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Sample records for tumorigenic human fibroblasts

  1. Scaffold-Free Coculture Spheroids of Human Colonic Adenocarcinoma Cells and Normal Colonic Fibroblasts Promote Tumorigenicity in Nude Mice

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    Jong-il Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to form a scaffold-free coculture spheroid model of colonic adenocarcinoma cells (CACs and normal colonic fibroblasts (NCFs and to use the spheroids to investigate the role of NCFs in the tumorigenicity of CACs in nude mice. We analysed three-dimensional (3D scaffold-free coculture spheroids of CACs and NCFs. CAC Matrigel invasion assays and tumorigenicity assays in nude mice were performed to examine the effect of NCFs on CAC invasive behaviour and tumorigenicity in 3D spheroids. We investigated the expression pattern of fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP-α by immunohistochemical staining. CAC monocultures did not form densely-packed 3D spheroids, whereas cocultured CACs and NCFs formed 3D spheroids. The 3D coculture spheroids seeded on a Matrigel extracellular matrix showed higher CAC invasiveness compared to CACs alone or CACs and NCFs in suspension. 3D spheroids injected into nude mice generated more and faster-growing tumors compared to CACs alone or mixed suspensions consisting of CACs and NCFs. FAP-α was expressed in NCFs-CACs cocultures and xenograft tumors, whereas monocultures of NCFs or CACs were negative for FAP-α expression. Our findings provide evidence that the interaction between CACs and NCFs is essential for the tumorigenicity of cancer cells as well as for tumor propagation.

  2. System-Wide Analysis Reveals a Complex Network of Tumor-Fibroblast Interactions Involved in Tumorigenicity

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    Rajaram, Megha; Li, Jinyu; Egeblad, Mikala; Powers, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Many fibroblast-secreted proteins promote tumorigenicity, and several factors secreted by cancer cells have in turn been proposed to induce these proteins. It is not clear whether there are single dominant pathways underlying these interactions or whether they involve multiple pathways acting in parallel. Here, we identified 42 fibroblast-secreted factors induced by breast cancer cells using comparative genomic analysis. To determine what fraction was active in promoting tumorigenicity, we chose five representative fibroblast-secreted factors for in vivo analysis. We found that the majority (three out of five) played equally major roles in promoting tumorigenicity, and intriguingly, each one had distinct effects on the tumor microenvironment. Specifically, fibroblast-secreted amphiregulin promoted breast cancer cell survival, whereas the chemokine CCL7 stimulated tumor cell proliferation while CCL2 promoted innate immune cell infiltration and angiogenesis. The other two factors tested had minor (CCL8) or minimally (STC1) significant effects on the ability of fibroblasts to promote tumor growth. The importance of parallel interactions between fibroblasts and cancer cells was tested by simultaneously targeting fibroblast-secreted amphiregulin and the CCL7 receptor on cancer cells, and this was significantly more efficacious than blocking either pathway alone. We further explored the concept of parallel interactions by testing the extent to which induction of critical fibroblast-secreted proteins could be achieved by single, previously identified, factors produced by breast cancer cells. We found that although single factors could induce a subset of genes, even combinations of factors failed to induce the full repertoire of functionally important fibroblast-secreted proteins. Together, these results delineate a complex network of tumor-fibroblast interactions that act in parallel to promote tumorigenicity and suggest that effective anti-stromal therapeutic strategies

  3. Expression of the alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin is specifically correlated with tumorigenic expression in human cell hybrids.

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    Stanbridge, E J; Rosen, S W; Sussman, H H

    1982-01-01

    The expression of HeLa parent phenotype protein markers, the alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and placental alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes, has been evaluated in paired tumorigenic and nontumorigenic HeLa-fibroblast human cell hybrids. Both of these proteins have been used clinically as markers of malignancy. The results showed that both are expressed in the hybrids. Expression of the gonadotropin subunit in the hybrids is specifically correlated with tumorigenicity; the placent...

  4. Characterization of mutagen-activated cellular oncogenes that confer anchorage independence to human fibroblasts and tumorigenicity to NIH 3T3 cells: Sequence analysis of an enzymatically amplified mutant HRAS allele

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    Stevens, C.W.; Manoharan, T.H.; Fahl, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of diploid human fibroblasts with an alkylating mutagen has been shown to induce stable, anchorage-independent cell populations at frequencies consistent with an activating mutation. After treatment of human foreskin fibroblasts with the mutagen benzo[α]pyrene (±)anti-7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-epoxide and selection in soft agar, 17 anchorage-independent clones were isolated and expanded, and their cellular DNA was used to cotransfect NIH 3T3 cells along with pSV2neo. DNA from 11 of the 17 clones induced multiple NIH 3T3 cell tumors in recipient nude mice. Southern blot analyses showed the presence of human Alu repetitive sequences in all of the NIH 3T3 tumor cell DNAs. Intact, human HRAS sequences were observed in 2 of the 11 tumor groups, whereas no hybridization was detected when human KRAS or NRAS probes were used. Slow-migrating ras p21 proteins, consistent with codon 12 mutations, were observed in the same two NIH 3T3 tumor cell groups that contained the human HRAS bands. Genomic DNA from one of these two human anchorage-independent cell populations (clone 21A) was used to enzymatically amplify a portion of exon 1 of the HRAS gene. The results demonstrate that exposure of normal human cells to a common environmental mutagen yields HRAS GC → TA codon 12 transversions that have been commonly observed in human tumors

  5. Decreased tumorigenicity of c-Myc-transformed fibroblasts expressing active USF2

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    Choe, Chungyoul; Chen Nanyue; Sawadogo, Michele

    2005-01-01

    USF is a small family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-zip) transcription factors with DNA binding specificities similar to that of the c-Myc oncoprotein. Evidence for a role of USF in growth control includes inhibition of c-Myc-dependent cellular transformation in vitro and loss of USF transcriptional activity in many cancer cell lines. However, a direct effect of USF on the tumorigenicity of an established cell line has never been demonstrated. Here, cell lines derived from rat embryo fibroblasts transformed by c-Ha-Ras and either c-Myc or E1A were used as model system to investigate the tumor suppression ability of USF. Overexpression of USF2 stimulated transcription and inhibited colony formation in c-Myc-transformed, but not E1A-transformed, fibroblasts. Stable clones expressing high USF2 levels were constructed from c-Myc-transformed fibroblasts. In two of these clones, overexpressed USF2 did not activate transcription, and there was no significant change in the transformed phenotype. In contrast, a clone that expressed transcriptionally active USF2 exhibited altered morphology and a strongly decreased ability to proliferate in semisolid medium. The ability of these cells to form tumors in nude mice was also decreased by a factor of more than 30 as compared to the parental cell line or cells overexpressing transcriptionally inactive USF2. Cotransfection assays with USF- or Myc-specific dominant-negative mutants indicated that active USF2 inhibited cellular transformation by preventing transcriptional repression by c-Myc

  6. Influence of cell dissociation procedures on the tumorigenicity of Simian Virus 40 transformed fibroblasts

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    Tenforde, T.S.; Risius, J.; Beckmann, A.; Tobias, C.A.; Gurney, E.

    1975-11-01

    Mouse fibroblasts transformed by Simian Virus 40 (SV40) were examined for tumor forming ability in syngeneic BALB/c mice following dissociation from tissue culture dishes by two procedures. A significantly greater in vivo proliferative capacity was observed for cells dissociated by the tryspin-EDTA procedure, with the injected cell dose for tumor production in 50 percent of recipient mice (the TPD 50 ) being 16-fold lower than the TPD 50 for cells dissociated by the EDTA procedure. Host immunosuppression with 300 rad whole-body γ irradiation led to a significant 7-fold decrease in the TPD 50 for cells dissociated by the EDTA procedure, while no significant decrease in TPD 50 was observed for cells dissociated by the tryspin-EDTA procedure

  7. Soluble Forms of the Notch Ligands Delta1 and Jagged1 Promote in Vivo Tumorigenicity in NIH3T3 Fibroblasts with Distinct Phenotypes

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    Urs, Sumithra; Roudabush, Alice; O'Neill, Christine F.; Pinz, Ilka; Prudovsky, Igor; Kacer, Doreen; Tang, Yuefang; Liaw, Lucy; Small, Deena

    2008-01-01

    We previously found that soluble forms of the Notch ligands Jagged1 and Delta1 induced fibroblast growth factor receptor-dependent cell transformation in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. However, the phenotypes of these lines differed, indicating distinct functional differences among these Notch ligands. In the present study, we used allografts to test the hypothesis that NIH3T3 fibroblasts that express soluble forms of Delta1 and Jagged1 accelerate tumorigenicity in vivo. With the exception of the full-length Jagged1 transfectant, all other cell lines, including the control, generated tumors when injected subcutaneously in athymic mice. Suppression of Notch signaling by the soluble ligands significantly increased tumor onset and growth, whereas full-length Jagged1 completely suppressed tumor development. In addition, there were striking differences in tumor pathology with respect to growth kinetics, vascularization, collagen content, size and number of necrotic foci, and invasiveness into the underlying tissue. Further, the production of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor, also differed among the tumor types. Lastly, both Jagged1- and Delta1-derived tumors contained phenotypically distinct populations of lipid-filled cells that corresponded with increased expression of adipocyte markers. The divergence of tumor phenotype may be attributed to ligand-specific alterations in Notch receptor responses in exogenous and endogenous cell populations within the allographs. Our findings demonstrate distinct functional properties for these Notch ligands in the promotion of tumorigenicity in vivo. PMID:18688026

  8. Molecular alterations in tumorigenic human bronchial and breast epithelial cells induced by high let radiation

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    Hei, T. K.; Zhao, Y. L.; Roy, D.; Piao, C. Q.; Calaf, G.; Hall, E. J.

    Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process with sequence of genetic events governing the phenotypic expression of a series of transformation steps leading to the development of metastatic cancer. In the present study, immortalized human bronchial (BEP2D) and breast (MCF-10F) cells were irradiated with graded doses of either 150 keV/μm alpha particles or 1 GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions. Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming tumorigenic in nude mice. Cell fusion studies indicated that radiation-induced tumorigenic phenotype in BEP2D cells could be completely suppressed by fusion with non-tumorigenic BEP2D cells. The differential expressions of known genes between tumorigenic bronchial and breast cells induced by alpha particles and their respective control cultures were compared using cDNA expression array. Among the 11 genes identified to be differentially expressed in BEP2D cells, three ( DCC, DNA-PK and p21 CIPI) were shown to be consistently down-regulated by 2 to 4 fold in all the 5 tumor cell lines examined. In contrast, their expressions in the fusion cell lines were comparable to control BEP2D cells. Similarly, expression levels of a series of genes were found to be altered in a step-wise manner among tumorigenic MCF-10F cells. The results are highly suggestive that functional alterations of these genes may be causally related to the carcinogenic process.

  9. Pim1 promotes human prostate cancer cell tumorigenicity and c-MYC transcriptional activity

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    Kim, Jongchan; Roh, Meejeon; Abdulkadir, Sarki A

    2010-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase PIM1 has been implicated as an oncogene in various human cancers including lymphomas, gastric, colorectal and prostate carcinomas. In mouse models, Pim1 is known to cooperate with c-Myc to promote tumorigenicity. However, there has been limited analysis of the tumorigenic potential of Pim1 overexpression in benign and malignant human prostate cancer cells in vivo. We overexpressed Pim1 in three human prostate cell lines representing different disease stages including benign (RWPE1), androgen-dependent cancer (LNCaP) and androgen-independent cancer (DU145). We then analyzed in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity as well as the effect of Pim1 overexpression on c-MYC transcriptional activity by reporter assays and gene expression profiling using an inducible MYC-ER system. To validate that Pim1 induces tumorigenicity and target gene expression by modulating c-MYC transcriptional activity, we inhibited c-MYC using a small molecule inhibitor (10058-F4) or RNA interference. Overexpression of Pim1 alone was not sufficient to convert the benign RWPE1 cell to malignancy although it enhanced their proliferation rates when grown as xenografts in vivo. However, Pim1 expression enhanced the in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic potentials of the human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU145. Reporter assays revealed increased c-MYC transcriptional activity in Pim1-expressing cells and mRNA expression profiling demonstrated that a large fraction of c-MYC target genes were also regulated by Pim1 expression. The c-MYC inhibitor 10058-F4 suppressed the tumorigenicity of Pim1-expressing prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, 10058-F4 treatment also led to a reduction of Pim1 protein but not mRNA. Knocking-down c-MYC using short hairpin RNA reversed the effects of Pim1 on Pim1/MYC target genes. Our results suggest an in vivo role of Pim1 in promoting prostate tumorigenesis although it displayed distinct oncogenic activities depending on the disease stage of the

  10. Establishment of highly tumorigenic human colorectal cancer cell line (CR4 with properties of putative cancer stem cells.

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    Rebecca A Rowehl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC has the third highest mortality rates among the US population. According to the most recent concept of carcinogenesis, human tumors are organized hierarchically, and the top of it is occupied by malignant stem cells (cancer stem cells, CSCs, or cancer-initiating cells, CICs, which possess unlimited self-renewal and tumor-initiating capacities and high resistance to conventional therapies. To reflect the complexity and diversity of human tumors and to provide clinically and physiologically relevant cancer models, large banks of characterized patient-derived low-passage cell lines, and especially CIC-enriched cell lines, are urgently needed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the establishment of a novel CIC-enriched, highly tumorigenic and clonogenic colon cancer cell line, CR4, derived from liver metastasis. This stable cell line was established by combining 3D culturing and 2D culturing in stem cell media, subcloning of cells with particular morphology, co-culture with carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs and serial transplantation to NOD/SCID mice. Using RNA-Seq complete transcriptome profiling of the tumorigenic fraction of the CR4 cells in comparison to the bulk tumor cells, we have identified about 360 differentially expressed transcripts, many of which represent stemness, pluripotency and resistance to treatment. Majority of the established CR4 cells express common markers of stemness, including CD133, CD44, CD166, EpCAM, CD24 and Lgr5. Using immunocytochemical, FACS and western blot analyses, we have shown that a significant ratio of the CR4 cells express key markers of pluripotency markers, including Sox-2, Oct3/4 and c-Myc. Constitutive overactivation of ABC transporters and NF-kB and absence of tumor suppressors p53 and p21 may partially explain exceptional drug resistance of the CR4 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The highly tumorigenic and clonogenic CIC-enriched CR4 cell line may provide an important new

  11. Gastrointestinal Fibroblasts Have Specialized, Diverse Transcriptional Phenotypes: A Comprehensive Gene Expression Analysis of Human Fibroblasts.

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    Youichi Higuchi

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts are the principal stromal cells that exist in whole organs and play vital roles in many biological processes. Although the functional diversity of fibroblasts has been estimated, a comprehensive analysis of fibroblasts from the whole body has not been performed and their transcriptional diversity has not been sufficiently explored. The aim of this study was to elucidate the transcriptional diversity of human fibroblasts within the whole body.Global gene expression analysis was performed on 63 human primary fibroblasts from 13 organs. Of these, 32 fibroblasts from gastrointestinal organs (gastrointestinal fibroblasts: GIFs were obtained from a pair of 2 anatomical sites: the submucosal layer (submucosal fibroblasts: SMFs and the subperitoneal layer (subperitoneal fibroblasts: SPFs. Using hierarchical clustering analysis, we elucidated identifiable subgroups of fibroblasts and analyzed the transcriptional character of each subgroup.In unsupervised clustering, 2 major clusters that separate GIFs and non-GIFs were observed. Organ- and anatomical site-dependent clusters within GIFs were also observed. The signature genes that discriminated GIFs from non-GIFs, SMFs from SPFs, and the fibroblasts of one organ from another organ consisted of genes associated with transcriptional regulation, signaling ligands, and extracellular matrix remodeling.GIFs are characteristic fibroblasts with specific gene expressions from transcriptional regulation, signaling ligands, and extracellular matrix remodeling related genes. In addition, the anatomical site- and organ-dependent diversity of GIFs was also discovered. These features of GIFs contribute to their specific physiological function and homeostatic maintenance, and create a functional diversity of the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Blocking negative effects of senescence in human skin fibroblasts with a plant extract.

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    Lämmermann, Ingo; Terlecki-Zaniewicz, Lucia; Weinmüllner, Regina; Schosserer, Markus; Dellago, Hanna; de Matos Branco, André Dargen; Autheried, Dominik; Sevcnikar, Benjamin; Kleissl, Lisa; Berlin, Irina; Morizot, Frédérique; Lejeune, Francois; Fuzzati, Nicola; Forestier, Sandra; Toribio, Alix; Tromeur, Anaïs; Weinberg, Lionel; Higareda Almaraz, Juan Carlos; Scheideler, Marcel; Rietveld, Marion; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoel; Tschachler, Erwin; Gruber, Florian; Grillari, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that senescent cells are a driving force behind many age-related pathologies and that their selective elimination increases the life- and healthspan of mice. Senescent cells negatively affect their surrounding tissue by losing their cell specific functionality and by secreting a pro-tumorigenic and pro-inflammatory mixture of growth hormones, chemokines, cytokines and proteases, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Here we identified an extract from the plant Solidago virgaurea subsp. alpestris , which exhibited weak senolytic activity, delayed the acquisition of a senescent phenotype and induced a papillary phenotype with improved functionality in human dermal fibroblasts. When administered to stress-induced premature senescent fibroblasts, this extract changed their global mRNA expression profile and particularly reduced the expression of various SASP components, thereby ameliorating the negative influence on nearby cells. Thus, the investigated plant extract represents a promising possibility to block age-related loss of tissue functionality.

  13. (HABP1) from human fibroblasts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have earlier reported that overexpression of the gene encoding human hyaluronan-binding protein (HABP1) is functionally active, as it binds specifically with hyaluronan (HA). In this communication, we confirm the collapse of the filamentous and branched structure of HA by interaction with increasing concentrations of ...

  14. Tumorigenic risk of human induced pluripotent stem cell explants cultured on mouse SNL76/7 feeder cells

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    Kamada, Mizuna; Mitsui, Youji, E-mail: y-mitsui8310@hb.tp1.jp; Kumazaki, Tsutomu; Kawahara, Yuta; Matsuo, Taira; Takahashi, Tomoko, E-mail: t-takahashi@kph.bunri-u.ac.jp

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • hiPS cell explants formed malignant tumors when SNL76/7 feeder cells were used. • Multi type tumors developed by interaction of SNL76/7 feeder cells with hiPS cells. • Tumorigenic risk occurs by co-culture of hiPS cells with SNL76/7 feeder cells. - Abstract: The potential for tumor formation from transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derivatives represents a high risk in their application to regenerative medicine. We examined the genetic origin and characteristics of tumors, that were formed when 13 hiPSC lines, established by ourselves, and 201B7 hiPSC from Kyoto University were transplanted into severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice. Though teratomas formed in 58% of mice, five angiosarcomas, one malignant solitary fibrous tumor and one undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma formed in the remaining mice. Three malignant cell lines were established from the tumors, which were derived from mitomycin C (MMC)-treated SNL76/7 (MMC-SNL) feeder cells, as tumor development from fusion cells between MMC-SNL and hiPSCs was negative by genetic analysis. While parent SNL76/7 cells produced malignant tumors, neither MMC-SNL nor MMC-treated mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) produced malignant tumors. When MMC-SNL feeder cells were co-cultured with hiPSCs, growing cell lines were generated, that expressed genes similar to the parent SNL76/7 cells. Thus, hiPSCs grown on MMC-SNL feeder cells have a high risk of generating feeder-derived malignant tumors. The possible mechanism(s) of growth restoration and the formation of multiple tumor types are discussed with respect of the interactions between MMC-SNL and hiPSC.

  15. Loss of a putative tumor suppressor locus after gamma-ray-induced neoplastic transformation of HeLa x Skin fibroblast human cell hybrids

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    Mendonca, M.S.; Redpath, J.L.; Fasching, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    The nontumorigenic HeLa x skin fibroblast hybrid cell line, CGL1, can be induced to re-express HeLa tumor-associated cell surface antigen, p75-IAP (intestinal alkaline phosphatase), with resulting neoplastic transformation, by exposure to γ radiation. This has allowed the human hybrid system to be developed into a quantitative in vitro model for radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of human cells. Recently, several γ-ray-induced IAP-expression mutants (GIMs) of the nontumorigenic HeLa x skin fibroblast hybrid CGL1 were isolated and all were tumorigenic when injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Control cell lines which were negative for p75-IAP (CONs) were also isolated from irradiated populations, and none were found to be tumorigenic. We have now begun to investigate the molecular basis of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in this system by studying the potential genetic linkage between p75/IAP expression, tumorigenicity and damage to a putative tumor suppressor locus on fibroblast chromosome 11. Previous analysis of rare spontaneous segregants has indicated that this locus is involved in the regulation of tumorigenicity and in the expression of the HeLa tumor-associated cell surface marker intestinal alkaline phosphatase (p75-IAP) in this system. Therefore, analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism and chromosome painting have been performed for chromosome 11, and for chromosome 13 as a control, for the p75/IAP-positive GIM and p75/IAP-negative CON cell lines. We report that in five of eight of the GIMs large-scale damage to the fibroblast chromosome 11's is evident (four GIMs have lost one complete copy of a fibroblast chromosome 11 heavily damaged). None of the CONs, however (0/5), have lost a complete copy of either fibroblast chromosome 11. No large-scale damage to the control chromosome 13's was detected in the GIMs or CONs. 49 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Characterization of in vivo tumorigenicity tests using severe immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid IL2Rγnull mice for detection of tumorigenic cellular impurities in human cell-processed therapeutic products

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    Shinji Kusakawa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of human cell-processed therapeutic products (hCTPs with tumorigenic cells is one of the major concerns in the manufacturing and quality control of hCTPs. However, no quantitative method for detecting the tumorigenic cellular impurities is currently standardized. NOD/Shi-scid IL2Rγnull (NOG mice have shown high xeno-engraftment potential compared with other well-known immunodeficient strains, e.g. nude mice. Hypothesizing that tumorigenicity test using NOG mice could be a sensitive and quantitative method to detect a small amount of tumorigenic cells in hCTPs, we examined tumor formation after subcutaneous transplantation of HeLa cells, as a model of tumorigenic cells, in NOG mice and nude mice. Sixteen weeks after inoculation, the 50% tumor-producing dose (TPD50 values of HeLa cells were stable at 1.3 × 104 and 4.0 × 105 cells in NOG and nude mice, respectively, indicating a 30-fold higher sensitivity of NOG mice compared to that of nude mice. Transplanting HeLa cells embedded with Matrigel in NOG mice further decreased the TPD50 value to 7.9 × 10 cells, leading to a 5000-fold higher sensitivity, compared with that of nude mice. Additionally, when HeLa cells were mixed with 106 or 107 human mesenchymal stem cells as well as Matrigel, the TPD50 values in NOG mice were comparable to those of HeLa cells alone with Matrigel. These results suggest that the in vivo tumorigenicity test using NOG mice with Matrigel is a highly sensitive and quantitative method to detect a trace amount of tumorigenic cellular impurities in human somatic cells, which can be useful in the quality assessment of hCTPs.

  17. Silencing of Kv4.1 potassium channels inhibits cell proliferation of tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells

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    Jang, Soo Hwa [Laboratories of Veterinary Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Sillim-Dong Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Changsun [Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seong-Geun; Yarishkin, Oleg V. [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Young Min; Kim, Jae Gon [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O' Grady, Scott M. [Department of Physiology, 495 Animal Science/Veterinary Medicine Bldg., St. Paul, University of Minnesota, MN (United States); Yoon, Kyong-Ah [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung-Sun [Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Sillim-Dong Kwanak-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Pan Dong [Laboratories of Veterinary Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Sillim-Dong Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So Yeong, E-mail: leeso@snu.ac.kr [Laboratories of Veterinary Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Sillim-Dong Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-26

    Potassium channel activity has been shown to facilitate cell proliferation in cancer cells. In the present study, the role of Kv4.1 channels in immortal and tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells was investigated. Kv4.1 protein expression was positively correlated with tumorigenicity. Moreover, transfection with siRNAs targeting Kv4.1 mRNA suppressed proliferation of tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells. Experiments using mRNA isolated from human breast cancer tissues revealed that the level of Kv4.1 mRNA expression varied depending on the stage of the tumor. Kv4.1 protein expression increased during stages T2 and T3 compared to normal tissue. These results demonstrated that Kv4.1 plays a role in proliferation of tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells. In addition, elevated Kv4.1 expression may be useful as a diagnostic marker for staging mammary tumors and selective blockers of Kv4.1 may serve to suppress tumor cell proliferation.

  18. Mesothelin promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tumorigenicity of human lung cancer and mesothelioma cells.

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    He, Xiaoqing; Wang, Liying; Riedel, Heimo; Wang, Kai; Yang, Yong; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2017-03-14

    Lung cancer and pleural mesothelioma are two of the most deadly forms of cancer. The prognosis of lung cancer and mesothelioma is extremely poor due to limited treatment modalities and lack of understanding of the disease mechanisms. We have identified mesothelin as a potentially unique therapeutic target that as a specific advantage appears nonessential in most cell types. Mesothelin (MSLN), a plasma membrane differentiation antigen, is expressed at a high level in many human solid tumors, including 70% of lung cancer and nearly all mesotheliomas. However, the role of MSLN in the disease process and underlying mechanisms is largely unknown. ShRNA knockdown and overexpression of MSLN were performed in human cancer cell lines and corresponding normal cells, respectively. Tumorigenic and metastatic effects of MSLN were examined by tumor sphere formation, migration, and invasion assays in vitro, as well as xenograft tumor assay in vivo. EMT and CSCs were detected by qPCR array, immunoblotting and flow cytometry. MSLN plays a key role in controlling epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem properties of human lung cancer and mesothelioma cells that control their tumorigenicity and metastatic potential. Firstly, MSLN was found to be highly upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient tissues and in lung carcinoma and mesothelioma cell lines. Secondly, genetic knockdown of MSLN significantly reduced anchorage-independent cell growth, tumor sphere formation, cell adhesion, migration and invasion in vitro, as well as tumor formation and metastasis in vivo. Thirdly, ectopic overexpression of MSLN induced the malignant phenotype of non-cancerous cells, supporting its role as an oncogene. Finally, mechanistic studies revealed that knockdown of MSLN reversed EMT and attenuated stem cell properties, in addition to inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis. These results indicate an essential role of MSLN in controlling EMT and stem cell properties of human

  19. Modeling Developmental and Tumorigenic Aspects of Trilateral Retinoblastoma via Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

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    Avior, Yishai; Lezmi, Elyad; Yanuka, Dorit; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2017-05-09

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide a platform for studying human development and understanding mechanisms underlying diseases. Retinoblastoma-1 (RB1) is a key regulator of cell cycling, of which biallelic inactivation initiates retinoblastoma, the most common congenital intraocular malignancy. We developed a model to study the role of RB1 in early development and tumor formation by generating RB1-null hESCs using CRISPR/Cas9. RB1 -/- hESCs initiated extremely large teratomas, with neural expansions similar to those of trilateral retinoblastoma tumors, in which retinoblastoma is accompanied by intracranial neural tumors. Teratoma analysis further revealed a role for the transcription factor ZEB1 in RB1-mediated ectoderm differentiation. Furthermore, RB1 -/- cells displayed mitochondrial dysfunction similar to poorly differentiated retinoblastomas. Screening more than 100 chemotherapies revealed an RB1 -/- -specific cell sensitivity to carboplatin, exploiting their mitochondrial dysfunction. Together, our work provides a human pluripotent cell model for retinoblastoma and sheds light on developmental and tumorigenic roles of RB1. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Decellularized matrix from tumorigenic human mesenchymal stem cells promotes neovascularization with galectin-1 dependent endothelial interaction.

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    Jorge S Burns

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of a blood supply is fundamental for extensive tumor growth. We recently described vascular heterogeneity in tumours derived from cell clones of a human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC strain (hMSC-TERT20 immortalized by retroviral vector mediated human telomerase (hTERT gene expression. Histological analysis showed that cells of the most vascularized tumorigenic clone, -BD11 had a pericyte-like alpha smooth muscle actin (ASMA+ and CD146+ positive phenotype. Upon serum withdrawal in culture, -BD11 cells formed cord-like structures mimicking capillary morphogenesis. In contrast, cells of the poorly tumorigenic clone, -BC8 did not stain for ASMA, tumours were less vascularized and serum withdrawal in culture led to cell death. By exploring the heterogeneity in hMSC-TERT20 clones we aimed to understand molecular mechanisms by which mesenchymal stem cells may promote neovascularization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative qRT-PCR analysis revealed similar mRNA levels for genes encoding the angiogenic cytokines VEGF and Angiopoietin-1 in both clones. However, clone-BD11 produced a denser extracellular matrix that supported stable ex vivo capillary morphogenesis of human endothelial cells and promoted in vivo neovascularization. Proteomic characterization of the -BD11 decellularized matrix identified 50 extracellular angiogenic proteins, including galectin-1. siRNA knock down of galectin-1 expression abrogated the ex vivo interaction between decellularized -BD11 matrix and endothelial cells. More stable shRNA knock down of galectin-1 expression did not prevent -BD11 tumorigenesis, but greatly reduced endothelial migration into -BD11 cell xenografts. CONCLUSIONS: Decellularized hMSC matrix had significant angiogenic potential with at least 50 angiogenic cell surface and extracellular proteins, implicated in attracting endothelial cells, their adhesion and activation to form tubular structures. hMSC -BD11 surface galectin-1

  1. Tumorigenic Potential of Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer

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    Zucker, Stanley; Hymowitz, Michelle; Rollo, Ellen E.; Mann, Richard; Conner, Cathleen E.; Cao, Jian; Foda, Hussein D.; Tompkins, David C.; Toole, Bryan P.

    2001-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), a glycoprotein present on the cancer cell plasma membrane, enhances fibroblast synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The demonstration that peritumoral fibroblasts synthesize most of the MMPs in human tumors rather than the cancer cells themselves has ignited interest in the role of EMMPRIN in tumor dissemination. In this report we have demonstrated a role for EMMPRIN in cancer progression. Human MDA-MB-436 breast cancer cells, which are tumorigenic but slow growing in vivo, were transfected with EMMPRIN cDNA and injected orthotopically into mammary tissue of female NCr nu/nu mice. Green fluorescent protein was used to visualize metastases. In three experiments, breast cancer cell clones transfected with EMMPRIN cDNA were considerably more tumorigenic and invasive than plasmid-transfected cancer cells. Increased gelatinase A and gelatinase B expression (demonstrated by in situ hybridization and gelatin substrate zymography) was demonstrated in EMMPRIN-enhanced tumors. In contrast to de novo breast cancers in humans, human tumors transplanted into mice elicited minimal stromal or inflammatory cell reactions. Based on these experimental studies and our previous demonstration that EMMPRIN is prominently displayed in human cancer tissue, we propose that EMMPRIN plays an important role in cancer progression by increasing synthesis of MMPs. PMID:11395366

  2. Aneuploidy induces profound changes in gene expression, proliferation and tumorigenicity of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Uri; Arad, Gal; Weissbein, Uri; Mandefro, Berhan; Maimon, Adva; Golan-Lev, Tamar; Narwani, Kavita; Clark, Amander T; Andrews, Peter W; Benvenisty, Nissim; Carlos Biancotti, Juan

    2014-09-08

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) tend to acquire genomic aberrations in culture, the most common of which is trisomy of chromosome 12. Here we dissect the cellular and molecular implications of this trisomy in hPSCs. Global gene expression analyses reveal that trisomy 12 profoundly affects the gene expression profile of hPSCs, inducing a transcriptional programme similar to that of germ cell tumours. Comparison of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis between diploid and aneuploid hPSCs shows that trisomy 12 significantly increases the proliferation rate of hPSCs, mainly as a consequence of increased replication. Furthermore, trisomy 12 increases the tumorigenicity of hPSCs in vivo, inducing transcriptionally distinct teratomas from which pluripotent cells can be recovered. Last, a chemical screen of 89 anticancer drugs discovers that trisomy 12 raises the sensitivity of hPSCs to several replication inhibitors. Together, these findings demonstrate the extensive effect of trisomy 12 and highlight its perils for successful hPSC applications.

  3. β-Catenin Does Not Confer Tumorigenicity When Introduced into Partially Transformed Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajida Piperdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents, its cell of origin and the genetic alterations are unclear. Previous studies have shown that serially introducing hTERT, SV40 large TAg, and H-Ras transforms human mesenchymal stem cells into two distinct sarcomas cell populations, but they do not form osteoid. In this study, β-catenin was introduced into mesenchymal stem cells already containing hTERT and SV40 large TAg to analyze if this resulted in a model which more closely recapitulated osteosarcoma. Results. Regardless of the level of induced β-catenin expression in the stable transfectants, there were no marked differences induced in their phenotype or invasion and migration capacity. Perhaps more importantly, none of them formed tumors when injected into immunocompromised mice. Moreover, the resulting transformed cells could be induced to osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation but not to adipogenic differentiation. Conclusions. β-catenin, although fostering osteogenic differentiation, does not induce the malignant features and tumorigenicity conveyed by oncogenic H-RAS when introduced into partly transformed mesenchymal stem cells. This may have implications for the role of β-catenin in osteosarcoma pathogenesis. It also may suggest that adipogenesis is an earlier branch point than osteogenesis and chondrogenesis in normal mesenchymal differentiation.

  4. Replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts irradiated in obtaining feeder layer for the culture of human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshito, Daniele; Sufi, Bianca S.; Santin, Stefany P.; Mathor, Monica B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Altran, Silvana C.; Isaac, Cesar [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Lab. de Microcirurgia Plastica; Esteves-Pedro, Natalia M. [Universidade Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Controle Biologico; Herson, Marisa R. [DonorTissue Bank of Victoria (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    Human autologous epithelia cultivated in vitro, have been used successfully in treating damage to skin integrity. The methodology allowed the cultivation of these epithelia was described by Rheinwald and Green in 1975, this methodology consisted in seeding keratinocytes onto a feeder layer composed of lineage 3T3 murine fibroblasts, the proliferation rate is controlled through the action of ionizing radiation. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and murine viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, in this present work, we replaced the feeder layer originally composed of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts. To obtain this new feeder layer was necessary to standardize the enough irradiation dose to inhibit the replication of human fibroblasts and the verification of effectiveness of the development of keratinocytes culture on a feeder layer thus obtained. According to the obtained results we can verify that the human fibroblasts irradiated at various tested doses (60, 70, 100, 200, 250 and 300 Gy) had their mitotic activity inactivated by irradiation, allowing the use of any of these doses to confection of the feeder layer, since these fibroblasts irradiated still showed viable until fourteen days of cultivation. In the test of colony formation efficiency was observed that keratinocytes seeded on irradiated human fibroblasts were able to develop satisfactorily, preserving their clonogenic potential. Therefore it was possible the replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts in confection of the feeder layer, in order to eliminate this xenobiotic component of the keratinocytes culture. (author)

  5. Replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts irradiated in obtaining feeder layer for the culture of human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Daniele; Sufi, Bianca S.; Santin, Stefany P.; Mathor, Monica B.; Altran, Silvana C.; Isaac, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Human autologous epithelia cultivated in vitro, have been used successfully in treating damage to skin integrity. The methodology allowed the cultivation of these epithelia was described by Rheinwald and Green in 1975, this methodology consisted in seeding keratinocytes onto a feeder layer composed of lineage 3T3 murine fibroblasts, the proliferation rate is controlled through the action of ionizing radiation. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and murine viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, in this present work, we replaced the feeder layer originally composed of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts. To obtain this new feeder layer was necessary to standardize the enough irradiation dose to inhibit the replication of human fibroblasts and the verification of effectiveness of the development of keratinocytes culture on a feeder layer thus obtained. According to the obtained results we can verify that the human fibroblasts irradiated at various tested doses (60, 70, 100, 200, 250 and 300 Gy) had their mitotic activity inactivated by irradiation, allowing the use of any of these doses to confection of the feeder layer, since these fibroblasts irradiated still showed viable until fourteen days of cultivation. In the test of colony formation efficiency was observed that keratinocytes seeded on irradiated human fibroblasts were able to develop satisfactorily, preserving their clonogenic potential. Therefore it was possible the replacement of murine fibroblasts by human fibroblasts in confection of the feeder layer, in order to eliminate this xenobiotic component of the keratinocytes culture. (author)

  6. Beryllium induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Shannon S A; Lehnert, Bruce E; Sharma, Sunil; Kindell, Susan M; Gary, Ronald K

    2007-07-01

    After cells have completed a sufficient number of cell divisions, they exit the cell cycle and enter replicative senescence. Here, we report that beryllium causes proliferation arrest with premature expression of the principal markers of senescence. After young presenescent human fibroblasts were treated with 3 microM BeSO(4) for 24 h, p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor mRNA increased by >200%. Longer periods of exposure caused mRNA and protein levels to increase for both p21 and p16(Ink4a), a senescence regulator that prevents pRb-mediated cell cycle progression. BeSO(4) also caused dose-dependent induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity (SA-beta-gal). Untreated cells had 48 relative fluorescence units (RFU)/microg/h of SA-beta-gal, whereas 3 microM BeSO(4) caused activity to increase to 84 RFU/microg/h. In chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, BeSO(4) caused p53 protein to associate with its DNA binding site in the promoter region of the p21 gene, indicating that p53 transcriptional activity is responsible for the large increase in p21 mRNA elicited by beryllium. Forced expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) rendered HFL-1 cells incapable of normal replicative senescence. However, there was no difference in the responsiveness of normal HFL-1 fibroblasts (IC(50) = 1.9 microM) and hTERT-immortalized cells (IC(50) = 1.7 microM) to BeSO(4) in a 9-day proliferation assay. The effects of beryllium resemble those of histone deacetylase-inhibiting drugs, which also cause large increases in p21. However, beryllium produced no changes in histone acetylation, suggesting that Be(2+) acts as a novel and potent pharmacological inducer of premature senescence.

  7. Decellularized matrix from tumorigenic human mesenchymal stem cells promotes neovascularization with galectin-1 dependent endothelial interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, Jorge S; Kristiansen, Malthe; Kristensen, Lars P

    2011-01-01

    . Histological analysis showed that cells of the most vascularized tumorigenic clone, -BD11 had a pericyte-like alpha smooth muscle actin (ASMA+) and CD146+ positive phenotype. Upon serum withdrawal in culture, -BD11 cells formed cord-like structures mimicking capillary morphogenesis. In contrast, cells...... of the poorly tumorigenic clone, -BC8 did not stain for ASMA, tumours were less vascularized and serum withdrawal in culture led to cell death. By exploring the heterogeneity in hMSC-TERT20 clones we aimed to understand molecular mechanisms by which mesenchymal stem cells may promote neovascularization....

  8. Gene Expression Profile Changes due to Bleomycin-Induced DNA Damage in Human Fibroblasts in Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To understand gene expression responses in confluent human fibroblast in microgravity conditions to bleomycin treatment. Confluent human fibroblasts AG01522 were...

  9. High mobility group A1 enhances tumorigenicity of human cholangiocarcinoma and confers resistance to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalle, Cristina; Burmeister, Katharina; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Quagliata, Luca; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Sepe, Romina; Fusco, Alfredo; Terracciano, Luigi M; Andersen, Jesper B; Pallante, Pierlorenzo; Matter, Matthias S

    2017-09-01

    High mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein has been described to play an important role in numerous types of human carcinoma. By the modulation of several target genes HMGA1 promotes proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. However, its role in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been addressed yet. Therefore, we determined HMGA1 mRNA expression in CCA samples in a transcriptome array (n = 104) and a smaller cohort (n = 13) by qRT-PCR. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (n = 67). In addition, we analyzed changes in cell proliferation, colony formation, response to gemcitabine treatment, and target gene expression after modulation of HMGA1 expression in CCA cell lines. mRNA levels of HMGA1 were found to be upregulated in 15-62% depending on the cohort analyzed. Immunohistochemistry showed HMGA1 overexpression in 51% of CCA specimens. Integration with clinico-pathological data revealed that high HMGA1 expression was associated with reduced time to recurrence and a positive lymph node status in extrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma. In vitro experiments showed that overexpression of HMGA1 in CCA cell lines promoted cell proliferation, whereas its suppression reduced growth rate. HMGA1 further promoted colony formation in an anchorage independent growth and conferred resistance to gemcitabine treatment. Finally, HMGA1 modulated the expression of two genes involved in CCA carcinogenesis, iNOS and ERBB2. In conclusion, our findings indicate that HMGA1 expression is increased in a substantial number of CCA specimens. HMGA1 further promotes CCA tumorigenicity and confers resistance to chemotherapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Differential Effects of Planktonic and Biofilm MRSA on Human Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker, Kelly R.; James, Garth A.; Fleckman, Philip; Olerud, John E.; Stewart, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria colonizing chronic wounds often exist as biofilms, yet their role in chronic wound pathogenesis remains unclear. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms induce apoptosis in dermal keratinocytes, and given that chronic wound biofilms also colonize dermal tissue, it is important to investigate the effects of bacterial biofilms on dermal fibroblasts. The effects of a predominant wound pathogen, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, on normal, human, dermal fibroblasts were examined in vitro. Cell culture medium was conditioned with equivalent numbers of either planktonic or biofilm methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and then fed to fibroblast cultures. Fibroblast response was evaluated using scratch, viability, and apoptosis assays. The results suggested that fibroblasts experience the same fate when exposed to the soluble products of either planktonic or biofilm methicillin-resistant S. aureus, namely limited migration followed by death. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated that fibroblast production of cytokines, growth factors, and proteases were differentially affected by planktonic and biofilm-conditioned medium. Planktonic-conditioned medium induced more interleukin-6, interleukin-8, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, heparin-bound epidermal growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and metalloproteinase-3 production in fibroblasts than the biofilm-conditioned medium. Biofilm-conditioned medium induced more tumor-necrosis factor-α production in fibroblasts compared to planktonic-conditioned medium, and suppressed metalloproteinase-3 production compared to controls. PMID:22332802

  11. Le interferon mRNA from human fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, R H; Hayes, T G; Vilcek, J

    1980-01-01

    Human F and Le interferon can be clearly distinguished on the basis of different antigenic properties and host range. After inoculation with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), GM-258 fibroblasts produced Le as well as F interferon; in contrast, only F interferon was detectable after stimulation with poly(I) . poly(C). Polyadenylylated mRNA isolated from fibroblasts induced with poly(I) . poly(C) or NDV was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes and the interferon activities thus produced were analy...

  12. Epigenetic modulation of cancer-germline antigen gene expression in tumorigenic human mesenchymal stem cells: implications for cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Burns, Jorge S; Nielsen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Cancer-germline antigens are promising targets for cancer immunotherapy, but whether such therapies will also eliminate the primary tumor stem cell population remains undetermined. We previously showed that long-term cultures of telomerized adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can...... spontaneously evolve into tumor-initiating, mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT20), which have characteristics of clinical sarcoma cells. In this study, we used the hMSC-TERT20 tumor stem cell model to investigate the potential of cancer-germline antigens to serve as tumor stem cell targets. We found...... of cancer-germline antigens in hMSC-TERT20 cells, while their expression levels in primary human mesenchymal stem cells remained unaffected. The expression pattern of cancer-germline antigens in tumorigenic mesenchymal stem cells and sarcomas, plus their susceptibility to enhancement by epigenetic...

  13. Cytopathic effect of Acanthamoeba on human corneal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka-Sugihara, Noriko; Yokoo, Seiichi; Matsubara, Masao; Yagita, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Acanthamoeba keratitis is associated with keratocyte depletion in humans. We investigated how Acanthamoebae isolated from corneas affected by Acanthamoeba keratitis interacted with human corneal stromal cells in vitro. Methods Acanthamoebae were isolated from 6 patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis and genotyping was done. Whether the isolated Acanthamoebae could invade the corneal stroma was assessed with denuded corneal stroma ex vivo. The cytopathic effect of Acanthamoeba on cultured corneal fibroblasts from donor corneas was quantitatively evaluated by the MTT assay after culture under various conditions. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and Annexin V staining were employed to detect apoptotic cells among the corneal fibroblasts co-cultured with Acanthamoebae. Results All 6 Acanthamoebae isolated from the patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis were shown to have the T4 genotype by 18S rDNA sequence analysis. Acanthamoebae invaded the denuded corneal stroma in the ex vivo experiments and had a cytopathic effect on human corneal fibroblasts after direct adhesion, but not via chemical mediators. A cytopathic effect was detected with all 6 Acanthamoebae and corneal fibroblasts mainly died by apoptosis, as evidenced by Annexin V staining. Conclusions Acanthamoebae isolated from patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis had a cytopathic effect on human corneal fibroblasts, mainly via induction of apoptosis after direct adhesion. Our findings may provide some clues to the pathophysiology of corneal keratocyte depletion in patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:22933834

  14. Chloride transport in human fibroblasts is activated by hypotonic shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugolo, M.; Mastocola, T.; Flamigni, A.; Lenaz, G. (Universita' di Bologna (Italy))

    1989-05-15

    Incubation of human skin fibroblasts in hypotonic media induced the activation of {sup 36}Cl- efflux which was roughly proportional to the decrease in the osmolality of the media. The efflux of {sup 36}Cl- was insensitive to DIDS plus furosemide and inhibited by addition of a Cl- channel blocker such as 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). We propose that a conductive pathway for Cl- transport, almost silent in isotonic conditions, is activated by exposing human fibroblasts to hypotonic shock, this conclusion being supported by evidence that also {sup 36}Cl- influx was enhanced by hypotonic medium.

