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Sample records for tumors sintese analise

  1. Synthesis, analysis, purification and biodistribution in an animal model of radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu{sup 3+} -dotatato for diagnostic and therapeutic use in neuroendocrine tumors; Sintese, analise, purificacao e biodistribuicao em modelo animal do radiofarmaco {sup 177}Lu{sup 3+} -dotatato para uso diagnostico e terapeutico em tumores neuroendocrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira Filho, Jose de Souza

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to propose rationalization in the synthesis, analysis and purification of radiopharmaceutical {sup 177} Lu{sup 3+} - DOTATATO for diagnostic and therapeutic use in neuroendocrine tumors, as well as for evaluation g biodistribution of this radiopharmaceutical an animal-mode. The complexation reaction for the synthesis of radiopharmaceutical was carried out in ammonium acetate buffer 0.5 M, p H 7.0, for 30 minutes at 95 deg C. The radiochemical purity was > 95%, according to analysis by chromatography in ITLC-SG, when using the sodium citrate buffer 0,1 M, p H 5.0, as the mobile phase. The molar-limit ratio {sup 177}Lu{sup 3+}:DOTATATO, in ammonium acetate buffer 0.5 M, p H 7.0, for 30 minutes at 95 deg C, was dependent on the specific activity and origin of the radioisotope, this being 1:3.5 (370 MBq : 26{mu}g) for that from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory /USA, and 1:16 (370 MBq: 11.8 {mu}g) for that from Nuclear Analytical and Medical Services/Holland, when considering a decay of five days from the production date of te radioisotopes. This rationalization in the synthesis of radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu{sup 3+} - DOTATATO permits high economy in production costs. Chemical studies on the synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals also placed in evidence the interference of {sup 177}Hf{sup 4+}, the decay product of {sup 177}Lu{sup 3=}, as the {sup 177} Lu{sup 3=} competitor for DOTATATO. Radiopharmaceutical preparation proved to be stable during 24 hours, at an activity rate of 2775 MBq, with the addition of 0.6 mg/mL of gentisic acid and when kept in dry ice. In biodistribution studies on Swiss and Nuce mice, the specificity of radiopharmaceutical for somatostatin positive-receptor tissues, such as the pancreas, stomach, lungs, adrenal glands, kidneys and the cell tumor AR42J was demonstrated. (author)

  2. Decomposição, analise e sintese de sistemas de grande porte

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Alves da Silva

    1984-01-01

    Resumo: Neste trabalho, propomos e sistemàtizamos uma metodolo gia para a análise e síntese de sistemas dinâmicos de grande pOE te. Numa primeira parte, a partir das equações dinâmicas '(no es paço de estado), propomos e implementamos um método para a decom posição de um sistema genérico em subsistemas hierarquicamente interconectados. Nesta parte do trabalho fazemos uso extensivo de conceitos pertinentes à teoria de grafos, e os resultadosrnais importantes foram colocados em forma algoritmic...

  3. Computed tomography in the analysis of calcification patterns in pediatric bone tumors of the hip: a new approach; Tomografia computadorizada na analise dos padroes de calcificacoes nos tumores osseos da bacia em pediatria: nova abordagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio de; Werlang, Henrique Zambenedetti; Bergoli, Pedro Martins [Hospital Universitario Cassiano Antonio de Morais/Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Gloria, Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: hzwerlang@gmail.com; Frechiani, Madalena; Oliveira, Fernao [Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Gloria, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    Objective: In the pediatric group, the radiological diagnosis of bone tumors of the hip is difficult and presents some peculiarities, but reviewed literature does not approach this specific problem. The objective of the present study was to investigate the existence of reliable radiological patterns for the differential diagnosis of these tumors. Materials And Methods: Radiological findings of bone tumors of the hip in ten patients in the age range between 8 and 19 years have been reviewed. Results: Bone reaction (sclerosis or lysis), periosteal reaction (lamellar with single or multiple layers, or radial), tumor extent in the bone and level of soft tissues invasion have presented low specificity. Soft tissue calcifications, when considered as a whole, were non-specific. However, when those calcifications with varied shapes and sizes, nearby the affected bone (pattern I) were separated from those, thin and amorphous, away from the bone (pattern II), we have observed that the pattern I was totally non-specific, and the pattern II was found in the three cases of osteosarcoma (100%) and in only one case of Ewing's sarcoma (16.6%). Conclusion: In the present study, pattern II calcifications have shown a 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity for osteosarcoma. However, their importance may be not limited to the radiological diagnosis. Pattern II calcifications indicate probably ideal sites for biopsy. (author)

  4. Three-dimensional radiotherapy planning system for esophageal tumors: comparison of treatment techniques and analysis of probability of complications; Planejamento tridimensional para radioterapia de tumores de esofago: comparacao de tecnicas de tratamento e analise de probabilidade de complicacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justino, Pitagoras Baskara; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Ferauche, Debora; Ros, Renato [Sao Paulo Uni., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto de Radioterapia (InRad)]. E-mail: pitagorasb@hotmail.com

    2003-06-01

    Radiotherapy techniques for esophageal cancer were compared using a three-dimensional planning system. We studied the following treatment techniques used for a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the middle third of the esophagus: two antero-posterior and two latero-lateral parallel opposed fields, three fields ('Y' and 'T'), and four fields ('X'). Dose-volume histograms were obtained considering spinal cord and lungs as organs at risk. Analysis was performed comparing doses in these organs as recommended by the Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) and Tumor Control Probability (TCP). When only the lungs were considered the best technique was two antero-posterior parallel opposed fields. The spinal cord was best protected using latero-lateral fields. We suggest the combination of at least two treatment techniques: antero-posterior fields with 'Y' or 'T' techniques, or latero-lateral fields in order to balance the doses in the lungs and the spinal cord. Another option may be the use of any of the three-field techniques during the whole treatment. (author)

  5. Tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, J.U.; Heegaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer......oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer...

  6. Study of 164 primary malignant tumors of the kidneys. Radiological-pathological correlation in 43 cases; Estudo de 164 neoplasias malignas primarias do rim, com analise macroscopica e radiologica de 43 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Filho, C.N.; Freitas, A.P.; Moreira, D.M.; Cavallieri, S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-03-01

    In our days, the radiology is essential; for the early diagnosis of the small renal tumors. We realized a research with 164 patients with renal tumors is our institution (INCa-RJ). The radiologic aspects were correlated with the macroscopic ones in 43 cases selected from our first group (164 patients). We found significant similarity according to the literature in the following aspects: histologic type (the relative frequency), sex, age, sonographic and tomographic aspects. Unfortunately, the patients are sent to our hospital very lately, some of them with large tumors. (author). 16 refs, 15 figs, 5 tabs.

  7. Labelling, biodistribution and compartmental analysis of N-acetylcysteine labelled with Tc-99m. Comparative investigation with with {sup 99m} Tc-MIBI in an in vivo tumoral model; Estudo de marcacao, biodistribuicao e analise compartimental da N-acetil cisteina marcada com Tc-99m. Investigacao comparativa com MIBI-{sup 99m}Tc em modelo tumoral in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faintuch, Bluma Linkowski

    1997-07-01

    Labelling and biodistribution studies were done with two different ligands, respectively Methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), employing Tc-99m as a tracer. The main objective was to assess the pharmacokinetic properties of the second substance, aiming at its possible application in cancer diagnosis. To this purpose an in vivo investigation was done using healthy and tumor-bearing rats with experimental cancer. Images of tumor-bearing rats registered in a scintillation camera indicated that with {sup 99m} Tc-MIBI none of the two selected times was adequate for visualization of the cancer mass. In contrast, {sup 99m} Tc-NAC permitted clear identification of the humor, four hours after injection. The results have demonstrated that {sup 99m} Tc-NAC is a radiopharmaceutical with affinity for cancer tissue and promising for further investigation concerning imaging diagnosis of tumors. (author)

  8. n Analise van die gemeente as deel van hierdie proses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phase of this subject is the analysis of the situation in the local church. The purpose of the analysis is to syste matically ... planned carefully. This study gives attention to a plan ned situation-analysis of the local church. 1. ...... 6.1.2.5 Die dinkskrum en 'swot'-analise. 'n Dinkskrum is 'n tegniek waar 'n groep soveel as moontlik ...

  9. Analysis in patients of the Hospital A.C. Camargo of two tumors markers: CA-72.4 and CYFRA-21.1; Analise em pacientes do Hospital A.C. Camargo de dois marcadores tumorais: CA-72.4 e CYFRA-21.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbuto, Jose Alexandre Marzagao; Oda, Emilia Emiko; Oliveira, Ricardo Manoel de [Fundacao Antonio Prudente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital A.C. Camargo

    1995-03-01

    The behavior of two tumor markers, CA-72.4 and CYFRA-19.9 was analysed in patients of the Hospital A.C. Camargo. The measurement of CA-272.4 serum levels was performed by an automated chemo luminescence assay in 49 patients and proved useful in the two groups analyzed, patients with esophageal tumors and with gastric tumors. In both cases, there was an increase in sensitivity when measurements of this marker was added to that of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and of CA-19.9. The most sensitive associations were of CA-72.4 and CA-19.9 for esophageal tumors and of CA-72.4 and CEA for the gastric tumors. The maker CYFRA-21.1 was analyzed by a radioimmunoassay in 102 normal blood donors and in 20 patients with lung cancer. Among these, CYFRA-21.1 was altered in 55% of the cases. Therefore, CYFRA-21.1 could be considered, as the neuron-specific enolase (NSE), very useful tool for the follow-up lung cancer patients. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Uit genade alleen? Herbesinning oor die Romeinebrief deur Suid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die kritiek (verwyt!) dat hierdie benadering agter- haald is, word ondervang deurdat sy analise, sintese en toepassing verder ook nog vanuit die perspektief van die retoriese situasie van Romeine (bl 17v) benader is. Met behulp van 'n literêr-kritiese paradigma van verstaan van die Romeinebrief vra hy die belangrike vraag ...

  11. Synthesis by the Pechini method and reaction combustion for the preparation of TiO{sub 2}: a comparative analysis; Sintese pelo metodo Pechini e reacao de combustao para preparacao de TiO{sub 2}: uma analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, E.P.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Freitas, N.L.; Lira, H.L.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare TiO{sub 2} powder by Pechini and combustion reaction methods. A comparative analysis between the structural and morphological results obtained by the two methods was investigated. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffractions (XRD), infrared analysis, nitrogen adsorption (BET) and particle size distribution. The results from XRD show that the powders prepared by Pechini method and by combustion reaction using aniline as fuel, present anatase as major phase and traces of rutile phase. The values of crystallite size and surface area from BET were: 30 e 44 nm; 6.2 e 4.4 m{sup 2}/g, for the powders prepared by Pechini and combustion reaction, respectively. The values of particle size were: 21.9 e 5.3 {mu}m, for the powders prepared by Pechini and combustion reaction, respectively. The Pechini method was more suitable to obtain powders with irregular agglomerates, in the block shape with particles bonded softly and small crystallite size. (author)

  12. Synthesis and characterization of cement slurries additives with epoxy resins - kinetics, thermodynamic and calorimetric analysis; Sintese e caracterizacao de pastas de cimento aditivadas com resinas epoxi - analises cineticas, termodinamicas e calorimetricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, A.M.G.; Andrade Junior, M.A.S.; Cestari, A.R.; Vieira, E.F.S., E-mail: macleybiane@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Cement has been used in the world, presenting a wide versatility. However, due to its chemical nature, it is subject to several types of chemical damages, especially for agents of acidic nature. With the purpose of increase its life-time, new cement slurries have been modified with the addition of specific additives. The objective of this work is to modify cement slurries with epoxy resins, which promote higher resistance of those materials in relation to acid attacks. Three cement slurries were synthesized with epoxy resins and a standard slurries, which was composed by cement and water. After 30 days of hydration, the samples were characterized by XDR, FTIR and thermal analysis (TG and DSC). The hydration processes of the cement slurries were studied by heat-conduction microcalorimetry. A kinetic study of HCl interaction with the new slurries were performed by the batch methodology at 25, 35, 45 e 55 deg C. It was verified that the addition of the polymers delayed the processes of hydration of the slurries, decreasing the flow of heat released as a function of the amount of added resin and, increased the resistance of those slurries to the acid attack. (author)

  13. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  14. Development of a YouTube videos feelings analiser = Desarrollo de un analizador de sentimientos de videos de Youtube

    OpenAIRE

    Valle Salas, José Miguel del

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, Youtube is one of the most successful social networks, therefore it has more and more impact in our society. Due to this it's quite useful to know the sentiments that this platform videos produces. This project has been focused in the development of a tool able to analise this sentiments, which could be used for di�erent purposes like Market studies or emotional learning for people who has some functional diversity. The technologies used during the project development has b...

  15. Um Estudo Empirico Sobre o Fim da CorregAo Monetaria Integral e sea Impacto na Analise das Demonstrag6es Contabeis: Uma Analise Setorial"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Meirelles Salotti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo avalia as consequencias de não se considerarem os efeitos da inflação nas analises das demonstrações contábeis e, além disso, se esses impactos são diferentes em cada setor da economia. A pesquisa considera apenas as empresas que divulgaram as suas demonstrações contábeis corrigidas no periodo de 1996 a 2002. Verificou-se a existência de diferença significativa entre indices calculados pela Lei Societária (sem corregAo e pela Correção Monetária Integral, tendo sido utilizado o teste de médias emparelhadas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que a falta de correção monetária nas demonstrações contábeis apresentadas de 1996 a 2002 pode causar distorções na análise da real condição patrimonial e financeira das empresas. Embora essas distorções não sejam igualmente percebidas em todos os setores e em todos os indices, elas podem resultar em conclusões equivocadas por parte dos usuários dessas informações.

  16. Mediastinal tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thymoma - mediastinal; Lymphoma - mediastinal ... mediastinal tumors in adults occur in the anterior mediastinum. They are usually cancerous (malignant) lymphomas, germ cell tumors, or thymomas. These tumors are ...

  17. Tumor vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.; Ihan, A.

    2006-01-01

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)

  18. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  19. Mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Mammary neoplasia is one of the more common malignancies affecting domestic species. Despite their importance, they are often over- diagnosed, undertreated and subject to several misconceptions propagated by veterinarians and pet owners alike. Mammary neoplasia is the most frequent tumor type encountered in the female accounting for almost half of all malignancies reported. The canine has the highest incidence of mammary tumors of all domestic species. In the dog, about 65 percent of mammary tumors are benign mixed tumors, and 25 percent are carcinomas. The rest are adenomas, myoepitheliomas, and malignant mixed tumors. The age distribution of mammary tumors closely follows the age distribution of most tumors in the dog. Mammary tumors are rare in dogs 2 years old, but incidence begins to increase sharply at approximately 6 years of age. Median age at diagnosis is about 10 years. No breed predilection has been consistently reported

  20. Spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system

  1. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  3. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  4. Tumor vaccines:

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Mojca; Ihan, Alojz

    2006-01-01

    Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regirrcents. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tccmor aaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which imrrtune tol...

  5. Tumoral tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Direct tumor tracers are subdivided in the following categories:metabolite tracers, antitumoral tracers, radioactive proteins and cations. Use of 67 Ga-citrate as a clinically important tumoral tracer is emphasized and gallium-67 whole-body scintigraphy is discussed in detail. (M.A.) [pt

  6. Carcinoid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spread to other parts of the body. Doctors don't know what causes the mutations that can lead to carcinoid tumors. But they know that carcinoid tumors develop in neuroendocrine cells. Neuroendocrine cells are found in various organs throughout the body. They perform some nerve cell ...

  7. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  8. Tumor Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only a small number of people will test positive for the disease who do not have it—in other words, it will result in very few false-positive results. Although tumor markers are extremely useful in ...

  9. Tumor Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Review and Funding Outcomes Step 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management Contacts Monitoring ... may require immediate or more aggressive treatment. The importance of tumor grade in planning treatment and determining ...

  10. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search Menu Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr Instagram LinkedIn Brain Tumor Information | News & Blog Our Mission Our History Mission Leadership & Staff Financials Careers News & Blog Contact Us Donate Now Our Impact Our Impact Recent News News & ...

  11. Mediastinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, Claudio; Araujo, Ivan; Rodriguez, Amparo; Robles, Wilson; Simba, Catalina

    2005-01-01

    In our practice the mediastinal tumors are infrequent. The mediastinum is the portion of the thoracic cavity that contains numerous organs and structures which makes a crossroad for the diagnostic process. Within which congenital cysts, inflammatory and benign tumors, malignant neoplasms may develop. In the superior compartment are found: thymoma and thymic cysts, germ cell tumors, thyroid lesions, parathyroid adenomas, malignant lymphomas, paragangliomas, hemangiomas, lipomas, and inflammatory lesions such as fibrosing mediastinitis. In the middle portion: pericardial cysts, bronchial cysts, malignant lymphomas. In the posterior region: neurogenic tumors such as Shawnomas, neurofibromas, ganglioneuroblastomas, neuroblastomas, paragangliomas, and gastro enteric cysts. We describe two cases. One of a female patient with a prominent tumor in the anterior compartment of the mediastinum, detected by the x-ray films. Initially a cardiac lesion was excluded by echographic, angiographic studies. The biopsy exhibited a prominent fibrosis that suggested fibrosing mediastinitis (sclerosing). Whoever the immunohistochemical phenotype was positive for lambda chains, determining the diagnosis of lymphoma. The other case is of a young male with a thymoma associated to a pure red cell aplasia, which was the initial clinical symptom. Computerized tomography and thyroid scintigraphy was used. (The author)

  12. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaensler, E.H.L.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  13. Comparative analysis of synthesis and characterization of La{sub 0,9}Sr{sub 0,1}O{sub 3} via sol-gel and combustion reaction; Analise comparativa da sintese e caracterizacao de La{sub 0,9}Sr{sub 0,1}O{sub 3} via sol-gel e via reacao por combustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrago, D.P.; Haeser, G.S.; Malfatti, C.F.; Sousa, V.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Materiais, Minas e Metalurgica

    2011-07-01

    Strontium doped lanthanum manganites (LSM) are potential materials for cathode application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to their properties and compatibility with yttria stabilized zirconia. In this work a LSM powder obtained by the sol-gel process is compared others previously obtained combustion synthesis using urea or sucrose as fuel. For the synthesis of LSM the nitrates of lanthanum, strontium and manganese were dissolved in citric acid and ethylene glycol forming a gel that was calcinated at 800 deg C. Both methods allowed the synthesis of a single phase powder, according to the X-ray diffraction patterns. Through gas adsorption it was found a specific surface area of 17m²/g, an intermediary value among the combustion synthesized powders. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed more compact agglomerates in the sol-gel powder, however, the transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed smaller and more uniform particles in this powder. (author)

  14. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nursing, or cause a man to lose his sex drive or lower his sperm count. Pituitary tumors often go undiagnosed because their symptoms resemble those of so many other more common diseases. × Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  15. Nephrogenic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Nephroblastomas are the most common malignant renal tumors in childhood. According to the guidelines of the SIOP (Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique) and GPOH (Gesellschaft fuer Paediatrische Onkologie und Haematologie) pre-operative chemotherapy can be started without histological confirmation and thus initial imaging studies, in particular ultrasound, play an outstanding role for diagnostic purposes

  16. APLICAÇÃO DO METODO DE ANÁLISE HIERARQUICA (MAH NA ANALISE E AVALIAÇÃO DE IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS DOS SISTEMAS DE TRANSPORTES URBANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Mouette

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O estudo de impacto ambiental envolve uma grande quantidade de critérios e parâmetros, sendo necessário o trabalho conjunto de uma equipe multidisciplinar. A complexidade dos impactos decorrentes dos sistemas de transporte urbanos que possuem características e magnitudes muito diferentes, somada a não obrigatoriedade do estudo, fizeram com que poucos estudos fossem efetuados e tornou evidente a necessidade de metodologias de avaliação dos mesmos. Este estudo aborda a utilização do Método de Analise Hierárquica, um procedimento multicriterial na analise e avaliação dos impactos ambientais dos sistemas de transportes urbanos.

    ABSTRACT

    The study of environmental impacts involves a large amount of criteria and parameters being necessary to work with a multisciplinary team. The impacts due to urban transportation are very complex having different characteristics and magnitude, besides that, in Brazil, these studies are not obliged by law. These facts leads to few studies of the environmental impacts and evidences the necessity of developing methodologies which makes possible the impact's evaluation. This study refers to the utilization of the Analytical Hierarchy Process, a multicriteria procedure in the evaluation and analysis of environmental impacts in urban transportation.

  17. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  18. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Headaches Seizures Memory Depression Mood Swings & Cognitive Changes Fatigue Other Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us ...

  19. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  20. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  1. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  2. DCB - Tumor Metastasis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor metastasis research examines the mechanisms that allow cancer cells to leave the primary tumor and spread to another part of the body. Learn about recent tumor metastasis research studies supported by the Division of Cancer Biology.

  3. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  4. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  5. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  6. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  7. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  8. Endocrine tumors other than thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Norio; Dohi, Kiyohiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the tendency for the occurrence of tumors in the endocrine glands, other than the thyroid gland, in A-bomb survivors using both autopsy and clinical data. ABCC-RERF sample data using 4136 autopsy cases (1961-1977) revealed parathyroid tumors in 13 A-bomb survivors, including 3 with the associated hyperparathyroidism, with the suggestion of dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of tumors. Based on clinical data from Hiroshima University, 7 (46.7%) of 15 parathyroid tumors cases were A-bomb survivors. Data (1974-1987) from the Tumor Registry Committee (TRC) in Hiroshima Prefecture revealed that a relative risk of parathyroid tumors was 5.6 times higher in the entire group of A-bomb survivors and 16.2 times higher in the group of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors, suggesting the dose-dependent increase in their occurrence. Adrenal tumors were detected in 47 of 123 cases from the TRC data, and 15 (31.5%) of these 47 were A-bomb survivors. Particularly, 11 cases of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome included 6 A-bomb survivors (54.5%). The incidence of multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT) tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses; and the 1-9 rad group, the 10-99 rad group, and the 100 or more rad group had a risk of developing MEGT of 4.1, 5.7, and 7.1, respectively, relative to both the not-in the city group and the 0 rad group. These findings suggested that there is a correlation between A-bomb radiation and the occurrence of parathyroid tumors (including hyperparathyroidism), adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome and MEGT (especially, the combined thyroid and ovarian tumors and the combined thyroid and parathyroid tumors). (N.K.)

  9. Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

  10. Pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caplin, M E; Baudin, E; Ferolla, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary carcinoids (PCs) are rare tumors. As there is a paucity of randomized studies, this expert consensus document represents an initiative by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society to provide guidance on their management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bibliographical searches were...... carried out in PubMed for the terms 'pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial neuroendocrine tumors', 'bronchial carcinoid tumors', 'pulmonary carcinoid', 'pulmonary typical/atypical carcinoid', and 'pulmonary carcinoid and diagnosis/treatment/epidemiology/prognosis'. A systematic review...

  11. [Wilms tumor in hemihypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, O; Wemmer, U

    1977-04-07

    The case of a 4-year-old boy with Wilms' tumor and hemihypertrophy is described. Wilms' tumors are frequently associated with congenital malformations of the urinary tract, with aniridia and hemihypertrophy. Hemihypertrophy is a relatively rare malformation (1:14000) in the common population, but in patients with Wilms' tumors its frequency is about 1:49. Besides Wilms' tumors tumors of the adrenal cortex and hepatoblastomas are frequently observed together with hemihypertrophy.

  12. Tumors and tumor-like lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesling, S.; Stoevesandt, D.; Knipping, S.

    2007-01-01

    Tumors and tumor-like lesions are rare diseases in the paranasal sinuses. There is a great variety of histological types, but only a small number of morphological patterns on imaging. Histology is an important point in therapeutic planning. In most cases it is obtained by sampling, which is not as difficult in the sinonasal area as in other regions of the body. The main task of imaging is an exact estimation of the extent and spread of a lesion. This article discusses the possibilities and limitations of CT and MRI in the assessment of the dignity and spread of paranasal tumors and tumor-like lesions in consideration of necessary therapeutic information. Additionally, an overview of features on imaging of different paranasal tumors and tumor-like lesions is given. (orig.)

  13. Hepatic tumors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, J T

    2001-02-01

    Although they account for only 1% to 4% of solid tumors in children, hepatic tumors and pseudotumors offer a diagnostic challenge to the clinician seeing only an occasional case. Metastatic lesions such as neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, and lymphoma are the most common neoplasm seen in the liver, but 10 distinct primary tumors and pseudotumors of the liver occur with some regularity, and a few others may be seen rarely, including leiomyosarcoma, rhabdoid tumor, and endodermal sinus tumor. Five of these neoplasms--hepatoblastoma, infantile hemangio-endothelioma, mesenchymal hamartoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma, and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tree--occur only in children and are the major focus of the article.

  14. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessels. Also under investigation are ways to improve drug delivery to the tumor and to prevent the side- ... vessels. Also under investigation are ways to improve drug delivery to the tumor and to prevent the side- ...

  15. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Roberts; Dianne M. Runk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3–0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10–30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumo...

  16. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It ... KEYWORDS: Carcinoid, colorectal cancer, metachronous, synchronous .... layer of the colon. The tumor cells are strongly positive to chromagranin and AE1/AE3. Features are those of carcinoid tumor of the colon. She was ...

  17. Granular Cell Tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necrosis within the tumor was absent, no mitosis was. Granular cell tumors are seldom diagnosed identified in the section and the edges of the accurately clinically. The lesion in this case was sample were tumor free (Figure 2). mistaken for a sebaceous cyst and following ulceration resembled carcinoma of the vulvar.

  18. Malignant tumors of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children

  19. Soft tissue mixed tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Hiraishi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed tumors are relatively common in the skin and salivary glands, but extremely rare in soft tissues, often resulting in diagnostic problems. The occurrence of these tumors in the hand is especially limited. In this article we report the clinical, radiological, and histological features of a mixed tumor of the hypothenar region of the right hand.

  20. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical secr...

  1. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It ... KEYWORDS: Carcinoid, colorectal cancer, metachronous, synchronous .... layer of the colon. The tumor cells are strongly positive to chromagranin and AE1/AE3. Features are those of carcinoid tumor of the colon. She was ...

  2. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  3. Cholecystokinin expression in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2016-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a classic gut hormone. CCK is also a complex system of peptides expressed in several molecular forms in enteroendocrine I cells, in cerebral and peripheral neurons, in cardiac myocytes and spermatozoa. CCK gene expression has now been found at protein or peptide level...... in different neuroendocrine tumors; cerebral gliomas and astrocytomas and specific pediatric tumors. Tumor hypersecretion of CCK was recently reported in a patient with a metastatic islet cell tumor and hypercholecystokininemia resulting in a novel tumor syndrome, the cholecystokininoma syndrome. This review...

  4. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  5. Tumor-Penetrating Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the

  6. PET and endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.; Belhocine, T.; Hustinx, R.; Foidart-Willems, J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of 18 FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors: of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors, FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed. (author)

  7. Stages of Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... markers . Most malignant germ cell tumors release tumor markers. The following tumor markers are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: ... testicular germ cell tumors, blood levels of the tumor markers help show if the tumor is a seminoma ...

  8. Tumor detection with radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, S.

    1984-01-01

    The most common primary ocular tumor in adults is malignant melanoma of the choroid. Metastatic tumors to the choroid occur with the same frequency. The radioactive phosphorous uptake test is used most often as a nuclear diagnostic test. The test does not differentiate melanomas from metastases, and it is necessary to perform surgery for proper placement of a detection device within a distance of 1-2 mm of the tumor. These deficiencies leave ophthalmologists with a pressing need for a gamma-emitting radiopharmaceutical that would facilitate noninvasive identification of choroidal melanoma. This need is made more urgent by the fact that recently, radiation therapy has been used to treat these tumors rather than enucleation. Eyes then harbor irradiated melanoma whose status is unknown. The tumor rarely decreases in size more than 25% to 50%. There is thus a need for a specific diagnostic test to assess the nature of the tumor and the effectiveness of therapy

  9. [Immune system and tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Imaging of pancreatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most frequent solid tumor of the pancreas. This tumor has distinct features including early obstruction of the pancreatic duct, diminished enhancement after administration of contrast material due to desmoplastic growth, high propensity to infiltrate adjacent structures and to metastasize into the liver and the peritoneum. Hormone active endocrine tumors cause specific clinical symptoms. Imaging is aimed at localization of these hypervascular tumors. Non hormone active tumors are most frequently malignant and demonstrate very varying features. Cystic pancreatic tumors are increasingly detected by means of cross sectional imaging. Exact classification can be achieved with knowledge of the macropathology and considering clinical presentation as well as age and gender of the patients. (orig.)

  11. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  12. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nathan; Runk, Dianne M

    2015-01-01

    Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3-0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10-30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumor will recur locally or metastasize. Distinguishing this subset of malignant phyllodes tumor is paramount. We present a case of malignant phyllodes which presented with metastatic disease. What is fascinating about this case is not only the initial presentation but also the aggressiveness of this variation of phyllodes tumor. The patient initially presented with a large mass which encompassed her whole right breast. On surgical pathology the mass measured roughly 31cm in diameter and weighed over 10kg. Within 5 weeks from surgery the patient had suffered brain metastases and also 6 local recurrent tumors. The patient passed roughly 11 weeks after her first visit to our office. Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. TUMORES ANEXIALES Y EMBARAZO

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia M.,Mauricio; Orellana H.,Ricardo; Cisterna C.,Patricio; Gazitúa P.,Raimundo; Sepúlveda A.,Rodrigo

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la frecuencia de tumores anexiales en el embarazo, la histología tumoral y los resultados perinatales. Pacientes y método: Análisis retrospectivo de 33 pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor anexial y embarazo atendidas en el Servicio de Obstetricia del Hospital San Juan de Dios entre febrero de 2001 a julio de 2004. Resultados: La asociación tumor anexial y embarazo fue 1 en 424 embarazos. El tipo histológico más frecuente fue el cistoadenoma seroso (19,2%). La cirugía no alter...

  14. Management of CNS tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The treatment of tumors of the CNS has undergone a number of changes based on the impact of CT. The use of intraoperative US for the establishment of tumor location and tumor histology is demonstrated. MR imaging also is beginning to make an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of tumors of the CNS. Examples of MR images are shown. The authors then discuss the important aspects of tumor histology as it affects management and newer concepts in surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy on tumor treatment. The role of intraoperative placement of radioactive sources, the utilization of heavy particle radiation therapy, and the potential role of other experimental radiation therapy techniques are discussed. The role of hyperfractionated radiation and of neutrons and x-ray in a mixed-beam treatment are discussed in perspective with standard radiation therapy. Current chemotherapy techniques, including intraarterial chemotherapy, are discussed. The complications of radiation therapy alone and in combination with chemotherapy in the management of primary brain tumors, brain metastases, and leukemia are reviewed. A summary of the current management of pituitary tumors, including secreting pituitary adenomas and chromophobe adenomas, are discussed. The treatment with heavy particle radiation, transsphenoidal microsurgical removal, and combined radiotherapeutic and surgical management are considered. Tumor metastasis management of lesions of the brain and spinal cord are considered

  15. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, an uncommon tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Vasudevan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT in the maxilla in a young girl aged 14 years and its surgical management. We also review the literature and variations in the nomenclature and classifications of this interesting tumor. The review of literature gives an interesting picture regarding terminologies in the past and dilemma in classifying this tumor. The introduction of the name adenomatoid odontogenic tumour has resulted in the simpler and fruitful surgical management like enucleation and curettage with no reports of recurrences. In the past, similar lesion with the terminology like adeno ameloblastoma has resulted in unnecessary mutilating surgery. The conflicting views whether the lesion is being neoplasm or an anomalous hamartomatous growth is also being discussed.

  16. Tumor carcinoide apendicular Appendiceal carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Vázquez Palanco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue dar a conocer un interesante caso de tumor carcinoide que se presentó con cuadro clínico de apendicitis aguda. El paciente fue un varón de 8 años de edad, al cual se realizó apendicectomía a causa de una apendicitis aguda. El resultado anatomopatológico confirmó un tumor de células endocrinas (argentafinoma, tumor carcinoide en el tercio distal del órgano, que infiltraba hasta la serosa, y apendicitis aguda supurada. El paciente fue enviado a un servicio de oncohematología para tratamiento oncoespecífico. Por lo inusual de estos tumores en edades tempranas y por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta no consecuente, decidimos presentar este caso a la comunidad científica nacional e internacional. Es extremadamente importante el seguimiento de los pacientes con apendicitis aguda y de las conclusiones del examen histológico, por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta inadecuada en una situación como esta.The objective of this paper was to make known an interesting case of carcinoid tumor that presented a clinical picture of acute appendicitis.The patient was an eight-year-old boy that underwent appendectomy due to an acute appendicitis. The anatomopathological report confirmed an endocrine cell tumor (argentaffinoma, carcinoid tumor in the distal third of the organ that infiltrated up to the serosa, and acute suppurative appendicitis. The patient was referred to an oncohematology service for oncospecific treatment. As it is a rare tumor at early ages, and taking into account what a inconsequent behavior may represent for the child, it was decided to present this case to the national and international scientific community. The follow-up of the patients with acute appendicitis and of the conclusions of the histological examination is extremely important considering what an inadequate conduct may represent for the child in a situation like this.

  17. An exceptional collision tumor: gastric calcified stromal tumor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors report an exceptional case of collision tumor comprised of a gastric calcified stromal tumor and a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The pancreatic tumor was detected fortuitously on the histological exam of resection specimen. Key words: Collision tumor, stromal tumor, adenocarcinoma ...

  18. GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pavel M.E., Baum U., Hahn E.G., Hensen J. Doxorubucin and streptozocin after failed biotherapy of Neuroendocrine tumors. Int J. Gastrointest Cancer 2005; 35 179-185. 33. Yao J.C., Phan A., Hoff P.M., et al. Targeting vas- cular endothelial growth factor in advanced carci- noid tumors: a random assignment phase II study.

  19. Keratinization in odontogenic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Courtney, R M; Kerr, D A

    1975-03-01

    The potential of odontogenic epithelium to keratinize in the form of ghost cells is demonstrated in the histologic variants of a number of odontongic tumors. Although the cells lack keratohyaline granules, they do contain abundant tonofilaments and probably represent an altered form of keratin. The presence of this material in odontogenic tumors does not appear to alter clinical occurence or clinical behavior.

  20. Ewing tumors in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk; Dirksen, Uta; Ranft, Andreas; Jürgens, Heribert

    2008-01-01

    Malignancies in infancy are extremely rare. Ewing tumors are hardly ever noted in these children. Since it is generally assumed that malignancies in infancy have an extremely poor outcome, we wanted to investigate whether this was also the case in Ewing tumors. We identified in the Munster data

  1. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  2. Children's Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news and announcements in our newsletter: Children’s Tumor Foundation 120 Wall Street, 16th Floor New York, NY 10005-3904 1-800-323-7938 info@ctf.org © Children's Tumor Foundation - All rights reserved Privacy Policy

  3. Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Brain Tumors URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  4. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  5. Atypically localized glomus tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meric Ugurlar

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: When a painful mass is found in the body, glomus tumors should be kept in mind. The consideration of symptoms, including pain, temperature sensitivity, point tenderness, and discoloration, common characteristics of glomus tumors, may aid diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(3.000: 112-117

  6. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Won-Jong; Mirra, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  7. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  8. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Mancini MC, Jeffrey MC. Carcinoid Lung Tumors. Available from: http//www. emedicine.medscape.com/article/426400‑overview. 3. Leotlela PD, Jauch A, Holtgreve‑Grez H, Thakker RV. Genetics of neuroendocrine and carcinoid tumours. Endocr Relat Cancer 2003;10:437‑50. 4. Rea F, Rizzardi G, Zuin A, ...

  9. Wilm's tumor in adulthood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, B.P.; Bukharkin, B.V.; Gotsadze, D.T.

    1984-01-01

    Wilms' tumor occurs extremely rarely in adults. There is no consensus in the literature on the problems of clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the diseasa. Ten adult patients (aged 16-29) with Wilms' tumor formed the study group. They made up 0.9 per cent of the total number of kidney tumor patients. The peculiarities of the clinical course that distinguish adult nephroblastoma from renal cancer and Wilms' tumor of the infancy were analysed. The latent period appeared to be long. Problems of diagnosis are discussed. Angiography proved to be of the highest diagnostic value. Complex treatment including transperitoneal nephrectory, radiation and chemotherapy was carried out in 7 cases, palliative radiation treatmenchemotherapy andn 3. Unlike pediatric nephroblastomt - i Wilms' tumor in adults was resistant to radiation. Treatment results still remained unsatisfactory: 6 patients died 7-19 months after the beginning of treatment

  10. Radiotherapy of pineal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danoff, B.; Sheline, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radiotherapy has universally been used in the treatment of pineal tumors and suprasellar germinomas. Recently however, major technical advances related to the use of the operating microscope and development of microsurgical techniques have prompted a renewed interest in the direct surgical approach for biopsy and/or excision. This interest has resulted in a controversy regarding the role of surgery prior to radiotherapy. Because of the heterogeneity of tumors occurring in the pineal region (i.e., germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, glial tumors, and cysts) and their differing biological behavior, controversy also surrounds aspects of radiotherapy such as: the optimal radiation dose, the volume to be irradiated, and indications for prophylactic spinal irradiation. A review of the available data is presented in an attempt to answer these questions

  11. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoli-stromal cell tumor; Arrhenoblastoma; Androblastoma; Ovarian cancer - Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 13. Prat J. Ovarian sex cord - stromal and steroid cell tumors. In: Mutter GL, Prat J, eds. Pathology of ...

  12. The PCa Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottnik, Joseph L; Zhang, Jian; Macoska, Jill A; Keller, Evan T

    2011-12-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a very complex niche that consists of multiple cell types, supportive matrix and soluble factors. Cells in the TME consist of both host cells that are present at tumor site at the onset of tumor growth and cells that are recruited in either response to tumor- or host-derived factors. PCa (PCa) thrives on crosstalk between tumor cells and the TME. Crosstalk results in an orchestrated evolution of both the tumor and microenvironment as the tumor progresses. The TME reacts to PCa-produced soluble factors as well as direct interaction with PCa cells. In return, the TME produces soluble factors, structural support and direct contact interactions that influence the establishment and progression of PCa. In this review, we focus on the host side of the equation to provide a foundation for understanding how different aspects of the TME contribute to PCa progression. We discuss immune effector cells, specialized niches, such as the vascular and bone marrow, and several key protein factors that mediate host effects on PCa. This discussion highlights the concept that the TME offers a potentially very fertile target for PCa therapy.

  13. Epilepsy and brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGLOT, DARIO J.; CHANG, EDWARD F.; VECHT, CHARLES J.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70–80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60–75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20–50% of patients with meningioma and 20–35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60–90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  14. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Fike, J.R.; Hoopes, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  15. Uterine mesenchymal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil A Sangle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine mesenchymal tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can frequently be diagnostically challenging. Differentiation between the benign and malignant counterparts of mesenchymal tumors is significant due to differences in clinical outcome, and the role of the surgical pathologist in making this distinction (especially in the difficult cases cannot be underestimated. Although immunohistochemical stains are supportive toward establishing a final diagnosis, the morphologic features trump all the other ancillary techniques for this group of neoplasms. This review therefore emphasizes the key morphologic features required to diagnose and distinguish uterine mesenchymal tumors from their mimics, with a brief description of the relevant immunohistochemical features.

  16. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  17. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors.

  18. [Markers of brain tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, R; Pezzotta, S; Bernini, F; Racagni, G

    1984-05-19

    Biological markers of tumors are compounds or enzymatic activities measurable in body fluids. Their presence or concentration must be linked to tumoral growth. The markers of the central nervous system tumors are detected in CSF. Alpha-feto-protein, carcinoembryonic antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, adenohypophyseal peptide hormones, enzymes, etc., have found some application in the early diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis. Other applications involve the early detection and recurrency of primary brain tumors, as well as the evaluation of efficacy of their therapy. The tests based on the CSF content of desmosterol and polyamines have been studied extensively. Their rationale is discussed and specificity, sensitivity, efficiency and predictive value are considered. Experimental results concerning a new possible biochemical marker, based on CSF concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, are reported.

  19. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  20. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different types of brain tumors. Some are cancerous (meaning they can spread to parts of the body ... of the face, trunk, arms, or legs slurred speech difficulty standing or walking poor coordination headache in ...

  1. Radioimmunoassays for tumor diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, J.

    1983-01-01

    Aside from imaging techniques several (radio-)immunological analyses are used for tumor diagnosis. Oncofetal antigens, for instance the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), have become the most important substances for many malignancies. However, nearly all of the so-called tumor markers are not suitable for early diagnosis or screening either because of low sensitivity or low tumor specifity. On the other hand follow-up measurements give a very sensitive index of the success of treatment and may indicate tumor progression when other signs are still not present. In some carcinomas and under some clinical circumstances tumorspecific markers are available and mandatory for detection and/or staging: AFP in hepatoma, acid phosphatase in metastasizing carcinoma of the prostate and serum thyreoglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.) [de

  2. Brain Tumors and Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help calm the mind. Meditation, guided imagery, music therapy, and yoga are just a few worth investigating. Home Donor and Privacy Policies Find Resources Disclaimer Donate Subscribe Login American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste ...

  3. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Benign Liver Tumors Back ...

  4. Adrenocortical tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Ribeiro

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT are rare. In the USA, only about 25 new cases occur each year. In Southern Brazil, however, approximately 10 times that many cases are diagnosed each year. Most cases occur in the contiguous states of São Paulo and Paraná. The cause of this higher rate has not been identified. Familial genetic predisposition to cancer (p53 mutations and selected genetic syndromes (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome have been associated with childhood ACT in general but not with the Brazilian counterpart. Most of the affected children are young girls with classic endocrine syndromes (virilizing and/or Cushing. Levels of urinary 17-ketosteroids and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, which are abnormal in approximately 90% of the cases, provide the pivotal clue to a diagnosis of ACT. Typical imaging findings of pediatric ACT consist of a large, well-defined suprarenal tumor containing calcifications with a thin capsule and central necrosis or hemorrhage. The pathologic classification of pediatric ACT is troublesome. Even an experienced pathologist can find it difficult to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery is the single most important procedure in the successful treatment of ACT. The role of chemotherapy in the management of childhood ACT has not been established although occasional tumors are responsive to mitotane or cisplatin-containing regimens. Because of the heterogeneity and rarity of the disease, prognostic factors have been difficult to establish in pediatric ACT. Patients with incomplete tumor resection or with metastatic disease at diagnosis have a dismal prognosis. In patients with localized and completely resected tumors, the size of the tumor has predictive value. Patients with large tumors have a much higher relapse rate than those with small tumors.

  5. Perlecan and tumor angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) of basement membranes (BMs) and connective tissues. The core protein of perlecan is divided into five domains based on sequence homology to other known proteins. Commonly, the N-terminal domain I of mammalian perlecan is substituted with thr...... have unwanted promoting effects on tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Understanding of these attributes at the molecular level may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention....

  6. Incidental malignant periocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabit Odat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the incidence, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of incidental malignant periocular tumors at the royal medical services hospitals of Jordan.METHODS: Retrospective medical charts of 327 patients with malignant periocular tumor diagnosis at Jordan military hospitals between 2004 and 2015 were reviewed. Study variables included age, gender, city where patient lived, the presenting complaint(not caused by or related to tumor, clinical and histological diagnosis, size of the tumor, location, and surgical procedure.RESULTS:A total of 327 charts reviewed, 46(14.1%patients were found to have incidental malignant periocular tumor. Males where affected more than females with a ratio of 2:1. The average age was 66.39±10.59(22-83y. The most common presenting symptom or disease was blurring of vision secondary to cataract(44%, followed by combined cataract and other associated complaints such as epiphora in 21.7%.Preliminary clinical diagnosis corresponded with histological diagnosis in 95.7% of skin cancer. The average size of the lesions was 1.04×0.85 mm2(0.2×0.2-3.0×3.0 mm2. There was no significant relationship between the maximum diameter of the tumor and age of the patient,(P=0.105. The most frequent location of tumors was the lower eyelid(30.4%followed by the medial canthus(26.1%. The follow up period ranged between 6mo and 3y(average 9.3mo.CONCLUSION: Incidental malignant periocular malignant tumors were relatively common in this study, which urges excision of any suspicious lesion particularly young patients. A prospective study is needed to investigate the reasons why some patients neglect these lesions.

  7. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 (90Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This ...

  8. Neuroendocrine tumors and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Miličević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine cells are dispersed around the body and can be found within the gastrointestinal system, lungs, larynx, thymus, thyroid, adrenal, gonads, skin and other tissues. These cells form the so-called ''diffuse neuroendocrine system'' and tumors arising from them are defined as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs. The traditional classification of NETs based on their embryonic origin includes foregut tumors (lung, thymus, stomach, pancreas and duodenum, midgut tumors (beyond the ligament of Treitz of the duodenum to the proximal transverse colon and hindgut tumors (distal colon and rectum. NETs at each site are biologically and clinically distinct from their counterparts at other sites. Symptoms in patients with early disease are often insidious in onset, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The majority of these tumors are thus diagnosed at a stage at which the only curative treatment, radical surgical intervention, is no longer an option. Due to the increasing incidence and mortality, many studies have been conducted in order to identify risk factors for the development of NETs. Still, little is known especially when it comes to preventable risk factors such as smoking. This review will focus on smoking and its contribution to the development of different subtypes of NETs.

