliers presented all their samples below this level. Such results indicate that it urges a better quality control for this food.

  8. Asociación de la abundancia y la distribución vertical de atunes y peces de pico en el sureste del Mar Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Eslava

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la profundidad de suspensión de los anzuelos del palangre usando el método de Imitación Mecánica de los Sistemas Flexibles, mientras que la distribución vertical de atunes y peces de pico se determinó mediante el índice de abundancia relativa obtenido de capturas de barcos palangreros (11 a 25 m de eslora del puerto de Cumaná, Venezuela y que operan en el Mar Caribe a una profundidad de 65 a 142 m. Se evaluó la CPUE por especie de acuerdo a la profundidad, encontrándose valores altos en la mayoría de los individuos de las especies capturadas en el estrato de 105 a 125 m. El atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares fue el que presentó los más altos rendimientos (3.37 peces/100 anzuelos, mientras que la aguja azul (Makaira nigricans los más bajos (0.04 peces/100 anzuelos. La comparación estadística no permitió rechazar la hipótesis de ausencia del efecto de profundidad (Kruskal-Wallis p > .05, y se puso en evidencia una distribución homogénea, en la columna de agua, del atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares, albacora (Thunnus alalung a, ojo gordo (Thunnus obesus, pez vela (Istiophorus albican s, aguja blanca (Tetrapturus albidus y aguja azul (Makaira nigrican s. Se concluye que la concentración de la pesca en el margen sur del Mar Caribe, posiblemente, es debido a varios factores hidroclimáticos tales como la temperatura del agua y la concentración de oxígeno disuelto que influyen sobre la captura de los atunes y peces de pico delimitando su distribución con res-pecto a la profundidad.The longline hooks suspension depth was estimated using the Mechanic Imitation of Flexible Systems method. The vertical distribution of tunas and billfish was determined by the relative abundance index, obtained from the catch by 11 to 25 m -long longline vessels, -based at Cumaná, Venezuela, South-eastern Caribbean Sea in depths of 65 to 142 m. The CPUE was evaluated per species, according to depth. High values were found for

  9. Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cardona

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus, spearfish (Tetrapturus belone and swordfish (Xiphias gladius. Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix, blue shark (Prionace glauca, leerfish (Lichia amia, bonito (Sarda sarda, striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga, amberjack (Seriola dumerili, blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola, bullet tuna (Auxis rochei, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, mackerel (Scomber scombrus and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish, most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing.

  10. An investigation on roundwood extraction of Fagus orientalis lipsky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... uphill yarding by Urus MIII was more productive than downhill yarding on snow. .... The total area is 13314 ha. The vegetation type is forest vegetation and the dominant ..... skylines, carriage maintenance must be supplied and.

  11. Bioguided investigation of the antimalarial activities of Trema orientalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... Article Number: 3F00A6755934. ISSN 1684-5315 ... License 4.0 · International License ... extract was analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates,. Merck .... makes it a viable candidate in the search for antimalarial.

  12. Bitterness and Physichochemical Properties of Angelwing Clam (Pholas Orientalis) Hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Ismail; Nurul Fasihah Razak

    2016-01-01

    Protein hydrolysates from angelwing clam were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using bromelain. The bitterness of hydrolysates was evaluated based on the degree hydrolysis (DH), sensory analysis, molecular weight distribution and functional group. By using 3 % of enzyme substrate ratio bromelain resulted in high DH value at 12.57 % when angelwing clam was hydrolysed for 2 hours. Sensory analysis showed that angelwing hydrolysate was bitter. Angelwing hydrolysate had molecu