  15. Chemical Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Functional Schwann Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C. Thoma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct transdifferentiation of somatic cells is a promising approach to obtain patient-specific cells for numerous applications. However, conversion across germ-layer borders often requires ectopic gene expression with unpredictable side effects. Here, we present a gene-free approach that allows efficient conversion of human fibroblasts via a transient progenitor stage into Schwann cells, the major glial cell type of peripheral nerves. Using a multikinase inhibitor, we transdifferentiated fibroblasts into transient neural precursors that were subsequently further differentiated into Schwann cells. The resulting induced Schwann cells (iSCs expressed numerous Schwann cell-specific proteins and displayed neurosupportive and myelination capacity in vitro. Thus, we established a strategy to obtain mature Schwann cells from human postnatal fibroblasts under chemically defined conditions without the introduction of ectopic genes.

  16. Cultured Human Fibroblast Biostimulation Using a 940 nm Diode Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Illescas-Montes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibroblasts are the main cells involved in regeneration during wound healing. The objective was to determine the effect of 940 nm diode laser on cultured human fibroblasts using different irradiation regimens. Methods: The CCD-1064Sk human epithelial fibroblast cell line was treated with a 940 nm diode laser at different energy doses (power: 0.2–1 W and energy density: 1–7 J/cm2 using different transmission modes (continuous or pulsed. The effect on cell growth at 24 and 72 h post-treatment was examined by measuring the proliferative capacity, the impact on the cell cycle, and the effect on cell differentiation. Results: fibroblast proliferative capacity was increased at 24 and 72 h post-treatment as a function of the energy dose. The greatest increase was observed with a power of 0.2 or 0.5 W and energy density between 1 and 4 J/cm2; no difference was observed between continuous and pulsed modes. There were no significant differences in cell cycle between treated groups and controls. α-actin expression was increased by treatment, indicating enhanced cell differentiation. Conclusion: The 940 nm diode laser has biostimulating effects on fibroblasts, stimulating proliferative capacity and cell differentiation without altering the cell cycle. Further researches are necessary to explore its potential clinical usefulness in wound healing.

  17. Cultured Human Fibroblast Biostimulation Using a 940 nm Diode Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illescas-Montes, Rebeca; Melguizo-Rodríguez, Lucía; Manzano-Moreno, Francisco Javier; García-Martínez, Olga; Ruiz, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fibroblasts are the main cells involved in regeneration during wound healing. The objective was to determine the effect of 940 nm diode laser on cultured human fibroblasts using different irradiation regimens. Methods: The CCD-1064Sk human epithelial fibroblast cell line was treated with a 940 nm diode laser at different energy doses (power: 0.2–1 W and energy density: 1–7 J/cm2) using different transmission modes (continuous or pulsed). The effect on cell growth at 24 and 72 h post-treatment was examined by measuring the proliferative capacity, the impact on the cell cycle, and the effect on cell differentiation. Results: fibroblast proliferative capacity was increased at 24 and 72 h post-treatment as a function of the energy dose. The greatest increase was observed with a power of 0.2 or 0.5 W and energy density between 1 and 4 J/cm2; no difference was observed between continuous and pulsed modes. There were no significant differences in cell cycle between treated groups and controls. α-actin expression was increased by treatment, indicating enhanced cell differentiation. Conclusion: The 940 nm diode laser has biostimulating effects on fibroblasts, stimulating proliferative capacity and cell differentiation without altering the cell cycle. Further researches are necessary to explore its potential clinical usefulness in wound healing. PMID:28773152

  18. Human Cytomegalovirus Induces JC Virus DNA Replication in Human Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronn, Regine; Albrecht, Ingrid; Stephan, Sonja; Burkle, Alexander; Zur Hausen, Harald

    1993-12-01

    JC virus, a human papovavirus, is the causative agent of the demyelinating brain disease progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML). PML is a rare but fatal disease which develops as a complication of severe immunosuppression. Latent JC virus is harbored by many asymptomatic carriers and is transiently reactivated from the latent state upon immunosuppression. JC virus has a very restricted host range, with human glial cells being the only tissue in which it can replicate at reasonable efficiency. Evidence that latent human cytomegalovirus is harbored in the kidney similar to latent JC virus led to the speculation that during episodes of impaired immunocompetence, cytomegalovirus might serve as helper virus for JC virus replication in otherwise nonpermissive cells. We show here that cytomegalovirus infection indeed leads to considerable JC virus DNA replication in cultured human fibroblasts that are nonpermissive for the replication of JC virus alone. Cytomegalovirus-mediated JC virus replication is dependent on the JC virus origin of replication and T antigen. Ganciclovir-induced inhibition of cytomegalovirus replication is associated with a concomitant inhibition of JC virus replication. These results suggest that reactivation of cytomegalovirus during episodes of immunosuppression might lead to activation of latent JC virus, which would enhance the probability of subsequent PML development. Ganciclovir-induced repression of both cytomegalovirus and JC virus replication may form the rational basis for the development of an approach toward treatment or prevention of PML.

  19. Effects of cranberry components on human aggressive periodontitis gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, D A; Babu, J P; Dabbous, M Kh

    2013-08-01

    Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) causes rapid periodontal breakdown involving AgP gingival fibroblast production of cytokines [i.e. interleukin (IL)-6, a bone metabolism regulator], and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3. Lipopolysaccharide upregulates fibroblast IL-6 and MMP-3, via transcription factors (i.e. NF-κB). Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) inhibits lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage and normal gingival fibroblast activities, but little is known of its effects on AgP fibroblasts. Objectives of this study are to use AgP fibroblasts, to determine cytotoxicity of cranberry components or periodontopathogen (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis) lipopolysaccharide ± cranberry components, and effects of cranberry components on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated NF-κB activation and IL-6 and MMP-3 production. AgP fibroblasts were incubated ≤ 6 d with high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM) (derived from cranberry juice (1-500 μg/mL) or lipopolysaccharide (1 μg/mL) ± NDM. Membrane damage and viability were assessed by enzyme activity released into cell supernatants and activity of a mitochondrial enzyme, respectively. Secreted IL-6 and MMP-3 were measured by ELISA. NF-κB p65 was measured via binding to an oligonucleotide containing the NF-κB consensus site. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons. Short-term exposure to NDM, or lipopolysaccharide ± NDM caused no membrane damage. NDM (≤ 100 μg/mL) or lipopolysaccharide ± NDM had no effect on viability ≤ 7 d exposure. NDM (50 μg/mL) inhibited lipopolysaccharide-stimulated p65 (P ≤ 0.003) and constitutive or lipopolysaccharide-stimulated MMP-3 (P ≤ 0.02). NDM increased AgP fibroblast constitutive or lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-6 (P ≤ 0.0001), but inhibited normal human gingival fibroblast IL-6 (P ≤ 0.01). Lack of toxicity of low NDM concentrations, and its inhibition of NF-κB and MMP-3, suggest that

  20. Transfection of Primary Human Skin Fibroblasts for Peroxisomal Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Janet; Waterham, Hans R.

    2017-01-01

    Functional studies with primary human skin fibroblasts from patients with a peroxisomal disorder often require efficient transfection with plasmids to correct the genetic defect or to express heterologous reporter proteins. Here, we describe a protocol we commonly use for efficient nonviral

  1. Scanning Electronmicroscopic Appearance of X-irradiated Human Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Z., SOMOSY; TAMARA, KUBASOVA; G.J., KOTELES; Frederic Joliot-Curie National Research Institure for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene; "Frederic Joliot-Curie" National Research Institure for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene; "Frederic Joliot-Curie" National Research Institure for Radiobiology and Radioh

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analyses of cultured human embryo fibroblasts were performed 10 minutes, 1, 4 and 24 hours after X-irradiation with 2.5 Gy. Marked surface changes were observed 10 minutes and 1 hour after irradiation. These include the

  2. DETACHMENT OF HUMAN FIBROBLASTS FROM FEP-TEFLON SURFACES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKOOTEN, TG; SCHAKENRAAD, JM; VANDERMEI, HC; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1991-01-01

    In this study a comparison is made between the detachment behavior of human fibroblasts adhered to hydrophobic FEP-Teflon (water contact angle 109 degrees) and to hydrophilic glass (water contact angle smaller than 15 degrees) during exposure to a laminar, incrementally loaded flow. Detachment from

  3. Cytotoxicity of Cricula triphenestrata Cocoon Extract on Human Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Indonesian silkworm cocoon extract of Cricula triphenestrata on human fibroblasts. Methods and Materials. The cocoon shells of the silkworm Cricula triphenestrata were degumming. The shells were mixed with an aqueous solution of 0.3% Na2CO3 at 98°C for 1 hour. The solution was then dialyzed in cellulose membranes against deionized water for 3 days. The cocoon shells extract powder was collected via rotary evaporation and dried under freeze dryer. Cell culture medium was exposed to Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract (0.01–100 μg/mL for 24 hours. The primary human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the treated cell culture medium for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity evaluation was done by MTT method. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Result. The result revealed no significant cytotoxicity of Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract against human fibroblasts at a concentration up to 100 μg/mL (>0.05. Conclusion. Cricula triphenestrata cocoon extract was not cytotoxic on human gingival fibroblast cells.

  4. High level expression of human basic fibroblast growth factor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High level expression of human basic fibroblast growth factor in Escherichia coli : Evaluating the effect of the GC content and rare codons within the first 13 codons. ... Nterminally modified genes were PCR amplified and cloned into the expression vector, pET-22b. Meanwhile, wild-type gene remarkably expressed in all the ...

  5. Endogenous Semaphorin-7A Impedes Human Lung Fibroblast Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnault, Stephane; Torr, Elizabeth E; Bernau, Ksenija; Johansson, Mats W; Kelly, Elizabeth A; Sandbo, Nathan; Jarjour, Nizar N

    2017-01-01

    Semaphorin-7A is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, initially characterized as an axon guidance protein. Semaphorin-7A also contributes to immune cell regulation and may be an essential pro-fibrotic factor when expressed by non-fibroblast cell types (exogenous). In mouse models, semaphorin-7A was shown to be important for TGF-ß1-induced pulmonary fibrosis characterized by myofibroblast accumulation and extracellular matrix deposition, but the cell-specific role of semaphorin-7A was not examined in fibroblasts. The purpose of this study is to determine semaphorin-7A expression by fibroblasts and to investigate the function of endogenously expressed semaphorin-7A in primary human lung fibroblasts (HLF). Herein, we show that non-fibrotic HLF expressed high levels of cell surface semaphorin-7A with little dependence on the percentage of serum or recombinant TGF-ß1. Semaphorin-7A siRNA strongly decreased semaphorin-7A mRNA expression and reduced cell surface semaphorin-7A. Reduction of semaphorin-7A induced increased proliferation and migration of non-fibrotic HLF. Also, independent of the presence of TGF-ß1, the decline of semaphorin-7A by siRNA was associated with increased α-smooth muscle actin production and gene expression of periostin, fibronectin, laminin, and serum response factor (SRF), indicating differentiation into a myofibroblast. Conversely, overexpression of semaphorin-7A in the NIH3T3 fibroblast cell line reduced the production of pro-fibrotic markers. The inverse association between semaphorin-7A and pro-fibrotic fibroblast markers was further analyzed using HLF from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 6) and non-fibrotic (n = 7) lungs. Using these 13 fibroblast lines, we observed that semaphorin-7A and periostin expression were inversely correlated. In conclusion, our study indicates that endogenous semaphorin-7A in HLF plays a role in maintaining fibroblast homeostasis by preventing up-regulation of pro-fibrotic genes. Therefore

  6. Reprogramming of human fibroblasts to pluripotent stem cells using mRNA of four transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakubov, Eduard [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Rechavi, Gidi [Cancer Research Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Rozenblatt, Shmuel [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Givol, David, E-mail: david.givol@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)

    2010-03-26

    Reprogramming of differentiated cells into induced pluripotent cells (iPS) was accomplished in 2006 by expressing four, or less, embryonic stem cell (ESC)-specific transcription factors. Due to the possible danger of DNA damage and the potential tumorigenicity associated with such DNA damage, attempts were made to minimize DNA integration by the vectors involved in this process without complete success. Here we present a method of using RNA transfection as a tool for reprogramming human fibroblasts to iPS. We used RNA synthesized in vitro from cDNA of the same reprogramming four transcription factors. After transfection of the RNA, we show intracellular expression and nuclear localization of the respective proteins in at least 70% of the cells. We used five consecutive transfections to support continuous protein expression resulting in the formation of iPS colonies that express alkaline phosphatase and several ESC markers and that can be expanded. This method completely avoids DNA integration and may be developed to replace the use of DNA vectors in the formation of iPS.

  7. Forced Trefoil Factor Family Peptide 3 (TFF3) Expression Reduces Growth, Viability, and Tumorigenicity of Human Retinoblastoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große-Kreul, Jan; Busch, Maike; Winter, Claudia; Pikos, Stefanie; Stephan, Harald; Dünker, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides have been shown to effect cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of normal cells and various cancer cell lines. In the literature TFF peptides are controversially discussed as tumor suppressors and potential tumor progression factors. In the study presented, we investigated the effect of TFF3 overexpression on growth, viability, migration and tumorigenicity of the human retinoblastoma cell lines Y-79, WERI-Rb1, RBL-13 and RBL-15. As revealed by WST-1 and TUNEL assays as well as DAPI and BrdU cell counts, recombinant human TFF3 significantly lowers retinoblastoma cell viability and increases apoptosis levels. Transient TFF3 overexpression likewise significantly increases RB cell apoptosis. Stable, lentiviral TFF3 overexpression lowers retinoblastoma cell viability, proliferation and growth and significantly increases cell death in retinoblastoma cells. Blockage experiments using a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor and capase-3 immunocytochemistry revealed the involvement of caspases in general and of caspase-3 in particular in TFF3 induced apoptosis in retinoblastoma cell lines. Soft agarose and in ovo chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays revealed that TFF3 overexpression influences anchorage independent growth and significantly decreases the size of tumors forming from retinoblastoma cells. Our study demonstrates that forced TFF3 expression exerts a significant pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and tumor suppressive effect in retinoblastoma cells, setting a starting point for new additive chemotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of retinoblastoma.

  8. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana; Tessa, Alessandra; Tonin, Paola; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Mole, Sara E.; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Simonati, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. ► Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. ► Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  9. RNA-Guided Activation of Pluripotency Genes in Human Fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Kai; Zhou, Yan; Blichfeld, Kristian Aabo

    2017-01-01

    -associated protein 9 (dCas9)-VP64 (CRISPRa) alone, or a combination of dCas9-VP64 and MS2-P65-HSF1 [synergistic activation mediator (SAM) system] mediated activation of five pluripotency genes: KLF4 (K), LIN28 (L), MYC (M), OCT4 (O), and SOX2 (S) in human cells (HEK293T, HeLa, HepG2, and primary fibroblasts...

  10. Effect of periodontal dressings on human gingiva fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eber, R.M.; Shuler, C.F.; Buchanan, W.; Beck, F.M.; Horton, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity studies of periodontal dressings have not generally produced a result consistent with in vivo observations. These prior in vitro studies have not used human intraoral cell lines. We tested the effects of two eugenol containing and two non-eugenol periodontal dressings on cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) (ATCC No. 1292). Replicate HGF cultures grown in microtiter plates were exposed to stock, 1:4 and 1:16 dilutions of extracts made from each of the four periodontal dressings. The HGF cultures were pulse labelled with tritiated thymidine (3HTdR) after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Incorporations of the labelled thymidine were measured using liquid scintillation counting and expressed as counts per minute. The results showed that undiluted extracts from all four periodontal dressings totally inhibited 3HTdR uptake (P less than 0.05). The 1:4 dilution of eugenol dressings inhibited 3HTdR uptake significantly more than non-eugenol dressings (P less than 0.05). Interestingly, at 72 hours the 1:16 dilution of the non-eugenol dressings caused significantly increased 3HTdR uptake which was not observed with the eugenol dressings. The present results suggest that the use of a human fibroblastic cell line for testing the effects of periodontal dressings may provide information about the relative biological effects of these dressings. Using this cell line, we have found that eugenol dressings inhibit fibroblast proliferation to a greater extent than non-eugenol dressings

  11. Inhibition of normal human lung fibroblast growth by beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, N M; Gary, R K; Marrone, B L; Lehnert, B E

    2001-03-07

    Inhalation of particulate beryllium (Be) and its compounds causes chronic Be disease (CBD) in a relatively small subset ( approximately 1-6%) of exposed individuals. Hallmarks of this pulmonary disease include increases in several cell types, including lung fibroblasts, that contribute to the fibrotic component of the disorder. In this regard, enhancements in cell proliferation appear to play a fundamental role in CBD development and progression. Paradoxically, however, some existing evidence suggests that Be actually has antiproliferative effects. In order to gain further information about the effects of Be on cell growth, we: (1) assessed cell proliferation and cell cycle effects of low concentrations of Be in normal human diploid fibroblasts, and (2) investigated the molecular pathway(s) by which the cell cycle disturbing effects of Be may be mediated. Treatment of human lung and skin fibroblasts with Be added in the soluble form of BeSO(4) (0.1-100 microM) caused inhibitions of their growth in culture in a concentration-dependent manner. Such growth inhibition was found to persist, even after cells were further cultured in Be(2+)-free medium. Flow cytometric analyses of cellular DNA labeled with the DNA-binding fluorochrome DAPI revealed that Be causes a G(0)-G(1)/pre-S phase arrest. Western blot analyses indicated that the Be-induced G(0)-G(1)/pre-S phase arrest involves elevations in TP53 (p53) and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21(Waf-1,Cip1)). That Be at low concentrations inhibits the growth of normal human fibroblasts suggests the possibility of the existence of abnormal cell cycle inhibitory responses to Be in individuals who are sensitive to the metal and ultimately develop CBD.

  12. Radiation-Induced Differentiation in Human Lung Fibroblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sa-Rah; Ahn, Ji-Yeon; Han, Young-Soo; Shim, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    One of the most common tumors in many countries is lung cancer and patients with lung cancer may take radiotherapy. Although radiotherapy may have its own advantages, it can also induce serious problems such as acute radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by excessive production of {alpha}-SMA and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen and fibronectin. There has been a great amount of research about fibrosis but the exact mechanism causing the reaction is not elucidated especially in radiation-induced fibrosis. Until now it has been known that several factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta}), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) are related to fibrosis. Among them TGF-{beta} with Smad signaling is known to be the main stream and other signaling molecules such as MAPK, ERK and JNK (3) also participates in the process. In addition to those above factors, it is thought that more diverse and complicate mechanisms may involve in the radiationinduced fibrosis. Therefore, to investigate the underlying mechanisms in radiation induced fibrosis, first of all, we confirmed whether radiation induces trans differentiation in human normal lung fibroblasts. Here, we suggest that not only TGF-{beta} but also radiation can induce trans differentiation in human lung fibroblast WI-38 and IMR-90.

  13. Estradiol stimulation of inositolphospholipid metabolism in human endometrial fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.; Imai, A.; Tamaya, T.

    1989-01-01

    Stimulated inositolphospholipid turnover has been proposed to constitute a signal-transducing mechanism in many cell types. To determine the inositolphospholipid turnover during stimulation by 17 beta-estradiol, the turnover kinetics of phospholipids was investigated in human endometrial fibroblasts. In cells incubated with [ 32 P] phosphate for 1 h, estradiol rapidly and persisitently (for at least 30 min) enhanced the rate of 32 P-labeling of phosphatidic acid (PA). On the other hand, after a lag time of 5 min, 32 P-labeling of phosphatidylinositol (PI) was also increased also. These sequential 32 P-labeling of PA and PI demonstrated that inositolphospholipid turnover was stimulated in fibroblasts exposed to estradiol. The rapid estrogen-stimulated inositolphospholipid turnover may not be through the mechanism associated with classical action of estrogen

  14. Tryptophan Transport in Human Fibroblast Cells—A Functional Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Vumma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are indications that serotonergic neurotransmission is disturbed in several psychiatric disorders. One explanation may be disturbed transport of tryptophan (precursor for serotonin synthesis across cell membranes. Human fibroblast cells offer an advantageous model to study the transport of amino acids across cell membranes, since they are easy to propagate and the environmental factors can be controlled. The aim of this study was to functionally characterize tryptophan transport and to identify the main transporters of tryptophan in fibroblast cell lines from healthy controls. Tryptophan kinetic parameters ( V max and K m at low and high concentrations were measured in fibroblasts using the cluster tray method. Uptake of 3 H (5-L-tryptophan at different concentrations in the presence and absence of excess concentrations of inhibitors or combinations of inhibitors of amino acid transporters were also measured. Tryptophan transport at high concentration (0.5 mM had low affinity and high V max and the LAT1 isoform of system-L was responsible for approximately 40% of the total uptake of tryptophan. In comparison, tryptophan transport at low concentration (50 nM had higher affinity, lower V max and approximately 80% of tryptophan uptake was transported by system-L with LAT1 as the major isoform. The uptake of tryptophan at the low concentration was mainly sodium (Na + dependent, while uptake at high substrate concentration was mainly Na + independent. A series of different transporter inhibitors had varying inhibitory effects on tryptophan uptake. This study indicates that tryptophan is transported by multiple transporters that are active at different substrate concentrations in human fibroblast cells. The tryptophan transport trough system-L was mainly facilitated by the LAT1 isoform, at both low and high substrate concentrations of tryptophan.

  15. Evaluation of the radioinduced damage, repair capacity and cell death on human tumorigenic (T-47D and MCF-7) and nontumorigenic (MCF-10) cell lines of breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdoge, Flavia Gomes Silva

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies that account women, representing about one in three of all female neoplasm. Approximately, 90% of cases are considered sporadic, attributed to somatic events and about 10% have a family history and this only 4 - 5 % is due to hereditary factors. In the clinic, ionizing radiation is a major tool utilized in the control of tumour growth, besides surgery and chemotherapy. There is, however, little information concerning cellular response to the action of ionizing radiation in the target cells, i.e., cell lines originating from breast cancer. The present study proposed to analyze the radiosensitivity of the human tumorigenic (T-47D and MCF-7) and non tumorigenic (MCF-10) cell lines, originating from breast and submitted to various doses (0.5 to 30 Gy) of 60 Co rays (0.72 - 1.50 Gy/min). For this purpose, DNA radioinduced damage, repair capacity and cell death were utilized as parameters of radiosensitivity by micronucleus, single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) and cell viability techniques. The data obtained showed that tumorigenic cell lines were more radiosensitive than non tumorigenic breast cells in all assays here utilized. The T-47D cell line was presenting the highest amount of radioinduced damage, a more accelerated proliferation rate and a higher rate of cell death. The three cell lines presented a relatively efficient repair capacity, since one hour after the irradiation all of them showed a considerable reduction of radioinduced damage. The techniques employed showed to be secure, sensitive and reproducible, allowing to quantify and evaluate DNA damage, repair capacity and cell death in the three human breast cell lines. (author)

  16. Comparative analysis of the expression of surface markers on fibroblasts and fibroblast-like cells isolated from different human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupatov, A Yu; Vdovin, A S; Vakhrushev, I V; Poltavtseva, R A; Yarygin, K N

    2015-02-01

    Expression of 20 surface markers was analyzed in cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells of the umbilical cord, fibroblasts from adult and fetal human skin, and fibroblast-like cells of fetal liver was analyzed by fl ow cytometry. The studied cultures did not express hemopoietic cells markers, but were positive for CD73, CD90, and CD105 markers recommended by the International Society of Cell Therapy for the identification of the multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. Fetal liver fibroblast-like cells were positive for CD54; this marker was absent in skin fibroblast cultures, but was expressed by umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells. Further study of these cells revealed a minor subpopulation of cells co-expressing CD24 and CD90 or CD24 and CD54. We hypothesized that these cells probably participate in epithelial mesenchymal transition.

  17. High mobility group A1 enhances tumorigenicity of human cholangiocarcinoma and confers resistance to therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintavalle, Cristina; Burmeister, Katharina; Piscuoglio, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    High mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein has been described to play an important role in numerous types of human carcinoma. By the modulation of several target genes HMGA1 promotes proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. However, its role in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has ...

  18. Studies of the in vivo radiosensitivity of human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Richard P.; Kaspler, Pavel; Griffin, Anthony M.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Catton, Charles; Alasti, Hamideh; Abbas, Ahmar; Heydarian, Moustafa; Ferguson, Peter; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To examine the radiosensitivity of skin cells obtained directly from the irradiated skin of patients undergoing fractionated radiation treatment prior to surgery for treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and to determine if there was a relationship with the development of wound healing complications associated with the surgery post-radiotherapy. Methods: Micronucleus (MN) formation was measured in cells (primarily dermal fibroblasts) obtained from human skin at their first division after being removed from STS patients during post-radiotherapy surgery (2-9 weeks after the end of the radiotherapy). At the time of radiotherapy (planned tumor dose - 50 Gy in 25 daily fractions) measurements were made of surface skin dose at predetermined marked sites. Skin from these sites was obtained at surgery and cell suspensions were prepared directly for the cytokinesis-blocked MN assay. Cultured strains of the fibroblasts were also established from skin nominally outside the edge of the radiation beam and DNA damage (MN formation) was examined following irradiation in vitro for comparison with the results from the in situ irradiations. Results: Extensive DNA damage (MN) was detectable in fibroblasts from human skin at extended periods after irradiation (2-9 weeks after the end of the 5-week fractionated radiotherapy). Analysis of skin receiving a range of doses demonstrated that the level of damage observed was dose dependent. There was no clear correlation between the level of damage observed after irradiation in situ and irradiation of cell strains in culture. Similarly, there was no correlation between the extent of MN formation following in situ irradiation and the propensity for the patient to develop wound healing complications post-surgery. Conclusions: Despite the presence of DNA damage in dermal fibroblasts weeks after the end of the radiation treatment, there was no relationship between this damage and wound healing complications following

  19. Differences in motility pattern between human buccal fibroblasts and periodontal and skin fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepekhin, Eugene; Grøn, Birgitte; Berezin, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    -assisted microscope work-station. For evaluation of cell morphology, cell contours were recognized semiautomatically and used for determination of cell area, cell spreading and number and length of processes. We found that the cellular displacement of the buccal fibroblasts was only approximately 50% of the cellular...... and motility pattern amongst the three fibroblast types could not be explained by differences in secretion of extracellular matrix components and are therefore believed to reflect phenotypic differences amongst fibroblast subpopulations....

  20. Differences in motility pattern between human buccal fibroblasts and periodontal and skin fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepekhin, Eugene; Grøn, Birgitte; Berezin, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Migration of fibroblasts from surrounding normal tissue into the wound bed is an important requirement for successful wound healing. This study investigated the motility pattern of buccal, periodontal and skin fibroblasts to determine whether differences in the wound healing efficiency at these s......Migration of fibroblasts from surrounding normal tissue into the wound bed is an important requirement for successful wound healing. This study investigated the motility pattern of buccal, periodontal and skin fibroblasts to determine whether differences in the wound healing efficiency...

  1. Persistent Exposure to Porphyromonas gingivalis Promotes Proliferative and Invasion Capabilities, and Tumorigenic Properties of Human Immortalized Oral Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Fengxue; Liu, Junchao; Guo, Yan; Li, Chen; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, Hongyan; Zhao, Haijiao; Pan, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies revealed a significant association between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Porphyromonas gingivalis , a major pathogen of periodontal disease. As a keystone pathogen of periodontitis, P. gingivalis is known not only to damage local periodontal tissues, but also to evade the host immune system and eventually affect systemic health. However, its role in OSCC has yet to be defined. To explore the underlying effect of chronic P. gingivalis infection on OSCC and to identify relevant biomarkers as promising targets for therapy and prevention, we established a novel model by exposing human immortalized oral epithelial cells (HIOECs) to P. gingivalis at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) for 5-23 weeks. The P. gingivalis infected HIOECs were monitored for tumor biological alteration by proliferation, wound healing, transwell invasion, and gelatin zymography assays. Microarray and proteomic analyses were performed on HIOECs infected with P. gingivalis for 15 weeks, and some selected data were validated by quantitative real-time PCR and (or) western blot on cells infected for 15 and 23 weeks. Persistent exposure to P. gingivalis caused cell morphological changes, increased proliferation ability with higher S phase fraction in the cell cycle, and promoted cell migratory and invasive properties. In combining results of bioinformatics analyses and validation assays, tumor-related genes such as NNMT, FLI1, GAS6, lncRNA CCAT1, PDCD1LG2, and CD274 may be considered as the key regulators in tumor-like transformation in response to long-time exposure of P. gingivalis . In addition, some useful clinical biomarkers and novel proteins were also presented. In conclusion, P. gingivalis could promote tumorigenic properties of HIOECs, indicating that chronic P. gingivalis infection may be considered as a potential risk factor for oral cancer. The key regulators detected from the present model might be used in monitoring the development of OSCC with

  2. MicroRNA-26a modulates transforming growth factor beta-1-induced proliferation in human fetal lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Lian; Shen, Yongchun; Wang, Tao; Chen, Lei; Xu, Dan; Wen, Fuqiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Endogenous miR-26a inhibits TGF-beta 1 induced proliferation of lung fibroblasts. • miR-26a induces G1 arrest through directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2. • TGF indispensable receptor, TGF-beta R I, is regulated by miR-26a. • miR-26a acts through inhibiting TGF-beta 2 feedback loop to reduce TGF-beta 1. • Collagen type I and connective tissue growth factor are suppressed by miR-26a. - Abstract: MicroRNA-26a is a newly discovered microRNA that has a strong anti-tumorigenic capacity and is capable of suppressing cell proliferation and activating tumor-specific apoptosis. However, whether miR-26a can inhibit the over-growth of lung fibroblasts remains unclear. The relationship between miR-26a and lung fibrosis was explored in the current study. We first investigated the effect of miR-26a on the proliferative activity of human lung fibroblasts with or without TGF-beta1 treatment. We found that the inhibition of endogenous miR-26a promoted proliferation and restoration of mature miR-26a inhibited the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts. We also examined that miR-26a can block the G1/S phase transition via directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2, degrading mRNA and decreasing protein expression of Cyclin D2. Furthermore, we showed that miR-26a mediated a TGF-beta 2-TGF-beta 1 feedback loop and inhibited TGF-beta R I activation. In addition, the overexpression of miR-26a also significantly suppressed the TGF-beta 1-interacting-CTGF–collagen fibrotic pathway. In summary, our studies indicated an essential role of miR-26a in the anti-fibrotic mechanism in TGF-beta1-induced proliferation in human lung fibroblasts, by directly targeting Cyclin D2, regulating TGF-beta R I as well as TGF-beta 2, and suggested the therapeutic potential of miR-26a in ameliorating lung fibrosis

  3. MicroRNA-26a modulates transforming growth factor beta-1-induced proliferation in human fetal lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoou [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Liu, Lian [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Shen, Yongchun; Wang, Tao; Chen, Lei; Xu, Dan [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Wen, Fuqiang, E-mail: wenfuqiang.scu@gmail.com [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Endogenous miR-26a inhibits TGF-beta 1 induced proliferation of lung fibroblasts. • miR-26a induces G1 arrest through directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2. • TGF indispensable receptor, TGF-beta R I, is regulated by miR-26a. • miR-26a acts through inhibiting TGF-beta 2 feedback loop to reduce TGF-beta 1. • Collagen type I and connective tissue growth factor are suppressed by miR-26a. - Abstract: MicroRNA-26a is a newly discovered microRNA that has a strong anti-tumorigenic capacity and is capable of suppressing cell proliferation and activating tumor-specific apoptosis. However, whether miR-26a can inhibit the over-growth of lung fibroblasts remains unclear. The relationship between miR-26a and lung fibrosis was explored in the current study. We first investigated the effect of miR-26a on the proliferative activity of human lung fibroblasts with or without TGF-beta1 treatment. We found that the inhibition of endogenous miR-26a promoted proliferation and restoration of mature miR-26a inhibited the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts. We also examined that miR-26a can block the G1/S phase transition via directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2, degrading mRNA and decreasing protein expression of Cyclin D2. Furthermore, we showed that miR-26a mediated a TGF-beta 2-TGF-beta 1 feedback loop and inhibited TGF-beta R I activation. In addition, the overexpression of miR-26a also significantly suppressed the TGF-beta 1-interacting-CTGF–collagen fibrotic pathway. In summary, our studies indicated an essential role of miR-26a in the anti-fibrotic mechanism in TGF-beta1-induced proliferation in human lung fibroblasts, by directly targeting Cyclin D2, regulating TGF-beta R I as well as TGF-beta 2, and suggested the therapeutic potential of miR-26a in ameliorating lung fibrosis.

  4. Whole-Genome DNA Methylation Analyses Revealed Epigenetic Instability in Tumorigenic Human iPS Cell-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Tsuyoshi; Iwanami, Akio; Sanosaka, Tsukasa; Kohyama, Jun; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nagoshi, Narihito; Kashiwagi, Rei; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-05-01

    Although human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derivatives are considered promising cellular resources for regenerative medicine, their tumorigenicity potentially limits their clinical application in hiPSC technologies. We previously demonstrated that oncogenic hiPSC-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (hiPSC-NS/PCs) produced tumor-like tissues that were distinct from teratomas. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of tumorigenicity in hiPSC-NS/PCs, we performed an integrated analysis using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array and the HumanHT-12 v4.0 Expression BeadChip array to compare the comprehensive DNA methylation and gene expression profiles of tumorigenic hiPSC-NS/PCs (253G1-NS/PCs) and non-tumorigenic cells (201B7-NS/PCs). Although the DNA methylation profiles of 253G1-hiPSCs and 201B7-hiPSCs were similar regardless of passage number, the methylation status of the global DNA methylation profiles of 253G1-NS/PCs and 201B7-NS/PCs differed; the genomic regions surrounding the transcriptional start site of the CAT and PSMD5 genes were hypermethylated in 253G1-NS/PCs but not in 201B7-NS/PCs. Interestingly, the aberrant DNA methylation profile was more pronounced in 253G1-NS/PCs that had been passaged more than 15 times. In addition, we identified aberrations in DNA methylation at the RBP1 gene locus; the DNA methylation frequency in RBP1 changed as 253G1-NS/PCs were sequentially passaged. These results indicate that different NS/PC clones have different DNA methylomes and that DNA methylation patterns are unstable as cells are passaged. Therefore, DNA methylation profiles should be included in the criteria used to evaluate the tumorigenicity of hiPSC-NS/PCs in the clinical setting. Stem Cells 2017;35:1316-1327. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Human Fibroblast Sheet Promotes Human Pancreatic Islet Survival and Function In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Hajime; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Adachi, Tomohiko; Kitasato, Amane; Ono, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Takayuki; Hirabaru, Masataka; Kuroshima, Naoki; Hirayama, Takanori; Sakai, Yusuke; Soyama, Akihiko; Hidaka, Masaaki; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Kin, Tatsuya; Shapiro, James; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, we engineered functional cell sheets using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to promote islet graft survival. In the present study, we hypothesized that a cell sheet using dermal fibroblasts could be an alternative to MSCs, and then we aimed to evaluate the effects of this cell sheet on the functional viability of human islets. Fibroblast sheets were fabricated using temperature-responsive culture dishes. Human islets were seeded onto fibroblast sheets. The efficacy of the fibroblast sheets was evaluated by dividing islets into three groups: the islets-alone group, the coculture with fibroblasts group, and the islet culture on fibroblast sheet group. The ultrastructure of the islets cultured on each fibroblast sheet was examined by electron microscopy. The fibroblast sheet expression of fibronectin (as a component of the extracellular matrix) was quantified by Western blotting. After 3 days of culture, islet viabilities were 70.2 ± 9.8%, 87.4 ± 5.8%, and 88.6 ± 4.5%, and survival rates were 60.3 ± 6.8%, 65.3 ± 3.0%, and 75.8 ± 5.6%, respectively. Insulin secretions in response to high-glucose stimulation were 5.1 ± 1.6, 9.4 ± 3.8, and 23.5 ± 12.4 µIU/islet, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretions were 3.0 ± 0.7, 5.1 ± 1.2, and 7.3 ± 1.0 ng/day, respectively. Islets were found to incorporate into the fibroblast sheets while maintaining a three-dimensional structure and well-preserved extracellular matrix. The fibroblast sheets exhibited a higher expression of fibronectin compared to fibroblasts alone. In conclusion, human dermal fibroblast sheets fabricated by tissue-engineering techniques could provide an optimal substrate for human islets, as a source of cytokines and extracellular matrix.

  6. Proliferative Effects of Histamine on Primary Human Pterygium Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhenwei; Fu, Qiuli; Zhang, Lifang; Yin, Houfa; Jin, Xiuming; Tang, Qiaomei; Lyu, Danni; Yao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose . It has been confirmed that inflammatory cytokines are involved in the progression of pterygium. Histamine can enhance proliferation and migration of many cells. Therefore, we intend to investigate the proliferative and migratory effects of histamine on primary culture of human pterygium fibroblasts (HPFs). Methods . Pterygium and conjunctiva samples were obtained from surgery, and toluidine blue staining was used to identify mast cells. 3-[4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was performed to evaluate the proliferative rate of HPFs and human conjunctival fibroblasts (HCFs); ki67 expression was also measured by immunofluorescence analysis. Histamine receptor-1 (H1R) antagonist (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) and histamine receptor-2 (H2R) antagonist (Nizatidine) were added to figure out which receptor was involved. Wound healing model was used to evaluate the migratory ability of HPFs. Results . The numbers of total mast cells and degranulated mast cells were both higher in pterygium than in conjunctiva. Histamine had a proliferative effect on both HPFs and HCFs, the effective concentration (10  μ mol/L) on HPFs was lower than on HCFs (100  μ mol/L), and the effect could be blocked by H1R antagonist. Histamine showed no migratory effect on HPFs. Conclusion . Histamine may play an important role in the proliferation of HPFs and act through H1R.

  7. Cytotoxic effects of nickel nanowires in human fibroblasts

    KAUST Repository

    Felix Servin, Laura P.

    2016-03-09

    The increasing interest in the use of magnetic nanostructures for biomedical applications necessitates rigorous studies to be carried out in order to determine their potential toxicity. This work attempts to elucidate the cytotoxic effects of nickel nanowires (NWs) in human fibroblasts WI-38 by a colorimetric assay (MTT) under two different parameters: NW concentration and exposure time. This was complemented with TEM and confocal images to assess the NWs internalization and to identify any changes in the cell morphology. Ni NWs were fabricated by electrodeposition using porous alumina templates. Energy dispersive X-Ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy imaging were used for NW characterization. The results showed decreased cell metabolic activity for incubation times longer than 24 hours and no negative effects for exposure times shorter than that. The cytotoxicity effects for human fibroblasts were then compared with those reported for HCT 116 cells, and the findings point out that it is relevant to consider the cellular size. In addition, the present study compares the toxic effects of equivalent amounts of nickel in the form of its salt to those of NWs and shows that the NWs are more toxic than the salts. Internalized NWs were found in vesicles inside of the cells where their presence induced inflammation of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  8. DNA synthesis in vitro in human fibroblast preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    When confluent cultures of human fibroblasts were ultraviolet irradiated and either permeabilized or lysed, three types of DNA synthesis were subsequently observed during incubation in vitro: (A) a low level of DNA replication, which ceased after 15-30 min incubation at 37/sup 0/C; (B) radiation-dependent reparative gap-filling, which also ceased after 15 min at 37/sup 0/C; and (C) radiation-independent DNA synthesis, which was not semiconservative and proceeded at a linear rate for 1 hr at 37/sup 0/C. Normal and xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts displayed different rates of radiation-dependent reparative gap-filling after lysis but similar rates of radiation-independent DNA synthesis. The rates of DNA replication and radiation-independent DNA synthesis were less in the permeable cell system than in the lysed cell system, whereas radiation-dependent reparative gap-filling was the same in both. Preparations of permeable and lysed cells activated radiation-dependent reparative gap-filling at about 15% of the rate estimated for intact cells. No radiation-dependent DNA strand breaks, as assayed by alkaline elution, were observed in the lysed cell preparation. Some radiation-dependent breaks were observed in the permeable cell preparation, but radiation-dependent DNA breakage was less than that seen in intact cells. This inability to incise DNA at damaged sites could account for the low rate of activation of reparative gap-filling in vitro. DNA strand breaks were produced in fibroblast preparations nonspecifically during lysis or permeabilization and incubation in vitro, and this breakage of DNA probably was responsible for the radiation-independent DNA synthesis.

  9. Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP gene-silencing inhibits key tumorigenic activities in human oral cancer cell line, OSC2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshree Joshi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We determined recently that dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP, a member of the SIBLING (Small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins family of phosphoglycoproteins, is highly upregulated in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs where upregulation is associated with tumor aggressiveness. To investigate the effects of DSPP-silencing on the tumorigenic profiles of the oral cancer cell line, OSC2, short-hairpin RNA (shRNA interference was employed to silence DSPP in OSC2 cells.Multiple regions of DSPP transcript were targeted for shRNA interference using hDSP-shRNA lentiviral particles designed to silence DSPP gene expression. Control shRNA plasmid encoding a scrambled sequence incapable of degrading any known cellular mRNA was used for negative control. Following puromycin selection of stable lines of DSSP-silenced OSC2 cells, phenotypic hallmarks of oral carcinogenesis were assayed by western blot and RT-PCR analyses, MTT (cell-viability, colony-formation, modified Boyden-Chamber (migration and invasion, and flow cytometry (cell-cycle and apoptosis analyses. DSPP-silenced OSC2 cells showed altered cell morphology, reduced viability, decreased colony-formation ability, decreased migration and invasion, G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest, and increased tumor cell sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, VEGF, Ki-67, p53, and EGFR were down-regulated. There was a direct correlation between the degree of DSPP-silencing and MMP suppression, as indicated by least squares regression: MMP-2 {(y = 0.850x, p<0.001 (y = 1.156x, p<0.001}, MMP-3 {(y = 0.994x, p<0.001 (y = 1.324x, p = 0.004}, and MMP-9 {(y = 1.248x, p = 0.005, y = 0.809, p = 0.013}.DSPP-silencing in OSC2 cell decreased salient hallmarks of oral tumorigenesis and provides the first functional evidence of a potential key role for DSPP in oral cancer biology. The down-regulation of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, p53 and VEGF in DSPP

  10. Mutant Parkin impairs mitochondrial function and morphology in human fibroblasts.

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    Anne Grünewald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in Parkin are the most common cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD. The mitochondrially localized E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Parkin has been reported to be involved in respiratory chain function and mitochondrial dynamics. More recent publications also described a link between Parkin and mitophagy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the impact of Parkin mutations on mitochondrial function and morphology in a human cellular model. Fibroblasts were obtained from three members of an Italian PD family with two mutations in Parkin (homozygous c.1072delT, homozygous delEx7, compound-heterozygous c.1072delT/delEx7, as well as from two relatives without mutations. Furthermore, three unrelated compound-heterozygous patients (delEx3-4/duplEx7-12, delEx4/c.924C>T and delEx1/c.924C>T and three unrelated age-matched controls were included. Fibroblasts were cultured under basal or paraquat-induced oxidative stress conditions. ATP synthesis rates and cellular levels were detected luminometrically. Activities of complexes I-IV and citrate synthase were measured spectrophotometrically in mitochondrial preparations or cell lysates. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide. Oxidative stress levels were investigated with the OxyBlot technique. The mitochondrial network was investigated immunocytochemically and the degree of branching was determined with image processing methods. We observed a decrease in the production and overall concentration of ATP coinciding with increased mitochondrial mass in Parkin-mutant fibroblasts. After an oxidative insult, the membrane potential decreased in patient cells but not in controls. We further determined higher levels of oxidized proteins in the mutants both under basal and stress conditions. The degree of mitochondrial network branching was comparable in mutants and

  11. DNA repair synthesis in human fibroblasts requires DNA polymerase delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, C.; Reinhard, P.; Linn, S.