  9. Tumores neonatales bucomaxilofaciales Neonatal buccomaxillofacial tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila del S. López Díaz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio descriptivo, lineal y retrospectivo por un período de 10 años, de 11 recién nacidos (edad 0-30 días, quienes al nacer presentan en la región bucomaxilofacial un tumor que les ocasiona de manera determinante compromiso para la ventilación y/o alimentación, por lo que se hace necesario realizarles a todos de manera inmediata, tratamiento quirúrgico para preservarles la vida. Se analizaron las variables edad, sexo, color de la piel, diagnóstico, tumoraciones que se presentaron con mayor frecuencia, compromiso para la ventilación y/o alimentación, procederes y mortalidad. Los datos se recogieron en una planilla confeccionada al efecto, lo que permitió establecer resultados y confeccionar tablas. Se concluye que en nuestro estudio este tipo de tumoración afectó con mayor frecuencia al sexo femenino y a niños de piel blanca; y el tipo de tumoración observada con mayor frecuencia fueron las malformaciones vasculares de tipo linfático (linfangiomas gigantes o higromas quísticos, así como y los teratomas bucofaríngeos, con una mortalidad de alrededor del 27,3 % en estas edades neonatales.A descriptive, lineal and retrospective study of 11 newborn infants aged 0-30 days was conducted. They presented a tumor in the buccomaxillofacial region that compromised their ventilation and/or nutrition, which made necessary to immediately perform surgery to preserve their lives. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, colour of the skin, diagnosis, the most common tumours, compromise for ventilation and/or nutrition, procedures and mortality. Data were collected in a form that allowed to establish results and to make tables. It was concluded that this type of tumor affected mostly females and white children. The most commonly observed tumors were vascular lymphatic malformations (giant lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas, as well as buccopharyngeal teratomas, with a mortality around 27.3 % at these neonatal ages.

  10. [Enophthalmos in an orbital tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Bianca; Szabo, I; Nicula, Cristina; Popescu, Livia Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Enophtalmus is an unusual sign of the orbital tumors often represented by proptosis. One patient with enophtalmus and intraorbital tumor and aplasy is presented. The treatment of choice of orbital tumor is complete surgical excision and careful follow-up. Considering the more aggressive course followed by recurrent tumor, correct diagnosis and management is essential.

  11. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  12. Thermoradiotherapy of malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Kazuo; Itami, Jun; Arimizu, Noboru; Uno, Takashi; Toita, Takafumi; Shiina, Takeki; Mikuriya, Shuuichi; Yamada, Tsunehisa.

    1991-01-01

    From October 1986 to June 1989, 79 patients with malignant tumors were treated by radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia at National Medical Center Hospital. Seventy two patients (male: 48, female: 23) were evaluable. Average age was 62.4 years old (ranged 20-81 years old). Irradiation was delivered twice to fifth weekly in tumor doses of 50 to 60 Gy (TDF 82-122). We used 3 types of hyperthermic equipment, Thermotron RF8, BSD 1000 System and Endoradiotherm 100A. Hyperthermia was initiated within 30 minutes following irradiation, most of the patients being treated with adequate equipment, 41-44degC, for 60-70 minutes every 72 hours. Fifteen of 71 patients (20.8%) showed a complete response and 36 patients (50%) showed a partial response, so effective rate was 70.8% of all. In superficial tumors, 4 of 21 patients (21.5%) showed a complete response and 8 of 21 patients showed a partial response, effective rate was 63.2% of all. In deep seated tumor, 10 of 46 patients (21.7%) showed a complete response and 25 of all patients showed a partial response, so effective rate was 76.1% of all. Five patients were heated following only intra-tumor injection of OK-432 and its effective rate was 75%. We think that this modality of therapy will be effective in cases which heating area had been irradiated over tolerable doses. CR rate of superficial tumors according to intra-tumor center temperature tends to higher in the cases of higher tumor temperature. In deep seated tumor, 11 patients (23.9%) had reached over 43degC, 29 patients (63.0%) heated 41-43degC, 6 patients (13.0%) heated under 41degC and CR rate of each group were 36.4%, 17.2%, 16.7%, respectively. We think that thermotherapy with irradiation is an effective therapy in the treatment of malignancies but the improvement of heating equipment will be expected. (author)

  13. Tumor scintigram, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Shunichi; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Shimura, Kazuo; Ifuka, Keijiro

    1975-01-01

    In various cases of malignant tumors, especially those of lung cancer and liver cancer, scans were made with 57 Co-bleomycin(BLM), and its diagnostic significance was evaluated. Tumors were visualized with 57 Co-BLM in 22 of the 26 cases of lung cancer (84.6%). Concentrations of the RI were noted in all of the cases of squamous epithelium cancer, adenoid cancer and cellule-type undifferentiated cancer. The smallest tumor that could be detected was a 2 x 2 cm adenoid cancer. Tumors were imaged in 19 of the 27 cases of liver cancer (70.4%). This detection rate was increased by a combination of 57 Co-BLM and 198 Au-colloid scanning. The authors believe that 57 Co-BLM will help to establish the diagnosis of lung cancer or liver cancer. Tumors were also imaged in 6 of the 15 cases of breast cancer, but no distinct concentration was noted in the 7 cases of thyroid cancer. (Ueda, J.)

  14. Cryoablation for pulmonary tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Masafumi; Izumi, Yotaro; Tsukada, Norimasa; Asakura, Keisuke; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Yashiro, Hideki; Inoue, Masanori; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Kobayashi, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    We have experienced more than 200 sessions for mainly metastatic lung tumor and small number of primary lung cancer since 2002. Cryo-probe is inserted percutaneously with local anesthesia under CT scan guide. Co-axial technique is adopted to prevent from hemorrhage and massive air leakage. The average of hospital stay after treatment is 2.6 days. Although pneumothorax was associated with more than half patients, 5% of them experienced chest tube insertion. Local recurrence 1 year after treatment was found 10% of tumors of 10 mm or less diameter, 30% of 11-20 mm diameter, and 40% of 20-30 mm diameter and 100% of 31 mm or more diameter. In case of large vessels (3 mm or more diameter) running within 4 mm from tumor, recurrence rate was higher compared with the same sized tumors without large vessels running nearby. We are eager for the development of 3D-simulation system considering the distribution of caloric value is strongly requested to improve the local control power of cryoablation for lung tumor. (author)

  15. CNS Tumors in Neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campian, Jian; Gutmann, David H

    2017-07-20

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) encompasses a group of distinct genetic disorders in which affected children and adults are prone to the development of benign and malignant tumors of the nervous system. The purpose of this review is to discuss the spectrum of CNS tumors arising in individuals with NF type 1 (NF1) and NF type 2 (NF2), their pathogenic etiologies, and the rational treatment options for people with these neoplasms. This article is a review of preclinical and clinical data focused on the treatment of the most common CNS tumors encountered in children and adults with NF1 and NF2. Although children with NF1 are at risk for developing low-grade gliomas of the optic pathway and brainstem, individuals with NF2 typically manifest low-grade tumors affecting the cranial nerves (vestibular schwannomas), meninges (meningiomas), and spinal cord (ependymomas). With the identification of the NF1 and NF2 genes, molecularly targeted therapies are beginning to emerge, as a result of a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying NF1 and NF2 protein function. As we enter into an era of precision oncology, a more comprehensive awareness of the factors that increase the risk of developing CNS cancers in affected individuals, coupled with a greater appreciation of the cellular and molecular determinants that maintain tumor growth, will undoubtedly yield more effective therapies for these cancer predisposition syndromes.

  16. Tumor Markers: At a Glance

    OpenAIRE

    NS Manikantan; Dhanya Balakrishnan; AD Manoj Kumar; Brijesh Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Tumor markers are biochemical substances elaborated by tumor cells due to either the cause or effect of malignant process. produced by host in response to a tumor that can be used to differentiate a tumor from normal tissue or to determine the presence of a tumor based on measurements in blood or secretions.1 These markers can be normal endogenous products that are produced at a greater rate in cancer cells or the products of newly switched on genes th...

  17. Implementation of statistical analysis methods for medical physics data; Implementacao de metodos de analise estatistica para dados de fisica medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Marilia S.; Pinto, Nivia G.P.; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F., E-mail: mariliasilvat@gmail.co, E-mail: lfolive@oi.com.b, E-mail: cely_barroso@hotmail.co, E-mail: nitatag@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    The objective of biomedical research with different radiation natures is to contribute for the understanding of the basic physics and biochemistry of the biological systems, the disease diagnostic and the development of the therapeutic techniques. The main benefits are: the cure of tumors through the therapy, the anticipated detection of diseases through the diagnostic, the using as prophylactic mean for blood transfusion, etc. Therefore, for the better understanding of the biological interactions occurring after exposure to radiation, it is necessary for the optimization of therapeutic procedures and strategies for reduction of radioinduced effects. The group pf applied physics of the Physics Institute of UERJ have been working in the characterization of biological samples (human tissues, teeth, saliva, soil, plants, sediments, air, water, organic matrixes, ceramics, fossil material, among others) using X-rays diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The application of these techniques for measurement, analysis and interpretation of the biological tissues characteristics are experimenting considerable interest in the Medical and Environmental Physics. All quantitative data analysis must be initiated with descriptive statistic calculation (means and standard deviations) in order to obtain a previous notion on what the analysis will reveal. It is well known que o high values of standard deviation found in experimental measurements of biologicals samples can be attributed to biological factors, due to the specific characteristics of each individual (age, gender, environment, alimentary habits, etc). This work has the main objective the development of a program for the use of specific statistic methods for the optimization of experimental data an analysis. The specialized programs for this analysis are proprietary, another objective of this work is the implementation of a code which is free and can be shared by the other research groups. As the program developed since the

  18. Tumor radiation responses and tumor oxygenation in aging mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.

    1989-01-01

    EMT6 mouse mammary tumors transplanted into aging mice are less sensitive to radiation than tumors growing in young adult animals. The experiments reported here compare the radiation dose-response curves defining the survivals of tumor cells in aging mice and in young adult mice. Cell survival curves were assessed in normal air-breathing mice and in mice asphyxiated with N 2 to produce uniform hypoxia throughout the tumors. Analyses of survival curves revealed that 41% of viable malignant cells were severely hypoxic in tumors in aging mice, while only 19% of the tumor cells in young adult animals were radiobiologically hypoxic. This did not appear to reflect anaemia in the old animals. Treatment of aging animals with a perfluorochemical emulsion plus carbogen (95% O 2 /5% CO 2 ) increased radiation response of the tumors, apparently by improving tumor oxygenation and decreasing the number of severely hypoxic, radiation resistant cells in the tumors. (author)

  19. Mediastinal tumors. Update 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Thomas, C.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This volume represents the premier work devoted solely to the complex myriad of mediastinal tumors. The contributors to the state-of-the-art text are clinical investigators of international renown. The diagnosis, natural history, and therapeutic strategies in respect of all mediastinal tumors are thoroughly addressed in a concise and logical manner. An emphasis on the multidisciplinary nature of mediastinal tumors is thematic throughout the text. Moreover, the combined-modality treatment schemes that have been increasingly developed worldwide are analyzed. This textbook will prove of value to all general surgeons, thoracic surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pulmonologists, and endocrinologists, as well as to nursing and medical students, residents and fellows-in training. (orig.). 55 figs., 21 tabs

  20. Orbital lymphoid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroko; Ueno, Hisayuki

    1994-01-01

    We examined 13 cases of orbital lymphoid tumors (OLT) and 1 of orbital hemangioma (OH), using dynamic MRI, to determine the biological behavior of the tumors before surgery. We measured time-dependent changes in the contrast enhancement of tumors and described time intensity curves (TIC), dividing the cases into 3 architectural types: completes septum (CS), incomplete septum (IS), and diffuse types. The TICs of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH, 2 cases) of CS type and idiopathic orbital inflamation (1), RLH (5) of IS type, atypical lymphoid hyperplasia (4), and malignant lymphoma (1) and OH (1) showed rapid increase with low peak and gradual decrease, rapid increase with high peak and gradual decrease, rapid increase and plateau, and gradual increase type, respectively. In order words, OLT showed various TIC, roughly correlating with pathological findings. These results indicate that dynamic MRI may be useful in the preoperative clinical diagnosis of OLT. (author)

  1. Percutaneous bone tumor management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangi, Afshin; Buy, Xavier

    2010-06-01

    Interventional radiology plays a major role in the management of bone tumors. Many different percutaneous techniques are available. Some aim to treat pain and consolidate a pathological bone (cementoplasty); others aim to ablate tumor or reduce its volume (sclerotherapy, thermal ablation). In this article, image-guided techniques of primary and secondary bone tumors with vertebroplasty, ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, laser photocoagulation, cryoablation, and radiofrequency ionization (coblation) will be reviewed. For each modality, the principles, the indications, and the results will be presented. The technical choice depends on the therapeutic intent-curative or palliative-and the need for consolidation, but also on the general status of the patient and the other therapeutic options. For the most complex cases, combined treatments can be required. However, the less disabling technique should always be considered first.

  2. Bilateral Wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, A.W.; Jaffe, N.; Folkman, M.J.; Cassady, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty children with bilateral Wilms' tumor were presented to the Children's Hospital Medical Center and Children's Cancer Research Foundation, Sidney Farber Cancer Institute, and Joint Center for Radiation Therapy (CHMC-CCRF, SFCI, JCRT) from January 1, 1956 to December 31, 1976. Of these 20, 16 had simultaneous and 4 had metachronous disease on presentation. All patients were treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Of the 16 patients with simultaneous disease, 10 (63%) are alive and free of disease 12+ to 175+ months post diagnosis and treatment, with median follow-up of 121 months. There were no long-term survivors in the metachronous group; all were dead of disease within 21 months from initial presentation of original tumor. With these data we relate prognosis to extent of disease and discuss a general approach to the management of bilateral Wilms' tumor

  3. Radiology of neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hako, R.; Hakova, H.; Gulova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors arise in the bronchopulmonary or gastrointestinal tract, but they can arise in almost any organ. The tumors have varied malignant potential depending on the site of their origin. Metastases may be present at the time of diagnosis, which often occurs at a late stage of the disease. Most NETs have nonspecific imaging characteristics. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the localization and staging of neuroendocrine tumors and in monitoring the treatment response. Imaging should involve multi-phase computed tomography, contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and other one. Hepatic metastatic disease in particular lends itself to a wide range of interventional treatment options. Transcatheter arterial embolization may be used alone or in combination with chemo embolization. Ablative techniques, hepatic cryotherapy and percutaneous ethanol injection may then be undertaken. A multidisciplinary approach to treatment and follow-up is important. (author)

  4. Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Lim Suh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT is a benign glioneuronal neoplasm that most commonly occurs in children and young adults and may present with medically intractable, chronic seizures. Radiologically, this tumor is characterized by a cortical topography and lack of mass effect or perilesional edema. Partial complex seizures are the most common presentation. Three histologic subtypes of DNTs have been described. Histologically, the recognition of a unique, specific glioneuronal element in brain tumor samples from patients with medically intractable, chronic epilepsy serves as a diagnostic feature for complex or simple DNT types. However, nonspecific DNT has diagnostic difficulty because its histology is indistinguishable from conventional gliomas and because a specific glioneuronal element and/or multinodularity are absent. This review will focus on the clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features as well as the molecular genetics of all three variants of DNTs. The histological and cytological differential diagnoses for this lesion, especially the nonspecific variant, will be discussed.

  5. Benign notochordal cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Gamarra, C; Bernabéu Taboada, D; Pozo Kreilinger, J J; Tapia Viñé, M

    Benign notochordal cell tumors (TBCN) are lesions with notochordal differentiation which affect the axial skeleton. They are characterized by asymptomatic or non-specific symptomatology and are radiologically unnoticed because of their small size, or because they are mistaken with other benign bone lesions, such as vertebral hemangiomas. When they are large, or symptomatic, can be differential diagnosis with metastases, primary bone tumors and chordomas. We present a case of a TBCN in a 50-year-old woman, with a sacral lesion seen in MRI. A CT-guided biopsy was scheduled to analyze the lesion, finding that the tumor was not clearly recognizable on CT, so the anatomical references of MRI were used to select the appropriate plane. The planning of the approach and the radio-pathological correlation were determinant to reach the definitive diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [Surgery of adrenal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V O; Ermolov, A S; Kovalenko, T I; Kondratiev, A V

    2004-01-01

    From 1983 to 2003 examination and surgical treatment were performed in 463 patients with different adrenal tumors. Hormone-active tumors were revealed in 249 of them, non-active - in 214. Combination of CT or MRT with study of adrenal hormones is the basis of the diagnosis. In different cases multispiral computed tomography, angiography, selected taking of blood from inferior caval vein, US- or CT-guided biopsy were used. Open surgery through thoracofrenolumbotomy was performed in 392 patients, videolaparoscopic surgery - in 71. Expediency of laparoscopic surgery in line with open surgery is demonstrated.

  7. Tumor-induced osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan de Beur, Suzanne M

    2005-09-14

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic form of renal phosphate wasting that results in severe hypophosphatemia, a defect in vitamin D metabolism, and osteomalacia. This debilitating disorder is illustrated by the clinical presentation of a 55-year-old woman with progressive fatigue, weakness, and muscle and bone pain with fractures. After a protracted clinical course and extensive laboratory evaluation, tumor-induced osteomalacia was identified as the basis of her clinical presentation. In this article, the distinctive clinical characteristics of this syndrome, the advances in diagnosis of TIO, and new insights into the pathophysiology of this disorder are discussed.

  8. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Florenzano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome clinically characterized by bone pain, fractures and muscle weakness. It is caused by tumoral overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 that acts primarily at the proximal renal tubule, decreasing phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25 hydroxyvitamin D, thus producing hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Lesions are typically small, benign mesenchymal tumors that may be found in bone or soft tissue, anywhere in the body. In up to 60% of these tumors, a fibronectin-1(FN1 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1 fusion gene has been identified that may serve as a tumoral driver. The diagnosis is established by the finding of acquired chronic hypophosphatemia due to isolated renal phosphate wasting with concomitant elevated or inappropriately normal blood levels of FGF23 and decreased or inappropriately normal 1,25-OH2-Vitamin D (1,25(OH2D. Locating the tumor is critical, as complete removal is curative. For this purpose, a step-wise approach is recommended, starting with a thorough medical history and physical examination, followed by functional imaging. Suspicious lesions should be confirmed by anatomical imaging, and if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23. If the tumor is not localized, or surgical resection is not possible, medical therapy with phosphate and active vitamin D is usually successful in healing the osteomalacia and reducing symptoms. However, compliance is often poor due to the frequent dosing regimen and side effects. Furthermore, careful monitoring is needed to avoid complications such us secondary/tertiary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalciuria, and nephrocalcinosis. Novel therapeutical approaches are being developed for TIO patients, such as image-guided tumor ablation and medical treatment with the anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody KRN23 or anti FGFR medications. The case of a patient with TIO is presented to

  9. "Osseous tumors of the hand "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Farzan M

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of osseous tumors of the hand are benign. The surgeon who evaluates and treats osseous tumors of the hand has to be familiar with limb anatomy, tumor biology, various presentations of the tumors and the range of treatment possibilities and their limitations. Lesions in the hand more often present earlier in their course than those at other sites, just because they are more likely to superficial and easily noticed. A review of all cases of osseous tumors of the hand, seen by a hand surgeon over the last 10 years, at Imam Khomeini hospital was performed. Among 55 cases with osseous tumors of hand, 48 primary benign bone tumors, 3 primary malignant bone tumors, and 4 metastatic bone tumors were found. Enchondroma was the most common benign bone tumor followed by osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurismal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, epidermoid cyst, and osteochondroma. There were two chondrosarcoma and one Ewing’s sarcoma as primary malignant bone tumors. Metastasis to the hand from colon, esophagus, and breast were also found. There were also two cases with Brown tumor secondary to hyperparathyroidism, we conclude that a variety of osseous tumors could occur in the hand, and usually they are benign. Although malignant neoplasms in the hand that arise from tissues other than the skin are very rare, the hand may be the site of distant breast, lung, kidney, esophagus, or colon adenocarcinoma metastases, most of which have a predilection for the distal phalanges.

  10. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation.

  11. Surgery for adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamah, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the presentation, localization, pathology, surgical management and outcome of surgery for adrenal gland tumors. Design: Prospective clinico epidemiological study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of General Surgery, University Unit, Riyadh medical Complex Kingdom of Saudi Rabia from June, 1991 to may, 2001. Subjects and Methods: A total of 21 cases with adrenal tumors were studied for demographic data, clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, localization, surgical management, pathology and outcome. The outcome of these patients was followed prospectively. Results: The study included 12 female and 9 male patients. The mean age at surgery was 36.7 years. Hypertension (69.%) was the commonest presentation in hypersecretory functional tumors. The localization accuracy for ultrasonography, computerized tomography, MRI and MIBG scan was 95.2%, 98.3% 87.8% and 83.6% respectively. Pheochromocytoma was the most common adrenal pathology observed in 14 (66.6%) cases. The overall morbidity was 19% with no hospital mortality. Complete follow-up of available 19 patients (90.5 %) revealed no tumor recurrence and persistent hypertension in 14.3% cases. Conclusion: surgery on adrenal glands is safe in experienced hands and is recommended in institutes with all backup facilities. (author)

  12. Unmasking circulating tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennenhuis, Joost Franciscus

    2017-01-01

    The number of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) that can be isolated from blood of cancer patients is prognostic for the course of the disease. A higher number of CTCs correlates with a worse prognosis. A change from a higher number to a lower number of CTCs indicates a benefit of the current treatment

  13. Targeting thapsigargin towards tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Doan, Thi Quynh Nhu; Paulsen, Eleonora Sandholdt

    2015-01-01

    substrates for either prostate specific antigen (PSA) or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) prodrugs were created, which selectively affect prostate cancer cells or neovascular tissue in tumors. One of the prodrug is currently tested in clinical phase II. The prodrug under clinical trial has been...

  14. Study of wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.H.; Yaqub, N.

    2001-01-01

    This study is an effort to bring into light data related to children with Wilms' tumor managed at Islamabad as local literature on this topic is lacking. It was retrospective study. The study was conducted at Children Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Science, Islamabad between January, 1987 and December 1995. All patients managed during the study period were included in the study. In all the patients complete blood count (CBC), urine analysis (D/R),X-ray abdomen and chest, ultrasound abdomen and in selected cases CT scan were performed. National Wilms' Tumor Study Group (NWTS 3) protocol was followed for further management. Fifty patients including 28 males and 22 females with the age range from 9 months to 8 years were managed in 9 years period. Left kidney was involved in 31 patients. Most of the tumors were solid on ultrasound, 76% patients were in stage III and IV. In one case bilateral involvement of kidney was found. Forty patients underwent primary surgery. Only 14 patients received complete course of chemotherapy while 31 radiotherapy. Nineteen patients died and 15 lost to follow-up. The survival and mortality rates are comparable to NWTS-3 results, although, most of the patients were presented in advance stage of Wilms tumor. The survival of these patients can be improved by increasing awareness of society through electronic and print media. (author)

  15. Stages of Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and interleukin-2 (IL-2) are types of biologic therapy used to treat childhood renal cell cancer . Interferon affects the division of cancer cells and ... Tumors Renal Cell Cancer (RCC) Treatment of renal cell cancer usually ... nodes. Biologic therapy ( interferon and interleukin-2 ) for cancer that ...

  16. CT and MRI of sphenoid tumors and pseudo tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaujeux, R.; Dietemann, J.L.; Brun, F.; Bourjat, P.

    1994-01-01

    The radiological features of the main tumors and pseudotumors of the sphenoid bone with CT and MRI are described in detail. The lesions are classified as tumors and pseudotumors of the sphenoid bone and sphenoid sinus and as neighboring tumors and pseudotumors with secondary sphenoid invasion. Metastases, chondromas, fibrous dysplasia, myelomas, plasmocytomas and chordomas are the most frequent sphenoid lesions. Tumors and pseudotumors of the sphenoid sinus mainly include mucoceles and cholesterin granulomas. Neighboring tumors are of intracranial origin (pituitary adenoma, meningioma, aneurysm) or originate in the nasopharynx (nasopharyngeal fibroma, malignant tumors) or the nasosinusal cavities (inverted papillomas, invasive aspergillosis, malignant tumors). The radiological features do no always allow diagnosing the tumoral type. However, the merits of CT and, even more, of MRI for an accurate assessment of extension is indisputable. (authors). 41 refs., 12 figs

  17. Large Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Mimicking A Gynecologic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sew-Khee Yeat

    2005-06-01

    Conclusion: GISTs express c-kit proteins (CD-117 on immunohistochemistry. They may mimic gynecologic tumors since they share the same pelvic cavity. One should always consider GISTs as part of the differential diagnosis in pelvic tumors.

  18. Rare and Challenging Tumor Entity: Phyllodes Tumor of the Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bannowsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic epithelial-stromal tumors of the prostate are rare, with 82 cases reported in literature. These cases have been published under a variety of diagnoses, including phyllodes tumor and prostatic stromal proliferation of uncertain malignant potential as well as a malignant tumor called “prostatic stromal sarcoma”. We report a case of a 60-year-old man with the histological diagnosis of phyllodes tumor of the prostate in transurethral resection specimen.

  19. Mixed odontogenic tumor: Ameloblastoma and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etit Demet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontogenic tumors constitute a group of heterogeneous disease derived from epithelial, mesenchymal and/or ectomesenchymal elements. Ameloblastoma is the best known and the most frequent form of odontogenic tumors. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT, known as Pindborg tumor, is locally invasive lesion which has a characteristic amiloid deposition. Here a case of a peripheral ameloblastoma associated with CEOT is presented with clinical and morphological features.

  20. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 persons/year. The most common benign brain tumor in adults is meningioma, which is most present in women, and the most common malignant tumor is glioblastoma, which is most present in adult men. Due to high mortality, especially in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and significant brain tumor morbidity, there is a constant interest in understanding its etiology in order to possibly prevent tumor occurrence in future and enable more efficient treatment strategies for this fatal brain disease. Despite the continuously growing number of epidemiological studies on possible factors of tumor incidence, the etiology remains unclear. The only established environmental risk factor of gliomas is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor of brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive, so more definite results are still expected.

  1. Carcinoid tumor of the kidney: An unusual renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P P Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoid tumors are low-grade malignant tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells. Primary renal carcinoid is extremely rare. We present a case of 57-year-old male with primary renal carcinoid tumor. Presently, the patient is on regular follow up and is doing well.

  2. Biopsy in Musculoskeletal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharehdaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of bone tumors is based on careful evaluation of clinical, imaging and a pathologic findings. So the biopsy of bone and soft tissue sarcomas is the final step in evaluation and a fundamental step in the diagnosis of the lesion. It should not be performed as a shortcut to diagnosis (1. The biopsy should be performed in order to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate among few diagnoses after careful staged studies. Real and artificial changes in imaging studies will be superimposed after performing biopsy, which may alter the interpretation if done after biopsy is taken (1. The correct management of a sarcoma depends on the accurate diagnosis. Inadequate, inapprppriate, or inaccurate non-representative biopsy leads to poorer outcome in terms of survivorship and limb salvage. An incorrect, unplanned incision and biopsy may unnecessarily contaminate uninvolved compartments which may convert a salvageable limb to amputation. Anatomic approach along with the proper biopsy techniques may lead to success or catastrophe. It is clear that in patients with inappropriate biopsy, the chance of the need to change the treatment to more radical than would originally be expected is significantly higher. Also it is more probable to need to  convert curative to palliative treatment and to require adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with inappropriate biopsies. Patients with sarcoma are best served by early referral to a specialized center where staged investigations and biopsy can be performed with minimal morbidity (3. Open biopsy is still considered the gold standard; however, recent studies suggest comparable results with percutaneous core needle biopsy. Our study on 103 consecutive CNB and open biopsy showed comparable results as well. Surgeons need to answer to two questions prior to performing a biopsy: 1-          Where is the best part of the lesion to be biopsied? 2-          What is the safest route without contaminating

  3. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davies, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  4. Targeting Therapy Resistant Tumor Vessels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2007-01-01

    .... To achieve this, we have developed tumor models for vascular normalization and are using in vivo phage display and isolation of peptides that specifically home to normalized tumor vessels resistant...

  5. Targeting Therapy Resistant Tumor Vessels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    .... To achieve this, we have developed tumor models for vascular normalization and are using in vivo phage display and isolation of peptides that specifically home to normalized tumor vessels resistant...

  6. Living with a Brain Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Act Living with a Brain Tumor Understanding Emotions Talking About Your Brain Tumor Involving Family and Friends Returning To Work Physical Intimacy Health Insurance Options Financial & Medical Assistance ...

  7. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davies, Karen

    2009-04-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  8. Neurogenic tumors of the stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneton, J.N.; Drouillard, J.; Roux, P.; Ettore, F.; Lecomte, P.

    1983-08-01

    The general and radiologic features of neurogenic tumors of the stomach are reviewed in connection with 18 cases (16 benign and 2 maglignant tumors). Such neurogenic tumors are rare in the stomach, representing less than 0.5% of all tumors. Solitary neurogenic tumors must be differentiated from those encountered during von Recklinghausen's disease. Radiological or endoscopic examination can generally determine the benign or malignant nature of solitary neurogenic tumors, which are essentially represented by schwannomas. Since these tumors are submucosal, a deep biopsy is imperative; furthermore, since such tumors are subject to hemorrhage, prior investigation by CT appears advisable to detect possible hypervascularization after injection of contrast material. For patients with von Recklinghausen's disease, a neurofibroma is usually diagnosed when faced with a digestive hemorrhage. Radiological exploration of the entire digestive tract appears essential to confirm the solitary nature of the gastric lesion and to be sure it is responsible for the clinical symptoms.

  9. Tumor Biology and Microenvironment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI's Division of Cancer Biology's research portfolio, research in this area seeks to understand the role of tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) in driving cancer initiation, progression, maintenance and recurrence.

  10. Bednar Tumor: An Uncommon Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonkar, Gayathri P; Rupani, Asha; Shah, Ajay; Deshpande, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Bednar tumor is an uncommon variant of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Also known as pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, this tumor is of intermediate grade. It is seen in adults and has a predisposition to affect the shoulder region. We report a rare case of Bednar tumor in a 40-year-old female patient. The diagnosis of Bednar tumor must be considered while reporting pigmented subcutaneous spindle cell lesions.

  11. Determinates of tumor response to radiation: Tumor cells, tumor stroma and permanent local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wende; Huang, Peigen; Chen, David J.; Gerweck, Leo E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The causes of tumor response variation to radiation remain obscure, thus hampering the development of predictive assays and strategies to decrease resistance. The present study evaluates the impact of host tumor stromal elements and the in vivo environment on tumor cell kill, and relationship between tumor cell radiosensitivity and the tumor control dose. Material and methods: Five endpoints were evaluated and compared in a radiosensitive DNA double-strand break repair-defective (DNA-PKcs −/− ) tumor line, and its DNA-PKcs repair competent transfected counterpart. In vitro colony formation assays were performed on in vitro cultured cells, on cells obtained directly from tumors, and on cells irradiated in situ. Permanent local control was assessed by the TCD 50 assay. Vascular effects were evaluated by functional vascular density assays. Results: The fraction of repair competent and repair deficient tumor cells surviving radiation did not substantially differ whether irradiated in vitro, i.e., in the absence of host stromal elements and factors, from the fraction of cells killed following in vivo irradiation. Additionally, the altered tumor cell sensitivity resulted in a proportional change in the dose required to achieve permanent local control. The estimated number of tumor cells per tumor, their cloning efficiency and radiosensitivity, all assessed by in vitro assays, were used to predict successfully, the measured tumor control doses. Conclusion: The number of clonogens per tumor and their radiosensitivity govern the permanent local control dose

  12. Parallel evolution of tumor subclones mimics diversity between tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco

    2013-01-01

    are not present ubiquitously in late stage ccRCC and are likely to represent subclonal events acquired during tumor progression. Such heterogeneous subclonal genetic alterations within individual tumors may impair the identification of robust ccRCC molecular subtypes classified by distinct copy number alterations...... and clinical outcomes. The co-existence of distinct subclonal copy number events in different regions of individual tumors reflects the diversification of individual ccRCCs through multiple evolutionary routes and may contribute to tumor sampling bias and impact upon tumor progression and clinical outcome....

  13. Parasellar dermoid tumor with intra-tumoral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamata, H.; Yanagimachi, N.; Matsuyama, S. [Department of Radiology I, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Matsumae, M.; Takamiya, Y.; Tsugane, R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    We report a case of parasellar dermoid tumor with intra-tumoral hemorrhage. It is rare for a dermoid tumor that hemorrhage was detected as high attenuation on the initial CT. In the present case, the tumor content included a little fat component and mostly cholesterin-rich fluid which resulted in extremely low signal intensity on T2-weighted and high signal on T1-weighted MR images. In addition to this, hemosiderin accumulation in the tumor could be the reason for low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. (orig.) With 3 figs., 19 refs.

  14. Nonodontogenic Tumors of the Jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyalram, Donita; Aslam-Pervez, Nawaf; Lubek, Joshua E

    2016-02-01

    Nonodontogenic tumors of the jaws are common in the pediatric population, accounting for approximately 70% of pediatric jaw tumors. This article focuses on the clinical characteristics and management of the benign nonodontogenic tumors (nonaggressive and aggressive) of the jaws most commonly encountered in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intravascular bronchio-alveolar tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, J.M.; Caceres, J.; Prat, J.; Lopez, J.I.; Velilla, O.

    1991-01-01

    In 1975 Dail and Liebow described the clinical and pathological characteristics of a pulmonary tumor which they dominated intravascular bronchio-alveolar tumor (IVBAT). Our aim is to acquaint radiologists with the existence of this tumor by describing the radiologic findings in 2 patients with IVBAT, 1 with hepatic involvement ant the other with pulmonary osteoarthropathy. (author). 7 refs.; 2 figs

  16. Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.; Meinken, G.E.; Larson, S.M.; Grunbaum, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate

  17. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2011-01-01

    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch s...

  18. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained...... increased amounts of cholecystokinin, the concentrations being extremely high in two: 8281 and 13,453 pmol per gram as compared with less than 30 pmol per gram in normal pituitary glands. The cholecystokinin concentrations were moderately increased in adenomas from another 12 patients, of whom 5 had Cushing......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  19. Tumor targeted gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of molecular mechanisms governing malignant transformation brings new opportunities for therapeutic intervention against cancer using novel approaches. One of them is gene therapy based on the transfer of genetic material to an organism with the aim of correcting a disease. The application of gene therapy to the cancer treatment had led to the development of new experimental approaches such as suicidal gene therapy, inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. Suicidal gene therapy is based on the expression in tumor cells of a gene encoding an enzyme that converts a prodrug into a toxic product. Representative suicidal genes are Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and cytosine deaminase (CD). Especially, physicians and scientists of nuclear medicine field take an interest in suicidal gene therapy because they can monitor the location and magnitude, and duration of expression of HSV1-tk and CD by PET scanner

  20. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Palaskar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an uncommon lesion of unknown cause. It encompasses a spectrum of myofibroblastic proliferation along with varying amount of inflammatory infiltrate. A number of terms have been applied to the lesion, namely, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibrous xanthoma, plasma cell granuloma, pseudosarcoma, lymphoid hamartoma, myxoid hamartoma, inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation, benign myofibroblatoma, and most recently, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The diverse nomenclature is mostly descriptive and reflects the uncertainty regarding true biologic nature of these lesions. Recently, the concept of this lesion being reactive has been challenged based on the clinical demonstration of recurrences and metastasis and cytogenetic evidence of acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities. We hereby report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor and review its inflammatory versus neoplastic behavior.

  1. Human brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindel, W.; Luyten, P.R.; Herholz, K.; Marien, J.H.; Kugel, H.; Bunke, J.; Heiss, W.D.; Hollander, J.A. den.

    1990-01-01

    It has been postulated that malignant tumors show increased anaerobic glycolysis. Areas of increased glycolysis could be identified by detection of increased glucose uptake and lactate production. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the most active parts in human brain tumors can be localized by correlating findings of proton (H-1) spectroscopic imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Localized H-1 MR spectroscopy was performed with a clinical 1.5-T whole-body MR system. In 15 patients with CH-1 gliomas, the spatial distribution of choline-containing compounds, creatine, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), and lactate was displayed as spectroscopic images. Those metabolite maps were correlated with conventional MR images and, in five cases, with corresponding PET sections

  2. Tumors of the mediastinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwe, Beau V; Sterman, Daniel H; Musani, Ali I

    2005-10-01

    Tumors of the mediastinum represent a wide diversity of disease states. The location and composition of a mass is critical to narrowing the differential diagnosis. The most common causes of an anterior mediastinal mass include the following: thymoma; teratoma; thyroid disease; and lymphoma. Masses of the middle mediastinum are typically congenital cysts, including foregut and pericardial cysts, while those that arise in the posterior mediastinum are often neurogenic tumors. The clinical sequelae of mediastinal masses can range from being asymptomatic to producing symptoms of cough, chest pain, and dyspnea. This article will review the anatomy of the mediastinum as well as the different clinical, radiographic, and prognostic features, and therapeutic options of the most commonly encountered masses.

  3. CT findings of parotid gland tumors: benign versus malignant tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moon Ok; Han, Chun Hwan; Kim, Mie Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Kyung Joo; Lee, Joo Hyuk [Kang Nam General Hospital, Public Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeung Sook [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of parotid gland tumors to help in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. The CT findings of 22 patients with surgically proven parotid gland tumors were reviewed. Analysis was focused on the density and margin characteristics of the tumors, and the relationship between the tumor and surrounding structures. Those tumors were pleomorphic adenoma (n = 8), Warthin's tumor (n = 5), basal cell adenoma (n = 1), lipoma (n = 1), dermoid cyst (n = 1), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 2), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n 1), epidermoid carcinoma (n = 1), and carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma (n 1). Most of benign and malignant tumors were heterogeneous in density on contrast enhanced CT scans. In 5 of 6 malignant cases, the tumors had irregular or ill-defined margin and a tendancy to involve or cross the superficial layer of deep cervical fascia with obliteration of subcutaneous fat. Two malignant tumors invaded surrounding structures. Although the heterogeneous density of tumor is not a specific finding for malignancy at CT, following findings, such as, irregular or blurred margin of the lesion, the involvement of fascial plane, and the infiltration of surrounding structures may suggest the possibility of malignant parotid tumor.

  4. Combined tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrba, H.

    1990-01-01

    This comprehensive survey of current methods and achievements first takes a look at the two basic therapies, devoting a chapter each to the surgery and radiotherapy of tumors. The principal subjects of the book, however, are the systemic, adjuvant therapy, biological therapies, hyperthermia and various other therapies (as e.g. treatment with ozone, oxygen, or homeopathic means), and psychotherapy. (MG) With 54 figs., 86 tabs [de

  5. Radiopharmaceuticals and tumor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.N.; Atkins, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    A number of radiopharmaceuticals are evaluated as to their usefulness for the reliable localization of malignant tumors by radioisotope scanning. Compounds discussed include 75 Se-selenomethionine, 32 P-phosphate, /sup 99m/Tc-phosphate, 67 Ga-citrate, and 111 In-bleomycin. It is pointed out that no ideal agent has yet been found and that considerable difficulties exist in comparing one clinical series with another

  6. TRUS Findings of Prostate Tumor or Tumor Like Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Jang, Jung Min; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Tumors or tumor-like lesions in the prostate raise questions concerning their histogenesis and they may have prognoses dissimilar to those of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Several neoplasms involving the prostate have been described and characterized in recent years. In addition to adenocarcinoma, they include mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine cancer, lymphoma, spindle cell neoplasm, squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) mimicking malignancy. In addition, infectious conditions such as tuberculosis and some stages of prostatic abscess can also mimic prostate tumors. Radiologic findings overlap and have limited roles in the diagnoses of these entities. However, knowledge of these variable tumors and tumor-like conditions is helpful when making accurate radiologic diagnoses, which have important clinical implications for treatment and prognosis. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and available pathologic images of unusual tumors and tumor- like lesions are demonstrated in this article

  7. Cardiac tumors: echo assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Mankad MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors are exceedingly rare (0.001–0.03% in most autopsy series. They can be present anywhere within the heart and can be attached to any surface or be embedded in the myocardium or pericardial space. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific and highly variable related to the localization, size and composition of the cardiac mass. Echocardiography, typically performed for another indication, may be the first imaging modality alerting the clinician to the presence of a cardiac mass. Although echocardiography cannot give the histopathology, certain imaging features and adjunctive tools such as contrast imaging may aid in the differential diagnosis as do the adjunctive clinical data and the following principles: (1 thrombus or vegetations are the most likely etiology, (2 cardiac tumors are mostly secondary and (3 primary cardiac tumors are mostly benign. Although the finding of a cardiac mass on echocardiography may generate confusion, a stepwise approach may serve well practically. Herein, we will review such an approach and the role of echocardiography in the assessment of cardiac masses.

  8. Neuroendocrine Tumor, diagnostic difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH secretion is a rare disease. A 51 years old woman, with a Cushing syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion, diagnosed in 2009, with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, whose biopsy was compatible with lung small cell carcinoma, staged as IIIB using TNM classification. No other lesions were found in patient study. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, associated to ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily, with partial remission of both conditions. Three years later was admitted with an aggravation of Cushing syndrome. There was no evidence of progression of pulmonary disease. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic uncinated process was found by abdominal CT scan and with avid uptake by DOTANOC PET discreet in anterior mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of pancreatic mass revealed a neuroendocrine tumor. Pulmonary masses were biopsied again and was in favor of neuroendocrine tumor. It was assumed the diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with mediastinal metastasis. The patient initiated lanreotid (120 mg, monthly, subcutaneous in association with ketoconazole. After 5 months of therapy, patient died with sepsis secondary to pneumonia. Neuroendocrine tumours are rare, difficult to diagnose and with poor prognosis when associated with ectopic ACTH secreting Cushing syndrome.

  9. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Syong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  10. Wilms′ tumor: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant B Tongaonkar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilms′ tumor (WT is the commonest pediatric renal tumor, predominantly seen in children less than five years of age. The majority of patients present with an abdominal lump and CT scan is the usual imaging modality for determining the extent of disease. With multimodality management, the results of treatment of WT have improved dramatically over the last 50 years. The treatment protocols have been devised and modified repeatedly depending on evidence from randomized trials by several cooperative groups - mainly National Wilms′ Tumor Study Group (NWTSG and the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP. The NWTSG recommends primary surgery followed by chemotherapy while SIOP advocates four weeks of chemotherapy prior to surgery. The regimen, dose and duration of chemotherapy have been repeatedly modified to reduce toxicity while maintaining efficacy. The role of radiation therapy has also been customized. Most centers have reported excellent survival rates with the modern day treatment protocols, except in patients with an unfavorable histology. The results of treatment of relapsed WT have also improved with newer drugs and combinations being used for the same.

  11. MR findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity, with emphasis on tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Saida, Tsukasa Sasaki; Minami, Rie; Yagi, Takako; Tsunoda, Hajime; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Minami, Manabu

    2007-01-01

    Sex cord-stromal tumors including granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli stromal cell tumor and steroid cell tumor are noted for their hormonal activity. However, there are many kinds of ovarian tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors and tumor-like conditions with endocrine manifestations. Cross-sectional imaging, especially MR, can provide precise features of ovarian tumors and uterine morphological change even in a clinically latent excess of estrogen. In this article, we demonstrate typical imaging findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity. We also shortly explain the mechanism of the virilization and hyperestrogenism caused by ovarian tumors and tumor-like conditions

  12. Tumor regression patterns in retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.N.; Siddique, S.N.; Zaheer, N.

    2016-01-01

    To observe the types of tumor regression after treatment, and identify the common pattern of regression in our patients. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from October 2011 to October 2014. Methodology: Children with unilateral and bilateral retinoblastoma were included in the study. Patients were referred to Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, for chemotherapy. After every cycle of chemotherapy, dilated funds examination under anesthesia was performed to record response of the treatment. Regression patterns were recorded on RetCam II. Results: Seventy-four tumors were included in the study. Out of 74 tumors, 3 were ICRB group A tumors, 43 were ICRB group B tumors, 14 tumors belonged to ICRB group C, and remaining 14 were ICRB group D tumors. Type IV regression was seen in 39.1% (n=29) tumors, type II in 29.7% (n=22), type III in 25.6% (n=19), and type I in 5.4% (n=4). All group A tumors (100%) showed type IV regression. Seventeen (39.5%) group B tumors showed type IV regression. In group C, 5 tumors (35.7%) showed type II regression and 5 tumors (35.7%) showed type IV regression. In group D, 6 tumors (42.9%) regressed to type II non-calcified remnants. Conclusion: The response and success of the focal and systemic treatment, as judged by the appearance of different patterns of tumor regression, varies with the ICRB grouping of the tumor. (author)

  13. [Intraductal papillary mucinous pancreas tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, I V; Kaziulin, A N; Kucheriavyĭ, Iu A

    2008-01-01

    Data of the literature on the epidemiology, patogenesis, diagnosis, peculiarities of the symptoms and the treatment of the intraduct papillar pancreatic tumor, are analyzed in this review. These tumors are rare, there are up to 1% of the exocrine pancreatic tumors. Intraduct proliferation of the mucin producing cells, that are disposed as papillars is typical of these tumors. There are the symptoms of the acute or chronic pancreatitis, sometimes the diagnosis of this tumor is accidental. The main diagnostic methods are ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT). Endoluminal ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) are the main methods to reveal the intraduct growth. The surgical treatment is necessary for these patients.