    1988-01-01

    When UV-irradiated cultured diploid human fibroblasts were permeabilized with Brij-58 then separated from soluble material by centrifugation, conservative DNA repair synthesis could be restored by a soluble factor obtained from the supernatant of similarly treated HeLa cells. Extensive purification of this factor yielded a 10.2 S, 220,000-dalton polypeptide with the DNA polymerase and 3'- to 5'-exonuclease activities reported for DNA polymerase delta II. Monoclonal antibody to KB cell DNA polymerase alpha, while binding to HeLa DNA polymerase alpha, did not bind to the HeLa DNA polymerase delta. Moreover, at micromolar concentrations N2-(p-n-butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (BuPdGTP) and 2-(p-n-butylanilino)-2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (BuAdATP) were potent inhibitors of DNA polymerase alpha, but did not inhibit the DNA polymerase delta. Neither purified DNA polymerase alpha nor beta could promote repair DNA synthesis in the permeabilized cells. Furthermore, under conditions which inhibited purified DNA polymerase alpha by greater than 90%, neither monoclonal antibodies to DNA polymerase alpha, BuPdGTP, nor BuAdATP was able to inhibit significantly the DNA repair synthesis mediated by the DNA polymerase delta. Thus, it appears that a major portion of DNA repair synthesis induced by UV irradiation might be catalyzed by DNA polymerase delta. When xeroderma pigmentosum human diploid fibroblasts were utilized, DNA repair synthesis dependent upon ultraviolet light could be restored by addition of both T4 endonuclease V and DNA polymerase delta, but not by addition of either one alone

  12. Stress-induced responses of human skin fibroblasts in vitro reflect human longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Pim; Maier, Andrea B.; van Heemst, Diana; de Koning-Treurniet, Corine; Blom, Joke; Dirks, Roeland W.; Tanke, Hans J.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike various model organisms, cellular responses to stress have not been related to human longevity. We investigated cellular responses to stress in skin fibroblasts that were isolated from young and very old subjects, and from offspring of nonagenarian siblings and their partners, representatives

  13. Human cytomegalovirus replicates in gamma-irradiated fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanley, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the unique interdependence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and the physiological state of the host cell, we evaluated the ability of human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF), exposed to gamma radiation, to support HCMV growth. Irradiation of HFF with 2,500 rADS prevented cellular proliferation and suppressed cellular DNA, but not RNA or protein synthesis. Treatment of HFF cells with 2,500 rADS 6 or 48 hours prior to infection did not alter the time course or virus yield during HCMV replication. Virus plaquing efficiency in irradiated cells was comparable to that of nonirradiated cells. As judged by thymidine incorporation and BUdR inhibition of virus replication, HCMV infection induced both thymidine kinase activity and host cell DNA synthesis in irradiated cells. In addition, virus could be recovered from HFF exposed to radiation 0-2 days after infection with HCMV. These studies indicate that the damage to cells by gamma irradiation does not alter the capacity of host cells to support HCMV replication

  14. Rapamycin inhibits human laryngotracheal stenosis-derived fibroblast proliferation, metabolism, and function in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Daryan R; Ma, Garret; Samad, Idris; Ding, Dacheng; Pandian, Vinciya; Powell, Jonathan D; Horton, Maureen R; Hillel, Alexander T

    2015-05-01

    To determine if rapamycin inhibits the growth, function, and metabolism of human laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS)-derived fibroblasts. Controlled in vitro study. Tertiary care hospital in a research university. Fibroblasts isolated from biopsies of 5 patients with laryngotracheal stenosis were cultured. Cell proliferation, histology, gene expression, and cellular metabolism of LTS-derived fibroblasts were assessed in 4 conditions: (1) fibroblast growth medium, (2) fibroblast growth medium with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), (3) fibroblast growth medium with 10(-10) M (low-dose) rapamycin dissolved in DMSO, and (4) fibroblast growth medium with 10(-9) M (high-dose) rapamycin dissolved in DMSO. The LTS fibroblast count and DNA concentration were reduced after treatment with high-dose rapamycin compared to DMSO (P = .0007) and normal (P = .0007) controls. Collagen I expression decreased after treatment with high-dose rapamycin versus control (P = .0051) and DMSO (P = .0093) controls. Maximal respiration decreased to 68.6 pMoles of oxygen/min/10 mg/protein from 96.9 for DMSO (P = .0002) and 97.0 for normal (P = .0022) controls. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production decreased to 66.8 pMoles from 88.1 for DMSO (P = .0006) and 83.3 for normal (P = .0003) controls. Basal respiration decreased to 78.6 pMoles from 108 for DMSO (P = .0002) and 101 for normal (P = .0014) controls. Rapamycin demonstrated an anti-fibroblast effect by significantly reducing the proliferation, metabolism, and collagen deposition of human LTS fibroblast in vitro. Rapamycin significantly decreased oxidative phosphorylation of LTS fibroblasts, suggesting at a potential mechanism for the reduced proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, rapamycin's anti-fibroblast effects indicate a promising adjuvant therapy for the treatment of laryngotracheal stenosis. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  15. Cytotoxic Effects of Nickel Nanowires in Human Fibroblasts

    KAUST Repository

    Felix Servin, Laura P.

    2014-04-01

    There is an increasing interest for the use of nanostructures as potential tools in areas that include biology and medicine, for applications spanning from cell separation to treatments of diseases. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been the most widely studied and utilized nanostructures in biomedical applications. Despite their popularity, the regular shape of MNPs limits their potential for certain applications. Studies have shown that magnetic nanowires (MNWs), due to their high-­‐aspect ratio and specific magnetic properties, might provide improved performance for some biomedical applications. As a consequence, MNWs have received increasing attention from researchers in the last years. However, as with any other nanostructure intended for biomedical applications, rigorous studies must be carried out to determine their potential toxicity and adverse effects before they can be successfully incorporated in clinical applications. This work attempts to elucidate the cytotoxic effects of nickel NWs (Ni NWs) in human fibroblasts by measuring cell viability under different parameters. Ni NWs of three different lengths (0.86 ± 0.02 μm, 1.1 ± 0.1 μm and 6.1 ± 0.6 μm) were fabricated by electrodeposition using porous aluminum oxide (PAO) membranes as templates. Energy dispersive X-­‐Ray analysis (EDAX) and X-­‐Ray diffraction (XRD) were used for the chemical characterization of the Ni NWs. Their physical characterization was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. MTT assays were performed to assess cell viability of human fibroblasts in the presence of Ni NWs. NW length, NW/cell ratio and exposure time were changed throughout the experiments to elucidate their effects on cell viability. The results showed that NWs length has a strong effect on internalization and cytotoxicity. Smaller NWs showed higher toxicity levels at earlier times while longer NWs had stronger effects on cell viability at

  16. Basic fibroblast growth factor stimulates the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts via the ERK1/2 and JNK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, T; Jinnin, M; Muchemwa, F C; Fukushima, S; Kogushi-Nishi, H; Moriya, C; Igata, T; Fujisawa, A; Johno, T; Ihn, H

    2010-04-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2) has been described as a multipotent cytokine that regulates cell growth as well as differentiation, matrix composition, chemotaxis, cell adhesion and migration in numerous cell types. It is known that bFGF stimulates proliferation of cultured fibroblasts. However, the detailed mechanism of fibroblast proliferation induced by bFGF in vitro still remains to be elucidated. Objectives We investigated the precise effects of bFGF on fibroblast proliferation and the signalling pathways responsible for bFGF-induced proliferation in cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). HDFs were cultured with bFGF in the presence or absence of specific inhibitors against MAPK signalling pathways including ERK, JNK and p38. The number of cells was counted and immunoblotting findings were examined for the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of ERK1, ERK2 and JNK1 were proven by the transfection of siRNA. bFGF increased the number of HDFs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The bFGF-induced proliferation was suppressed by the MEK inhibitors PD98059 and U0126, and the JNK inhibitor SP600125. bFGF increased the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and JNK1. Treatment with ERK1, ERK2 or JNK1 siRNA significantly inhibited bFGF-induced proliferation. This study indicates that ERK1/2 and JNK pathways play an important role in the bFGF-mediated effect in HDFs. This study also suggests that controlling ERK1/2 and/or JNK signalling may therefore be a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic and untreatable skin ulcers.

  17. Effects of Calendula officinalis on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Pragtipal; Al-Shibani, Nouf; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Weiping; Song, Fengyu; Gregson, Karen S; Windsor, L Jack

    2012-04-01

    Calendula officinalis is commonly called the marigold. It is a staple topical remedy in homeopathic medicine. It is rich in quercetin, carotenoids, lutein, lycopene, rutin, ubiquinone, xanthophylls, and other anti-oxidants. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Quercetin, one of the active components in Calendula, has been shown to inhibit recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and decrease the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL), IL-6 and IL-8 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore-stimulated human mast cells. To examine the effects of Calendula on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) mediated collagen degradation and MMP activity. Lactate dehydrogenate assays were performed to determine the non-toxic concentrations of Calendula, doxycycline and quercetin. Cell-mediated collagen degradation assays were performed to examine the inhibitory effect on cell-mediated collagen degradation. Gelatin zymography was performed to examine their effects on MMP-2 activity. The experiments were repeated three times and ANOVA used for statistical analyses. Calendula at 2-3% completely inhibited the MMP-2 activity in the zymograms. Doxycycline inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05%, and MMP-2 activity completely at 0.05%. Quercetin inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02%, and MMP-2 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Calendula inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the same correlated concentration of pure quercetin. Calendula inhibits HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the corresponding concentration of quercetin. This may be attributed to additional components in Calendula other than quercetin. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. METHODS In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. RESULTS Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1- fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity CONCLUSIONS Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  19. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. Results Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1-fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity Conclusions Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  20. Neutralization of Human Cytomegalovirus Entry into Fibroblasts and Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wussow, Felix; Chiuppesi, Flavia; Contreras, Heidi; Diamond, Don J

    2017-10-31

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a leading cause of permanent birth defects, highlighting the need to develop an HCMV vaccine candidate. However, HCMV vaccine development is complicated by the varying capacity of neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to interfere in vitro with the HCMV entry routes mediating infection of fibroblast (FB) and epithelial cells (EC). While HCMV infection of FB and EC requires glycoprotein complexes composed of gB and gH/gL/gO, EC infection depends additionally on the envelope pentamer complex (PC) composed of gH, gL, UL128, UL130 and UL131A. Unlike NAb to gB or gH epitopes that can interfere with both FB and EC infection, NAb targeting predominantly conformational epitopes of the UL128/130/131A subunits are unable to prevent FB entry, though they are highly potent in blocking EC infection. Despite the selective requirement of the PC for EC entry, the PC is exceptionally immunogenic as vaccine antigen to stimulate both EC- and FB-specific NAb responses due to its capacity to elicit NAb that target epitopes of the UL128/130/131A subunits and gH. These findings suggest that the PC could be sufficient in a subunit vaccine formulation to induce robust FB- and EC-specific NAb responses. In this short review, we discuss NAb responses induced through natural infection and vaccination that interfere in vitro with HCMV infection of FB and EC.

  1. Human skeletal muscle fibroblasts stimulate in vitro myogenesis and in vivo muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Abigail L; Magnan, Mélanie; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Accumulation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix is an unfavourable characteristic of many muscle diseases, muscle injury and sarcopenia. The extent of cross-talk between fibroblasts, as the source of matrix protein, and satellite cells in humans is unknown. We studied this in human muscle biopsies and cell-culture studies. We observed a strong stimulation of myogenesis by human fibroblasts in cell culture. In biopsies collected 30 days after a muscle injury protocol, fibroblast number increased to four times control levels, where fibroblasts were found to be preferentially located immediately surrounding regenerating muscle fibres. These novel findings indicate an important role for fibroblasts in supporting the regeneration of muscle fibres, potentially through direct stimulation of satellite cell differentiation and fusion, and contribute to understanding of cell-cell cross-talk during physiological and pathological muscle remodelling. Accumulation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix is an unfavourable characteristic of many muscle diseases, muscle injury and sarcopenia. In addition to the indispensable role satellite cells play in muscle regeneration, there is emerging evidence in rodents for a regulatory influence on fibroblast activity. However, the influence of fibroblasts on satellite cells and muscle regeneration in humans is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate this in vitro and during in vivo regeneration in humans. Following a muscle injury protocol in young healthy men (n = 7), the number of fibroblasts (TCF7L2+), satellite cells (Pax7+), differentiating myogenic cells (myogenin+) and regenerating fibres (neonatal/embryonic myosin+) was determined from biopsy cross-sections. Fibroblasts and myogenic precursor cells (MPCs) were also isolated from human skeletal muscle (n = 4) and co-cultured using different cell ratios, with the two cell populations either in direct contact with each other or separated by a permeable

  2. [Analysis on clone in vitro and tumorigenic capacity in vivo of different subsets cells from the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Chun-ping; He, Yan-li; Tian, Yuan; Huang, Tao

    2008-07-01

    To investigate whether there are cancer stem cells in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Flow cytometry was applied to separate different subpopulation cells from MCF-7 cells, and their ability of clone in vitro and reconstruction tumor in vivo were determined. The ability of clone in vitro and reconstruction tumor in vivo were observed in some MCF-7 cells. Contrast with CD44+ CD24+ cells, the proportion of tumorigenic cancer cells in CD44+ CD24- cells is higher. Breast cancer stem cell exists in MCF-7 and it mainly locates the subpopulation of CD44+ CD24- cells, CD44+ CD24+ cell possibly is breast cancer progenitor cell.

  3. Binding, uptake, and release of nicotine by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, P.J.; Schuster, G.S.; Lubas, S.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of nicotine on fibroblasts have reported an altered morphology and attachment of fibroblasts to substrates and disturbances in protein synthesis and secretion. This altered functional and attachment response may be associated with changes in the cell membrane resulting from binding of the nicotine, or to disturbances in cell metabolism as a result of high intracellular levels of nicotine. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to (1) determine whether gingival fibroblasts bound nicotine and if any binding observed was specific or non-specific in nature; (2) determine whether gingival fibroblasts internalized nicotine, and if so, at what rate; (3) determine whether gingival fibroblasts also released nicotine back into the extracellular environment; and (4) if gingival fibroblasts release nicotine intact or as a metabolite. Cultures of gingival fibroblasts were prepared from gingival connective tissue biopsies. Binding was evaluated at 4 degree C using a mixture of 3 H-nicotine and unlabeled nicotine. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between 3 H-nicotine bound in the presence and absence of unlabeled nicotine. The cells bound 1.44 (+/- 0.42) pmols/10(6) cells in the presence of unlabeled nicotine and 1.66 (+/- 0.55) pmols/10(6) cells in the absence of unlabeled nicotine. The difference was not significant. Uptake of nicotine was measured at 37 degree C after treating cells with 3 H-nicotine for time periods up to 4 hours. Uptake in pmols/10(6) cells was 4.90 (+/- 0.34) at 15 minutes, 8.30 (+/- 0.75) at 30 minutes, 12.28 (+/- 2.62) at 1 hour and 26.31 (+/- 1.15) at 4 hours

  4. Optimal Viscosity and Particle Shape of Hyaluronic Acid Filler as a Scaffold for Human Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok-Yeol; Namgoong, Sik; Han, Seung-Kyu; Won, Chang-Hoon; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2015-07-01

    The authors previously reported that cultured human fibroblasts suspended in a hyaluronic acid filler can produce human dermal matrices with extended in vivo stability in animal and clinical studies. The present study was undertaken to determine the optimal viscosity and particle shape of hyaluronic acid filler as a scaffold for cultured human dermal fibroblasts to enhance the maximal viability of injected cells. The fibroblasts were suspended in either 1 of 3 hyaluronic acid viscosities at 2 different particle shapes. The viscosities used in this study were low (600,000-800,000 centipoises), moderate (2,000,000-4,000,000 centipoises), and high (8,000,000-12,000,000 centipoises). The particle shape was evaluated by testing round and irregular shapes. The fibroblast mixed bioimplants were injected into the back of individual athymic nude mice. The levels of type I collagen were measured using fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) and immunohistochemical staining at 16 weeks after the injections. Results of FACS demonstrated that the mean cell ratio with human collagens in the moderate viscosity group was greater than those of control, low, and high viscosity groups. An immunohistochemical study showed similar results. The moderate viscosity group demonstrated the highest positive staining of human collagens. However, there were no significant differences between groups of irregular and round shape particles. A hyaluronic acid bioimplant with moderate viscosity is superior to that with low or high viscosity in the viability for human fibroblasts. However, the particle shape does not influence the viability of the fibroblasts.

  5. CTRP6 inhibits fibrogenesis in TGF-β1-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Rong-hui; Zhu, Xiu-mei; Sun, Yao-wen; Peng, Hui-zi; Wu, Hang-li; Gao, Wen-jie

    2016-01-01

    Skin fibrosis is characterized by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (CTRP6), a member of CTRPs, has been involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis. However, the function and detailed regulatory mechanism of CTRP6 in skin fibrosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTRP6 on the activation of human dermal fibroblasts. Our results showed that CTRP6 was lowly expressed in scar tissues and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated dermal fibroblasts. CTRP6 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, as well as suppressed the expression of ECM in TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CTRP6 overexpression markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, the data reported here demonstrate that CTRP6 is able to inhibit the proliferation and ECM expression in human dermal fibroblasts through suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that CTRP6 may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skin fibrosis. -- Highlights: •CTRP6 expression was decreased in scar tissues and TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits TGF-β1-induced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits expression of collagen type I and α-SMA. •CTRP6 inhibits the activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in dermal fibroblasts.

  6. CTRP6 inhibits fibrogenesis in TGF-β1-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Rong-hui, E-mail: fan_ronghuixa@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China); Zhu, Xiu-mei; Sun, Yao-wen [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China); Peng, Hui-zi [Department of Cosmetology Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Wu, Hang-li; Gao, Wen-jie [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China)

    2016-07-08

    Skin fibrosis is characterized by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (CTRP6), a member of CTRPs, has been involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis. However, the function and detailed regulatory mechanism of CTRP6 in skin fibrosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTRP6 on the activation of human dermal fibroblasts. Our results showed that CTRP6 was lowly expressed in scar tissues and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated dermal fibroblasts. CTRP6 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, as well as suppressed the expression of ECM in TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CTRP6 overexpression markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, the data reported here demonstrate that CTRP6 is able to inhibit the proliferation and ECM expression in human dermal fibroblasts through suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that CTRP6 may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skin fibrosis. -- Highlights: •CTRP6 expression was decreased in scar tissues and TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits TGF-β1-induced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits expression of collagen type I and α-SMA. •CTRP6 inhibits the activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in dermal fibroblasts.

  7. Laminin-5 β3A Expression in LNCaP Human Prostate Carcinoma Cells Increases Cell Migration and Tumorigenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Calaluce

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between extracellular matrix proteins and prostate carcinoma cells change dramatically during prostate tumor progression. We have concentrated on two key modifications that occur in the hemidesmosome in prostate carcinoma: loss of laminin-5 protein expression and altered basal cell polarity of the α6β4 integrin. We previously demonstrated two cell linespecific isoforms (β3A and β3B of the LAMB3 message. Cells expressing only the β3B isoform did not translate the β3 protein and were unable to assemble the laminin-5 trimer. One such cell line, LNCaP, was selected to determine whether restoration of the laminin-5 β3A isoform would cause expression of a functional laminin-5 β3 chain, assembly and secretion of the laminin-5 trimer, and reversion to a non-neoplastic phenotype. Laminin-5 β3A cDNA was cloned and stably transfected into LNCaP cells. We observed the restoration of the β3 protein, but a laminin-5 trimer was not secreted. Moreover, increased cell migration was demonstrated, and tumorigenicity was increased in SCID mice. A microarray analysis, performed between transfected and nontransfected LNCaP cells, showed most changing genes to be associated with signal transduction. The β3 chain of laminin-5 may thus play an important role in signal transduction, which may enhance cell motility and tumorigenesis.

  8. Chemokine release from human rhinovirus-infected airway epithelial cells promotes fibroblast migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelfoon, Christopher; Shariff, Sami; Traves, Suzanne L; Kooi, Cora; Leigh, Richard; Proud, David

    2016-07-01

    Thickening of the lamina reticularis, a feature of remodeling in the asthmatic airways, is now known to be present in young children who wheeze. Human rhinovirus (HRV) infection is a common trigger for childhood wheezing, which is a risk factor for subsequent asthma development. We hypothesized that HRV-infected epithelial cells release chemoattractants to recruit fibroblasts that could potentially contribute to thickening of the lamina reticularis. We sought to investigate whether conditioned medium from HRV-infected epithelial cells can trigger directed migration of fibroblasts. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to medium alone or infected with HRV-16. Conditioned medium from both conditions were tested as chemoattractants for human bronchial fibroblasts in the xCELLigence cell migration apparatus. HRV-conditioned medium was chemotactic for fibroblasts. Treatment of fibroblasts with pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of Gαi-coupled receptors, prevented their migration. Production of epithelial chemoattractants required HRV replication. Multiplex analysis of epithelial supernatants identified CXCL10, CXCL8, and CCL5 as Gαi-coupled receptor agonists of potential interest. Subsequent analysis confirmed that fibroblasts express CXCR3 and CXCR1 receptors and that CXCL10 and, to a lesser extent, CXCL8, but not CCL5, are major contributors to fibroblast migration caused by HRV-conditioned medium. CXCL10 and CXCL8 produced from HRV-infected epithelial cells are chemotactic for fibroblasts. This raises the possibility that repeated HRV infections in childhood could contribute to the initiation and progression of airway remodeling in asthmatic patients by recruiting fibroblasts that produce matrix proteins and thicken the lamina reticularis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The initiation of embryonic-like collagen fibrillogenesis by adult human tendon fibroblasts when cultured under tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayer, Monika L; Yeung, Chin-Yan C; Kadler, Karl E

    2010-01-01

    Tendon fibroblasts synthesize collagen and form fibrils during embryonic development, but to what extent mature fibroblasts are able to recapitulate embryonic development and develop normal tendon structure is unknown. The present study examined the capability of mature human tendon fibroblasts t...

  10. Protective Effect of Modified Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate whether modified acidic fibroblast growth factor (MaFGF) can protect NRK52E cell against apoptotic death induced by actinomycin D (Act D) and the effect of MaFGF on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Methods: NRK52E cell apoptotic death was measured by several methods including cell morphologic ...

  11. Secretome Analysis of Human Primary Fibroblasts Undergoing Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Micutkova, Lucia; Diener, Thomas

    alpha-1(XII) chain and fibulin 3. Results obtained until now are in agreement with the suggested shift from matix - synthesizing to matrix - degrading phenotype in senescent fibroblasts except the increased secretion of metalloproteinase inhibitors. Work is going on to identify the remaining...

  12. Protective Effect of Modified Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate whether modified acidic fibroblast growth factor (MaFGF) can protect NRK52E cell against apoptotic death induced by actinomycin D (Act D) and the effect of MaFGF on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Methods: NRK52E cell apoptotic death was measured by several methods including cell morphologic.

  13. The initiation of embryonic-like collagen fibrillogenesis by adult human tendon fibroblasts when cultured under tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayer, Monika L; Yeung, Chin-Yan C; Kadler, Karl E

    2010-01-01

    Tendon fibroblasts synthesize collagen and form fibrils during embryonic development, but to what extent mature fibroblasts are able to recapitulate embryonic development and develop normal tendon structure is unknown. The present study examined the capability of mature human tendon fibroblasts......, and fibroblasts stained positive for integrin alpha(5). Finally, the presence of cell extensions into the extracellular space with membrane-enclosed fibrils in fibripositors indicated characteristics of embryonic tendon. We conclude that mature human tendon fibroblasts retain an intrinsic capability to perform...... collagen fibrillogenesis similar to that of developing tendon, which implies that the hormonal/mechanical milieu, rather than intrinsic cellular function, inhibits regenerative potential in mature tendon....

  14. Maintenance of multipotency in human dermal fibroblasts treated with Xenopus laevis egg extract requires exogenous fibroblast growth factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kole, Denis; Ambady, Sakthikumar; Page, Raymond L; Dominko, Tanja

    2014-02-01

    Direct reprogramming of a differentiated somatic cell into a developmentally more plastic cell would offer an alternative to applications in regenerative medicine that currently depend on either embryonic stem cells (ESCs), adult stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we report the potential of select Xenopus laevis egg extract fractions, in combination with exogenous fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), to affect life span, morphology, gene expression, protein translation, and cellular localization of OCT4 and NANOG transcription factors, and the developmental potential of human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. A gradual change in morphology is accompanied by translation of embryonic transcription factors and their nuclear localization and a life span exceeding 60 population doublings. Cells acquire the ability to follow adipogenic, neuronal, and osteogenic differentiation under appropriate induction conditions in vitro. Analysis of active extract fractions reveals that Xenopus egg protein and RNAs as well as exogenously supplemented FGF2 are required and sufficient for induction and maintenance of this phenotypic change. Factors so far identified in the active fractions include FGF2 itself, transforming growth factor-β, maskin, and nucleoplasmin. Identification of critical factors needed for reprogramming may allow for nonviral, chemically defined derivation of human-induced multipotent cells that can be maintained by exogenous FGF2.

  15. Histamine induces human lung fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction via histamine H1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masafumi; Saito, Akira; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Mikami, Yu; Sakamoto, Makiko; Jo, Taisuke; Nakajima, Jun; Takizawa, Hajime; Nagase, Takahide; Kohyama, Tadashi

    2014-06-01

    Airway remodeling is implicated in irreversible airflow limitation of refractory asthma, which includes increased smooth muscle mass and subepithelial fibrosis. Activated fibroblasts acquire contractile phenotype to participate in tissue contraction and structural alteration of extracellular matrices. Histamine is a potent mediator of allergic inflammation, substantially involved in asthmatic pathophysiology. We hypothesized that histamine might play a role in airway remodeling, and investigated its effect on fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction. Fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction was studied. Histamine's regulation of collagen gel contraction was characterized by using specific histamine-receptor antagonists, an IP3 receptor antagonist and a PKC inhibitor. Histamine induced contraction of collagen gels embedded with human lung fibroblasts, in a time-dependent manner, and at the concentration more than 10(-6) M, both in four primary cultured adult lung fibroblasts and three fetal lung fibroblast cell lines. This effect was attenuated by H1 receptor antagonist, whereas those for H2 to H4 receptors failed to show an inhibitory effect. Furthermore, IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization was implicated in histamine's action on collagen gel contraction. Our results suggest that histamine is involved in airway remodeling through its action on lung fibroblasts, and antihistamine drugs, especially H1 receptor antagonists, might be potentially beneficial for a subset of asthmatic patients.

  16. Cellular Mechanics of Primary Human Cervical Fibroblasts: Influence of Progesterone and a Pro-inflammatory Cytokine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vasudha; Barnhouse, Victoria; Ackerman, William E; Summerfield, Taryn L; Powell, Heather M; Leight, Jennifer L; Kniss, Douglas A; Ghadiali, Samir N

    2018-01-01

    The leading cause of neonatal mortality, pre-term birth, is often caused by pre-mature ripening/opening of the uterine cervix. Although cervical fibroblasts play an important role in modulating the cervix's extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanical properties, it is not known how hormones, i.e., progesterone, and pro-inflammatory insults alter fibroblast mechanics, fibroblast-ECM interactions and the resulting changes in tissue mechanics. Here we investigate how progesterone and a pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, alter the biomechanical properties of human cervical fibroblasts and the fibroblast-ECM interactions that govern tissue-scale mechanics. Primary human fibroblasts were isolated from non-pregnant cervix and treated with estrogen/progesterone, IL-1β or both. The resulting changes in ECM gene expression, matrix remodeling, traction force generation, cell-ECM adhesion and tissue contractility were monitored. Results indicate that IL-1β induces a significant reduction in traction force and ECM adhesion independent of pre-treatment with progesterone. These cell level effects altered tissue-scale mechanics where IL-1β inhibited the contraction of a collagen gel over 6 days. Interestingly, progesterone treatment alone did not modulate traction forces or gel contraction but did result in a dramatic increase in cell-ECM adhesion. Therefore, the protective effect of progesterone may be due to altered adhesion dynamics as opposed to altered ECM remodeling.

  17. Podoplanin increases the migration of human fibroblasts and affects the endothelial cell network formation: A possible role for cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Suchanski

    Full Text Available In our previous studies we showed that in breast cancer podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated positively with tumor size, grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and poor patients' outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess if podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts can affect malignancy-associated properties of breast cancer cells. Human fibroblastic cell lines (MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst overexpressing podoplanin and control fibroblasts were co-cultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells and the impact of podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts on migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells were studied in vitro. Migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells were not affected by the presence of podoplanin on the surface of fibroblasts. However, ectopic expression of podoplanin highly increases the migration of MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst fibroblasts. The present study also revealed for the first time, that podoplanin expression affects the formation of pseudo tubes by endothelial cells. When human HSkMEC cells were co-cultured with podoplanin-rich fibroblasts the endothelial cell capillary-like network was characterized by significantly lower numbers of nodes and meshes than in co-cultures of endothelial cells with podoplanin-negative fibroblasts. The question remains as to how our experimental data can be correlated with previous clinical data showing an association between the presence of podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts and progression of breast cancer. Therefore, we propose that expression of podoplanin by fibroblasts facilitates their movement into the tumor stroma, which creates a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression by increasing the number of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which produce numerous factors affecting proliferation, survival and invasion of cancer cells. In accordance with this, the present study revealed for the first

  18. Podoplanin increases the migration of human fibroblasts and affects the endothelial cell network formation: A possible role for cancer-associated fibroblasts in breast cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanski, Jaroslaw; Tejchman, Anna; Zacharski, Maciej; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Nowinska, Katarzyna; Rys, Janusz; Dziegiel, Piotr; Kieda, Claudine; Ugorski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies we showed that in breast cancer podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated positively with tumor size, grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion and poor patients' outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess if podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts can affect malignancy-associated properties of breast cancer cells. Human fibroblastic cell lines (MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst) overexpressing podoplanin and control fibroblasts were co-cultured with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells and the impact of podoplanin expressed by fibroblasts on migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells were studied in vitro. Migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells were not affected by the presence of podoplanin on the surface of fibroblasts. However, ectopic expression of podoplanin highly increases the migration of MSU1.1 and Hs 578Bst fibroblasts. The present study also revealed for the first time, that podoplanin expression affects the formation of pseudo tubes by endothelial cells. When human HSkMEC cells were co-cultured with podoplanin-rich fibroblasts the endothelial cell capillary-like network was characterized by significantly lower numbers of nodes and meshes than in co-cultures of endothelial cells with podoplanin-negative fibroblasts. The question remains as to how our experimental data can be correlated with previous clinical data showing an association between the presence of podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts and progression of breast cancer. Therefore, we propose that expression of podoplanin by fibroblasts facilitates their movement into the tumor stroma, which creates a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression by increasing the number of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which produce numerous factors affecting proliferation, survival and invasion of cancer cells. In accordance with this, the present study revealed for the first time, that such

  19. CD90 Expression on human primary cells and elimination of contaminating fibroblasts from cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisselbach, Lynn; Merges, Michael; Bossie, Alexis; Boyd, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Cluster Differentiation 90 (CD90) is a cell surface glycoprotein originally identified on mouse thymocytes. Although CD90 has been identified on a variety of stem cells and at varying levels in non-lymphoid tissues such as on fibroblasts, brain cells, and activated endothelial cells, the knowledge about the levels of CD90 expression on different cell types, including human primary cells, is limited. The goal of this study was to identify CD90 as a human primary cell biomarker and to develop an efficient and reliable method for eliminating unwanted or contaminating fibroblasts from human primary cell cultures suitable for research pursuant to cell based therapy technologies.

  20. The physiological period length of the human circadian clock in vivo is directly proportional to period in human fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Pagani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diurnal behavior in humans is governed by the period length of a circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the brain hypothalamus. Nevertheless, the cell-intrinsic mechanism of this clock is present in most cells of the body. We have shown previously that for individuals of extreme chronotype ("larks" and "owls", clock properties measured in human fibroblasts correlated with extreme diurnal behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have measured circadian period in human primary fibroblasts taken from normal individuals and, for the first time, compared it directly with physiological period measured in vivo in the same subjects. Human physiological period length was estimated via the secretion pattern of the hormone melatonin in two different groups of sighted subjects and one group of totally blind subjects, each using different methods. Fibroblast period length was measured via cyclical expression of a lentivirally delivered circadian reporter. Within each group, a positive linear correlation was observed between circadian period length in physiology and in fibroblast gene expression. Interestingly, although blind individuals showed on average the same fibroblast clock properties as sighted ones, their physiological periods were significantly longer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the period of human circadian behaviour is mostly driven by cellular clock properties in normal individuals and can be approximated by measurement in peripheral cells such as fibroblasts. Based upon differences among sighted and blind subjects, we also speculate that period can be modified by prolonged unusual conditions such as the total light deprivation of blindness.

  1. Influence of caffeine and hyaluronic acid on collagen biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donejko M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Magdalena Donejko,1 Andrzej Przylipiak,1 Edyta Rysiak,2 Katarzyna Głuszuk,2 Arkadiusz Surażyński2 1Department of Esthetic Medicine, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caffeine on collagen biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts and the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA on this process. Materials and methods: Collagen, [3H]-thymidine incorporation, and prolidase activity were measured in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that had been treated with 1, 2, and 5 mM caffeine and with caffeine and 500 µg/mL HA. Western immunoblot analysis was performed to evaluate expression of ß1-integrin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor phospho-Akt protein and mitogen-activated protein kinase (phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Results: Caffeine inhibited collagen biosynthesis in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of this process was found at the level of prolidase activity. Caffeine significantly inhibited the enzyme activity. The addition of HA had no effect on collagen biosynthesis or prolidase activity in fibroblasts incubated with caffeine. Caffeine also had an inhibitory effect on DNA biosynthesis. HA, however, did not have any significant effect on this process. The inhibition of the expression of ß1-integrin and insulin-like growth factor receptor in fibroblasts incubated with the caffeine indicates a possible mechanism of inhibition of collagen biosynthesis. Conclusion: Caffeine reduces collagen synthesis in human cultured skin fibroblasts. HA did not have any significant protective effect on this process. This is the first study to our knowledge that reports caffeine-induced inhibition of collagen synthesis in human skin fibroblasts. Keywords: collagen, caffeine, hyaluronic acid, fibroblast

  2. Non-Viral Generation of Neural Precursor-like Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maucksch C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to mature neurons by the introduction of defined neural genes. This technology has potential use in the areas of neurological disease modeling and drug development. However, use of induced neurons for large-scale drug screening and cell-based replacement strategies is limited due to their inability to expand once reprogrammed. We propose it would be more desirable to induce expandable neural precursor cells directly from human fibroblasts. To date several pluripotent and neural transcription factors have been shown to be capable of converting mouse fibroblasts to neural stem/precursor-like cells when delivered by viral vectors. Here we extend these findings and demonstrate that transient ectopic insertion of the transcription factors SOX2 and PAX6 to adult human fibroblasts through use of non-viral plasmid transfection or protein transduction allows the generation of induced neural precursor (iNP colonies expressing a range of neural stem and pro-neural genes. Upon differentiation, iNP cells give rise to neurons exhibiting typical neuronal morphologies and expressing multiple neuronal markers including tyrosine hydroxylase and GAD65/67. Importantly, iNP-derived neurons demonstrate electrophysiological properties of functionally mature neurons with the capacity to generate action potentials. In addition, iNP cells are capable of differentiating into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-expressing astrocytes. This study represents a novel virus-free approach for direct reprogramming of human fibroblasts to a neural precursor fate.

  3. Enhancement of human skin fibroblasts proliferation as a result of treating with quince seed mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafourian, Mehri; Tamri, Pari; Hemmati, Aliasghar

    2015-02-01

    Quince seed mucilage (QSM) has been used in Iranian folk medicine in the treatment of wounds and burns. Experimental and clinical studies showed its wound healing activity. However, the mechanism by which this agent affects cells involved in the wound healing process is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of QSM at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, and 400 µg/mL on human skin fibroblast proliferation as an aspect of promotion of wound healing. Human skin fibroblast cell line (HNFF-P18) was used in the experiment. Cell proliferation assay was measured by a MTT assay. Cells treated with QSM at concentrations less than 400 µg/mL increased their proliferative activity. The concentration of 50 µg/mL was the most effective dose after 72 hours treatment. QSM has the ability to stimulate proliferation of human skin fibroblast. This effect suggests that this compound can act as a wound healing agent.

  4. Activity of 25-hydroxylase in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaining; Meng, Huanxin; Hou, Jianxia

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid are 300 times higher than those in the plasma of patients with aggressive periodontitis. Here we explored whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) can be synthesized by periodontal soft tissue cells. We also investigated which of the two main kinds of hydroxylases, CYP27A1 and CYP2R1, is the key 25-hydroxylase in periodontal soft tissue cells. Primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells from 5 individual donors were established. CYP27A1 mRNA, CYP2R1 mRNA and CYP27A1 protein were detected in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells, whereas CYP2R1 protein was not. After incubation with the 25-hydroxylase substrate vitamin D(3), human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells generated detectable 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) that resulted in the production of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). Specific knockdown of CYP27A1 in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells using siRNA resulted in a significant reduction in both 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) production. Knockdown of CYP2R1 did not significantly influence 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) synthesis. Sodium butyrate did not influence significantly CYP27A1 mRNA expression; however, interleukin-1β and Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide strongly induced CYP27A1 mRNA expression in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells. The activity of 25-hydroxylase was verified in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells, and CYP27A1 was identified as the key 25-hydroxylase in these cells.

  5. Activity of 25-hydroxylase in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaining Liu

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid are 300 times higher than those in the plasma of patients with aggressive periodontitis. Here we explored whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 can be synthesized by periodontal soft tissue cells. We also investigated which of the two main kinds of hydroxylases, CYP27A1 and CYP2R1, is the key 25-hydroxylase in periodontal soft tissue cells.Primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells from 5 individual donors were established. CYP27A1 mRNA, CYP2R1 mRNA and CYP27A1 protein were detected in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells, whereas CYP2R1 protein was not. After incubation with the 25-hydroxylase substrate vitamin D(3, human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells generated detectable 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 that resulted in the production of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3. Specific knockdown of CYP27A1 in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells using siRNA resulted in a significant reduction in both 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 production. Knockdown of CYP2R1 did not significantly influence 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 synthesis. Sodium butyrate did not influence significantly CYP27A1 mRNA expression; however, interleukin-1β and Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide strongly induced CYP27A1 mRNA expression in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells.The activity of 25-hydroxylase was verified in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells, and CYP27A1 was identified as the key 25-hydroxylase in these cells.

  6. Effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and herbal medicines (Salvia, Chamomile, Calendula) on human fibroblast in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology. PMID:27536196

  7. Influence of mechanical stimulation on human dermal fibroblasts derived from different body sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Ruixia; Wang, Zhiguo; Xu, Quanchen; Liu, Su; Zhang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation is highly associated with pathogenesis of human hypertrophic scar. Although much work has focused on the influence of mechanical stress on fibroblast populations from various tissues and organs in the human body, their effects on cultured dermal fibroblasts by the area of the body have not been as well studied. In this study, cultures of skin fibroblasts from two different body sites were subjected to cyclic mechanical stimulation with a 10% stretching amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for 24, 36 and 48 hours, respectively, and thereafter harvested for experimental assays. Fibroblasts from scapular upper back skin, subjected to mechanical loads for 36 and 48 hours, respectively, were observed to proliferate at a higher rate and reach confluent more rapidly during in vitro culturing, had higher expression levels of mRNA and protein production of integrin β1, p130Cas and TGF β1 versus those from medial side of upper arm. These data indicate that skin fibroblasts, with regard to originated body sites studied in the experiments, display a diversity of mechanotransduction properties and biochemical reactions in response to applied mechanical stress, which contributes to the increased susceptibility to hypertrophic scars formation at certain areas of human body characterized by higher skin and muscle tension.

  8. Treatment with a Small Molecule Mutant IDH1 Inhibitor Suppresses Tumorigenic Activity and Decreases Production of the Oncometabolite 2-Hydroxyglutarate in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyuan Li

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcomas are malignant bone tumors that produce cartilaginous matrix. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase enzymes (IDH1/2 were recently described in several cancers including chondrosarcomas. The IDH1 inhibitor AGI-5198 abrogates the ability of mutant IDH1 to produce the oncometabolite D-2 hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG in gliomas. We sought to determine if treatment with AGI-5198 would similarly inhibit tumorigenic activity and D-2HG production in IDH1-mutant human chondrosarcoma cells. Two human chondrosarcoma cell lines, JJ012 and HT1080 with endogenous IDH1 mutations and a human chondrocyte cell line C28 with wild type IDH1 were employed in our study. Mutation analysis of IDH was performed by PCR-based DNA sequencing, and D-2HG was detected using tandem mass spectrometry. We confirmed that JJ012 and HT1080 harbor IDH1 R132G and R132C mutation, respectively, while C28 has no mutation. D-2HG was detectable in cell pellets and media of JJ012 and HT1080 cells, as well as plasma and urine from an IDH-mutant chondrosarcoma patient, which decreased after tumor resection. AGI-5198 treatment decreased D-2HG levels in JJ012 and HT1080 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and dramatically inhibited colony formation and migration, interrupted cell cycling, and induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates anti-tumor activity of a mutant IDH1 inhibitor in human chondrosarcoma cell lines, and suggests that D-2HG is a potential biomarker for IDH mutations in chondrosarcoma cells. Thus, clinical trials of mutant IDH inhibitors are warranted for patients with IDH-mutant chondrosarcomas.

  9. Role of DNA lesions and DNA repair in mutagenesis by carcinogens in diploid human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigated the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and transforming activity of carcinogens and radiation in diploid human fibroblasts, using cells which differ in their DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that cell killing and induction of mutations are correlated with the number of specific lesions remaining unrepaired in the cells at a particular time posttreatment. DNA excision repair acts to eliminate potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic (and transforming) damage from DNA before these can be converted into permanent cellular effects. Normal human fibroblasts were derived from skin biopsies or circumcision material. Skin fibroblasts from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients provided cells deficient in nucleotide excision repair of pyrimidine dimers or DNA adducts formed by bulky ring structures. Cytotoxicity was determined from loss of ability to form a colony. The genetic marker used was resistance to 6-thioguanine (TG). Transformation was measured by determining the frequency of anchorage-independent cells

  10. A quantitative comparison of human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells and primary human dermal fibroblasts identifies a 3D migration mechanism with properties unique to the transformed phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Schwartz

    Full Text Available Here, we describe an engineering approach to quantitatively compare migration, morphologies, and adhesion for tumorigenic human fibrosarcoma cells (HT-1080s and primary human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs with the aim of identifying distinguishing properties of the transformed phenotype. Relative adhesiveness was quantified using self-assembled monolayer (SAM arrays and proteolytic 3-dimensional (3D migration was investigated using matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-degradable poly(ethylene glycol (PEG hydrogels ("synthetic extracellular matrix" or "synthetic ECM". In synthetic ECM, hDFs were characterized by vinculin-containing features on the tips of protrusions, multipolar morphologies, and organized actomyosin filaments. In contrast, HT-1080s were characterized by diffuse vinculin expression, pronounced β1-integrin on the tips of protrusions, a cortically-organized F-actin cytoskeleton, and quantitatively more rounded morphologies, decreased adhesiveness, and increased directional motility compared to hDFs. Further, HT-1080s were characterized by contractility-dependent motility, pronounced blebbing, and cortical contraction waves or constriction rings, while quantified 3D motility was similar in matrices with a wide range of biochemical and biophysical properties (including collagen despite substantial morphological changes. While HT-1080s were distinct from hDFs for each of the 2D and 3D properties investigated, several features were similar to WM239a melanoma cells, including rounded, proteolytic migration modes, cortical F-actin organization, and prominent uropod-like structures enriched with β1-integrin, F-actin, and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM/CD146/MUC18. Importantly, many of the features observed for HT-1080s were analogous to cellular changes induced by transformation, including cell rounding, a disorganized F-actin cytoskeleton, altered organization of focal adhesion proteins, and a weakly adherent phenotype. Based on our results

  11. Lichen Secondary Metabolites in Flavocetraria cucullata Exhibit Anti-Cancer Effects on Human Cancer Cells through the Induction of Apoptosis and Suppression of Tumorigenic Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yoon, Somy; Yang, Yi; Lee, Ho-Bin; Oh, Soonok; Jeong, Min-Hye; Kim, Jong-Jin; Yee, Sung-Tae; Crişan, Florin; Moon, Cheol; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2014-01-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms which produce distinct secondary metabolic products. In the present study, we tested the cytotoxic activity of 17 lichen species against several human cancer cells and further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-cancer activity. We found that among 17 lichens species, F. cucullata exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity in several human cancer cells. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the acetone extract of F. cucullata contains usnic acid, salazinic acid, Squamatic acid, Baeomycesic acid, d-protolichesterinic acid, and lichesterinic acid as subcomponents. MTT assay showed that cancer cell lines were more vulnerable to the cytotoxic effects of the extract than non-cancer cell lines. Furthermore, among the identified subcomponents, usnic acid treatment had a similar cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines but with lower potency than the extract. At a lethal dose, treatment with the extract or with usnic acid greatly increased the apoptotic cell population and specifically activated the apoptotic signaling pathway; however, using sub-lethal doses, extract and usnic acid treatment decreased cancer cell motility and inhibited in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic potentials. In these cells, we observed significantly reduced levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and phosphor-Akt, while phosphor-c-Jun and phosphor-ERK1/2 levels were only marginally affected. Overall, the anti-cancer activity of the extract is more potent than that of usnic acid alone. Taken together, F. cucullata and its subcomponent, usnic acid together with additional component, exert anti-cancer effects on human cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of EMT. PMID:25360754

  12. The polypeptide in Chlamys farreri can protect human dermal fibroblasts from ultraviolet B damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujiang; Zhan, Songmei; Cao, Pengli; Liu, Ning; Chen, Xuehong; Wang, Yuejun; Wang, Chunbo

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the effect of polypeptide from Chlamys farreri (PCF) on NHDF in vitro, we modeled oxidative damage on normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB). In this study, 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were tested to measure cell viability. Enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), catalase (CAT) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) were determined biochemically. Total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) and anti-superoxide anion capacity (A-SAC) were also determined. Ultrastructure of fibroblasts was observed under transmission electron microscope. The results showed that: UVB (1.176×10-4 J/cm2) suppressed the growth of fibroblasts and the introduction of PCF (0.25% 1%) before UVB reduced the suppression in a concentration-dependent manner. PCF could enhance the activities of SOD, GSH-PX and T-AOC as well as A-SAC. Also PCF could inhibit XOD activity, while it did not affect CAT activity. Ultrastructure of fibroblasts were damaged after UVB irradiation, concentration-dependent PCF reduced the destructive effect of UVB on cells. These results indicated that PCF can protect human dermal fibroblasts from being harmed by UVB irradiation via its antioxidant proerty.

  13. Acetylome in Human Fibroblasts From Parkinson's Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokhna M. S. Yakhine-Diop

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder. The pathogenesis of this disease is associated with gene and environmental factors. Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 are the most frequent genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. Moreover, posttranslational modifications, including protein acetylation, are involved in the molecular mechanism of PD. Acetylation of lysine proteins is a dynamic process that is modulated in PD. In this descriptive study, we characterized the acetylated proteins and peptides in primary fibroblasts from idiopathic PD (IPD and genetic PD harboring G2019S or R1441G LRRK2 mutations. Identified acetylated peptides are modulated between individuals' groups. Although acetylated nuclear proteins are the most represented in cells, they are hypoacetylated in IPD. Results display that the level of hyperacetylated and hypoacetylated peptides are, respectively, enhanced in genetic PD and in IPD cells.