  14. CT diagnosis of mediastinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Dadong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of CT for diagnosing the mediastinal tumors, in order to improve the accuracy of the diagnosis on mediastinal tumor. Methods: 16 cases of mediastinal tumors proved by surgery or pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Results: There were 6 cases of thymoma, 3 of intrathoracic thyroid, 2 of bronchial cyst, 2 of malignant lymphoma, 2 of neurogenic tumor, and 1 of teratoma. The accuracy rate of CT localization and CT diagnosis were 100% and 93.75% respectively. Conclusion: CT examination is one of the most effective ways in diagnosing mediastinal tumor. According to the mediastinal tumor location, imaging features with proper examining method, closely combing the clinical data and lab examination, generally, mediastinal tumors can be diagnosed accurately. (authors)

  15. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A variety of lesions may involve the optic nerve. Mainly, these lesions are inflammatory or vascular lesions that rarely necessitate surgery but may induce significant visual morbidity. Orbital tumors may induce proptosis, visual loss, relative afferent pupillary defect, disc edema and optic...... atrophy, but less than one-tenth of these tumors are confined to the optic nerve or its sheaths. No signs or symptoms are pathognomonic for tumors of the optic nerve. The tumors of the optic nerve may originate from the optic nerve itself (primary tumors) as a proliferation of cells normally present...... in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  16. Experimental rat lung tumor model with intrabronchial tumor cell implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Neto, Antero; Simão, Antônio Felipe Leite; Miranda, Samuel de Paula; Mourão, Lívia Talita Cajaseiras; Bezerra, Nilfácio Prado; Almeida, Paulo Roberto Carvalho de; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a rat lung tumor model for anticancer drug testing. Sixty-two female Wistar rats weighing 208 +/- 20 g were anesthetized intraperitoneally with 2.5% tribromoethanol (1 ml/100 g live weight), tracheotomized and intubated with an ultrafine catheter for inoculation with Walker's tumor cells. In the first step of the experiment, a technique was established for intrabronchial implantation of 10(5) to 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, and the tumor take rate was determined. The second stage consisted of determining tumor volume, correlating findings from high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with findings from necropsia and determining time of survival. The tumor take rate was 94.7% for implants with 4 x 10(5) tumor cells, HRCT and necropsia findings matched closely (r=0.953; p<0.0001), the median time of survival was 11 days, and surgical mortality was 4.8%. The present rat lung tumor model was shown to be feasible: the take rate was high, surgical mortality was negligible and the procedure was simple to perform and easily reproduced. HRCT was found to be a highly accurate tool for tumor diagnosis, localization and measurement and may be recommended for monitoring tumor growth in this model.

  17. Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Tumor Nanomedicine Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicines including liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect have become the mainstream for tumor treatment owing to their superiority over conventional anticancer agents. Advanced design of nanomedicine including active targeting nanomedicine, tumor-responsive nanomedicine, and optimization of physicochemical properties to enable highly effective delivery of nanomedicine to tumors has further improved their therapeutic benefits. However, these strategies still could not conquer the delivery barriers of a tumor microenvironment such as heterogeneous blood flow, dense extracellular matrix, abundant stroma cells, and high interstitial fluid pressure, which severely impaired vascular transport of nanomedicines, hindered their effective extravasation, and impeded their interstitial transport to realize uniform distribution inside tumors. Therefore, modulation of tumor microenvironment has now emerged as an important strategy to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumors. Here, we review the existing strategies and approaches for tumor microenvironment modulation to improve tumor perfusion for helping more nanomedicines to reach the tumor site, to facilitate nanomedicine extravasation for enhancing transvascular transport, and to improve interstitial transport for optimizing the distribution of nanomedicines. These strategies may provide an avenue for the development of new combination chemotherapeutic regimens and reassessment of previously suboptimal agents.

  18. Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Tumor Nanomedicine Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing

    2017-01-01

    Nanomedicines including liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect have become the mainstream for tumor treatment owing to their superiority over conventional anticancer agents. Advanced design of nanomedicine including active targeting nanomedicine, tumor-responsive nanomedicine, and optimization of physicochemical properties to enable highly effective delivery of nanomedicine to tumors has further improved their therapeutic benefits. However, these strategies still could not conquer the delivery barriers of a tumor microenvironment such as heterogeneous blood flow, dense extracellular matrix, abundant stroma cells, and high interstitial fluid pressure, which severely impaired vascular transport of nanomedicines, hindered their effective extravasation, and impeded their interstitial transport to realize uniform distribution inside tumors. Therefore, modulation of tumor microenvironment has now emerged as an important strategy to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumors. Here, we review the existing strategies and approaches for tumor microenvironment modulation to improve tumor perfusion for helping more nanomedicines to reach the tumor site, to facilitate nanomedicine extravasation for enhancing transvascular transport, and to improve interstitial transport for optimizing the distribution of nanomedicines. These strategies may provide an avenue for the development of new combination chemotherapeutic regimens and reassessment of previously suboptimal agents. PMID:29311946

  19. Treatment Options for Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... markers . Most malignant germ cell tumors release tumor markers. The following tumor markers are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: ... testicular germ cell tumors, blood levels of the tumor markers help show if the tumor is a seminoma ...

  20. General Information about Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... markers . Most malignant germ cell tumors release tumor markers. The following tumor markers are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: ... testicular germ cell tumors, blood levels of the tumor markers help show if the tumor is a seminoma ...

  1. Breast Tumor Angiogenesis and Tumor-Associated Macrophages: Histopathologist's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewe Seng Ch'ng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made since the conceptualization of tumor angiogenesis—the induction of growth of new blood vessels by tumor—as a salient feature of clinically significant primary or metastatic cancers. From a practicing histopathologist's point of view, we appraise the application of this concept in breast cancer with particular reference to the evaluation of proangiogenic factors and the assessment of new microvessels in histopathological examination. Recently, much focus has also been centered on the active roles played by tumor-associated macrophages in relation to tumor angiogenesis. We review the literature; many data supporting this facet of tumor angiogenesis were derived from the breast cancer models. We scrutinize the large body of clinical evidence exploring the link between the tumor-associated macrophages and breast tumor angiogenesis and discuss particularly the methodology and limitations of incorporating such an assessment in histopathological examination.

  2. Tumors and tumor-like lesions; Tumoren und tumoraehnliche Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, S.; Stoevesandt, D. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Knipping, S. [Universitaetsklinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen-, Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie, Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Tumors and tumor-like lesions are rare diseases in the paranasal sinuses. There is a great variety of histological types, but only a small number of morphological patterns on imaging. Histology is an important point in therapeutic planning. In most cases it is obtained by sampling, which is not as difficult in the sinonasal area as in other regions of the body. The main task of imaging is an exact estimation of the extent and spread of a lesion. This article discusses the possibilities and limitations of CT and MRI in the assessment of the dignity and spread of paranasal tumors and tumor-like lesions in consideration of necessary therapeutic information. Additionally, an overview of features on imaging of different paranasal tumors and tumor-like lesions is given. (orig.)

  3. Imaging tumors of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadei, R., E-mail: roberto.casadei@ior.it [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Kreshak, J., E-mail: j.kreshak@yahoo.com [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rinaldi, R. [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, E., E-mail: eugenio.rimondi@ior.it [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Bianchi, G., E-mail: giuseppe.bianchi@ior.it [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, M., E-mail: marco.alberghini@ior.it [Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Ruggieri, P. [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Vanel, D., E-mail: daniel.vanel@ior.it [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Background: Patellar tumors are rare; only a few series have been described in the literature and radiographic diagnosis can be challenging. We reviewed all patellar tumors at one institution and reviewed the literature. Materials and methods: In an evaluation of the database at one institution from 1916 to 2009, 23,000 bone tumors were found. Of these, 41 involved the patella. All had imaging studies and microscopic diagnostic confirmation. All medical records, imaging studies, and pathology were reviewed. Results: There were 15 females and 26 males, ranging from 8 to 68 years old (average 30). There were 30 benign tumors; eight giant cell tumors, eight chondroblastomas, seven osteoid osteomas, two aneurysmal bone cysts, two ganglions, one each of chondroma, exostosis, and hemangioma. There were 11 malignant tumors: five hemangioendotheliomas, three metastases, one lymphoma, one plasmacytoma, and one angiosarcoma. Conclusion: Patellar tumors are rare and usually benign. As the patella is an apophysis, the most frequent lesions are giant cell tumor in the adult and chondroblastoma in children. Osteoid osteomas were frequent in our series and easily diagnosed. Metastases are the most frequent malignant diagnoses in the literature; in our series malignant vascular tumors were more common. These lesions are often easily analyzed on radiographs. CT and MR define better the cortex, soft tissue extension, and fluid levels. This study presents the imaging patterns of the more common patellar tumors in order to help the radiologist when confronted with a lesion in this location.

  4. What is a pediatric tumor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaume Mora1,21Department of Oncology, 2Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Fundacio Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Working together with medical oncologists, the question of whether a Ewing sarcoma in a 25-year-old is a pediatric tumor comes up repeatedly. Like Ewing's, some tumors present characteristically at ages that cross over what has been set as the definition of pediatrics (15 years, 18 years, or 21 years?. Pediatric oncology textbooks, surprisingly, do not address the subject of defining a pediatric tumor. They all begin with an epidemiology chapter defining the types of tumors appearing at distinct stages of childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Describing the epidemiology of tumors in relation to age, it becomes clear that the disease is related to the phenomenon of aging. The question, however, remains: is there a biological definition of what pediatric age is? And if so, will tumors occurring during this period of life have anything to do with such biological definition? With the aim of finding an objective definition, the fundamental concepts of what defines "pediatrics" was reviewed and then the major features of tumors arising during development were analyzed. The tumors were explored from the perspective of a host immersed in the normal process of growth and development. This physiological process, from pluripotential and undifferentiated cells, makes possible the differentiation, maturation, organization, and function of tissues, organs, and apparatus. A biological definition of pediatric tumors and the infancy–childhood–puberty classification of developmental tumors according to the infancy–childhood–puberty model of normal human development are proposed.Keywords: growth and development, pediatric tumor, infant, childhood and adolescence, pubertal tumors

  5. Multiparametric classification links tumor microenvironments with tumor cell phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Gligorijevic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which

  6. Synthesis and characterization of particles derived of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for treatment of embolization and chemoembolization;Sintese e caracterizacao de particulas derivadas de poli(alcool vinilico) (PVA) para embolizacao e quimioembolizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenzim, Vinicius L.; Basso, Glaucia G.; Passos, Rodrigo A.; Nery, Jose G. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Agreli, Guilherme; Oliveira, Ana P.M.L.; Kawasaki-Oyama, Rosa S.; Braile, Domingo M., E-mail: nery@ibilce.unesp.b [Braile Biomedica Industria e Comercio Representacoes S.A., Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The most effective way to treat cancerous tumors is by surgically removing them. However in some types of cancer, such as liver and uterine cancer, more than two-thirds of patients have no indication for surgery due to the size and location of the tumor, such as into the blood vessels. Doctors and researchers have invested in alternative and less invasive methods such as chemoembolization. The objectives of this research project are the synthesis and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) particles for use in cancer treatment. PVA particles will be combined with chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin, drug commonly used in the treatment of cancers and carcinomas. The particles, obtained by controlled polymerization reaction followed by saponification, were characterized by SEM, XRD and NMR-CP/MAS. The functionalization of the particles with the drug is the next step of this study. (author)

  7. Aquaporins and Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Maugeri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain primary tumors are among the most diverse and complex human cancers, and they are normally classified on the basis of the cell-type and/or the grade of malignancy (the most malignant being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, grade IV. Glioma cells are able to migrate throughout the brain and to stimulate angiogenesis, by inducing brain capillary endothelial cell proliferation. This in turn causes loss of tight junctions and fragility of the blood–brain barrier, which becomes leaky. As a consequence, the most serious clinical complication of glioblastoma is the vasogenic brain edema. Both glioma cell migration and edema have been correlated with modification of the expression/localization of different isoforms of aquaporins (AQPs, a family of water channels, some of which are also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as glycerol and urea. In this review, we discuss relationships among expression/localization of AQPs and brain tumors/edema, also focusing on the possible role of these molecules as both diagnostic biomarkers of cancer progression, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we will discuss the possibility that AQPs, together with other cancer promoting factors, can be exchanged among brain cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs.

  8. Tumors of the foot skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, K.

    2007-01-01

    About 3-4% of all tumors and tumor-like lesions of the skeleton are located in the foot. Many of these lesions have a predilection for certain locations, so that the spectrum of entities occurring in the foot differs from the rest of the skeleton. Despite the fact that practically any entity can occur in the foot in rare cases, taken together the ten most frequent lesions make up for the vast majority of tumors and tumor-like lesions of the foot. The differential diagnosis of these lesions follows the general principles that apply in the rest of the skeleton. It is based on the analysis of the lesion's X-ray morphology and location, the patient's age, and in certain entities, the MR morphology. This article describes the most important tumors and tumor-like lesions of the foot, their differential diagnosis, and the principles of local staging. (orig.) [de

  9. Vasculogenic mimicry and tumor metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Qiao, Lili; Liang, Ning; Xie, Jian; Luo, Hui; Deng, Guodong; Zhang, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a microvascular channel made up of nonendothelial cells, has been accepted as a new model of neovascularization in aggressive tumors, owning to the specific capacity of malignant cells to form vessel-like networks which provide sufficient blood supply for tumor growth. Multiple molecular mechanisms, especially vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A2 (EphA2), phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR1), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1a, have been reported to participate in VM formation which is associated with tumor migration and invasion. In addition, hypoxia, cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial-mesenehymal transition (EMT) are regarded as significant factors in VM formation and tumor metastasis. Due to the important effects of VM on tumor progression, a review was carried out in the present study, to synthetically analyze the relationship between VM and tumor metastasis.

  10. Tumor markers in clinical oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    The subtle differences between normal and tumor cells are exploited in the detection and treatment of cancer. These differences are designated as tumor markers and can be either qualitative or quantitative in their nature. That means that both the structures that are produced by tumor cells as well as the structures that are produced in excessive amounts by host tissues under the influence of tumor cells can function as tumor markers. Speaking in general, the tumor markers are the specific molecules appearing in the blood or tissues and the occurrence of which is associated with cancer. According to their application, tumor markers can be roughly divided as markers in clinical oncology and markers in pathology. In this review, only tumor markers in clinical oncology are going to be discussed. Current tumor markers in clinical oncology include (i) oncofetal antigens, (ii) placental proteins, (iii) hormones, (iv) enzymes, (v) tumor-associated antigens, (vi) special serum proteins, (vii) catecholamine metabolites, and (viii) miscellaneous markers. As to the literature, an ideal tumor marker should fulfil certain criteria - when using it as a test for detection of cancer disease: (1) positive results should occur in the early stages of the disease, (2) positive results should occur only in the patients with a specific type of malignancy, (3) positive results should occur in all patients with the same malignancy, (4) the measured values should correlate with the stage of the disease, (5) the measured values should correlate to the response to treatment, (6) the marker should be easy to measure. Most tumor markers available today meet several, but not all criteria. As a consequence of that, some criteria were chosen for the validation and proper selection of the most appropriate marker in a particular malignancy, and these are: (1) markers' sensitivity, (2) specificity, and (3) predictive values. Sensitivity expresses the mean probability of determining an elevated tumor

  11. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing...... the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role...

  12. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2011-01-01

    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...... signaling plays a fundamental role during development. Recent findings have shown that Notch signaling is dysregulated, and contributes to the malignant potential of these tumors. Growing evidence point towards an important role for cancer stem cells in the initiation and maintenance of glioma...

  13. Surgical Treatment in Uveal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gündüz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment in uveal tumors can be done via iridectomy, partial lamellar sclerouvectomy (PLSU and endoresection. Iridectomy is done in iris tumors without angle and ciliary body involvement. PLSU is performed in tumors with ciliary body and choroidal involvement. For this operation, a partial thickness scleral flap is dissected, the intraocular tumor is excised, and the flap is sutured back in position. PLSU surgery is done in iridociliary and ciliary body tumors with less than 3 clock hours of iris and ciliary body involvement and in choroidal tumors with a base diameter less than 15 mm. However, it can be employed in any size tumor for biopsy purposes. Potential complications of PLSU surgery include vitreous hemorrhage, cataract, retinal detachment, and endophthalmitis. Endoresection is a technique whereby the intraocular tumor is excised using vitrectomy techniques. The rationale for performing endoresection is based on the fact that irradiated uveal melanomas may be associated with exudation and neovascular glaucoma and removing the dead tumor tissue may contribute to better visual outcome. There are some centers where endoresection is done without prior radiotherapy. Allegedly, avoidance of radiation retinopathy and papillopathy are the main advantages of using endoresection without prior radiotherapy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 29-34

  14. Desmoid tumor within lesser sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors or fibromatoses comprise a number of benign fibrous proliferative lesions that have local infiltrative growth and tendency to recur after incomplete excision. They never metastasize. The authors present a 31-year old woman who, due to epigastric pain and palpable mass detected on presentation, underwent the excision of firm tumorous mass, 210x140x115mm in diameter, from the lesser sac. Compressing the splenic vein, the tumor caused left-sided portal hypertension which subsided after the mass was removed. The recovery was uneventful. The histological examination verified typical desmoid tumor. Twelve years after surgery, the patient remained symptom-free with no signs of recurrence.

  15. EFICÃCIA E SEGURANÃA DO FITOMEDICAMENTO APLAUSEÂ (Cimicifuga racemosa) EM ENSAIO PRÃ-CLÃNICO DE PERIODONTITE: ANALISE DO ENVOLVIMENTO DO FATOR DE NECROSE TUMORAL-ALFA(TNF-α)

    OpenAIRE

    JordÃnia Marques de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    A periodontite à um processo inflamatÃrio crÃnico que acomete os tecidos de sustentaÃÃo dos dentes caracterizados por extensa reabsorÃÃo Ãssea alveolar. Cimicifuga racemosa à uma planta herbÃcea, pertencente à famÃlia Ranunculaceae, originÃria do Canadà e da costa atlÃntica dos Estados Unidos, sendo comumente usada na medicina tradicional como agente analgÃsico, anti-inflamatÃrio e para o tratamento dos sintomas da menopausa. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficÃcia de Cr na ...

  16. Skull base tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragnaniello, Cristian; Nader, Remi; van Doormaal, Tristan; Kamel, Mahmoud; Voormolen, Eduard H J; Lasio, Giovanni; Aboud, Emad; Regli, Luca; Tulleken, Cornelius A F; Al-Mefty, Ossama

    2010-11-01

    Resident duty-hours restrictions have now been instituted in many countries worldwide. Shortened training times and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. The development of educational models for brain anatomy is a fascinating innovation allowing neurosurgeons to train without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period. The authors describe the use of Stratathane resin ST-504 polymer (SRSP), which is inserted at different intracranial locations to closely mimic meningiomas and other pathological entities of the skull base, in a cadaveric model, for use in neurosurgical training. Silicone-injected and pressurized cadaveric heads were used for studying the SRSP model. The SRSP presents unique intrinsic metamorphic characteristics: liquid at first, it expands and foams when injected into the desired area of the brain, forming a solid tumorlike structure. The authors injected SRSP via different passages that did not influence routes used for the surgical approach for resection of the simulated lesion. For example, SRSP injection routes included endonasal transsphenoidal or transoral approaches if lesions were to be removed through standard skull base approach, or, alternatively, SRSP was injected via a cranial approach if the removal was planned to be via the transsphenoidal or transoral route. The model was set in place in 3 countries (US, Italy, and The Netherlands), and a pool of 13 physicians from 4 different institutions (all surgeons and surgeons in training) participated in evaluating it and provided feedback. All 13 evaluating physicians had overall positive impressions of the model. The overall score on 9 components evaluated--including comparison between the tumor model and real tumor cases, perioperative requirements, general impression, and applicability--was 88% (100% being the best possible

  17. General Information about Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found in both kidneys when the cancer is first diagnosed . The treatment of other childhood kidney tumors depends on the tumor type. Recurrent ... lungs . In this case, a biopsy is done first. Then chemotherapy is given ... Cancers for more information. Biologic therapy Biologic ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found in both kidneys when the cancer is first diagnosed . The treatment of other childhood kidney tumors depends on the tumor type. Recurrent ... lungs . In this case, a biopsy is done first. Then chemotherapy is given ... Cancers for more information. Biologic therapy Biologic ...

  19. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, E.I.; Loesch, H.

    1987-09-01

    Of 155 patients with adrenal disorders, 120 (77%) were correctly diagnosed as negative. There were no correlations between the results of computer tomography and phlebography or between computer tomography and laboratory tests. In 31 patients (20%) a correct diagnosis was obtained and these patients were sent to surgery. Four cases (3%) were shown to be false positive. In these cases (with one exception), both the computer tomography and phlebography results had been overinterpreted. Computer tomography was shown to be a method of high sensitivity and almost as great specificity. Tumors cannot be distinguished by phlebography; only pheochromocytoma shows a characteristic alteration of vessels in arteriograms. In general, an accurate diagnosis requires positive angiography (arterio- or phlebography) results and clear evidence of elevated hormone levels. Only then is surgery indicated.

  20. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, E.I.; Loesch, H.

    1987-01-01

    Of 155 patients with adrenal disorders, 120 (77%) were correctly diagnosed as negative. There were no correlations between the results of computer tomography and phlebography or between computer tomography and laboratory tests. In 31 patients (20%) a correct diagnosis was obtained and these patients were sent to surgery. Four cases (3%) were shown to be false positive. In these cases (with one exception), both the computer tomography and phlebography results had been overinterpreted. Computer tomography was shown to be a method of high sensitivity and almost as great specificity. Tumors cannot be distinguished by phlebography; only pheochromocytoma shows a characteristic alteration of vessels in arteriograms. In general, an accurate diagnosis requires positive angiography (arterio- or phlebography) results and clear evidence of elevated hormone levels. Only then is surgery indicated. (orig.) [de

  1. Solid-pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas: Frantz's tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruno Righi Rodrigues de; Moreira, Reni Cecilia Lopes; Campos, Marcelo Esteves Chaves

    2010-01-01

    The pseudo papillary solid tumor of the pancreas, also known as Frantz's tumor, is a rare disease, taking place in approximately 0.17% to 2.7% of non-endocrine tumors of the pancreas. Recently, the increase of its incidence has been noted with more than two-thirds of the total cases described in the last 10 years. A possible explanation is a greater knowledge of the disease and a greater uniformity of conceptualization in the last years. Generally, it affects young adult females. In most of the series, the tumor principally attacks the body and tail of the pancreas. The objective of the present report is to present the diagnostic and therapeutic option used in this rare pancreatic tumor of low-grade malignancy. (author)

  2. Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusalem, Osama Turki; Al-Masri, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study all patients with phyllodes tumors of the breast which were diagnosed at King Hussien Medical Center and Prince Rashid Military Hospital between the 1st of may 2002 till January 2009. Methods: A total of 26 patients diagnosed to have phylloedes tumors were retrieved from the hospital records. All cases were analyzed and assessed in two main categories: demographical characteristics and histopathological parameters. The demographical characteristics included: sex and age of the patients, and tumor size while the histopathological aspects were divided into three subgroups: Benign, Borderline and Malignant tumors with its stromal components characteristics. All the histopathological reports for specimens sent by surgeons were reviewed by 2 senior pathologists. Statistical analysis was done by using Chi square and P-Value. Results: All our patients were females; their age range between 17-67 years, the mean patient age at presentation was 39 years. Out of the 26 patients diagnosed to have phyllodes tumor, 6 had breast-conserving therapy and 20 women had mastectomy. The types of Phyllodes tumors include: A-Benign phyllodes tumors (15 cases), B-Borderline phyllodes (7cases) and C-malignant phyllodes (4 cases). With significant values of benign tumors occurrence (pphyllodes tumors of the breast. The greatest dimension of the tumors ranged from 1 to 15 cm, with a mean of 5 cm. Approximately 73.1% of tumors were less or equal to 5 cm in the greatest dimension and 26.9% >5 cm. The duration of symptoms varied from one month to ten year.s Six patients had painful swellings, whereas in twenty patients the pain was absent. Four patients had recurrent tumors; the distinctive features of those with recurrent tumors were the histological findings of stromal over growth and the presence of positive resection margin. In our series, we found that three patients of those with recurrence discovered to have stromal over growth. While one only had a previous positive

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Tumor-Tumor Distant Interactions Supports a Systemic Control of Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzekry, Sebastien; Lamont, Clare; Barbolosi, Dominique; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip

    2017-09-15

    Interactions between different tumors within the same organism have major clinical implications, especially in the context of surgery and metastatic disease. Three main explanatory theories (competition, angiogenesis inhibition, and proliferation inhibition) have been proposed, but precise determinants of the phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here, we formalized these theories into mathematical models and performed biological experiments to test them with empirical data. In syngeneic mice bearing two simultaneously implanted tumors, growth of only one of the tumors was significantly suppressed (61% size reduction at day 15, P < 0.05). The competition model had to be rejected, whereas the angiogenesis inhibition and proliferation inhibition models were able to describe the data. Additional models including a theory based on distant cytotoxic log-kill effects were unable to fit the data. The proliferation inhibition model was identifiable and minimal (four parameters), and its descriptive power was validated against the data, including consistency in predictions of single tumor growth when no secondary tumor was present. This theory may also shed new light on single cancer growth insofar as it offers a biologically translatable picture of how local and global action may combine to control local tumor growth and, in particular, the role of tumor-tumor inhibition. This model offers a depiction of concomitant resistance that provides an improved theoretical basis for tumor growth control and may also find utility in therapeutic planning to avoid postsurgery metastatic acceleration. Cancer Res; 77(18); 5183-93. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. {sup 18}F-fluorocholine production at Center of Nuclear Technology Development, Brazil: synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity studies; Producao de {sup 18}F-fluorocolina no Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear: sintese e estudos de citotoxicidade in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Flavia Mesquita

    2014-07-01

    {sup 18}F-fluorocholine ({sup 18}FCH) is promising biomarker for imaging of tumors using PET technology, being effective in the diagnosis of metastatic tumors and specific for the brain tumors, prostate, lung, among others. Despite already being used in some countries like France, Germany, Slovenia, Poland, Romania and Portugal, the {sup 18}FCH is not yet produced or marketed in Brazil. This work proposed the development of a new radiopharmaceutical based on choline labeled with {sup 18}F isotope for diagnostic PET imaging which is an increasing demand of the nuclear medicine national. It was also proposed the development of quality control assays in order to evaluate the radiopharmaceutical prior to its use in patients; in vitro test of toxicity in non-tumor cells (MRC-5), evaluating possible changes in cell proliferation caused by radiopharmaceutical impurities; and, to test the interaction's saturation of {sup 18}FCH with the tumor cells (PC-3 and U-87) and the competition with HC-3 and DMAE, performed to characterize the efficiency of the radiotracer uptake by tumor cells that express the choline transporter CHT. {sup 18}FCH was synthesized in two main steps, first by reaction with dibromomethane with fluoride-18, assisted by Kryptofix2.2.2, forming {sup 18}F-fluorobromomethane ({sup 18}FBrCH{sub 2}) and, then, the {sup 18}FBrCH{sub 2} reacted with the second precursor DMAE generating the final product, {sup 18}FCH. Synthesis duration was 45 minutes. {sup 18}FCH was obtained in 4.68 - 8.32% radiochemical yield, radiochemical purity greater than 99% and it was stable for up to 8 hours after production. The tested analytical methodologies were suitable for routine use in the quality control of {sup 18}FCH. The evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of impurities {sup 18}FCH, by clonogenic assay, showed that at the concentrations evaluated, the components do not alter the proliferative capacity of human healthy cells. The interaction of {sup 18}FCH with cell

  5. Chemokines in tumor proximal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyza, Jaromir

    2017-03-01

    Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines produced by leukocytes and other types of cells including tumor cells. Their action is determined by the expression of cognate receptors and subsequent signaling in target cells, followed by the modulation of cytoskeletal proteins and the induction of other responses. In tumors, chemokines produced by neoplastic/stroma cells control the leukocyte infiltrate influencing tumor growth and progression. Tumor cells also express functional chemokine receptors responding to chemokine signals, promoting cell survival, proliferation and metastasis formation. Chemokines may be detected in serum of cancer patients, but due to the paracrine nature of these molecules, more significant concentrations are found in the tumor adjacent, non-vascular fluids, collectively called tumor proximal fluids. This review summarizes the expression of CC and CXC chemokines in these fluids, namely in interstitial fluid, pleural, ascitic, and cyst fluids, but also in urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, cervical secretions and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Most comparative clinical studies reveal increased chemokine levels in high-grade tumor proximal fluids rather than in low-grade tumors and benign conditions, indicating shorter survival periods. The data confirm peritumoral fluid chemokines as sensitive diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as offer support for chemokines and their receptors as potential targets for antitumor therapy.

  6. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  7. Focal midbrain tumors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandertop, W P; Hoffman, H J; Drake, J M; Humphreys, R P; Rutka, J T; Amstrong, D C; Becker, L E

    1992-08-01

    The clinical and neuroradiological features of focal midbrain tumors in 12 children are described, and the results of their surgical management are presented. Patients with a focal midbrain tumor usually exhibit either symptoms and signs of raised intracranial pressure caused by an obstructive hydrocephalus (50%) or symptoms and signs caused by pressure on the tegmentum and cerebral peduncles. The lesions are confined to the tectal plate or tegmentum with possible extension upward to the thalamus and downward to the pons, displacing but not invading these structures. The edges of the tumor are well defined, and the large majority have a solid consistency with intense regular enhancement after intravenous contrast. Radical resection is hardly ever feasible in brain stem tumors, but in this series, significant reduction of the tumor mass was obtained in 75% of the patients, with no surgical mortality and minimal surgical morbidity and with the majority of patients showing clinical improvement postoperatively. All tumors were nonpilocytic, low-grade astrocytomas. Six patients received adjunctive radiotherapy. The mean follow-up period is 2.5 years, and all patients are alive and doing well. We conclude that focal midbrain tumors in children appear to be a distinct subgroup of brain stem tumors and are very amenable to surgical resection with an excellent long-term prognosis.

  8. [Local treatment of liver tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, T.K.; Skjoldbye, Bjørn Ole

    2008-01-01

    Local treatment of non-resectable liver tumors is common. This brief review describes the local treatment techniques used in Denmark. The techniques are evaluated according to the evidence in literature. The primary local treatment is Radiofrequency Ablation of both primary liver tumors and liver...

  9. Mechanism of brain tumor headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynne P

    2014-04-01

    Headaches occur commonly in all patients, including those who have brain tumors. Using the search terms "headache and brain tumors," "intracranial neoplasms and headache," "facial pain and brain tumors," "brain neoplasms/pathology," and "headache/etiology," we reviewed the literature from the past 78 years on the proposed mechanisms of brain tumor headache, beginning with the work of Penfield. Most of what we know about the mechanisms of brain tumor associated headache come from neurosurgical observations from intra-operative dural and blood vessel stimulation as well as intra-operative observations and anecdotal information about resolution of headache symptoms with various tumor-directed therapies. There is an increasing overlap between the primary and secondary headaches and they may actually share a similar biological mechanism. While there can be some criticism that the experimental work with dural and arterial stimulation produced head pain and not actual headache, when considered with the clinical observations about headache type, coupled with improvement after treatment of the primary tumor, we believe that traction on these structures, coupled with increased intracranial pressure, is clearly part of the genesis of brain tumor headache and may also involve peripheral sensitization with neurogenic inflammation as well as a component of central sensitization through trigeminovascular afferents on the meninges and cranial vessels. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  10. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  11. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  12. Focal midbrain tumors in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandertop, W. P.; Hoffman, H. J.; Drake, J. M.; Humphreys, R. P.; Rutka, J. T.; Amstrong, D. C.; Becker, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    The clinical and neuroradiological features of focal midbrain tumors in 12 children are described, and the results of their surgical management are presented. Patients with a focal midbrain tumor usually exhibit either symptoms and signs of raised intracranial pressure caused by an obstructive

  13. Computed tomography of Krukenberg tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, K.C.; Gold, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of three patients with Kurkenberg tumor was reviewed retrospectively. CT showed large, lobulated, multicystic masses with soft-tissue components, indistinguishable from primary ovarian carcinoma. Much has been written about metastatic ovarian tumor, but this is the first report in the radiologic literature about their CT features. The authors emphasize the importance of recognizing the ovary as a frequent site of metastases and the proper approach to this problem. In patients with a history of colon or gastric carcinoma, the mixed cystic and solid ovarian mass on CT should be regarded as metastatic tumor until proven otherwise. A careful search for gastrointestinal tract signs or symptoms should be done in any patient with a pelvic tumor. When CT is done for evaluation of ovarian tumor, the stomach and colon should be carefully evaluated, and the ovaries routinely examined in the preoperative CT staging of gastric or colon carcinoma

  14. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2011-01-01

    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...... signaling plays a fundamental role during development. Recent findings have shown that Notch signaling is dysregulated, and contributes to the malignant potential of these tumors. Growing evidence point towards an important role for cancer stem cells in the initiation and maintenance of glioma...... and medulloblastoma. In this chapter we will cover the present findings of Notch signaling in human glioma and medulloblastoma and try to create an overall picture of its relevance in the pathogenesis of these tumors....

  15. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, G.O. Jr.; Davis, P.C.; Patrick, L.E.; Winn, K.J.; Ball, T.I.; Wyly, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is an uncommon neoplasm occurring primarily in the child one year or less in age. Difficulty in deciding the cellular origin of this tumor has led to numerous names, including congenital melanocarcinoma, melanotic epithelial odontoma, melanotic ameloblastoma, and retinal anlage tumor, to list a few. Electron microscopy and histochemical studies, however, have now established the neural crest the most likely origin. The most frequent site of occurrence is the maxilla followed by the skull, the brain and the mandible. The genital organs are the most frequent extracranial site. Within the skull, there is a predilection for the anterior fontanel. The following is a case report of a young child with melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy arising at the anterior fontanel. Included is a discussion of magnetic resonance (MR) findings, which to our knowledge, have not been previously reported in this tumor. (orig.)

  16. [Radiation therapy for malignant tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shumei; Konishi, Koji

    2008-04-01

    Radiation therapy uses ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors, with consideration to minimize harmful damages to health tissues. About 30% of all people with cancer are treated with radiation therapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Radiation therapy may be internal or external. In brachytheraphy as the internal radiation therapy the radioisotope is implanted into or near the tumor by tubes as the container. And it is often used for patients with the tongue cancer. External radiation, the type most often used, comes from a machine outside the body. It is usually used for shrinking tumors with bony invasions such as gingival cancer and improving the pain in patients with bony metastasis. For the primary bone tumor the radiation therapy is not always used because the radiosensitivity of the almost primary bone tumor is low.

  17. Glomus Tumor of the Toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Robert L B; Sangueza, Omar P; Schwartz, Gregory A

    2017-05-01

    A glomus tumor is an uncommon, predominantly benign, neoplastic lesion that primarily involves a thermoregulatory microvascular apparatus, the glomus body. Although these lesions can occur anywhere in the body, the subungual tissue of the hand represents the most common presentation site. Glomus tumors are not often encountered in the foot. Symptoms traditionally include the classic triad of pain, pressure, and cold sensitivity. This case report describes a variant location for a glomus tumor in the subcuticular tissue adjacent to the medial middle phalanx of the second toe. The nonsubungual location for this presentation should prompt the inclusion of glomus tumor in a digital soft-tissue lesion differential diagnosis. The lesion was excised surgically and was subsequently diagnosed histopathologically as a glomus tumor.

  18. Benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening and are often difficult to diagnose. Among primary lacrimal sac tumors, benign mixed tumors are extremely rare. Histologically, benign mixed tumors have been classified as a type of benign epithelial tumor. Here we report a case of benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac.

  19. Pathogenesis and progression of fibroepithelial breast tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arno

    2006-01-01

    Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor are fibroepithelial breast tumors. These tumors are biphasic, i.e. they are composed of stroma and epithelium. The behavior of fibroadenomas is benign, whereas phyllodes tumors can recur and even metastasize. Classification criteria for both tumors show considerable

  20. Tumors and tumor-like lesions of the heart valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Lavee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Valvular tumors and tumor-like lesions may have similar morphological and clinical characteristics, and may place the patients at a high risk of stroke in different ways. From January 2004 to June 2008, 11 patients underwent surgery for a suspected valvular tumor. Valvular tumor and tumor-like lesions accounted for 0.32% of adult cardiac operations. Five (45.5% valvular lesions were papillary fibroelastomas, one (9.1% was myxoma, 2 (18.2% were organized thrombi, and 3 (27.3% were calcification lesions. There was a total of 5 (45.5% atrioventricular valve lesions, 4 arising from the atrial side of the leaflets, and one from the ventricular side. All 5 (45.5% semilunar valvular lesions were from the aortic valve. One (9.1% lesion originated from the chorda tendinea of the mitral valve. All leaflet lesions were resected by a simple shave technique, and all the patients recovered favorably. Valvular tumor and tumor-like lesions are rare. Pre-operative differential diagnoses among these valvular lesions pose important clinical implications for appropriate treatment for the underlying diseases. Prompt therapeutic measures in view of the underlying diseases of the valvular lesions are essential to prevent potential embolic events.

  1. Tumor-penetrating nanosystem strongly suppresses breast tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Mölder, Tarmo; Tobi, Allan; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2018-01-01

    Antiangiogenic and vascular disrupting compounds have shown promise in cancer therapy, but tend to be only partially effective. We previously reported a potent theranostic nanosystem that was highly effective in glioblastoma and breast cancer mouse models, retarding tumor growth and producing some cures [Agemy et al. 2011,2013]. The nanosystem consists of iron oxide NPs (“nanoworms”) coated with a composite peptide with tumor-homing and pro-apoptotic domains. The homing component targets tumor vessels by binding to p32/gC1qR at the surface or tumor endothelial cells. We sought to further improve the efficacy nanosystem by searching for an optimally effective homing peptide that would also incorporate a tumor-penetrating function. To this effect, we tested a panel of candidate p32 binding peptides with a sequence motif that conveys tumor-penetrating activity (CendR motif). We identified a peptide designated as Linear TT1 (Lin TT1) (sequence: AKRGARSTA) as most effective in causing tumor homing and penetration of the nanosystem. This peptide had the lowest affinity for p32 among the peptides tested. The low affinity may have moderated the avidity effect from the multivalent presentation on nanoparticles (NPs), such that the NPs avoid getting trapped by the so called “binding-site barrier”, which can hinder tissue penetration of compounds with a high affinity for their receptors. Treatment of breast cancer mice with the LinTT1 nanosystem showed greatly improved efficacy compared to the original system. These results identify a promising treatment modality and underscore the value of tumor penetration effect in improving the efficacy tumor treatment. PMID:28178415

  2. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  3. IMRT in hypopharyngeal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, G.; Luetolf, U.M.; Davis, J.B.; Glanzmann, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-06-15

    Background and purpose: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) data on hypopharyngeal cancer (HC) are scant. In this study, the authors report on early results in an own HC patient cohort treated with IMRT. A more favorable outcome as compared to historical data on conventional radiation techniques was expected. Patients and methods: 29 consecutive HC patients were treated with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) IMRT between 01/2002 and 07/2005 (mean follow-up 16 months, range 4-44 months). Doses of 60-71 Gy with 2.0-2.2 Gy/fraction were applied. 26/29 patients were definitively irradiated, 86% received simultaneous cisplatin-based chemotherapy. 60% presented with locally advanced disease (T3/4 Nx, Tx N2c/3). Mean primary tumor volume measured 36.2 cm{sup 3} (4-170 cm{sup 3}), mean nodal volume 16.6 cm{sup 3} (0-97 cm{sup 3}). Results: 2-year actuarial local, nodal, distant control, and overall disease-free survival were 90%, 93%, 93%, and 90%, respectively. In 2/4 patients with persistent disease (nodal in one, primary in three), salvage surgery was performed. The mean dose to the spinal cord (extension of > 5-15 mm) was 26 Gy (12-38 Gy); the mean maximum (point) dose was 44.4 Gy (26-58.9 Gy). One grade (G) 3 dysphagia and two G4 reactions (laryngeal fibrosis, dysphagia), both following the schedule with 2.2 Gy per fraction, have been observed so far. Larynx preservation was achieved in 25/26 of the definitively irradiated patients (one underwent a salvage laryngectomy); 23 had no or minimal dysphagia (G0-1). Conclusion: excellent early disease control and high patient satisfaction with swallowing function in HC following SIB IMRT were observed; these results need to be confirmed based on a longer follow-up period. In order to avoid G4 reactions, SIB doses of < 2.2 Gy/fraction are recommended for large tumors involving laryngeal structures. (orig.)

  4. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  5. Benign bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a picture of areas inside the body. Serum tumor marker test : A procedure in which a sample of ... increased levels in the blood. These are called tumor markers . The following three tumor markers are used to ...

  7. General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a picture of areas inside the body. Serum tumor marker test : A procedure in which a sample of ... increased levels in the blood. These are called tumor markers . The following three tumor markers are used to ...

  8. Tumor Associated Antigenic Peptides in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tiwari, Raj

    2001-01-01

    .... Since this tumor rejection property was specifically mediated by tumor denved and not non-tumor derived gp96-peptide complexes, and that gp96 preparations stripped of its peptides are non-immunogenic...

  9. CT features of ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Ryuzo; Izumi, Sigeru; Tsutsui, Fumio; Kurihara, Soju; Hisa, Naofumi

    1985-01-01

    CT findings were compared with macroscopic and histopathologic findings in 84 patients with ovarian tumors. Marginal irregularity of the tumor shown on CT exhibited marked adhesion to the greater omentum, enteron or pelvic wall at laparotomy. CT showed tumor capsules more than 10 mm in thickness in 5 of 27 patients with malignant ovarian carcinomas (18.5%) and 2 of 15 patients with endometrioid cystadenoma (13.3%). Various thickness of the capsule was seen on CT in 48.1% of the patients with malignant ovarian carcinomas and 60.0% of the patients with endometrioid cystadenoma. Diagnostic accuracy of CT for the presence of absence of solid tumors was 89.3%. Misdiagnosis was attributed to the presence of high specific gravidity of fluid contents within the tumor, partial volume phenomenon, various thickness of the capsule, coagulation, and hair mass seen in dermoid cyst. Solid tumor-like density was larger and more irregular in the group with malignant ovarian tumors than in the group with benign ones. Irregular cystic parts were seen on CT in a high incidence among the group with malignant ovarian carcinomas. Dermoid cyst was diagnosed easily by CT because CT numbers were specific to the contents of cyst. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Tumor targeting via integrin ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Kiran eMarelli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells.

  11. Malignant Tumors Of The Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrava, J.

    2007-01-01

    Autoptic prevalence of the heart tumors is 0,01 – 0,3 %. 12 – 25 % of them are malignant tumors and 75 – 88 % are benign. Malignancies are more frequently found in the right heart. Metastatic tumors occur 20 – 40-times more frequently than primary neoplasms. Even 94 % of primary malignant tumors are sarcomas. Most frequent of them are angio sarcomas. Heart metastases are only found in extensive dissemination. Highest prevalence of heart metastases is observed in melanoma, followed by malignant germ cell tumors, leukemia, lymphoma, lung cancer. The clinical presentation is due to the combination of heart failure, embolism, arrhythmias, pericardial effusion or tamponade. The symptoms depend on anatomical localization and the tumor size but not on the histological type. Prognosis of the heart malignancies is poor. Untreated patients die within several weeks to 2 years after the diagnosis was determined. Whenever possible the heart tumor should be resected, despite the surgery is usually neither definite nor sufficiently effective therapy. The patients with completely resectable sarcomas have better prognosis (median of survival 12 – 24 months) than the patients with incomplete resection (3 – 10 months). Complete excision is possible in only less than half of the patients. In some patients chemotherapy, radiotherapy, heart transplantation or combination of them prolonged the survival up to 2 years. Despite of this treatment median of the survival is only 1 year. (author)

  12. Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-18

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma

  13. Malignant renal tumors in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, C.; Torterolo, J.; Irigoyen, B.; Bel, M.; Elias, E.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Professionals who work in pediatric oncology, we see childhood cancer as a common disease, but in fact constitutes about 2% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide. Wilms tumor accounts for 6% of all childhood tumors and presentation bilateral accounts for 4-6% of all Wilms tumors diagnosed. Theoretical Framework: In the period between the year 1994-2003 period were attended in the Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Center, a total of 29 cases of malignant renal tumors, corresponding to 86% (25 cases) to Wilms tumor or nephroblastoma tumor. The Wilms is of embryonic origin, capable of metastatic spread, (85% lungs 15% liver). Very sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which confers high cure rates (85%); having a multidisciplinary treatment model, combining surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The role of nursing in comprehensive cancer care child is essential in the prevention and early detection of side effects or complications. Case report: S.D. currently 10 years old. In 10/1994, at 8 months of age, was diagnosed with bilateral Wilms tumor. On admission her weight was 8200gr with abdominal circumference 50cm. Conducted pre-operative MDT and 02/1995 nephrectomy of the left kidney and right kidney lumpectomy (tumor nodule 420gr. and a 250gr.). MDT begins in 03/1995 01/1996 ending. 09/2003 with abdominal pain and vomiting, and kidney failure. 10/2003 lumpectomy biopsy (sclerotic nodule associated with maturation nephroblastoma). Currently severe renal insufficiency plan enters dialysis. Nursing process: Objectives: 1) To prepare the child and family to the side effects and possible complications of chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy 2) Prevent and minimize related complications tumor and / or treatment. Care Plan comprises four stages: A) rating and customer income. B) Implement care chemotherapy C) post-operative Care D) Implement radiation care

  14. TUMORES CEREBRALES ASOCIADOS A EPILEPSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Manuel G. Campos

    2017-01-01

    Entre el 20 a 40% de los tumores cerebrales pueden manifestarse primariamente con crisis epilépticas y un 20 a 45% pueden presentar epilepsia durante el curso de la enfermedad. Las crisis pueden ser causadas por el compromiso cortical tumoral, así como en áreas distantes por deaferentación. Las crisis pueden responder a fármacos antiepilépticos o presentarse como epilepsia refractaria a fármacos. Los tumores de más lento crecimiento se asocian a epilepsia de largo tiempo de evolución, pero ha...