  14. Concentration- and time-dependent response of human gingival fibroblasts to fibroblast growth factor 2 immobilized on titanium dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianli; Wang, Wei; Chu, Paul K; Mei, Shenglin; Ji, Kun; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Yumei

    2012-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) implants are widely used clinically, but peri-implantitis remains one of the most common and serious complications. Healthy integration between gingival tissue and the implant surface is critical to long-term success in dental implant therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate how different concentrations of immobilized fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) on the titania nanotubular surface influence the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Pure Ti metal was anodized at 20 V to form a vertically organized titanium dioxide nanotube array on which three concentrations of FGF2 (250 ng/mL, 500 ng/mL, or 1000 ng/mL) were immobilized by repeated lyophilization. Surface topography was observed and FGF2 elution was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The bioactivity changes of dissolvable immobilized FGF2 were measured by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assay. Behavior of HGFs was evaluated using adhesion and methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium bromide assays. The FGF2 remained for several days on the modified surface on which HGFs were cultured. Over 90% of the dissolvable immobilized FGF2 had been eluted by Day 9, whereas the FGF2 activity was found to diminish gradually from Day 1 to Day 9. The titania nanotubular surface with an optimal preparing concentration (500 ng/mL) of FGF2 immobilization exhibited improved HGF functions such as cellular attachment, proliferation, and extracellular matrix-related gene expression. Moreover, significant bidirectional as well as concentration- and time-dependent bioactivity was observed. Synergism of the FGF2-impregnated titanium dioxide nanotubular surface revealed good gingival-implant integration, indicating that these materials might have promising applications in dentistry and other biomedical devices.

  15. Development of human skin equivalents mimicking skin aging : contrast between papillary and reticular fibroblasts as a lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, D.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of human skin equivalents that show characteristics of skin aging. The type of skin equivalent used was a fibroblast derived matrix equivalent, in which the dermal compartment is generated by fibroblasts and thus is fully of human origin. Two strategies are

  16. Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona-Rodriguez, Bruno; Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio; Narayanan, A. Sampath; Zeichner-David, Margarita; Reyes-Gasga, Jose; Molina-Guarneros, Juan; Garcia-Hernandez, Ana Lilia; Suarez-Franco, Jose Luis; Chavarria, Ivet Gil; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Arzate, Higinio

    2007-01-01

    We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation

  17. Survival of human osteosarcoma cells and normal human fibroblasts following alpha particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Gemmell, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Cell survival of human osteosarcoma cells in culture following alpha particle irradiation is reported here for the first time. The osteosarcoma cell line (TE-85) is found to be less sensitive to inactivation by 5.6 MeV alpha particles (LET 86 keV/μm) than normal diploid human fibroblasts (NFS). Values for the mean lethal doses were estimated to be 103 rads for the TE-85 cells compared with 68 rads for the NFS cultures irradiated under identical conditions. It is postulated that the aneuploidy of the tumor cells with increased DNA chromosomal material may confer a selective advantage for the survival of tumor cells relative to normal cells with diploid chromosomes

  18. Generation of Footprint-Free Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Fibroblasts Using Episomal Plasmid Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Sun, Jane; Wolvetang, Ernst J

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have provided novel insights into the etiology of disease and are set to transform regenerative medicine and drug screening over the next decade. The generation of human iPSCs free of a genetic footprint of the reprogramming process is crucial for the realization of these potential uses. Here we describe in detail the generation of human iPSC from control and disease-carrying individuals' fibroblasts using episomal plasmids.

  19. Chemosensitivity of primary human fibroblasts with defective unhooking of DNA interstrand cross-links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clingen, Peter H.; Arlett, Colin F.; Hartley, John A.; Parris, Christopher N.

    2007-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterised by defects in nucleotide excision repair, ultraviolet (UV) radiation sensitivity and increased skin carcinoma. Compared to other complementation groups, XP-F patients show relatively mild cutaneous symptoms. DNA interstrand cross-linking agents are a highly cytotoxic class of DNA damage induced by common cancer chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin and nitrogen mustards. Although the XPF-ERCC1 structure-specific endonuclease is required for the repair of ICLs cellular sensitivity of primary human XP-F cells has not been established. In clonogenic survival assays, primary fibroblasts from XP-F patients were moderately sensitive to both UVC and HN2 compared to normal cells (2- to 3-fold and 3- to 5-fold, respectively). XP-A fibroblasts were considerably more sensitive to UVC (10- to 12-fold) but not sensitive to HN2. The sensitivity of XP-F fibroblasts to HN2 correlated with the defective incision or 'unhooking' step of ICL repair. Using the comet assay, XP-F cells exhibited only 20% residual unhooking activity over 24 h. Over the same time, normal and XP-A cells unhooked greater than 95% and 62% of ICLs, respectively. After HN2 treatment, ICL-associated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are detected by pulse field gel electrophoresis in dividing cells. Induction and repair of DNA DSBs was normal in XP-F fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that in primary human fibroblasts, XPF is required for the unhooking of ICLs and not for the induction or repair of ICL-associated DNA DSBs induced by HN2. In terms of cancer chemotherapy, people with mild DNA repair defects affecting ICL repair may be more prevalent in the general population than expected. Since cellular sensitivity of primary human fibroblasts usually reflects clinical sensitivity such patients with cancer would be at risk of increased toxicity

  20. Intraarticular Sprifermin (Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor 18) in Knee Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohmander, L. S.; Hellot, S.; Dreher, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraarticular sprifermin (recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18) in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial. Intraarticular...

  1. Dose-dependent micronuclei formation in normal human fibroblasts exposed to proton radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Litvinchuk, Alexandra; Vachelová, Jana; Michaelidesová, Anna; Wagner, Richard; Davídková, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2015), s. 327-334 ISSN 0301-634X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : human fibroblasts * proton radiation * micronuclei assay * biodosimetry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.923, year: 2015

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity of “mswaki” fibre on human gingival fibroblasts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study determined the in vitro cytotoxicity of mswaki fibres on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Methods: Two types of “mswaki” twigs (Salvadora persica and Euclea natalensis) were used. Each twig was swabbed with 70% ethanol, the bark was then removed and approximately 1cm pieces of fibre were cut and ...

  3. ADHESION AND SPREADING OF HUMAN FIBROBLASTS ON SUPERHYDROPHOBIC FEP-TEFLON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUSSCHER, HJ; STOKROOS, [No Value; GOLVERDINGEN, JG; SCHAKENRAAD, JM

    1991-01-01

    Adhesion and spreading of human fibroblasts was studied on hydrophobized and hydrophilized FEP-Teflon, and compared with adhesion and spreading on untreated FEP-Teflon and Tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). Superhydrophobic FEP-Teflon was prepared by ion etching followed by oxygen glow-discharge.

  4. Effect of mixed-sulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine on human skin fibroblasts for photodynamic therapy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndhundhuma, IM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available of the study was to evaluate the effect of mixed-sulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine (AlPcSmix) used as photosensitizers for PDT, determined by changes in cell morphology and cell viability of human skin fibroblasts (WS1). Methods. Cells incubated with 5, 10...

  5. Pristanic acid beta-oxidation in peroxisomal disorders: studies in cultured human fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, N. M.; Schor, D. S.; Roe, C. R.; Wanders, R. J.; Jakobs, C.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the individual steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, human fibroblasts from controls and patients affected by different peroxisomal disorders were incubated for 96 h with pristanic acid. Hereafter, 2,3-pristenic acid and 3-hydroxypristanic acid in the incubation medium were quantified

  6. Effect of tobacco smoking on human gingival and periodontal fibroblasts. A systematic review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Nohawica, Michal Marek

    2015-01-01

    Influence of smoking tobacco on the oral cavity has been showcased, based on a review of the relevant literature. The effect of tobacco smoke, as well as its components, on the morphology and motility of human gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts in health, periodontal disease, and in neoplasms, has been described.

  7. Removal of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers from the replicated and unreplicated DNA of human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.

    1978-01-01

    Excision repair in uv irradiated human fibroblasts has been examined in portions of DNA replicating after irradiation versus those remaining unreplicated. Two approaches, one using a uv-endonuclease to estimate pyrimidine dimers remaining in DNA, the other using density labeling to measure excision resynthesis, indicate that the extent of repair is the same for both replicated and unreplicated DNA.

  8. Characteristics of human infant primary fibroblast cultures from Achilles tendons removed post-mortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Marianne Cathrine; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Hansen, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell cultures were investigated as a tool for molecular diagnostics in a forensic setting. Fibroblast cultures had been established from human Achilles tendon resected at autopsies, from cases of sudden infant death syndrome and control infants who died in traumatic events (n=41). After...... into the study. High interpersonal variation in growth rates and cell doubling time was seen, but no statistically significant differences were found with increasing age of the donor (mean 19 weeks), length of post-mortem interval prior to sampling (6-100h), or increase in years of storage. Fibroblast cultures...

  9. The Effect of Phototherapy on Cancer Predisposition Genes of Diabetic and Normal Human Skin Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Chotikasemsri, Pongsathorn; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin; Sangkhathat, Surasak

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether LED light at different wavelengths affects the expression profile of 143 cancer predisposition genes in both diabetic and normal human fibroblasts. In this study, both diabetic and normal fibroblast cell lines were cultured and irradiated with red (635 nm), green (520 nm), and blue (465 nm) LED light for 10 minutes at 0.67 J/cm2 each. After that, mRNA from all cell lines was extracted for microarray analysis. We found that green light activ...

  10. Internalisation of hepatitis C virus core protein by human conjunctival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmy, A R; Malathi, J; Madhavan, H N; Bhaskar, S; Iyer, G K

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins can mediate innate immune response and inflammation in conjunctival fibroblasts which contributes to the pathology of dry eye condition associated with chronic HCV infection. The present study investigates the phagocytic potential of human conjunctival fibroblasts (HCFj) for HCV core protein. HCFj cells were incubated with HCV core antigen for different periods of time, and fluorescent micrographs were taken to observe protein internalisation. HCFj cells were capable of internalising HCV core antigen within 1 h; this gives an insight into another molecular mechanism which may contribute towards HCV-associated conjunctival inflammation.

  11. Cell Surface Glycoprotein of Reactive Stromal Fibroblasts as a Potential Antibody Target in Human Epithelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Old, Lloyd J.; Rettig, Wolfgang J.

    1990-09-01

    The F19 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein (M_r, 95,000) of human sarcomas and proliferating, cultured fibroblasts that is absent from resting fibroblasts in normal adult tissues. Normal and malignant epithelial cells are also F19^-. The present immunohistochemical study describes induction of F19 in the reactive mesenchyme of epithelial tumors. F19^+ fibroblasts were found in primary and metastatic carcinomas, including colorectal (18 of 18 cases studied), breast (14/14), ovarian (21/21), bladder (9/10), and lung carcinomas (13/13). In contrast, the stroma of benign colorectal adenomas, fibrocystic disease and fibroadenomas of breast, benign prostate hyperplasia, in situ bladder carcinomas, and benign ovarian tumors showed no or only moderate numbers of F19^+ fibroblasts. Analysis of dermal incision wounds revealed that F19 is strongly induced during scar formation. Comparison of F19 with the extracellular matrix protein tenascin, a putative marker of tumor mesenchyme, showed a cellular staining pattern for F19 vs. the extracellular matrix pattern for tenascin and widespread expression of tenascin in F19^- normal tissues and benign tumors. Our results suggest that the F19^+ phenotype correlates with specialized fibroblast functions in wound healing and malignant tumor growth. Because of its abundance in tumor mesenchyme, F19 may serve as a target for antibodies labeled with radioisotopes or toxic agents, or inflammatogenic antibodies, in carcinoma patients.

  12. ROS Mediates Radiation-Induced Differentiation in Human Lung Fibroblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sa Rah; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Kim, Mi Hyeung; Lim, Min Jin; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    One of the most common tumors worldwide is lung cancer and the number of patients with lung cancer received radiotherapy is increasing rapidly. Although radiotherapy may have lots of advantages, it can also induce serious adverse effects such as acute radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by excessive production of smooth muscle actin-alpha (a-SMA) and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen and fibronectin. There has been a great amount of research about fibrosis but the exact mechanism causing the reaction is not elucidated especially in radiation-induced fibrosis. Until now it has been known that several factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-b), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and reactive oxygen species are related to fibrosis. It is also reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be induced by radiation and can act as a second messenger in various signaling pathways. Therefore we focused on the role of ROS in radiation induced fibrosis. Here, we suggest that irradiation generate ROS mainly through NOX4, result in differentiation of lung fibroblast into myofibroblast.

  13. Ca{sup 2+} influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Naohiko [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ito, Satoru, E-mail: itori@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Furuya, Kishio [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Takahara, Norihiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Naruse, Keiji [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sokabe, Masahiro [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hasegawa, Yoshinori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca{sup 2+} signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation is mainly via Ca{sup 2+} influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. The stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was attenuated in Ca{sup 2+}-free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd{sup 3+}, ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca{sup 2+} influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP.

  14. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and

  15. Proinflammatory cytokines increase iron uptake into human monocytes and synovial fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, Joan F; Brock, Jeremy H

    2004-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that iron is stored in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis which perpetuates inflamation by aiding the production of oxygen free radicals. Proinflammatory cytokines are produced by macrophages and lymphocytes present within synovium and by mononuclear cells of in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. There are two known systems for iron uptake. The first involves binding of iron to transferrin and uptake via transferrin receptors. The second involves uptake by low molecular weight organic anions such as ascorbate and citrate (non-transferrin bound uptake). Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNFalpha and interferon gamma) were added to fibroblasts isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and human monocytes in culture and their effect on 59Fe-transferrin and citrate uptake was determined. Proinflammatory cytokines increase transferrin and non-transferrin bound iron uptake into human monocytes and increase transferrin-bound iron uptake by synovial fibroblasts, but have no effect on non-transferrin bound uptake into fibroblasts. Proinflammatory cytokines produced in human rheumatoid arthritis synovium and synovial fluid may contribute to the accumulation of iron that occurs in rheumatoid arthritis synovium which may lead to damage to synovial fibroblasts, macrophages and lymphocytes.

  16. Long-term estrogen exposure promotes carcinogen bioactivation, induces persistent changes in gene expression, and enhances the tumorigenicity of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spink, Barbara C.; Bennett, James A.; Pentecost, Brian T.; Lostritto, Nicole; Englert, Neal A.; Benn, Geoffrey K.; Goodenough, Angela K.; Turesky, Robert J.; Spink, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The cumulative exposure to estrogens is an important determinant in the risk of breast cancer, yet the full range of mechanisms involving estrogens in the genesis and progression of breast cancer remains a subject of debate. Interactions of estrogens and environmental toxicants have received attention as putative factors contributing to carcinogenesis. Mechanistic studies have demonstrated interactions between estrogen receptor α (ERα) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), with consequences on the genes that they regulate. Many studies of ERα and AhR-mediated effects and crosstalk between them have focused on the initial molecular events. In this study, we investigated ERα- and AhR-mediated effects in long-term estrogen exposed (LTEE) MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, which were obtained by continuous culturing for at least 12 weeks in medium supplemented with 1 nM of 17β-estradiol (E 2 ). With these LTEE cells and with parallel control cells cultured without E 2 supplementation, we performed an extensive study of cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction, carcinogen bioactivation, global gene expression, and tumorigenicity in immunocompromised mice. We found that LTEE cells, in comparison with control cells, had higher levels of AhR mRNA and protein, greater responsiveness for AhR-regulated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 induction, a 6-fold higher initial level of benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts as determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, marked differences in the expression of numerous genes, and a higher rate of E 2 -dependent tumor growth as xenografts. These studies indicate that LTEE causes adaptive responses in MCF-7 cells, which may reflect processes that contribute to the overall carcinogenic effect of E 2 .

  17. A new platinum complex with tryptophan: Synthesis, structural characterization, DFT studies and biological assays in vitro over human tumorigenic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Marcos A.; Shishido, Silvia M.; Souza, Bárbara C.; de Paiva, Raphael E. F.; Gomes, Alexandre F.; Gozzo, Fábio C.; Formiga, André L. B.; Corbi, Pedro P.

    2014-03-01

    A new platinum(II) complex with the amino acid L-tryptophan (trp), named Pt-trp, was synthesized and characterized. Elemental, thermogravimetric and ESI-QTOF mass spectrometric analyses led to the composition [Pt(C11H11N2O2)2]ṡ6H2O. Infrared spectroscopic data indicate the coordination of trp to Pt(II) through the oxygen of the carboxylate group and also through the nitrogen atom of the amino group. The 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopic data confirm coordination through the oxygen atom of the carboxylate group, while the 15N CP/MAS NMR data confirm coordination of the nitrogen of the NH2 group to the metal. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were applied to evaluate the cis and trans coordination modes of trp to platinum(II). The trans isomer was shown to be energetically more stable than the cis one. The Pt-trp complex was evaluated as a cytotoxic agent against SK-Mel 103 (human melanoma) and Panc-1 (human pancreatic carcinoma) cell lines. The complex was shown to be cytotoxic over the considered cells.

  18. Dimethyl fumarate is highly cytotoxic in KRAS mutated cancer cells but spares non-tumorigenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett Saidu, Nathaniel Edward; Bretagne, Marie; Mansuet, Audrey Lupo; Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Leroy, Karen; Cerles, Olivier; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Nicco, Carole; Damotte, Diane; Alifano, Marco; Borghese, Bruno; Goldwasser, François; Batteux, Frédéric; Alexandre, Jérôme

    2018-02-06

    KRAS mutation, one of the most common molecular alterations observed in adult carcinomas, was reported to activate the anti-oxidant program driven by the transcription factor NRF2 (Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2). We previously observed that the antitumoral effect of Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is dependent of NRF2 pathway inhibition. We used in vitro methods to examine the effect of DMF on cell death and the activation of the NRF2/DJ-1 antioxidant pathway. We report here that DMF is preferentially cytotoxic against KRAS mutated cancer cells. This effect was observed in patient-derived cancer cell lines harbouring a G12V KRAS mutation, compared with cell lines without such a mutation. In addition, KRAS*G12V over-expression in the human Caco-2 colon cancer cell line significantly promoted DMF-induced cell death, as well as DMF-induced- reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and -glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, in contrast to malignant cells, our data confirms that the same concentration of DMF has no significant cytotoxic effects on non-tumorigenic human ARPE-19 retinal epithelial, murine 3T3 fibroblasts and primary mice bone marrow cells; but is rather associated with NRF2 activation, decreased ROS and increased GSH levels. Furthermore, DJ-1 down-regulation experiments showed that this protein does not play a protective role against NRF2 in non-tumorigenic cells, as it does in malignant ones. This, interestingly, could be at the root of the differential effect of DMF observed between malignant and non-tumorigenic cells. Our results suggest for the first time that the dependence on NRF2 observed in mutated KRAS malignant cells makes them more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of DMF, which thus opens up new prospects for the therapeutic applications of DMF.

  19. Dimethyl fumarate is highly cytotoxic in KRAS mutated cancer cells but spares non-tumorigenic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett Saidu, Nathaniel Edward; Bretagne, Marie; Mansuet, Audrey Lupo; Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Leroy, Karen; Cerles, Olivier; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Nicco, Carole; Damotte, Diane; Alifano, Marco; Borghese, Bruno; Goldwasser, François; Batteux, Frédéric; Alexandre, Jérôme

    2018-01-01

    KRAS mutation, one of the most common molecular alterations observed in adult carcinomas, was reported to activate the anti-oxidant program driven by the transcription factor NRF2 (Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2). We previously observed that the antitumoral effect of Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is dependent of NRF2 pathway inhibition. We used in vitro methods to examine the effect of DMF on cell death and the activation of the NRF2/DJ-1 antioxidant pathway. We report here that DMF is preferentially cytotoxic against KRAS mutated cancer cells. This effect was observed in patient-derived cancer cell lines harbouring a G12V KRAS mutation, compared with cell lines without such a mutation. In addition, KRAS*G12V over-expression in the human Caco-2 colon cancer cell line significantly promoted DMF-induced cell death, as well as DMF-induced- reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and -glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, in contrast to malignant cells, our data confirms that the same concentration of DMF has no significant cytotoxic effects on non-tumorigenic human ARPE-19 retinal epithelial, murine 3T3 fibroblasts and primary mice bone marrow cells; but is rather associated with NRF2 activation, decreased ROS and increased GSH levels. Furthermore, DJ-1 down-regulation experiments showed that this protein does not play a protective role against NRF2 in non-tumorigenic cells, as it does in malignant ones. This, interestingly, could be at the root of the differential effect of DMF observed between malignant and non-tumorigenic cells. Our results suggest for the first time that the dependence on NRF2 observed in mutated KRAS malignant cells makes them more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of DMF, which thus opens up new prospects for the therapeutic applications of DMF. PMID:29507676

  20. Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Candida albicans Increased Chitin Production and Modulated Human Fibroblast Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humidah Alanazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of respiratory and oral bacterial infections is well documented. Cigarette smoke can also contribute to yeast infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC on C. albicans transition, chitin content, and response to environmental stress and to examine the interaction between CSC-pretreated C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. Following exposure to CSC, C. albicans transition from blastospore to hyphal form increased. CSC-pretreated yeast cells became significantly (P<0.01 sensitive to oxidation but significantly (P<0.01 resistant to both osmotic and heat stress. CSC-pretreated C. albicans expressed high levels of chitin, with 2- to 8-fold recorded under hyphal conditions. CSC-pretreated C. albicans adhered better to the gingival fibroblasts, proliferated almost three times more and adapted into hyphae, while the gingival fibroblasts recorded a significantly (P<0.01 slow growth rate but a significantly higher level of IL-1β when in contact with CSC-pretreated C. albicans. CSC was thus able to modulate both C. albicans transition through the cell wall chitin content and the interaction between C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. These findings may be relevant to fungal infections in the oral cavity in smokers.

  1. Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on expression of kynurenine pathway enzymes in human dermal fibroblasts

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    Kegel Magdalena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kynurenine pathway (KP is the main route of tryptophan degradation in the human body and generates several neuroactive and immunomodulatory metabolites. Altered levels of KP-metabolites have been observed in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders as well as in patients with affective disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if skin derived human fibroblasts are useful for studies of expression of enzymes in the KP. Methods Fibroblast cultures were established from cutaneous biopsies taken from the arm of consenting volunteers. Such cultures were subsequently treated with interferon (IFN-γ 200 U/ml and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, 100 U/ml for 48 hours in serum-free medium. Levels of transcripts encoding different enzymes were determined by real-time PCR and levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA were determined by HPLC. Results At base-line all cultures harbored detectable levels of transcripts encoding KP enzymes, albeit with considerable variation across individuals. Following cytokine treatment, considerable changes in many of the transcripts investigated were observed. For example, increases in the abundance of transcripts encoding indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, kynureninase or 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase and decreases in the levels of transcripts encoding tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, kynurenine aminotransferases or quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase were observed following IFN-γ and TNF-α treatment. Finally, the fibroblast cultures released detectable levels of KYNA in the cell culture medium at base-line conditions, which were increased after IFN-γ, but not TNF-α, treatments. Conclusions All of the investigated genes encoding KP enzymes were expressed in human fibroblasts. Expression of many of these appeared to be regulated in response to cytokine treatment as previously reported for other cell types. Fibroblast cultures, thus, appear to be useful for studies of disease

  2. Effect of three commercial mouth rinses on cultured human gingival fibroblast: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flemingson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine the effect of three commercial mouth rinses (Hexidine 0.2%, Listerine Cool Mint, Betadine 1% upon cultured human gingival fibroblast proliferation. Materials and Methods: Human gingival fibroblasts were cultured and incubated in Dulbecco′s Minimum Eagle′s Medium containing Chlorhexidine, Listerine, Povidone-Iodine at varying concentrations (1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 100% of the given solution at 37°C for 1, 5 and 15 min. Control cells received an equal volume of Dulbecco′s Minimum Eagle′s Medium without adding mouth rinses, for similar duration of exposure at 37°C. Following incubation the media were removed, cells were washed twice with medium, supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum, and fibroblasts in the test and control group were allowed to recover in the same media for 24 h. Results: In all the three groups, the proliferation inhibition was dependent on the concentration of solublized mouth rinses in the cell culture but independent of the duration of exposure to all three mouth rinses. The results showed that all three solutions were toxic to cultured human gingival fibroblasts, Chlorhexidine being the most cytotoxic. It was seen that at dilute concentrations (1% and 2% of given solutions Listerine was more cytotoxic than Chlorhexidine and Povidone-Iodine. Conclusion: These results suggest that Chlorhexidine, Listerine and Povidone-Iodine are capable of inducing a dose-dependent reduction in cellular proliferation of fibroblasts. The results presented are interesting, but to know the clinical significance, further studies are needed.

  3. Degradation of distinct forms of multimeric vitronectin by human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins-Port, C E; McKeown-Longo, P J

    1998-09-16

    The plasma protein vitronectin is thought to be an important regulator of extravascular plasminogen activation. In previous studies we have shown that a disulfide stabilized multimeric form of vitronectin is endocytosed and degraded by fibroblast cells (T.S. Panetti, P.J. McKeown-Longo, J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 11988-11993; P.J. McKeown-Longo, T.S. Panetti, in: K.T. Preissner, S. Rosenblatt, C. Kost, J. Wegerhoff, D.F. Mosher (Eds.), Biology of Vitronectins and their Receptors, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1993, pp. 111-118). The preparation of multimeric vitronectin used in these earlier studies was in the form of high molecular weight disulfide-bonded aggregates which were stable in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). To address the question of whether vitronectin needed to be in the form of disulfide stabilized multimers in order to be endocytosed, a multimeric vitronectin, which was not disulfide stabilized, was prepared from vitronectin that had been treated with reducing agent and alkylated with iodoacetamide. The resulting protein migrated as a 65/75 kDa protein on SDS gels in the absence of reducing agent, confirming that this form of vitronectin was no longer stabilized into disulfide-bonded aggregates. However, the protein was still multimeric when analyzed by native gels and could be converted to SDS stable multimers by cross-linking agents. This result demonstrated that reduced and alkylated vitronectin aggregates into multimeric forms which are not stable in SDS. Similar to disulfide stabilized multimers, alkylated multimers of vitronectin bound to sulfated proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix and were endocytosed and degraded. Degradation of both forms of vitronectin was inhibited with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptides, an anti-alphavbeta5 antibody and heparin. Chloroquine and wortmannin were also able to inhibit degradation of both forms of vitronectin, indicating that both multimeric forms were following the same endocytic and

  4. Long-term in-vivo tumorigenic assessment of human culture-expanded adipose stromal/stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIsaac, Zoe Marie, E-mail: zmm4a@virgina.edu [University of Virginia (United States); Shang, Hulan, E-mail: shanghulan@gmail.com [Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Virginia (United States); Agrawal, Hitesh, E-mail: hiteshdos@hotmail.com [Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Virginia (United States); Yang, Ning, E-mail: ny6u@virgina.edu [Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Virginia (United States); Parker, Anna, E-mail: amp4v@virginia.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Virginia (United States); Katz, Adam J., E-mail: ajk2f@virginia.edu [Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Virginia (United States)

    2012-02-15

    After more than a decade of extensive experimentation, the promise of stem cells to revolutionize the field of medicine has negotiated their entry into clinical trial. Adipose tissue specifically holds potential as an attainable and abundant source of stem cells. Currently undergoing investigation are adipose stem cell (ASC) therapies for diabetes and critical limb ischemia, among others. In the enthusiastic pursuit of regenerative therapies, however, questions remain regarding ASC persistence and migration, and, importantly, their safety and potential for neoplasia. To date, assays of in vivo ASC activity have been limited by early end points. We hypothesized that with time, ASCs injected subcutaneously undergo removal by normal tissue turnover and homeostasis, and by the host's immune system. In this study, a high dose of culture expanded ASCs was formulated and implanted as multicellular aggregates into immunocompromised mice, which were maintained for over one year. Animals were monitored for toxicity, and surviving cells quantified at study endpoint. No difference in growth/weight or lifespan was found between cell-treated and vehicle treated animals, and no malignancies were detected in treated animals. Moreover, real-time PCR for a human specific sequence, ERV-3, detected no persistent ASCs. With the advent of clinical application, clarification of currently enigmatic stem cell properties has become imperative. Our study represents the longest duration determination of stem cell activity in vivo, and contributes strong evidence in support of the safety of adipose derived stem cell applications. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose stem cells promise novel clinical therapies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Before clinical translation, safety profiles must be further elucidated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Subcutaneously injected non-autologous adipose stem cells do not form tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Subcutaneously injected non

  5. Efficacy of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG in human glioma cell lines and tumorigenic glioma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Claire Marie-Elisabeth; Weatherbee, Jessica Leigh; Kesari, Santosh; Winters, Susan Elizabeth; Barnes, Jessica; Dellagatta, Jamie; Ramakrishna, Naren Raj; Stiles, Charles Dean; Kung, Andrew Li-Jen; Kieran, Mark W; Wen, Patrick Yung Chih

    2009-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) arises from genetic and signaling abnormalities in components of signal transduction pathways involved in proliferation, survival, and the cell cycle axis. Studies to date with single-agent targeted molecular therapy have revealed only modest effects in attenuating the growth of these tumors, suggesting that targeting multiple aberrant pathways may be more beneficial. Heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that is involved in the conformational maturation of a defined group of client proteins, many of which are deregulated in GBM. 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is a well-characterized HSP90 inhibitor that should be able to target many of the aberrant signal transduction pathways in GBM. We assessed the ability of 17-AAG to inhibit the growth of glioma cell lines and glioma stem cells both in vitro and in vivo and assessed its ability to synergize with radiation and/or temozolomide, the standard therapies for GBM. Our results reveal that 17-AAG is able to inhibit the growth of both human glioma cell lines and glioma stem cells in vitro and is able to target the appropriate proteins within these cells. In addition, 17-AAG can inhibit the growth of intracranial tumors and can synergize with radiation both in tissue culture and in intracranial tumors. This compound was not found to synergize with temozolomide in any of our models of gliomas. Our results suggest that HSP90 inhibitors like 17-AAG may have therapeutic potential in GBM, either as a single agent or in combination with radiation.

  6. SNAIL regulates interleukin-8 expression, stem cell-like activity, and tumorigenicity of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wei-Lun; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Tsai, Ming-Long; Lan, Hsin-Yi; Su, Shu-Han; Chang, Shih-Ching; Teng, Hao-Wei; Yang, Shung-Haur; Lan, Yuan-Tzu; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Wang, Hsei-Wei

    2011-07-01

    Some cancer cells have activities that are similar to those of stem cells from normal tissues, and cell dedifferentiation correlates with poor prognosis. Little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the stem cell-like features of cancer cells; we investigated genes associated with stem cell-like features of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We isolated colonospheres from primary CRC tissues and cell lines and characterized their gene expression patterns by microarray analysis. We also investigated the biological features of the colonosphere cells. Expanded CRC colonospheres contained cells that expressed high levels of CD44 and CD166, which are markers of colon cancer stem cells, and had many features of cancer stem cells, including chemoresistance and radioresistance, the ability to initiate tumor formation, and activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). SNAIL, an activator of EMT, was expressed at high levels by CRC colonospheres. Overexpression of Snail in CRC cells induced most properties of colonospheres, including cell dedifferentiation. Two hundred twenty-seven SNAIL-activated genes were up-regulated in colonospheres; gene regulatory networks centered around interleukin (IL)-8 and JUN. Blocking IL-8 expression or activity disrupted SNAIL-induced stem cell-like features of colonospheres. We observed that SNAIL activated the expression of IL8 by direct binding to its E3/E4 E-boxes. In CRC tissues, SNAIL and IL-8 were coexpressed with the stem cell marker CD44 but not with CD133 or CD24. In human CRC tissues, SNAIL regulates expression of IL-8 and other genes to induce cancer stem cell activities. Strategies that disrupt this pathway might be developed to block tumor formation by cancer stem cells. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term in-vivo tumorigenic assessment of human culture-expanded adipose stromal/stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIsaac, Zoe Marie; Shang, Hulan; Agrawal, Hitesh; Yang, Ning; Parker, Anna; Katz, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    After more than a decade of extensive experimentation, the promise of stem cells to revolutionize the field of medicine has negotiated their entry into clinical trial. Adipose tissue specifically holds potential as an attainable and abundant source of stem cells. Currently undergoing investigation are adipose stem cell (ASC) therapies for diabetes and critical limb ischemia, among others. In the enthusiastic pursuit of regenerative therapies, however, questions remain regarding ASC persistence and migration, and, importantly, their safety and potential for neoplasia. To date, assays of in vivo ASC activity have been limited by early end points. We hypothesized that with time, ASCs injected subcutaneously undergo removal by normal tissue turnover and homeostasis, and by the host's immune system. In this study, a high dose of culture expanded ASCs was formulated and implanted as multicellular aggregates into immunocompromised mice, which were maintained for over one year. Animals were monitored for toxicity, and surviving cells quantified at study endpoint. No difference in growth/weight or lifespan was found between cell-treated and vehicle treated animals, and no malignancies were detected in treated animals. Moreover, real-time PCR for a human specific sequence, ERV-3, detected no persistent ASCs. With the advent of clinical application, clarification of currently enigmatic stem cell properties has become imperative. Our study represents the longest duration determination of stem cell activity in vivo, and contributes strong evidence in support of the safety of adipose derived stem cell applications. -- Highlights: ► Adipose stem cells promise novel clinical therapies. ► Before clinical translation, safety profiles must be further elucidated. ► Subcutaneously injected non-autologous adipose stem cells do not form tumors. ► Subcutaneously injected non-autologous adipose stem cells undergo complete removal by one year.

  8. Effects of cholera toxin and isobutylmethylxanthine on growth of human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, B.; Wharton, W.

    1986-08-01

    Cholera toxin produced a dose-dependent decrease in the restimulation of G0/G1 traverse in density-arrested human fibroblasts but did not inhibit the stimulation of cells arrested in G0 after serum starvation at low density. In addition, cholera toxin did not inhibit the proliferation of sparse logarithmically growing human fibroblasts, even when low concentrations of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) were also present. However, the final density to which sparse cells grew was limited by cholera toxin, when added either alone or together with low concentrations of IBMX. In contrast, high concentrations of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor alone produced a profound inhibition in the growth of sparse human fibrobasts. IBMX produced an inhibition both in the G1 and in the G2 phases of the cell cycle by a mechanism(s) that was not related to the magnitude of the increases in adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate concentrations.

  9. Effects of cholera toxin and isobutylmethylxanthine on growth of human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, B.; Wharton, W.

    1986-01-01

    Cholera toxin produced a dose-dependent decrease in the restimulation of G 0 /G 1 traverse in density-arrested human fibroblasts but did not inhibit the stimulation of cells arrested in G 0 after serum starvation at low density. In addition, cholera toxin did not inhibit the proliferation of sparse logarithmically growing human fibroblasts, even when low concentrations of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) were also present. However, the final density to which sparse cells grew was limited by cholera toxin, when added either alone or together with low concentrations of IBMX. In contrast, high concentrations of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor alone produced a profound inhibition in the growth of sparse human fibrobasts. IBMX produced an inhibition both in the G 1 and in the G 2 phases of the cell cycle by a mechanism(s) that was not related to the magnitude of the increases in adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate concentrations

  10. The period length of fibroblast circadian gene expression varies widely among human individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A Brown

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian circadian behavior is governed by a central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain hypothalamus, and its intrinsic period length is believed to affect the phase of daily activities. Measurement of this period length, normally accomplished by prolonged subject observation, is difficult and costly in humans. Because a circadian clock similar to that of the suprachiasmatic nucleus is present in most cell types, we were able to engineer a lentiviral circadian reporter that permits characterization of circadian rhythms in single skin biopsies. Using it, we have determined the period lengths of 19 human individuals. The average value from all subjects, 24.5 h, closely matches average values for human circadian physiology obtained in studies in which circadian period was assessed in the absence of the confounding effects of light input and sleep-wake cycle feedback. Nevertheless, the distribution of period lengths measured from biopsies from different individuals was wider than those reported for circadian physiology. A similar trend was observed when comparing wheel-running behavior with fibroblast period length in mouse strains containing circadian gene disruptions. In mice, inter-individual differences in fibroblast period length correlated with the period of running-wheel activity; in humans, fibroblasts from different individuals showed widely variant circadian periods. Given its robustness, the presented procedure should permit quantitative trait mapping of human period length.

  11. Age-related changes in cyclic phosphatidic acid-induced hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Katsura; Gotoh, Mari; Dodo, Kyoko; Tajima, Noriaki; Shimizu, Yoshibumi; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2018-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a major component of the extracellular matrix, which is important for skin hydration. As aging brings skin dehydration, we aimed to clarify the mRNA expression of hyaluronic acid-related proteins in human skin fibroblasts from donors of various ages (range 0.7-69 years). Previously, we reported that cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), a unique phospholipid mediator, stimulated the expression of HAS2 and increased hyaluronic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts (donor age: 3 days). In this study, we measured the mRNA expression of hyaluronic acid-related proteins: hyaluronan synthase (HAS) 1-3, hyaluronidase-1, -2, and hyaluronic acid-binding protein (versican). In addition, we tested whether cPA could increase hyaluronic acid synthesis in skin fibroblasts derived from donors of various ages. The expression of HAS1, 3, hyaluronidase-1, and -2 did not change with aging. However, the mRNA expression of versican decreased with aging. Although it is thought that the amount of hyaluronic acid in the dermis decreases with aging, the mRNA expression of HAS2 was increased. But the amount of hyaluronic acid secreted by fibroblasts did not increase with aging. This suggests that the activity and/or protein expression of HAS2 decrease with aging. Furthermore, we observed that cPA caused the increase of hyaluronic acid synthesis at any age, and this effect was increased with aging. These results suggest that aging made the fibroblasts more sensitive to cPA treatment. Therefore, cPA represents a suitable candidate for the health maintenance and improvement of the skin by increasing the level of hyaluronic acid in the dermis.

  12. Paracrine control of differentiation in the alveolar carcinoma, A549, by human foetal lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, V; Ray, K P; Freshney, R I

    1991-10-01

    Synthesis of pulmonary surfactant (PS) is necessary for normal functioning of the lungs and its production is indicative of normal differentiated lung. The human alveolar carcinoma, A549, has been found to synthesis and secrete PS in vitro. The purpose of this study was to optimise the culture conditions for PS synthesis by A549 as well as to determine the potential role of foetal lung fibroblasts in the induction of PS by glucocorticoids. A549 cells growing in filter wells produced higher levels of PS in response to steroid, a 5-fold increase on the filter well compared to only a 1.5-fold increase when the cells were cultured on a conventional plastic substrate. A549 cells grown in filter wells responded to coculture with fibroblasts whether in direct contact or separated co-culture. A 20-fold increase in PS over control values was observed in separated steroid-treated co-cultures, suggesting the presence of a diffusible factor. A partially purified factor was isolated from fibroblast conditioned medium which was capable of inducing differentiation and other phenotypic changes in A549, namely induction of PS, reduction of plasminogen activator activity and reduction in the in vivo growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice. These results suggest that, under the correct conditions, A549 cells, although transformed, still retain the capacity to respond to differentiation-inducing signals from normal fibroblasts.

  13. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malpass, Gloria E., E-mail: gloria.malpass@gmail.com [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Arimilli, Subhashini, E-mail: sarimill@wakehealth.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Prasad, G.L., E-mail: prasadg@rjrt.com [R and D Department, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, NC 27102 (United States); Howlett, Allyn C., E-mail: ahowlett@wakehealth.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1 h or 5 h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1 h, IL1α was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1 h by tobacco products. IL8, TNFα, VCAM1, and NFκB1 were suppressed after 5 h with STE, whereas only TNFα and NFκB1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1 h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNFα were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5 h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2 h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. - Highlights: • Tobacco product preparations (TPPs) alter gene expression in dermal fibroblasts. • Some immediate early genes critical to the inflammatory process are affected. • Different TPPs produce differential responses in certain pro-inflammatory genes.

  14. Enhanced Biological Behavior of In Vitro Human Gingival Fibroblasts on Cold Plasma-Treated Zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miao; Yang, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Ming-Yue; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xin; Li, He-Ping; Tan, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma treatment of zirconia enhances its biocompatibility with human gingival fibroblasts. Materials and Methods The zirconia disks were divided into four groups and treated using helium atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier-discharge plasmas for 30, 60 or 90 s or left untreated. The surface morphology, wettability and chemical elements were analyzed. Fibroblasts density, morphology, morphometry and attachment-related genes expression were measured at different time points from 3 to 72 h. Results After plasma treatment, the surface morphology and roughness remained the same, while the contact angle decreased from 78.31° to 43.71°, and the surface C/O ratio decreased from 3.17 to 0.89. The surficial areas and perimeters of HGFs were increased two-fold in the treated groups at 3 h. Fibroblasts density increased on treated disks at all time points, especially the ones treated for 60 s. Attachment-related genes in the groups treated for 30 and 60 s were significantly higher at 3 and 24 h. Conclusion The helium atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma treatment enhances the biological behavior of fibroblasts on zirconia by increasing the expression of attachment-related genes within 24 h and promoting the cell density during longer culture times. Wettability of zirconia, an important physicochemical property, has a vital influence on the cell behaviors. PMID:26461253

  15. Protective role of vitamin E preconditioning of human dermal fibroblasts against thermal stress in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Hira; Mehmood, Azra; Ali, Muhammad; Tasneem, Saba; Anjum, Muhammad Sohail; Tarar, Moazzam N; Khan, Shaheen N; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative microenvironment of burnt skin restricts the outcome of cell based therapies of thermal skin injuries. The aim of this study was to precondition human dermal fibroblasts with an antioxidant such as vitamin E to improve their survival and therapeutic abilities in heat induced oxidative in vitro environment. Fibroblasts were treated with 100μM vitamin E for 24h at 37°C followed by heat shock for 10min at 51°C in fresh serum free medium. Preconditioning with vitamin E reduced cell injury as demonstrated by decreased expression of annexin-V, cytochrome p450 (CYP450) mediated oxidative reactions, senescence and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) accomplished by down-regulated expression of pro-apoptotic BAX gene. Vitamin E preconditioned cells exhibited remarkable improvement in cell viability, release of paracrine factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1α) and also showed significantly up-regulated levels of PCNA, VEGF, BCL-XL, FGF7, FGF23, FLNβ and Col7α genes presumably through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt pathway. The results suggest that pretreatment of fibroblasts with vitamin E prior to transplantation in burnt skin speeds up the wound healing process by improving the antioxidant scavenging responses in oxidative environment of transplanted burn wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro evaluation of the effects of human umbilical cord extracts on human fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pham, Phuc; Dang, Loan Thi-Tung; Dinh, Uyen Thanh; Truong, Huyen Thi-Thu; Huynh, Ba Ngoc; Van Le, Dong; Phan, Ngoc Kim

    2014-04-01

    Skin aging is the result of internal and external factors. So-called photoaging has been identified as the major factor in skin aging. Effects of photoaging include inhibition of fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation as well as collagen and fibronectin expression, while activating expression of collagenases such as matrix metalloproteinase-1. Previous studies have shown that extracts or products from human placenta significantly improve skin aging and chronic wound healing. However, there are few studies of umbilical cord extracts. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of umbilical cord extract-derived formulae on three kinds of skin cells including fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and melanocytes. We prepared 20 formulae from intracellular umbilical cord extracts, extracellular umbilical cord extracts, and umbilical cord-derived stem cell extracts, as well as five control formulae. We evaluated the effects of the 25 formulae on fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation, and expression of collagen I, fibronectin, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in fibroblasts and tyrosinase in melanocytes. The results showed that 7.5% formula 35 was the most effective formula for promotion of fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation. At this concentration, formula 35 also induced collagen expression and inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression at the transcriptional level. However, this formula had no effect on tyrosinase expression in melanocytes. These results demonstrate that umbilical cord extracts can serve as an attractive source of proteins for skincare and chronic wound healing products.

  17. Differential gene expression induced by high LET charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingyoji, Masato; Ding, Liang-Hao; Chen, D.J.; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi

    2004-01-01

    We investigated differential gene expression of normal human skin HSF42 fibroblasts induced by heavy ions using cDNA microarray technology. Irradiation with 3 types of heavy ions was performed at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) facility. Out of 7458 genes, we found 61 significant genes (40 up-regulated and 21 down-regulated) that distinguished between human skin fibroblast HSF42 cells non-irradiated and irradiated with 1 Gy of neon particles and 62 significant genes (48 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated) that distinguished between HSF42 cells non-irradiated and irradiated with 1 Gy of silicon particles. Furthermore, we are going to analyze profiles of HSF42 cells exposed to carbon particles and compare those profiles between different types of beams. (author)

  18. Proteome oxidative carbonylation during oxidative stress-induced premature senescence of WI-38 human fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Boulch, Marine; Ahmed, Emad K; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2018-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins is a hallmark of cellular and organismal ageing, and is also a phenotypic feature shared by both replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence of human fibroblasts. Moreover, proteins that are building up as oxidized (i.e. the "Oxi......-proteome") during ageing and age-related diseases represent a restricted set of cellular proteins, indicating that certain proteins are more prone to oxidative carbonylation and subsequent intracellular accumulation. The occurrence of specific carbonylated proteins upon oxidative stress induced premature senescence...... of WI-38 human fibroblasts and their follow-up identification have been addressed in this study. Indeed, it was expected that the identification of these proteins would give insights into the mechanisms by which oxidatively damaged proteins could affect cellular function. Among these proteins, some...