  15. Tumor lysis syndrome in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Amaranto

    2004-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic emergency characterized by electrolyte alteration with or without acute renal failure. It occurs mainly in patients with malignant tumors that have a high growth fraction, or after cytotoxic therapy, as a result of the massive degradation of malignant cells and the release of high amounts of intracellular elements that exceed the capacity of renal excretion. The objective of the treatment is the prevention of nephropathy due to uric acid deposits, and the correction of metabolic acidosis and electrolyte alterations. This paper reviews the incidence, the physiopathology, and the treatment of tumor lysis syndrome in children

  16. Soft tissue tumors - imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    Soft Tissue Tumors - Imaging Methods: Imaging methods play an important diagnostic role in soft tissue tumors concerning a preoperative evaluation of localization, size, topographic relationship, dignity, and metastatic disease. The present paper gives an overview about diagnostic methods available today such as ultrasound, thermography, roentgenographic plain films and xeroradiography, radionuclide methods, computed tomography, lymphography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Besides sonography particularly computed tomography has the most important diagnostic value in soft tissue tumors. The application of a recently developed method, the magnetic resonance imaging, cannot yet be assessed in its significance. (orig.) [de

  17. Diagnostic evaluatuin of gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Tatsch, K.

    1998-01-01

    Prior to surgery of gastrointestinal tumors exact information about tumor localization, extent and possible infiltration in adjacent structures are important. The task for radiological and scintigraphic methods is predominantly the preoperative tumor staging. The upper (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and the lower (colon, rectum) gastrointestinal tract should be routinely investigated by endoscopy and endosonography. CT or MRI imaging may add information about tumor extent, infiltration in adjacent structures and pathologically enlarged lymph nodes. The latter may be detected with similar or higher sensitivity by PET as well. Furthermore, with PET it is possible to differentiate a tumor recurrence from postoperative scar tissue earlier than with conventional morphological imaging techniques, for example in colorectal cancer. Liver tumors should primarily be inspected sonographically followed by an MRI scan if dignity is uncertain. The receptor scintigraphy with radioactive ligands allows to further characterize a detected tumor. Benigne liver lesions can be distinguished from malignant tumors (metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) by the neogalactoalbumin-(NGA-)scintigraphy, because NGA binds exclusively to the liver galactose receptors of normally functioning hepatocytes. For the differentiation between liver metastasis and HCC insulin scintigraphy can be used, since insulin binds significantly in HCC due to an overexpression of insulin receptors in these tumors. If a malignant process is suspected, additionally CT-arterioportography may be recommended, because this newer radiological technique is capable to visualize lesions smaller than 1 cm. In such cases PET is sensitive as well and due to increased glucose metabolism even small foci can be detected with comparably high sepcificity. The method of choice for the detection of a pancreatic tumor is endoscopic sonography. In most cases the dignity of the tumor can be verified by ERCP, but sometimes it is very

  18. Tumor-like tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon Yong

    1975-01-01

    It was known that some of the abdominal tuberculosis can produce tumor-like appearance clinically and radiologically. But these were mainly masses formed in mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The author has experienced the gastrointestinal tuberculosis resembling to a neoplastic process. In the gastric tuberculosis, irregular narrowing and filling defect with mucosal distortion and occasional shoulder effect could be seen in pyloric antrum. Deformity of proximal portion of duodenum was noted in most cases. Difficulty in differential diagnosis from the gastric cancer might be encountered. If duodenum was not involved. No definite sign of mucosal destruction involved area and associated deformity of duodenum was suggestive of an inflammatory lesion. If there is any tuberculous changes in small bowel, than gastric tuberculosis is more likely. There was the tuberculosis of descending duodenum or pancreaticoduodenal group of lymph nodes revealed cancer-like appearance. Long irregular narrowing with nodular filling defect and mucosal distortion or inverted 3 sign was evident. Differential diagnosis from cancer in duodenum or pancreas could not be made radiographically. Short annular stenosis and nodular filling defect with shoulder effect in both ends of stenosis was noted in some of small bowel tuberculosis. The findings were very resemble to malignancy. There was a case of huge hepatoma-like tuberculosis formed a large irregular mass by lymph nodes and adjacent organs. Chest film was not much help in the differential diagnosis. In many cases of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis, radiological findings were resembled to a neoplastic process. Since none of radiologic findings are specific enough to allow one to make a definitive diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis and since type of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis could be cured by chemotherapy, careful analyzation of clinical features is emphasized before surgery.

  19. Are tumor-to-tumor differences in oxygenation responsible for the heterogeneity in the response of tumors to therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.; Moulder, J.E.; Martin, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Individual tumors from the same transplanted tumor line often show very different responses to the same treatments, even when the tumors are implanted into similar sites in similar hosts and studied at the same time. The cause of this heterogeneity is unknown; either tumor or host factors could be responsible. Solid tumors contain large numbers of viable hypoxic cells, which are resistant to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy and limit the response of tumors to intensive treatments. To determine whether differences in the proportion of hypoxic cells in the tumors produce the observed variability in therapeutic sensitivity, the authors compared the radiation responses of normally-aerated tumors and tumors made artificially hypoxic. If large tumor-to-tumor differences in oxygenation exist, data from normally-aerated tumors should be more variable than data from hypoxic tumors (which should all be brought to uniform hypoxia and uniform radioresistance). Analysis of data from several tumor systems revealed the variability in the radiation responses of hypoxic tumors to be at least as great as that for aerobic tumors. Thus, factors other than differences in oxygenation must produce the heterogeneity in tumor radiation response

  20. Strategic management of adrenal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, N

    1994-02-01

    Adrenal tumors--large and small, symptomatic and asymptomatic, benign and malignant--are being diagnosed with increasing frequency. Patients presenting with endocrine syndromes symptomatic of adrenal tumors require meticulous, considerate history taking, thorough physical examination, and careful planning for medical management and/or surgical removal. Adrenal tumors discovered in the absence of endocrine syndromes, and which are greater than 5 cm in diameter, require careful biochemical and imaging investigation before removal, since their rate of malignancy increases with size. Adrenal masses less than 4 cm in diameter present in the absence of endocrine syndromes can, after full endocrine and imaging evaluation, be carefully observed. Even with optimal surgical/medical management, malignant disease of the adrenal glands presents a poor outcome. This paper reviews the broad management of adrenal tumors, including a personal experience with a challenging case of adrenal adenocarcinoma.

  1. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  2. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Shayoub, Mohammed E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment

  3. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O., E-mail: khalid.alfarouk@act.sd [Department of Biotechnology, Africa City of Technology, Khartoum (Sudan); Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Muddathir, Abdel Khalig [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan); Shayoub, Mohammed E. A. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2011-01-20

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment.

  4. Radionuclide study for mediastinal tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Kenji (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Kubo, Atsushi; Tanabe, Masatada; Ochi, Hironobu; Kusakabe, Kiyoko

    1992-07-01

    {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy has been most available as radionuclide study for mediastinal tumor. Recently {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy is also used to assess the localization and the extent of mediastinal tumor such as thymic tumor, extopic parathyroid tumor, mediastinal metastasis, ect. We surveyed the usefulness of {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy in 24 cases of thymic diseases. Sensitivity of {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy was 100% for thymic diseases, although this method could not differentiate among thymoma, malignant thymoma and thymic hyperplasia. The ability of {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy to detect the metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes of lung cancer was also high with 100% of sensitivity and 80% of specificity. Applications of {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy for detecting the mediastinal metastasis of parathyroid carcinoma and {sup 131}I-TMBG scintigraphy for the metastasis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland were also discussed. (author).

  5. Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís César [UNIFESP; Matos, Delcio [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers...

  6. Tumors of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gamboa, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses are performed to establish the cause of chronic abdominal pain in patients. Histological types are considered in patients with primary tumors of unknown origin. Benign and malignant neoplasms are described, including methods of diagnosis and treatment. Clinical manifestations are cited. Early and accurate diagnoses are important for an acceptable outcome in patients with malignant small bowel tumors. Recurrence is provoked many deaths, suggesting the importance of adjuvant chemotherapy [es

  7. Awake craniotomy for tumor resection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadali Attari; Sohrab Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment of brain tumors, especially those located in the eloquent areas such as anterior temporal, frontal lobes, language, memory areas, and near the motor cortex causes high risk of eloquent impairment. Awake craniotomy displays major rule for maximum resection of the tumor with minimum functional impairment of the Central Nervous System. These case reports discuss the use of awake craniotomy during the brain surgery in Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A 56-year-old woman with le...

  8. Benign bone-forming tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, A.; Staebler, A.; Steinborn, M.; Woertler, K.

    2001-01-01

    Benign bone-forming tumors include osteomas, enostomas, osteoid osteomas, and osteoblastomas. These lesions are often characterized by typical imaging findings on radiographs, CT and MR imaging studies. Radiologic findings and additional clinical information allow for a specific diagnosis in most cases. This review article emphasizes the radiological patterns of benign boneforming tumors as well as their epidemiological, clinical, and pathological characteristics. In addition, minimally invasive interventional procedures for the therapy of osteoid osteoma are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  9. Radiologic diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunderquist, A.

    1989-01-01

    The radiologic work-up of a patient with a pancreatic endocrine tumor should follow a strict course. Ultrasonography as the first procedure should be followed by angiography, if possible. Negative ultrasonography should be followed by computed tomography (CT), which, whether positive or negative, is supplemented by angiography. Negative CT and angiography is followed by transhepatic venous sampling. In patients with suspected liver metastases from intestinal and pancreatic endocrine tumors, angiography may reveal more metastases than CT and ultrasonography. (orig.)

  10. Advances in Tumor Targeted Liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A; Jain, S K

    2018-04-15

    Cancer remains a deadly disease for effective treatment. Although anomalous tumor microenvironment is now widely exploited for targeted chemotherapy, safe and efficacious drug delivery to tumor cells is not still warranted. Liposomes are promising biodegradable and biocompatible nanocarriers having potential amenability for surface and internal modifications, and extraordinary capability to carry both hydrophilic as well as hydrophobhic drugs. Meticulous fabrication of liposomes with tumor selective ligand(s) and PEGylation reduces immunogenicity and increase target-specificity. This chapter focuses on critical developmental aspects of liposomes to target cancer cells exploiting Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect and tumor-selective ligands such as folate, transferrin, peptides etc. Moreover, stimuli-responsive smart liposomes (triggers: pH, temperature, enzymes, magnetic field, ultrasound, and redox potential etc.) are also investigated for enhancement of drug delivery to tumors. This review summarizes advances in tumor-targeted liposomes via various means of targeting. This knowledgeable assemblage of advances in liposomal approaches will render new insights to formulators and budding scientists to design cancer targeted liposomes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Unraveling tumor grading and genomic landscape in lung neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Papotti, Mauro; Rindi, Guido; Scarpa, Aldo

    2014-06-01

    Currently, grading in lung neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is inherently defined by the histological classification based on cell features, mitosis count, and necrosis, for which typical carcinoids (TC) are low-grade malignant tumors with long life expectation, atypical carcinoids (AC) intermediate-grade malignant tumors with more aggressive clinical behavior, and large cell NE carcinomas (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) high-grade malignant tumors with dismal prognosis. While Ki-67 antigen labeling index, highlighting the proportion of proliferating tumor cells, has largely been used in digestive NETs for assessing prognosis and assisting therapy decisions, the same marker does not play an established role in the diagnosis, grading, and prognosis of lung NETs. Next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), thanks to their astonishing ability to process in a shorter timeframe up to billions of DNA strands, are radically revolutionizing our approach to diagnosis and therapy of tumors, including lung cancer. When applied to single genes, panels of genes, exome, or the whole genome by using either frozen or paraffin tissues, NGS techniques increase our understanding of cancer, thus realizing the bases of precision medicine. Data are emerging that TC and AC are mainly altered in chromatin remodeling genes, whereas LCNEC and SCLC are also mutated in cell cycle checkpoint and cell differentiation regulators. A common denominator to all lung NETs is a deregulation of cell proliferation, which represents a biological rationale for morphologic (mitoses and necrosis) and molecular (Ki-67 antigen) parameters to successfully serve as predictors of tumor behavior (i.e., identification of pathological entities with clinical correlation). It is envisaged that a novel grading system in lung NETs based on the combined assessment of mitoses, necrosis, and Ki-67 LI may offer a better stratification of prognostic classes, realizing a bridge between molecular alterations

  12. Tumores malignos de pálpebra Malignant eyelid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Schneider Soares

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudar a incidência de tumores malignos de pálpebra no Hospital Banco de Olhos de Porto Alegre. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo dos casos de tumores malignos de pálpebra no período de 1985 a 1997, que tiveram diagnóstico confirmado por exame anátomopatológico. Resultados: Foram encontradas 54 neoplasias malignas, sendo 75,92% carcinoma basocelular, 12,96% carcinoma espinocelular, 7,40% melanoma e 1,85% lentigo maligna. A maioria dos pacientes apresentava mais de 40 anos e não houve prevalência de sexo. Conclusões: O tumor de pálpebra mais freqüente em nosso meio foi o carcinoma basocelular, seguido do carcinoma espinocelular. O melanoma foi o terceiro em freqüência mais encontrado em nossa pesquisa.Purposes: To study the incidence of eyelid malignant tumors in the Banco de Olhos Hospital of Porto Alegre from 1985 to 1997. Methods: We retrospectivelly analyzed clinical archives and in this study all cases of malignant eyelid tumors with histopathologic examination were included. Results: We found 54 eyelid tumors: 75.92% basal cell, 12.96% squamous cell, 7.40% melanoma, 1.85% undifferentiated carcinoma and 1.85% lentigo maligna. The majority of the patients was over 40 years old, 50% were male and 50% female. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases through histopathologic examination. Conclusions: Basal cell carcinoma was the most frequent eyelid malignancy followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma was the third most frequently found tumor in our study.

  13. Captopril improves tumor nanomedicine delivery by increasing tumor blood perfusion and enlarging endothelial gaps in tumor blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Ting; Tuo, Yanyan; Jin, Kai; Luo, Zimiao; Shi, Wei; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

    2017-12-01

    Poor tumor perfusion and unfavorable vessel permeability compromise nanomedicine drug delivery to tumors. Captopril dilates blood vessels, reducing blood pressure clinically and bradykinin, as the downstream signaling moiety of captopril, is capable of dilating blood vessels and effectively increasing vessel permeability. The hypothesis behind this study was that captopril can dilate tumor blood vessels, improving tumor perfusion and simultaneously enlarge the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels, therefore enhancing nanomedicine drug delivery for tumor therapy. Using the U87 tumor xenograft with abundant blood vessels as the tumor model, tumor perfusion experiments were carried out using laser Doppler imaging and lectin-labeling experiments. A single treatment of captopril at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of functional vessels in tumor tissues and improved tumor blood perfusion. Scanning electron microscopy of tumor vessels also indicated that the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels were enlarged after captopril treatment. Immunofluorescence-staining of tumor slices demonstrated that captopril significantly increased bradykinin expression, possibly explaining tumor perfusion improvements and endothelial gap enlargement. Additionally, imaging in vivo, imaging ex vivo and nanoparticle distribution in tumor slices indicated that after a single treatment with captopril, the accumulation of 115-nm nanoparticles in tumors had increased 2.81-fold with a more homogeneous distribution pattern in comparison to non-captopril treated controls. Finally, pharmacodynamics experiments demonstrated that captopril combined with paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles resulted in the greatest tumor shrinkage and the most extensive necrosis in tumor tissues among all treatment groups. Taken together, the data from the present study suggest a novel strategy for improving tumor perfusion and enlarging blood vessel permeability simultaneously in order to improve

  14. Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor Metastatic to Widely Invasive Hurthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma: A Distinct Tumor-to-Tumor Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolson Kokohaare, Eva; Riva, Francesco M G; Bernstein, Jonathan M; Miah, Aisha B; Thway, Khin

    2018-04-01

    We illustrate a case of synchronous malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the thoracic cavity, and widely invasive thyroid Hurthle cell carcinoma. The Hurthle cell carcinoma was found to harbor distinct areas of malignant solitary fibrous tumor. This is a unique case of tumor-to-tumor metastasis that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported.

  15. Dosimetric analysis of daily use of IGRT in prostate treatment with intensity modulated; Analise dosimetrica da utilizacao diaria de IGRT no tratamento de prostata com intensidade modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrini, E.S.; Silveira, T.B.; Vieira, D.S.; Batista, D.V.S., E-mail: emmilyfisica@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Cancer Jose de Alencar Gomes da Silva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    The main application of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in the cancer prostate treatment is to ensure the delivery of the prescribed dose to the tumor. With the modality cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) prostate, seminal vesicles, bladder and rectum can be previewed before each treatment and the actual dose delivered to these organs can be controlled, through the alignment of patient isocenter. The aim of this study was to analyze the tumor coverage and dose to organs at risk effectively obtained during the patient's treatment. Three patients with prostate cancer were treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) techniques with 74 Gy and 2 Gy per fraction. It was performed daily isocenter location of the prostate with CBCT. A radioncologist drew the clinical target volume (CTV), rectum and bladder in CBCT's and treatment fields were applied retrospectively in each CBCT for dose calculation. For the CTV it was considered the D95 (dose that covers 95% of the volume), for the rectum V50 (volume receiving 50 Gy), V60, V65 and V70 and for bladder V65 and V70. The average D95 of the prostate after the offset was 202 cGy, the V50, V60 and V65 of the rectum for one patient was reduced by 9.6%, 16.6% and 31%, respectively, and V65 of the bladder to another patient was also reduced by 3.5% in IGRT. The results showed that the use of IGRT provided a reduction in the irradiated volume of healthy organs. Thus it is concluded that the use of daily CBCT allows reproducibility of treatment, reducing delayed toxicities and increasing the probability of tumor control. (author)

  16. Rhodium (II) cycle alkanecarboxylate: synthesis, spectroscopic and thermo analytic studies and evaluation of the antitumor potential; Cicloalcanocarboxilatos de rodio(II). Sintese, estudos espectroscopicos, termoanaliticos e avaliacao do potencial antitumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Aparecido Ribeiro de

    1995-07-01

    Four new rhodium(II) carboxylates (cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, and cyclohexanecarboxylate), and other already known rhodium (II) carboxylates (acetate, propionate, butyrate, metoxyacetate, dichloroacetate, and trifluoroacetate), have been prepared for study in this work. The compounds were characterized by elementary and thermogravimetric analysis, magnetic susceptibility, and electronic, Raman, and infrared spectroscopy. The reaction of Rh CL{sub 3}.aq with the sodium carboxylates was studied aiming to improve the understanding of the redox process involved. Spectroscopy studies (Raman and electronic) were made to examine the transition involved in the Rh-Rh and Rh-O bonds. The results have shown a direct relation between the force of the carboxylic acid and the Rh-O force, but show a inverse relation with the Rh-Rh bond force. Thermal analysis studies were undertaken and the obtained date show a resemblance of the TG/DTG curves with that found in literature. In the other hand, the DSC curves show a different results: in open crucible, the peaks associated with the cage breakdown are exothermic and, in closed crucible this peaks are endothermic. The thermodecomposition products were analyzed. The evolved gases were identified by GC?MS and {sup 1}H and {sup 13} C NMR spectra. The residues were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Antitumor activity of rhodium cyclopropanecarboxylate was evaluated in vitro (cell cultures K562 and Ehrlich) and in vivo (Balb-c mice with ascite Ehrlich tumor), indicating an increased life span (87.5%) of the treated animals. (author)

  17. Biological Markers in Pediatric Brain Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. de Bont (Judith Maria)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe most common solid tumors in children are brain tumors1. Yearly, approximately 2-2.5 per 100,000 children of <15 years of age are diagnosed with a brain tumor1. Despite improved survival rates, brain tumors in children are still the second leading cause of death due to cancer in

  18. Malignant mixed mesodermal tumor of the ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, J.R.J.; Wagenaar, S.S.

    Mixed mesenchymal and epithelial tumors are highly malignant neoplasms most commonly found in the uterus. Rarely, histologically identical tumors occur in the ovary. We report a 70-yr-old woman with a malignant mixed Müllerian tumor of the ovary. The tumor contained heterologous foci of immature

  19. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals... § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned... by the size, position, or nature of the tumor, the whole carcass shall be condemned. ...

  20. Tumor suppressor molecules and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Peter J.; Barber, Jack R.

    2004-09-07

    The invention provides substantially pure tumor suppressor nucleic acid molecules and tumor suppressor polypeptides. The invention also provides hairpin ribozymes and antibodies selective for these tumor suppressor molecules. Also provided are methods of detecting a neoplastic cell in a sample using detectable agents specific for the tumor suppressor nucleic acids and polypeptides.

  1. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette, E-mail: Annette.Fisseler-Eckhoff@hsk-wiesbaden.de; Demes, Melanie [Department of Pathology und Cytology, Dr. Horst-Schmidt-Kliniken (HSK), Wiesbaden 65199 (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    Neuroendocrine tumors may develop throughout the human body with the majority being found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are classified according to the grade of biological aggressiveness (G1–G3) and the extent of differentiation (well-differentiated/poorly-differentiated). The well-differentiated neoplasms comprise typical (G1) and atypical (G2) carcinoids. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas as well as small cell carcinomas (G3) are poorly-differentiated. The identification and differentiation of atypical from typical carcinoids or large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell carcinomas is essential for treatment options and prognosis. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are characterized according to the proportion of necrosis, the mitotic activity, palisading, rosette-like structure, trabecular pattern and organoid nesting. The given information about the histopathological assessment, classification, prognosis, genetic aberration as well as treatment options of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are based on own experiences and reviewing the current literature available. Most disagreements among the classification of neuroendocrine tumor entities exist in the identification of typical versus atypical carcinoids, atypical versus large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas versus small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the classification is restricted in terms of limited specificity of immunohistochemical markers and possible artifacts in small biopsies which can be compressed in cytological specimens. Until now, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors have been increasing in incidence. As compared to NSCLCs, only little research has been done with respect to new molecular targets as well as improving the classification and differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.

  2. Pathological classification of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, B

    2012-04-01

    The tumors of the central nervous system are classified according to the last international classification published by World Health Organization. The Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System was done on 2007, based on morphological features, growth pattern and molecular profile of neoplastic cells, defining malignancy grade. The neuropathological diagnosis and the grading of each histotype are based on identification of histopathological criteria and immunohistochemical data. The histopathology, also consisting of findings with prognostic or predictive relevance, plays a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors. The recent progresses on radiological, pathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and genetic diagnosis improved the characterization of brain tumors. Molecular and genetic profiles may identify different tumor subtypes varying in biological and clinical behavior. To investigate new therapeutic approaches is important to study the molecular pathways that lead the processes of proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, anaplastic transformation. Different molecular biomarkers were identified by genetic studies and some of these are used in neuro-oncology for the evaluation of glioma patients, in particular combined deletions of the chromosome arms 1p and 19q in oligodendroglial tumors, methylation status of the O-6 methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase gene promoter and alterations in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in adult malignant gliomas, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 gene mutations in diffuse gliomas, as well as BRAF status in pilocytic astrocytomas. The prognostic evaluation and the therapeutic strategies for patients depend on synthesis of clinical, pathological and biological data: histological diagnosis, malignancy grade, gene-molecular profile, radiological pictures, surgical resection and clinical findings (age, tumor location, "performance status").

  3. Daily quality controls analysis of a CT scanner simulator; Analise dos testes diarios de controle de qualidade de um tomografo simulador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Maira Milanelo; Santos, Gabriela R.; Furnari, Laura, E-mail: maira.vasques@hc.fmusp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing technological developments, radiotherapy practices, which allow for better involvement of the tumor with the required therapeutic dose and minimize the complications of normal tissues, have become reality in several Radiotherapy services. The use of these resources in turn, was only possible due to the progress made in planning based on digital volumetric images of good quality, such as computed tomography (CT), which allow the correct delimitation of the tumor volume and critical structures. Specific tests for quality control in a CT scanner used in radiotherapy, named CT simulator, should be applied as part of the institutional Quality Assurance Program. This study presents the methodology used in the Instituto de Radiologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMUSP) for daily testing of the CT scanner simulator and the results obtained throughout more than two years. The experience gained in the period conducted showed that the tests are easy to perform and can be done in a few minutes by a trained professional. Data analysis showed good reproducibility, which allowed the tests could be performed less frequently, after 16 months of data collection. (author)

  4. Glomus tumor of penis- A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S. Kate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare, painful, and benign soft tissue tumors of the skin arising from the glomus body, an arteriovenous thermoregulatory structure. This lesion is usually found on the extremities. Glomus tumor involving the external genital organs including penis is extremely rare. Until now, only few cases have been reported in the available literature. A 22 year old male patient presented with a painful nodule over the penis. The pathologic diagnosis was glomus tumor of the glans penis. We report herewith a case of glomus tumor of penis diagnosed on histopathologic examination. Glomus tumor, being a benign neoplasm, complete extirpation of the glomus tumor is the treatment of choice.

  5. Perfluorooctyl bromide emulsion contrast agent for tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Yoshio; Ueda, Yasuo; Tanaka, Mikio; Yamanouchi, Kouichi; Yokoyama, Kazumasa

    1985-01-01

    Perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB), a biologically inert radiodense compound, was evaluated as a potential contrast agent for tumors. When 25 w/v% PFOB emulsion was administered intravenously in rats with AH 130 tumor, the tumor became radiopaque using conventional X-rays. Rabbits were implanted into liver with VX 2 carcinoma and were given 10 ml/kg PFOB emulsion intravenously. Computed tomographic scanning of the rabbits showed the dense enhancement of the rim of the tumor. The PFOB contents in the tumor, the tumor-rim and the normal liver tissues were determined by gas chromatography. The differences of PFOB contents in three different locations showed the density of the tumor rim was due to the accumulation of PFOB in the periphery of the tumor. Optical and electron microscopy revealed lots of vaculoes of PFOB particles in macrophages around the tumor. Thus, PFOB emulsion may be useful in detection of tumors. (author)

  6. Real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy for adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Norio; Onimaru, Rikiya; Sakuhara, Yusuke; Abo, Daisuke; Shimizu, Shinichi; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Ishikawa, Masayori; Shirato, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the three-dimensional movement of internal fiducial markers near the adrenal tumors using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system and to examine the feasibility of high-dose hypofractionated radiotherapy for the adrenal tumors. Materials and methods: The subjects considered in this study were 10 markers of the 9 patients treated with RTRT. A total of 72 days in the prone position and 61 treatment days in the supine position for nine of the 10 markers were analyzed. All but one patient were prescribed 48 Gy in eight fractions at the isocenter. Results: The average absolute amplitude of the marker movement in the prone position was 6.1 ± 4.4 mm (range 2.3-14.4), 11.1 ± 7.1 mm (3.5-25.2), and 7.0 ± 3.5 mm (3.9-12.5) in the left-right (LR), craniocaudal (CC), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, respectively. The average absolute amplitude in the supine position was 3.4 ± 2.9 mm (0.6-9.1), 9.9 ± 9.8 mm (1.1-27.1), and 5.4 ± 5.2 mm (1.7-26.6) in the LR, CC, and AP directions, respectively. Of the eight markers, which were examined in both the prone and supine positions, there was no significant difference in the average absolute amplitude between the two positions. No symptomatic adverse effects were observed within the median follow-up period of 16 months (range 5-21 months). The actuarial freedom-from-local-progression rate was 100% at 12 months. Conclusions: Three-dimensional motion of a fiducial marker near the adrenal tumors was detected. Hypofractionated RTRT for adrenal tumors was feasible for patients with metastatic tumors

  7. Tumor to tumor metastasis: Adenocarcinoma of lung metastatic to meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Talukdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-to-tumor metastasis (T2Tmets is an established entity but often overlooked and underdiagnosed. Merely 84 such cases are reported in literature till date. The authors here describe a 65-year-old man presenting with first episode of focal seizure and incidentally turned out to be a case of adenocarcinoma of lung metastatic to a meningioma. The diagnosis of T2Tmets was based solely on histopathological criteria. Recent advent of brain imaging revolutionized its diagnosis and it has moved from the realm of thologists to that of radiologists. In our case, diagnosis was also established by immunohistochemistry.

  8. Recurrence of Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor: A Rare Pancreatic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Punch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP is a rare disease of young females that does not usually recur after resection. Here we report a case of an elderly female with history of SPTP ten years ago who presented with anorexia and a palpable left lower quadrant abdominal mass. Imaging revealed metastatic disease and US-guided biopsy of the liver confirmed the diagnosis of SPTP. Due to her advanced age and comorbidities, she elected to undergo hospice care. The objective of this case report is to increase awareness of this tumor and its possibility of recurrence, necessitating further guidelines for follow-up.

  9. Tumores do plexo coróideo Choroid plexus tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERALDO PIANETTI

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available É feita análise estatística, semiológica, terapêutica e da evolução de 15 crianças portadoras de tumor do plexo coróideo, tratadas cirurgicamente no Serviço de Neuropediatria dos Hospitais das Clínicas (UFMG e São Francisco de Assis, num período de 15 anos (1981 a 1996. A idade variou de quatro meses a 16 anos, com média de três anos e seis meses, dez tinham menos de dois anos; nove eram do sexo feminino; 14 tinham sinais de hipertensão intracraniana; em todas elas a presença do tumor foi confirmada pelo estudo com tomografia computadorizada; em oito crianças o tumor estava localizado em um ventrículo lateral. Das 15 crianças, 11 necessitaram de derivação ventrículo-peritoneal; a exerese radical do tumor foi possível em 13 das 14 crianças operadas. O diagnóstico anátomo-patológico foi papiloma em 12 crianças e carcinoma nas outras duas. Duas crianças faleceram, uma no sétimo dia de pós-operatório e a outra 12 meses após, com metástases disseminadas pelo sistema nervoso central. É feita revisão da literatura pertinente e dados são comparados.This analysis comprises 15 children under 16 years of age, with choroid plexus tumors, seen in the Service of Paediatric Neurosurgery, Hospital das Clínicas and Hospital São Francisco de Assis in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, between 1981 and 1996. The patients were aged between 4 months and 16 years (average of 3 years and a half; 10 were less than 2 years, 9 were female; 14 children had clinical evidence of intracranial hypertension. All the children underwent CT scan and the choroid plexus tumors were clearly demonstrated in 14 of then. In 8 children the tumors were located in one lateral ventricle, 5 in the fourth ventricle and 2 had the tumors in more than one ventricle, 11 children required ventriculo-peritoneal shunt; 14 cases were operated on, 13 with total excision; 2 children died, respectively 7 days and one year after the surgery. Pathological examination revealed

  10. Intrarenal neuroblastoma mimics Wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, Maria T. Cartaxo; Soares, Andrezza B.; Freitas, Elizabete M.; Araujo, Marcela; Pureza, Leda M.M.; Morais, Adriana; Antunes, Consuelo; Salles, Terezinha de J. Marques; Borges, Josenilda C.; Morais, Vera L.L. de; Romualdo Filho, Jose; Magalhaes, Mario H.

    2005-01-01

    This work reports the case history of a child with intrarenal neuroblastoma, initially diagnosed as Wilms' tumor. The patient, a one year and three months old girl, presented a hard abdominal mass on the left flank that extended to the meso gastric region, plus fever and paleness. The ultrasound of the entire abdomen revealed an intrarenal mass. Biopsy with fine needle in many points of the tumor revealed Wilms' tumor. The scarcely of the material, however, made immunohistoquemistry impossible at that moment. Because of the child's severe condition the SIOP protocol was started. As no clinical response was observed, an exploratory laparotomy was indicated with partial resection of the tumor and bone marrow aspiration (MO). The histopathologic study revealed a malignant neoplasia of small cells, poorly differentiated. IHQ was negative for WT-1 and positive for NB-84, synaptofisin, cromogranine. N-myc amplification was observed by molecular biology. The bone marrow aspiration identified metastatic small round cells infiltration. Intrarenal neuroblastoma is a rare entity that clinically and radiographically resembles Wilms' tumor. The objective of this case report is to show the importance of immunohistochemical and molecular analysis in the diagnosis of intrarenal neuroblastoma. (author)

  11. General aspects of sacrococcygeal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera Betancourt, Gretel; Hernández González, Erick Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Background: tumors arising from sacrococcygeal region are weird and represent from one to seven percent of primary spinal tumors. However diagnosis and treatment are a challenge for the surgical staff because of the anatomic relations complexity and the more frequent lesions biological features. Objective: a review of the literature was done to update and systematize the knowledge about general aspects of sacrococcygeal tumors. Development: they are more frequent in male young adults, unspecific low back pain is the onset symptom and muscle weakness, sense deficit and sphincter disturbances join up later progressively. They can be epidural or intradural, primary or secondary, neoplastics or not and they could arise from soft tissues or bone structure. Age and location most be considered to evaluate malignant potential. CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging are the confirmatory tests and allow surgical approach selection. The most frequent affections are chordoma, aneurismal bone cyst and giant cell tumor. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy can support surgery according to histology. Conclusions: precocious diagnosis needs to be suspected before unspecific symptoms. Sacrococcygeal tumors treatment most be multidisciplinary and multimodal to assure better prognosis and patient´s life expectancy increasing. (author)

  12. Tumor of the gastrointestinal stroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Leon, Jorge Felipe; Silveira Pablos, Juan Mario; Figueroa, Alejandro Joan; Fuente Pelaez, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    The tumors of the gastrointestinal stroma, known in English language as GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors) are mesenchymal tumors appearing in any place throughout the intestinal tract. The objective of present paper is to present the case of a female patient aged 60 came to Gynecology consultation of the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology due pain in epigastrium irradiating to right flank with increase of volume in the right iliac fossa and by ultrasonography it is a tumor of right ovary projecting to epigastrium and the right hypochondrium. The surgical intervention is described as well as the findings noted in macro- and microscopic studies, as well ass in latter studies by immunohistochemistry of lesion. We conclude with a diagnosis of tumor of gastrointestinal stroma and the results of performed surgical and drugs interventions. It is recommended to assess the significance of a close relationship among general surgeons and gynecologists in face of unexpected diseases due to its difficult preoperative diagnosis leading to a appropriate surgical treatment due to its complexity it is necessary the competence of both surgical specialties

  13. Awake craniotomy for tumor resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadali Attari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of brain tumors, especially those located in the eloquent areas such as anterior temporal, frontal lobes, language, memory areas, and near the motor cortex causes high risk of eloquent impairment. Awake craniotomy displays major rule for maximum resection of the tumor with minimum functional impairment of the Central Nervous System. These case reports discuss the use of awake craniotomy during the brain surgery in Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A 56-year-old woman with left-sided body hypoesthesia since last 3 months and a 25-year-old with severe headache of 1 month duration were operated under craniotomy for brain tumors resection. An awake craniotomy was planned to allow maximum tumor intraoperative testing for resection and neurologic morbidity avoidance. The method of anesthesia should offer sufficient analgesia, hemodynamic stability, sedation, respiratory function, and also awake and cooperative patient for different neurological test. Airway management is the most important part of anesthesia during awake craniotomy. Tumor surgery with awake craniotomy is a safe technique that allows maximal resection of lesions in close relationship to eloquent cortex and has a low risk of neurological deficit.

  14. Cryo-ablation improves anti-tumor immunity through recovering tumor educated dendritic cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Zheng; Wang, Qi-Fu; Han, Shuai; Wang, Hui-Qing; Ye, Yong-Yi; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Shi-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In addition to minimally invasive destruction of tumors, cryo-ablation of tumors to some extent modulated anti-tumor immunity. Cryo-ablated tumors in glioma mice models induced anti-tumor cellular immunologic response which increases the percentage of CD3(+) and CD4(+)T cells in blood as well as natural killer cells. As a crucial role in triggering anti-tumor immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) were educated by tumors to adopt a tolerance phenotype which helps the tumor escape from immune monitoring. This study aims to study whether cryo-ablation could influence the tolerogenic DCs, and influence anti-tumor immunity in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs). Using the GL261 subcutaneous glioma mouse model, we created a tumor bearing group, cryo-ablation group, and surgery group. We analyzed alteration in phenotype and function of tolerogenic DCs, and evaluated the factors of anti-tumor immunity inhibition. DCs in TDLNs in GL261 subcutaneous glioma mouse model expressed tolerogenic phenotype. In contrast to surgery, cryo-ablation improved the quantity and quality of these tolerogenic DCs. Moreover, the DCs decreased the expression of intracellular interleukin-10 (IL-10) and extra-cellular IL-10. In vitro, DCs from the cryo-ablation group recovered their specific function and induced potent anti-tumor immunity through triggering T cells. In vivo, cryo-ablation showed weak anti-tumor immunity, only inhibiting the growth of rechallenged tumors. But many IL-10-low DCs, rather than IL-10-high DCs, infiltrated the tumors. More importantly, Tregs inhibited the performance of these DCs; and depletion of Tregs greatly improved anti-tumor immunity in vivo. Cryo-ablation could recover function of tumor induced tolerogenic DCs in vitro; and depletion of Tregs could improve this anti-tumor effect in vivo. The Tregs/CD4(+)T and Tregs/CD25(+)T cells in TDLNs inhibit DCs' activity and function.

  15. Phyllodes Tumor in a Lactating Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Sudha S.; Raju, K. V. V. N.; Nair, Haripreetha G.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is attributed to a small fraction of primary tumors of the breast. Such tumors occur rarely in pregnancy and lactation. We report a case of a 25-year-old lactating mother presenting with a lump in the left breast. Core needle biopsy was opined as phyllodes tumor with lactational changes, and subsequent wide local excision confirmed the diagnosis of benign phyllodes tumor with lactational changes. The characteristic gross and microscopic findings of a well-circumscribed lesion ...

  16. Bone tumors in R30 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic and histologic findings from a mid-level group (38 dogs) of radium toxicity dogs showed 49 primary bone tumors with a high frequency of tumors within the axial skeleton. Additional primary bone tumors, bone tumors metastatic to bone, soft tissue metastases, and lung metastases were detected. No bone tumors were identified in 3 dogs. Lesions described as radiation osteodystrophy were found in all but 2 dogs

  17. Askin's Tumor: A Dual Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Shrestha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Askin's tumor is a rare tumor arising from the chest wall. It is a subset of Ewing sarcoma characterized histologically by the presence of small round blue cells. It is a highly malignant tumor with guarded prognosis, which is dependent upon the extension of tumor at the time of diagnosis. A dual paper of Askin's tumors in young boys is being presented here.

  18. Value of diffusion weighted MRI in differentiating benign from malignant bony tumors and tumor like lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Zaki Kotb

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: DWI has been proven to be highly useful in the differentiation of benign, malignant bone tumors and tumor like bony lesions. Measurement of ADC values improves the accuracy of the diagnosis of bone tumors and tumor like lesions. Moreover, measurement of ADC values can be used in the follow up of tumors and their response to therapy.

  19. A review on tumor immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lalitha Kaja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of immune system to detect and destroy the altered/abnormal cells may inhibit the development of various cancers. The immune system had been proposed as a tactic in sustaining nonneoplastic state and also for the development of immunotherapy against cancer. Although the immune system exerts a protective role, under certain circumstances, it could be damaging in terms of modulating the oncogenic process. The failure of host's immunological responses against tumor growth and dissemination implicated that both immunologic and nonimmunologic factors may work together to affect tumorigenesis. Hence, understanding the aspects pertaining to tumor immunology which deals with the complex interactions between the host's immune system and neoplasm is essential. The current review focuses on the aspects concerned with tumor immunology, steps involved, and cancer immunotherapy as a probable therapeutic tool.

  20. Radiation therapy for digestive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Levy, E.; Thirion, P.; Martin, L.; Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    This brief review of radiation therapy of digestive tumors in 1994 seeks to provide practical answers to the most commonly asked questions: What is the place of radiation therapy versus chemotherapy for the treatment of these patients ? What are the approved indications of radiation therapy and which avenues of research are being explored ? Radiation therapy is used in over two-thirds of patients referred to an oncology department for a gastrointestinal tract tumor. The main indications are reviewed: cancer of the rectum and anal canal and, to a lesser extent, cancer of the esophagus and pancreas. The main focuses of current research include radiation therapy-chemotherapy combinations, intraoperative radiation therapy, and radiation therapy of hepatobiliary tumors. (authors). 23 refs., 1 fig

  1. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vikash

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs are malignant proliferations of small, undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells occurring mainly in children and share the same reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 11 and 22 and the same patterns of biochemical and oncogene expression as osseus and extraosseus Ewing′s sarcoma. Some PNETs occur in the brain, while others (the peripheral PNETs occur in sites outside the brain, such as in the extremities, pelvis and the chest wall. They mostly originate in the chest, pelvis and retroperitoneum; in rare cases, occurrence in the head and neck area has also been seen. We present a rare case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in the prostate gland in a 25-year-old male. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a primary peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the prostate gland of any patient from India and rarely reported in English literature.

  2. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekov, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  3. Glomus Tumor of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGlomus tumors were first described by Wood in 1812 as painful subcutaneous tubercles. It is an uncommon benign neoplasm involving the glomus body, an apparatus that involves in thermoregulation of cutaneous microvasculature. Glomus tumor constitutes 1%-5% of all hand tumors. It usually occurs at the subungual region and more commonly in aged women. Its classical clinical triad consists of pain, tenderness and temperature intolerance, especially cold sensitivity. This study reviews 15 cases of glomus tumor which were analyzed according to its anatomic location, surgical approach and histologic findings.MethodsFifteen patients with subungual glomus tumors of the hand operated on between January 2006 and March 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated preoperatively with standard physical examination including ice cube test and Love's test. Diagnostic imaging consisted of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. All procedures were performed with tourniquet control under local anesthesia. Eleven patients underwent excision using the transungual approach, 3 patients using the volar approach and 1 patient using the lateral subperiosteal approach.ResultsTotal of 15 cases were reviewed. 11 tumors were located in the nail bed, 3 in the volar pulp and 1 in the radial aspect of the finger tip. After complete excision, patients remained asymptomatic in the immediate postoperative period. In the long term follow up, patients exhibited excellent cosmetic results with no recurrence.ConclusionsAccurate diagnosis should be made by physical, radiologic and pathologic examinations. Preoperative localization and complete extirpation is essential in preventing recurrence and subsequent nail deformity.

  4. Analysis of imaging findings and clinical abnormalities in patients with lymphoma; Analise de achados de imagem e alteracoes clinicas em pacientes com linfoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Flavio Augusto Ataliba; Montomiya, Carolina Tsumori [Faculdade de Medicina de Marilia, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: flavio_caldas@hotmail.com; Silva, Helena Cristina da [Faculdade de Medicina de Marilia, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas

    2002-04-01

    Computed tomography is currently the method of choice for the diagnostic and staging of lymphomas. Computed tomography enables accurate measurements of both tumor extent and volume and provides information that can be used to plan an appropriate strategy for the treatment. The purpose of the present article is to describe and analyze the chest and abdomen computed tomography and ultrasound findings in HIV-negative patients with lymphoma. Clinical abnormalities, such as the reason the patient sought medical assistance already showing evidence of lymphocytic disease (not yet diagnosed at this point) and the physical examination abnormalities seen on the first consultation were also studied. This study comprised 30 patients: 40% with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 46,6% with Hodgkin lymphoma, 10% with Burkitt's lymphoma and 3,3% with lymphoblastic lymphoma. (author)

  5. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Altehoefer, Carsten; Winterer, Jan; Schaefer, Oliver; Springer, Oliver; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Furtwaengler, Alex

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST ( 5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography is useful in detection and characterization of primary and recurrent tumors with regard to tumor growth pattern, tumor size, and varied appearances of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and indirectly

  6. Tumores de los conductos biliares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Triana Cortés

    1955-02-01

    Los tumores benignos de los conductos biliares son relativamente raros. Christopher, que ha revisado recientemente este asunto, sólo pudo encontrar cuarenta y un casos publicados. Los papilomas parecen los más frecuentes, pero se les encuentra con menor frecuencia en los conductos que en la vesícula. Los adenomas son también tumores benignos de los más frecuentes en los conductos; en general, son múltiples y quísticos, y en algunos casos parecen derivar del epitelio de los conductos.