  19. The Impact of Environmental and Endogenous Damage on Somatic Mutation Load in Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Saini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of somatic changes, due to environmental and endogenous lesions, in the human genome is associated with aging and cancer. Understanding the impacts of these processes on mutagenesis is fundamental to understanding the etiology, and improving the prognosis and prevention of cancers and other genetic diseases. Previous methods relying on either the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, or sequencing of single-cell genomes were inherently error-prone and did not allow independent validation of the mutations. In the current study we eliminated these potential sources of error by high coverage genome sequencing of single-cell derived clonal fibroblast lineages, obtained after minimal propagation in culture, prepared from skin biopsies of two healthy adult humans. We report here accurate measurement of genome-wide magnitude and spectra of mutations accrued in skin fibroblasts of healthy adult humans. We found that every cell contains at least one chromosomal rearrangement and 600–13,000 base substitutions. The spectra and correlation of base substitutions with epigenomic features resemble many cancers. Moreover, because biopsies were taken from body parts differing by sun exposure, we can delineate the precise contributions of environmental and endogenous factors to the accrual of genetic changes within the same individual. We show here that UV-induced and endogenous DNA damage can have a comparable impact on the somatic mutation loads in skin fibroblasts. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01087307.

  20. Treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds using human fibroblast-derived dermis: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Russell M; Smith, Nicholas C; Dux, Katherine; Stuck, Rodney M

    2014-04-01

    Human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute is a well-studied treatment for diabetic foot ulcers; however, no case series currently exist for its use in healing postoperative wounds of the lower extremity. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 lower extremity postoperative wounds treated weekly with human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute. Postoperative wounds were defined as a wound resulting from an open partial foot amputation, surgical wound dehiscence, or nonhealing surgical wound of the lower extremity. Wound surface area was calculated at 4 and 12 weeks or until wound closure if prior to 12 weeks. Postoperative wounds treated with weekly applications showed mean improvement in surface area reduction of 63.6% at 4 weeks and 96.1% at 12 weeks. More than 56% of all wounds healed prior to the 12-week endpoint. Additionally, only one adverse event was noted in this group. This retrospective review supports the use of human fibroblast-derived dermis skin substitute in the treatment of postoperative lower extremity wounds. This advanced wound care therapy aids in decreased total healing time and increased rate of healing for not only diabetic foot wounds but also postoperative wounds of the lower extremity, as demonstrated by this retrospective review.

  1. Gamma-Tocotrienol Modulated Gene Expression in Senescent Human Diploid Fibroblasts as Revealed by Microarray Analysis

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    Suzana Makpol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of γ-tocotrienol, a vitamin E isomer, in modulating gene expression in cellular aging of human diploid fibroblasts was studied. Senescent cells at passage 30 were incubated with 70 μM of γ-tocotrienol for 24 h. Gene expression patterns were evaluated using Sentrix HumanRef-8 Expression BeadChip from Illumina, analysed using GeneSpring GX10 software, and validated using quantitative RT-PCR. A total of 100 genes were differentially expressed (P<0.001 by at least 1.5 fold in response to γ-tocotrienol treatment. Amongst the genes were IRAK3, SelS, HSPA5, HERPUD1, DNAJB9, SEPR1, C18orf55, ARF4, RINT1, NXT1, CADPS2, COG6, and GLRX5. Significant gene list was further analysed by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA, and the Normalized Enrichment Score (NES showed that biological processes such as inflammation, protein transport, apoptosis, and cell redox homeostasis were modulated in senescent fibroblasts treated with γ-tocotrienol. These findings revealed that γ-tocotrienol may prevent cellular aging of human diploid fibroblasts by modulating gene expression.

  2. Inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced injuring on human skin fibroblast by Ulva prolifera polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chuner; Guo, Ziye; Yang, Yayun; Geng, Zhonglei; Tang, Langlang; Zhao, Minglin; Qiu, Yuyan; Chen, Yifan; He, Peimin

    2016-10-01

    Ulva prolifera can protect human skin fibroblast from being injured by hydrogen peroxide. This work studied the composition of Ulva prolifera polysaccharide and identified its physicochemical properties. The results showed that the cell proliferation of 0.5mg/mL crude polysaccharide was 154.4% of that in negative control group. Moreover, ROS detection indices, including DCFH-DA, GSH-PX, MDA and CAT, indicated that crude polysaccharide could improve cellular ability to scavenge free radical and decrease the injury on human skin fibroblast by hydrogen peroxide. In purified polysaccharide, the activity of fraction P1-1 was the highest, with 174.6% of that in negative control group. The average molecular weight of P1-1 was 137kD with 18.0% of sulfate content. This work showed the inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced injuries on human skin fibroblast by Ulva prolifera polysaccharide, which may further evaluate the application of U. prolifera on cosmetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression and Function of Connexin 43 in Human Gingival Wound Healing and Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzemany, Rana; Jiang, Guoqiao; Larjava, Hannu; Häkkinen, Lari

    2015-01-01

    Connexins (C×s) are a family of transmembrane proteins that form hemichannels and gap junctions (GJs) on the cell membranes, and transfer small signaling molecules between the cytoplasm and extracellular space and between connecting cells, respectively. Among C×s, suppressing C×43 expression or function promotes skin wound closure and granulation tissue formation, and may alleviate scarring, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Oral mucosal gingiva is characterized by faster wound closure and scarless wound healing outcome as compared to skin wounds. Therefore, we hypothesized that C×43 function is down regulated during human gingival wound healing, which in fibroblasts promotes expression of genes conducive for fast and scarless wound healing. Cultured gingival fibroblasts expressed C×43 as their major connexin. Immunostaining of unwounded human gingiva showed that C×43 was abundantly present in the epithelium, and in connective tissue formed large C×43 plaques in fibroblasts. At the early stages of wound healing, C×43 was strongly down regulated in wound epithelial cells and fibroblasts, returning to the level of normal tissue by day 60 post-wounding. Blocking of C×43 function by C×43 mimetic peptide Gap27 suppressed GJ-mediated dye transfer, promoted migration, and caused significant changes in the expression of wound healing-associated genes in gingival fibroblasts. In particular, out of 54 genes analyzed, several MMPs and TGF-β1, involved in regulation of inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, and VEGF-A, involved in angiogenesis, were significantly upregulated while pro-fibrotic ECM molecules, including Collagen type I, and cell contractility-related molecules were significantly down regulated. These responses involved MAPK, GSK3α/β and TGF-β signaling pathways, and AP1 and SP1 transcription factors. Thus, suppressed function of C×43 in fibroblasts promotes their migration, and regulates expression of wound healing

  4. Pre-evaluated safe human iPSC-derived neural stem cells promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury in common marmoset without tumorigenicity.

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    Yoshiomi Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Murine and human iPSC-NS/PCs (induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells promote functional recovery following transplantation into the injured spinal cord in rodents. However, for clinical applicability, it is critical to obtain proof of the concept regarding the efficacy of grafted human iPSC-NS/PCs (hiPSC-NS/PCs for the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI in a non-human primate model. This study used a pre-evaluated "safe" hiPSC-NS/PC clone and an adult common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus model of contusive SCI. SCI was induced at the fifth cervical level (C5, followed by transplantation of hiPSC-NS/PCs at 9 days after injury. Behavioral analyses were performed from the time of the initial injury until 12 weeks after SCI. Grafted hiPSC-NS/PCs survived and differentiated into all three neural lineages. Furthermore, transplantation of hiPSC-NS/PCs enhanced axonal sparing/regrowth and angiogenesis, and prevented the demyelination after SCI compared with that in vehicle control animals. Notably, no tumor formation occurred for at least 12 weeks after transplantation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression levels of human neurotrophic factors were significantly higher in cultured hiPSC-NS/PCs than in human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs. Finally, behavioral tests showed that hiPSC-NS/PCs promoted functional recovery after SCI in the common marmoset. Taken together, these results indicate that pre-evaluated safe hiPSC-NS/PCs are a potential source of cells for the treatment of SCI in the clinic.

  5. Proliferation-promoting effect of platelet-rich plasma on human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Minakata, Tatsuya; Mitsui, Toshihito; Kushida, Satoshi; Notodihardjo, Frederik Zefanya; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2008-11-01

    This study evaluated changes in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 release from platelets by platelet-rich plasma activation, and the proliferation potential of activated platelet-rich plasma and platelet-poor plasma on human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. Platelet-rich plasma was prepared using a double-spin method, with the number of platelets counted in each preparation stage. Platelet-rich and platelet-poor plasma were activated with autologous thrombin and calcium chloride, and levels of platelet-released PDGF-AB and TGF-beta1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cells were cultured for 1, 4, or 7 days in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with 5% whole blood plasma, nonactivated platelet-rich plasma, nonactivated platelet-poor plasma, activated platelet-rich plasma, or activated platelet-poor plasma. In parallel, these cells were cultured for 1, 4, or 7 days in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with 1%, 5%, 10%, or 20% activated platelet-rich plasma. The cultured human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts were assayed for proliferation. Platelet-rich plasma contained approximately 7.9 times as many platelets as whole blood, and its activation was associated with the release of large amounts of PDGF-AB and TGF-beta1. Adding activated platelet-rich or platelet-poor plasma significantly promoted the proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. Adding 5% activated platelet-rich plasma to the medium maximally promoted cell proliferation, but activated platelet-rich plasma at 20% did not promote it. Platelet-rich plasma can enhance the proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells and human dermal fibroblasts. These results support clinical platelet-rich plasma application for cell-based, soft-tissue engineering and wound healing.

  6. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2014-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 μg/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 μg/ml) and α-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 μg/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 μM) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 μg/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic.

  7. Effects of conditioned medium from LL-37 treated adipose stem cells on human fibroblast migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Jung; Bang, Sa-Ik

    2017-07-01

    Adipose stem cell-conditioned medium may promote human dermal fibroblast (HDF) proliferation and migration by activating paracrine peptides during the re-epithelization phase of wound healing. Human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is upregulated in the skin epithelium as part of the normal response to injury. The effects of conditioned medium (CM) from LL-37 treated adipose stem cells (ASCs) on cutaneous wound healing, including the mediation of fibroblast migration, remain to be elucidated, therefore the aim of the present study was to determine how ASCs would react to an LL-37-rich microenvironment and if CM from LL-37 treated ASCs may influence the migration of HDFs. The present study conducted migration assays with HDFs treated with CM from LL-37 treated ASCs. Expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), which controls the recruitment of HDFs, was analyzed at the mRNA and protein levels. To further characterize the stimulatory effects of LL-37 on ASCs, the expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), a CXC chemokine, was investigated. CM from LL-37-treated ASCs induced migration of HDFs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with a maximum difference in migration observed 24 h following stimulation with LL-37 at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. The HDF migration and the expression of CXCR4 in fibroblasts was markedly increased upon treatment with CM from LL-37-treated ASCs compared with CM from untreated ASCs. SDF-1α expression was markedly increased in CM from LL-37 treated ASCs. It was additionally observed that SDF-1α blockade significantly reduced HDF migration. These findings suggest the feasibility of CM from LL-37-treated ASCs as a potential therapeutic for human dermal fibroblast migration.

  8. Knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts induces p53 dependent senescence.

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    Khaled N Alsayegh

    Full Text Available Cyclin Dependent Kinase-2 Associated Protein-1 (CDK2AP1 is known to be a tumor suppressor that plays a role in cell cycle regulation by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting it for proteolysis. A reduction of CDK2AP1 expression is considered to be a negative prognostic indicator in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and also associated with increased invasion in human gastric cancer tissue. CDK2AP1 overexpression was shown to inhibit growth, reduce invasion and increase apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effect of CDK2AP1 downregulation in primary human dermal fibroblasts. Using a short-hairpin RNA to reduce its expression, we found that knockdown of CDK2AP1 in primary human fibroblasts resulted in reduced proliferation and in the induction of senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage of cells in the S phase and an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Immunocytochemical analysis also revealed that the CDK2AP1 knockdown significantly increased the percentage of cells that exhibited γ-H2AX foci, which could indicate presence of DNA damage. CDK2AP1 knockdown also resulted in increased mRNA levels of p53, p21, BAX and PUMA and p53 protein levels. In primary human fibroblasts in which p53 and CDK2AP1 were simultaneously downregulated, there was: (a no increase in senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity, (b decrease in the number of cells in the G1-phase and increase in number of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, and (c decrease in the mRNA levels of p21, BAX and PUMA when compared with CDK2AP1 knockdown only fibroblasts. Taken together, this suggests that the observed phenotype is p53 dependent. We also observed a prominent increase in the levels of ARF protein in the CDK2AP1 knockdown cells, which suggests a possible role of ARF in p53 stabilization following CDK2AP1

  9. Effects of Panax ginseng extract on human dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geum-Young; Park, Kang-Gyun; Namgoong, Sik; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Current studies of Panax ginseng (or Korean ginseng) have demonstrated that it has various biological effects, including angiogenesis, immunostimulation, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we hypothesised that P. ginseng may also play an important role in wound healing. However, few studies have been conducted on the wound-healing effects of P. ginseng. Thus, the purpose of this in vitro pilot study was to determine the effects of P. ginseng on the activities of fibroblasts, which are key wound-healing cells. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were treated with one of six concentrations of P. ginseng: 0, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml and 1 and 10 µg/ml. Cell proliferation was determined 3 days post-treatment using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, and collagen synthesis was evaluated by the collagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide method. Cell proliferation levels and collagen synthesis were compared among the groups. The 10 ng/ml to 1 µg/ml P. ginseng treatments significantly increased cell proliferation, and the 1 ng/ml to 1 µg/ml concentrations significantly increased collagen synthesis. The maximum effects for both parameters were observed at 10 ng/ml. P. ginseng stimulated human dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis at an optimal concentration of 10 ng/ml. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cyclic mechanical deformation stimulates human lung fibroblast proliferation and autocrine growth factor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J E; Mitchell, J J; Absher, P M; Baldor, L; Geller, H A; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Hamblin, M J; Vacek, P; Low, R B

    1993-08-01

    Cellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia and increased extracellular matrix deposition are features of tissue hypertrophy resulting from increased work load. It is known, for example, that mechanical forces play a critical role in lung development, cardiovascular remodeling following pressure overload, and skeletal muscle growth. The mechanisms involved in these processes, however, remain unclear. Here we examined the effect of mechanical deformation on fibroblast function in vitro. IMR-90 human fetal lung fibroblasts grown on collagen-coated silastic membranes were subjected to cyclical mechanical deformation (10% increase in culture surface area; 1 Hz) for up to 5 days. Cell number was increased by 39% after 2 days of deformation (1.43 +/- .01 x 10(5) cells/membrane compared with control, 1.03 +/- 0.02 x 10(5) cells; mean +/- SEM; P < 0.02) increasing to 163% above control by 4 days (2.16 +/- 0.16 x 10(5) cells compared with 0.82 +/- 0.03 x 10(5) cells; P < 0.001). The medium from mechanically deformed cells was mitogenic for IMR-90 cells, with maximal activity in the medium from cells mechanically deformed for 2 days (stimulating cell replication by 35% compared with media control; P < 0.002). These data suggest that mechanical deformation stimulates human lung fibroblast replication and that this effect is mediated by the release of autocrine growth factors.

  11. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

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    Sivapragasam Gothai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera is an herb used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves extract are completely unknown. Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: The present study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 1-6

  12. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothai, Sivapragasam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Tan, Woan Sean; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for the treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera (MO) is an herb used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves extract are completely unknown. In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate) in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml) of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. This study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use.

  13. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivapragasam Gothai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera is an herb used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves extract are completely unknown. Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 and micro;g/ml, 25 and micro;g/ml, and 50 and micro;g/ml of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: The present study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 1-6

  14. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury in BJ human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po Yee; Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-06-01

    The effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) and its analogs on solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury were examined in BJ human fibroblasts. Sch B and schisandrin C (Sch C) increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level and protected against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury. The photoprotection was paralleled by decreases in the elastases-type protease activity and matrix-metalloproteinases-1 expression in solar-irradiated fibroblasts. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production. The results suggest that by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent glutathione antioxidant response, Sch B or Sch C may offer the prospect of preventing skin photo-aging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell survival of human tumor cells compared with normal fibroblasts following 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Henning, C.B.; Reynolds, S.D.; Holmblad, G.L.; Trier, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Three tumor cell lines, two of which were shown to be HeLa cells, were irradiated with 60 Co gamma irradiation, together with two cell cultures of normal human diploid fibroblasts. Cell survival was studied in three different experiments over a dose range of 2 to 14 gray. All the tumor cell lines showed a very wide shoulder in the dose response curves in contrast to the extremely narrow shoulder of the normal fibroblasts. In addition, the D/sub o/ values for the tumor cell lines were somewhat greater. These two characteristics of the dose response curves resulted in up to 2 orders of magnitude less sensitivity for cell inactivation of HeLa cells when compared with normal cells at high doses (10 gray). Because of these large differences, the extrapolation of results from the irradiation of HeLa cells concerning the mechanisms of normal cell killing should be interpreted with great caution

  16. Clonogenic growth of human breast cancer cells co-cultured in direct contact with serum-activated fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoszuk, Michael; Tan, Jenny; Chorn, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that fibroblasts play a pivotal role in promoting the growth of breast cancer cells. The objective of the present study was to characterize and validate an in vitro model of the interaction between small numbers of human breast cancer cells and human fibroblasts. We measured the clonogenic growth of small numbers of human breast cancer cells co-cultured in direct contact with serum-activated, normal human fibroblasts. Using DNA microarrays, we also characterized the gene expression profile of the serum-activated fibroblasts. In order to validate the in vivo relevance of our experiments, we then analyzed clinical samples of metastatic breast cancer for the presence of myofibroblasts expressing α-smooth muscle actin. Clonogenic growth of human breast cancer cells obtained directly from in situ and invasive tumors was dramatically and consistently enhanced when the tumor cells were co-cultured in direct contact with serum-activated fibroblasts. This effect was abolished when the cells were co-cultured in transwells separated by permeable inserts. The fibroblasts in our experimental model exhibited a gene expression signature characteristic of 'serum response' (i.e. myofibroblasts). Immunostaining of human samples of metastatic breast cancer tissue confirmed that myofibroblasts are in direct contact with breast cancer cells. Serum-activated fibroblasts promote the clonogenic growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro through a mechanism that involves direct physical contact between the cells. This model shares many important molecular and phenotypic similarities with the fibroblasts that are naturally found in breast cancers

  17. Activation of the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome in human dental pulp tissue and human dental pulp fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenkai; Lv, Haipeng; Wang, Haijing; Wang, Diya; Sun, Shukai; Jia, Qian; Wang, Peina; Song, Bing; Ni, Longxing

    2015-08-01

    The NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway plays an important role in cellular immune defence against bacterial infection; however, its function in human dental pulp tissue and human dental pulp fibroblasts remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that NLRP3 protein expression occurs to a greater extent in pulp tissue with irreversible pulpitis than in normal pulp tissue and in tissue with reversible pulpitis. Caspase-1 is present in its active (cleaved) form only in pulp tissue with irreversible pulpitis. NLRP3 and caspase-1 are expressed in the odontoblast layers in normal human dental pulp tissue, whereas in inflamed pulp tissue, the odontoblast layers are disrupted and dental pulp cells are positive for NLRP3 and caspase-1. Additionally, we investigate the role of the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway in human dental pulp fibroblasts and show that ATP activates the P2X7 receptor on the cell membrane triggering K(+) efflux and inducing the gradual recruitment of the membrane pore pannexin-1. Extracellular lipopolysaccharide is able to penetrate the cytosol and activate NLRP3. Furthermore, the low intracellular K(+) concentration in the cytosol triggers reactive oxygen species generation, which also induces the NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway has a biological role in the innate immune response mounted by human dental pulp fibroblasts.

  18. Development of genetically modified eliminable human dermal fibroblast feeder cells for ocular surface regeneration medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingli; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Takamatsu, Fumihiko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2013-11-15

    Cultured human corneal limbal stem/progenitor cells are usually established and maintained on feeder layers. However, animal feeder cells are associated with viral infection, pathogen transmission, and xenogenic contamination. All feeder cells also can be mixed easily into cell-sheet production, causing self-contamination. We developed a line of labeled, immortalized, eliminable human dermal fibroblast cells to eliminate these problems. The enhanced green fluorescent protein gene, human-derived telomerase reverse transcriptase gene, and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene were transfected into human dermal fibroblast cells to establish labeled, immortalized, eliminable feeder cells. Established eliminable dermal fibroblasts (TERT+TK-D) were treated with mitomycin, cocultured with human limbal stem/progenitor cells to regenerate epithelium sheets, and compared with 3T3 feeder cells. Established TERT+TK-D feeder cells maintained immortalization, visualization, and eliminable characteristics during 6 months of continuous passages. The colony-forming efficiency of limbal stem/progenitor cells was similar in the TERT+TK-D group (11.77 ± 0.21%) and the 3T3 group (12.8 ± 1.61%) (P = 0.332). All cell sheets were well stratified into 4 to 5 layers. The TERT+TK-D group colonies and epithelial cell sheets showed weaker staining of corneal epithelium differentiation marker K3 than the 3T3 group and quantitative analysis of mRNA transcripts. Moreover, PCR analysis against the long terminal repeat sequence of the lentiviral vector integrated into the genetically modified feeder cells showed no contamination of ganciclovir-treated regeneration epithelial sheets. Genetically modified, labeled, immortalized, eliminable human dermal feeder cells are promising substitutes for 3T3 feeder cells for xenogeny-free ocular surface regeneration.

  19. TP53inp1 Gene Is Implicated in Early Radiation Response in Human Fibroblast Cells

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    Nikolett Sándor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein-1 (TP53inp1 is expressed by activation via p53 and p73. The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of TP53inp1 in response of fibroblasts to ionizing radiation. γ-Ray radiation dose-dependently induces the expression of TP53inp1 in human immortalized fibroblast (F11hT cells. Stable silencing of TP53inp1 was done via lentiviral transfection of shRNA in F11hT cells. After irradiation the clonogenic survival of TP53inp1 knockdown (F11hT-shTP cells was compared to cells transfected with non-targeting (NT shRNA. Radiation-induced senescence was measured by SA-β-Gal staining and autophagy was detected by Acridine Orange dye and microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3 (LC3B immunostaining. The expression of TP53inp1, GDF-15, and CDKN1A and alterations in radiation induced mitochondrial DNA deletions were evaluated by qPCR. TP53inp1 was required for radiation (IR induced maximal elevation of CDKN1A and GDF-15 expressions. Mitochondrial DNA deletions were increased and autophagy was deregulated following irradiation in the absence of TP53inp1. Finally, we showed that silencing of TP53inp1 enhances the radiation sensitivity of fibroblast cells. These data suggest functional roles for TP53inp1 in radiation-induced autophagy and survival. Taken together, we suppose that silencing of TP53inp1 leads radiation induced autophagy impairment and induces accumulation of damaged mitochondria in primary human fibroblasts.

  20. Cytotoxicity Analysis of Strontium Ranelate on Cultured Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts: A Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kürşat Er; Zübeyde Akin Polat; Fatih Özan; Tamer Taşdemir; Ufuk Sezer; Şeyda Hergüner Siso

    2008-01-01

    Background/Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of strontium ranelate (SR) on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL cells) in vitro. Methods: PDL cells were obtained from healthy human third molars and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. The experimental groups were: G1, cultures treated with fresh medium (control); and G2, G3, G4 and G5: treated with SR at 20, 10, 5 and 2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The experimental times were 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours (...

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of budesonide in human lung fibroblasts are independent of histone deacetylase 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Xingqi Wang,1 Amy Nelson,1 Zachary M Weiler,1 Amol Patil,1 Tadashi Sato,1 Nobuhiro Kanaji,1 Masanori Nakanishi,1 Joel Michalski,1 Maha Farid,1 Hesham Basma,1 Tricia D LeVan,1 Anna Miller-Larsson,2 Elisabet Wieslander,2 Kai-Christian Muller,3 Olaf Holz,3 Helgo Magnussen,3 Klaus F Rabe,3 Xiangde Liu,1 Stephen I Rennard1 1Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 2AstraZeneca R&D Molndal, Molndal, Sweden; 3Hospital Grosshansdorf, Center for Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery, Grosshansdorf, Germany Objective and design: Reduced expression of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2 in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells may account for reduced response of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients to glucocorticoids. HDAC2 expression and its role in mediating glucocorticoid effects on fibroblast functions, however, has not been fully studied. This study was designed to investigate whether HDAC2 mediates glucocorticoid effects on release of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs from human lung fibroblasts. Methods: Human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1 cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL-1β plus tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in the presence or absence of the glucocorticoid budesonide. Cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8 were quantified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and MMPs (MMP-1 and MMP-3 by immunoblotting in culture medium. The role of HDAC2 was investigated using a pharmacologic inhibitor as well as a small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA targeting HDAC2. Results: We have demonstrated that budesonide concentration-dependently (10-10–10-7 M inhibited IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1, and MMP-3 release by HFL-1 cells in response to IL-1β plus TNF-a. While an HDAC inhibitor significantly blocked the inhibitory effect of budesonide on human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs and monocytes (THP-1 cells, it did not block the inhibitory

  2. Gene-specific mitochondria dysfunctions in human TARDBP and C9ORF72 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onesto, Elisa; Colombrita, Claudia; Gumina, Valentina; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Dusi, Sabrina; Doretti, Alberto; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Invernizzi, Federica; Moggio, Maurizio; Tiranti, Valeria; Silani, Vincenzo; Ratti, Antonia

    2016-05-05

    Dysregulation of RNA metabolism represents an important pathogenetic mechanism in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) due to the involvement of the DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS and, more recently, of C9ORF72. A potential link between dysregulation of RNA metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction is recently emerged in TDP-43 disease models. To further investigate the possible relationship between these two pathogenetic mechanisms in ALS/FTD, we studied mitochondria functionality in human mutant TARDBP(p.A382T) and C9ORF72 fibroblasts grown in galactose medium to induce a switch from a glycolytic to an oxidative metabolism. In this condition we observed significant changes in mitochondria morphology and ultrastructure in both mutant cells with a fragmented mitochondria network particularly evident in TARDBP(p.A382T) fibroblasts. From analysis of the mitochondrial functionality, a decrease of mitochondria membrane potential with no alterations in oxygen consumption rate emerged in TARDBP fibroblasts. Conversely, an increased oxygen consumption and mitochondria hyperpolarization were observed in C9ORF72 fibroblasts in association to increased ROS and ATP content. We found evidence of autophagy/mitophagy in dynamic equilibrium with the biogenesis of novel mitochondria, particularly in mutant C9ORF72 fibroblasts where an increase of mitochondrial DNA content and mass, and of PGC1-α protein was observed. Our imaging and biochemical data show that wild-type and mutant TDP-43 proteins do not localize at mitochondria so that the molecular mechanisms responsible for such mitochondria impairment remain to be further elucidated. For the first time our findings assess a link between C9ORF72 and mitochondria dysfunction and indicate that mitochondria functionality is affected in TARDBP and C9ORF72 fibroblasts with gene-specific features in oxidative conditions. As in neuronal metabolism mitochondria are actively used for ATP

  3. Induction of pigmentation in mouse fibroblasts by expression of human tyrosinase cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of cells of the melanocyte lineage is the expression of the melanosomal enzyme tyrosinase that catalyzes the synthesis of the pigment melanin. A tyrosinase cDNA clone, designated BBTY-1, was isolated from a library constructed from the pigmented TA99+/CF21+ melanoma cell line SK-MEL-19. Expression of BBTY-1 in mouse L929 fibroblasts led to synthesis and expression of active tyrosinase, and, unexpectedly, to stable production of melanin. Melanin was synthesized and stored within membrane-bound vesicles in the cytoplasm of transfected fibroblasts. BBTY-1 detected a 2.4-kb mRNA transcript in nine of nine pigmented, tyrosinase-positive melanoma cell lines. Tyrosinase transcripts of the same size and abundance were detected in a subset (three of eight) of nonpigmented, tyrosinase-negative melanoma cell lines, suggesting that post-transcriptional events are important in regulating tyrosinase activity. Two melanocyte antigens, recognized by mAbs TA99 and CF21, that are specifically located within melanosomes and are coexpressed with tyrosinase activity, did not react with transfected mouse fibroblasts expressing human tyrosinase, supporting the conclusion that these antigenic determinants are distinct from the tyrosinase molecule coded for by BBTY-1. PMID:2499655

  4. The Effect of Phototherapy on Cancer Predisposition Genes of Diabetic and Normal Human Skin Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsathorn Chotikasemsri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether LED light at different wavelengths affects the expression profile of 143 cancer predisposition genes in both diabetic and normal human fibroblasts. In this study, both diabetic and normal fibroblast cell lines were cultured and irradiated with red (635 nm, green (520 nm, and blue (465 nm LED light for 10 minutes at 0.67 J/cm2 each. After that, mRNA from all cell lines was extracted for microarray analysis. We found that green light activates EPHB2, KIT, ANTXR2, ESCO2, MSR1, EXT1, TSC1, KIT, NF1, BUB1B, FANCD2, EPCAM, FANCD2, NF, DIS3L2, and RET in normal fibroblast cells, while blue and red light can upregulate RUNX1, PDGFRA, EHBP1, GPC3, AXIN2, KDR, GLMN, MSMB, EPHB2, MSR1, KIT, FANCD2, BMPR1A, BUB1B, PDE11A, and RET. Therefore, genetic screening before phototherapy treatment may be required.

  5. The Effect of Phototherapy on Cancer Predisposition Genes of Diabetic and Normal Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotikasemsri, Pongsathorn; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin; Sangkhathat, Surasak

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether LED light at different wavelengths affects the expression profile of 143 cancer predisposition genes in both diabetic and normal human fibroblasts. In this study, both diabetic and normal fibroblast cell lines were cultured and irradiated with red (635 nm), green (520 nm), and blue (465 nm) LED light for 10 minutes at 0.67 J/cm 2 each. After that, mRNA from all cell lines was extracted for microarray analysis. We found that green light activates EPHB2, KIT, ANTXR2, ESCO2, MSR1, EXT1, TSC1, KIT, NF1, BUB1B, FANCD2, EPCAM, FANCD2, NF, DIS3L2, and RET in normal fibroblast cells, while blue and red light can upregulate RUNX1, PDGFRA, EHBP1, GPC3, AXIN2, KDR, GLMN, MSMB, EPHB2, MSR1, KIT, FANCD2, BMPR1A, BUB1B, PDE11A, and RET. Therefore, genetic screening before phototherapy treatment may be required.

  6. Pharmacological NAD-Boosting Strategies Improve Mitochondrial Homeostasis in Human Complex I-Mutant Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felici, Roberta; Lapucci, Andrea; Cavone, Leonardo; Pratesi, Sara; Berlinguer-Palmini, Rolando; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are devastating genetic diseases for which efficacious therapies are still an unmet need. Recent studies report that increased availability of intracellular NAD obtained by inhibition of the NAD-consuming enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 or supplementation with the NAD-precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) ameliorates energetic derangement and symptoms in mouse models of mitochondrial disorders. Whether these pharmacological approaches also improve bioenergetics of human cells harboring mitochondrial defects is unknown. It is also unclear whether the same signaling cascade is prompted by PARP-1 inhibitors and NR supplementation to improve mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we show that human fibroblasts mutant for the NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1 (NDUFS1) subunit of respiratory complex I have similar ATP, NAD, and mitochondrial content compared with control cells, but show reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, mutant cells also show increased transcript levels of mitochondrial DNA but not nuclear DNA respiratory complex subunits, suggesting activation of a compensatory response. At variance with prior work in mice, however, NR supplementation, but not PARP-1 inhibition, increased intracellular NAD content in NDUFS1 mutant human fibroblasts. Conversely, PARP-1 inhibitors, but not NR supplementation, increased transcription of mitochondrial transcription factor A and mitochondrial DNA-encoded respiratory complexes constitutively induced in mutant cells. Still, both NR and PARP-1 inhibitors restored mitochondrial membrane potential and increased organelle content as well as oxidative activity of NDUFS1-deficient fibroblasts. Overall, data provide the first evidence that in human cells harboring a mitochondrial respiratory defect exposure to NR or PARP-1, inhibitors activate different signaling pathways that are not invariantly prompted by NAD increases, but equally able to improve energetic

  7. Asiaticoside induces cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Yulianti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Asiatiocoside, a saponin component isolated from Centella asiatica can improve wound healing by promoting the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF and synthesis of collagen. The skin-renewing cells and type I and III collagen synthesis decrease with aging, resulting in the reduction of skin elasticity and delayed wound healing. Usage of natural active compounds from plants in wound healing should be evaluated and compared to retinoic acid as an active agent that regulates wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the effect of asiaticoside and retinoic acid to induce greater cell proliferation and type I and III collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblast. Methods Laboratory experiments were conducted using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF isolated from human foreskin explants. Seven passages of HDF were treated with asiaticoside and retinoic acid at several doses and incubated for 24 and 48 hours. Cell viability in all groups was tested with the MTT assay to assess HDF proliferation. Type I and III collagen synthesis was examined using the respective ELISA kits. Analysis of variance was performed to compare the treatment groups. Results Asiaticoside had significantly stronger effects on HDF proliferation than retinoic acid (p<0.05. The type III collagen production was significantly greater induction with asiaticoside compared to retinoic acid (p<0.05. Conclusion Asiaticoside induces HDF proliferation and type I and III collagen synthesis in a time- and dose-dependent pattern. Asiaticoside has a similar effect as retinoic acid on type I and type III collagen synthesis.

  8. Improved methods for reprogramming human dermal fibroblasts using fluorescence activated cell sorting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Kahler

    Full Text Available Current methods to derive induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines from human dermal fibroblasts by viral infection rely on expensive and lengthy protocols. One major factor contributing to the time required to derive lines is the ability of researchers to identify fully reprogrammed unique candidate clones from a mixed cell population containing transformed or partially reprogrammed cells and fibroblasts at an early time point post infection. Failure to select high quality colonies early in the derivation process results in cell lines that require increased maintenance and unreliable experimental outcomes. Here, we describe an improved method for the derivation of iPSC lines using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS to isolate single cells expressing the cell surface marker signature CD13(NEGSSEA4(POSTra-1-60(POS on day 7-10 after infection. This technique prospectively isolates fully reprogrammed iPSCs, and depletes both parental and "contaminating" partially reprogrammed fibroblasts, thereby substantially reducing the time and reagents required to generate iPSC lines without the use of defined small molecule cocktails. FACS derived iPSC lines express common markers of pluripotency, and possess spontaneous differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo. To demonstrate the suitability of FACS for high-throughput iPSC generation, we derived 228 individual iPSC lines using either integrating (retroviral or non- integrating (Sendai virus reprogramming vectors and performed extensive characterization on a subset of those lines. The iPSC lines used in this study were derived from 76 unique samples from a variety of tissue sources, including fresh or frozen fibroblasts generated from biopsies harvested from healthy or disease patients.

  9. Adherence of human oral keratinocytes and gingival fibroblasts to nano-structured titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkhan, Marjan; Yücel-Lindberg, Tülay; Hall, Jan; Svensäter, Gunnel; Davies, Julia R

    2014-06-21

    A key element for long-term success of dental implants is integration of the implant surface with the surrounding host tissues. Modification of titanium implant surfaces can enhance osteoblast activity but their effects on soft-tissue cells are unclear. Adherence of human keratinocytes and gingival fibroblasts to control commercially pure titanium (CpTi) and two surfaces prepared by anodic oxidation was therefore investigated. Since implant abutments are exposed to a bacteria-rich environment in vivo, the effect of oral bacteria on keratinocyte adhesion was also evaluated. The surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The number of adhered cells and binding strength, as well as vitality of fibroblasts and keratinocytes were evaluated using confocal scanning laser microscopy after staining with Live/Dead Baclight. To evaluate the effect of bacteria on adherence and vitality, keratinocytes were co-cultured with a four-species streptococcal consortium. SEM analysis showed the two anodically oxidized surfaces to be nano-structured with differing degrees of pore-density. Over 24 hours, both fibroblasts and keratinocytes adhered well to the nano-structured surfaces, although to a somewhat lesser degree than to CpTi (range 42-89% of the levels on CpTi). The strength of keratinocyte adhesion was greater than that of the fibroblasts but no differences in adhesion strength could be observed between the two nano-structured surfaces and the CpTi. The consortium of commensal streptococci markedly reduced keratinocyte adherence on all the surfaces as well as compromising membrane integrity of the adhered cells. Both the vitality and level of adherence of soft-tissue cells to the nano-structured surfaces was similar to that on CpTi. Co-culture with streptococci reduced the number of keratinocytes on all the surfaces to approximately the same level and caused cell damage, suggesting that commensal bacteria could affect adherence of soft-tissue cells to

  10. Abnormal phenotype of cultured fibroblasts in human skin with chronic radiotherapy damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delanian, S.; Martin, M.; Lefaix, J.-L.; Bravard, A.; Luccioni, C.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The pathophysiological aspects of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) have not been well characterized. We therefore cultured human fibroblasts from samples of skin with RIF to investigate the long-term effects of therapeutic irradiation. Materials and methods: Biopsies of normal and RIF skin were obtained from patients previously irradiated for cancer, without recurrence. Cells were extracted from dermis samples by the outgrowth technique, seeded as monolayers and cultured at confluence. Enzyme activities and proteins were assayed, RNA was isolated and Northern blot analysis was performed on surviving cells between passages 2 and 5. Results: RIF cell cultures displayed heterogeneous fibroblasts populations. The initial outgrowth consisted of one-third small cells that floated rapidly, one-third spindle-shaped cells migrating far from the explant to form islets and one-third large pleiomorphic cells. In subsequent subcultures, surviving cells exhibited either myofibroblastic characteristics with a normal proliferative capacity or senescent morphology with a reduced proliferative capacity. These RIF cells had a brief finite lifespan, with dramatically reduced growth rate during their initial outgrowth and the following passages. Study of the antioxidant metabolism showed that Mn superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly weaker in surviving RIF cells than healthy fibroblasts. These exhausted RIF cells exhibited no overexpression of transforming growth factor β or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. Conclusion: Irradiation may lead to apparently contradictory effects such as fibrosis and necrosis in clinical practice. In cell culture, we observed two main cellular phenotypes which may be related to both processes, i.e. myofibroblast-like cells and fibrocyte-like cells. These two phenotypes may represent two steps in the differentiation induced as a long-term effect of therapeutic irradiation of the skin. Cell culture probably

  11. Cigarette smoke exposure inhibits extracellular MMP-2 (gelatinase A activity in human lung fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappello Francesco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cigarette smoke is considered a major risk factor for the development of lung diseases, since its causative role has been assessed in the induction and maintenance of an inflamed state in the airways. Lung fibroblasts can contribute to these processes, due to their ability to produce proinflammatory chemotactic molecules and extracellular matrix remodelling proteinases. Among proteolytic enzymes, gelatinases A and B have been studied for their role in tissue breakdown and mobilisation of matrix-derived signalling molecules. Multiple reports linked gelatinase deregulation and overexpression to the development of inflammatory chronic lung diseases such as COPD. Methods In this study we aimed to determine variations in the gelatinolytic pattern of human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1 cell line exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE. Gelatinolytic activity levels were determined by using gelatin zymography for the in-gel detection of the enzymes (proenzyme and activated forms, and the subsequent semi-quantitative densitometric evaluation of lytic bands. Expression of gelatinases was evaluated also by RT-PCR, zymography of the cell lysates and by western blotting. Results CSE exposure at the doses used (1–10% did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts. Zymographic analysis showed that CSE exposure resulted in a linear decrease of the activity of gelatinase A. Control experiments allowed excluding a direct inhibitory effect of CSE on gelatinases. Zymography of cell lysates confirmed the expression of MMP-2 in all conditions. Semi-quantitative evaluation of mRNA expression allowed assessing a reduced transcription of the enzyme, as well as an increase in the expression of TIMP-2. Statistical analyses showed that the decrease of MMP-2 activity in conditioned media reached the statistical significance (p = 0.0031 for 24 h and p = 0.0012 for 48 h, while correlation analysis showed that this result was

  12. Identification of molecules derived from human fibroblast feeder cells that support the proliferation of human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anisimov, Sergey V.; Christophersen, Nicolaj S.; Correia, Ana S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of human embryonic stem cell lines depend on a feeder cell layer for continuous growth in vitro, so that they can remain in an undifferentiated state. Limited knowledge is available concerning the molecular mechanisms that underlie the capacity of feeder cells to support both...... the proliferation and pluripotency of these cells. Importantly, feeder cells generally lose their capacity to support human embryonic stem cell proliferation in vitro following long-term culture. In this study, we performed large-scale gene expression profiles of human foreskin fibroblasts during early...

  13. Rat embryonic fibroblasts improve reprogramming of human keratinocytes into induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linta, Leonhard; Stockmann, Marianne; Kleinhans, Karin N; Böckers, Anja; Storch, Alexander; Zaehres, Holm; Lin, Qiong; Barbi, Gotthold; Böckers, Tobias M; Kleger, Alexander; Liebau, Stefan

    2012-04-10

    Patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells not only provide a promising tool for cellular disease models in general, but also open up the opportunity to establish cell-type-specific systems for personalized medicine. One of the crucial prerequisites for these strategies, however, is a fast and efficient reprogramming strategy from easy accessible somatic cell populations. Keratinocytes from plucked human hair had been introduced as a superior cell source for reprogramming purposes compared with the widely used skin fibroblasts. The starting cell population is, however, limited and thereby further optimization in terms of time, efficiency, and quality is inevitable. Here we show that rat embryonic fibroblasts (REFs) should replace mouse embryonic fibroblasts as feeder cells in the reprogramming process. REFs enable a significantly more efficient reprogramming procedure as shown by colony number and total amount of SSEA4-positive cells. We successfully produced keratinocyte-derived hiPS (k-hiPS) cells from various donors. The arising k-hiPS cells display the hallmarks of pluripotency such as expression of stem cell markers and differentiation into all 3 germ layers. The increased reprogramming efficiency using REFs as a feeder layer occurred independent of the proliferation rate in the parental keratinocytes and acts, at least in part, in a non-cell autonomous way by secreting factors known to facilitate pluripotency such as Tgfb1, Inhba and Grem1. Hence, we provide an easy to use and highly efficient reprogramming system that could be very useful for a broad application to generate human iPS cells. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  14. Human gingival fibroblasts are critical in sustaining inflammation in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Toshiaki; Kurata, Kazuyuki; Hirai, Kaname; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Uematsu, Takashi; Imamura, Yasuhiro; Furusawa, Kiyohumi; Kurihara, Saburo; Wang, Pao-Li

    2009-02-01

    A major factor in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, which is one of the biofilm infectious diseases, is thought to be lipopolysaccharide (LPS), owing to its ability to cause inflammation and promote tissue destruction. Moreover, the elimination of pathogens and their component LPSs is essential for the successful treatment of periodontal disease. Lipopolysaccharide tolerance is a mechanism that prevents excessive and prolonged responses of monocytes and macrophages to LPS. Since persistence of inflammation is necessary for inflammatory cytokine production, cells other than monocytes and macrophages are thought to maintain the production of cytokines in the presence of LPS. In this study, we investigated whether human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), the most abundant structural cell in periodontal tissue, might be able to maintain inflammatory cytokine production in the presence of LPS bynot displaying LPS tolerance. Human gingival fibroblasts were pretreated with LPS (from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli) and then treated with LPS, and the amounts of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in the cell culture supernatants were measured. The expression of negative regulators of LPS signalling (suppressor of cytokine signalling-1, interleukin-1 receptor-associated-kinase M and SH2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase-1) was also examined in LPS-treated HGFs. Human gingival fibroblasts did not display LPS tolerance but maintained production of IL-6 and IL-8 when pretreated with LPS, followed by secondary LPS treatment. Lipopolysaccharide-treated HGFs did not express negative regulators. These results demonstrate that HGFs do not show LPS tolerance and suggest that this characteristic of HGFs sustains the inflammatory response in the presence of virulence factors.

  15. The effect of ethidium bromide and chloramphenicol on mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Li-Pin; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Wolvetang, Ernst, E-mail: e.wolvetang@uq.edu.au

    2012-05-15

    The expression of mitochondrial components is controlled by an intricate interplay between nuclear transcription factors and retrograde signaling from mitochondria. The role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mtDNA-encoded proteins in mitochondrial biogenesis is, however, poorly understood and thus far has mainly been studied in transformed cell lines. We treated primary human fibroblasts with ethidium bromide (EtBr) or chloramphenicol for six weeks to inhibit mtDNA replication or mitochondrial protein synthesis, respectively, and investigated how the cells recovered from these insults two weeks after removal of the drugs. Although cellular growth and mitochondrial gene expression were severely impaired after both inhibitor treatments we observed marked differences in mitochondrial structure, membrane potential, glycolysis, gene expression, and redox status between fibroblasts treated with EtBr and chloramphenicol. Following removal of the drugs we further detected clear differences in expression of both mtDNA-encoded genes and nuclear transcription factors that control mitochondrial biogenesis, suggesting that the cells possess different compensatory mechanisms to recover from drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Our data reveal new aspects of the interplay between mitochondrial retrograde signaling and the expression of nuclear regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, a process with direct relevance to mitochondrial diseases and chloramphenicol toxicity in humans. -- Highlights: ► Cells respond to certain environmental toxins by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis. ► We investigated the effect of Chloramphenicol and EtBr in primary human fibroblasts. ► Inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesis or DNA replication elicit different effects. ► We provide novel insights into the cellular responses toxins and antibiotics.