  7. Self-scaling tumor growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegel, Jürgen

    We study the statistical properties of the star-shaped approximation of in vitro tumor profiles. The emphasis is on the two-point correlation structure of the radii of the tumor as a function of time and angle. In particular, we show that spatial two-point correlators follow a cosine law....... Furthermore, we observe self-scaling behaviour of two-point correlators of different orders, i.e. correlators of a given order are a power law of the correlators of some other order. This power-law dependence is similar to what has been observed for the statistics of the energy-dissipation in a turbulent flow...

  8. Nonenhancing spinal subdural metastatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirakov, S.; Penev, L.; Georgieva-Kozarova, G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: We describe a case of a spinal subdural metastatic tumor that became rapidly symptomatic after a minor trauma, as a result of severe cord compression and cord haemorrhage. Spinal subdural hematomas are most commonly caused by anticoagulant therapy, lumbar puncture, blood dyscrasias, spinal trauma, or spinal vascular malformations. Subdural metastatic tumors are very uncommon, and their presentation as spinal subdural hematomas is exceedingly rare. We describe a case of 59 years old woman with quadriparesis and her preoperative findings on MRI and the follow up

  9. Ossifying renal tumor of infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Husseini, Tareq K.; Al-Orf, Ali M.; Egail, Siddig A.; Mostert, C.

    2005-01-01

    Ossifying renal tumor of infancy ORTI is a benign neoplasm, which presents with gross hematuria and less frequently as an abdominal mass, histologically it comprises a large cell with an epithelial nature and osteoid formation. We report a case of a 10-month-old girl who developed ORTI as non-opacified upper calyces of left kidney on excretory urography. We outlined the calcific and tumors nature of the lesion by ultrasound and computed tomography. The macroscopic and histological features were pathognomonic. (author)

  10. Maintaining Tumor Heterogeneity in Patient-Derived Tumor Xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, John W; Caldas, Carlos; Bruna, Alejandra

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical models often fail to capture the diverse heterogeneity of human malignancies and as such lack clinical predictive power. Patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDX) have emerged as a powerful technology: capable of retaining the molecular heterogeneity of their originating sample. However, heterogeneity within a tumor is governed by both cell-autonomous (e.g., genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity) and non-cell-autonomous (e.g., stromal heterogeneity) drivers. Although PDXs can largely recapitulate the polygenomic architecture of human tumors, they do not fully account for heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment. Hence, these models have substantial utility in basic and translational research in cancer biology; however, study of stromal or immune drivers of malignant progression may be limited. Similarly, PDX models offer the ability to conduct patient-specific in vivo and ex vivo drug screens, but stromal contributions to treatment responses may be under-represented. This review discusses the sources and consequences of intratumor heterogeneity and how these are recapitulated in the PDX model. Limitations of the current generation of PDXs are discussed and strategies to improve several aspects of the model with respect to preserving heterogeneity are proposed. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Karcinoide tumorer og gobletcelle-karcinoide tumorer i appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnaes

    2010-01-01

    Appendiceial carcinoid tumors (CAT) and goblet cell carcinoids (GCCAT) are rare. Most are asymptomatic and found after appendectomy. Metastases to regional nodes are seen in 10% of CATs larger than two cm. Ovarian or peritoneal metastases are seen in 20% of all GCCATs. Further surgical treatments...

  12. Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kris Ann P; Harris, Anne K; Schneider, Dominik T; Young, Robert H; Brown, Jubilee; Gershenson, David M; Dehner, Louis P; Hill, D Ashley; Messinger, Yoav H; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2016-10-01

    Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are clinically significant heterogeneous tumors that include several pathologic types. These tumors are often found in adolescents and young adults and can present with hormonal manifestations as well as signs and symptoms of a pelvic mass. Serum tumor markers may assist in preoperative diagnosis and surveillance. Several subtypes are associated with genetic predisposition, including those observed in patients with Peutz-Jegher syndrome. Recent studies have elucidated the relationship between Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors and DICER1 mutations. When classified as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage Ia, most subtypes may be treated with surgery alone. Higher stage or recurrent tumors have variable prognoses that range from a usually rapid course in poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor to an often prolonged course in adult granulosa cell tumors. New understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors may pave the way for novel therapeutics.

  13. Tumor-reactive immune cells protect against metastatic tumor and induce immunoediting of indolent but not quiescent tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Kyle K; Keim, Rebecca C; Graham, Laura; Idowu, Michael O; Wan, Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Toor, Amir A; Bear, Harry D; Manjili, Masoud H

    2016-09-01

    Two major barriers to cancer immunotherapy include tumor-induced immune suppression mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells and poor immunogenicity of the tumor-expressing self-antigens. To overcome these barriers, we reprogrammed tumor-immune cell cross-talk by combined use of decitabine and adoptive immunotherapy, containing tumor-sensitized T cells and CD25(+) NKT cells. Decitabine functioned to induce the expression of highly immunogenic cancer testis antigens in the tumor, while also reducing the frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and the presence of CD25(+) NKT cells rendered T cells, resistant to remaining myeloid-derived suppressor cells. This combinatorial therapy significantly prolonged survival of animals bearing metastatic tumor cells. Adoptive immunotherapy also induced tumor immunoediting, resulting in tumor escape and associated disease-related mortality. To identify a tumor target that is incapable of escape from the immune response, we used dormant tumor cells. We used Adriamycin chemotherapy or radiation therapy, which simultaneously induce tumor cell death and tumor dormancy. Resultant dormant cells became refractory to additional doses of Adriamycin or radiation therapy, but they remained sensitive to tumor-reactive immune cells. Importantly, we discovered that dormant tumor cells contained indolent cells that expressed low levels of Ki67 and quiescent cells that were Ki67 negative. Whereas the former were prone to tumor immunoediting and escape, the latter did not demonstrate immunoediting. Our results suggest that immunotherapy could be highly effective against quiescent dormant tumor cells. The challenge is to develop combinatorial therapies that could establish a quiescent type of tumor dormancy, which would be the best target for immunotherapy. © The Author(s).

  14. Fever and abdominal tumoral masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin C. Dima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 49 year-old man presented to our clinic for pain in the right hypochondrium, diarrhea, and fever. The clinical examination highlights a tumoral formation in the right side of the abdomen, with firm consistency, poorly defined margins, and present mobility in the deep structures. On biological exams, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, inflammatory syndrome, and hypoalbuminaemia were identified. The first computed tomography exam described parietal thickening of the ascending colon, with infiltrative aspect, and multiple local adenopathies, lomboaortic and interaortocave. Moreover, four nodular liver tumors, with hypodense image in native examination, were identified. The lab tests for infectious diseases were all inconclusives: three hemocultures, three stool samples, and three coproparasitological exams were all negatives. Interdisciplinary examinations, internal medicine and infectious diseases, sustained the diagnosis of colonic neoplasm with peritumoral abscess and liver pseudo-tumoral masses. The colonoscopy did not revealed any bowel lesions relevant for neoplasia. This result as well as the bio-clinical context imposed abstention from surgical intervention. Wide spectrum antibiotics and symptomatic treatment were initiated. But, ten days after hospitalization, the second computed tomography exam showed reduction of the ascending colon wall thickness associated with significant increases of the liver tumors is so revealed. The investigations for other possible etiologies were so continued.

  15. Phyllodes tumor of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubells, M.; Uixera, I.; Miranda, V.; Gil de Ramales, V.; Bulto, J. A.; Mendez, M.; Morcillo, E.

    1999-01-01

    To study the phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnosed in our hospital, assessing the clinical, mammographic, ultrasonographic and color Doppler ultrasound findings. A retrospective study was carried out of 20 histologically diagnosed cases of phyllodes tumor of the breast over a 20-year period, taking into account patient age, clinical signs, mammographic and ultrasonographic findings, surgical treatment and recurrences. The clinical presentation was that of a palpable, usually painless, mass with a firm, elastic consistency. Mammographic images showed a lesion of homogeneous density and well-defined, round or lobulated margins. Two tumors contained large calcifications associated with previous fibroadenoma. Ultrasound revealed a slightly enhanced solid nodule of homogeneous echogenicity. Color Doppler ultrasound disclosed the presence of hypervascularization. The lesions were treated by surgical enucleation with follow-up examination every 6 months. Recurrences were treated by radical mastectomy. The phyllodes tumor of the breast is difficult to diagnose because of its similarity to the fibroadenoma. However, it should be suspected in the presence of a late-developing, rapidly growing mass. Mammography and breast ultrasound are of diagnostic utility, but the definitive diagnosis requires biopsy. (Author) 12 refs

  16. Desmoid Tumor of the Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerleman, Roxana; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2015-01-01

    Desmoid tumors, also known as desmoid-type fibromatoses or aggressive fibromatoses, are clonal fibroblastic proliferations that arise in the deep soft tissues. They are characterized by infiltrative growth, a tendency toward local recurrence and the inability to metastasize. We present a case of ...

  17. Carcinoid Tumor: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serotonin is made and is also a useful marker sometimes. Carcinoid Heart Disease How do carcinoids in the liver affect heart ... many cases it can be supplemented by other markers which should have been ... heart disease in patients with functioning tumors.In other neuroendocrine ...

  18. TUMORES CEREBRALES ASOCIADOS A EPILEPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Manuel G. Campos

    2017-05-01

    La Resonancia Magnética de cerebro es mandatoria en el estudio de todo paciente con epilepsia, para detectar lesiones estructurales, especialmente en epilepsia focal. Alrededor del 30% de los pacientes operados de epilepsia refractaria presentan tumores. En estos casos el control de crisis post-operatorio llega hasta un 70% en el seguimiento a largo plazo.

  19. Enhancing Tumor Penetration of Nanomedicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Qingxue; Ojha, Tarun; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan; Shi, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-targeted nanomedicines have been extensively applied to alter the drawbacks and enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. Despite the large number of preclinical nanomedicine studies showing initial success, their therapeutic benefit in the clinic has been rather modest, which is partially

  20. A case of mediastinum tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guariglia, S.N.; Schultz, R.; Funari, M.B.G.; Menezes Neto, J.R. de

    1989-01-01

    A patient with a tumor in the anterior mediastinum is presented. The patient ununderswent chest X-ray studies and thorax CT which demonstrated a large mass involving the heart and compressing the lungs. A malignant teratoma was eventually diagnosed by anatomopathologic examination. (author) [pt

  1. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-03-14

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs.

  2. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  3. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-02-11

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  4. Treatment Options for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and interleukin-2 (IL-2) are types of biologic therapy used to treat childhood renal cell cancer . Interferon affects the division of cancer cells and ... Tumors Renal Cell Cancer (RCC) Treatment of renal cell cancer usually ... nodes. Biologic therapy ( interferon and interleukin-2 ) for cancer that ...

  5. Pediatric liver tumors - a pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Priyanka; Tavri, Sidhartha; Patel, Chirag; Gooding, Charles; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Chawla, Soni C.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic masses constitute about 5-6% of all intra-abdominal masses in children. The majority of liver tumors in children are malignant; these malignant liver tumors constitute the third most common intra-abdominal malignancy in the pediatric age group after Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma. Only about one third of the liver tumors are benign. A differential diagnosis of liver tumors in children can be obtained based on the age of the child, clinical information (in particular AFP) and imaging characteristics. The purpose of this review is to report typical clinical and imaging characteristics of benign and malignant primary liver tumors in children. (orig.)

  6. Pediatric brain tumors; Kindliche Hirntumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Bodea, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Muehl-Benninghaus, R.

    2017-09-15

    Brain tumors differ between children and adults both in histology and localization. Malignant gliomas and meningiomas predominate in adults while medulloblastomas and low-grade astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumors in children. More than one half (50-70%) of pediatric brain tumors have an infratentorial location but only approximately 30% in adults. Brain tumors can be recognized in sonography, cranial computed tomography (CCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by their space-consuming character and by their divergent density and intensity in comparison to normal brain parenchyma. They can grow extrusively, even infiltrate the parenchyma or originate from it. Besides clinical symptoms and diagnostics this article describes the most common pediatric brain tumors, i.e. astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, brainstem glioma, craniopharyngioma, neurofibromatosis and ganglioglioma. The most important imaging criteria are outlined. (orig.) [German] Sowohl Histologie als auch Lokalisation von Hirntumoren unterscheiden sich bei Kindern und Erwachsenen. Waehrend maligne Gliome und Meningeome bei Erwachsenen vorherrschen, kommen bei Kindern ueberwiegend Medulloblastome und niedriggradige Astrozytome vor. Mehr als die Haelfte (50-70 %) aller kindlichen Hirntumoren sind infratentoriell lokalisiert, dagegen sind es bei Erwachsenen nur etwa 30 %. Im Ultraschall, in der kranialen CT (CCT) oder MRT koennen Hirntumoren durch ihren raumfordernden Charakter und ihrer zum normalen Parenchym abweichenden Dichte oder Signalintensitaet erkannt werden. Sie koennen verdraengend wachsen, z. T. auch das Parenchym infiltrieren oder von diesem ausgehen. Neben der klinischen Symptomatik und Diagnostik werden im vorliegenden Artikel die haeufigsten kindlichen Hirntumoren, das Astrozytom, Medulloblastom, Hirnstammgliom, Kraniopharyngeom, die Neurofibromatose und das Gangliogliom beschrieben. Die wichtigsten bildgebende Kriterien werden dargestellt. (orig.)

  7. CT diagnosis of sacral bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Zhaomin; Jin Zhonggao; Zhu Yaoming; Wu Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT characteristics of sacral bone tumors. Methods: The CT characteristics of 28 cases with sacral bone tumors were retrospectively analyzed, including 13 cases metastasizes, 4 cases chordomas, 1 case chondrosarcoma, 1 case primitive neurotodemal tumors (PNET), 3 cases osteoblastomas, 1 case osteosarcoma, 2 cases neurilemmomas, 3 cases cysts (1 case of simple bone cyst and 2 cases of intracranial arachnoid cysts). Results: The CT characteristics of sacral bone tumors were as followings: different ranges and location of tumor, sacral bone destruction (lytic destruction for most malignant tumors and expansive for benign tumors), the remains of bone, soft tissue mass, calcification in tumor, sacral canal and sacral foramen obstruction. Benign tumors were often with sharp margin and sclerotic borders (except osteoblastomas), and the malignant tumors were often without clear verge and sclerotic borders. Except the cystic diseases, all the others were enhanced variously after contrast enhanced scanning. Conclusion: CT imaging can clearly display the location, ranges of tumor and the relation between tumor and surrounding tissues. Most sacral bone tumors can be correctly diagnosed in pre-operation according to their different CT characteristics. (authors)

  8. Tumor sialylation impedes T cell mediated anti-tumor responses while promoting tumor associated-regulatory T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdicchio, Maurizio; Cornelissen, Lenneke A. M.; Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Engels, Steef; Verstege, Marleen I.; Boon, Louis; Geerts, Dirk; van Kooyk, Yvette; Unger, Wendy W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The increased presence of sialylated glycans on the tumor surface has been linked to poor prognosis, yet the effects on tumor-specific T cell immunity are hardly studied. We here show that hypersialylation of B16 melanoma substantially influences tumor growth by preventing the formation of effector

  9. Tumor marker CA-125 in adnexal inflammatory tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Branka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The glycoprotein of a high molecular weight CA-125, which is not a specific tumor marker of ovarian cancer, is secreted by the endothelial cells of most pelvic organs. Endometriosis, inflammatory processes in the pelvic cavity, as well as some nongynecoligical malignant diseases, could be followed by the increased values of CA-125. Serial assessment of the values of CA- 125 makes it possible to avoid surgical treatment, and, by means of the used conservative treatment, to avoid malignant diseases not to be noticed. Methods. The study included 57 female patients hospitalized due to inflammable adnexal tumors. Besides following the values of serum CA-125 during and after the therapy, also performed were the transvaginal Doppler ultrasonography and the determination of the values of resistance index (RI. Results. In 27 patients (55.1% the CA-125 values ranged from 38.8 U/ml to 794 U/ml, while in 30 of the patients they were within the range of normal. In this group of the patients, besides the increased values of CA- 125, also increased were the values of leucocytes (119/l − 209/l, as well as the sedimentation rates (65−120 within the first hour. In all the 57 patients, transvaginal Doppler ultrasonography revealed the presence of adnexal tumor of inflammatory kind. The measured values of RI were within the range of 0.539−0.681. Eight of the patients were treated by the conservative - triple antibiotic therapy, while in 49 patients explorative laparotomy was performed. Hystorectomy was done in 12 of the patients, and one-side adnexectomy in 37 of them. Conclusion. The method for the assessment of CA-125 is simple and available which facilitates the monitoring of surgical, conservative or the combined therapy that is particularly significant in younger patients with inflammable adnexal tumor developed on the basis of endometrosis.

  10. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor | Orakwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many reports of this rare group of tumors in the Western and Asian regions. The only report around our sub‑region is a post mortem report of an atypical variant. We wish to report a case of the typical variant and increase our index of suspicion. A 25‑year‑old male presented with a 4 years history of cough and ...

  11. Radiopharmaceuticals and tumor detection. [Evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals for tumor scintiscanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, A.N.; Atkins, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    A number of radiopharmaceuticals are evaluated as to their usefulness for the reliable localization of malignant tumors by radioisotope scanning. Compounds discussed include /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine, /sup 32/P-phosphate, /sup 99m/Tc-phosphate, /sup 67/Ga-citrate, and /sup 111/In-bleomycin. It is pointed out that no ideal agent has yet been found and that considerable difficulties exist in comparing one clinical series with another. (CH)

  12. Odontogenic tumors: where are we in 2017 ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Wright

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Odontogenic tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions of diverse clinical behavior and histopathologic types, ranging from hamartomatous lesions to malignancy. Because odontogenic tumors arise from the tissues which make our teeth, they are unique to the jaws, and by extension almost unique to dentistry. Odontogenic tumors, as in normal odontogenesis, are capable of inductive interactions between odontogenic ectomesenchyme and epithelium, and the classification of odontogenic tumors is essentially based on this interaction. The last update of these tumors was published in early 2017. According to this classification, benign odontogenic tumors are classified as follows: Epithelial, mesenchymal (ectomesenchymal, or mixed depending on which component of the tooth germ gives rise to the neoplasm. Malignant odontogenic tumors are quite rare and named similarly according to whether the epithelial or mesenchymal or both components is malignant. The goal of this review is to discuss the updated changes to odontogenic tumors and to review the more common types with clinical and radiological illustrations.

  13. Biological stoichiometry in tumor micro-environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kareva

    Full Text Available Tumors can be viewed as evolving ecological systems, in which heterogeneous populations of cancer cells compete with each other and somatic cells for space and nutrients within the ecosystem of the human body. According to the growth rate hypothesis (GRH, increased phosphorus availability in an ecosystem, such as the tumor micro-environment, may promote selection within the tumor for a more proliferative and thus potentially more malignant phenotype. The applicability of the GRH to tumor growth is evaluated using a mathematical model, which suggests that limiting phosphorus availability might promote intercellular competition within a tumor, and thereby delay disease progression. It is also shown that a tumor can respond differently to changes in its micro-environment depending on the initial distribution of clones within the tumor, regardless of its initial size. This suggests that composition of the tumor as a whole needs to be evaluated in order to maximize the efficacy of therapy.

  14. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  15. Brachytherapy in cutaneous periocular tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petriz, L.; Sole, J.M.; Cinos, C.; Gutierrez, Bayard L.; Gutierrez, Miguelez C.; Rodriguez, D.

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous tumors are treated surgically or with radiotherapy. Similar local control and disease-free survival are been reported using the two arms mentioned. In cutaneous periocular tumors, surgery represents an anatomical and irreversible deformity in contrast from radiation therapy that preserves anatomical sites MATERIAL AND METHODS: From June 1993 to December 1995, 6 patients with cutaneous periocular tumors (1 dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 1 squamous carcinoma and 4 basal cell carcinoma) have been treated with radical brachytherapy in CSUB. This tumors were located in epicantus (3 cases), superior eyelid (1 case) and free bord of inferior eyelid (2 cases). The technique used consists in interstitial application of plastic tubs and manual loading with iridium-192. Two wires were used in eyelid lesions (3 cases) and 3 wires when lesion was located in epicantus (except one patient who needed 11). Four patients received brachytherapy for primary tumors and two patients for local relapse after surgical management who previously had been treated with electron beam (42 Gy and 60 Gy with lent protection). Doses were especified to 85% isodoses (Paris system) except one case (isodose 70%) and they were 60 Gy (one patient) and 65 Gy (five patients). Lineal activity ranged from 5.21 to 7.99 cGy/h (medium 6.3 cGy/h) and duration treatment were between 30.77 h and 77.66 h. Only one patient used an ocular lent protector at time of brachytherapy. Follow-up was 2, 2, 6, 9, 10 and 27 months. RESULTS: During the treatment, all patients presented local hematoma and conjuntivitis that resolved with topical treatment. Acromy and telangiectassia have been seen in only one patient who received electron beam therapy previously. Lost of eyelashes were seen in two patients treated for parpebral lesions. None cataractas and lacrimal obstruction are reported. Five patients are live and well whitout disease and one patient died from intercurrent disease with local

  16. Management of Ampullary Carcinoid Tumors with Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Abi Jaoude

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A 66 year old female was found to have an ampullary mass on endoscopic examination. A pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed and the pathology was consistent with carcinoid tumor. Carcinoid tumors of the ampulla of Vater are rare tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, accounting for 0.3-1% of gastrointestinal carcinoids. Management of ampullary carcinoid tumor with pancreaticoduodenectomy is in accordance with current recommendations.

  17. Glomus Tumor Presenting as Raynaud's Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, M. H.; Hammoudeh, M.

    2012-01-01

    Glomus tumors are rare tumors that often include hands and feet; they present characteristically with paroxysmal pain, exquisite point tenderness, and cold sensitivity. Such diagnosis needs to be confirmed by imaging like ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for glomus tumors. There are only few case reports of glomus tumors in association with Raynaud's phenomenon; this is considered to be the 4th case. PMID:22811722

  18. Glomus Tumor Presenting as Raynaud's Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Abdelrahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare tumors that often include hands and feet; they present characteristically with paroxysmal pain, exquisite point tenderness, and cold sensitivity. Such diagnosis needs to be confirmed by imaging like ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for glomus tumors. There are only few case reports of glomus tumors in association with Raynaud’s phenomenon; this is considered to be the 4th case.

  19. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Dipankar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET is a small round cell malignant tumor of neuroectodermal origin. Most of the PNETs occur in the central nervous system (CNS. PNETs recognized outside of CNS are diagnosed as peripheral PNET (pPNET. This tumor which expresses MIC-2 gene (CD99 seems to be least aggressive after complete tumor resection. We describe a rare case of PNET in a young girl.

  20. Fluorescent Nanoparticle Uptake for Brain Tumor Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tréhin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate delineation of tumor margins is vital to the successful surgical resection of brain tumors. We have previously developed a multimodal nanoparticle CLIO-Cy5.5, which is detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence, to assist in intraoperatively visualizing tumor boundaries. Here we examined the accuracy of tumor margin determination of orthotopic tumors implanted in hosts with differing immune responses to the tumor. Using a nonuser-based signal intensity method applied to fluorescent micrographs of 9L gliosarcoma green fluorescent protein (GFP tumors, mean overestimations of 2 and 24 µm were obtained using Cy5.5 fluorescence, compared to the true tumor margin determined by GFP fluorescence, in nude mice and rats, respectively. To resolve which cells internalized the nanoparticle and to quantitate degree of uptake, tumors were disaggregated and cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticle uptake was seen in both CD11b+ cells (representing activated microglia and macrophages and tumor cells in both animal models by both methods. CD11b+ cells were predominantly found at the tumor margin in both hosts, but were more pronounced at the margin in the rat model. Additional metastatic (CT26 colon and primary (Gli36 glioma brain tumor models likewise demonstrated that the nanoparticle was internalized both by tumor cells and by host cells. Together, these observations suggest that fluorescent nanoparticles provide an accurate method of tumor margin estimation based on a combination of tumor cell and host cell uptake for primary and metastatic tumors in animal model systems and offer potential for clinical translation.

  1. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Seo, Jeong Jin; Nam, Jong Hee

    2002-01-01

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen. (orig.)

  2. Tumores ovarianos, critérios para avaliação diagnóstica e cirúrgica: relato de caso e revisão de literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Borges Coscia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As massas ovarianas são achados frequentes em Ginecologia Geral. Dessas massas, a maioria tem caráter cístico, e os cistos funcionais ovarianos representam uma grande proporção1. São divididas em derivadas de crescimento neoplásicos e produzidas por rompimento da ovulação normal. A diferenciação entre elas nem sempre é clinicamente evidente. É frequente que os cistos sejam tratados como uma única entidade clinica. O tratamento deve ponderar a possibilidade de realizar uma cirurgia para uma lesão inocente contra o risco de não retirar um câncer de ovário. Objetivo: Relatar um caso tumor de ovário e critérios de avaliação diagnóstica e cirúrgica. Relato de Caso: MSG, 36 anos, negra, casada, G2/P2/A0, HIV positivo, diabética. Paciente referiu cisto ovariano, trazendo consigo Ultrassonografia Transvaginal (USGTV de anos anteriores. O cisto aumentou de tamanho desde 2012. Em 2014 realizou USGTV com doppler que apresentou cisto em ovário direito com dimensões de 7,5x6,2x7,4cm. Ovário esquerdo aumentado de volume observando-se imagem cística, medindo 2,5 x 2,5 x ? cm, ambos sem sinais de vascularização à analise com doppler. Foi solicitado marcadores e nova USGTV. Conclusão: A análise acurada das características de um tumor do ovário é fundamental para o diagnóstico diferencial entre tumores benignos e malignos. A conduta médica seguirá os seguintes critérios: os cistos funcionais, em sua maioria, regridem em seis meses após a sua identificação. Os cistos ovarianos simples terão conduta expectante. Para o diagnóstico dos tumores ovarianos quanto à benignidade ou malignidade existe também, um índice de risco de malignidade. Esse índice por associar três variáveis apresenta elevada sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia no diagnóstico.

  3. Human neutrophils facilitate tumor cell transendothelial migration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wu, Q D

    2012-02-03

    Tumor cell extravasation plays a key role in tumor metastasis. However, the precise mechanisms by which tumor cells migrate through normal vascular endothelium remain unclear. In this study, using an in vitro transendothelial migration model, we show that human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) assist the human breast tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 to cross the endothelial barrier. We found that tumor-conditioned medium (TCM) downregulated PMN cytocidal function, delayed PMN apoptosis, and concomitantly upregulated PMN adhesion molecule expression. These PMN treated with TCM attached to tumor cells and facilitated tumor cell migration through different endothelial monolayers. In contrast, MDA-MB-231 cells alone did not transmigrate. FACScan analysis revealed that these tumor cells expressed high levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) but did not express CD11a, CD11b, or CD18. Blockage of CD11b and CD18 on PMN and of ICAM-1 on MDA-MB-231 cells significantly attenuated TCM-treated, PMN-mediated tumor cell migration. These tumor cells still possessed the ability to proliferate after PMN-assisted transmigration. These results indicate that TCM-treated PMN may serve as a carrier to assist tumor cell transendothelial migration and suggest that tumor cells can exploit PMN and alter their function to facilitate their extravasation.

  4. Granulosa Cell Tumor in a Dog,

    Science.gov (United States)

    canine ova rian neoplasms, however, is the granulosa cell tumor. This tumor arises from the specialized gonadal stroma of the ovary, which is responsible... pyometra ; cystic endometrial hyperlasia; pseudocyesis; and irregular, prolonged, or persistent estrus. Dogs with nonfunctional granulosa cell tumors

  5. Transcriptional response to hypoxia in human tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lal, A.; Peters, H.; Croix, B. St.; Haroon, Z.A.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Strausberg, R.L.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Riggins, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence of hypoxic regions within solid tumors is associated with a more malignant tumor phenotype and worse prognosis. To obtain a blood supply and protect against cellular damage and death, oxygen-deprived cells in tumors alter gene expression, resulting in resistance to therapy.

  6. Brain tumors and syndromes in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, Fonnet E.; Hopman, Saskia M. J.; Merks, Johannes H. M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.

    2014-01-01

    (Brain) tumors are usually a disorder of aged individuals. If a brain tumor occurs in a child, there is a possible genetic susceptibility for this. Such genetic susceptibilities often show other signs and symptoms. Therefore, every child with a brain tumor should be carefully evaluated for the

  7. Tumors of the ankle and foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankman, S; Cisa, J; Present, D

    1994-02-01

    Although tumor and tumor-like conditions of the foot and ankle are unusual, certain bone and soft tissue lesions are more common than others. Conventional radiographs remain essential in all such cases and are especially specific for intraosseous tumors. MR imaging is more sensitive to the presence and extent of both bone and soft tissue lesions.

  8. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the bladder: dramatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the bladder (IMT) in an adult male who presented with recurrent hematuria. He required partial cystectomy which revealed perivesical fat infiltration. In spite of this, the tumor was categorized as benign and the patient remained symptom- and tumor-free 18 months ...

  9. Intrathoracic desmoid tumor in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, L.M.; Schey, W.L.; Bassuk, A.; Shrock, P.

    1985-01-01

    The case history of a child with an intrathoracic desmoid tumor is presented. The insidious nature of the tumor's development and its possible relationship to previous surgery are noted. Desmoid tumors are rare in the childhood population and an intrathoracic site as the origin of one has not been reported previously. (orig.)

  10. Radionuclide Therapy for Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cives, Mauro; Strosberg, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a form of systemic radiotherapy that allows targeted delivery of radionuclides to tumor cells expressing high levels of somatostatin receptors. The two radiopeptides most commonly used for PRRT, 90 Y-DOTATOC and 177 Lu-DOTATATE, have been successfully employed for more than a decade for the treatment of advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Recently, the phase III, randomized NETTER-1 trial has compared 177 Lu-DOTATATE versus high-dose octreotide LAR in patients with progressive, metastatic midgut NETs, demonstrating exceptional tolerability and efficacy. This review summarizes recent developments in the field of radionuclide therapy for gastroenteropancreatic and lung NETs and considers possible strategies to further enhance its clinical efficacy.

  11. Generalidades sobre os tumores renais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Knopp Tristão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O aumento na incidência do carcinoma de células renais, na maior parte da população, deve-se em parte ao aumento do número de tumores detectados incidentalmente com novos métodos de diagnósticos por imagem. As sofisticações dos instrumentos diagnósticos e terapêuticos modificam as perspectivas dos pacientes com carcinoma de células renais. Um aumento na taxa de sobrevivência e uma redução da morbidade foram alcançados. As neoplasias malignas do trato gênito-urinário compreendem, aproximadamente, metade dos tumores diagnosticados em homens, e a incidência deste grupo de câncer aumenta com a idade. O carcinoma de células renais representa a terceira neoplasia gênito-urinária mais freqüente.

  12. Tumor Molecular Imaging with Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging (MI can provide not only structural images using traditional imaging techniques but also functional and molecular information using many newly emerging imaging techniques. Over the past decade, the utilization of nanotechnology in MI has exhibited many significant advantages and provided new opportunities for the imaging of living subjects. It is expected that multimodality nanoparticles (NPs can lead to precise assessment of tumor biology and the tumor microenvironment. This review addresses topics related to engineered NPs and summarizes the recent applications of these nanoconstructs in cancer optical imaging, ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and radionuclide imaging. Key challenges involved in the translation of NPs to the clinic are discussed.

  13. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang, E-mail: deliang.guo@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur G James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012 (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation.

  14. Endoscopic resection of subepithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur; Bauder, Markus; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel

    2014-12-16

    Management of subepithelial tumors (SETs) remains challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved differential diagnosis of these tumors but a definitive diagnosis on EUS findings alone can be achieved in the minority of cases. Complete endoscopic resection may provide a reasonable approach for tissue acquisition and may also be therapeutic in case of malignant lesions. Small SET restricted to the submucosa can be removed with established basic resection techniques. However, resection of SET arising from deeper layers of the gastrointestinal wall requires advanced endoscopic methods and harbours the risk of perforation. Innovative techniques such as submucosal tunneling and full thickness resection have expanded the frontiers of endoscopic therapy in the past years. This review will give an overview about endoscopic resection techniques of SET with a focus on novel methods.

  15. [Chalazion mimicking an eyelid tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hermies, F; Fayet, B; Meyer, A; Morel, X; Halhal, M; Elmaleh, C; Azan, F; Behar-Cohen, F; Renard, G

    2004-02-01

    A 3-year-old girl had a tumor growing for a month on the superior right eyelid, attached on the free margin of the eyelid and partially necrotic. A surgical excision was performed under general anesthesia. The histopathological study found an inflammatory lesion with epithelioid and giant cells, evidence of a granuloma, suggesting the diagnosis of chalazion. This case shows the various clinical presentations of this common and benign disease of the eyelid.

  16. A epilepsia nos tumores cerebrais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marques-Assis

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available De 411 casos de tumores cerebrais foram estudados 86 (19,4% que apresentaram manifestações epilépticas. A epilepsia foi estudada quanto à duração, ao tipo de manifestação e à severidade, em relação à natureza e à localização dos tumores cerebrais. A análise dos resultados permitiu aos autores chegarem às seguintes conclusões: 1 a epilepsia incidiu em 19,4% dos casos; 2 o oligodendroglioma, as metástases carcinomatosas e o glioblastoma multiforme foram, pela ordem, os tumores mais epileptogênicos; 3 as áreas frontal, parietal e temporal foram, nessa ordem, as localizações mais epileptogênicas; 4 os carcinomas metastáticos predominaram nos casos com epilepsia com menos de um ano de evolução, enquanto que os astrocitomas predominaram nos casos com mais de três anos; quanto à topografia, predominou a região frontal no primeiro grupo e a temporal, no segundo; 5 nas formas mais severas de epilepsia predominaram os oligodendrogliomas e os meningeomas, quanto à natureza, e a região frontotemporal e a foice, quanto à localização; 6 os craniofaringeomas e os meduloblastomas foram os tumores que mais freqüentemente determinaram o aparecimento de convulsões puras; nesses casos, a sela túrsica e a fossa posterior foram as sedes mais freqüentes; 7 os carcinomas metastáticos e os meningeomas, quanto à natureza, e as regiões frontoparietal e parietal, quanto à localização, foram os mais freqüentemente encontrados nos casos com crises de tipo bravais-jacksoniano.

  17. Rare, but challenging tumors: NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (GEP - NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different locations and many different clinical, histological, and imaging performance. In a part of them a secretion of various organic substances is present. The morbidity of GEP - NET in the EU is growing, and this leads to increase the attention to them. What you will learn: Imaging methods used for localization and staging of GEP - NET, characteristics of the study’s protocols; Classification of GEP - NET; Demonstration of typical and atypical imaging features of GEP - NET in patients registered at the NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’, Varna; Features of metastatic NET, The role of imaging in the evaluation of treatment response and follow-up of the patients. Discussion: The image semiotics analysis is based on 19 cases of GEP - NET registered NET Center at University Hospital ‘St. Marina’. The main imaging method is multidetector CT (MDCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) has advantages in the evaluation of liver lesions and the local prevalence of anorectal tumors. In patients with advanced disease and liver lesions the assessment of skeletal involvement (MRI/ nuclear medical method) is mandatory. The majority of GEP - NET have not any specific imaging findings. Therefore it is extremely important proper planning and conducting of the study (MDCT and MR enterography; accurate assessment phase of scanning, positive and negative contrast). Conclusion: GEP - NET is a major diagnostic challenge due to the absence of typical imaging characteristics and often an overlap with those of the tumors of different origin can be observed. Therefore, a good knowledge of clinical and imaging changes occurring at different locations is needed. MDCT is the basis for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of these neoplasms

  18. Tumor Carcinoide Gástrico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydelisis Peraza González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Las neoplasias endocrinas se originan en las células del sistema neuroendocrino, también afectan al tubo digestivo; dentro de ellas, el tumor carcinoide gástrico es poco frecuente. El objetivo de la publicación es mostrar la situación de una paciente femenina que presentó características clínicas, endoscópicas, histológicas e inmunohistoquímica de esta variedad de tumor gástrico. Paciente femenina de 45 años de edad con antecedentes de salud, referida de su área de salud al Departamento de Gastroenterología, por presentar dolor en epigastrio, regurgitaciones, acidez y cifras bajas de hemoglobina. Se le diagnosticó pólipo gástrico erosionado a través de estudio endoscópico superior, se realizó estudio histológico y se aplicó técnica de inmunohistoquímica, cuyo diagnóstico definitivo fue un tumor carcinoide gástrico, y se le efectuó una gastrectomía subtotal ampliada, con evolución satisfactoria. El tumor carcinoide gástrico es una neoplasia no habitual, cuyo tratamiento de elección es quirúrgico, donde la supervivencia y calidad de vida del paciente depende del tamaño, la localización, infiltración y presencia de metástasis del mismo.

  19. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    OpenAIRE

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré; Caroline Rousseau; Caroline Bodet-Milin; Cédric Mathieu; François Guérard; Eric Frampas; Thomas Carlier; Nicolas Chouin; Ferid Haddad; Jean-François Chatal; Alain Faivre-Chauvet; Michel Chérel; Jacques Barbet

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others a...

  20. Adequate antigen availability: a key issue for novel approaches to tumor vaccination and tumor immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accolla, Roberto S; Tosi, Giovanna

    2013-03-01

    A crucial parameter for activation of the anti-tumor immune response is an adequate antigen availability (AAA) defined here as the optimal tumor antigen dose and related antigen processing and MHC-II-restricted presentation necessary to efficiently trigger tumor-specific TH cells. We will discuss two distinct experimental systems: a) a preventive anti-tumor vaccination system; b) a therapy-induced anti-tumor vaccination approach. In the first case tumor cells are rendered constitutively MHC-II+ by transfecting them with the MHC-II transcriptional activator CIITA. Here AAA is generated by the function of tumor's newly expressed MHC-II molecules to present tumor-associated antigens to tumor-specific TH cells. In the second case, AAA is generated by treating established tumors with neovasculature-targeted TNFα. In conjuction with Melphalan, targeted TNFα delivery produces extensive areas of tumor necrosis that generate AAA capable of optimally activate tumor-specific TH cells which in turn activate CTL immune effectors. In both experimental systems tumor rejection and persistent and long-lived TH cell anti-tumor memory, responsible of defending the animals from subsequent challenges with tumor cells, are achieved. Based on these and other investigators' results we propose that AAA is a key element for triggering adaptive immune functions resulting in subversion from a pro-tumor to an anti-tumor microenvironment, tumor rejection and acquisition of anti-tumor immune memory. Hypotheses of neuro-immune networks involved in these approaches are discussed. These considerations are important also for the comprehension of how chemotherapy and/or radiation therapies may help to block and/or to eradicate the tumor and for the construction of suitable anti-tumor vaccine strategies.

  1. Tumor vascular endothelium : Barrier or target in tumor directed drug delivery and immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, Ingrid; de Leij, Lou; Meijer, D.K F

    The therapy of solid tumors with conventional chemotherapeutics, drug delivery preparations and immunomodulatory agents directed against the tumor cells is corrupted by a major barrier presented by the tumor vasculature. Permeability of the tumor blood vessels for transport of small molecules and

  2. Optimization of the tumor microenvironment and nanomedicine properties simultaneously to improve tumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Ting; Wang, Lanting; Mei, Heng; Lu, Heng; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing

    2016-09-20

    Effective delivery of nanomedicines to tumor tissues depends on both the tumor microenvironment and nanomedicine properties. Accordingly, tumor microenvironment modification or advanced design of nanomedicine was emerging to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumors. However, few studies have emphasized the necessity to optimize the tumor microenvironment and nanomedicine properties simultaneously to improve tumor treatment. In the present study, imatinib mesylate (IMA) was used to normalize the tumor microenvironment including platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β expression inhibition, tumor vessel normalization, and tumor perfusion improvement as demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining. In addition, the effect of tumor microenvironment normalization on tumor delivery of nanomedicines with different sizes was carefully investigated. It was shown that IMA treatment significantly reduced the accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) around 110 nm but enhanced the accumulation of micelles around 23 nm by in vivo fluorescence imaging experiment. Furthermore, IMA treatment limited the distribution of NPs inside tumors but increased that of micelles with a more homogeneous pattern. Finally, the anti-tumor efficacy study displayed that IMA pretreatment could significantly increase the therapeutic effects of paclitaxel-loaded micelles. All-together, a new strategy to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumor was provided by optimizing both nanomedicine size and the tumor microenvironment simultaneously, and it will have great potential in clinics for tumor treatment.

  3. Surgical Treatment of Skin Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When we mention about surgical treatment of any tumor residing on the skin independent of its benign or malignant nature, the first method we recall is excision. Elliptical excision is the mainstay of the dermatologic surgery. Each excision ends with a defect for which we are responsible to repair functionally and cosmetically. The diameter of the tumor we excised and the safety margin used for excision determine the diameter of the final defect. After achieving tumor free lateral and deep margins with the appropriate surgical method, we decide between the repair options of second intention healing, primary repair, flaps, full or split thickness grafts, considering the diameter and the anatomic localization of the defect, for the best functional and cosmetic result for that specific defect. This review overviews not only the most common dermatologic surgical methods, but also Mohs surgery which is a method rarely used in our country, although it is the treatment of choice for the treatment of high risk basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC.

  4. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-03-16

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, "pure" or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection.

  5. [Glomus jugulare tumor: perioperative management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A; Fraile, J R; Bermejo, L; de Miguel, A; Aristegui, M; Hervías, M; Quirós, P

    1996-12-01

    Surgical treatment of glomus jugulare tumors yields high rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality for several reasons, among them neuroendocrine secretory activity, a high degree of vascularization, intracranial extension, duration of surgery and cranial nerve lesion. Secretory activity (e.g. catecholamines and serotonin) should be investigated before surgery and treated appropriately. Carotid arteriography (and ball occlusion) are useful to assess vascularization of the tumor and determine the need to clamp the carotid artery during the procedure. Potential complications such as hemodynamic alterations (bleeding or endocrine response), pulmonary embolism (air or thrombotic), hypothermia, facial nerve lesion, should be monitored for during surgery. After surgery cranial nerve involvement, which can lead to dysphagia and bronchoaspiration, must be looked for; the risk of cerebro-spinal fluid fistula is also high. We report the case of a woman who underwent surgery for a non secreting glomus jugulare tumor with extradural intracranial invasion. The main complications during surgery were bleeding with hemodynamic repercussions, pulmonary embolism, lesions in the VII, VIII and X cranial nerves, and opening of the dura mater (which required insertion of an intradural drain to prevent formation of a fistula). After surgery oral intake was delayed until intestinal function was established and glottic sphincter competence was verified by fiberoptic laryngoscopy. The only complication presenting at this time was cephalea, which disappeared upon removal of the drain on day 4. The patient was released on day 10.

  6. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous, suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies.

  7. Therapy of malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellinger, K.

    1987-01-01

    The tumors of the brain claim for a separate position in scientific medicine regarding biology, morphology, features of clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy. During the past years due to rapid progress in medical biotechnics the situation of the neuroclinician in front of brain tumors has been dramatically changed. The prerequisites for early and accurate diagnosis as well as for successful treatment also of malignant neoplasms have increased and remarkably improved. At the same time the information necessary for an appropriate pragmatic use of the available cognitive methods and therapeutic means increased along the same scale. These facts necessitate the preparation of publications in which the state of the art is presented in possible completeness, systematic order and proper dis-posability for rational management and therapeutic strategies. The primary aim of the present book is to serve these purposes. With 8 chapters, two of them are indexed for INIS, the collective of competent authors deal on the biology, pathology and immunology of malignant brain tumors of adults and of children including relevant basic and recent data of experimental research; further on the available methods of therapy: neurosurgery, radiology and chemotherapy, the fundamental principals of their efficacy and the differing models of single respective combined application, in comprehensive critical form. 111 figs

  8. Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-gao Man, Alexander Stojadinovic, Jeffrey Mason, Itzhak Avital, Anton Bilchik, Bjoern Bruecher, Mladjan Protic, Aviram Nissan, Mina Izadjoo, Xichen Zhang, Anahid Jewett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness.

  9. Advances in the Relationship Between Tumor Cell Metabolism and Tumor Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalong ZHANG

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular nutrients and the rate of energy flowing in tumor cells are often higher than that in normal cells due to the prolonged stress of tumor-specific microenvironment. In this context, the metabolism of tumor cells provides the fuel of bio-synthesis and energy required for tumor metastasis. Consistent with this, the abnormal metabolism such as extremely active glucose metabolism and excessive accumulating of fatty acid is also discovered in metastatic tumors. Previous Studies have confirmed that the regulation of tumor metabolism can affect the tumor metastasis, and some of these have been successfully applied in clinical effective, positive way. Thus, targeting metabolism of tumor cells might be an effectively positive way to prevent the metastasis of tumor. So, our review is focused on the research development of the relationship between tumor metabolism and metastasis as well as the underlying mechanism.