  16. Aluminum is More Cytotoxic than Lunar Dust in Human Skin and Lung Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, D.; Shehata, T.; Hammond, D.; Shehata, T.; Wise, J.P.; Martino, J; Wise, J.P.; Wise, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA plans to build a permanent space station on the moon to explore its surface. The surface of the moon is covered in lunar dust, which consists of fine particles that contain silicon, aluminum and titanium, among others. Because this will be a manned base, the potential toxicity of this dust has to be studied. Also, toxicity standards for potential exposure have to be set. To properly address the potential toxicity of lunar dust we need to understand the toxicity of its individual components, as well as their combined effects. In order to study this we compared NASA simulant JSC-1AVF (volcanic ash particles), that simulates the dust found on the moon, to aluminum, the 3rd most abundant component in lunar dust. We tested the cytotoxicity of both compounds on human lung and skin fibroblasts (WTHBF-6 and BJhTERT cell lines, respectively). Aluminum oxide was more cytotoxic than lunar dust to both cell lines. In human lung fibroblasts 5, 10 and 50 g/sq cm of aluminum oxide induced 85%, 61% and 30% relative survival, respectively. For human skin fibroblasts the same concentrations induced 58%, 41% and 58% relative survival. Lunar dust was also cytotoxic to both cell lines, but its effects were seen at higher concentrations: 50, 100, 200 and 400 g/sq cm of lunar dust induced a 69%, 46%, 35% and 30% relative survival in the skin cells and 53%, 16%, 8% and 2% on the lung cells. Overall, for both compounds, lung cells were more sensitive than skin cells. This work was supported by a NASA EPSCoR grant through the Maine Space Grant Consortium (JPW), the Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health., a Fulbright Grant (JM) and a Delta Kappa Gamma Society International World Fellowship (JM).

  17. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of selected conventional glass ionomer cements on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczuk-Kolada, Grażyna; Łuczaj-Cepowicz, Elżbieta; Pawińska, Małgorzata; Hołownia, Adam

    2017-10-01

    Dentistry materials are the most frequently used substitutes of human tissues. Therefore, an assessment of dental filling materials should cover not only their chemical, physical, and mechanical characteristics, but also their cytotoxicity. To compare the cytotoxic effects of 13 conventional glass ionomer cements on human gingival fibroblasts. The assessment was conducted using the MTT test. Six samples were prepared for each material. Culture plates with cells and inserts with the materials were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2, and 95% humidity for 24 h. Then the inserts were removed, 1 mL of MTT was added in the amount of 0.5 mg/1 mL of the medium, and the samples were incubated in the described conditions without light for 2 h. The optical density was measured with an absorption spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 560 nm. The cytotoxic effects of the Argion Molar was significantly stronger than the Fuji Triage (p = 0.007), Chemfil Molar (p Quick (p IX GP and Fuji IX Extra had a significantly stronger adverse effect than the Chemfil Molar (p = 0.014, p = 0.029, respectively) and Ionofil Molar AC Quick (p = 0.017, p = 0.034, respectively). The cements from the low cytotoxicity group were significantly more toxic vs materials whose presence resulted in fibroblast growth (p < 0.001). The research conducted indicates that, although the materials studied may belong to the same group, they are characterized by low, yet not uniform, cytotoxicity on human gingival fibroblasts. The toxic effects should not be assigned to a relevant group of materials, but each dentistry product should be evaluated individually.

  18. Detection of DNA damage by space radiation in human fibroblasts flown on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Gaza, Ramona; Stoffle, Nicholas; Wang, Huichen; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2017-02-01

    Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation is challenging due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and due to the difficulty in distinguishing the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, are attributed primarily to their exposure to space radiation. In this study, cultured human fibroblasts were flown on the International Space Station (ISS). Cells were kept at 37 °C in space for 14 days before being fixed for analysis of DNA damage with the γ-H2AX assay. The 3-dimensional γ-H2AX foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. Quantitative analysis revealed several foci that were larger and displayed a track pattern only in the Day 14 flight samples. To confirm that the foci data from the flight study was actually induced from space radiation exposure, cultured human fibroblasts were exposed to low dose rate γ rays at 37 °C. Cells exposed to chronic γ rays showed similar foci size distribution in comparison to the non-exposed controls. The cells were also exposed to low- and high-LET protons, and high-LET Fe ions on the ground. Our results suggest that in G1 human fibroblasts under the normal culture condition, only a small fraction of large size foci can be attributed to high-LET radiation in space.

  19. Effects of Composition of Iron-Cross-Linked Alginate Hydrogels for Cultivation of Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Machida-Sano, Ikuko; Ogawa, Sakito; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Nao; Namiki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of ferric-ion-cross-linked alginates (Fe-alginate) with various proportions of L-guluronic acid (G) and D-mannuronic acid (M) residues as a culture substrate for human dermal fibroblasts. High-G and high-M Fe-alginate gels showed comparable efficacy in promoting initial cell adhesion and similar protein adsorption capacities, but superior cell proliferation was observed on high-G than on high-M Fe-alginate as culture time progressed. During immersion in culture...

  20. DNA synthesis in chromatin preparations from human fibroblasts infected by cytomegalovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, T.

    1980-01-01

    Chromatin prepared from ( 14 C)-thymidine pulse labelled cytomegalovirus-infected human fibroblasts 72 hours postinfection exhibited under appropriate conditions endogenous activity of ( 3 H)-thymidine triphosphate incorporation which was relatively salt-resistant and phosphonoacetic acid-sensitive. Isopycnic centrifugation of the doubly labelled DNA in CsCl revealed that cell-free incorporation occurred into viral as well as into host cell DNA. Density labelling experiments with bromodeoxyuridine triphosphate suggested the incorporation into viral DNA to be due to replicative DNA synthesis. Chromatin from infected cells contained, in addition to cellular, viral DNA polymerase activity. (author)

  1. Portulaca oleracea extracts protect human keratinocytes and fibroblasts from UV-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suyeon; Kim, Ki Ho; Park, Changhoon; Lee, Jong-Suk; Kim, Young Heui

    2014-10-01

    Portulaca oleracea extracts, known as Ma Chi Hyun in the traditional Korean medicine, show a variety of biomedical efficacies including those in anti-inflammation and anti-allergy. In this study, we investigate the protective activity of the P. oleracea extracts against UVB-induced damage in human epithelial keratinocytes and fibroblasts by several apoptosis-related tests. The results suggest that P. oleracea extracts have protective effects from UVB-induced apoptosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Minoxidil specifically decreases the expression of lysine hydroxylase in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, T; Heikkinen, J; Kivirikko, K I; Myllylä, R

    1992-01-01

    The levels of lysine hydroxylase protein and the levels of the mRNAs for lysine hydroxylase and the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase were measured in cultured human skin fibroblasts treated with 1 mM-minoxidil. The data demonstrate that minoxidil decreases the amount of lysine hydroxylase protein, this being due to a decrease in the level of lysine hydroxylase mRNA. The effect of minoxidil appears to be highly specific, as no changes were observed in the amounts of mRNAs for the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1314568

  3. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins stimulate mammary fibroblasts to promote mammary carcinoma cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Owens

    Full Text Available Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs are secreted cytokines that are part of the Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ superfamily. BMPs have been shown to be highly expressed in human breast cancers, and loss of BMP signaling in mammary carcinomas has been shown to accelerate metastases. Interestingly, other work has indicated that stimulation of dermal fibroblasts with BMP can enhance secretion of pro-tumorigenic factors. Furthermore, treatment of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs derived from a mouse prostate carcinoma with BMP4 was shown to stimulate angiogenesis. We sought to determine the effect of BMP treatment on mammary fibroblasts. A large number of secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix-metallo proteases (MMPs were found to be upregulated in response to BMP4 treatment. Fibroblasts that were stimulated with BMP4 were found to enhance mammary carcinoma cell invasion, and these effects were inhibited by a BMP receptor kinase antagonist. Treatment with BMP in turn elevated pro-tumorigenic secreted factors such as IL-6 and MMP-3. These experiments demonstrate that BMP may stimulate tumor progression within the tumor microenvironment.

  4. [Effects of hypoxia on the phenotype transformation of human dermal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B; Han, F; Zhang, W; Wang, X J; Zhang, J; Yang, F F; Shi, J H; Su, L L; Hu, D H

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To investigate the effects of hypoxia on the phenotype transformation of human dermal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the mechanism. Methods: The third passage of healthy adult human dermal fibroblasts in logarithmic phase were cultured in DMEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum for the following five experiments. (1) In experiments 1, 2, and 3, cells were divided into normoxia group and hypoxia group according to the random number table, with 10 dishes in each group. Cells of normoxia group were cultured in incubator containing 21% oxygen, while those of hypoxia group with 1% oxygen. At post culture hour (PCH) 0 and 48, 5 dishes of cells were collected from each group, respectively. mRNA expressions of markers of myofibroblasts including alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), type Ⅰ collagen, and type Ⅲ collagen of cells were determined with real time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in experiment 1. Protein expressions of α-SMA, type Ⅰ collagen, and type Ⅲ collagen of cells were determined with Western blotting in experiment 2. The protein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) of cells was determined with Western blotting in experiment 3. (2) In experiment 4, cells were divided into normoxia group, hypoxia group, and hypoxia+ pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) group according to the random number table, with 5 dishes in each group. Cells in the former two groups were treated the same as those in experiment 1. Cells in hypoxia+ PDTC group were treated the same as those in hypoxia group plus adding 4 mL PDTC with a final molarity of 10 μmol/L in the culture medium. At PCH 48, the protein expression of NF-κB of cells was determined with Western blotting. (3) In experiment 5, cells were divided into normoxia group, hypoxia group, hypoxia+ PDTC group, and normoxia+ PDTC group according to the random number table, with 5 dishes in each group. Cells in the former three groups were treated the

  5. Factors modifying 3-aminobenzamide cytotoxicity in normal and repair-deficient human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boorstein, R.J.; Pardee, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    3-Aminobenzamide (3-AB), an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribosylation), is lethal to human fibroblasts with damaged DNA. Its cytotoxicity was determined relative to a number of factors including the types of lesions, the kinetics of repair, and the availability of alternative repair systems. A variety of alkylating agent, UV or gamma irradiation, or antimetabolites were used to create DNA lesions. 3-AB enhanced lethality with monofunctional alkylating agents only. Within this class of compounds, methylmethanesulfonate (MMS) treatments made cells more sensitive to 3-AB than did treatment with methylnitrosourea (MNU) or methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG). 3-AB interfered with a dynamic repair process lasting several days, since human fibroblasts remained sensitive to 3-AB for 36-48 hours following MMS treatment. During this same interval 3-AB caused these cells to arrest in G 2 phase. Alkaline elution analysis also revealed that this slow repair was delayed further by 3-AB. Human mutant cell defective in DNA repair differed in their responses to 3-AB. Greater lethality with 3-AB could be dependent on inability of the mutant cells to repair damage by other processes

  6. Single Exposure of Human Oral Mucosa Fibroblasts to Ultraviolet B Radiation Reduces Proliferation and Induces COX-2 Expression and Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Boza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The lip vermillion constitutes a transition tissue, between oral mucosa and skin, where oral mucosal cells from epithelial and connective tissue compartments are exposed to ultraviolet (UV sunlight. Fibroblasts are abundant resident cells of the connective tissue which are key regulators of extracellular matrix composition, as well as, epithelial and endothelial cell function. UVB light, an inherent component of sunlight, causes several alterations in skin fibroblasts, including premature senescence and increased cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression. To assess if UVB irradiation had similar effects on fibroblasts derived from human oral mucosa (HOM, primary cultures of HOM fibroblasts were irradiated with a single dose of 30 or 60 mJ/cm²of UVB light or sham-irradiated. Fibroblast proliferation was assessed from 3 to 48 hrs after UVB-irradiation utilizing [³H]-thymidine incorporation and MTT assays. In addition, COX-2 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR, and PGE2 production was assessed using enzyme immunoassay from 0.5 to 24 hrs after UVB-irradiation. The results showed a significant decrease in proliferation of UVB-irradiated HOM fibroblasts as compared to controls as measured by both [³H]-thymidine incorporation and MTT assays (p<0.001. HOM fibroblasts had increased COX-2 mRNA expression at 0.5 and 12 hrs after irradiation, and PGE2 production was elevated at 12 and 24 hrs post-irradiation as compared to controls (p<0.05. The results showed an inhibitory effect of a single dose of UVB irradiation on HOM fibroblast proliferation with an increase in COX-2 expression and activation. Therefore, photodamaged fibroblasts may play and important role in the pathogenesis of UV-induced lesions of the lip.

  7. [Experimental study on co-culture of human fibroblasts on decellularized Achilles tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Xia; Guo, Xinyu; Qin, Chuan

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the preparation of decellularized Achilles tendons and the effect of co-culture of human fibroblasts on the scaffold so as to provide a scaffold for the tissue engineered ligament reconstruction. Achilles tendons of both hind limbs were harvested from 10 male New Zealand white rabbits (5-month-old; weighing, 4-5 kg). The Achilles tendons were decellularized using trypsin, Triton X-100, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and then gross observation, histological examination, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation were performed; the human fibroblasts were seeded on the decellularized Achilles tendon, and then cytocompatibility was tested using the cell counting kit 8 method at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days after co-culture. At 4 weeks after co-culture, SEM, HE staining, and biomechanical test were performed for observing cell-scaffold composite, and a comparison was made with before and after decellularization. After decellularization, the tendons had integrated aponeurosis and enlarged volume with soft texture and good toughness; there was no loose connective tissue and tendon cells between tendon bundles, the collagen fibers arranged loosely with three-dimensional network structure and more pores between tendon bundles; and it had good cytocompatibility. At 4 weeks after co-culture, cells migrated into the pores, and three-dimensional network structure disappeared. By biomechanical test, the tensile strength and Young's elastic modulus of the decellularized Achilles tendon group decreased significantly when compared with normal Achilles tendons group and cell-scaffold composite group (P Achilles tendons group and cell-scaffold composite group (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in elongation at break among 3 groups (P > 0.05). The decellularized Achilles tendon is biocompatible to fibroblasts. It is suit for the scaffold for tissue engineered ligament reconstruction.

  8. Reprogramming of Human Fibroblasts to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Sleeping Beauty Transposon-Based Stable Gene Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebe, Attila; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a source of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells and resemble human embryonic stem (ES) cells in gene expression profiles, morphology, pluripotency, and in vitro differentiation potential. iPS cells are applied in disease modeling, drug screenings, toxicology screenings, and autologous cell therapy. In this protocol, we describe how to derive human iPS cells from fibroblasts by Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated gene transfer of reprogramming factors. First, the components of the non-viral Sleeping Beauty transposon system, namely a transposon vector encoding reprogramming transcription factors and a helper plasmid expressing the SB transposase, are electroporated into human fibroblasts. The reprogramming cassette undergoes transposition from the transfected plasmids into the fibroblast genome, thereby resulting in stable delivery of the reprogramming factors. Reprogramming by using this protocol takes ~4 weeks, after which the iPS cells are isolated and clonally propagated.

  9. [Effects of hirudin on the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-β1 in human gingival fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zheng; Kun, Xuan; Lan, Nan; Shuixue, Mo

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of hirudin on the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) in vitro, as well to explore its func- tion in the mechanism of gingival remodeling. After culturing was performed with classic tissue-explant method, HGFs were derived from normal gingival and gingival hyperplasia tissues followed by orthodontic treatments with different concentrations of hirudin. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TGF-β1 and bFGF were respectively detected by real time quantity polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Compared with normal HGFs, TGF-β1 expression promoted collagen synthesis of fibroblasts, whereas bFGF collagen synthesis was decreased in hyperplasia HGFs without hirudin (P < 0.05). Hirudin significantly upregulated the expression levels of bFGF but downregulated TGF-β1 in hyperplasia HGFs (P < 0.05). Orthodontic force may influence the balance of collagen synthesis and degradation in HGFs. Hirudin may modulate the balance of HGF collagen metabolism, thereby promoting gingival remodeling.

  10. Radiation-induced alterations of the proliferation dynamics of human skin fibroblasts after repeated irradiation in the subtherapeutic dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumann, J.; Santo-Hoeltje, L.; Loeffler, H.; Bamberg, M.; Rodemann, H.P.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single and multiple irradiations on the differentiation and proliferation pattern of the stem cell system of human fibroblasts. The pattern of differentiation of fibroblast cultures was analyzed by morphological criteria using colony forming assays. Proliferation rates were assessed by cell counting and measuring the incorporation of BrdU. Ionizing radiation both in low and high dose ranges exerts differential effects on the cellular processes of differentiation and proliferation in human fibroblasts. Single irradiations of fibroblasts in the dose range of 1 to 8 Gy induced terminal differentiation into postmitotic fibrocytes at high percentage level. Irradiation of longterm cultures of fibroblasts with repeated doses of 0.2, 0.6 and 1.0 Gy revealed that only in cultures, which were irradiated repeatedly (x10) with 0.6 and 1.0 Gy a marked reduction of the proliferation capacity was apparent. Inhibition of proliferation by repeated irradiations with cumulative doses up to 10 Gy was not more pronounced as compared to single irradiations. 1. These results of radiation-induced changes in the proliferation and differentiation pattern of cells may be a basis for the understanding of the cellular processes leading to radiation-induced fibrosis and tissue aging. 2. Multiple irradiations with single doses up to 1 Gy and cumulative doses up to 10 Gy did not change the radiosensitivity of fibroblast cultures regarding effects on cell proliferation. (orig.) [de

  11. Reduction of the tumorigenic potential of human retinoblastoma cell lines by TFF1 overexpression involves p53/caspase signaling and miR-18a regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Maike; Große-Kreul, Jan; Wirtz, Janina Jasmin; Beier, Manfred; Stephan, Harald; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte; Metz, Klaus; Dünker, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides have been shown to play a pivotal role in oncogenic transformation, tumorigenesis and metastasis by changing cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion behavior of various cancer cell lines. In the study presented, we investigated the effect of TFF1 overexpression on cell growth, viability, migration and tumorigenicity of different retinoblastoma (RB) cell lines. Transient TFF1 overexpression significantly increases RB cell apoptosis levels. Stable, lentiviral TFF1 overexpression likewise decreases RB cell viability, proliferation and growth and significantly increases apoptosis as revealed by WST-1 assays, BrdU and DAPI cell counts. TFF1-induced apoptosis is executed via cleaved caspase-3 activation as revealed by caspase blockage experiments and caspase-3 immunocytochemistry. Results from pG13-luciferase reporter assays and Western blot analyses indicate that TFF1-induced apoptosis is mediated through transcriptional activity of p53 with concurrently downregulated miR-18a expression. In ovo chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays revealed that TFF1 overexpression significantly decreases the size of tumors forming from Y79 and RB355 cells and reduces the migration potential of RB355 cells. Differentially expressed genes and pathways involved in cancer progression were identified after TFF1 overexpression in Y79 cells by gene expression array analysis, underlining the effects on reduced tumorigenicity. TFF1 knockdown in RBL30 cells revealed caspase-3/7-independent apoptosis induction, but no changes on cell proliferation level. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo data demonstrate for the first time a tumor suppressor function of TFF1 in RB cells which is at least partly mediated by p53 activation and miR-18a downregulation. © 2017 UICC.

  12. Soy milk as a storage medium to preserve human fibroblast cell viability: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Camilla Christian Gomes; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Reis, Manuella Verdinelli de Paula; Fernandes Neto, Alfredo Júlio; Soares, Carlos José

    2012-01-01

    Soy milk (SM) is widely consumed worldwide as a substitute for cow milk. It is a source of vitamins, carbohydrates and sugars, but its capacity to preserve cell viability has not been evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of SM to maintain the viability of human fibroblasts at short periods compared with different cow milks. Human mouth fibroblasts were cultured and stored in the following media at room temperature: 10% Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) (positive control group); long shelf-life ultra-high temperature whole cow milk (WM); long shelf-life ultra-high temperature skim cow milk (SKM); powdered cow milk (PM); and soy milk (SM). After 5, 15, 30 and 45 min, cell viability was analyzed using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test with post-analysis using the Dunn's method (α=0.05). SKM showed the lowest capacity to maintain cell viability in all analyzed times (p<0.05). At 30 and 45 min, the absorbance levels in control group (DMEM) and SM were significantly higher than in SKM (p<0.05). Cell viability decreased along the time (5-45 min). The results indicate that SM can be used as a more adequate storage medium for avulsed teeth. SKM was not as effective in preserving cell viability as the cell culture medium and SM.

  13. In vitro adhesion of human dermal fibroblasts on iron cross-linked alginate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida-Sano, Ikuko; Namiki, Hideo; Matsuda, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of alginate film incorporating ferric ions as a gelling agent (Fe-alginate) in comparison with that incorporating calcium ions (Ca-alginate) as a scaffold for culturing normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). NHDF adhered to Fe-alginate and proliferated well, but no growth of the cells was observed on Ca-alginate. Since vitronectin and fibronectin play pivotal roles in cellular adhesion, their participation in NHDF behavior on alginate surfaces was investigated. We found that vitronectin was a critical element for initial attachment and spreading of NHDF on Fe-alginate. The surface properties of both alginate films were characterized in terms of protein adsorption ability and surface wettability, and it was revealed that Fe-alginate film adsorbed a significantly higher amount of proteins, including vitronectin and fibronectin, and had a higher surface hydrophobicity than Ca-alginate film. Moreover, under serum-free conditions, only a small number of NHDF were able to attach to the surface of Fe-alginate. Fe-alginate appeared to provide an appropriate surface for cellular attachment by adsorption of serum proteins such as vitronectin. These results suggest that Fe-alginate can serve as a scaffold for human fibroblasts and may be useful for tissue engineering research and other biomedical applications.

  14. Mitochondrial proteomics on human fibroblasts for identification of metabolic imbalance and cellular stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bross Peter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial proteins are central to various metabolic activities and are key regulators of apoptosis. Disturbance of mitochondrial proteins is therefore often associated with disease. Large scale protein data are required to capture the mitochondrial protein levels and mass spectrometry based proteomics is suitable for generating such data. To study the relative quantities of mitochondrial proteins in cells from cultivated human skin fibroblasts we applied a proteomic method based on nanoLC-MS/MS analysis of iTRAQ-labeled peptides. Results When fibroblast cultures were exposed to mild metabolic stress – by cultivation in galactose medium- the amount of mitochondria appeared to be maintained whereas the levels of individual proteins were altered. Proteins of respiratory chain complex I and IV were increased together with NAD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase of the citric acid cycle illustrating cellular strategies to cope with altered energy metabolism. Furthermore, quantitative protein data, with a median standard error below 6%, were obtained for the following mitochondrial pathways: fatty acid oxidation, citric acid cycle, respiratory chain, antioxidant systems, amino acid metabolism, mitochondrial translation, protein quality control, mitochondrial morphology and apoptosis. Conclusion The robust analytical platform in combination with a well-defined compendium of mitochondrial proteins allowed quantification of single proteins as well as mapping of entire pathways. This enabled characterization of the interplay between metabolism and stress response in human cells exposed to mild stress.

  15. Melatonin suppresses acrolein-induced IL-8 production in human pulmonary fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Tae-Ho; Jin, Young-Ho; Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog

    2012-04-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) causes harmful alterations in the lungs and airway structures and functions that characterize chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition to COPD, active cigarette smoking causes other respiratory diseases and diminishes health status. Furthermore, recent studies show that, α, β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein in CS induces the production of interleukin (IL)-8, which is known to be related to bronchitis, rhinitis, pulmonary fibrosis, and asthma. In addition, lung and pulmonary fibroblasts secrete IL-8, which has a chemotactic effect on leukocytes, and which in turn, play a critical role in lung inflammation. On the other hand, melatonin regulates circadian rhythm homeostasis in humans and has many other effects, which include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by the reduced expressions of iNOS, IL-1β, and IL-6 and increased glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase activities. In this study, we investigated whether melatonin suppresses acrolein-induced IL-8 secretion in human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPFs). It was found that acrolein-induced IL-8 production was accompanied by increased levels of phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) in HPFs, and that melatonin suppressed IL-8 production in HPFs. These results suggest that melatonin suppresses acrolein-induced IL-8 production via ERK1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal inhibition in HPFs. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Compromised inflammatory cytokine response to P. gingivalis LPS by fibroblasts from inflamed human gingiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Tracy R; Ge, Shaohua; Bartold, P Mark

    2018-03-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the in vitro cytokine response of gingival fibroblasts (GF's) from healthy and inflamed human gingival tissues and to assess whether GF's from inflamed gingivae are capable of mounting a secondary inflammatory response after exposure to P. gingivalis LPS. GF's were obtained from healthy donors and periodontitis patients and cultured in vitro. Cells were exposed to P. gingivalis LPS for 24h before measurement of MCP-1, GRO, IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF using a bead-based multiplex assay. Statistical comparisons were made between LPS-exposed GF's and unstimulated cells as well as the two patient groups by two-way ANOVA. GF's exposed to P. gingivalis LPS significantly increased their production of MCP-1, GRO, IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF compared to unstimulated cells. GF's isolated from inflamed tissue from periodontitis patients demonstrated consistently less cytokine production after exposure to P. gingivalis LPS, most notably for GRO and IL-6. The current study demonstrates that GF's play an active role in the inflammatory response in periodontal disease by producing a number of chemokines and cytokines. Furthermore, inflamed GF's may be compromised in their ability to mount an adequate secondary immune response in relation to chemokine/cytokine production. The compromised inflammatory cytokine response of inflamed human gingival fibroblasts to P. gingivalis LPS may impact on their ability to recruit and activate inflammatory cells while maintaining persistent inflammation, a key feature of periodontal disease.

  17. Effects of differently polarized microwave radiation on the microscopic structure of the nuclei in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shckorbatov, Yuriy G; Pasiuga, Vladimir N; Goncharuk, Elena I; Petrenko, Tatiana Ph; Grabina, Valentin A; Kolchigin, Nicolay N; Ivanchenko, Dmitry D; Bykov, Victor N; Dumin, Oleksandr M

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the influence of microwave radiation on the human fibroblast nuclei, the effects of three variants of electromagnetic wave polarization, linear and left-handed and right-handed elliptically polarized, were examined. Experimental conditions were: frequency (f) 36.65 GHz, power density (P) at the surface of exposed object 1, 10, 30, and 100 µW/cm(2), exposure time 10 s. Human fibroblasts growing in a monolayer on a cover slide were exposed to microwave electromagnetic radiation. The layer of medium that covered cells during microwave exposure was about 1 mm thick. Cells were stained immediately after irradiation by 2% (w/v) orcein solution in 45% (w/v) acetic acid. Experiments were made at room temperature (25 °C), and control cell samples were processed in the same conditions. We assessed heterochromatin granule quantity (HGQ) at 600× magnification. Microwave irradiation at the intensity of 1 µW/cm(2) produced no effect, and irradiation at the intensities of 10 and 100 µW/cm(2) induced an increase in HGQ. More intense irradiation induced more chromatin condensation. The right-handed elliptically polarized radiation revealed more biological activity than the left-handed polarized one.

  18. Oxidative stress is responsible for genotoxicity of camphorquinone in primary human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Miriam; Leyhausen, Gabriele; Volk, Joachim; Geurtsen, Werner

    2014-07-01

    The photoinitiator camphorquinone (CQ), used in dental restorative materials, was found to be cytotoxic in cell cultures. Previously, we have shown that CQ induces alkali labile sites and DNA strand breaks in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) associated with an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the objective of our study was to evaluate if DNA damage in HGF cells is caused by the generation of ROS. HGF cells were treated with different concentrations (0.5-2.5 mM) of CQ. The cell viability was assessed using propidium iodide (PI) assay. Oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by an enzyme-modified comet assay using human 8-hydroxyguanine DNA-glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), which converts oxidized 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoguanine) into DNA strand breaks and functions as a marker for oxidative modified DNA. The results showed that CQ induced DNA damage in HGF cells without cytotoxic effects for the chosen treatment time. CQ treatment led to the generation of 8-oxoguanine in DNA, which can be shown by a significant increase in tail moment after CQ treatment by the enzyme-modified comet assay. It may be concluded that DNA damage due to CQ is caused by oxidative stress in gingival fibroblasts. A more detailed insight into genotoxic mechanisms in oral cells can be of great importance for a better understanding of the biocompatibility of CQ.

  19. Growth inhibitory effects of endotoxins from Bacteroides gingivalis and intermedius on human gingival fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layman, D.L.; Diedrich, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Purified endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide from Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides intermedius caused a similar dose-dependent inhibition of growth of cultured human gingival fibroblasts as determined by 3 H-thymidine incorporation and direct cell count. Approximately 200 micrograms/ml endotoxin caused a 50% reduction in 3 H-thymidine uptake of logarithmically growing cells. Inhibition of growth was similar in cultures of fibroblasts derived from either healthy or diseased human gingiva. When examining the change in cell number with time of exposure in culture, the rate of proliferation was significantly suppressed during the logarithmic phase of growth. However, the cells recovered so that the rate of proliferation, although reduced, was sufficient to produce a cell density similar to the control cells with prolonged culture. The endotoxins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The profiles of the Bacteroides endotoxins were different. B. gingivalis endotoxin showed a wide range of distinct bands indicating a heterogeneous distribution of molecular species. Endotoxin from B. intermedius exhibited a few discrete low molecular weight bands, but the majority of the lipopolysaccharides electrophoresed as a diffuse band of high molecular weight material. The apparent heterogeneity of the two Bacteroides endotoxins and the similarity in growth inhibitory capacity suggest that growth inhibitory effects of these substances cannot be attributed to any polysaccharide species of endotoxin

  20. β-Elemene inhibits the proliferation of primary human airway granulation fibroblasts by downregulating canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Cheng; Hong, Ling-Ling; Lin, Jun-Sheng; Yao, Xiang-Yang; Wu, Ding-Hui; Lin, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Zeng, Yi-Ming

    2018-01-22

    Benign airway stenosis is a clinical challenge because of recurrent granulation tissues. Our previous study proved that a Chinese drug, β-elemene, could effectively inhibit the growth of fibroblasts cultured from hyperplastic human airway granulation tissues, which could slow down the progression of this disease. The purpose of this study is to find out the mechanism. We cultured fibroblasts from normal human airway tissues and human airway granulation tissues. These cells were cultured with 160 ug/ml NS, different doses of β-elemene, or 10 ng/ml canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor (DKK-1). The proliferation rate of cells and the expression of six molecules invoveled in canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, Wnt3a, GSK-3β, β-catenin, α-SMA, TGF-β, and Col-I, were measured. At last, we used canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator (LiCl), to further ascertain the mechanism of β-elemene. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is activated in human airway granulation fibroblasts. β-Elemene didn't affect normal human airway fibroblasts, however had a dose-responsive inhibitive effect on the proliferation and expression of Wnt3a, non-active GSK-3β, β-catenin, α-SMA, TGF-β, and Col-I of human airway granulation fibroblasts. More importantly, it had the same effect on the expression and nuclear translocation of active β-catenin. All these effects were similar to 10 ng/ml DKK-1 and could be attenuated by 10 mM LiCl. Thus, β-elemene inhibits the proliferation of primary human airway granulation fibroblasts by downregulating canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. This pathway is possibly a promising target to treat benign tracheobronchial stenosis. ©2018 The Author(s).

  1. Chikungunya virus exploits miR-146a to regulate NF-κB pathway in human synovial fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthi Priya Selvamani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Chikungunya virus causes chronic infection with manifestations of joint pain. Human synovial fibroblasts get infected with CHIKV and could lead to pro-inflammatory responses. MicroRNAs have potentials to regulate the gene expression of various anti-viral and pro-inflammatory genes. The study aims to investigate the role of miR-146a in modulation of inflammatory responses of human synovial fibroblasts by Chikungunya virus. METHODS: To study the role of miR-146a in CHIKV pathogenesis in human synovial cells and underlying inflammatory manifestations, we performed CHIKV infection in primary human synovial fibroblasts. Western blotting, real-time PCR, luciferase reporter assay, overexpression and knockdown of cellular miR-146a strategies have been employed to validate the role of miR-146a in regulation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway. RESULTS: CHIKV infection induced the expression of cellular miR-146a, which resulted into down-regulation of TRAF6, IRAK1, IRAK2 and increased replication of CHIKV in human synovial fibroblasts. Exogenous expression of miR-146a in human synovial fibroblasts led to decreased expression of TRAF6, IRAK1, IRAK2 and decreased replication of CHIKV. Inhibition of cellular miR-146a by anti-miR-146a restored the expression levels of TRAF6, IRAK1 and IRAK2. Downregulation of TRAF6, IRAK1 and IRAK2 led to downstream decreased NF-κB activation through negative feedback loop. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the mechanism of exploitation of cellular miR-146a by CHIKV in modulating the host antiviral immune response in primary human synovial fibroblasts.

  2. Characterization of the autocrine/paracrine function of vitamin D in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaining Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3, the precursor of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3, is abundant around periodontal soft tissues. Here we investigate whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 is converted to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 in periodontal soft tissue cells and explore the possibility of an autocrine/paracrine function of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 in periodontal soft tissue cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts and human periodontal ligament cells from 5 individual donors. We demonstrated that 1α-hydroxylase was expressed in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells, as was cubilin. After incubation with the 1α-hydroxylase substrate 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3, human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells generated detectable 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 that resulted in an up-regulation of CYP24A1 and RANKL mRNA. A specific knockdown of 1α-hydroxylase in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells using siRNA resulted in a significant reduction in both 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 production and mRNA expression of CYP24A1 and RANKL. The classical renal regulators of 1α-hydroxylase (parathyroid hormone, calcium and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 and Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide did not influence 1α-hydroxylase expression significantly, however, interleukin-1β and sodium butyrate strongly induced 1α-hydroxylase expression in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, the expression, activity and functionality of 1α-hydroxylase were detected in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells, raising the possibility that vitamin D acts in an autocrine/paracrine manner in these cells.

  3. Beta-galactosidase-deficient human fibroblasts: uptake and processing of the exogenous precursor enzyme expressed by stable transformant COS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, A; Itoh, K; Nagao, Y; Sakuraba, H; Suzuki, Y

    1990-10-01

    COS-1 cells were transfected by electroporation with a cDNA for human acid beta-galactosidase cloned in our laboratory and stable transformants expressing the enzyme activity were selected. The precursor form of the enzyme was secreted in large quantities into the culture medium. The fibroblasts from patients with GM1-gangliosidosis or Morquio B disease showed a remarkable increase of enzyme activity, up to the normal level, after culture in this medium for 2 days; the amount of uptake was essentially the same as that for the precursor form in human fibroblasts. After endocytosis, the precursor molecules were processed normally to the mature form and remained as stable as those produced by human fibroblasts. On the other hand, cells from galactosialidosis patients did not show any increase of enzyme activity in a similar experiment. It was concluded that the transformants are useful as the source of precursor proteins for the study of intracellular turnover of enzyme molecules in mutant cells.

  4. Antioxidative properties of ginsenoside Ro against UV-B-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Ji; Oh, Yuri; Lee, Sihyeong; Ryu, In Wang; Kim, Kyunghoon; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Ro (Ro), an oleanolic acid-type ginsenoside, exhibited suppressive activities on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) elevation in UV-B-irradiated fibroblasts. Ro could overcome the reduction of the total glutathione (GSH) contents in UV-B-irradiated fibroblasts. Ro could not interfere with cell viabilities in UV-B-irradiated fibroblasts. Collectively, Ro possesses a potential skin anti-photoaging property against UV-B radiation in fibroblasts.

  5. The chalcone butein from Rhus verniciflua Stokes inhibits clonogenic growth of human breast cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Jenny

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butein (3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalone, a plant polyphenol, is a major biologically active component of the stems of Rhus verniciflua Stokes. It has long been used as a food additive in Korea and as an herbal medicine throughout Asia. Recently, butein has been shown to suppress the functions of fibroblasts. Because fibroblasts are believed to play an important role in promoting the growth of breast cancer cells, we investigated the ability of butein to inhibit the clonogenic growth of small numbers of breast cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts in vitro. Methods We first measured the clonogenic growth of small numbers of the UACC-812 human breast cancer cell line co-cultured on monolayers of serum-activated, human fibroblasts in the presence of butein (2 μg/mL or various other modulators of fibroblast function (troglitazone-1 μg/mL; GW9662-1 μM; meloxican-1 μM; and 3,4 dehydroproline-10 μg/mL. In a subsequent experiment, we measured the dose-response effect on the clonogenic growth of UACC-812 breast cancer cells by pre-incubating the fibroblasts with varying concentrations of butein (10 μg/ml-1.25 μg/mL. Finally, we measured the clonogenic growth of primary breast cancer cells obtained from 5 clinical specimens with normal fibroblasts and with fibroblasts that had been pre-treated with a fixed dose of butein (2.5 μg/mL. Results Of the five modulators of fibroblast function that we tested, butein was by far the most potent inhibitor of clonogenic growth of UACC-812 breast cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. Pre-treatment of fibroblasts with concentrations of butein as low as 2.5 μg/mL nearly abolished subsequent clonogenic growth of UACC-812 breast cancer cells co-cultured with the fibroblasts. A similar dose of butein had no effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured in the absence of fibroblasts. Significantly, clonogenic growth of the primary breast cancer cells was also

  6. [Cloning and characterization of genes differentially expressed in human dental pulp cells and gingival fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-dong; Wu, Ji-nan; Zhou, Lin; Ling, Jun-qi; Guo, Xi-min; Xiao, Ming-zhen; Zhu, Feng; Pu, Qin; Chai, Yu-bo; Zhao, Zhong-liang

    2007-02-01

    To study the biological properties of human dental pulp cells (HDPC) by cloning and analysis of genes differentially expressed in HDPC in comparison with human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). HDPC and HGF were cultured and identified by immunocytochemistry. HPDC and HGF subtractive cDNA library was established by PCR-based modified subtractive hybridization, genes differentially expressed by HPDC were cloned, sequenced and compared to find homogeneous sequence in GenBank by BLAST. Cloning and sequencing analysis indicate 12 genes differentially expressed were obtained, in which two were unknown genes. Among the 10 known genes, 4 were related to signal transduction, 2 were related to trans-membrane transportation (both cell membrane and nuclear membrane), and 2 were related to RNA splicing mechanisms. The biological properties of HPDC are determined by the differential expression of some genes and the growth and differentiation of HPDC are associated to the dynamic protein synthesis and secretion activities of the cell.

  7. Cytotoxicity analysis of strontium ranelate on cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Kürşat; Polat, Zübeyde Akin; Ozan, Fatih; Taşdemir, Tamer; Sezer, Ufuk; Siso, Seyda Hergüner

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of strontium ranelate (SR) on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL cells) in vitro. PDL cells were obtained from healthy human third molars and cultured in Dulbeccos Modified Eagles Medium. The experimental groups were: G1, cultures treated with fresh medium (control); and G2, G3, G4 and G5: treated with SR at 20, 10, 5 and 2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The experimental times were 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours (short-term) for viability, and 2, 4, 6 and 8 days (long-term) for cell survival. The cells were counted using a hemocytometer. Data were then analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (p safety and effectiveness for tooth resorption prior to clinical use.

  8. Transient p53 suppression increases reprogramming of human fibroblasts without affecting apoptosis and DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Holst, Bjørn; Tümer, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has sparked great interest in the potential treatment of patients with their own in vitro differentiated cells. Recently, knockout of the Tumor Protein 53 (p53) gene was reported to facilitate reprogramming but unfortunately also led...... to genomic instability. Here, we report that transient suppression of p53 during nonintegrative reprogramming of human fibroblasts leads to a significant increase in expression of pluripotency markers and overall number of iPSC colonies, due to downstream suppression of p21, without affecting apoptosis...... and DNA damage. Stable iPSC lines generated with or without p53 suppression showed comparable expression of pluripotency markers and methylation patterns, displayed normal karyotypes, contained between 0 and 5 genomic copy number variations and produced functional neurons in vitro. In conclusion...

  9. Prognostic role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in human solid tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Xiong, Disheng; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Zhengjie

    2017-06-01

    In the past decades, the oncogenic role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 has been demonstrated in a number of cancer types. However, studies have reported contradictory findings concerning the correlation between fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 expression and prognosis in solid tumors. To address this discrepancy, we performed a meta-analysis with 18 published studies (2975 patients) retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of science. Data were extracted and computed into odds ratios. The results showed that fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 overexpression was significantly associated with decreased 3-year overall survival (odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.30-2.85, p = 0.001) and 5-year overall survival (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-2.44, p = 0.02) in patients with solid tumors. Subgroup analysis revealed that high fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 expression was also associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and esophageal cancer, but not correlated with pancreatic cancer. In conclusion, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 overexpression is correlated with decreased survival in most solid tumors, suggesting that the expression status of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is a valuable prognostic biomarker and a novel therapeutic target in human solid tumors.

  10. Role of human pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 in cell activation and migration in experimental silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueting; Fang, Shencun; Liu, Haijun; Wang, Xingang; Dai, Xiaoniu; Yin, Qing; Yun, Tianwei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yingming; Liao, Hong; Zhang, Wei; Yao, Honghong; Chao, Jie

    2015-10-15

    Silicosis is a systemic disease caused by inhaling silicon dioxide (SiO2). Phagocytosis of SiO2 in the lung initiates an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration and subsequent fibrosis. Clinical evidence indicates that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO2 produces rapid and sustained inflammation that is characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), which induces fibrosis. Pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 may play a critical role in fibroblast proliferation and migration. Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPF-a) demonstrated the following results: 1) SiO2 treatment resulted in the rapid and sustained induction of MCP-1 as well as the elevation of the CC chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) protein levels; 2) pretreatment of HPF-a with RS-102895, a specific CCR2 inhibitor, abolished the SiO2-induced increase in cell activation and migration in both 2D and 3D culture systems; and 3) RNA interference targeting CCR2 prevented the SiO2-induced increase in cell migration. These data demonstrated that the up-regulation of pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 is involved in pulmonary fibroblast migration induced by SiO2. CCR2 was also up-regulated in response to SiO2, and this up-regulation facilitated the effect of MCP-1 on fibroblasts. Our study deciphered the link between fibroblast-derived MCP-1 and SiO2-induced cell migration. This finding provides novel insight into the potential of MCP-1 in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Two Bis-Acryl Composite Resins Using Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Fabiano Palmeira; Alves, Gutemberg; Guimarães, Vladi Oliveira; Gallito, Marco Antônio; Oliveira, Felipe; Scelza, Míriam Zaccaro

    2016-01-01

    Bis-acryl resins are used for temporary dental restorations and have shown advantages over other materials. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of two bis-acryl composite resins (Protemp 4 and Luxatemp Star), obtained at 1, 7 and 40 days after mixing the resin components, using a standardized assay employing human primary cells closely related to oral tissues. Human gingival fibroblast cell cultures were exposed for 24 h to either bis-acryl composite resins, polystyrene beads (negative control) and latex (positive control) extracts obtained after incubation by the different periods, at 37 °C under 5% CO2. Cell viability was evaluated using a multiparametric procedure involving sequential assessment (using the same cells) of mitochondrial activity (XTT assay), membrane integrity (neutral red test) and total cell density (crystal violet dye exclusion test). The cells exposed to the resin extracts showed cell viability indexes exceeding 75% after 24 h. Even when cells were exposed to extracts prepared with longer conditioning times, the bis-acryl composite resins showed no significant cytotoxic effects (p>0.05), compared to the control group or in relation to the first 24 h of contact with the products. There were no differences among the results obtained for the bis-acryl composite resins evaluated 24 h, 7 days and 40 days after mixing. It may be concluded that the bis-acryl resins Protemp 4 and Luxatemp Star were cytocompatible with human gingival fibroblasts, suggesting that both materials are suitable for use in contact with human tissues.