  10. Bayesian Inference of Tumor Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, R.; Tenti, G.; Sivaloganathan, S.

    2009-12-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a state of oxygen deprivation in tumors. It has been associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes and with increased resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In this study, we report on the application of Bayesian sequential analysis in estimating the most probable value of tumor hypoxia quantification based on immunohistochemical assays of a biomarker. The `gold standard' of tumor hypoxia assessment is a direct measurement of pO2 in vivo by the Eppendorf polarographic electrode, which is an invasive technique restricted to accessible sites and living tissues. An attractive alternative is immunohistochemical staining to detect proteins expressed by cells during hypoxia. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme expressed on the cell membrane during hypoxia to balance the immediate extracellular microenvironment. CAIX is widely regarded as a surrogate marker of chronic hypoxia in various cancers. The study was conducted with two different experimental procedures. The first data set was a group of three patients with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which five biopsies were obtained. Each of the biopsies was fully sectioned and from each section, the proportion of CAIX-positive cells was estimated. Measurements were made by image analysis of multiple deep sections cut through these biopsies, labeled for CAIX using both immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques [1]. The second data set was a group of 24 patients, also with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which two biopsies were obtained. Bayesian parameter estimation was applied to obtain a reliable inference about the proportion of CAIX-positive cells within the carcinomas, based on the available biopsies. From the first data set, two to three biopsies were found to be sufficient to infer the overall CAIX percentage in the simple form: best estimate±uncertainty. The second data-set led to a similar result in 70% of the cases. In the remaining cases Bayes' theorem warned us

  11. Large Phyllodes Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Tahmasebi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumors account for less than 1% of breast tumors in women. Giantphyllodes tumors are larger than 10 cm in diameter. A 40-year-old lady presented witha left breast lump that was present for two years. She underwent a simple mastectomy.The tumor was 30×26×21 cm in size, weighed 15 kg and had a density of 0.915 gr/cm3.We believe this patient had the third largest breast phyllodes tumor according to size,the second largest according to weight and had the highest density among all cases thusreported in English-language publications.

  12. Metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor involving the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, J Jordi; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases from malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are a rare occurrence. We report a patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the right breast which subsequently metastasized to the right lower lobe of the lung 1 year after initial presentation, and to the right cerebellar hemisphere 2 years after diagnosis of her breast mass. After both chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy the patient is tumor free at most recent follow-up, 116 months after the breast tumor diagnosis was made. The literature is briefly reviewed and the differential diagnosis of malignant spindle cell brain tumors is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitation and gompertzian analysis of tumor growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    to transform the experimental data into useful growth curves. A transformed Gompertz function is used as the basis for calculating relevant parameters pertaining to tumor growth and response to therapy. The calculations are facilitated by use of a computer program which performs the necessary calculations......Human tumor xenografts in immune-deficient animals are used to establish tumor growth curves and for studying the effect of experimental therapy on tumor growth. In this review we describe a method for making serial measurements of tumor size in the nude mouse model as well as methods used...

  14. NK cells in the tumor microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine K; Gao, Yanhua; Basse, Per H

    2014-01-01

    The presence of natural killer (NK) cells in the tumor microenvironment correlates with outcome in a variety of cancers. However, the role of intratumoral NK cells is unclear. Preclinical studies have shown that, while NK cells efficiently kill circulating tumor cells of almost any origin......, they seem to have very little effect against the same type of tumor cells when these have extravasated. The ability to kill extravasated tumor cells is, however, is dependent of the level of activation of the NK cells, as more recent published and unpublished studies, discussed below, have demonstrated...... that interleukin-2-activated NK cells are able to attack well-established solid tumors....

  15. Quantitation and gompertzian analysis of tumor growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    Human tumor xenografts in immune-deficient animals are used to establish tumor growth curves and for studying the effect of experimental therapy on tumor growth. In this review we describe a method for making serial measurements of tumor size in the nude mouse model as well as methods used...... to transform the experimental data into useful growth curves. A transformed Gompertz function is used as the basis for calculating relevant parameters pertaining to tumor growth and response to therapy. The calculations are facilitated by use of a computer program which performs the necessary calculations...

  16. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palankezhe Sashidharan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, its molecular and immunohiostochemical basis, and its management have been a watershed in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. This paradigm shift occurred over the last two decades and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have now come to be understood as rare gastrointestinal tract tumors with predictable behavior and outcome, replacing the older terminologies like leiomyoma, schwannoma or leiomyosarcoma. This report presents a case of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor operated recently in a 47-year-old female patient and the outcome, as well as literature review of the pathological identification, sites of origin, and factors predicting its behavior, prognosis and treatment.

  17. A new ODE tumor growth modeling based on tumor population dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oroji, Amin; Omar, Mohd bin [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia amin.oroji@siswa.um.edu.my, mohd@um.edu.my (Malaysia); Yarahmadian, Shantia [Mathematics Department Mississippi State University, USA Syarahmadian@math.msstate.edu (United States)

    2015-10-22

    In this paper a new mathematical model for the population of tumor growth treated by radiation is proposed. The cells dynamics population in each state and the dynamics of whole tumor population are studied. Furthermore, a new definition of tumor lifespan is presented. Finally, the effects of two main parameters, treatment parameter (q), and repair mechanism parameter (r) on tumor lifespan are probed, and it is showed that the change in treatment parameter (q) highly affects the tumor lifespan.

  18. A new ODE tumor growth modeling based on tumor population dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oroji, Amin; Omar, Mohd bin; Yarahmadian, Shantia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new mathematical model for the population of tumor growth treated by radiation is proposed. The cells dynamics population in each state and the dynamics of whole tumor population are studied. Furthermore, a new definition of tumor lifespan is presented. Finally, the effects of two main parameters, treatment parameter (q), and repair mechanism parameter (r) on tumor lifespan are probed, and it is showed that the change in treatment parameter (q) highly affects the tumor lifespan

  19. Expression of c-Kit and PDGFRα in epithelial ovarian tumors and tumor stroma

    OpenAIRE

    YI, CUNJIAN; LI, LI; CHEN, KEMING; LIN, SHENGRONG; LIU, XIANGQIONG

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of c-Kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) in epithelial ovarian tumor cells and tumor stroma. The expression of c-Kit and PDGFRα in 71 malignant or benign epithelial ovarian tumor tissues and 20 normal ovarian tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of c-Kit and PDGFRα in 71 malignant epithelial ovarian tumors and tumor stroma tissue samples was analyzed. A significant increase (P

  20. Peripheral tumor and tumor-like neurogenic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Evandro [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Aubert, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.aubert@chru-lille.fr [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie-Pathologie, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Wavreille, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.wavreille@chru-lille.fr [Service d’Orthopédie B, Hôpital R Salengro, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Gheno, Ramon; Canella, Clarissa [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Cotten, Anne, E-mail: anne.cotten@chru-lille.fr [Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultation et Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille (France)

    2013-01-15

    Neoplasms of neurogenic origin account for about 12% of all benign and 8% of all malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Traumatic neuroma, Morton neuroma, lipomatosis of a nerve, nerve sheath ganglion, perineurioma, benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNST) are included in this group of pathologies. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of patients with neurogenic tumors and pseudotumors often reveals distinctive features. In this context, advanced imaging techniques, especially ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) play an important role in the characterization of these lesions. Imaging findings such as location of a soft tissue mass in the region of a major nerve, nerve entering or exiting the mass, fusiform shape, abnormalities of the muscle supplied by the nerve, split-fat sign, target sign and fascicular appearance should always evoke a peripheric nerve sheath neoplasm. Although no single imaging finding or combination of findings allows definitive differentiation between benign from malign peripheric neurogenic tumors, both US and MR imaging may show useful features that can lead us to a correct diagnosis and improve patient treatment. Traumatic neuromas and Morton neuromas are commonly associated to an amputation stump or are located in the intermetatarsal space. Lipomatosis of a nerve usually appears as a nerve enlargement, with thickened nerve fascicles, embedded in evenly distributed fat. Nerve sheath ganglion has a cystic appearance and commonly occurs at the level of the knee. Intraneural perineuroma usually affects young people and manifests as a focal and fusiform nerve enlargement. In this article, we review clinical characteristics and radiologic appearances of these neurogenic lesions, observing pathologic correlation, when possible.

  1. The use of radionuclides for tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawwaz, R.A.; Wang, T.S.T.; Hardy, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The successful use of radionuclides for tumor therapy depends to a major extent on the ability to achieve a high concentration of radioactivity in the tumor relative to other radiosensitive organs not involved by tumor, such as bone marrow, intestinal mucosa, liver, and kidneys. Techniques designed to achieve such differential localization of the radionuclides include the use of (1) radiopharmaceuticals that enter specific metabolic pathways unique to certain tumor types; (2) radiolabeled antibodies that attach to tumor-associated antigens present on tumor cell surfaces; (3) heterologous antibodies that attach to tumor-associated antigens present on tumor cell surfaces and which are then identified by radiolabeled antibodies directed against the species in which the original, unlabeled antibody was made; and (4) radiolabeled compounds injected regionally at the tumor site. Although both clinical and experimental evidence on the use of radionuclides for tumor therapy is encouraging in preliminary studies, extensive further research needs to be done in this area to insure the clinical efficacy of radionuclides for tumor therapy. (author)

  2. Six cases of primary vertebral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiono, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Abe, Osamu; Takenaka, Eiichi

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) studies of six patients with primary vertebral tumor accompanied with neurological symptoms were reviewed. Every tumor was certified by operation or biopsy. Cases were one osteoblastoma, two osteochondromas, one malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), and two hemangiomas. Osteoblastoma showed high signal intensity on T 1 -weighted images and isosignal intensity on T 2 -weighted images. Those findings were different from Vung's report. The chondral portions within the tumor showed high signal intensity on both T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images in cases of osteochondroma. MFH and hemangioma as also showed high signal intensity on both T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images. We concluded that MR imaging is useful in depiction of compression of spinal cord or nerve root by the tumor, but the calcification in the tumor cannot be well depicted. It's sometimes difficult to understand the bone destruction by the tumor, or sclerotic change around the tumor only by MR imaging. (author)

  3. Sciatic nerve tumor and tumor-like lesions - uncommon pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thakkar, Rashmi S.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Maragakis, Nicholas; Hoeke, Ahmet; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Lloyd, Thomas E. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Belzberg, Allan J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Sciatic nerve mass-like enlargement caused by peripheral nerve sheath tumors or neurocutaneous syndromes such as neurofibromatosis or schwannomatosis has been widely reported. Other causes of enlargement, such as from perineuroma, fibromatosis, neurolymphoma, amyloidosis, endometriosis, intraneural ganglion cyst, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are relatively rare. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent non-invasive tool for the evaluation of such lesions. In this article, the authors discuss normal anatomy of the sciatic nerve and MRI findings of the above-mentioned lesions. (orig.)

  4. Sciatic nerve tumor and tumor-like lesions - uncommon pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thakkar, Rashmi S.; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh; Maragakis, Nicholas; Hoeke, Ahmet; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Lloyd, Thomas E.; Belzberg, Allan J.

    2012-01-01

    Sciatic nerve mass-like enlargement caused by peripheral nerve sheath tumors or neurocutaneous syndromes such as neurofibromatosis or schwannomatosis has been widely reported. Other causes of enlargement, such as from perineuroma, fibromatosis, neurolymphoma, amyloidosis, endometriosis, intraneural ganglion cyst, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are relatively rare. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent non-invasive tool for the evaluation of such lesions. In this article, the authors discuss normal anatomy of the sciatic nerve and MRI findings of the above-mentioned lesions. (orig.)

  5. Peculiarities in the CT findings of germ cell tumors in various tumor localizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazoe, Makoto; Miyagami, Mitsusuke; Tsubokawa, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    The CT findings of 17 germ cell tumors were studied in relation to the locations of the tumor, the pathological diagnoses, and the tumor markers (AFP and HCG). Generally, the CT findings of germ cell tumors depended on the pathological diagnoses more strongly than on the location of the tumors. On plain CT of 7 germ cell tumors in the pineal region, all of them demonstrated heterogeneous findings. Hydrocephalus was seen in 6 cases (86%) and calcification in 6 cases (86%) of the germ cell tumors in the pineal region. Calcification and hydrocephalus that appeared more often than in other regions were characteristic of germ cell tumors of the pineal region. The germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia had a slightly homogenous high density, with small cysts and calcification in most of them on plain CT. On enhanced CT, the tumors were moderately enhanced in all cases located in the basal ganglia. Four cases of germ cell tumors located in the basal ganglia revealed the dilatation of lateral ventricle due to hemispheric atrophy in the tumor side. The germ cell tumors showing an increase in the tumor markers such as AFP and HCG, which were usually malignant germ cell tumors, were strongly enhanced on enhanced CT. (author)

  6. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severino, Mariasavina; Schwartz, Erin S.; Thurnher, Majda M.; Rydland, Jana; Nikas, Ioannis; Rossi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors, where aggressive surgical treatment leads to disease

  7. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  8. Radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) precisely delivers high-dose radiation to a small target (usually less than 3-4 cm in diameter), in a single session with steep dose-fall, employing various radiation methods. SRS provides good tumor control for small brain metastases from various primary cancers, with minimal untoward effects on surrounding normal brain. This excellent tumor control prevents neurological death and maintains good activity of daily life. Although surgery with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) remains an important option for patients with a solitary brain metastasis, SRS with or without WBRT should be considered in patients with a limited number of small tumors and a good prognosis. Many reports, as well as both retrospective and prospective reviews, have shown WBRT before or after SRS to improve local control and reduce new distant lesion emergence. However, upfront WBRT does not improve survival. There are two major delivery techniques, Gamma Knife (GK; Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) SRS and linear accelerator (LINIAC)-based SRS. They are based on quite different concepts, and have different techniques and clinical applications. These differences complicate the discussion of the limitations of and indications for SRS and the necessity for prophylactic WBRT. This review discusses numerous aspects of SRS, its value as compared with other treatment modalities, the necessity for prophylactic WBRT with SRS, the limitations of and indications for SRS, and the difference between GK and LINIAC SRS, based on the literature and our experience, and proposes a new strategy for the treatment of brain metastases in view of the available clinical data and experience. (author)

  9. Study and development of a risk assessment model for intra skull radiosurgery; Estudo e desenvolvimento de um modelo de analise de risco para radiocirurgia intracraniana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Flavia Cristina da Silva

    2015-11-01

    an association between the NPR and the SI. The result of this study indicates that safety strategies should be implemented for the first 10 failure modes of the ranking, and a new evaluation of the process should occur every year. In addition, it is also indicated that the QI shows a minimum improvement of 9 % after the re-evaluation of the process. Overall, the study showed that the adoption of the FMEA tool together with the QI are justified as they minimize the risks to the patient, improving the quality of care and enhancing the safety Taken together the FMEA and the QI create mechanisms for ensuring that the dose will be delivered more precisely and accurately, and consequently, this increases the chances of cure or local control of the tumor, improving quality of life of the patients. (author)

  10. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K

    2016-01-01

    (ACC). Patient demography was similar to salivary gland tumors in other locations. All fine needle aspiration cytologies (FNACs) interpreted as benign were from ACCs. Metastatic disease was found in 12.5 % of ACCs at diagnosis with one third of all ACC patients having metastases at the end of follow...... are malignant, most frequently ACC with a high rate of metastatic spread. The diagnostic value of FNAC in SGTs seems inferior to what is found for other major salivary glands. DSS is determined by stage and T-stage and not by histopathological parameters. International collaboration is warranted to confirm...

  11. Collision tumor with inflammatory breast carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Duck; Lee, Seul Kee; Kim, Kyu Sun; Park, Mi Ja; Kim, Joo Heon; Yim, Hyun Sun; Choi, Young Jin

    2014-01-08

    There have been some reports of coincidental presentation of breast carcinoma and phyllodes tumor in the same breast. Most of the cases were carcinoma that arose from a phyllodes tumor with a histologically identified transitional area, and they behaved less aggressively than the usually encountered carcinoma. Collision tumors are rare clinical entities in which two histologically distinct tumor types show involvement at the same site. The occurrence of these tumors in the breast is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 45-year-old woman who had both invasive ductal carcinoma as the finding of inflammatory carcinoma and a malignant phyllodes tumor in the same breast. There was no evidence of a transitional area between the phyllodes tumor and the invasive ductal carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a collision tumor of inflammatory breast carcinoma coincident with a malignant phyllodes tumor in same breast.

  12. In Vitro Efficient Expansion of Tumor Cells Deriving from Different Types of Human Tumor Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Turin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining human tumor cell lines from fresh tumors is essential to advance our understanding of antitumor immune surveillance mechanisms and to develop new ex vivo strategies to generate an efficient anti-tumor response. The present study delineates a simple and rapid method for efficiently establishing primary cultures starting from tumor samples of different types, while maintaining the immuno-histochemical characteristics of the original tumor. We compared two different strategies to disaggregate tumor specimens. After short or long term in vitro expansion, cells analyzed for the presence of malignant cells demonstrated their neoplastic origin. Considering that tumor cells may be isolated in a closed system with high efficiency, we propose this methodology for the ex vivo expansion of tumor cells to be used to evaluate suitable new drugs or to generate tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes or vaccines.

  13. ADAM12 produced by tumor cells rather than stromal cells accelerates breast tumor progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohlich, Camilla; Nehammer, Camilla; Albrechtsen, Reidar

    2011-01-01

    Expression of ADAM12 is low in most normal tissues, but is markedly increased in numerous human cancers, including breast carcinomas. We have previously shown that overexpression of ADAM12 accelerates tumor progression in a mouse model of breast cancer (PyMT). In the present study, we found...... that ADAM12 deficiency reduces breast tumor progression in the PyMT model. However, the catalytic activity of ADAM12 appears to be dispensable for its tumor-promoting effect. Interestingly, we demonstrate that ADAM12 endogenously expressed in tumor-associated stroma in the PyMT model does not influence...... tumor progression, but that ADAM12 expression by tumor cells is necessary for tumor progression in these mice. This finding is consistent with our observation that in human breast carcinoma ADAM12 is almost exclusively located in tumor cells and only rarely seen in the tumor-associated stroma. We...

  14. Plexin D1 is ubiquitously expressed on tumor vessels and tumor cells in solid malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roodink, Ilse; Verrijp, Kiek; Raats, Jos; Leenders, William PJ

    2009-01-01

    Plexin D1 is expressed on both tumor-associated endothelium and malignant cells in a number of clinical brain tumors. Recently we demonstrated that Plexin D1 expression is correlated with tumor invasion level and metastasis in a human melanoma progression series. The objective of this study was to examine whether Plexin D1 might be clinically useful as a pan-tumor vessel and pan-tumor cell target in solid tumors. We examined Plexin D1 expression in clinical solid tumors (n = 77) of different origin, a selection of pre-malignant lesions (n = 29) and a variety of non-tumor related tissues (n = 52) by immunohistochemistry. Signals were verified in a selection of tissues via mRNA in situ hybridization. Plexin D1 is abundantly expressed on both activated established tumor vasculature and malignant cells in the majority of primary and metastatic clinical tumors, as well as on macrophages and fibroblasts. Importantly, in non-tumor related tissues Plexin D1 expression is restricted to a subset of, presumably activated, fibroblasts and macrophages. We demonstrate that Plexin D1 is in general ubiquitously expressed in tumor but not normal vasculature, as well as in malignant cells in a wide range of human tissues. This expression profile highlights Plexin D1 as a potentially valuable therapeutic target in clinical solid tumors, enabling simultaneous targeting of different tumor compartments

  15. Targeting the tumor microenvironment for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sounni, Nor Eddine; Noel, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    With the emergence of the tumor microenvironment as an essential ingredient of cancer malignancy, therapies targeting the host compartment of tumors have begun to be designed and applied in the clinic. The malignant features of cancer cells cannot be manifested without an important interplay between cancer cells and their local environment. The tumor infiltrate composed of immune cells, angiogenic vascular cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, and cancer-associated fibroblastic cells contributes actively to cancer progression. The ability to change these surroundings is an important property by which tumor cells are able to acquire some of the hallmark functions necessary for tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Thus in the clinical setting the targeting of the tumor microenvironment to encapsulate or destroy cancer cells in their local environment has become mandatory. The variety of stromal cells, the complexity of the molecular components of the tumor stroma, and the similarity with normal tissue present huge challenges for therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment. These issues and their interplay are addressed in this review. After a decade of intensive clinical trials targeting cellular components of the tumor microenvironment, more recent investigations have shed light on the important role in cancer progression played by the noncellular stromal compartment composed of the extracellular matrix. A better understanding of how the tumor environment affects cancer progression should provide new targets for the isolation and destruction of cancer cells via interference with the complex crosstalk established between cancer cells, host cells, and their surrounding extracellular matrix. © 2012 American Association for Clinical Chemistry

  16. Cryospectrophotometric determination of tumor intravascular oxyhemoglobin saturations: dependence on vascular geometry and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, B M; Rofstad, E K; Degner, F L; Sutherland, R M

    1988-12-21

    To delineate the complex relationships between overall tumor oxygenation and vascular configuration, intravascular oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) saturation distributions were measured with cryospectrophotometric techniques. Four factors related to vascular morphometry and tumor growth were evaluated: a) vessel diameter, b) distance of vessel from the tumor surface, c) tumor volume, and d) vascular density. To measure intertumor heterogeneity, two murine sarcomas (RIF-1 and KHT) and two human ovarian carcinoma xenografts (OWI and MLS) were utilized. In contrast to skeletal muscle, a preponderance of very low HbO2 saturations was observed for both large and small tumors of all lines. Saturations up to about 90% were also generally present, however, even in very large tumors. Variations in vascular configuration were predominantly tumor-line dependent rather than due to inherent characteristics of the host vasculature, and widely disparate HbO2 distributions were found for alternate lines implanted in identical host mice. Although peripheral saturations remained fairly constant with tumor growth, HbO2 values were markedly lower for vessels nearer the tumor center and further decreased with increasing tumor volume. HbO2 saturations did not change substantially with increasing vascular density (except for KHT tumors), although density did decrease with increasing distance from tumor surface. Combined effects of vessel diameter, tumor volume, and vessel location on HbO2 saturations were complex and varied markedly with both tumor line and vessel class. For specific classes, HbO2 distributions correlated closely with radiobiological hypoxic fractions, i.e., for tumor lines in which hypoxic fraction increased substantially with tumor volume, corresponding HbO2 values decreased, while for lines in which hypoxic fraction remained constant, HbO2 values also were unchanged. Although these trends may also be a function of differing oxygen consumption rates between tumor lines

  17. Malignant Trigeminal Nerve Sheath Tumor and Anaplastic Astrocytoma Collision Tumor with High Proliferative Activity and Tumor Suppressor P53 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Kurdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53 gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa.

  18. Vindesine in plasma cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagno, L; Paccagnella, A; Chiarion Sileni, V; De Besi, P; Frizzarin, M; Casara, D; Fiorentino, M V

    1985-12-31

    Twenty-one patients with plasma cell tumors received vindesine (VDS) at the dose of 3 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1 plus prednisone at the dose of 100 mg p.o. from day 1 to 5, recycling every 8 days 3 times and then every 10-12 days. In 3 patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer prednisone was not administered. All but one patient were heavily pretreated and resistant to M-2 regimen. Overall there were 4 objective responses (19%): 2 among 15 patients (13%) with multiple myeloma and 2 among 6 patients (33%) with extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP). The responses lasted for 2, 12, 15 and 48+ months. One previously untreated EMP patient received VDS without prednisone and obtained a complete long-lasting remission. The association of VDS with high-dose prednisone seems to have some activity in plasma cell tumors; probably in multiple myeloma the objective responses are due to the high dose of cortisone rather than to VDS. On the contrary, in EMP patients, VDS may be an active agent, even if administered without cortisone.

  19. TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOR - LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. B Berndt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT is a contagious disease among the family of canines. Has a high prevalence in temperate regions and mainly affects male and female dogs wandering. Transmissible venereal tumor's main characteristic is a sexually transmitted cancer, through intercourse, and also transmitted through cell transplantation, an animal that has the disease to another Sound, which has an abrasion or epithelial discontinuity through licking or contact direct to neoplasia. It has no known etiology, although some authors suggest that there may be some virus as an agent. Is macroscopically observed as a crumbly mass, ulcerated, hemorrhagic, with the appearance of cauliflower. Their cells, if observed microscopically, have very clear, round and giant nucleus stained cytoplasm, and the presence of vacuolated cells in mitosis. The diagnosis can be accomplished by fine needle aspiration cytology, "imprint", histopathology, imaging tests such as x-ray and ultrasound, which are used for observation of metastases in internal organs. The main treatment is chemotherapy with substances such as vincristine dose of 0.5 to 0.7 mg / m², intra venous (IV, or from 0.0125 to 0.025 mg / kg IV once a week, four to eight weeks, and for animals which have acquired resistance to vincristine sulfate, is associated with the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin at a dose of 30 mg / m² IV once a week for four to eight weeks. Some protocols include prednisolone associated with vincristine sulfate for the treatment of Extragenital TVT.

  20. CT of metastatic spinal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Tsunehiko

    1980-01-01

    CT findings of metastatic spinal tumor were classified into 6 types, i.e., consolidation, dissolution, mottle, doughnut, and ring types, and mixed type of these, and that of no findings. Some statistically significant relationship was found between prostatic cancer and consolidation type, and unknown primary cancer and dissolution type. Abnormal findings of bone scintigraphy was suspected to have metastatic spinal tumor by plain radiography and CT scan in 64/128 (50.0%) and 113/145 (78.6%), respectively. There was some relationship between plain radiographic findings and CT findings; between consolidation type of the former and consolidation type of the latter, dissolution type and dissolution type, compression fracture type and mixed type, the type of no findings and consolidation or mixed type. The most of lesions detected by CT as consolidation or mixed type were revealed by plain radiography. Changes in Ca ammount was not detected by plain radiography and CT scan if it was approximately less than 30% and 18% of the initial Ca respectively. (Ueda, J.)

  1. [Management of malignant vulvar tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, S; Ben Brahim, F; Ben Hmid, R; Zghal, D; Kallel, N; Sébai, N; Zouari, Faouzia

    2008-12-01

    Vulva anatomy--FIGO classification--Vulva tumors anatomopathology--Tretments of vulva cancers. Our stady is a retrospective, longitudinal and continuous one. It concerns 11 malignant vulva tumors whith were treated in the département "C" of the centre of maternity of Tunis. The period of stady is fifty four months (2002-2006). The aim of our study is to analyse the charactéristics of the vulva cancer and to compare our results to littérature. Mean age of our patients is 67 years old. They are all menaused. The principal signs are vulva tuméfaction in 72.7% of the cases, vulva prurit in 27.3% of the cases and genital bleeding in 27.3% of the cases. The mean period of consultation is of 14 months. We have ten cases of vulvar epidermoid carcinoma and one melanoma. The treatment was surgical in the eleven cases (10 total vulvectomy and one hemivulvectomy) They all benefited of an inguinal bilateral curage. The adjuvant radiotérapie was indicated in 3 cases. A patient was classed stage Ib of FIGO, 7 stage II, one stage III and one stage IVa. Nine patients are in remission, 3 are dead: 2 because of their cancer and one due to a pulmonar embolism. The survival of 6 month is 72.2%. The prevention of this cancer passes by the close follow of dystrophic states and viral pathologies of the vulva.

  2. SEMIAUTOMATIC DETECTION OF TUMORAL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzeddine Zagrouba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a robust method based on the cooperation of fuzzy classification and regions segmentation algorithms, in order to detect the tumoral zone in the brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. On one hand, the classification in fuzzy sets is done by the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm (FCM, where a study of its different parameters and its complexity has been previously realised, which led us to improve it. On the other hand, the segmentation in regions is obtained by an hierarchical method through adaptive thresholding. Then, an operator expert selects a germ in the tumoral zone, and the class containing the sick zone is localised in return for the FCM algorithm. Finally, the superposition of the two partitions of the image will determine the sick zone. The originality of our approach is the parallel exploitation of different types of information in the image by the cooperation of two complementary approaches. This allows us to carry out a pertinent approach for the detection of sick zone in MRI images.

  3. Podocalyxin expression in malignant astrocytic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayatsu, Norihito; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Mishima, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Ryo; Matsutani, Masao; Price, Janet E.; Kato, Yukinari

    2008-01-01

    Podocalyxin is an anti-adhesive mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein that has been implicated in the development of aggressive forms of cancer. Podocalyxin is also known as keratan sulfate (KS) proteoglycan. Recently, we revealed that highly sulfated KS or another mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein podoplanin/aggrus is upregulated in malignant astrocytic tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between podocalyxin expression and malignant progression of astrocytic tumors. In this study, 51 astrocytic tumors were investigated for podocalyxin expression using immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry detected podocalyxin on the surface of tumor cells in six of 14 anaplastic astrocytomas (42.9%) and in 17 of 31 glioblastomas (54.8%), especially around proliferating endothelial cells. In diffuse astrocytoma, podocalyxin expression was observed only in vascular endothelial cells. Podocalyxin might be associated with the malignant progression of astrocytic tumors, and be a useful prognostic marker for astrocytic tumors

  4. Autocrine Effects of Tumor-Derived Complement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Soon Cho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a role for the complement system in enhancing cancer growth. Cancer cells secrete complement proteins that stimulate tumor growth upon activation. Complement promotes tumor growth via a direct autocrine effect that is partially independent of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells. Activated C5aR and C3aR signal through the PI3K/AKT pathway in cancer cells, and silencing the PI3K or AKT gene in cancer cells eliminates the progrowth effects of C5aR and C3aR stimulation. In patients with ovarian or lung cancer, higher tumoral C3 or C5aR mRNA levels were associated with decreased overall survival. These data identify a role for tumor-derived complement proteins in promoting tumor growth, and they therefore have substantial clinical and therapeutic implications.

  5. Imaging of pancreatic tumors; Diagnostik von Pankreastumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus [Universitaetklinik Ulm (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2010-12-15

    Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most frequent solid tumor of the pancreas. This tumor has distinct features including early obstruction of the pancreatic duct, diminished enhancement after administration of contrast material due to desmoplastic growth, high propensity to infiltrate adjacent structures and to metastasize into the liver and the peritoneum. Hormone active endocrine tumors cause specific clinical symptoms. Imaging is aimed at localization of these hypervascular tumors. Non hormone active tumors are most frequently malignant and demonstrate very varying features. Cystic pancreatic tumors are increasingly detected by means of cross sectional imaging. Exact classification can be achieved with knowledge of the macropathology and considering clinical presentation as well as age and gender of the patients. (orig.)

  6. Granular cell tumor of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salour, Hossein; Tavakoli, Mehdi; Karimi, Saeed; Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Faghihi, Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    To report a case of granular cell tumor as a rare orbital pathology. A 50-year-old female presented with a 4-year history of diplopia, right ocular displacement and a firm nontender mass in her right lower lid. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the orbit disclosed a well-defined mass in the right inferior orbit involving the right inferior rectus. Subtotal excision of the mass was performed, and histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies revealed granular cell tumor. Subsequently, the tumor recurred and exenteration was required as multiple sessions of radiotherapy failed to prevent the residual tumor from growing. Granular cell tumor, though very rare in the orbit, should be considered in patients with orbital masses especially in cases with involvement of the inferior rectus muscle. Infiltrative tumors may be impossible to completely resect and can rapidly recur following surgery.

  7. Granular Cell Tumor of the Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Salour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of granular cell tumor as a rare orbital pathology. Case report: A 50-year-old female presented with a 4-year history of diplopia, right ocular displacement and a firm nontender mass in her right lower lid. Computed tomography (CT scan of the orbit disclosed a well-defined mass in the right inferior orbit involving the right inferior rectus. Subtotal excision of the mass was performed, and histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies revealed granular cell tumor. Subsequently, the tumor recurred and exenteration was required as multiple sessions of radiotherapy failed to prevent the residual tumor from growing. Conclusion: Granular cell tumor, though very rare in the orbit, should be considered in patients with orbital masses especially in cases with involvement of the inferior rectus muscle. Infiltrative tumors may be impossible to completely resect and can rapidly recur following surgery.

  8. Tumor bioengineering using a transglutaminase crosslinked hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Y Fang

    Full Text Available Development of a physiologically relevant 3D model system for cancer research and drug development is a current challenge. We have adopted a 3D culture system based on a transglutaminase-crosslinked gelatin gel (Col-Tgel to mimic the tumor 3D microenvironment. The system has several unique advantages over other alternatives including presenting cell-matrix interaction sites from collagen-derived peptides, geometry-initiated multicellular tumor spheroids, and metabolic gradients in the tumor microenvironment. Also it provides a controllable wide spectrum of gel stiffness for mechanical signals, and technical compatibility with imaging based screening due to its transparent properties. In addition, the Col-Tgel provides a cure-in-situ delivery vehicle for tumor xenograft formation in animals enhancing tumor cell uptake rate. Overall, this distinctive 3D system could offer a platform to more accurately mimic in vivo situations to study tumor formation and progression both in vitro and in vivo.

  9. [Secondary malignant tumors of the parotid area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulaich, M; Oujilal, A; Benbouzid, A; Lazrak, A; Benchaqroun, L; Jazouli, N; Kzadri, M

    1994-01-01

    Secondary malignant tumors of the parotid gland are uncommon. They arise from primary tumors located in the head and neck or from distant primary tumors. The formers are dominated by squamous cell carcinomas and melanomas, the latters by kidney and bronchic cancers. Distinction between malignant primary tumors and metastasis of other primary tumors to the parotid gland is very important to appreciate, because the result of this will change therapeutic procedure and the evaluation of prognosis. The rarity of this metastatic site is illustrated by this series of 9 cases. These observations raised discussion about the site of the primary tumor, the localization in the parenchyma or in the lymph nodes, and the histological differential diagnosis.

  10. Desmoplastic Tumor Microenvironment and Immunotherapy in Cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Dan; Lewinska, Monika; Andersen, Jesper B

    2018-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a dismal disease which often is diagnosed at a late stage where the tumor is locally advanced, metastatic, and, as a result, is associated with low resectability. The heterogeneity of this cancer type is a major reason why the majority of patients fail to respond...... to therapy, and surgery remains their only curative option. Among patients who undergo surgical intervention, such tumors typically recur in 50% of cases within 1year. Thus, CCA is among the most aggressive and chemoresistant malignancies. CCA is characterized by marked tumor reactive stroma, a fibrogenic...... connective tissue which surrounds and infiltrates the tumor epithelium. This desmoplastic environment presents a clinical challenge, limiting drug delivery and supporting the growth of the tumor mass. In this review we attempt to highlight key pathways involved in cell to cell communication between the tumor...

  11. Brainstem tumors: Current management and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo F Recinos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors arising in the brainstem comprise 10-20% of all pediatric central nervous system (CNS tumors and account for a small percentage in adults. The prognosis for these tumors was considered uniformly poor prior to the era of modern neuroimaging and the location was fraught with disaster being considered a ′no man′s land′ for neurosurgeons. Following the introduction of advanced imaging modalities and neurophysiological monitoring, striking progress has occurred in the management of these lesions. Brainstem tumors are presently classified based on their anatomic location, focality, and histopathology. This article reviews the current classification of brainstem tumors, current management options, and future directions in the treatment for these rare tumors.

  12. Sweat gland tumor (Eccrine Porocarcinoma of scalp: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Roshani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine Porocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm arising from sweat glands. It was first described by Pinkus and Mehregan as ′Epidermotropic eccrine carcinoma′. It may occur de novo or as a malignant transformation of an eccrine poroma. It is commonly found in older age group and in the lower extremities. Clinically, it may present as a verrucous plaque, polypoid growth or an ulcerative lesion of long duration. Local recurrence and metastasis to skin, lymphnodes, viscera, and bone may occur. Treatment is wide local excision. Metastatic lesions can be treated with chemotherapy. We report a case of eccrine porocarcinoma of the scalp in a 50 years old female who presented to us with a bosselated, firm, painless, non-tender, freely mobile swelling over left fronto-parietal region of 12 years duration. It was excised and histopathological diagnosis was Eccrine Porocarcinoma. In literature, scalp porocarcinoma is a very rare tumor.

  13. Sintese formal do adoçante natural (-)-monatina

    OpenAIRE

    Davi de Jesus Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Resumo: Nesse trabalho descreveremos a síntese formal assimétrica da (-)-monatina,(3-indolil)-2-amino-4-carboxi-4-hidroxipentanóico), um potente adoçante natural presente nas raízes da planta africana Schlerochiton ilicifolius, que apresenta um teor dulcifico 1400 vezes mais doce do que a sacarose. A (-)-monatina contém dois centros estereogênicos, 2S e 4S. O centro 2S veio da conservação do centro estereogênico do derivado piroglutamato e centro quaternário 4S foi gerado de uma oxidação e al...

  14. Sintese de analogos conformacionalmente restringidos do acido aspartico e Glutamico

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Jose Souza Carpes

    1996-01-01

    Resumo: Ácido aspártico e ácido glutâmico são a-aminoácidos que apresentam pronunciadas propriedades biológicas dentre as quais atividade neuroexcitatória. Esta atividade é influenciada principalmente por restrições conformacionais que podem alterar a seletividade e afinidade destes aminoácidos por seus receptores celulares. A síntese de a-aminoácidos conformacionalmente restringidos ganhou considerável interesse nos anos recentes devido a sua utilização como ferramenta experimental no entend...

  15. Cowden Syndrome and Concomitant Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Seppo W; Ringholm, Lene; Dali, Christine I

    2015-01-01

    Cowden Syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder. Patients with Cowden Syndrome are at increased risk of various benign and malignant neoplasms in breast, endometrium, thyroid, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are ubiquitous neoplasms that may...... occur anywhere in the human body. Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors include four different histological subtypes, among these, typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids. No association between Cowden Syndrome and neuroendocrine tumors has previously been described. We present two cases of Cowden...

  16. Rare tumors of the rectum. Narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti Alustiza, José; Espín Basany, Eloy; Reina Duarte, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Most rectal neoplasms are adenocarcinomas, but there is a small percentage of tumors which are of other histological cell lines such as neuroendocrine tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas and squamous cell carcinomas, which have special characteristics and different treatments. We have reviewed these rare tumors of the rectum from a clinical and surgical point of view. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnosis and Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M. T.; Olmedilla, P.; Gonzalez, S.; Oliver, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are mesenquimal tumors derived from cell precursors. They have the capacity for myogenic and neurogenic differentiation and are characterized by expression of KIT protein /tyrosine kinase growth factor). Clinically, they exhibit various biological behaviors. We present 8 cases of GIST, describing both their radiological manifestation through computerized tomography (CT) and most accepted criteria for benignity and malignancy. We also describe the response of one meta statically diagnosed tumor to tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (Author) 9 refs

  18. Histopathological Pattern of Salivary Gland Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shrestha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tumors of the salivary glands are uncommon head and neck neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative frequencies, types, site distribution and the histopathological features of salivary gland tumors. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 176 cases of salivary gland tumors collected from medical record section and department of pathology at B.P.Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital from Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2010. Tumors were analyzed based on demographics, anatomic location and histopathological type. Results: Out of 176 cases, 66 (37.5 % were benign and 110 (62.5 % were malignant with M:F ratio of 1.7:1. The mean age observed was 44.76 years with age range of 12 to 75 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was found to be the commonest benign tumor (72.7 %, followed by Warthin tumor (15.1%, monomorphic adenoma (3.0 % and basal cell adenoma (3.0 %. The mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumor (38.1 %, followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (25.4%, acinic cell carcinoma (10.9%, adenocarcinoma NOS (6.3%, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (5.4% and unclassified malignant tumor (4.5 %. Parotid was the most common site for the location of tumors (70.4% followed by submandibular (19.3% and minor salivary glands (10.2 %. Conclusion: Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest salivary gland tumor observed in both sexes. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant salivary gland tumor. The parotid gland was the most common site of origin in both benign and malignant tumors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i7.10291 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2014 Vol. 4, 520-524

  19. Genetic predisposition and tumor radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budach, W.

    1997-01-01

    Studies on normal tissue radiation sensitivity have demonstrated profound differences of individual sensivities. A number of genetic syndroms associated with abnormal radiation sensitivity have been discribed. Significant differences have also been detected in persons without known genetic disorders. The question arises as to whether tumors orginating from normal tissues with abnormal radiation sensitivity share this abnormal sensitivity and as to whether a general correlation between normal tissue sensitivity and tumor tissue sensitivity can be substantiated. Experimental studies on normal and tumor tissues of SCID- and C3H-mice demonstrated that the 2.7-fold enhanced radiation sensitivity of SCID normal tissues is also found in SCID tumors. Clinical investigations on cervical carcinoma and breast cancer patients revealed higher local tumor control rates in patients with more pronounced acute side effects. A weak trend towards the same relationship was found in head and neck cancer patients. Case reports on unusually severe acute radiation side effects or unexpected tumor remissions as well as few reports on radiotherapy in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) patients suggest a correlation between normal- and tumor-tissue radiation sensitivity. Studies on fibroblasts and tumor cells from the same patient support this hypothesis in soft tissue sarcoma patients, but do not so for head and neck cancer patients. Tumor cells exhibit a considerably higher variation of radiation sensitivities than normal tissue cells. Experimental and clinical data are compatible with the hypothesis that normal tissue radiation sensitivity predicts for tumor tissue sensitivity. However, in view of the larger heterogeneity of tumor cell radiation sensitivity as compared to normal tissue radiation sensitivity, the development of a clinically useful predictive test for tumor sensitivity based on normal cell sensitivity appears to be unrealistic. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Results of surgical treatment of glomus tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay Ersin Turkmen

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Glomus tumors are often diagnosed by their characteristic clinical symptoms; pain, tenderness and cold intolerance. Given the considerably delayed time to diagnosis, glomus tumors should be taken into consideration in the presence of severe finger tip pain of unknown origin. These patients are usually operated for other reasons because of difficulties in diagnosis. After the exploration of the tumors on nail bed, was repaired properly observed. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(3.000: 66-69

  1. [Mesenchymal gastric tumor--not always GIST].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse-Holz, M; Sackmann, M; Seitz, G

    2015-02-01

    The correct histopathological classification of a gastric mesenchymal tumor as a schwannoma is essential because in contrast to gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) it is a definitive benign neoplasm which can be sufficiently treated by in sano (R0) resection. A (partial) gastrectomy is unnecessary. A clear radiological or sonographical differentiation between a schwannoma and GIST is not possible. The histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of this tumor entity are described.

  2. Nuclear medicine applications for neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatal, J F; Le Bodic, M F; Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Rousseau, C; Resche, I

    2000-11-01

    Sensitive, specific radiopharmaceuticals are available for scintigraphic diagnosis and internal radiotherapy of neuroendocrine tumors. (123)I-MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidine) scintigraphy is the examination of choice for visualizing tumor sites of pheochromocytoma. In the event of malignant pheochromocytoma or carcinoid tumor, this examination allows assessment of the presence or absence of tumor uptake and can guide radiotherapy with (131)I-MIBG. The peptides secreted by neuroendocrine tumors can be radiolabeled for targeting of their specific receptors. Scintigraphy using a (111)In-labeled somatostatin analog (octreotide) is the examination of choice for diagnosis of the spread of gastroenteropancreatic and carcinoid tumors, as it is more sensitive than morphologic imaging techniques. It can also guide radiotherapy performed with the same pharmaceutical vector. These same two agents (MIBG and octreotide) can be used therapeutically by replacing (123)I with (131)I and (111)In by (90)Y. A transient palliative effect is obtained for a variable number of tumors (most often large ones) that take up the radiopharmaceutic agent well. There is general consensus that, for relatively radioresistant solid tumors, this type of radiotherapy is efficient only in the event of small tumor targets (a few millimeters in diameter) whose uptake is maximal, allowing more homogeneous distribution than that achieved with large tumors. Thus for optimal control of the disease it is recommended first to use scintigraphic imaging to confirm that the tumor takes up the radiopharmaceutical agent in question ((123)I-MIBG or (111)In-octreotide) and then reduce the tumor burden surgically before injecting high therapeutic activity (possibly with reinjection of peripheral stem cells). This treatment can be repeated three times every 3 months before evaluating the response. In these conditions, internal radiotherapy can be beneficial or even determinant for controlling disease progression.

  3. Radiation-induced nitric oxide mitigates tumor hypoxia and radioresistance in a murine SCCVII tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagane, Masaki, E-mail: nagane@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yasui, Hironobu, E-mail: yassan@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Yamamori, Tohru, E-mail: yamamorit@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Zhao, Songji, E-mail: zsi@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kuge, Yuji, E-mail: kuge@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Tamaki, Nagara, E-mail: natamaki@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kameya, Hiromi, E-mail: kameya@affrc.go.jp [Food Safety Division, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakamura, Hideo, E-mail: naka@science-edu.org [Department of Chemistry, Hokkaido University of Education, Hakodate (Japan); Fujii, Hirotada, E-mail: hgfujii@sapmed.ac.jp [Center for Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: inanami@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •IR-induced NO increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2}. •IR increased NO production in tumors without changes in the mRNA and protein levels of NOS isoforms. •NOS activity assay showed that IR upregulated eNOS activity in tumors. •IR-induced NO decreased tumor hypoxia and altered tumor radiosensitivity. -- Abstract: Tumor hypoxia, which occurs mainly as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion in solid tumors, is a well-known challenge for successful radiotherapy. Recent evidence suggests that ionizing radiation (IR) upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production and that IR-induced NO has the potential to increase intratumoral circulation. However, the kinetics of NO production and the responsible isoforms for NO synthase in tumors exposed to IR remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which IR stimulates NO production in tumors and the effect of IR-induced NO on tumor radiosensitivity. Hoechst33342 perfusion assay and electron spin resonance oxymetry showed that IR increased tissue perfusion and pO{sub 2} in tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis using two different hypoxic probes showed that IR decreased hypoxic regions in tumors; treatment with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME, abrogated the effects of IR. Moreover, IR increased endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity without affecting its mRNA or protein expression levels in SCCVII-transplanted tumors. Tumor growth delay assay showed that L-NAME decreased the anti-tumor effect of fractionated radiation (10 Gy × 2). These results suggested that IR increased eNOS activity and subsequent tissue perfusion in tumors. Increases in intratumoral circulation simultaneously decreased tumor hypoxia. As a result, IR-induced NO increased tumor radiosensitivity. Our study provides a new insight into the NO-dependent mechanism for efficient fractionated radiotherapy.

  4. Tumor-altered dendritic cell function: implications for anti-tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Michael Hargadon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, and the array of immunoregulatory functions exhibited by these cells is dictated by their differentiation, maturation, and activation status. Although a major role for these cells in the induction of immunity to pathogens has long been appreciated, data accumulated over the last several years has demonstrated that DC are also critical regulators of anti-tumor immune responses. However, despite the potential for stimulation of robust anti-tumor immunity by DC, tumor-altered DC function has been observed in many cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals and is often associated with tumor immune escape. Such dysfunction has significant implications for both the induction of natural anti-tumor immune responses as well as the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies that target endogenous DC in situ or that employ exogenous DC as part of anti-cancer immunization maneuvers. In this review, the major types of tumor-altered DC function will be described, with emphasis on recent insights into the mechanistic bases for the inhibition of DC differentiation from hematopoietic precursors, the altered programming of DC precursors to differentiate into myeloid-derived suppressor cells or tumor-associated macrophages, the suppression of DC maturation and activation, and the induction of immunoregulatory DC by tumors, tumor-derived factors, and tumor-associated cells within the milieu of the tumor microenvironment. The impact of these tumor-altered cells on the quality of the overall anti-tumor immune response will also be discussed. Finally, this review will also highlight questions concerning tumor-altered DC function that remain unanswered, and it will address factors that have limited advances in the study of this phenomenon in order to focus future research efforts in the field on identifying strategies for interfering with tumor-associated DC dysfunction and improving DC-mediated anti-tumor

  5. Tumor-altered dendritic cell function: implications for anti-tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargadon, Kristian M

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, and the array of immunoregulatory functions exhibited by these cells is dictated by their differentiation, maturation, and activation status. Although a major role for these cells in the induction of immunity to pathogens has long been appreciated, data accumulated over the last several years has demonstrated that DC are also critical regulators of anti-tumor immune responses. However, despite the potential for stimulation of robust anti-tumor immunity by DC, tumor-altered DC function has been observed in many cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals and is often associated with tumor immune escape. Such dysfunction has significant implications for both the induction of natural anti-tumor immune responses as well as the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies that target endogenous DC in situ or that employ exogenous DC as part of anti-cancer immunization maneuvers. In this review, the major types of tumor-altered DC function will be described, with emphasis on recent insights into the mechanistic bases for the inhibition of DC differentiation from hematopoietic precursors, the altered programing of DC precursors to differentiate into myeloid-derived suppressor cells or tumor-associated macrophages, the suppression of DC maturation and activation, and the induction of immunoregulatory DC by tumors, tumor-derived factors, and tumor-associated cells within the milieu of the tumor microenvironment. The impact of these tumor-altered cells on the quality of the overall anti-tumor immune response will also be discussed. Finally, this review will also highlight questions concerning tumor-altered DC function that remain unanswered, and it will address factors that have limited advances in the study of this phenomenon in order to focus future research efforts in the field on identifying strategies for interfering with tumor-associated DC dysfunction and improving DC-mediated anti-tumor immunity.

  6. Immune response to UV-induced tumors: mediation of progressor tumor rejection by natural killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, P.R.; Fortner, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Skin tumors induced in mice by chronic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are highly antigenic and can induce a state of transplantation immunity in syngeneic animals. In the present study, the authors compared the in vitro cytolytic activity of splenic lymphocytes from mice immunized with either regressor or progressor UV-tumors. The results of this comparison implicated tumor-specific cytolytic T (Tc) lymphocytes in rejection of regressor UV-tumors, and revealed that immunization with the progressor UV-tumor 2237 failed to elicit detectable levels of progressor tumor-specific Tc cells even as the tumors rejected. Following in vitro resensitization of spleen cells from either regressor or progressor tumor immune animals, the authors found NK-like lymphocytes with anti-tumor activity. As the authors had not detected cells with this activity in splenic lymphocyte preparations prior to in vitro resensitization, the authors examined lymphocytes from the local tumor environment during the course of progressor tumor rejection for this activity. This analysis revealed NK lymphocytes exhibiting significant levels of cytolytic activity against UV-tumors. These results implicate NK cells as potential effector cells in the rejection of progressor UV-tumors by immune animals, and suggests that these cells may be regulated by T lymphocytes

  7. Cross-immunity among allogeneic tumors of rats immunized with solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Masamichi

    1979-01-01

    Several experiments were done for the study of cross-immunity among allogeneic rat tumors by immunization using gamma-irradiated or non-irradiated solid tumors. Each group of rats which were immunized with gamma-irradiation solid tumor inocula from ascites tumor cell line of tetra-ploid Hirosaki sarcoma, Usubuchi sarcoma or AH 130, showed an apparent resistance against the intraperitoneal challenge with Hirosaki sarcoma. A similar resistance was demonstrated in the case of the challenge with Usubuchi sarcoma into rats immunized with non-irradiated methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced tumors. In using solid MCA tumors as immunogen and Hirosaki sarcoma as challenge tumor, it was also demonstrated in 2 out of 3 groups immunized with non-irradiated tumors. In the experiment of trying to induce cross-immunity between 2 MCA tumors by immunization with irradiated solid tumor only, the inhibitory effect on the growth was observed in the early stage in the treated groups as compared with the control one. From the above results, it may be considered that the immunization with irradiated solid tumors fromas cites cell lines and non-irradiated solid MCA tumors induced strong cross-immunity in general, but that the immunization with only irradiated solid MCA tumors induced weak cross-immunity commonly. (author)

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE TUMORES CEREBRALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Luis Enrique Contreras

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores cerebrales son un grupo heterogéneo de tumores de distintas líneas celulares. Pueden ser primarios o secundarios, según si se originan en tejido del sistema nervioso central o en otro sitio del cuerpo. Los tumores primarios más frecuentes son el meningioma y glioblastoma, mientras las metástasis más frecuentes son de pulmón, mama y piel. No existe un registro nacional de tumores cerebrales, por lo que su incidencia real es desconocida y está basada en egresos hospitalarios y datos de mortalidad.

  9. Imaging of childhood inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguz, Berna; Ozcan, Hatice Nursun; Omay, Burak; Ozgen, Burce; Haliloglu, Mithat [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Altindag / Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare benign neoplasm and most commonly involves the lung but occurs in extrapulmonary locations. To present imaging findings in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in children based on a single-centre experience. We retrospectively reviewed CT and MRI findings of children diagnosed with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a single institution. We identified 15 children (range: 1-17 years) with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The tumor was localized to the lung (n = 5), mediastinum (n = 3), trachea (n = 1), bronchus (n = 1), abdomen (n = 2) and orbit (n = 3). All the extraorbital tumors were solid masses with homogeneous or heterogeneous enhancement. Four lung tumors and one posterior mediastinal tumor contained calcification. Local recurrence following surgical removal occurred in two children with invasion of the esophagus and of the left atrium in one. Localized masses were seen in all children with orbital tumour. Two of these had episcleritis and perineuritis; one had episcleritis, tendonitis, perineuritis, myositis and dacryoadenitis. The locations and imaging features of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are variable. (orig.)

  10. pH distribution in human tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thistlethwaite, A.J.; Leeper, D.B.; Moylan, D.J.; Nerlinger, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    pH distribution in human tumors is being determined to evaluate this parameter as a prognostic indicator of hyperthermia response. pH is measured by a modified glass pH electrode (21g, model MI 408, Microelectrodes, Inc., Londonderry, NH) inserted through an 18g open-ended Angiocath. Eight tumors have been evaluated to date; and of those, 3 were also assayed after the first heat treatment coincident with determination of blood flow. Tumors were between 2-5 cm, of various histologies, and of primary, recurrent, or metastatic origin. 2-4 measurements were made per tumor. Pretreatment readings were between 6.4 and 7.2 pH units. As tumor blood flow increased after 1 hr heating (41.5 - 43 0 ) pH rose 0.1 - 0.3 units. Normal rat muscle yields pH readings of 7.35 - 7.45. Although there was considerable heterogeneity of pH within tumors, accuracy and drift were not a problem. 5-15 min were required for pH stabilization after catheter insertion and <5 min after electrode insertion. A saline wheal was used for anesthesia to preclude modification of pH by anesthetics. Patient tolerance has not been a problems. This study suggests that human tumor tissue has a preponderance of areas more acidic than normal tissue. This may serve to sensitize tumor cells to hyperthermia and provide a prognostic indicator of tumor response

  11. CT findings in malignant anterior mediastinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narimatsu, Akiko; Higuchi, Mutsuo; Shigeta, Akiko

    1992-01-01

    Materials were 26 malignant anterior mediastinal tumors: 7 thymic carcinomas, 6 invasive thymomas, 7 malignant lymphomas (ML) and 6 malignant germ cell tumors (GCT). Egg shell calcification in the tumor was indicative of the invasive thymoma. Presence of conglomerated mass in the anterior mediastinum strongly suggested the diagnosis of ML. Although differentiation between thymic carcinoma and ML was difficult, punctate calcification and pleural implants were frequently found in the former. GCT showed no significant findings on CT. However, another clinical information was helpful to make correct diagnosis. CT guided biopsy is necessary to diagnose the malignant anterior mediastinal tumors. (author)

  12. Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

  13. Uncertainces in tumor target definition using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: PET entered into the clinics for radiation therapy as a means of displaying the metabolically active part of the tumor. However this advantage, PET has a number of shortcomings that prevent its use for precise determination of the tumor boundaries. What you will learn: The aim of the lecture is to present: the requirements for the accuracy of the determination of tumor boundaries in radiation therapy; the main phenomena which bring uncertainty using PET and a brief overview of methods for segmentation of tumors and their problems

  14. Imaging appearance in papillary endolymphatic sac tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qing; Dai Jianping; Luo Lin; Gao Peiyi; Shang Jingwei; Ai Lin; Zhu Mingwang; Li Yong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the imaging findings on CT, MRI, and angiography in patients with papillary, endolymphatic sac tumors (PELSTs) . Methods: CT and MR imaging studies in 5 patients (aged 12 - 41 years) with histopathologically proved papillary endolymphatic sac tumors were retrospectively reviewed, and four of the five also underwent angiograms. CT scans were evaluated for bone erosion and calcification, MR images for signal intensity changes, enhancement patterns, and flow voids, and angiograms for tumor blood supply. Results: All tumors were destructive, containing calcifications centered in the retrolabyrinthine region and showing irregular hone margins on CT. MR imaging appearance varied with lesion size and nature. Three of the five tumors showed a high-signal intensity margin on unenhanced T 1 and T 2 -weighted images, and the margins were more clear with fat-suppress imaging. The others were heterogeneous and contained cystic high-signal intensity area on both T 1 and T 2 weighted images. All the tumors showed irregular low signal intensity within the endolymphatic sac anatomically and flow voids signals. The blood supply arose predominantly from the external carotid artery. Two tumors had additional supply from posterior circulation. Conclusion: Papillary endolymphatic sac tumors are destructive and hypervascular lesions that arise from the retrolabyrinthine region in the temporal hone. These imaging findings combined with the original location may help distinguish PELSTs from other more common arid aggressive temporal bone tumors

  15. Radiation-induced tumors in transplanted ovaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covelli, V.; Di Majo, V.; Bassani, B.; Metalli, P.; Silini, G.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison was made of tumor induction in the ovaries of whole-body-irradiation mice (250-kV X rays, doses of 0.25-4.00 Gy) or in ovaries irradiated in vivo and then transplanted intramuscularly into castrated syngeneic hosts. The form of the dose-induction relationships was similar in the two cases, showing a steeply rising branch at doses up to 0.75 Gy followed by a maximum and an elevated plateau up to 4.00 Gy. A higher incidence of tumors in transplanted organs was apparent for doses up to the maximum, which was attributed to castration-induced hormonal imbalance. Specific death rate analysis of mice dying with ovarian tumors showed that in this system radiation acts essentially by decreasing tumor latency. Ovarian tumors were classified in various histological types and their development in time was followed by serial sacrifice. Separate analysis of death rate of animals carrying different tumor classes allowed further resolution of the various components of the tumor induction phenomenon. It was thus possible to show that the overall death rate analysis masks a true effect of induction of granulosa cell tumors in whole-body-irradiation animals. The transplantation technique offers little advantage for the study of radiation induction of ovarian tumor

  16. Accelerated Tumor Cell Death by Angiogenic Modifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Leland W. K

    2002-01-01

    ... cancer cells in vitro and xenografts tumor models in vivo While in vitro synergistic interaction was demonstrated specifically in human prostate cancer cell lines containing a functional androgen...

  17. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Ouyang, Ling; Han, Xue; Zhou, Yang; Tong, Xin; Zhang, Shulang; Zhang, Qingfu

    2013-01-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and high-grade malignant tumors that mostly occur in children and young adults. The most common sites are the trunk, limbs, and retroperitoneum. Herein, we present a case of a PNET involving the cervix uteri in a 27-year-old woman. The lesion showed characteristic histologic features of a PNET and was positive for the immunohistochemical markers cluster of differentiation (CD) 99, vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD56), and CD117 (c-kit), further defining the tumor while helping to confirm PNET. The clinical Stage IIIB tumor was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PMID:23836982

  18. Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaue, Dörthe; Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4 + CD25 hi Foxp3 + T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

  19. CT findings in malignant anterior mediastinal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narimatsu, Akiko; Higuchi, Mutsuo; Shigeta, Akiko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-07-01

    Materials were 26 malignant anterior mediastinal tumors: 7 thymic carcinomas, 6 invasive thymomas, 7 malignant lymphomas (ML) and 6 malignant germ cell tumors (GCT). Egg shell calcification in the tumor was indicative of the invasive thymoma. Presence of conglomerated mass in the anterior mediastinum strongly suggested the diagnosis of ML. Although differentiation between thymic carcinoma and ML was difficult, punctate calcification and pleural implants were frequently found in the former. GCT showed no significant findings on CT. However, another clinical information was helpful to make correct diagnosis. CT guided biopsy is necessary to diagnose the malignant anterior mediastinal tumors. (author).

  20. NMR characterization of pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbakken, M.; Gonzales, J.; Page, R.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve patients (5 male, 7 female, mean age 37.9 +- 20) with pituitary tumors were extensively evaluated with NMR imaging using a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR) and spin echo (SE) pulse sequences were used for qualitative characterization of the lesions. T/sub 1/ calculations were also performed for brain and pituitary. Tumor histology and endocrine status were correlated with NMR data. All tumors were large with suprasellar extension (6 with prolactin secretion, 6 without). Pituitary T/sub 1/'s ranged from .2 to .64, the mean T/sub 1/ being longer than that of brain (Brain = .4 +- .04; Pit = .48 +- .14). 3 patients with histological evidence of homogeneous adenomas had long T/sub 1/'s (0.58 +- .05). 3 patients with evidence of recent or old hemorhage into the pituitary had much shorter T/sub 1/'s (0.29 +- .12). There was no relationship between prolactin secretion and T/sub 1/. Qualitative T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ information can be obtained by using a combination of SR, IR, and SE images. Using this method in the patients, homogeneous adenomas had similar T/sub 1/'s and longer T/sub 2/'s compared to the brain, while patients with bleeds had shorter T/sub 1/'s and T/sub 2/'s. Image T/sub 1/ characteristics correlated well with the calculated T/sub 1/ values. The range of T/sub 1/ (and potentially T/sub 2/) values which occur in apparently similar lesions are most likely due to anatomical and pathophysiological variations in these lesions. It may be ultimately possible to separate different types of pathological processes based on NMR image T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ characteristics after careful comparative studies of NMR and histological data are completed. The combination of calculated T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ with image T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ information may also be useful in further characterization of lesions

  1. Risk of borderline ovarian tumors among women with benign ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guleria, Sonia; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A growing number of studies suggest that some ovarian cancers can arise from benign and borderline ovarian tumors. However, studies on the association between benign and borderline ovarian tumors are lacking. We studied the overall- and histotype-specific risk of borderline ovarian...... tumors among women with a benign ovarian tumor. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study included all Danish women diagnosed with a benign ovarian tumor (n=139,466) during 1978-2012. The cohort was linked to the Danish Pathology Data Bank and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals...... (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Women with benign ovarian tumors had increased risks for subsequent borderline ovarian tumors (SIR 1.62, 95% CI 1.43-1.82), and this applied to both serous (SIR 1.69, 95% CI 1.39-2.03) and mucinous (SIR 1.75, 95% CI 1.45-2.10) histotypes of borderline ovarian tumors...

  2. Cross-immunity among allogeneic tumors in rats immunized with gamma-irradiated ascites tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tatsusuke; Suga, Michio; Kudo, Hajime; Waga, Takashi; Ogasawara, Masamichi

    1980-01-01

    Non-inbred rats of the Gifu strain were intraperitoneally challenged with Hirosaki sarcoma (Tetraploid type, 10 5 cells) after repeated immunization with gamma-irradiated (13,000 rads 60 Co) allogeneic non-viral tumors of ascites type (Tetraploid or diploid type of Hirosaki sarcoma, Usubuchi sarcoma or AH130). In rats immunized not only with the same tumor as the immunizing tumor but also with a different tumor, the growth of the challenge tumor was markedly inhibited as compared with the control in non-immunized rats. It is considered that these tumors retained common antigen(s) by the resistance to irradiation because of their form of ascites tumor. The marked cross-immunity in rats immunized with AH130 may be explained by the fact that gamma-irradiated AH130 cells were alive longer in the peritoneal cavity than other tumors on account of its high resistance to irradiation. (author)

  3. Peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant S Kamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumors (DGCT are uncommon lesions mainly with rare peripheral types. This report presents a case of peripheral DGCT on the left side of the mandibular alveolar ridge of a heavy smoker, a 68-year-old man, with main presenting feature as a mild pain. Submandibular lymphadenopathy and radiological "saucerization" were evident. Differential diagnosis included fibroma, neurofibroma, peripheral ameloblastoma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. Histologically, ameloblastoma-like epithelial elements were seen in association with grouped ghost cells. Proliferating polyhedral cells and stellate reticulum-like cells with various densities were spread over a wide range of the field. The lesion was curetted and after 2 years of follow up, it did not recur.

  4. A retrorectal tumor: Presacral chordoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Birur Parmeshwarappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrorectal space contains multiple embryologic remnants derived from various tissues and tumors that develop in this space are both grossly and histologically heterogeneous. Most lesions are benign, but malignant neoplasms are not uncommon. Malignancy is more common in the pediatric population than in adults and solid lesions are more likely to be malignant than are cystic lesions. Here, 50-year-old male presented bleeding with mass per rectum and lower abdominal pain. The computed tomography scan showed retrorectal mass with destruction of the sacrum and excision of the presacral mass with removal of involved sacrum from third sacral vertebra to tip of coccyx. Finally, histopathology was chordoma of sacrum. Patient had received adjuvant external beam radiotherapy.

  5. Non-Invasive Monitoring of Breast Tumor Oxygenation: A Key to Tumor Therapy Planning and Tumor Prognosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Hanli

    2004-01-01

    .... The aims have included (1) to evaluate a single-channel, dual wavelength, NIR, frequency-domain oximeter and the algorithms for obtaining tumor HbO2 against tumor PO2 measured by 19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (2...

  6. Risk of borderline ovarian tumors among women with benign ovarian tumors: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Sonia; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K

    2018-01-01

    A growing number of studies suggest that some ovarian cancers can arise from benign and borderline ovarian tumors. However, studies on the association between benign and borderline ovarian tumors are lacking. We studied the overall- and histotype-specific risk of borderline ovarian tumors among women with a benign ovarian tumor. This nationwide cohort study included all Danish women diagnosed with a benign ovarian tumor (n=139,466) during 1978-2012. The cohort was linked to the Danish Pathology Data Bank and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Women with benign ovarian tumors had increased risks for subsequent borderline ovarian tumors (SIR 1.62, 95% CI 1.43-1.82), and this applied to both serous (SIR 1.69, 95% CI 1.39-2.03) and mucinous (SIR 1.75, 95% CI 1.45-2.10) histotypes of borderline ovarian tumors. The risk for borderline ovarian tumors was primarily increased for women diagnosed with a benign ovarian tumor before 40years of age. The risk remained increased up to 9years after a benign ovarian tumor diagnosis. Finally, the associations did not change markedly when analyzed for the different histotypes of benign (solid and cystic tumors) and borderline (serous and mucinous tumors) ovarian tumors. Women with benign ovarian tumors have a long-term increased risk for borderline ovarian tumors. However, as all associations in this study were only adjusted for age and calendar period of diagnosis, more studies that are able to adjust for additional potential confounding variables are required to further understand these associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Promotion of Tumor-Initiating Cells in Primary and Recurrent Breast Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Moreover, we have demonstrated that the EMT transcription factor, Snail , is markedly upregulated in recurrent mammary tumors, and that forced expression of... Snail in primary tumors is sufficient to promote mammary tumor recurrence. We have also obtained evidence indicating that the NF-κB and TGFβ...working to show that tumor-associated macrophages promote the breast cancer TIC phenotype through secretion of cytokines (regulated by NF-κB). In vitro

  8. Human tumor infiltrating lymphocytes cooperatively regulate prostate tumor growth in a humanized mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Michael D; Harui, Airi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The complex interactions that occur between human tumors, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and the systemic immune system are likely to define critical factors in the host response to cancer. While conventional animal models have identified an array of potential anti-tumor therapies, mouse models often fail to translate into effective human treatments. Our goal is to establish a humanized tumor model as a more effective pre-clinical platform for understanding and manipulating ...

  9. Tumores malignos do intestino delgado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fernandes Rangel

    Full Text Available Os tumores do intestino delgado são raros e a maioria das lesões neoplásicas sintomáticas é maligna.Os neoplasmas benignos são um pouco mais freqüentes e ambos estão relacionados a um diagnóstico difícil, pois determinam queixas abdominais inespecíficas, comuns a uma grande variedade de afecções digestivas. Exames de imagem e endoscópicos podem ser úteis para o diagnóstico, mas freqüentemente não são conclusivos. Para os blastomas primários, a ressecção cirúrgica é a opção de escolha, porém, para os metastáticos, a terapêutica operatória deve ser reservada para os casos complicados por obstrução, hemorragia ou perfuração. O presente estudo tem por finalidade analisar retrospectivamente 13 casos de lesões malignas do intestino delgado, num período de 28 anos. Verificou-se maior incidência de tumores primários (69,2% e de linfomas (30,7%. Entre os secundários, as mestástases por adenocarcinoma foram as mais freqüentes (15,4%. Enterectomia segmentar foi o procedimento cirúrgico mais realizado (84,6% e a mortalidade hospitalar foi de 15,4%. A sobrevida de cinco anos foi nula para os pacientes portadores de metástases, enquanto que para os primários foi de 44,4%, sugerindo um melhor prognóstico para as neoplasias primitivas, independentemente do tipo histológico da neoplasia.

  10. Genetic instability in human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Stavroula; Bapat, Bharati

    2006-01-01

    Genetic, or genomic, instability refers to a series of observed spontaneous genetic changes occurring at an accelerated rate in cell populations derived from the same ancestral precursor. This is far from a new finding, but is one that has increasingly gained more attention in the last decade due to its plausible role(s) in tumorigenesis. The majority of genetic alterations contributing to the malignant transformation are seen in growth regulatory genes, and in genes involved in cell cycle progression and arrest. Genomic instability may present itself through alterations in the length of short repeat stretches of coding and non-coding DNA, resulting in microsatellite instability. Tumors with such profiles are referred to as exhibiting a mutator phenotype, which is largely a consequence of inactivating mutations in DNA damage repair genes. Genomic instability may also, and most commonly, results from gross chromosomal changes, such as translocations or amplifications, which lead to chromosomal instability. Telomere length and telomerase activity, important in maintaining chromosomal structure and in regulating a normal cell's lifespan, have been shown to have a function in both suppressing and facilitating malignant transformation. In addition to such direct sequence and structural changes, gene silencing through the hypermethylation of promoter regions, or increased gene expression through the hypomethylation of such regions, together, form an alternative, epigenetic mechanism leading to instability. Emerging evidence also suggests that dietary and environmental agents can further modulate the contribution of genetic instability to tumorigenesis. Currently, there is still much debate over the distinct classes of genomic instability and their specific roles in the initiation of tumor formation, as well as in the progressive transition to a cancerous state. This review examines the various molecular mechanisms that result in this genomic instability and the potential

  11. Spinal and Paraspinal Ewing Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Keole, Sameer R.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Morris, Christopher G.; Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T.; Pincus, David W.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a review of the 40-year University of Florida experience treating spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 27 patients were treated between 1965 and 2007. For local management, 21 patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 6 with surgery plus RT. All patients with metastatic disease were treated with RT alone. The risk profiles of each group were otherwise similar. The median age was 17 years, and the most frequent subsite was the sacral spine (n = 9). The median potential follow-up was 16 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 62%, 62%, and 90%, respectively. For the nonmetastatic subset (n = 22), the 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 71%, 71%, and 89%, respectively. The local control rate was 84% for patients treated with RT alone vs. 100% for those treated with surgery plus RT. Patients who were >14 years old and those who were treated with intensive therapy demonstrated superior local control. Of 9 patients in our series with Frankel C or greater neurologic deficits at presentation, 7 experienced a full recovery with treatment. Of the 27 patients, 37% experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3 or greater toxicity, including 2 deaths from sepsis. Conclusion: Aggressive management of spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors with RT with or without surgery results in high toxicity but excellent local control and neurologic outcomes. Efforts should be focused on identifying disease amenable to combined modality local therapy and improving RT techniques.

  12. Rejection versus escape: the tumor MHC dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Federico; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Aptsiauri, Natalia

    2017-02-01

    Most tumor cells derive from MHC-I-positive normal counterparts and remain positive at early stages of tumor development. T lymphocytes can infiltrate tumor tissue, recognize and destroy MHC class I (MHC-I)-positive cancer cells ("permissive" phase I). Later, MHC-I-negative tumor cell variants resistant to T-cell killing emerge. During this process, tumors first acquire a heterogeneous MHC-I expression pattern and finally become uniformly MHC-I-negative. This stage (phase II) represents a "non-permissive" encapsulated structure with tumor nodes surrounded by fibrous tissue containing different elements including leukocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, etc. Molecular mechanisms responsible for total or partial MHC-I downregulation play a crucial role in determining and predicting the antigen-presenting capacity of cancer cells. MHC-I downregulation caused by reversible ("soft") lesions can be upregulated by TH1-type cytokines released into the tumor microenvironment in response to different types of immunotherapy. In contrast, when the molecular mechanism of the tumor MHC-I loss is irreversible ("hard") due to a genetic defect in the gene/s coding for MHC-I heavy chains (chromosome 6) or beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) (chromosome 15), malignant cells are unable to upregulate MHC-I, remain undetectable by cytotoxic T-cells, and continue to grow and metastasize. Based on the tumor MHC-I molecular analysis, it might be possible to define MHC-I phenotypes present in cancer patients in order to distinguish between non-responders, partial/short-term responders, and likely durable responders. This highlights the need for designing strategies to enhance tumor MHC-I expression that would allow CTL-mediated tumor rejection.

  13. Multiparametric MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzika, A.A.; Astrakas, L.G.; Zarifi, M.K.; Petridou, N.; Young-Poussaint, T.; Goumnerova, L.; Black, P.McL.; Zurakowski, D.; Anthony, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors has expanded to include physiologic information related to cellular metabolites, hemodynamic and diffusion parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between MR and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in children with primary brain tumors. Twenty-one patients (mean age 9 years) with histologically verified brain tumors underwent conventional MR imaging, hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI) and proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Fourteen patients also had diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWMRI). Metabolic indices including choline-containing compounds (Cho), total creatine (tCr) and lipids/lactate (L) were derived by proton MRSI, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) by HMRI, and apparent tissue water diffusion coefficients (ADC) by DWMRI. Variables were examined by linear regression and correlation as well as by ANOVA. Cho (suggestive of tumor cellularity and proliferative activity) correlated positively with rCBV, while the relationship between Cho and ADC (suggestive of cellular density) was inverse (P<0.001). The relationship between rCBV and ADC was also inverse (P=0.004). Cho and lipids (suggestive of necrosis and/or apoptosis) were not significantly correlated (P=0.51). A positive relationship was found between lipids and ADC (P=0.002). The relationships between Cho, rCBV, ADC and lipids signify that tumor physiology is influenced by the tumor's physical and chemical environment. Normalized Cho and lipids distinguished high-grade from low-grade tumors (P<0.05). Multiparametric MR imaging using MRSI, HMRI and DWMRI enhances assessment of brain tumors in children and improves our understanding of tumor physiology while promising to distinguish higher- from lower-malignancy tumors, a distinction that is particularly clinically important among inoperable tumors. (orig.)

  14. Tumors of the pineal region: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, G.; Delgado, F.; Cano, A.; Vicente, J.; Ramos, M.

    1997-01-01

    To consider the different radiological findings that, together with age, sex, clinical picture and serum markers, indicate a presumed or even definitive diagnosis in tumors of the pineal region. We reviewed retrospectively 18 patients diagnosed as having pineal region tumors. The lesions in this series consisted of seven germinoma, three meningiomas, one pineoblastoma. two ependymomas, one teratoma, two glial cysts, and arachnoid cyst and a lipoma. All but the arachnoid cysts and the lipoma were confirmed histologically. We took into account mainly the epidemiological data, tumor markers and CT and MR features. The germinoma was the most common lesions, representing 38.8% of the tumors in our series. All developed in men (mean age: 21 years). Small non tumoral calcifications were present in pineal gland in six of these cases. This tumor usually invades adjacent structures and produces metastatic seeding in CSF. The pineoblastoma contained prominent tumor calcifications. Meningiomas were detected only in middle-aged women. In addition to the fact that the behavior of these lesions was typical of that meningiomas in other locations, meningeal enhancement in the vicinity of the extraaxial tumor aided in the diagnosis. The teratoma showed variable attenuation, ranging from a fatty substance to calcium, and elevated fetoprotein levels. The glial cyst is a cyst lesion that does not be-have exactly like the CSF, while the arachnoid cyst was isointense with respect to the CSF in all sequences. Enhancement was observed in the glial cysts, one peripheral and the other nodular. The assessment of age, sex, clinical picture and tumor markers, together with the features observed in CT an MR images are suggestive of the histological diagnosis of pineal region tumors. We recommend the use of CT because of its availability and its ability detect calcifications, thus indicating a specific histological type, and of MR because of its greater anatomical definition and its, ability to

  15. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for multiple (four tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandro Curcio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Nephron sparing surgery (NSS is well established as the standard of care for most surgical small renal tumors when technically feasible. While the majority of sporadic renal tumors are solitary, multifocal tumors have been reported in 5.4% to 25% of patients with tumors smaller than 5cm. We present a video where we approach, through laparoscopy, four tumors on the same kidney. Case study Male, 58y, went through a routine abdominal ultrasound which showed a 5cm left kidney nodule. His MRI pointed a total of 4 nodules on his left kidney. The aspect suggested a papillary cancer due to high cellularity and low vascularization. The patient was submitted to partial nephrectomy under ischemia to remove the two largest tumors (inferior pole and a resection without clamping of the other two ipsilateral tumors. Result We performed the surgery in 2 stages. In the first one, we approached the 2 tumors located on the inferior pole inducing warm ischemia, whereas in the second stage we resected the 2 remaining tumors using the technique without clamping. The surgery lasted 220 minutes, with 800mL of blood loss, not requiring blood transfusion. Ischemia time was 35 minutes. The histopathological analysis confirmed that the 4 tumors were papillary cancer, with free margins. Conclusion NSS can be performed and should be tried in patients with multiple kidney tumors, preferably through laparoscopy or assisted by robot. It can be made either using or not clamping of the pedicle, depending on the RENAL score.

  16. Multiparametric MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzika, A.A. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); NMR Surgical Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital and Shriners Burns Institute, Harvard Medical School, 51 Blossom Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Astrakas, L.G.; Zarifi, M.K.; Petridou, N.; Young-Poussaint, T. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Goumnerova, L.; Black, P.McL. [Department of Neurosurgery, Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Zurakowski, D. [Department of Biostatistics, Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Anthony, D.C. [Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MR assessment of pediatric brain tumors has expanded to include physiologic information related to cellular metabolites, hemodynamic and diffusion parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between MR and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in children with primary brain tumors. Twenty-one patients (mean age 9 years) with histologically verified brain tumors underwent conventional MR imaging, hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI) and proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Fourteen patients also had diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWMRI). Metabolic indices including choline-containing compounds (Cho), total creatine (tCr) and lipids/lactate (L) were derived by proton MRSI, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) by HMRI, and apparent tissue water diffusion coefficients (ADC) by DWMRI. Variables were examined by linear regression and correlation as well as by ANOVA. Cho (suggestive of tumor cellularity and proliferative activity) correlated positively with rCBV, while the relationship between Cho and ADC (suggestive of cellular density) was inverse (P<0.001). The relationship between rCBV and ADC was also inverse (P=0.004). Cho and lipids (suggestive of necrosis and/or apoptosis) were not significantly correlated (P=0.51). A positive relationship was found between lipids and ADC (P=0.002). The relationships between Cho, rCBV, ADC and lipids signify that tumor physiology is influenced by the tumor's physical and chemical environment. Normalized Cho and lipids distinguished high-grade from low-grade tumors (P<0.05). Multiparametric MR imaging using MRSI, HMRI and DWMRI enhances assessment of brain tumors in children and improves our understanding of tumor physiology while promising to distinguish higher- from lower-malignancy tumors, a distinction that is particularly clinically important among inoperable tumors. (orig.)

  17. Activity of drug-loaded tumor-penetrating microparticles in peritoneal pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ze; Tsai, Max; Wang, Jie; Cole, David J; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L-S

    2014-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy confers significant survival benefits in cancer patients. However, several problems, including local toxicity and ineffectiveness against bulky tumors, have prohibited it from becoming a standard of care. We have developed drug-loaded, polymeric tumor-penetrating microparticles (TPM) to address these problems. Initial studies showed that TPM provides tumor-selective delivery and is effective against ovarian SKOV3 tumors of relatively small size (TPM activity extends to other tumor types that are more bulky and have different morphologies and disease presentation. We evaluated TPM in mice bearing two IP human pancreatic tumors with different growth characteristics and morphologies (rapidly growing, large and porous Hs766T vs. slowly growing, smaller and densely packed MiaPaCa2), and at different disease stage (early stage with smaller tumors vs. late stage with larger tumors plus peritoneal carcinomatosis). Comparison of treatments with TPM or paclitaxel in Cremophor micelles, at equi-toxic doses, shows, in all tumor types: (a) higher paclitaxel levels in tumors (up to 55-fold) for TPM, (b) greater efficacy for TPM, including significantly longer survival and higher cure rate, and (c) a single dose of TPM was equally efficacious as multiple doses of paclitaxel/Cremophor. The results indicate tumor targeting property and superior antitumor activity of paclitaxel-loaded TPM are generalizable to small and large peritoneal tumors, with or without accompanying carcinomatosis.

  18. Maxillofacial Tumors and Tumor-like Lesions in a Nigerian Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This paper reviews the types, prevalence and demographic distribution of maxillofacial tumors, cysts and tumor-like lesions in a Nigerian population. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical records and histological reports of patients with oral and maxillofacial tumors and cystic lesions ...

  19. Tumor infarction in mice by antibody-directed targeting of tissue factor to tumor vasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, XM; Molema, G; King, S; Watkins, L; Edgington, TS; Thorpe, PE

    1997-01-01

    Selective occlusion of tumor vasculature was tested as a therapy for solid tumors in a mouse model. The formation of blood clots (thrombosis) within the tumor Vessels was initiated by targeting the cell surface domain of human tissue factor, by means of a bispecific antibody, to an experimentally

  20. Peptide receptor therapies in neuroendocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodei, L.; Ferone, D.; Grana, C. M.; Cremonesi, M.; Signore, A.; Dierckx, R. A.; Paganelli, G.

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are relatively rare tumors, mainly originating from the digestive system, able to produce bioactive amines and hormones. NETs tend to be slow growing and are often diagnosed when metastatic. The localization of a NETs and the assessment of the extent of disease are

  1. Tumores del hígado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Triana Cortés

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available Algunos tumores benignos como los angiomas y los quistes no parasitarios, son tan raros que no despiertan el interés del clínico. Los adenomas del hígado pueden ser benignos o malignos. Las modalidades de su transformación epiteliomatosa son los elementos de mayor importancia en el estudio de estos tumores.

  2. Surgical treatment of testicular germinative tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srougi, M.; Simon, S.D.; Arap, S.

    1987-01-01

    A critical appraisal of the role of surgery in the strategy of management of patients with germ cell testicular cancer is presented. Special interest is directed to treatment of the primary tumor and the importance of surgery after chemotherapy in patients with advanced disease. A critical discussion on the role of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in patients with nonseminomatous tumors is presented. (author) [pt

  3. Structural determination and gynecological tumor diagnosis using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dimethylformamide, the biotin labeling reagent, was added. After 1 hour, the mixture was mixed ... Whitney U test (nonparametric analyses) of two independent specimen groups, where purpose was to assess .... defined by only one model, and tumor and non- tumor tissues cannot be distinguished clearly depending on the ...

  4. Dependence of FDG uptake on tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugachev, Andrei; Ruan, Shutian; Carlin, Sean; Larson, Steven M.; Campa, Jose; Ling, C. Clifton; Humm, John L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting the 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake in tumors at a microscopic level, by correlating it with tumor hypoxia, cellular proliferation, and blood perfusion. Methods and Materials: Nude mice bearing Dunning prostate tumors (R3327-AT) were injected with 18 F-FDG and pimonidazole, bromodeoxyuridine, and, 1 min before sacrifice, with Hoechst 33342. Selected tumor sections were imaged by phosphor plate autoradiography, while adjacent sections were used to obtain the images of the spatial distribution of Hoechst 33342, pimonidazole, and bromodeoxyuridine. The images were co-registered and analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Results: Statistical analysis of the data obtained from these tumors demonstrated that 18 F-FDG uptake was positively correlated with pimonidazole staining intensity in each data set studied. Correlation of FDG uptake with bromodeoxyuridine staining intensity was always negative. In addition, FDG uptake was always negatively correlated with the staining intensity of Hoechst 33342. Conclusions: For the Dunning prostate tumors studied, FDG uptake was always positively correlated with hypoxia and negatively correlated with both cellular proliferation and blood flow. Therefore, for the tumor model studied, higher FDG uptake is indicative of tumor hypoxia, but neither blood flow nor cellular proliferation

  5. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for endophytic hilar tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pierro, G B; Tartaglia, N; Aresu, L

    2014-01-01

    To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients.......To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients....

  6. Therapy tumor with the heavy ions beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Bingrong; Wei Zengquan; Li Wenjian

    2002-01-01

    As physical characteristic of heavy ions Bragg peak, therapy tumor with heavy ions is becoming advanced technology. So, many countries have developed the technology and used to treat tumor, the societal and economic effects are beneficial to people. The authors show the development, present situation and information of research in world of advanced radiotherapy with heavy ions

  7. Smoothing waves in array CGH tumor profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wiel, Mark A.; Brosens, Rebecca; Eilers, Paul H. C.; Kumps, Candy; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Menten, Bjorn; Sistermans, Erik; Speleman, Frank; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ylstra, Bauke

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Many high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization tumor profiles contain a wave bias, which makes accurate detection of breakpoints in such profiles more difficult. Results: An efficient and highly effective algorithm that largely removes the wave bias from tumor profiles by

  8. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the left atrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Bhambhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors to the heart usually involve right sided chambers. We report a rare case of malignant phyllodes tumor of breast with metastatic involvement of left atrium occurring through direct invasion from mediastinal micro-metastasis and presenting as a left atrial mass causing arrhythmia.

  9. Radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRue, S.M.; Gillette, S.M.; Poulson, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, radiotherapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors in animals has been limited. However, the availability of computerized tomography and other imaging techniques to aid in determining the extent of tumor, an increase in knowledge of dose tolerance of regional organs, the availability of isocentrically mounted megavoltage machines, and the willingness of patients to pursue more aggressive treatment is making radiation therapy of tumors in these regions far more common. Tumor remission has been reported after radiation therapy of thymomas. Radiation therapy has been used to treat mediastinal lymphoma refractory to chemotherapy, and may be beneficial as part of the initial treatment regimen for this disease. Chemodectomas are responsive to radiation therapy in human patients, and favorable response has also been reported in dogs. Although primary lung tumors in dogs are rare, in some cases radiation therapy could be a useful primary or adjunctive therapy. Lung is the dose-limiting organ in the thorax. Bladder and urethral tumors in dogs have been treated using intraoperative and external-beam radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy. These tumors are difficult to control locally with surgery alone, although the optimal method of combining treatment modalities has not been established. Local control of malignant perianal tumors is also difficult to achieve with surgery alone, and radiation therapy should be used. Intraoperative radiation therapy combined with external-beam radiation therapy has been used for the management of metastatic carcinoma to the sublumbar lymph nodes. Tolerance of retroperitoneal tissues may be decreased by disease or surgical manipulation

  10. [Brain tumor immunotherapy: Illusion or hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Denis; Dutoit, Valérie; Walker, Paul R; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves

    2017-05-01

    Immunotherapy has proven efficient for many tumors and is now part of standard of care in many indications. What is the picture for brain tumors? The recent development of anti-CTLA-4 and PD1 immune checkpoint inhibitors, which have the ability to restore T lymphocytes activity, has gathered enthusiasm and is now paving the way towards more complex models of immune system manipulation. These models include, among others, vaccination and adoptive T cell transfer technologies. Complementary to those strategies, molecules capable of reshaping the immune tumor microenvironment are currently being investigated in early phase trials. Indeed, the tumor bed is hostile to anti-tumor immune responses due to many escape mechanisms, and this is particularly true in the context of brain tumors, a master in eliciting immunosuppressive cells and molecules. The goal of this review is to describe the hopes and challenges of brain tumors immunotherapy and to propose an inventory of the current clinical research with specific focus on the therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Histopathological studies on the irradiated brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Tadao

    1980-01-01

    Of 43 cases of irradiated brain tumor, histological findings showed extensive necrosis or disappearance of the neoplasm, considered to be attributable to radiation treatment, in 30 (70%). Extensive necrosis of the tumor in areas exposed to radiation was found in 16 treated cases (37.2%). The histopathology of massive necrosis was that of simple coagulative necrosis, sometimes with marked vascular alterations and extravasation of fibrinoid material into the necrotic tissue. Necrosis was almost always incomplete, and foci of residual tumors were found at the periphery of the tumors. The terminal picture in cases of massive necrosis was often that of widespread intra- and extracranial metastasis. Almost complete disappearance of the tumor was observed in some cases with subsequent diffuse degenerative changes in the brain parenchyma exposed to radiation. In 5 cases of irradiated tumors, autopsy findings suggested that the growth of the primary tumor might have been restricted. And in 5 cases tumor cytology revealed the marked presence of a large number of multinucleated, bizarre giant cells with evidence of degeneration in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Multifocal necrosis of the brain, with axonal swelling and sponginess of the tissue, was observed in two patients following combined radiation and antineoplastic chemotherapy. Diffuse loss and degeneration of nerve cells of the cerebral cortex in pseudo-laminar fashion was observed in 7 patients with or without bilateral necrosis of the globus pallidus. Histological findings revealed typical anoxic encephalopathy. (J.P.N.)

  12. Surgical consideration of cervical dumbbell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomii, Masato; Itoh, Yasunobu; Numazawa, Shinichi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    Nineteen patients with cervical dumbbell tumors treated surgically were analyzed retrospectively. Surgical strategies for dumbbell tumor were discussed from the perspective of safe, less-invasive surgery. Patients included 6 men and 13 women, with a mean age at the time of surgery of 48.3 years (range, 25-70 years). Underlying pathologies included 16 schwannomas, 2 neurofibromas, and 1 double tumor (schwannoma and meningioma). According to Eden's classification, one patient was classified as Type 1, 5 as Type 2, 8 as Type 3, and 5 as Type 4. In 13 cases, tumors were excised through the posterior approach alone, compared to five cases using the anterior approach. One case was excised using combined anterior and posterior approaches. Facetectomy was not performed in 18 cases. In one case, the facet joint on one side had already destroyed and needed instrumentation. Tumors were totally excised in all cases. Postoperatively, the patients did not display any further neurological deficit, with the exception of transient radiculopathy in two patients. Major surgical complications and cerebrospinal fluid leakage were not seen. Tumor recurrence and spinal segmental instability were not found during follow-up period (mean, 41.6 months). Dumbbell tumor surgery requires sufficient debulking of the epidural and paravertebral mass, using intraoperative nerve stimulation and Doppler ultrasonography to detect the vertebral artery. When using a posterior approach, recapping laminoplasty using an ultrasonic bone curette is very useful to remove tumor without sacrificing facet joints.