  12. The small Rho GTPase Rac1 controls normal human dermal fibroblasts proliferation with phosphorylation of the oncoprotein c-myc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, Ekaterina; Mitev, Vanio; Zhelev, Nikolai; Deroanne, Christophe F.; Poumay, Yves

    2007-01-01

    Proliferation of dermal fibroblasts is crucial for the maintenance of skin. The small Rho GTPase, Rac1, has been identified as a key transducer of proliferative signals in various cell types, but in normal human dermal fibroblasts its significance to cell growth control has not been studied. In this study, we applied the method of RNA interference to suppress endogenous Rac1 expression and examined the consequences on human skin fibroblasts. Rac1 knock-down resulted in inhibition of DNA synthesis. This effect was not mediated by inhibition of the central transducer of proliferative stimuli, ERK1/2 or by activation of the pro-apoptotic p38. Rather, as a consequence of the suppressed Rac1 expression we observed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of c-myc, revealing for the first time that in human fibroblasts Rac1 exerts control on proliferation through c-myc phosphorylation. Thus Rac1 activates proliferation of normal fibroblasts through stimulation of c-myc phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 activity

  13. Rac1 and Cdc42 are regulators of HRasV12-transformation and angiogenic factors in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appledorn, Daniel M; Dao, Kim-Hien T; O'Reilly, Sandra; Maher, Veronica M; McCormick, J Justin

    2010-01-01

    The activities of Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for HRas-induced transformation of rodent fibroblasts. What is more, expression of constitutively activated mutants of Rac1 and/or Cdc42 is sufficient for their malignant transformation. The role for these two Rho GTPases in HRas-mediated transformation of human fibroblasts has not been studied. Here we evaluated the contribution of Rac1 and Cdc42 to maintaining HRas-induced transformation of human fibroblasts, and determined the ability of constitutively activated mutants of Rac1 or Cdc42 to induce malignant transformation of a human fibroblast cell strain. Under the control of a tetracycline regulatable promoter, dominant negative mutants of Rac1 and Cdc42 were expressed in a human HRas-transformed, tumor derived fibroblast cell line. These cells were used to determine the roles of Rac1 and/or Cdc42 proteins in maintaining HRas-induced transformed phenotypes. Similarly, constitutively active mutants were expressed in a non-transformed human fibroblast cell strain to evaluate their potential to induce malignant transformation. Affymetrix GeneChip arrays were used for transcriptome analyses, and observed expression differences were subsequently validated using protein assays. Expression of dominant negative Rac1 and/or Cdc42 significantly altered transformed phenotypes of HRas malignantly transformed human fibroblasts. In contrast, expression of constitutively active mutants of Rac1 or Cdc42 was not sufficient to induce malignant transformation. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of 29 genes was dependent on Rac1 and Cdc42, many of which are known to play a role in cancer. The dependence of two such genes, uPA and VEGF was further validated in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The results presented here indicate that expression of both Rac1 and Cdc42 is necessary for maintaining several transformed phenotypes in oncogenic HRas transformed human cells, including their ability to form tumors in athymic

  14. Rac1 and Cdc42 are regulators of HRasV12-transformation and angiogenic factors in human fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Kim-Hien T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activities of Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for HRas-induced transformation of rodent fibroblasts. What is more, expression of constitutively activated mutants of Rac1 and/or Cdc42 is sufficient for their malignant transformation. The role for these two Rho GTPases in HRas-mediated transformation of human fibroblasts has not been studied. Here we evaluated the contribution of Rac1 and Cdc42 to maintaining HRas-induced transformation of human fibroblasts, and determined the ability of constitutively activated mutants of Rac1 or Cdc42 to induce malignant transformation of a human fibroblast cell strain. Methods Under the control of a tetracycline regulatable promoter, dominant negative mutants of Rac1 and Cdc42 were expressed in a human HRas-transformed, tumor derived fibroblast cell line. These cells were used to determine the roles of Rac1 and/or Cdc42 proteins in maintaining HRas-induced transformed phenotypes. Similarly, constitutively active mutants were expressed in a non-transformed human fibroblast cell strain to evaluate their potential to induce malignant transformation. Affymetrix GeneChip arrays were used for transcriptome analyses, and observed expression differences were subsequently validated using protein assays. Results Expression of dominant negative Rac1 and/or Cdc42 significantly altered transformed phenotypes of HRas malignantly transformed human fibroblasts. In contrast, expression of constitutively active mutants of Rac1 or Cdc42 was not sufficient to induce malignant transformation. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of 29 genes was dependent on Rac1 and Cdc42, many of which are known to play a role in cancer. The dependence of two such genes, uPA and VEGF was further validated in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conclusion(s The results presented here indicate that expression of both Rac1 and Cdc42 is necessary for maintaining several transformed phenotypes in oncogenic HRas

  15. Cell reprogramming by 3D bioprinting of human fibroblasts in polyurethane hydrogel for fabrication of neural-like constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lin; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2018-04-01

    3D bioprinting is a technique which enables the direct printing of biodegradable materials with cells into 3D tissue. So far there is no cell reprogramming in situ performed with the 3D bioprinting process. Forkhead box D3 (FoxD3) is a transcription factor and neural crest marker, which was reported to reprogram human fibroblasts into neural crest stem-like cells. In this study, we synthesized a new biodegradable thermo-responsive waterborne polyurethane (PU) gel as a bioink. FoxD3 plasmids and human fibroblasts were co-extruded with the PU hydrogel through the syringe needle tip for cell reprogramming. The rheological properties of the PU hydrogel including the modulus, gelation time, and shear thinning were optimized for the transfection effect of FoxD3 in situ. The corresponding shear rate and shear stress were examined. Results showed that human fibroblasts could be reprogrammed into neural crest stem-like cells with high cell viability during the extrusion process under an average shear stress ∼190 Pa. We further translated the method to the extrusion-based 3D bioprinting, and demonstrated that human fibroblasts co-printed with FoxD3 in the thermo-responsive PU hydrogel could be reprogrammed and differentiated into a neural-tissue like construct at 14 days after induction. The neural-like tissue construct produced by 3D bioprinting from human fibroblasts may be applied to personalized drug screening or neuroregeneration. There is no study so far on cell reprogramming in situ with 3D bioprinting. In this manuscript, a new thermoresponsive polyurethane bioink was developed and employed to deliver FoxD3 plasmid into human fibroblasts by the extrusion-based bioprinting. When the polyurethane gel was extruded through the syringe tip, the shear stress generated may have caused the transient membrane permeability for transfection. The shear stress was optimized for transfection in situ by 3D bioprinting. We demonstrated that human fibroblasts could be

  16. Effect of Cyclosporin A and Angiotensin II on cytosolic calcium levels in primary human gingival fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajitkumar Supraja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the effect of Cyclosporin A (CsA and angiotensin II (Ang II on cytosolic calcium levels in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs. Materials and Methods: Healthy gingival samples from six volunteers were obtained, and primary HGFs were cultured. Cell viability and proliferation assay were performed to identify the ideal concentrations of CsA and Ang II. Cytosolic calcium levels in cultured gingival fibroblasts treated with CsA and Ang II were studied using colorimetric assay, confocal and fluorescence imaging. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS software and GraphPad Prism. Results: Higher levels of cytosolic levels were evident in cells treated with CsA and Ang II when compared to control group and was statistically significant (P < 0.05 in both colorimetric assay and confocal imaging. Fluorescent images of the cultured HGFs revealed the same. Conclusion: Thus calcium being a key player in major cellular functions, plays a major role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced gingival overgrowth.

  17. Donor's age and replicative senescence favour the in-vitro mineralization potential of human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraldi, Federica; Bartolomeo, Angelica; Di Bari, Caterina; Cocconi, Andrea; Quaglino, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Aberrant mineralization of soft connective tissues (ectopic calcification) may occur as a frequent age-related complication. Still, it remains unclear the role of mesenchymal cell donor's age and of replicative senescence on ectopic calcification. Therefore, the ability of cells to deposit in-vitro hydroxyapatite crystals and the expression of progressive ankylosis protein homolog (ANKH), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), tissue non specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and osteopontin (OPN) have been evaluated in human dermal fibroblasts derived from neonatal (nHDF) and adult (aHDF) donors (ex-vivo ageing model) or at low and high cumulative population doublings (CPD) up to replicative senescence (in-vitro ageing model). This study demonstrates that: 1) replicative senescence favours hydroxyapatite formation in cultured fibroblasts; 2) donor's age acts as a major modulator of the mineralizing potential of HDF, since nHDF are less prone than aHDF to induce calcification; 3) donor's age and replicative senescence play in concert synergistically increasing the calcification process; 4) the ANKH+ENPP1/TNAP ratio, being crucial for pyrophosphate/inorganic phosphate balance, is greatly influenced by donor's age, as well as by replicative senescence, and regulates mineral deposition; 5) OPN is only modulated by replicative senescence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. [Determination of the healing effect of Piper aduncum (spiked pepper or matico) on human fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paco, Karen; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Lopez-Ilasaca, Marco; Aguilar, José L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the healing effect of a Piper aduncum ethanol-water extract on an adult human dermal fibroblast cell line (hDFa). After obtaining the extract via solid-liquid extraction, concentration, and lyophilization, extract proteins were purified using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, identified using tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides, and analyzed using MALDI-TOF-TOF on an ABSciex4800 mass spectrometer. Half maximum effective concentration values (EC50), half maximum inhibiting concentration (IC50), and percentages of cell proliferation were determined using tetrazolium salt assays. Cell migration was evaluated using a "scratch assay". Growth factor expression in cells was analyzed via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Against the hDFa cell line, the extract had an IC50 of 200 μg/mL and EC50 of 103.5 µg/mL. In the proliferation assay, protein K2 (obtained from the extract) exhibited increased proliferative activity relative to other treatments (1 µg/mL); this agent also exhibited increased activity (50 µg/mL) in the fibroblast migration assay.Furthermore, the relative expression of platelet-derived growth factor increased by 8.6-fold in the presence of K2 protein relative to the control. The hydroethanolic extract of Piper aduncum and its component proteins increased the proliferation and migration of hDFa and increased the expression of growth factors involved in the healing process.

  19. Optimization of Phenolic Compounds Extraction from Flax Shives and Their Effect on Human Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Czemplik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the most effective technique for extraction of phenolics present in flax shives and to assess their effect on human fibroblasts. Flax shives are by-products of fibre separation, but they were found to be a rich source of phenolic compounds and thus might have application potential. It was found that the optimal procedure for extraction of phenolics was hydrolysis enhanced by the ultrasound with NaOH for 24 h at 65°C and subsequent extraction with ethyl acetate. The influence of the flax shives extract on fibroblast growth and viability was assessed using the MTT and SRB tests. Moreover, the influence of flax shives extract on the extracellular matrix remodelling process was verified. The 20% increase of the viability was observed upon flax shives extract treatment and the decrease of mRNA collagen genes, an increase of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression, and reduction in levels of interleukin 6, interleukin 10, and suppressor of cytokinin signaling 1 mRNA were observed. Alterations in MCP-1 mRNA levels were dependent on flax shives extract concentration. Thus, we suggested the possible application of flax shives extract in the wound healing process.

  20. Grooved surface topography alters matrix-metalloproteinase production by human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydone, Alistair S; Dominic Meek, R M [Department of Orthopaedics, Southern General Hospital, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow G51 4TF (United Kingdom); Dalby, Matthew J; Berry, Catherine C; McNamara, Laura E, E-mail: alibrydone@gmail.com [Centre for Cell Engineering, Joseph Black Building, Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is an essential physiological process in which matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) have a key role. Manipulating the manner in which cells produce MMPs and ECMs may enable the creation of a desired tissue type, i.e. effect repair, or the prevention of tissue invasion (e.g. metastasis). The aim of this project was to determine if culturing fibroblasts on grooved topography altered collagen deposition or MMP production. Human fibroblasts were seeded on planar or grooved polycaprolactone substrates (grooves were 12.5 {mu}m wide with varying depths of 240 nm, 540 nm or 2300 nm). Cell behaviour and collagen production were studied using fluorescence microscopy and the spent culture medium was assessed using gel zymography to detect MMPs. Total collagen deposition was high on the 240 nm deep grooves, but decreased as the groove depth increased, i.e. as cell contact guidance decreased. There was an increase in gelatinase on the 2300 nm deep grooved topography and there was a difference in the temporal expression of MMP-3 observed on the planar surface compared to the 540 nm and 2300 nm topographies. These results show that topography can alter collagen and MMP production. A fuller understanding of these processes may permit the design of surfaces tailored to tissue regeneration e.g. tendon repair.

  1. Grooved surface topography alters matrix-metalloproteinase production by human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydone, Alistair S; Dominic Meek, R M; Dalby, Matthew J; Berry, Catherine C; McNamara, Laura E

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is an essential physiological process in which matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) have a key role. Manipulating the manner in which cells produce MMPs and ECMs may enable the creation of a desired tissue type, i.e. effect repair, or the prevention of tissue invasion (e.g. metastasis). The aim of this project was to determine if culturing fibroblasts on grooved topography altered collagen deposition or MMP production. Human fibroblasts were seeded on planar or grooved polycaprolactone substrates (grooves were 12.5 μm wide with varying depths of 240 nm, 540 nm or 2300 nm). Cell behaviour and collagen production were studied using fluorescence microscopy and the spent culture medium was assessed using gel zymography to detect MMPs. Total collagen deposition was high on the 240 nm deep grooves, but decreased as the groove depth increased, i.e. as cell contact guidance decreased. There was an increase in gelatinase on the 2300 nm deep grooved topography and there was a difference in the temporal expression of MMP-3 observed on the planar surface compared to the 540 nm and 2300 nm topographies. These results show that topography can alter collagen and MMP production. A fuller understanding of these processes may permit the design of surfaces tailored to tissue regeneration e.g. tendon repair.

  2. Human diploid fibroblasts have receptors for the globular domain of C1Q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordin, S.; Page, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors showed that mass cultures of fibroblasts grown from gingival explants in DB medium with 10% human serum are enriched in a phenotype that binds C1q with an affinity much higher than the rest of the population. Because of potential biologic importance of C1q receptors, the authors studied whether the interaction between C1q and this phenotype was mediated by the globular or collagenous domains of the molecule. Globular fragments were prepared by digesting C1q with collagenase, and collagenous fragments obtained after pepsin treatment. C1q binding on cells in suspension was determined by reaction with 125 I-C1q as reported. Competition experiments were performed under conditions in which intact 125 I-C1q binding saturated all available receptors. The results showed that collagenous fragments inhibited 20% of the 125 I-C1q binding to high affinity receptors, whereas inhibition by globular fragments was 70%. Unlabeled intact C1q and collagen type 1 were used as controls, and inhibited 92% and 17% of C1q binding, respectively. These studies show that C1q interacts with the fibroblast phenotype expressing high affinity receptors through its globular domain. The authors suggest that at sites of trauma, native C1 may bind to the surface of these cells via the globular domain of C1q, and that this unique phenotype may play an important role in tissue repair

  3. Knockdown of MBP-1 in human foreskin fibroblasts induces p53-p21 dependent senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asish K Ghosh

    Full Text Available MBP-1 acts as a general transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of MBP-1 induces cell death in a number of cancer cells and regresses tumor growth. However, the function of endogenous MBP-1 in normal cell growth regulation remains unknown. To unravel the role of endogenous MBP-1, we knocked down MBP-1 expression in primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF by RNA interference. Knockdown of MBP-1 in HFF (HFF-MBPsi-4 resulted in an induction of premature senescence, displayed flattened cell morphology, and increased senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity. FACS analysis of HFF-MBPsi-4 revealed accumulation of a high number of cells in the G1-phase. A significant upregulation of cyclin D1 and reduction of cyclin A was detected in HFF-MBPsi-4 as compared to control HFF. Senescent fibroblasts exhibited enhanced expression of phosphorylated and acetylated p53, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. Further analysis suggested that promyolocytic leukemia protein (PML bodies are dramatically increased in HFF-MBPsi-4. Together, these results demonstrated that knockdown of endogenous MBP-1 is involved in cellular senescence of HFF through p53-p21 pathway.

  4. Attachment and growth behaviour of human gingival fibroblasts on titanium and zirconia ceramic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pae, Ahran; Kim, Hyeong-Seob; Woo, Yi-Hyung; Lee, Heesu; Kwon, Yong-Dae

    2009-01-01

    The attachment, growth behaviour and the genetic effect of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) cultured on titanium and different zirconia surfaces were investigated. HGF cells were cultured on (1) titanium discs with a machined surface, (2) yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) with a smooth surface and (3) Y-TZP with 100 μm grooves. The cell proliferation activity was evaluated through a MTT assay at 24 h and 48 h, and the cell morphology was examined by SEM. The mRNA expression of integrin-β1, type I and III collagen, laminin and fibronectin in HGF were evaluated by RT-PCR after 24 h. From the MTT assay, the mean optical density values for the titanium and grooved zirconia surfaces after 48 h of HGF adhesion were greater than the values obtained for the smooth zirconia surfaces. SEM images showed that more cells were attached to the grooves, and the cells appeared to follow the direction of the grooves. The results of RT-PCR suggest that all groups showed comparable fibroblast-specific gene expression. A zirconia ceramic surface with grooves showed biological responses that were comparable to those obtained with HGF on a titanium surface.

  5. Autoradiographic detection of diphtheria toxin resistant mutants in human diploid fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.S.; Singh, B.

    1985-01-01

    An autoradiographic procedure for the detection of diphtheria toxin (DT) resistant (Dip/sub R/) mutants in human diploid fibroblast (HDF) cells has been developed. The assay is based on the observation that when HDFs from confluent cultures are seeded in medium containing 0.01 flocculating units/ml or higher concentration of DT, protein synthesis in sensitive cells is severely inhibited by 4-6 hr. If at this or later time, a radiolabeled protein precursor (eg, 3 H-leucine) is added to the culture, it is almost exclusively incorporated into the resistant cells, which are then readily identified by autoradiography. These studies provide strong evidence that the labeled cells identified by autoradiography are bona fide Dip/sub R/ mutants. The detection of Dip/sub R/ cells by autoradiography is apparently not affected by the presence of the sensitive cells in the mixtures. The spontaneous frequency of Dip/sub R/ cells in HDFs has been found to be in the range of 1-5 x 10 -6 , and this increases in a dose dependent manner upon treatment with the mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate. These results indicate that the autoradiographic assay could be used for quantitative mutagenesis. Since the autoradiographic assay does not depend on cell division, it may prove useful in estimating the incidence of pre-existing mutations in cell populations that either do not divide or have very limited growth potential (eg, lymphocytes, muscle cells, neurons, senescent fibroblasts, etc.)

  6. Resveratrol Prevents High Fluence Red Light-Emitting Diode Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoinhibition of Human Skin Fibroblast Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mamalis

    Full Text Available Skin fibrosis is a significant medical problem that leads to a functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial impact on quality-of-life. Light-emitting diode-generated 633-nm red light (LED-RL is part of the visible light spectrum that is not known to cause DNA damage and is considered a safe, non-invasive, inexpensive, and portable potential alternative to ultraviolet phototherapy that may change the treatment paradigm of fibrotic skin disease.The goal of our study was to investigate the how reactive oxygen species (ROS free radicals generated by high fluence LED-RL inhibit the migration of skin fibroblasts, the main cell type involved in skin fibrosis. Fibroblast migration speed is increased in skin fibrosis, and we studied cellular migration speed of cultured human skin fibroblasts as a surrogate measure of high fluence LED-RL effect on fibroblast function. To ascertain the inhibitory role of LED-RL generated ROS on migration speed, we hypothesized that resveratrol, a potent antioxidant, could prevent the photoinhibitory effects of high fluence LED-RL on fibroblast migration speed.High fluence LED-RL generated ROS were measured by flow cytometry analysis using dihydrorhodamine (DHR. For purposes of comparison, we assessed the effects of ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on fibroblast migration speed and the ability of resveratrol, a well known antioxidant, to prevent LED-RL and H2O2 generated ROS-associated changes in fibroblast migration speed. To determine whether resveratrol could prevent the high fluence LED-RL ROS-mediated photoinhibition of human skin fibroblast migration, treated cells were incubated with resveratrol at concentrations of 0.0001% and 0.001% for 24 hours, irradiated with high fluences LED-RL of 480, 640, and 800 J/cm2.High fluence LED-RL increases intracellular fibroblast ROS and decreases fibroblast migration speed. LED-RL at 480, 640 and 800 J/cm2 increased ROS levels to 132.8%, 151.0%, and 158.4% relative to matched

  7. HEK293 in cell biology and cancer research: phenotype, karyotype, tumorigenicity, and stress-induced genome-phenotype evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, A A; Dmitrenko, V V

    2015-09-15

    293 cell line (widely known as the Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells) and its derivatives were the most used cells after HeLa in cell biology studies and after CHO in biotechnology as a vehicle for the production of adenoviral vaccines and recombinant proteins, for analysis of the neuronal synapse formation, in electrophysiology and neuropharmacology. Despite the historically long-term productive exploitation, the origin, phenotype, karyotype, and tumorigenicity of 293 cells are still debated. 293 cells were considered the kidney epithelial cells or even fibroblasts. However, 293 cells demonstrate no evident tissue-specific gene expression signature and express the markers of renal progenitor cells, neuronal cells and adrenal gland. This complicates efforts to reveal the authentic cell type/tissue of origin. On the other hand, the potential to propagate the highly neurotropic viruses, inducible synaptogenesis, functionality of the endogenous neuron-specific voltage-gated channels, and response to the diverse agonists implicated in neuronal signaling give credibility to consider 293 cells of neuronal lineage phenotype. The compound phenotype of 293 cells can be due to heterogeneous, unstable karyotype. The mean chromosome number and chromosome aberrations differ between 293 cells and derivatives as well as between 293 cells from the different cell banks/labs. 293 cells are tumorigenic, whereas acute changes of expression of the cancer-associated genes aggravate tumorigenicity by promoting chromosome instability. Importantly, the procedure of a stable empty vector transfection can also impact karyotype and phenotype. The discussed issues caution against misinterpretations and pitfalls during the different experimental manipulations with 293 cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypoxia-Induced Collagen Synthesis of Human Lung Fibroblasts by Activating the Angiotensin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The exact molecular mechanism that mediates hypoxia-induced pulmonary fibrosis needs to be further clarified. The aim of this study was to explore the effect and underlying mechanism of angiotensin II (Ang II on collagen synthesis in hypoxic human lung fibroblast (HLF cells. The HLF-1 cell line was used for in vitro studies. Angiotensinogen (AGT, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R expression levels in human lung fibroblasts were analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR after hypoxic treatment. Additionally, the collagen type I (Col-I, AT1R and nuclear factor κappaB (NF-κB protein expression levels were detected using Western blot analysis, and NF-κB nuclear translocation was measured using immunofluorescence localization analysis. Ang II levels in HLF-1 cells were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. We found that hypoxia increased Col-I mRNA and protein expression in HLF-1 cells, and this effect could be inhibited by an AT1R or AT2R inhibitor. The levels of NF-κB, RAS components and Ang II production in HLF-1 cells were significantly increased after the hypoxia exposure. Hypoxia or Ang II increased NF-κB-p50 protein expression in HLF-1 cells, and the special effect could be inhibited by telmisartan (TST, an AT1R inhibitor, and partially inhibited by PD123319, an AT2R inhibitor. Importantly, hypoxia-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation could be nearly completely inhibited by an AT1R or AT2R inhibitor. Furthermore pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, a NF-κB blocker, abolished the expression of hypoxia-induced AT1R and Col-I in HLF-1 cells. Our results indicate that Ang II-mediated NF-κB signalling via ATR is involved in hypoxia-induced collagen synthesis in human lung fibroblasts.

  9. The activation of the Sox2 RR2 pluripotency transcriptional reporter in human breast cancer cell lines is dynamic and labels cells with higher tumorigenic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel eIglesias

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The striking similarity displayed at the mechanistic level between tumorigenesis and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells and the fact that genes and pathways relevant for embryonic development are reactivated during tumor progression highlights the link between pluripotency and cancer. Based on these observations we tested whether it is possible to use a pluripotency-associated transcriptional reporter, whose activation is driven by the SRR2 enhancer from the Sox2 gene promoter (named S4+ reporter, to isolate cancer stem cells from breast cancer cell lines. The S4+ pluripotency transcriptional reporter allows the isolation of cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and its activation was switched on and off in the cell lines studied, reflecting a plastic cellular process. Microarray analysis comparing the populations in which the reporter construct is active vs. inactive showed that positive cells expressed higher mRNA levels of cytokines (IL-8, IL-6, TNF and genes (such as ATF3, SNAI2, KLF6 previously related with the cancer stem cell phenotype in breast cancer.

  10. Inhibition of aromatase activity by methyl sulfonyl PCB metabolites in primary culture of human mammary fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M. van den; Heneweer, M.; Geest, M. de; Sanderson, T. [Inst. for Risk Assessment Sciences and Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Jong, P. de [St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Methyl sulfonyl PCB metabolites (MeSO2-PCBs) are persistent contaminants and are ubiquitously present in humans and the environment. Lipophilicity of MeSO2- PCB metabolites is similar to the parent compounds and they have been detected in human milk, adipose, liver and lung tissue. 4- MeSO2-PCB-149 is the most abundant PCB metabolite in human adipose tissue and milk at a level of 1.5 ng/g lipids. Human blood concentration of 4-MeSO2-PCB-149 is approximately 0.03 nM. 3- MeSO2-PCB-101 is the predominant PCB metabolite in muscle and blubber in wildlife, such as otter, mink and grey seal. In the environment, they have been linked to chronic and reproductive toxicity in exposed mink. Additionaly, some MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs have been shown to be glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonists. Since approximately 60% of all breast tumors are estrogen responsive, exposure to compounds that are able to alter estrogen synthesis through interference with the aromatase enzyme, can lead to changes in estrogen levels and possibly to accelerated or inhibit breast tumor growth. Therefore, it is important to identify exogenous compounds that can alter aromatase activity in addition to those compounds which have direct interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER). Aromatase (CYP19) comprises the ubiquitous flavoprotein, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and a unique cytochrome P450 that is exclusively expressed in estrogen producing cells. Previous studies have revealed that expression of the aromatase gene is regulated in a species- and tissue specific manner. In healthy breast tissue, the predominantly active aromatase promoter region I.4 is regulated by glucocorticoids and class I cytokines. Therefore, it is important to investigate possible aromatase inhibiting properties of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs (as anti glucocorticoids?) in relevant human tissues. We used primary human mammary fibroblasts because of their role in breast cancer development. We compared the results in primary fibroblasts with

  11. DNA fragmentation and cytotoxicity by recombinant human tumor necrosis factor in L929 fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, T.; Kuwabara, M.; Koide, F.

    1992-01-01

    Induction of cell DNA fragmentation by treatment of recombinant human Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (rhTNF alpha) was examined by using mouse L929 cells derived from mouse fibroblast cells. The amount of DNA fragments derived from rhTNF alpha-treated cells, detected by alkaline elution technique, was smaller than that derived from X-irradiated cells. The rhTNF alpha caused the DNA fragmentation depending on its incubation time and concentration. The DNA damage caused by rhTNF alpha treatment correlated with its cytotoxicity. This result suggested that the DNA fragmentation is one of causes of cell death. The treatment with proteinase K of DNA obtained from rhTNF alpha-treated cells did not increase the amount of DNA fragmentation, which indicates that rhTNF alpha causes DNA-fragmentation but not DNA-protein cross-linking

  12. Unscheduled synthesis of DNA and poly(ADP-ribose) in human fibroblasts following DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, L.S.; Jacobson, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis has been measured in human fibroblasts under conditions of reduced rates of conversion of NAD to poly)ADP-ribose). Cells heterozygous for the xeroderma pigmentosum genotype showed normal rates of uv induced unscheduled DNA synthesis under conditions in which the rate of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis was one-half the rate of normal cells. The addition of theophylline, a potent inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, to the culture medium of normal cells blocked over 90% of the conversion of NAD to poly(ADP-ribose) following treatment with uv or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitro-soguanidine but did not affect the rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis

  13. Cellular characterization of human dermal fibroblasts, focus on mitochondria and maple syrup urine disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Guerra, Paula

    Cell phenotyping of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from patients with inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) provide invaluable information for diagnosis, disease aetiology, predicting prognosis, and monitoring of treatments. HDFs possess the genetic composition of patients and many pathways...... and functions are expressed in HDFs’ culture environment. Studies of molecular disease mechanisms often point to the involvement of mitochondria. Mitochondria are involved in the regulation of cell cycle and programmed cell death as well as cellular stress responses because they are the main producers...... of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Advances in technology help the study of complex situations with large amount of data, like cellular phenotyping in cell culture. Image cytometry is an emerging technique that combines morphological information and fluorescent intensity data from single cells. We defined...

  14. Characterization and human gingival fibroblasts biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite/PMMA nanocomposites for provisional dental implant restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingchao; Liao, Juan; Mo, Anchun; Li, Yubao; Li, Jidong; Wang, Xuejiang

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine nHA/PMMA composites (H/P) in an optimal ratio with improved cytocompatibility as well as valid physical properties for provisional dental implant restoration. 20 wt.%, 30 wt.%, 40 wt.% and 50 wt.% H/P were developed and characterized using XPS, bending strength test and SEM. Human gingival fibroblasts cultured in extracts or directly on sample discs were investigated by fluorescent staining and MTT assay. Chemical integration in nHA/PMMA interface was indicated by XPS. Typical fusiform cells with adhesion spots were detected on H/P discs. MTT results also indicated higher cell viability in 30 wt.% and 40 wt.% H/P discs ( P provisional fixed crowns (PFC) is 0.4:1.

  15. In vitro toxicity of formocresol, ferric sulphate, and grey MTA on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj Ali, S N; Al-Jundi, S H; Ditto, D J

    2015-02-01

    This was to assess and compare the in vitro toxicity of formocresol, ferric sulphate and MTA on cultured human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. PDL cells were obtained from sound first permanent molars and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. PDL cells were subjected to different concentrations of formocresol, ferric sulphate, and grey MTA for 24, 48, and 72 h at 37 °C. Cells that were not exposed to the tested materials served as the negative control. In vitro toxicity was assessed using MTT assay. Statistical analysis of data was accomplished using ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests (pformocresol>ferric sulphate>grey MTA. Only grey MTA had comparable cell viability to the negative control, the other tested materials were significantly inferior at the three exposure periods (pformocresol. However, considering MTA's unavailability and high price in Jordan, ferric sulphate may be the best alternative to formocresol in pulpotomy of primary teeth.

  16. Fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulates adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Shimotsuma, Ayuko; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have demonstrated a capacity for differentiating into a variety of lineages, including bone, cartilage, or fat, depending on the inducing stimuli and specific growth and factors. It is acknowledged that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) promotes chondrogenic and inhibits osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, but thorough investigations of its effects on adipogenic differentiation are lacking. In this study, we demonstrate at the cellular and molecular levels the effect of FGF-2 on adipogenic differentiation of ASCs, as induced by an adipogenic hormonal cocktail consisting of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), dexamethasone, insulin, and indomethacin. FGF-2 significantly enhances the adipogenic differentiation of human ASCs. Furthermore, in cultures receiving FGF-2 before adipogenic induction, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, was upregulated. The results of FGF-2 supplementation suggest the potential applications of FGF-2 and ASCs in adipose tissue regeneration

  17. Transient Gene and miRNA Expression Profile Changes of Confluent Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity or an altered gravity environment from the static 1 gravitational constant has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies conducted in space or using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of the cells. Whether non-dividing cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space has not been specifically addressed. In an experiment conducted on the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 days for investigations of gene and miRNA (microRNA) expression profile changes in these cells. A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework for tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing and other functions. Results of the experiment showed that on Day 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly even though they were confluent, as measured by the expression of the protein Ki-67 positive cells, and the cells in space grew slightly faster. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF(sub kappa)B (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and other growth related pathways involving HGF and VEGF in the flown cells. On Day 14 when the cells were mostly non-dividing, the gene and miRNA expression profiles between the flight and ground samples were indistinguishable. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the Day 3 samples in respect to Day 14 revealed that most of the changes observed on Day 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeleton changes by immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for alpha-tubulin showed no difference between the flight and ground samples. Results of our study suggest that in true non-dividing human fibroblast cells, microgravity in

  18. Butyrate down regulates BCL-XL and sensitizes human fibroblasts to radiation and chemotherapy induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Diana H.; Ljungman, Mats; Zhang Fenfen; Chen Feng; McLaughlin, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Butyrate is a short chain fatty acid that has been implicated in the induction of cell cycle arrest, cell differentiation and apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if butyrate treatment sensitizes cells to radiation or chemotherapy induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Normal neonatal human diploid fibroblasts were used throughout this study. Apoptosis was scored and quantified using three different methods. First, cell morphology using propidium iodide and fluorescence microscopy was used to qualitatively determine apoptosis and to quantify the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis. Second, apoptosis induced DNA degradation was scored by quantifying the amount of cells appearing in a sub-G1 peak using fixed and PI-stained cells and flow cytometry. Third, apoptosis-induced DNA degradation was examined by using an assay involving direct lysis of cells in the wells of agarose gels followed by conventional gel electrophoresis. Western blotting was used to quantify the cellular levels of the apoptosis regulators, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bax. Results: Human diploid fibroblasts, which were resistant to radiation induced apoptosis, were found to undergo massive apoptosis when radiation was combined with butyrate treatment. Sensitization was obtained when butyrate was added before or after radiation although the combination of both pre and post-treatment was the most effective. Butyrate was also found to enhance UV light and cisplatin-induced apoptosis. These findings correlated with a reduction of the apoptosis antagonist Bcl-XL. Bcl-XL levels significantly dropped in a time and dose dependent manner. In addition, butyrate effectively blocked UV-induced accumulation of p53. Conclusion: Our results suggest that butyrate may be an attractive agent to use in combination with radiation or chemotherapy to lower the apoptotic threshold of tumor cells, regardless of the p53 status of the tumor cells

  19. The anti-oxidant effects of melatonin derivatives on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiphatwatcharaded, Chawapon; Puthongking, Ploenthip; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Johns, Nutjaree Pratheepawanit; Sakolchai, Sumon; Mahakunakorn, Pramote

    2017-07-01

    Aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the anti-oxidant activity of indole ring modified melatonin derivatives as compared with melatonin in primary human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. Anti-oxidant activity of melatonin (MLT), acetyl-melatonin (AMLT) and benzoyl-melatonin (BMLT) was evaluated by5 standard methods as follows: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP); superoxide anion scavenging; nitric oxide (NO) scavenging; and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs).Evaluation of cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and protectivity against H 2 O 2 induced cellular damage was performed via MTT assay in HGF cells. According to the standard anti-oxidant assays, the antioxidant power of AMLT and BMLT were slightly less than MLT in FRAP and superoxide scavenging assays. In the NO scavenging and TBARs assays, BMLT and AMLT were more potent than MLT, whereas DPPH assays demonstrated that MLT was more potent than others. BMLT and AMLT had more potent anti-oxidant and protective activities against H 2 O 2 in HGF cells as compared with MLT. MLT derivatives demonstrated different anti-oxidant activities as compared with MLT, depending upon assays. These findings imply that N-indole substitution of MLT may help to improve hydrogen atom transfer to free radicals but electron transfer property is slightly decreased. Anti-oxidant and protective effects of melatonin derivatives (AMLT and BMLT) on human gingival fibroblasts imply the potential use of these molecules as alternative therapeutics for chronic inflammatory oral diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SORBS2 and TLR3 induce premature senescence in primary human fibroblasts and keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesenfeld, Melanie; Mosig, Sandy; Funke, Harald; Jansen, Lars; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Dürst, Matthias; Backsch, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Genetic aberrations are required for the progression of HPV-induced cervical precancers. A prerequisite for clonal expansion of cancer cells is unlimited proliferative capacity. In a cell culture model for cervical carcinogenesis loss of genes located on chromosome 4q35→qter and chromosome 10p14-p15 were found to be associated with escape from senescence. Moreover, by LOH and I-FISH analyses a higher frequency of allele loss of these regions was also observed in cervical carcinomas as compared to CIN3. The aim of this study was to identify candidate senescence-related genes located on chromosome 4q35→qter and chromosome 10p14-p15 which may contribute to clonal expansion at the transition of CIN3 to cancer. Microarray expression analyses were used to identify candidate genes down-regulated in cervical carcinomas as compared to CIN3. In order to relate these genes with the process of senescence their respective cDNAs were overexpressed in HPV16-immortalized keratinocytes as well as in primary human fibroblasts and keratinocytes using lentivirus mediated gene transduction. Overall fifteen genes located on chromosome 4q35→qter and chromosome 10p14-p15 were identified. Ten of these genes could be validated in biopsies by RT-PCR. Of interest is the novel finding that SORBS2 and TLR3 can induce senescence in primary human fibroblasts and keratinocytes but not in HPV-immortalized cell lines. Intriguingly, the endogenous expression of both genes increases during finite passaging of primary keratinocytes in vitro. The relevance of the genes SORBS2 and TLR3 in the process of cellular senescence warrants further investigation. In ongoing experiments we are investigating whether this increase in gene expression is also characteristic of replicative senescence

  1. Clarithromycin attenuates IL-13–induced periostin production in human lung fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosaku Komiya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periostin is a biomarker indicating the presence of type 2 inflammation and submucosal fibrosis; serum periostin levels have been associated with asthma severity. Macrolides have immunomodulatory effects and are considered a potential therapy for patients with severe asthma. Therefore, we investigated whether macrolides can also modulate pulmonary periostin production. Methods Using quantitative PCR and ELISA, we measured periostin production in human lung fibroblasts stimulated by interleukin-13 (IL-13 in the presence of two 14-member–ring macrolides—clarithromycin or erythromycin—or a 16-member–ring macrolide, josamycin. Phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 6 (STAT6, downstream of IL-13 signaling, was evaluated by Western blotting. Changes in global gene expression profile induced by IL-13 and/or clarithromycin were assessed by DNA microarray analysis. Results Clarithromycin and erythromycin, but not josamycin, inhibited IL-13–stimulated periostin production. The inhibitory effects of clarithromycin were stronger than those of erythromycin. Clarithromycin significantly attenuated STAT6 phosphorylation induced by IL-13. Global gene expression analyses demonstrated that IL-13 increased mRNA expression of 454 genes more than 4-fold, while decreasing its expression in 390 of these genes (85.9%, mainly “extracellular,” “plasma membrane,” or “defense response” genes. On the other hand, clarithromycin suppressed 9.8% of the genes in the absence of IL-13. Clarithromycin primarily attenuated the gene expression of extracellular matrix protein, including periostin, especially after IL-13. Conclusions Clarithromycin suppressed IL-13–induced periostin production in human lung fibroblasts, in part by inhibiting STAT6 phosphorylation. This suggests a novel mechanism of the immunomodulatory effect of clarithromycin in asthmatic airway inflammation and fibrosis.

  2. The effect of exposure duration of self etch dentin bonding on the toxicity of human gingival fibroblast of cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lestari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Self etch dentin bonding created to make light easily activate the application of composite resin on tooth surface. The monomer content has acid effect that could irritate tooth pulp. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light exposure duration of self etch dentin bonding on toxicity of human gingival fibroblast of cell culture by MTT assay. Self etch dentin bonding was used as on experimental unit and the sample was exposed by visible light curing in different duration: 10, 20, 30 seconds and immerged in artificial saliva in pH 7 for 24 hours. 100 µl artificial saliva was exposed to human gingival fibroblast of cell culture 20.000 cells/100 µl RPMI for 24 hours. Toxicity was evaluated by MTT assay, optical density was measured using 550 nm spectrophotometer. The data was analyzed using Kruskal Wallis in 5% degree of significance. The result showed that increasing exposure duration (10, 20, 30 seconds of self etch dentin bonding will reduce the toxicity of human gingival fibroblast of cell culture. It is concluded that 30 seconds-exposure of self etch dentin bonding will reduce the toxicity of human gingival fibroblast of cell culture.

  3. Extracellular Matrix Modulates Morphology, Growth, Oxidative Stress Response and Functionality of Human Skin Fibroblasts during Aging In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter; Rattan, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    rejuvenation of serially passaged human facial skin fibroblasts was possible in pre-senescent middle-aged cells, but not in fully senescent late passage cells. ECM from young cells improved the appearance, viability, stress tolerance and wound healing ability of skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, young ECM......The Hayflick system of cellular aging and replicative senescence in vitro has been used widely in both basic and applied research in biogerontology. The state of replicative senescence is generally considered to be irreversible, but is modifiable by genetic and environmental manipulations. Some...... the response of cells both for mechanistic understanding of cellular senescence and while testing for potential aging interventions....

  4. Niemann-Pick C2 protein regulates sterol transport between plasma membrane and late endosomes in human fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berzina, Zane; Solanko, Lukasz M.; Mehadi, Ahmed S.

    2018-01-01

    /LYSs is currently unknown. We show that the close cholesterol analog dehydroergosterol (DHE), when delivered to the plasma membrane (PM) accumulates in LE/LYSs of human fibroblasts lacking functional NPC2. We measured two different time scales of sterol diffusion; while DHE rich LE/LYSs moved by slow anomalous...... but not of DHE is reduced 10-fold in disease fibroblasts compared to control cells. Internalized NPC2 rescued the sterol storage phenotype and strongly expanded the dynamic sterol pool seen in FRAP experiments. Together, our study shows that cholesterol esterification and trafficking of sterols between the PM...

  5. Fibroblasts isolated from human middle turbinate mucosa cause neural progenitor cells to differentiate into glial lineage cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjia Wu

    Full Text Available Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs is a potential therapy for repair of spinal cord injury (SCI. Autologous transplantation of OECs has been reported in clinical trials. However, it is still controversial whether purified OECs or olfactory mucosa containing OECs, fibroblasts and other cells should be used for transplantation. OECs and fibroblasts were isolated from olfactory mucosa of the middle turbinate from seven patients. The percentage of OECs with p75(NTR+ and GFAP(+ ranged from 9.2% to 73.2%. Fibroblasts were purified and co-cultured with normal human neural progenitors (NHNPs. Based on immunocytochemical labeling, NHNPs were induced into glial lineage cells when they were co-cultured with the mucosal fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that OECs can be isolated from the mucosa of the middle turbinate bone as well as from the dorsal nasal septum and superior turbinates, which are the typical sites for harvesting OECs. Transplantation of olfactory mucosa containing fibroblasts into the central nervous system (CNS needs to be further investigated before translation to clinical application.

  6. Microarray analysis of the transcriptional response to single or multiple doses of ionizing radiation in human subcutaneous fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødningen, Olaug Kristin; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan

    2005-01-01

    cell lines after various ionizing radiation (IR) schemes in order to provide information on potential targets for prevention and to suggest candidate genes for SNP association studies aimed at predicting individual risk of radiation-induced morbidity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty different human......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transcriptional profiling of fibroblasts derived from breast cancer patients might improve our understanding of subcutaneous radiation-induced fibrosis. The aim of this study was to get a comprehensive overview of the changes in gene expression in subcutaneous fibroblast...... fibroblast cell lines were included in the study, and two different radiation schemes; single dose experiments with 3.5 Gy or fractionated with 3 x 3.5 Gy. Expression analyses were performed on unexposed and exposed cells after different time points. The IR response was analyzed using the statistical method...

  7. CD34+ cells in human intestine are fibroblasts adjacent to, but distinct from, interstitial cells of Cajal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, J M; Rumessen, J J; De Laet, M H

    1999-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) generate the pacemaker component of the gut and play important roles in the control of gut motility. The tyrosine kinase receptor Kit is an established marker for ICC. Recently, it has been reported that immunoreactivity for the sialomucin CD34 may be present...... and confocal microscopy. CD34 immunoreactivity identified previously unrecognized cells closely adjacent to, but distinct from, the Kit immunoreactive ICC. These CD34 immunoreactive cells expressed the fibroblast marker prolyl 4-hydroxylase-whereas ICC did not-and were also distinct from smooth muscle cells......, glial cells, and macrophages. In the human gut, CD34 immunoreactivity is not expressed by ICC but by a population of fibroblasts, likely corresponding to the "fibroblast-like cells" described in previous ultrastructural studies. Our findings also challenge the hypothesis that stromal tumors originate...

  8. Effect of sublethal doses of gamma radiation on DNA super helicity and survival of human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koceva-Chyla, A.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of sublethal doses of gamma radiation on cell survival and DNA super helicity in human fibroblasts was studied. Cell survival was estimated on the basis the basis of clonal growth of irradiated fibroblasts in monolayer culture in vitro. The nucleoid sedimentation technique was used to study ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage in vivo as well as to examine DNA super helicity. Increased concentrations of ethidium bromine (EB) were used to titrate the DNA super coiling response in non-irradiated cells. This response consisted of a relaxation phase (1-5 μg/ml EB) and rewinding phase (5-20 μg/ml EB). Observed biphasic dependence of sedimentation distance of nucleoid on the concentration of EB suggests the dye altered the amount of DNA super coiling in situ. The degree of DNA super coiling and thus the sedimentation rate of nucleoid in absence of EB was very sensitive to strand break induced in DNA by the doses of gamma radiation employed in the cell survival assay. Doses of 2-8 Gy of gamma radiation induced a dose -dependent reduction in the sedimentation of nucleoid. Loss of negative DNA super coiling was initially rapid (about 30% after the dose of 2 Gy) and then proceeded at a slower rate (about 35% and 48% after the doses of 4 Gy and 8 Gy respectively), indicating a significant relaxation of nucleoid structure at the doses of gamma radiation greater than 4 Gy, at which also significant decrease in fibroblasts survival occurred. Significant loss of negative DNA super coiling within the range of doses of gamma radiation resulting in significant decrease of cell survival suggests that destabilizing effect of radiation on DNA tertiary- and quaternary structures (extensive DNA breaks and relaxation of nucleonic super helicity) disturb normal functions and replications of genomic DNA, in consequence leading to a reproductive death of cells. Considering the sensitivity and simplicity of the method, the nucleoid sedimentation technique might be also a useful tool

  9. Extracellular matrix metabolism disorder induced by mechanical strain on human parametrial ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jie; Li, Bingshu; Liu, Cheng; Guo, Wenjun; Hong, Shasha; Tang, Jianming; Hong, Li

    2017-05-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a global health problem that may seriously impact the quality of life of the sufferer. The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms underlying alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism in the pathogenesis of POP, by investigating the expression of ECM components in human parametrial ligament fibroblasts (hPLFs) subject to various mechanical strain loads. Fibroblasts derived from parametrial ligaments were cultured from patients with POP and without malignant tumors, who underwent vaginal hysterectomy surgery. Fibroblasts at generations 3‑6 of exponential phase cells were selected, and a four‑point bending device was used for 0, 1,333 or 5,333 µ mechanical loading of cells at 0.5 Hz for 4 h. mRNA and protein expression levels of collagen type I α 1 chain (COL1A1), collagen type III α 1 chain (COL3A1), elastin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) ‑2 and ‑9, and transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1 were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Under increased mechanical strain (5,333 µ), mRNA and protein expression levels of COL1A1, COL3A1 elastin and TGF‑β1 decreased, particularly COL1A1; however, mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP‑2 and ‑9 were significantly increased, compared with the control group (0 µ strain). Following 1,333 µ mechanical strain, mRNA and protein expression levels of COL1A1, COL3A1 elastin and MMP‑2 increased, and MMP‑9 decreased, whereas no significant differences were observed in TGF‑β1 mRNA and protein expression levels. In conclusion, ECM alterations may be involved in pathogenesis of POP, with decreased synthesis and increased degradation of collagen and elastin. Furthermore, the TGF‑β1 signaling pathway may serve an important role in this process and thus may supply a new target and strategy for understanding the etiology and therapy of POP.