  13. Genomic Heterogeneity of Breast Tumor Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Shriver, Craig D.; Ellsworth, Darrell L.

    2009-01-01

    Pathological grade is a useful prognostic factor for stratifying breast cancer patients into favorable (low-grade, well-differentiated tumors) and less favorable (high-grade, poorly-differentiated tumors) outcome groups. Under the current system of tumor grading, however, a large proportion of tumors are characterized as intermediate-grade, making determination of optimal treatments difficult. In an effort to increase objectivity in the pathological assessment of tumor grade, differences in chromosomal alterations and gene expression patterns have been characterized in low-grade, intermediate-grade, and high-grade disease. In this review, we outline molecular data supporting a linear model of progression from low-grade to high-grade carcinomas, as well as contradicting genetic data suggesting that low-grade and high-grade tumors develop independently. While debate regarding specific pathways of development continues, molecular data suggest that intermediate-grade tumors do not comprise an independent disease subtype, but represent clinical and molecular hybrids between low-grade and high-grade tumors. Finally, we discuss the clinical implications associated with different pathways of development, including a new clinical test to assign grade and guide treatment options. PMID:20689613

  14. Giant Cell Tumor of the Infratemporal Fossa

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Kevin; Singh, Anand; Kuriakose, M. Abraham; Loree, Thom R.; Harris, Kenneth; Rubenfeld, Ari; Goodloe, Samuel; Hicks, Wesley L.

    2000-01-01

    Giant cell tumors are an uncommon neoplasm; most are found in the long bones, formed by endochondral ossification. This article presents a case of giant cell tumor of the infratemporal fossa, which by radiographic and clinical examination appears to have originated in the squamous portion of the temporal bone.

  15. Giant Cell Tumor of the Infratemporal Fossa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Kevin; Singh, Anand; Kuriakose, M. Abraham; Loree, Thom R.; Harris, Kenneth; Rubenfeld, Ari; Goodloe, Samuel; Hicks, Wesley L.

    2000-01-01

    Giant cell tumors are an uncommon neoplasm; most are found in the long bones, formed by endochondral ossification. This article presents a case of giant cell tumor of the infratemporal fossa, which by radiographic and clinical examination appears to have originated in the squamous portion of the temporal bone. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:17171141

  16. Radiation Therapy of Suprasellar Germ Cell Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Yoon; Choi, Doo Ho; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Il Han; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 15 patients with suprasellar germ cell tumors treated by megavoltage external beam irradiation between Feb. 1979 and Dec. 1985. Follow-up period of survivors was 30 to 91 months. Histologic diagnosis was obtained before radiation therapy in 10 patients (9 germinomas and 1 mixed). Five patients were treated without histologic verification. In 9 patients with biopsy-proven germinomas radiation therapy was delivered to the craniospinal axis in 6, to the whole brain in 3. In 5 patients with mixed germ cell tumor or elevated tumor marker, irradiation was delivered to the craniospinal axis in 2, to the whole brain in 2, and to the primary site only in 1. Total doses ranged from 5,000 to 5,500 cGy to the primary site, 3,000 to 4,400 cGy to the whole brain, and 1,300 to 3,000 cGy to the spine. In these 14, local tumor was controlled and primary or spinal failure was not observed. One patient without elevated tumor marker was treated to the whole brain, The tumor was not controlled and he had spinal recurrence. It is proven that radiation therapy is an effective treatment for suprasellar germ cell tumors. The neuroendocrinologic presentation, tumor marker status, early response to radiation measured on CT seem to be useful means for selecting patients for radiation therapy when tissue diagnosis is not available

  17. ADNEXAL SKIN TUMORS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANNALS

    Introduction. The adnexae is part of the epidermis of the skin and is composed of different kinds of cells that can give rise to a wide variety of tumors.1-3 It is comprised of sweat glands, sebaceous glands and hair follicles, all of which share the same origin. Thus tumors arising from them share many features.1. Any detailed.

  18. Cancer Stem Cells, Tumor Dormancy, And Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvi ePatel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells can persist undetectably for an extended period of time in primary tumors and in disseminated cancer cells. Very little is known about why and how these tumors persist for extended periods of time and then evolve to malignancy. The discovery of cancer stem cells (CSCs in human tumors challenges our current understanding of tumor recurrence, drug resistance, and metastasis, and opens up new research directions on how cancer cells are capable of switching from dormancy to malignancy. Although overlapping molecules and pathways have been reported to regulate the stem-like phenotype of CSCs and metastasis, accumulated evidence has suggested additional clonal diversity within the stem-like cancer cell subpopulation. This review will describe the current hypothesis linking CSCs and metastasis and summarize mechanisms important for metastatic CSCs to re-initiate tumors in the secondary sites. A better understanding of CSCs’ contribution to clinical tumor dormancy and metastasis will provide new therapeutic revenues to eradicate metastatic tumors and significantly reduce the mortality of cancer patients.

  19. PET imaging for brain tumor diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorska, Bogdana; Tonn, Joerg C; Jansen, Nathalie L

    2014-12-01

    Brain tumors differ in histology, biology, prognosis and treatment options. Although structural magnetic resonance is still the gold standard for morphological tumor characterization, molecular imaging has gained an increasing importance in assessment of tumor activity and malignancy. Amino acid PET is frequently used for surgery and biopsy planning as well as therapy monitoring in suspected primary brain tumors as well as metastatic lesions, whereas 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) remains the tracer of choice for evaluation of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma. Application of somatostatin receptor ligands has improved tumor delineation in skull base meningioma and concurrently opened up new treatment possibilities in recurrent or surgically not assessable tumors.Recent development focuses on the implementation of hybrid PET/MRI as well as on the development of new tracers targeting tumor hypoxia, enzymes involved in neoplastic metabolic pathways and the combination of PET tracers with therapeutic agents. Implementation of molecular imaging in the clinical routine continues to improve management in patients with brain tumors. However, more prospective large sample studies are needed to validate the additional informative value of PET.

  20. An Uncommon Presentation of Giant Cell Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Hunaina; George, Mina; Malhotra, Gopal; Al-Muzahmi, Khamis

    2011-01-01

    Giant Cell Tumors commonly occur at the ends of long bones. However in rare cases, they can occur in the bones of the hands and feet. Tumors in these locations occur in younger patients; in addition, these tumors are more commonly multifocal and are associated with a higher risk for local recurrence than tumors at the ends of long bones. Since lesions in the small bones may be multifocal, a patient with a giant cell tumor of the small bones should undergo a skeletal survey to exclude similar lesions elsewhere. Primary surgical treatment ranges from curettage or excision with or without bone grafting to amputation. The success of surgical treatment depends on the completeness with which the tumor was removed. We are presenting a case report of a 34 year old female, who presented with a swelling in the right hand, following trauma. X-ray of the hand showed an osteolytic expansile lesion at the base of the 1st metacarpal bone. The lesion was initially curetted and then treated by local resection with bone grafting. Histological examination revealed a typical benign giant cell tumor composed of closely packed stromal cells with a variable admixture of giant cells. Follow up at the end of one year did not reveal any recurrence of the tumor. PMID:22125733

  1. Radiofrequency ablation for renal tumors. Our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Kenji; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Nakamura, Terukazu; Soh, Jintetsu; Mikami, Kazuya; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report our results of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for renal tumors and to assess predictors of therapeutic efficacy. Forty patients (median age 73 years) with renal tumors were treated with RFA under local or epidural anesthesia. All of them had high surgical risk or refused radical surgery. Tumors were punctured percutaneously using the Radionics Cool-tip RF System under computed tomography or ultrasonographic guidance. Median tumor diameter was 24 mm. After RFA, contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was performed within 1 month. Complete response (CR) was defined as no enhancement inside the tumor. Factors related to the outcome and to renal function were assessed. Median follow up was 16 months. CR was observed in 34 cases (85.0%). A significant difference in CR rate was observed between tumors ≤30 mm and those >30 mm. Outcomes tended to be better for tumors in the mid to lower kidney, and those away from the renal hilum. Recurrence was observed in one case (2.9%), but a CR was obtained again by additional RFA. Out of a total of 77 RFA procedures, complications occurred in only three cases (3.9%), and conservative treatment was possible in all cases. Serum creatinine levels 3 months after RFA did not differ from those before RFA. Percutaneous RFA is a safe and effective treatment for small renal tumors in patients with high surgical risk or who refuse radical surgery. (author)

  2. Radioimmunoimaging of tumors with a pantumor antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.C.P.; Siegel, M.E.; Chen, F.; Taylor, O.R.; Epstein, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The TNT-1 antibody was developed to bind intracellular nuclear antigens that are accessible only in degenerative or necrotic cells. Since about 50% of tumor cells are in various stages of cell degeneration or death, this antibody could serve as a pantumor antibody for tumor detection. After intravenous injection of 10 μg of TNT-1F(ab')2 fragments labeled with 20 μCi of I-131, serial images were obtained at 1 and 4 hours and daily for 6 days in mice bearing various human tumors. Accumulation of TNT-1 was imaged in a necrotic tumor as early as 4 hours after injection and because more intense at 48 hours. The tumor-muscle ratio was as high as 29:1. Intense accumulation was noted in the necrotic tumor, about nine times that of healthy tumor. In conclusion, TNT-1, a pantumor antibody, can detect necrotic tumors in animal models. It may be an ideal imaging agent for cancer detection

  3. High efficiency diffusion molecular retention tumor targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding and RAD (control probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for (111 In(3+, a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or i.v. methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [(111In] RGD and [(111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [(111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by i.v.. The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide, which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light.

  4. Tumor relapse present in oncologic nasal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez Chavez, Julio Cesar; Sanchez Wals, Lenia; Monzon Fernandez, Abel Nicolas; Morales Tirado, Roxana

    2009-01-01

    Tumor relapse is one of the more fearsome complications of the oncologic course and also to obscure the life prognosis, causing the loss of many reconstructions and of exhausting the repairing surgical possibilities. The aim of this study was to determine the relapse frequency, the repercussion on the repair and the subsequent medical course of patients operated on malign nasal tumors

  5. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  6. Tumor ocular metastásico Metastatic ocular tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G Domínguez Expósito

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma metastásico del ojo es considerado la neoplasia maligna que más frecuente se encuentra de forma intraocular. Solo cerca del 10 % de las personas que tienen una o más lesiones metastásicas intraoculares son detectadas clínicamente antes de la muerte. A menudo, el carcinoma metastásico ocular es diagnosticado por el oftalmólogo ante la presencia de síntomas oculares. Las lesiones están localizadas con preferencia en coroides. Nos motivo a realizar la presentación de este caso la presencia de lesiones intraoculares múltiples tumorales metastásicos en un paciente cuyo síntoma de presentación fue la disminución de la agudeza visualThe eye metastatic carcinoma is considered the most frequently found intraocular malignant neoplasia. Only 10 % of the persons with one or more metastatic intraocular injuries are clinically detected before death. The metastatic ocular carcinoma is often diagnosed by the ophthalmologist in the presence of ocular symptoms. The injuries are preferably located in the choroid. The appearance of multiple metastatic intraaocular tumoral injuries in a patient whose chief complaint was the reduction of visual acuity motivated us to presente this case

  7. Malignant sweat gland tumors: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenn, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Sweat gland carcinomas represent an important and somewhat contentious group of tumors in diagnostic skin pathology. Although their overall incidence is rare, they show a wide range of histologic features, and reliable classification is often challenging. Awareness and recognition of these tumors is, however, important as they may be associated with significant morbidity and even disease-related mortality, especially if left untreated. According to their behavior, sweat gland carcinomas are traditionally separated into tumors with low-grade and high-grade malignant behavior. This article is aimed at increasing awareness and providing an overview of malignant sweat gland tumors with emphasis on recently reported and novel findings and diagnostically challenging and potentially underrecognized entities. It further aims to illustrate the wide morphologic range of these tumors and provides a discussion of the relevant immunohistochemistry, disease-specific behavior, and differential diagnosis.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of ampullary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ampullary tumors mainly manifest as obstructive jaundice and ampullary mass in clinical practice and are difficult to be identified in early stage due to a complex structure of the anatomical site, a deep location, and hidden symptoms. Sometimes a qualitative diagnosis cannot be made. Based on the experience in the treatment of ampullary tumors for many years in our center, this article summarizes the features of ampullary tumors from the aspects of clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis, especially the issues regarding imaging evaluation of ampullary tumors, selection of surgical procedure, and prognosis. An early diagnosis is the key to the treatment of ampullary tumors, and early identification and treatment of lesions have great impacts on patients′ prognosis. Accurate preoperative imaging evaluation, a professional diagnosis and treatment team, accurate preoperative and intraoperative pathological analysis, and implementation of reasonable therapeutic strategy are the key to patients′ recovery.

  9. Paraneoplastic Cushing Syndrome Due To Wilm's Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Mahwish; Manzoor, Jaida; Saleem, Muhammad; Anwar, Saadia; Mehmood, Qaiser; Hameed, Ambreen; Ali, Agha Shabbir

    2017-05-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, along with histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of intraorbital tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tooru; Fukui, Masashi; Matsushima, Toshio; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Hasuo, Kanehiro

    1991-01-01

    Ten cases of histologically confirmed intraorbital tumors were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two meningiomas were nearly isointense on the T 1 -weighted image (T 1 WI) and the T 2 -weighted image (T 2 WI) relative on the cerebral cortex. The hemangiopericytoma, lacrimal gland tumor, optic glioma, and encephalocele were hypointense on the T 1 WI. The pseudotumor was hypoisointense on both the T 1 WI and the T 2 WI. The metastatic tumor (prostatic carcinoma) was hyperintense on both the T 1 WI and the T 2 WI. Gd-DTPA MRI was performed in five cases. The anatomical relationships between the tumor and the orbital tissue could be discriminated well by means of the coronal and sagittal views. MRI is thus found to be useful for the preoperative diagnosis of the intraorbital tumor and the selection of the surgical approach. (author)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of intraorbital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tooru; Fukui, Masashi; Matsushima, Toshio; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Hasuo, Kanehiro (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-12-01

    Ten cases of histologically confirmed intraorbital tumors were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two meningiomas were nearly isointense on the T[sub 1]-weighted image (T[sub 1]WI) and the T[sub 2]-weighted image (T[sub 2]WI) relative on the cerebral cortex. The hemangiopericytoma, lacrimal gland tumor, optic glioma, and encephalocele were hypointense on the T[sub 1]WI. The pseudotumor was hypoisointense on both the T[sub 1]WI and the T[sub 2]WI. The metastatic tumor (prostatic carcinoma) was hyperintense on both the T[sub 1]WI and the T[sub 2]WI. Gd-DTPA MRI was performed in five cases. The anatomical relationships between the tumor and the orbital tissue could be discriminated well by means of the coronal and sagittal views. MRI is thus found to be useful for the preoperative diagnosis of the intraorbital tumor and the selection of the surgical approach. (author).

  12. Childhood kidney tumors - the relevance of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, J.-P.; Schrader, C.; Ley, S.; Troeger, J.; Guenther, P.; Furtwaengler, R.; Graf, N.; Leuschner, I.; Edelhaeuser, M.

    2005-01-01

    Kidney tumors represent 6.2% of malignant tumors in children. History, clinical course and radiological findings are necessary elements in the differential diagnosis of the different renal tumors. In the case of nephroblastoma, chemotherapy is based solely on the radiological diagnosis without prior histology. In therapy-optimizing studies of the Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, preoperative chemotherapy is performed. Therapy monitoring is performed in the course of and after preoperative chemotherapy to verify tumor response. Radiological staging plays a significant role in deciding on further treatment and in operative planning. Three-dimensional visualization of the abdominal situs can assist preoperative planning. In summary, diagnostic imaging in renal tumors in children plays a role in differential diagnosis, staging, monitoring of therapy, and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  13. Percutaneous treatment of pulmonary tumors by electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, L.; Joensson, L.; Stahl, E.

    1983-01-01

    Five lung tumors in four patients were treated with electrolysis. One of the tumors was probably primary, while the others were metastases. Under local anesthesia, two or three platinum electrodes (diameter 3 mm) were introduced through the thoracic wall into the lung tumor using biplane fluoroscopy. The patient was sedated before the procedure and a chest tube was inserted into the pleural cavity. Between anode and cathode a direct current of 80 mA and 10 V was passed during 2-4 h, creating substantial electrolytic destruction mainly through chlorine liberation. Observations at autopsy, surgery, chest X-ray, and CT showed that 60%-80% of the tumor mass was destroyed. No tumor was completely destroyed. The patients stood the procedure well. (orig.)

  14. [Intraabdominal desmoid tumors in familial adenomatous polyposis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletto, Paula; Leoz, Maria Liz; Castells, Antoni; Balaguer, Francesc

    2013-11-01

    Desmoid tumors are currently the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. More than 10% of these patients will develop these tumors during their lifetime and more than a third will suffer their consequences. The main risk factors for their development are female sex and abdominal surgery. The most frequent localization is intraabdominal. The therapeutic approach to these tumors has changed, and the surgical treatment of choice is currently the subject of debate. If a watch and wait approach is adopted, more than 50% of tumors will prove to be indolent. Therefore, the therapeutic strategy should be based on clinical presentation and should be decided by a multidisciplinary team working in a center with experience of these tumors. The present article proposes a prognostic classification to guide the therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain's tumor image processing using shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Luis; Espinosa, Nikolai; Cadena, Franklin; Korneeva, Anna; Kruglyakov, Alexey; Legalov, Alexander; Romanenko, Alexey; Zotin, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Brain tumor detection is well known research area for medical and computer scientists. In last decades there has been much research done on tumor detection, segmentation, and classification. Medical imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of brain tumors and nowadays uses methods non-invasive, high-resolution techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. Edge detection is a fundamental tool in image processing, particularly in the areas of feature detection and feature extraction, which aim at identifying points in a digital image at which the image has discontinuities. Shearlets is the most successful frameworks for the efficient representation of multidimensional data, capturing edges and other anisotropic features which frequently dominate multidimensional phenomena. The paper proposes an improved brain tumor detection method by automatically detecting tumor location in MR images, its features are extracted by new shearlet transform.

  16. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in mandibular region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Cabrales, Ernesto; Vila Morales, Dadonim; Felipe Garmendia, Angel Mario; Serra Ortega, Alain; Torres Gomez de Cadiz, Alma

    2010-01-01

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon neoplasm derivative of the odontogenic epithelium containing canalicular structures with inductor modifications of variable intensity in the conjunctival tissue. It is a slow growth lesion and no much invasive but that may to be similar to other odontogenic lesions more aggressive including the dentigerous cyst and the ameloblastoma among others. Its classical location (upper canine area) guides us to diagnosis and its duct histological pattern is very typical of this tumor. Other tumors included in this group are the ameloblastic fibroma, the ameloblastic odontoma, the calcified odontogenic cyst and composed and complex odontomas. This group of lesions may or not to have formations of hard tissue inside. Thus, authors present the case of a patient presenting with this type of tumor making a histopathology study, a literature review on this benign odontogenic tumor and its clinical radiographic features, treatment, as well as the differential diagnoses to be into account. (author)

  17. Tumor suppressors: enhancers or suppressors of regeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Jason H.; Blau, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor suppressors are so named because cancers occur in their absence, but these genes also have important functions in development, metabolism and tissue homeostasis. Here, we discuss known and potential functions of tumor suppressor genes during tissue regeneration, focusing on the evolutionarily conserved tumor suppressors pRb1, p53, Pten and Hippo. We propose that their activity is essential for tissue regeneration. This is in contrast to suggestions that tumor suppression is a trade-off for regenerative capacity. We also hypothesize that certain aspects of tumor suppressor pathways inhibit regenerative processes in mammals, and that transient targeted modification of these pathways could be fruitfully exploited to enhance processes that are important to regenerative medicine. PMID:23715544

  18. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies.

  19. Tumor do apêndice vermiforme

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    Ascêncio Garcia Lopes Júnior

    Full Text Available Appendiceal tumors are rare and usually presented as acute appendicitis. They are incidentally discovered at an emergency surgery, in which case the decision-making is very difficult. The purpose of this report is discuss to the most appropriate management for appendiceal tumors. A retrospective analysis of one case treated at HU-UEL was undertaken and the literature was reviewed. The conclusion is that frozen section should be done whenever the appendiceal findings are atypical. For appendiceal carcinoids greater than 2 cm and adenocarcinomas, a right hemicolectomy is recommended. Appendectomy is apropriate for patients whose carcinoid tumors are 1 cm in diameter or less and for carcinoid tumors between 1 cm and 2 cm without extensive lymphatic permeation and mesenteric invasion. Every case should be searched for synchronous tumors.

  20. Role of Axumin PET Scan in Germ Cell Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Testis Cancer; Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Cancer; Germ Cell Tumor of Testis; Germ Cell Tumor, Testicular, Childhood; Testicular Neoplasms; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Diseases; Germ Cell Cancer Metastatic; Germ Cell Neoplasm of Retroperitoneum; Germ Cell Cancer, Nos

  1. Solid pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas: An unusual tumor in children

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    Parelkar, Sandesh V.; Oak, Sanjay N.; Kapadnis, Satish P.; Sanghvi, Beejal V.; Joshi, Prashant B.; Sathe, Pragati; Mundada, Dinesh; Shetty, Shishira

    2013-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl with a pancreatic solid pseudo papillary tumor (SPT) is reported. Contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CECT) & Magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) abdomen revealed a well-defined inhomogenous mass arising from the retro-peritoneum in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen possibly from the tail of the pancreas. USG guided biopsy of tumor showed benign pseudo papillary tumor of pancreas. Complete excision of the tumor was carried out. Histopathology revealed pancreatic pseudo papillary tumor. Patient did well postoperatively & is on regular follow-up PMID:23599585

  2. Solid pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas: An unusual tumor in children

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    Sandesh V Parelkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old girl with a pancreatic solid pseudo papillary tumor (SPT is reported. Contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CECT & Magnetic resonant imaging (MRI abdomen revealed a well-defined inhomogenous mass arising from the retro-peritoneum in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen possibly from the tail of the pancreas. USG guided biopsy of tumor showed benign pseudo papillary tumor of pancreas. Complete excision of the tumor was carried out. Histopathology revealed pancreatic pseudo papillary tumor.Patient did well postoperatively & is on regular follow-up

  3. Severe acute tumor lysis syndrome in patients with germ-cell tumors

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    Guilherme Alvarenga Feres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ-cell tumors are a high-proliferative type of cancer that may evolve to significant bulky disease. Tumor lysis syndrome is rarely reported in this setting. The reports of three patients with germ-cell tumors who developed severe acute tumor lysis syndrome following the start of their anticancer therapy are presented. All patients developed renal dysfunction and multiorgan failure. Patients with extensive germ-cell tumors should be kept on close clinical and laboratory monitoring. Physicians should be aware of this uncommon but severe complication and consider early admission to the intensive care unit for the institution of measures to prevent acute renal failure.

  4. Patterns of tumor initiation in choroidal melanoma.

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    Li, W; Judge, H; Gragoudas, E S; Seddon, J M; Egan, K M

    2000-07-15

    This study attempts to document the occurrence of tumors with respect to clock hour location and distance from the macula and to evaluate tumor location in relation to retinal topography and light dose distribution on the retinal sphere. Analysis of patterns of tumor initiation may provide new evidence to clarify the controversy regarding the possible light-related etiology of choroidal melanoma. Incident cases of choroidal and ciliary body melanoma in Massachusetts residents diagnosed between 1984 and 1993 were the basis for analysis. Conventional fundus drawings and photos were used to assess the initiation site of each tumor. The initiation site was defined as the intersect between the largest tumor diameter and the largest perpendicular diameter of the tumor. Initiation sites were recorded using spherical coordinates. The retinal sphere was divided into 61 mutually exclusive sectors defined according to clock hour and anteroposterior distance from the macula. Rates of initiation were computed for each sector, overall, and according to gender and other clinical factors. Results were similar in left and right eyes; therefore, these were combined in analysis. Tumor initiation had a predilection for the macula (P iris color (P = 0.01). Tumor diameters were largest in the peripheral region of the fundus and smallest in the macular and ciliary body zone (P iris color (P = 0.84), or tumor diameter (P = 0.73). Results suggest that tumor initiation is not uniformly distributed, with rates of occurrence concentrated in the macular area and decreasing monotonically with distance from the macula to the ciliary body. This pattern is consistent with the retinal topography and correlates positively with the dose distribution of solar light on the retinal sphere.

  5. The primary intrathoracic tumor in pediatric group

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    Choe, Kyoo Ok; Lee, Young Ho; Oh, Ki Keun; Park, Chang Yun

    1985-01-01

    The increased frequency with which intrathoracic masses have been discovered in the pediatric age group seems to correspond to the increased utilization a typical location and appearance, the range of possibilities is so great that the diagnosis is rarely made with any certainty before operation. For evaluation of clinical and radiological aspect of these tumors, we reviewed in pediatric age group 28 cases of primary intrathoracic tumor which were diagnosed pathologically at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine since 1971. The results: 1. The mediastinal tumors are predominant: 25 cases of mediastinal tumors and 3 cases of pulmonary tumor. 2. The incidence of tumors according to pathologic type is as follows: The malignant lymphoma is most common (12 cases, 45%), next is neurogenic tumor (7 cases, 25%), and Rhabdomyosarcoma 2 cases, benign teratoma 2 cases, thymoma 1 case, bronchogenic cyst of mediastinum 1 case. Pulmonary lesion as follow: 2 cases of mal. mesenchynoma, and 1 case of bronchogenic cyst lung. 3. The sex incidence in out series shows male predominence (22 : 6) under 6 years of age, neurogenic tumor and malignant mesenchymoma are predominant, between 11 to 15 years of age malignant lymphoma is predominant and between 6 to 10 years age variable types of tumor are observed. 4. The radiological findings are as follows; a. Malignant lymphoma are located at the anterior and/or mid mediastinum with unilateral or bilateral mediastinal widening. The majority show smooth margin and lobulations on their borders. b. Neurogenic tumors are located in posterior mediastinum. Their margin are sharp or ill-defined. Specimen radiolography found minimal calcification in 1 case. Rib erosion and intercostal widening are noted in 2 cases. c. Teratoma are all located in anterior mediastinum with well defined smooth margin. Curvilinear calcification in 1 case. d. Malignant mesenchymoma are manifested as irregular shaggy bordered mass in lung parenchyme. 1

  6. Targeted Brain Tumor Treatment: Current Perspectives

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    Ningaraj N.S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumor is associated with poor prognosis. The treatment option is severely limited for a patient with brain tumor, despite great advances in understanding the etiology and molecular biology of brain tumors that have lead to breakthroughs in developing pharmaceutical strategies, and ongoing NCI/Pharma-sponsored clinical trials. We reviewed the literature on molecular targeted agents in preclinical and clinical studies in brain tumor for the past decade, and observed that the molecular targeting in brain tumors is complex. This is because no single gene or protein can be affected by single molecular agent, requiring the use of combination molecular therapy with cytotoxic agents. In this review, we briefly discuss the potential molecular targets, and the challenges of targeted brain tumor treatment. For example, glial tumors are associated with over-expression of calcium-dependent potassium (KCa channels, and high grade glioma express specific KCa channel gene (gBK splice variants, and mutant epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRvIII. These specific genes are promising targets for molecular targeted treatment in brain tumors. In addition, drugs like Avastin and Gleevec target the molecular targets such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptors, and BRC-ABL/Akt. Recent discovery of non-coding RNA, specifically microRNAs could be used as potential targeted drugs. Finally, we discuss the role of anti-cancer drug delivery to brain tumors by breaching the blood-brain tumor barrier. This non-invasive strategy is particularly useful as novel molecules and humanized monoclonal antibodies that target receptor tyrosine kinase receptors are rapidly being developed.

  7. Targeted Brain Tumor Treatment-Current Perspectives

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    N.S. Ningaraj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumor is associated with poor prognosis. The treatment option is severely limited for a patient with brain tumor, despite great advances in understanding the etiology and molecular biology of brain tumors that have lead to breakthroughs in developing pharmaceutical strategies, and ongoing NCI/Pharma-sponsored clinical trials. We reviewed the literature on molecular targeted agents in preclinical and clinical studies in brain tumor for the past decade, and observed that the molecular targeting in brain tumors is complex. This is because no single gene or protein can be affected by single molecular agent, requiring the use of combination molecular therapy with cytotoxic agents. In this review, we briefly discuss the potential molecular targets, and the challenges of targeted brain tumor treatment. For example, glial tumors are associated with over-expression of calcium-dependent potassium (K Ca channels, and high grade glioma express specific K Ca channel gene (gBK splice variants, and mutant epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRvIII. These specific genes are promising targets for molecular targeted treatment in brain tumors. In addition, drugs like Avastin and Gleevec target the molecular targets such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptors, and BRC-ABL/Akt. Recent discovery of non-coding RNA, specifically microRNAs could be used as potential targeted drugs. Finally, we discuss the role of anti-cancer drug delivery to brain tumors by breaching the blood-brain tumor barrier. This non-invasive strategy is particularly useful as novel molecules and humanized monoclonal antibodies that target receptor tyrosine kinase receptors are rapidly being developed.

  8. Cyclophosphamide Enhances Human Tumor Growth in Nude Rat Xenografted Tumor Models

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    Yingjen Jeffrey Wu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the immunomodulatory chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide (CTX on tumor growth was investigated in primary and metastatic intracerebral and subcutaneous rat xenograft models. Nude rats were treated with CTX (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally 24 hours before human ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3, small cell lung carcinoma (LX-1 SCLC, and glioma (UW28, U87MG, and U251 tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, or in the right cerebral hemisphere or were infused into the right internal carotid artery. Tumor development was monitored and recorded. Potential mechanisms were further investigated. Only animals that received both CTX and Matrigel showed consistent growth of subcutaneous tumors. Cyclophosphamide pretreatment increased the percentage (83.3% vs 0% of animals showing intraperitoneal tumors. In intracerebral implantation tumor models, CTX pretreatment increased the tumor volume and the percentage of animals showing tumors. Cyclophosphamide increased lung carcinoma bone and facial metastases after intra-arterial injection, and 20% of animals showed brain metastases. Cyclophosphamide transiently decreased nude rat white blood cell counts and glutathione concentration, whereas serum vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly elevated. Cyclophosphamide also increased CD31 reactivity, a marker of vascular endothelium, and macrophage (CD68-positive infiltration into glioma cell-inoculated rat brains. Cyclophosphamide may enhance primary and metastatic tumor growth through multiple mechanisms, including immune modulation, decreased response to oxidative stress, increased tumor vascularization, and increased macrophage infiltration. These findings may be clinically relevant because chemotherapy may predispose human cancer subjects to tumor growth in the brain or other tissues.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of syrinx cavity. Differentiation between syrinx with spinal cord tumor and without tumor

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    Fukuda, Teruo; Inoue, Yuichi; Nemoto, Yutaka

    1987-12-01

    Syrinx cavity may result from a number of intramedullary tumors or non-neoplastic conditions such as Chiari malformation, trauma and meningitis. The surgical procedure to repair the syrinx is quite different between the cases with spinal cord tumor and without tumor. Therefore, it is important to determine whether syrinx is associated with tumor or not before surgery. We reviewed MR images of 26 cases with syrinx cavity; 20 of which were not associated with tumor (12 Chiari malformation, 5 trauma, 1 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus, 1 idiopathic) and 6 of which were associated with intramedullary tumor (3 ependymoma, 2 astrocytoma, 1 hemangioendothelioma). The syrinx showed low signal in all 26 cases on T1 weighted images (SE 600/40). All 6 cases with syrinx associated with intramedullary tumor showed high intensity on T2 weighted images (SE 2000/120). On the other hand, the syrinx of 19 of 20 cases with no tumor condition showed reduced intensity on T2 weighted images. Only one post-traumatic small syrinx showed high signal. This was quite different between the cases with spinal cord tumor and without tumor. Therefore, when the syrinx cavity shows high signal on T2 weighted images, an intramedullary tumor is strongly suggested.

  10. Intra-Tumor Genetic Heterogeneity in Wilms Tumor: Clonal Evolution and Clinical Implications

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    George D. Cresswell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of pediatric solid tumors is poorly understood. There is conflicting evidence of intra-tumor genetic homogeneity vs. heterogeneity (ITGH in a small number of studies in pediatric solid tumors. A number of copy number aberrations (CNA are proposed as prognostic biomarkers to stratify patients, for example 1q+ in Wilms tumor (WT; current clinical trials use only one sample per tumor to profile this genetic biomarker. We multisampled 20 WT cases and assessed genome-wide allele-specific CNA and loss of heterozygosity, and inferred tumor evolution, using Illumina CytoSNP12v2.1 arrays, a custom analysis pipeline, and the MEDICC algorithm. We found remarkable diversity of ITGH and evolutionary trajectories in WT. 1q+ is heterogeneous in the majority of tumors with this change, with variable evolutionary timing. We estimate that at least three samples per tumor are needed to detect >95% of cases with 1q+. In contrast, somatic 11p15 LOH is uniformly an early event in WT development. We find evidence of two separate tumor origins in unilateral disease with divergent histology, and in bilateral WT. We also show subclonal changes related to differential response to chemotherapy. Rational trial design to include biomarkers in risk stratification requires tumor multisampling and reliable delineation of ITGH and tumor evolution.

  11. Tumores testiculares na infância Testicular tumors in childhood

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    Adauto José Cologna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um artigo de revisão de tumores testiculares na infância que representam 1 a 2% dos tumores sólidos pediátricos. Os tumores germinativos representam 60 a 75% dos tumores testiculares pediátricos. Destes o mais comum é o tumor de saco vitelino cujo tratamento consiste na orquiectomia radical. Segue-se em freqüência o teratoma que na infância tem comportamento benigno e pode ser manejado com observação ou orquiectomia parcial. Os tumores de células de Leydig, e os de células de Sertoli, são os mais comuns do estroma gonadal e ambos podem ser tratados com orquiectomia simples.This is a review article on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of testes tumors in childhood that represents 1 to 2% of the solid. Germ tumors represent 60 to 75% of pediatric testes tumors of whom the most common is the yolk sac tumor that usually is treated by radical orquiectomy. Teratoma is the second in frequency that has a benign behavior in childhood and can be managed by watchful waiting or partial orquiectomy. Leydig cell and Sertoli cell tumors are the most common of the gonad stroma and both can be treated plain orquiectomy.

  12. WAYS TO ENHANCE LYMPHOCYTE TRAFFICKING INTO TUMORS AND FITNESS OF TUMOR INFILTRATING LYMPHOCYTES

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    Matteo eBellone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The tumor is a hostile microenvironment for T lymphocytes. Indeed, irregular blood flow and endothelial cell (EC anergy that characterize most solid tumors hamper leukocyte adhesion, extravasation and infiltration. In addition, hypoxia and reprogramming of energy metabolism within cancer cells transform the tumor mass in a harsh environment that limits survival and effector functions of T cells, regardless of being induced in vivo by vaccination or adoptively transferred. In this review, we will summarize on recent advances in our understanding of the characteristics of tumor associated neoangiogenic vessels as well as of the tumor metabolism that may impact on T cell trafficking and fitness of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. In particular, we will focus on how advances in knowledge of the characteristics of tumor ECs have enabled identifying strategies to normalize the tumor vasculature and/or overcome EC anergy, thus increasing leukocyte-vessel wall interactions and lymphocyte infiltration in tumors. We will also focus on drugs acting on cells and their released molecules to transiently render the tumor microenvironment more suitable for tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes, thus increasing the therapeutic effectiveness of both active and adoptive immunotherapies.

  13. Irradiated tumor cells of lipopolysaccharide stimulation elicit an enhanced anti-tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuli; Shen, Guobo; Nie, Wen; Li, Zhimian; Sang, Yaxiong; Zhang, Binglan; Wei, Yuquan

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer surface membrane of Gram-negative bacteria which has been proved an effective immune enhancer. Here, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of irradiated tumor cells that stimulated by LPS in mouse xenografts models. Tumor cells were irradiated after stimulation with 1 μg/mL LPS for 48 h. The C57BL/6 mice were immunized subcutaneously with irradiated tumor cells. The anti-tumor effect of lymphocytes of immunized mice was investigated. The cytotoxicity of spleen lymphocytes from immunized mice was determined by a standard (51)Cr-release assay. The roles of immune cell subsets in anti-tumor activity were assessed by injected intraperitoneally with monoclonal antibodies. We observed that the vaccine of irradiated tumor cell with LPS-stimulated elicited a stronger protective anti-tumor immunity than other controls. Adoptive transfer of lymphocytes of immunized mice showed that the cellular immune response was involved in the anti-tumor effect. And this effect was achieved by activation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell response and reduction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, Gr1(+) CD11b (+) ), which were confirmed by depletion of immune cell subsets and flow cytometry analysis. In summary, our study showed that stimulation of LPS was able to enhance anti-tumor immunity of vaccination with tumor cells after irradiation treatment, which might be a new strategy for cancer therapy.

  14. Tumor necrosis factor induces tumor promoting and anti-tumoral effects on pancreatic cancer via TNFR1.

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    Martin Chopra

    Full Text Available Multiple activities are ascribed to the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF in health and disease. In particular, TNF was shown to affect carcinogenesis in multiple ways. This cytokine acts via the activation of two cell surface receptors, TNFR1, which is associated with inflammation, and TNFR2, which was shown to cause anti-inflammatory signaling. We assessed the effects of TNF and its two receptors on the progression of pancreatic cancer by in vivo bioluminescence imaging in a syngeneic orthotopic tumor mouse model with Panc02 cells. Mice deficient for TNFR1 were unable to spontaneously reject Panc02 tumors and furthermore displayed enhanced tumor progression. In contrast, a fraction of wild type (37.5%, TNF deficient (12.5%, and TNFR2 deficient mice (22.2% were able to fully reject the tumor within two weeks. Pancreatic tumors in TNFR1 deficient mice displayed increased vascular density, enhanced infiltration of CD4(+ T cells and CD4(+ forkhead box P3 (FoxP3(+ regulatory T cells (Treg but reduced numbers of CD8(+ T cells. These alterations were further accompanied by transcriptional upregulation of IL4. Thus, TNF and TNFR1 are required in pancreatic ductal carcinoma to ensure optimal CD8(+ T cell-mediated immunosurveillance and tumor rejection. Exogenous systemic administration of human TNF, however, which only interacts with murine TNFR1, accelerated tumor progression. This suggests that TNFR1 has basically the capability in the Panc02 model to trigger pro-and anti-tumoral effects but the spatiotemporal availability of TNF seems to determine finally the overall outcome.

  15. Synchronous Malignant Phyllodes Tumor with Skin Ulceration and Invasive Carcinoma as Collision Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Rajeshwari K; Mehta, Sangita S

    2017-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial biphasic tumor of the breast composed of hypercellular mesenchymal stroma and double-layered epithelial component, arranged in clefts with leaf-like projections. Phyllodes tumor with coincidental presence of invasive carcinoma or in situ ductal carcinoma in the same or distinct breast is a rare occurrence, documented by some reports. Invasive carcinoma can be seen within or outside the phyllodes tumor. Skin ulceration by malignant phyllodes tumor with coexisting invasive carcinoma as collision tumor is extremely rare. Here, we report an extremely rare presentation of malignant phyllodes tumor as a giant fungating mass with distinct invasive carcinoma in the same breast in a 51-year-old female.

  16. Whole tumor antigen vaccination using dendritic cells: Comparison of RNA electroporation and pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells

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    Benencia Fabian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Because of the lack of full characterization of tumor associated antigens for solid tumors, whole antigen use is a convenient approach to tumor vaccination. Tumor RNA and apoptotic tumor cells have been used as a source of whole tumor antigen to prepare dendritic cell (DC based tumor vaccines, but their efficacy has not been directly compared. Here we compare directly RNA electroporation and pulsing of DCs with whole tumor cells killed by ultraviolet (UV B radiation using a convenient tumor model expressing human papilloma virus (HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes. Although both approaches led to DCs presenting tumor antigen, electroporation with tumor cell total RNA induced a significantly higher frequency of tumor-reactive IFN-gamma secreting T cells, and E7-specific CD8+ lymphocytes compared to pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells. DCs electroporated with tumor cell RNA induced a larger tumor infiltration by T cells and produced a significantly stronger delay in tumor growth compared to DCs pulsed with UV-irradiated tumor cells. We conclude that electroporation with whole tumor cell RNA and pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells are both effective in eliciting antitumor immune response, but RNA electroporation results in more potent tumor vaccination under the examined experimental conditions.

  17. Morphologic classification of ductal breast tumors on ultrasound : differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Mi Sook; Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Myoung Hwan; Yoon, In Sook; Koh, Mi Gyoung

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the morphologic differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ductal breast tumors, as seen on US US findings in 29 pathologically proven cases of ductal breast tumor were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were female and their mean age was 42 years. Nineteen tumors were benign and ten were malignant, and all ductal or cystic lesions showed solid masses. According to the location of the mural nodule, we classified the sonographic appearance of these tumors into three types:intraductal, intracystic and amorphic. The intraductal type was divided into three subtypes:incompletely obstructive, completely obstructive and multiple mural nodules. For the intracystic type, too, three subtypes were designated:the intracystic mural nodule (mural cyst), intracystic mural nodule with the duct (mural cyst+duct) and intracystic multiple mural nodules. The amorphic type is defined as an atypical ductal tumor with the mural nodule extending into adjacent parenchyma. The margin of the duct or cyst was smooth in 68.4% of benign, and irregular in 90% of malignant ductal tumors. Internal echogeneity of the duct or cyst usually showed homogeneity in both benign and malignant tumors. 73.7% of tumors connecting the duct were benign and 50% were malignant. In benign tumors, 52.6% of mural nodule had an irregular margin, while in malignant tumors, the corresponding proportion was 100%;both types usually showed heterogeneous hypoechogeneity. Among benign tumors, the most common morphologic type was the intraductal incompletely obstructive subtype (36.8%);among those that were malignant, the amorphic type was most common, accounting for 40% of tumors. No amorphic type was benign and no incompletely obstructive subtype was malignant. When ductal breast tumors are morphologically classified on the basis of sonographic findings, the intraductal incompletely obstructive subtype suggests benignancy, and the amorphic type, malignancy. The morphologic classification of ductal

  18. Nanoelectroablation of Murine Tumors Triggers a CD8-Dependent Inhibition of Secondary Tumor Growth.

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    Richard Nuccitelli

    Full Text Available We have used both a rat orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model and a mouse allograft tumor model to study liver tumor ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF. We confirm that nsPEF treatment triggers apoptosis in rat liver tumor cells as indicated by the appearance of cleaved caspase 3 and 9 within two hours after treatment. Furthermore we provide evidence that nsPEF treatment leads to the translocation of calreticulin (CRT to the cell surface which is considered a damage-associated molecular pattern indicative of immunogenic cell death. We provide direct evidence that nanoelectroablation triggers a CD8-dependent inhibition of secondary tumor growth by comparing the growth rate of secondary orthotopic liver tumors in nsPEF-treated rats with that in nsPEF-treated rats depleted of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. The growth of these secondary tumors was severely inhibited as compared to tumor growth in CD8-depleated rats, with their average size only 3% of the primary tumor size after the same one-week growth period. In contrast, when we depleted CD8+ T-cells the second tumor grew more robustly, reaching 54% of the size of the first tumor. In addition, we demonstrate with immunohistochemistry that CD8+ T-cells are highly enriched in the secondary tumors exhibiting slow growth. We also showed that vaccinating mice with nsPEF-treated isogenic tumor cells stimulates an immune response that inhibits the growth of secondary tumors in a CD8+-dependent manner. We conclude that nanoelectroablation triggers the production of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells resulting in the inhibition of secondary tumor growth.

  19. Tumor-infiltrating B lymphocytes as an efficient source of highly specific immunoglobulins recognizing tumor cells

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    Pelliccia Angela

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is much evidence that tumor cells elicit a humoral immune response in patients. In most cases, the presence of antibodies in peripheral blood is detected only in small proportion of patients with tumors overexpressing the corresponding antigen. In the present study, we analyzed the significance of local humoral response provided by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer patients. Methods The ability of a patient's immune system to produce specific antibodies inside tumor tissue, capable of recognizing tumor cells, was explored through analysis of the oligoclonality of antibodies derived from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and construction of a series of recombinant antibody libraries in scFv format, derived from breast tumor-infiltrating B lymphocytes. These libraries and one from peripheral blood lymphocytes of a single breast cancer patient were panned against three purified surface tumor antigens, such as CEA, MUC1 and ED-B domain, and against intact MCF7 breast carcinoma cells. Results Application of novel display vector, pKM19, allowed isolation of a large panel of breast cancer-specific antibodies against known tumor antigens, as well as against breast carcinoma cells. Reactivity of novel scFvs was confirmed by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence staining and flow cytometry. We demonstrated that seven of ten primary breast tumor specimens, obtained using discarded surgical material, could be exploited as an appropriate source for generation of phage display libraries, giving highly specific antitumor antibodies which recognize heterologous tumor cells. Conclusion Local humoral immune response within tumor tissue in breast cancer patients frequently has an oligoclonal character. Efficient selection of specific antitumor antibodies from recombinant antibody libraries, derived from such oligoclonal tumor-infiltrated B lymphocytes, indicates the presence of natural immune response against tumor antigens

  20. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor.

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    Neil L Spector

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER in human tumors.Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor.In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers.Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor concentrations that maximally