  10. PKCδ inhibition normalizes the wound-healing capacity of diabetic human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamaisi, Mogher; Katagiri, Sayaka; Keenan, Hillary; Park, Kyoungmin; Maeda, Yasutaka; Li, Qian; Qi, Weier; Thomou, Thomas; Eschuk, Danielle; Tellechea, Ana; Veves, Aris; Huang, Chenyu; Orgill, Dennis Paul; Wagers, Amy; King, George L

    2016-03-01

    Abnormal fibroblast function underlies poor wound healing in patients with diabetes; however, the mechanisms that impair wound healing are poorly defined. Here, we evaluated fibroblasts from individuals who had type 1 diabetes (T1D) for 50 years or more (Medalists, n = 26) and from age-matched controls (n = 7). Compared with those from controls, Medalist fibroblasts demonstrated a reduced migration response to insulin, lower VEGF expression, and less phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), but not p-ERK, activation. Medalist fibroblasts were also functionally less effective at wound closure in nude mice. Activation of the δ isoform of protein kinase C (PKCδ) was increased in postmortem fibroblasts from Medalists, fibroblasts from living T1D subjects, biopsies of active wounds of living T1D subjects, and granulation tissues from mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetes-induced PKCD mRNA expression was related to a 2-fold increase in the mRNA half-life. Pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKCδ or expression of a dominant-negative isoform restored insulin signaling of p-AKT and VEGF expression in vitro and improved wound healing in vivo. Additionally, increasing PKCδ expression in control fibroblasts produced the same abnormalities as those seen in Medalist fibroblasts. Our results indicate that persistent PKCδ elevation in fibroblasts from diabetic patients inhibits insulin signaling and function to impair wound healing and suggest PKCδ inhibition as a potential therapy to improve wound healing in diabetic patients.

  11. Histamine induces ATP release from human subcutaneous fibroblasts, via pannexin-1 hemichannels, leading to Ca2+ mobilization and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana Rita; Paramos-de-Carvalho, Diogo; Certal, Mariana; Costa, Maria Adelina; Costa, Cristina; Magalhães-Cardoso, Maria Teresa; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Sévigny, Jean; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2013-09-20

    Changes in the regulation of connective tissue ATP-mediated mechano-transduction and remodeling may be an important link to the pathogenesis of chronic pain. It has been demonstrated that mast cell-derived histamine plays an important role in painful fibrotic diseases. Here we analyzed the involvement of ATP in the response of human subcutaneous fibroblasts to histamine. Acute histamine application caused a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) and ATP release from human subcutaneous fibroblasts via H1 receptor activation. Histamine-induced [Ca(2+)]i rise was partially attenuated by apyrase, an enzyme that inactivates extracellular ATP, and by blocking P2 purinoceptors with pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo(benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid) tetrasodium salt and reactive blue 2. [Ca(2+)]i accumulation caused by histamine was also reduced upon blocking pannexin-1 hemichannels with (10)Panx, probenecid, or carbenoxolone but not when connexin hemichannels were inhibited with mefloquine or 2-octanol. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of vesicular exocytosis, also did not block histamine-induced [Ca(2+)]i mobilization. Prolonged exposure of human subcutaneous fibroblast cultures to histamine favored cell growth and type I collagen synthesis via the activation of H1 receptor. This effect was mimicked by ATP and its metabolite, ADP, whereas the selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist, MRS2179, partially attenuated histamine-induced cell growth and type I collagen production. Expression of pannexin-1 and ADP-sensitive P2Y1 receptor on human subcutaneous fibroblasts was confirmed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. In conclusion, histamine induces ATP release from human subcutaneous fibroblasts, via pannexin-1 hemichannels, leading to [Ca(2+)]i mobilization and cell growth through the cooperation of H1 and P2 (probably P2Y1) receptors.

  12. Histamine Induces ATP Release from Human Subcutaneous Fibroblasts, via Pannexin-1 Hemichannels, Leading to Ca2+ Mobilization and Cell Proliferation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana Rita; Paramos-de-Carvalho, Diogo; Certal, Mariana; Costa, Maria Adelina; Costa, Cristina; Magalhães-Cardoso, Maria Teresa; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Sévigny, Jean; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the regulation of connective tissue ATP-mediated mechano-transduction and remodeling may be an important link to the pathogenesis of chronic pain. It has been demonstrated that mast cell-derived histamine plays an important role in painful fibrotic diseases. Here we analyzed the involvement of ATP in the response of human subcutaneous fibroblasts to histamine. Acute histamine application caused a rise in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and ATP release from human subcutaneous fibroblasts via H1 receptor activation. Histamine-induced [Ca2+]i rise was partially attenuated by apyrase, an enzyme that inactivates extracellular ATP, and by blocking P2 purinoceptors with pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo(benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid) tetrasodium salt and reactive blue 2. [Ca2+]i accumulation caused by histamine was also reduced upon blocking pannexin-1 hemichannels with 10Panx, probenecid, or carbenoxolone but not when connexin hemichannels were inhibited with mefloquine or 2-octanol. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of vesicular exocytosis, also did not block histamine-induced [Ca2+]i mobilization. Prolonged exposure of human subcutaneous fibroblast cultures to histamine favored cell growth and type I collagen synthesis via the activation of H1 receptor. This effect was mimicked by ATP and its metabolite, ADP, whereas the selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist, MRS2179, partially attenuated histamine-induced cell growth and type I collagen production. Expression of pannexin-1 and ADP-sensitive P2Y1 receptor on human subcutaneous fibroblasts was confirmed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. In conclusion, histamine induces ATP release from human subcutaneous fibroblasts, via pannexin-1 hemichannels, leading to [Ca2+]i mobilization and cell growth through the cooperation of H1 and P2 (probably P2Y1) receptors. PMID:23918924

  13. Nicotine signals through muscle-type and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in both human bronchial epithelial cells and airway fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luketich James D

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-neuronal cells, including those derived from lung, are reported to express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR. We examined nAChR subunit expression in short-term cultures of human airway cells derived from a series of never smokers, ex-smokers, and active smokers. Methods and Results At the mRNA level, human bronchial epithelial (HBE cells and airway fibroblasts expressed a range of nAChR subunits. In multiple cultures of both cell types, mRNA was detected for subunits that constitute functional muscle-type and neuronal-type pentomeric receptors. Two immortalized cell lines derived from HBE cells also expressed muscle-type and neuronal-type nAChR subunits. Airway fibroblasts expressed mRNA for three muscle-type subunits (α1, δ, and ε significantly more often than HBE cells. Immunoblotting of HBE cell and airway fibroblast extracts confirmed that mRNA for many nAChR subunits is translated into detectable levels of protein, and evidence of glycosylation of nAChRs was observed. Some minor differences in nAChR expression were found based on smoking status in fibroblasts or HBE cells. Nicotine triggered calcium influx in the immortalized HBE cell line BEAS2B, which was blocked by α-bungarotoxin and to a lesser extent by hexamethonium. Activation of PKC and MAPK p38, but not MAPK p42/44, was observed in BEAS2B cells exposed to nicotine. In contrast, nicotine could activate p42/44 in airway fibroblasts within five minutes of exposure. Conclusions These results suggest that muscle-type and neuronal-type nAChRs are functional in airway fibroblasts and HBE cells, that prior tobacco exposure does not appear to be an important variable in nAChR expression, and that distinct signaling pathways are observed in response to nicotine.

  14. Interplay between Selenium Levels and Replicative Senescence in WI-38 Human Fibroblasts: A Proteomic Approach

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    Ghania Hammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenoproteins are essential components of antioxidant defense, redox homeostasis, and cell signaling in mammals, where selenium is found in the form of a rare amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenium, which is often limited both in food intake and cell culture media, is a strong regulator of selenoprotein expression and selenoenzyme activity. Aging is a slow, complex, and multifactorial process, resulting in a gradual and irreversible decline of various functions of the body. Several cellular aspects of organismal aging are recapitulated in the replicative senescence of cultured human diploid fibroblasts, such as embryonic lung fibroblast WI-38 cells. We previously reported that the long-term growth of young WI-38 cells with high (supplemented, moderate (control, or low (depleted concentrations of selenium in the culture medium impacts their replicative lifespan, due to rapid changes in replicative senescence-associated markers and signaling pathways. In order to gain insight into the molecular link between selenium levels and replicative senescence, in the present work, we have applied a quantitative proteomic approach based on 2-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE to the study of young and presenescent cells grown in selenium-supplemented, control, or depleted media. Applying a restrictive cut-off (spot intensity ±50% and a p value < 0.05 to the 2D-DIGE analyses revealed 81 differentially expressed protein spots, from which 123 proteins of interest were identified by mass spectrometry. We compared the changes in protein abundance for three different conditions: (i spots varying between young and presenescent cells, (ii spots varying in response to selenium concentration in young cells, and (iii spots varying in response to selenium concentration in presenescent cells. Interestingly, a 72% overlap between the impact of senescence and selenium was observed in our proteomic results, demonstrating a strong interplay between

  15. Inhibition of interferon production in human fibroblasts by a tumor promoting phorbol ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankfort, H.M.; Vilcek, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the induction of interferon in cultures of human fibroblasts was examined. TPA was found to inhibit polyinosinate-polycytidylate [poly(I) X poly(C)]-induced interferon production when added either before or with the inducer. A 3-hour pretreatment of FS-4 cells with TPA produced the greatest ihibitory effect. Partially inhibitory treatments with TPA caused a delay in interferon production. On the other hand, interferon yields were slightly enhanced by TPA added at 1 1/2 or 3 hours postinduction. No gross metabolic perturbations (e.g., inhibition of cellular protein or RNA synthesis) were detected which would explain the phenomenon. The inhibition of interferon production was a stereospecific event: biologically inactive derivatives of TPA (4-0-methyl TPA, 4-α-phorbol-12, 13-didecanoate and phorbol-12, 13-diacetate) had no effect on interferon production. Cellular proteases or nucleases did not appear to be involved in this process. The binding of labeled poly(I) X poly(C) to FS-4 cells was unaltered in TPA-treated cultures. In superinduced cultures (i.e., after enhancement of interferon yields by actinomycin D and cycloheximide), interferon production was generally less inhibited by TPA than after simple induction. Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-induced interferon synthesis in GM-258 cells was also inhibited by the phorbol ester. Both α (leukocyte) and β (fibroblast) interferon production was inhibited to a similar degree in TPA-treated cells inoculated with 0.1 or 1 plaque forming unit (PFU) of NDV per cell. Increasing the multiplicity of infection with NDV to 10 PFU per cell overcame the inhibitory action of TPA. We conclude that the site of TPA action is either the triggering (generation of the hypothetical inducing signal) or transcription of the interferom mRNA. (Author)

  16. Andrographolide induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Chen, Yang; He, Chao; Yang, Zhen-zhen; Lü, Cheng; Chen, Xin-shan

    2012-02-01

    The pseudo-tumoral expansion of fibroblast-like synoviocytes is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and targeting rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RAFLSs) may have therapeutic potentials in this disease. Andrographolide, a diterpenoid compound isolated from the herb Andrographis paniculata, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of andrographolide on human RAFLSs and the underlying molecular mechanism(s). RAFLSs were isolated from patients with RA and treated with or without various concentrations (i.e., 10, 20, and 30 μM) of andrographolide for 48 h. 3-[4,5-Dimethyl-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay revealed that andrographolide treatment decreased the proliferation of RAFLSs in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide (PI) staining showed a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in andrographolide-treated RAFLSs. Immunoblotting analysis of key cell cycle regulators demonstrated that andrographolide treatment caused a dose-dependent increase in the expression of cell-cycle inhibitors p21 and p27 and a concomitant reduction of cyclin-dependent kinase 4. Exposure to andrographolide-induced apoptosis of RAFLSs measured by annexin V/PI double staining, which was coupled with promotion of cytochrome C release from mitochondria and activation of caspase-3. Moreover, andrographolide-treated RAFLSs displayed a significant decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio compared to untreated cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that andrographolide exerts anti-growth and pro-apoptotic effects on RAFLSs, thus may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of RA. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  17. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jiawen; Itahana, Koji; Baskar, Rajamanickam

    2015-01-01

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G 1 /S or G 2 /M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G 0 , therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its known role in

  18. Intracellular distribution of histone mRNAs in human fibroblasts studied by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.B.; Singer, R.H.; Villnave, C.A.; Stein, J.L.; Stein, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    We have used in situ hybridization to study the intracellular distribution of mRNAs for cell cycle-dependent core and H1 histone proteins in human WI-38 fibroblasts. Because histones are abundant nuclear proteins and histone mRNA expression is tightly coupled to DNA synthesis, it was of interest to determine whether histone mRNAs are localized near the nucleus. Cells were hybridized with tritiated DNA probes specific for either histone H1, histone H4, actin, or poly(A)+ mRNA and were processed for autoradiography. In exponentially growing cultures, the fraction of histone mRNA-positive cells correlated well with the fraction of cells in S phase and was eliminated by hydroxyurea inhibition of DNA synthesis. Within individual cells the label for histone mRNA was widely distributed throughout the cytoplasm and did not appear to be more heavily concentrated near the nucleus. However, histone mRNA appeared to exhibit patchy, nonhomogeneous localization, and a quantitative evaluation confirmed that grain distributions were not as uniform as they were after hybridizations to poly(A)+ mRNA. Actin mRNA in WI-38 cells was also widely distributed throughout the cytoplasm but differed from histone mRNA in that label for actin mRNA was frequently most dense at the outermost region of narrow cell extensions. The localization of actin mRNA was less pronounced but qualitatively very similar to that previously described for chicken embryonic myoblasts and fibroblasts. We conclude that localization of histones in WI-38 cells is not facilitated by localization of histone protein synthesis near the nucleus and that there are subtle but discrete and potentially functional differences in the distributions of histone, actin, and poly(A)+ mRNAs

  19. Plasmid-based generation of induced neural stem cells from adult human fibroblasts

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    Philipp Capetian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct reprogramming from somatic to neural cell types has become an alternative to induced pluripotent stem cells. Most protocols employ viral expression systems, posing the risk of random genomic integration. Recent developments led to plasmid-based protocols, lowering this risk. However, these protocols either relied on continuous presence of a variety of small molecules or were only able to reprogram murine cells. We therefore established a reprogramming protocol based on vectors containing the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-derived oriP/EBNA1 as well as the defined expression factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, L-myc, Lin28, and a small hairpin directed against p53. We employed a defined neural medium in combination with the neurotrophins bFGF, EGF and FGF4 for cultivation without the addition of small molecules. After reprogramming, cells demonstrated a temporary increase in the expression of endogenous Oct3/4. We obtained induced neural stem cells (iNSC 30 days after transfection. In contrast to previous results, plasmid vectors as well as a residual expression of reprogramming factors remained detectable in all cell lines. Cells showed a robust differentiation into neuronal (72% and glial cells (9% astrocytes, 6% oligodendrocytes. Despite the temporary increase of pluripotency-associated Oct3/4 expression during reprogramming, we did not detect pluripotent stem cells or non-neural cells in culture (except occasional residual fibroblasts. Neurons showed electrical activity and functional glutamatergic synapses. Our results demonstrate that reprogramming adult human fibroblasts to iNSC by plasmid vectors and basic neural medium without small molecules is possible and feasible. However, a full set of pluripotency-associated transcription factors may indeed result in the acquisition of a transient (at least partial pluripotent intermediate during reprogramming. In contrast to previous reports, the EBV-based plasmid system remained present and active inside

  20. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jiawen [Molecular Radiobiology Laboratory, Division of Cellular and Molecular Research (Singapore); Itahana, Koji, E-mail: koji.itahana@duke-nus.edu.sg [Cancer and Stem Cell Biology Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Singapore); Baskar, Rajamanickam, E-mail: r.baskar@nccs.com.sg [Molecular Radiobiology Laboratory, Division of Cellular and Molecular Research (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre (Singapore)

    2015-02-27

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G{sub 1}/S or G{sub 2}/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G{sub 0}, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its

  1. Fluid flow releases fibroblast growth factor-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, D. N.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    2000-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress regulates the release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 is a potent mitogen that is involved in the response to vascular injury and is expressed in a wide variety of cell types. FGF-2 is found in the cytoplasm of cells and outside cells, where it associates with extracellular proteoglycans. To test the hypothesis that shear stress regulates FGF-2 release, cells were exposed to flow, and FGF-2 amounts were measured from the conditioned medium, pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment), and cell lysate. Results from the present study show that after 15 minutes of shear stress at 25 dyne/cm(2) in a parallel-plate flow system, a small but significant fraction (17%) of the total FGF-2 was released from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 levels in the circulating medium increased 10-fold over medium from static controls (PFlow cytometry detected a 50% increase in mean fluorescence of cells exposed to 25 dyne/cm(2) versus control cells. This indicates that the observed FGF-2 release from human aortic smooth muscle cells is likely due to transient membrane disruption on initiation of flow.

  2. Different expressions of connexin 43 and 32 in the fibroblasts of human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, N; Yamaoka, Y; Sawa, Y; Kawasaki, T; Yoshida, S

    2002-06-01

    The expression and localization of gap junctional proteins connexin (Cx) 26, 32, and 43 was examined in human dental pulp. Dental pulp tissues were obtained from human third molars immediately after extraction. Some pulp tissues were used for cell culture, and the rest for histological observations. Immunostaining for cultured dental pulp fibroblasts (DPFs) showed that Cx32 and 43 were expressed in human DPFs, and proteins corresponding to 27 (Cx32) and 43kDa (Cx43) were identified by Western blot analysis. Immunostaining for tissue sections showed that the expression of Cx32 and 43 was observed in the entire region of the pulp and further strong expression of Cx32 was established beneath the cell-rich zone. Considering the close relationship between Cx types and cell functions, the results indicate that DPFs beneath the cell-rich zone may have specific, Cx32-related functions. The cell rich zone is thought to contain progenitor odontoblasts that can be induced to differentiate into mature odontoblasts in response to wounding. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that DPFs just beneath the cell-rich zone produce proteins and induce odontoblast differentiation from the cells in the cell-rich zone.

  3. Patterns of some extracellular matrix gene expression are similar in cells from cleft lip-palate patients and in human palatal fibroblasts exposed to diazepam in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinucci, Lorella; Balloni, Stefania; Bodo, Maria; Carinci, Francesco; Pezzetti, Furio; Stabellini, Giordano; Carmela, Conte; Lumare, Eleonora

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to diazepam, a prototype sedative drug that belongs to Benzodiazepines, can lead to orofacial clefting in human newborns. By using real-time PCR, in the present study we investigated whether diazepam elicits gene expression alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM) components, growth factors and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABRB3), implicated in the coordinate regulation of palate development. Palate fibroblasts were treated with diazepam (Dz-N fibroblasts) and compared to cleft lip-palate (CLP) fibroblasts obtained from patients with no known exposure to diazepam or other teratogens. Untreated fibroblasts from non-CLP patients were used as control. The results showed significant convergences in gene expression pattern of collagens, fibromodulin, vitronectin, tenascin C, integrins and metalloprotease MMP13 between Dz-N and CLP fibroblasts. Among the growth factors, constitutive Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) was greatly enhanced in Dz-N and CLP fibroblasts and associated with a higher reduction of FGF receptor. Transforming Growth Factor beta 3 (TGFβ 3 ) resulted up-regulated in CLP fibroblasts and decreased in Dz-N fibroblasts. We found phenotypic differences exhibited by Dz-N and CLP fibroblasts in GABRB3 gene regulation, so further studies are necessary to determine whether GABAergic system could be involved in the development of diazepam mediated CLP phenotype. Taken together the results elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying possible toxicology effects induced by diazepam. Counselling of women on the safety of diazepam exposure is clinically important, also for the forensic consequences

  4. Inhibition of interleukin-17-stimulated interleukin-6 and -8 production by cranberry components in human gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, D A; Cho, S; Zacharia, N; Dabbous, M K

    2013-10-01

    Gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts participate in periodontal inflammation and destruction, producing interleukin (IL)-6, a regulator of osteoclastic bone resorption, and the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8. IL-17, a product of T-helper 17 cells, may play a role in periodontitis by stimulating cytokine production by gingival cells. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is rich in polyphenols, particularly proanthocyanidins, which have antioxidant and other beneficial properties. Cranberry components inhibit pro-inflammatory activities of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophages, gingival fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, but little is known of its effects on IL-17-stimulated cytokine production. The objectives were to determine the effects of IL-17 ± cranberry components on IL-6 and IL-8 production by human gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, was derived from cranberry juice. Human gingival epithelial cells and normal human gingival fibroblasts were incubated with NDM (5-50 μg/mL), IL-17 (0.5-100 ng/mL), or NDM + IL-17 in serum-free medium for 6 d. IL-6 and IL-8 in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Membrane damage and viability were assessed by lactate dehydrogenase activity released into cell supernatants and activity of a mitochondrial enzyme, respectively. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons. In both cell lines, IL-17 (≥ ~5-10 ng/mL) significantly stimulated production of IL-6 (p Cranberry NDM inhibition of constitutive and IL-17-stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 production by gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells suggests that cranberry components could be useful as a host modulatory therapeutic agent to prevent or treat periodontitis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. In vitro study of RRS HA injectable mesotherapy/biorevitalization product on human skin fibroblasts and its clinical utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deglesne PA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pierre-Antoine Deglesne,* Rodrigo Arroyo,* Evgeniya Ranneva, Philippe Deprez Research and Development, SKIN TECH PHARMA GROUP, Castelló d'Empúries, Spain  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mesotherapy/biorevitalization with hyaluronic acid (HA is a treatment approach currently used for skin rejuvenation. Various products with a wide range of polycomponent formulations are available on the market. Most of these formulations contain noncross-linked HA in combination with a biorevitalization cocktail, formed by various amounts of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, nucleotides, coenzymes, and antioxidants. Although ingredients are very similar among the different products, in vitro and clinical effects may vary substantially. There is a real need for better characterization of these products in terms of their action on human skin or in vitro skin models. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the RRS® (Repairs, Refills, Stimulates HA injectable medical device on human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Skin fibroblast viability and its capacity to induce the production of key extracellular matrix were evaluated in the presence of different concentrations of RRS HA injectable. Viability was evaluated through colorimetric MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, and key extracellular matrix genes, type I collagen and elastin, were quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results demonstrated that RRS HA injectable could promote human skin fibroblast viability (+15% and increase fibroblast gene expression of type I collagen and elastin by 9.7-fold and 14-fold in vitro, respectively. These results demonstrate that mesotherapy/biorevitalization products can, at least in vitro, effectively modulate human skin fibroblasts.Keywords: mesotherapy, medical device, RRS, collagen, elastin, extracellular matrix

  6. Malignant transformation of diploid human fibroblasts by transfection of oncogenes: Progress report, July 1986--June 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.J.; Maher, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    Although there is good evidence that carcinogen exposure is a major cause of human cancer, it has proven impossible to transform normal human fibroblasts or epithelial cells in culture into malignant cells by treating them with carcinogens. This failure may reflect an inability to identify and isolate cells containing one or more premalignant changes so that these can be expanded and exposed to carcinogens a second time to induce additional required changes. A second serious roadblock to the sequential introduction of changes and expansion of clonally-derived cells containing such premalignant changes in the finite life span of human cells in culture. Using transfection of specific human oncogenes in a series of specially-selected vectors, we have overcome these obstacles and have recently succeeded in generating an infinite life span diploid human cell strain MSU-1.0, which appears to be normal in all other characteristics. From that cell a second cell strain, MSU-1.1, was generated which we have been able to transform into a malignant state not only by transfecting the cells with oncogenes but also by treating them with chemical carcinogens. We now have evidence that there is not just a single linear process which results in malignant transformation. Rather, cells appear to progress to malignancy on a series of parallel, sometimes overlapping tracks. We now propose to carry out detailed studies of the specific mechanisms of malignant cell transformation using the cell strains available in this laboratory to achieve the goal of building relevant quantitative models of carcinogenesis. 29 refs

  7. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leah J.; Holmes, Amie L. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Maine Center for Environmental Toxicology and Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Kandpal, Sanjeev Kumar; Mason, Michael D. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zheng, Tongzhang [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT (United States); Wise, John Pierce, E-mail: John.Wise@usm.maine.edu [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Maine Center for Environmental Toxicology and Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04101-9300 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Cobalt exposure is increasing as cobalt demand rises worldwide due to its use in enhancing rechargeable battery efficiency, super-alloys, and magnetic products. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in human lung cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble cobalt was more cytotoxic than particulate cobalt while particulate and soluble cobalt induced similar levels of genotoxicity. However, soluble cobalt induced cell cycle arrest indicated by the lack of metaphases at much lower intracellular cobalt concentrations compared to cobalt oxide. Accordingly, we investigated the role of particle internalization in cobalt oxide-induced toxicity and found that particle-cell contact was necessary to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity after cobalt exposure. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung fibroblasts, and solubility plays a key role in cobalt-induced lung toxicity. - Highlights: • Particulate and soluble cobalt are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung cells. • Soluble cobalt induces more cytotoxicity compared to particulate cobalt. • Soluble and particulate cobalt induce similar levels of genotoxicity. • Particle-cell contact is required for particulate cobalt-induced toxicity.

  8. Surface properties correlated with the human gingival fibroblasts attachment on various materials for implant abutments: a multiple regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sung; Shin, Seung-Yun; Moon, Seung-Kyun; Yang, Seung-Min

    2015-01-01

    To reveal the suitable surface condition of an implant abutment for fibroblast attachment, the correlation between the surface characteristics of various materials and the human gingival fibroblast (HGF-1) attachment to the surfaces were analyzed. Six kinds of surfaces comprised of machined titanium alloy (SM), machined Co-Cr-Mo alloy (CCM), titanium nitride coated titanium alloy (TiN), anodized titanium alloy (AO), composite resin coating on titanium alloy (R) and zirconia (Zr) were used. The measured surface parameters were Sa, Sq, Sz, Sdr, Sdq, Sal, Str and water contact angle (WCA). The HGF-1 cell attachment was investigated and the correlations were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis. The HGF-1 cell attachment was greater in the SM, TiN and Zr groups than the other groups and smallest in the CCM group (p = 0.0096). From the multiple regression analysis, the HGF-1 cell attachment was significantly correlated with Sdr, Sdq and WCA. When the R group was excluded, only WCA showed significant correlation with the fibroblast attachment. Within the limitations of this study, the cell attachment of human gingival fibroblasts was correlated with WCA, developed interfacial area ratio and surface slope. When the surfaces with Sa values of ∼ 0.2 μm or less were concerned, only WCA showed a correlation in a third order manner.

  9. A three-dimensional human model of the fibroblast activation that accompanies bronchopulmonary dysplasia identifies Notch-mediated pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucre, Jennifer M S; Wilkinson, Dan; Vijayaraj, Preethi; Paul, Manash; Dunn, Bruce; Alva-Ornelas, Jackelyn A; Gomperts, Brigitte N

    2016-05-15

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a leading complication of premature birth and occurs primarily in infants delivered during the saccular stage of lung development. Histopathology shows decreased alveolarization and a pattern of fibroblast proliferation and differentiation to the myofibroblast phenotype. Little is known about the molecular pathways and cellular mechanisms that define BPD pathophysiology and progression. We have developed a novel three-dimensional human model of the fibroblast activation associated with BPD, and using this model we have identified the Notch pathway as a key driver of fibroblast activation and proliferation in response to changes in oxygen. Fetal lung fibroblasts were cultured on sodium alginate beads to generate lung organoids. After exposure to alternating hypoxia and hyperoxia, the organoids developed a phenotypic response characterized by increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression and other genes known to be upregulated in BPD and also demonstrated increased expression of downstream effectors of the Notch pathway. Inhibition of Notch with a γ-secretase inhibitor prevented the development of the pattern of cellular proliferation and α-SMA expression in our model. Analysis of human autopsy tissue from the lungs of infants who expired with BPD demonstrated evidence of Notch activation within fibrotic areas of the alveolar septae, suggesting that Notch may be a key driver of BPD pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Photoprotective Effects of Cycloheterophyllin against UVA-Induced Damage and Oxidative Stress in Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hua Huang

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation, particularly ultraviolet A (UVA, is known to play a major role in photoaging of the human skin. Many studies have demonstrated that UV exposure causes the skin cells to generate reactive oxygen species and activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway. Previous studies have also demonstrated that cycloheterophyllin has an antioxidant effect and can effectively scavenge free radicals. Extending the aforementioned investigations, in this study, human dermal fibroblasts were used to investigate the protective effect of cycloheterophyllin against UV-induced damage. We found that cycloheterophyllin not only significantly increased cell viability, but also attenuated the phosphorylation of MAPK after UVA exposure. Furthermore, cycloheterophyllin could reduce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generation and down-regulate H2O2-induced MAPK phosphorylation. In the in vivo studies, the topical application of cycloheterophyllin before UVA irradiation significantly decreased trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL, erythema, and blood flow rate. These results indicate that cycloheterophyllin is a photoprotective agent that inhibits UVA-induced oxidative stress and damage, and could be used in the research on and prevention of skin photoaging.

  11. Policosanol inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis and enhances low density lipoprotein processing in cultured human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, R; Fernandez, S I; Del Rio, A; Gonzalez, R M; Fraga, V; Amor, A M; Mas, R M

    1994-01-01

    Policosanol is a mixture of aliphatic primary alcohols isolated and purified from sugar cane wax, that induces cholesterol-lowering effects in experimental models and human beings. When human lung fibroblasts were incubated with policosanol for 48 hours prior to the experiment, a dose dependent inhibition of 14C-acetate incorporation into total cholesterol was observed, whereas labeled mevalonate incorporation was not inhibited. Even when cholesterol synthesis was not strongly inhibited, low density lipoprotein (LDL) processing was markedly enhanced. Thus, LDL binding, internalization and degradation were significantly increased after policosanol treatment. In addition, despite the fact that'cholesterol generation was not inhibited at the lowest dose of policosanol assayed, LDL processing was significantly increased. The current data indicate that policosanol inhibits cholesterol synthesis at the earliest steps of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. On the other hand, this study suggests that the increase in LDL processing may be partially explained by the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis, even though an sterol-independent mechanism might be responsible for the enhancement of LDL-receptor activity.

  12. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 mutation analysis in human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, P; Robson, C N; Neal, D E; Leung, H Y

    2000-10-01

    To assess whether mutations in the hot-spots of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-2 gene (FGFR2, exons encoding the IIIa, IIIb, IIIc and transmembrane domain, TMD) are associated with the development of prostate cancer, as the IIIb variant is the specific receptor for FGF7/KGF, an androgen-inducible paracrine factor regulating prostatic growth. Materials and methods Single-strand conformational polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (SSCP-PCR) and cycle-sequencing analysis were used to screen FGFR2 mutations in 30 patients with prostate cancer; corresponding blood samples were analysed from 11 of the patients. The human prostate cell lines, LNCaP, PC3, DU145, PNT1A and PNT1B were also examined. In addition, 10 foci of invasive cancer from three patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were also assessed. Positive controls containing FGFR2 mutations (Crouzon disease and Pfieffer syndrome) were confirmed by SSCP-PCR and sequencing. Analysis of all prostate tumour samples and prostate-derived cell lines revealed no polymorphisms or mutations in the IIIa, IIIb, IIIc and TMD regions of FGFR2. FGFR2 mutations in the-FGF binding domain and the TMD are not frequent events in human prostate cancer.

  13. Biocompatibility Evaluation of Dental Luting Cements Using Cytokine Released from Human Oral Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Kwon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental luting cements are commonly used in dentistry for cementation of prosthetic restoration. Many previous studies focused on the measurement of the cell viability as the method of cytotoxicity evaluation during biocompatibility study for the material. In this study, the biocompatibility of various dental luting cements were evaluated using the new method of cytokine release measurement in order to better simulate inflammatory reactions in animal or clinical model using two different oral cells; immortalized human gingival fibroblast and immortalized human oral keratinocytes. Cells were exposed to extractions of various commercially available dental luting cements for different durations. Cytokines of IL-1α and IL-8 were measured from the supernatants of the cells and the results were then compared to the conventional MTT viability test. The result from the conventional cell viability study showed a relatively simple and straight forward indication that only one of the dental luting cements tested in this study was cytotoxic with increasing duration of exposure for both cells. Meanwhile, the result from the cytokine measurement study was much more complex at the time point they were measured, type of cells used for the study and the type of cytokines measured, all of which influenced the interpretation of the results. Hence, the better understanding of the cytokine release would be required for the application in biocompatibility evaluation.

  14. Mutagenicity of 8-methoxypsoralen and long-wave ultraviolet irradiation in diploid human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell killing and the induction of mutation were studied in dividing and non-dividing human skin fibroblasts as a result of treatment by 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and long-wave UV irradiation (UVA). The cytotoxic effect was highly dependent upon the duration of the UVA exposure. The frequency of mutations increased linearly with the UVA dose at concentrations of 10 and 0.25 μl 8-MOP/ml, the latter representing the concentration in the skin during PUVA treatment. The number of mutations induced per unit dose (= per μg 8-MOP/ml per joule UVA/m 2 ) was calculated: for dividing cells this value was 3.3 x 10 -8 per cell and for non-dividing cells 0.6 x 10.8 -8 per cell. On the basis of these values the expected number of induced mutants in the human skin per session of photochemotherapy is 1.2 x 10 -5 , and per 30 years of maintenance therapy 1.3 x 10 -2 per cell. A comparison was made between this frequency and the frequency to be expected from spontaneous mutation. In addition the significance of absence in patients of SCE induction by photochemotherapy is discussed. (orig.)

  15. DNA fragmentation in human fibroblasts under extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focke, Frauke; Schuermann, David; Kuster, Niels; Schaer, Primo

    2010-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) were reported to affect DNA integrity in human cells with evidence based on the Comet assay. These findings were heavily debated for two main reasons; the lack of reproducibility, and the absence of a plausible scientific rationale for how EMFs could damage DNA. Starting out from a replication of the relevant experiments, we performed this study to clarify the existence and explore origin and nature of ELF-EMF induced DNA effects. Our data confirm that intermittent (but not continuous) exposure of human primary fibroblasts to a 50 Hz EMF at a flux density of 1 mT induces a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the Comet assay, and we provide first evidence for this to be caused by the magnetic rather than the electric field. Moreover, we show that EMF-induced responses in the Comet assay are dependent on cell proliferation, suggesting that processes of DNA replication rather than the DNA itself may be affected. Consistently, the Comet effects correlated with a reduction of actively replicating cells and a concomitant increase of apoptotic cells in exposed cultures, whereas a combined Fpg-Comet test failed to produce evidence for a notable contribution of oxidative DNA base damage. Hence, ELF-EMF induced effects in the Comet assay are reproducible under specific conditions and can be explained by minor disturbances in S-phase processes and occasional triggering of apoptosis rather than by the generation of DNA damage.

  16. DNA fragmentation in human fibroblasts under extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Frauke; Schuermann, David [Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 28, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland); Kuster, Niels [IT' IS Foundation, Zeughausstrasse 43, CH-8004 Zurich (Switzerland); Schaer, Primo, E-mail: primo.schaer@unibas.ch [Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 28, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-01-05

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) were reported to affect DNA integrity in human cells with evidence based on the Comet assay. These findings were heavily debated for two main reasons; the lack of reproducibility, and the absence of a plausible scientific rationale for how EMFs could damage DNA. Starting out from a replication of the relevant experiments, we performed this study to clarify the existence and explore origin and nature of ELF-EMF induced DNA effects. Our data confirm that intermittent (but not continuous) exposure of human primary fibroblasts to a 50 Hz EMF at a flux density of 1 mT induces a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the Comet assay, and we provide first evidence for this to be caused by the magnetic rather than the electric field. Moreover, we show that EMF-induced responses in the Comet assay are dependent on cell proliferation, suggesting that processes of DNA replication rather than the DNA itself may be affected. Consistently, the Comet effects correlated with a reduction of actively replicating cells and a concomitant increase of apoptotic cells in exposed cultures, whereas a combined Fpg-Comet test failed to produce evidence for a notable contribution of oxidative DNA base damage. Hence, ELF-EMF induced effects in the Comet assay are reproducible under specific conditions and can be explained by minor disturbances in S-phase processes and occasional triggering of apoptosis rather than by the generation of DNA damage.

  17. Inhibition of the differentiation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells by human gingival fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Séguier

    Full Text Available We investigated whether gingival fibroblasts (GFs can modulate the differentiation and/or maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs and analyzed soluble factors that may be involved in this immune modulation. Experiments were performed using human monocytes in co-culture with human GFs in Transwell® chambers or using monocyte cultures treated with conditioned media (CM from GFs of four donors. The four CM and supernatants from cell culture were assayed by ELISA for cytokines involved in the differentiation of dendritic cells, such as IL-6, VEGF, TGFβ1, IL-13 and IL-10. The maturation of monocyte-derived DCs induced by LPS in presence of CM was also studied. Cell surface phenotype markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. In co-cultures, GFs inhibited the differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs and the strength of this blockade correlated with the GF/monocyte ratio. Conditioned media from GFs showed similar effects, suggesting the involvement of soluble factors produced by GFs. This inhibition was associated with a lower stimulatory activity in MLR of DCs generated with GFs or its CM. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-6 and VEGF significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the inhibitory effect of CM on the differentiation of monocytes-derived DCs and in a dose dependent manner. Our data suggest that IL-6 is the main factor responsible for the inhibition of DCs differentiation mediated by GFs but that VEGF is also involved and constitutes an additional mechanism.

  18. Protein expression in human lymphocytes and fibroblasts after in vitro radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Desai, N.; George, K.; Gonda, S.; Cucinotta, F.

    Radiation exposure of cells can induce molecular changes that modulate the metabolic activity of many proteins, which is ultimately responsible for the final outcomes of radiation insults. Simultaneous measurements of multiple proteins were performed on human lymphocyte and fibroblast cells before and after irradiation using two new technologies - the SELDI ProteinChip Sy stem and the Luminex 100 System. The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) system is a protein time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the technology offers the advantages of speed, simplicity, sensitivity and accuracy. The Luminex technology, on the other hand, is a new generation of fluorescent microsphere-based flow cytometry that enables simultaneous assay of up to 100 proteins in a single well or tube. These advanced systems offer the sensitivity and resolution required to perform the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the protein expression spectrum. In the study, the two types of human cells were exposed in vitro to both low and high doses of gamma rays and proteins were collected at various times after exposure. Defined media and spin columns were used to eliminate highly abundant proteins. Preliminary results of the study will be presented.

  19. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles activate the ATM-Chk2 DNA damage response in human dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raju Y.; Chastain, Paul D.; Nikolaishvili-Feinberg, Nana; Smeester, Lisa M.; Kaufmann, William K.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in consumer products increases their prevalence in the environment and the potential risk to human health. Although recent studies have shown in vivo and in vitro toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), a more detailed view of the underlying mechanisms of this response needs to be established. Here the effects of nano-TiO2 on the DNA damage response and DNA replication dynamics were investigated in human dermal fibroblasts. Specifically, the relationship between nano-TiO2 and the DNA damage response pathways regulated by ATM/Chk2 and ATR/Chk1 were examined. The results show increased phosphorylation of H2AX, ATM, and Chk2 after exposure. In addition, nano-TiO2 inhibited the overall rate of DNA synthesis and frequency of replicon initiation events in DNA combed fibers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that exposure to nano-TiO2 activates the ATM/Chk2 DNA damage response pathway. PMID:22770119

  20. Persea americana Mill. Seed: Fractionation, Characterization, and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jerz, Maria Del R; Villanueva, Socorro; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Deters, Alexandra M

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The methanol-water partition (M) from avocado seeds and HSCCC fraction 3 (M.3) were mostly composed of chlorogenic acid and its isomers. Both reduced NHDF but enhanced HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation. HSCCC fraction M.2 composed of quinic acid among chlorogenic acid and its isomers inhibited proliferation and directly induced differentiation of keratinocytes as observed on gene and protein level. Furthermore, M.2 increased NHDF proliferation via upregulation of growth factor receptors. Salidrosides and ABA derivatives present in HSCCC fraction M.6 increased NHDF and keratinocyte proliferation that resulted in differentiation. The residual solvent fraction M.7 contained among low concentrations of ABA derivatives high amounts of proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as an A-type trimer and stimulated proliferation of normal cells and inhibited the proliferation of immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes.

  1. Reactive oxygen species production in mitochondria of human gingival fibroblast induced by blue light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Makita, Tetsuya; Maehata, Yojiro; Higashi, Kazuyoshi; Miyamoto, Chihiro; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Takahashi, Osamu; Lee, Masaichi Chang-il

    2013-12-05

    In recent years, it has become well known that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by blue-light irradiation causes adverse effects of photo-aging, such as age-related macular degeneration of the retina. Thus, orange-tinted glasses are used to protect the retina during dental treatment involving blue-light irradiation (e.g., dental resin restorations or tooth bleaching treatments). However, there are few studies examining the effects of blue-light irradiation on oral tissue. For the first time, we report that blue-light irradiation by quartz tungsten halogen lamp (QTH) or light-emitting diode (LED) decreased cell proliferation activity of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) in a time-dependent manner (LED irradiation compared with cytotoxicity after QTH irradiation. These results suggest that blue light irradiation, especially by LED light sources used in dental aesthetic treatment, might have adverse effects on human gingival tissue. Hence, this necessitates the development of new dental aesthetic treatment methods and/or techniques to protect HGFs from blue light irradiation during dental therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biocompatibility and Inflammatory Potential of Titanium Alloys Cultivated with Human Osteoblasts, Fibroblasts and Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markhoff, Jana; Krogull, Martin; Schulze, Christian; Rotsch, Christian; Hunger, Sandra; Bader, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The biomaterials used to maintain or replace functions in the human body consist mainly of metals, ceramics or polymers. In orthopedic surgery, metallic materials, especially titanium and its alloys, are the most common, due to their excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Aside from the established Ti6Al4V alloy, shape memory materials such as nickel-titanium (NiTi) have risen in importance, but are also discussed because of the adverse effects of nickel ions. These might be reduced by specific surface modifications. In the present in vitro study, the osteoblastic cell line MG-63 as well as primary human osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and macrophages were cultured on titanium alloys (forged Ti6Al4V, additive manufactured Ti6Al4V, NiTi, and Diamond-Like-Carbon (DLC)-coated NiTi) to verify their specific biocompatibility and inflammatory potential. Additive manufactured Ti6Al4V and NiTi revealed the highest levels of metabolic cell activity. DLC-coated NiTi appeared as a suitable surface for cell growth, showing the highest collagen production. None of the implant materials caused a strong inflammatory response. In general, no distinct cell-specific response could be observed for the materials and surface coating used. In summary, all tested titanium alloys seem to be biologically appropriate for application in orthopedic surgery. PMID:28772412

  3. Biocompatibility and Inflammatory Potential of Titanium Alloys Cultivated with Human Osteoblasts, Fibroblasts and Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Markhoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The biomaterials used to maintain or replace functions in the human body consist mainly of metals, ceramics or polymers. In orthopedic surgery, metallic materials, especially titanium and its alloys, are the most common, due to their excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Aside from the established Ti6Al4V alloy, shape memory materials such as nickel-titanium (NiTi have risen in importance, but are also discussed because of the adverse effects of nickel ions. These might be reduced by specific surface modifications. In the present in vitro study, the osteoblastic cell line MG-63 as well as primary human osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and macrophages were cultured on titanium alloys (forged Ti6Al4V, additive manufactured Ti6Al4V, NiTi, and Diamond-Like-Carbon (DLC-coated NiTi to verify their specific biocompatibility and inflammatory potential. Additive manufactured Ti6Al4V and NiTi revealed the highest levels of metabolic cell activity. DLC-coated NiTi appeared as a suitable surface for cell growth, showing the highest collagen production. None of the implant materials caused a strong inflammatory response. In general, no distinct cell-specific response could be observed for the materials and surface coating used. In summary, all tested titanium alloys seem to be biologically appropriate for application in orthopedic surgery.

  4. Simulated studies on the biological effects of space radiation on quiescent human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nan; Pei, Hailong; He, Jinpeng; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Liu, Cuihua; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Li, He; Hu, Wentao; Li, Yinghui; Wang, Jufang; Wang, Tieshan; Zhou, Guangming

    2013-10-01

    High charge and energy (HZE) particles are severe risk to manned long-term outer space exploration. Studies on the biological effects of space HZE particles and the underlying mechanisms are essential to the accurate risk assessment and the development of efficient countermeasure. Since majority of the cells in human body stay quiescent (G0 phase), in this study, we established G0 cell and G1 cell models by releasing human normal embryonic lung fibroblast cells from contact inhibition and studied the radiation toxicity of various kinds of HZE particles. Results showed that all of the particles were dose-dependently lethal and G0 cells were more radioresistant than G1 cells. We also found that 53BP1 foci were induced in a LET- and fluence-dependent manner and fewer foci were induced in G0 cells than G1 cells, however, the decrease of foci in 24 h after irradiation was highly relevant to the type of particles. These results imply that even though health risk of space radiation is probably overestimated by the data obtained with exponentially growing cells, whose radiosensitivity is similar to G1 cells, the risk of space HZE particles is un-ignorable and accurate assessment and mechanistic studies should be deepened. The diverse abilities of G0 cells and G1 cells in repairing DNA damages induced by HZE particles emphasize the importance in studying the impact of HZE particles on DNA damage repair pathways.

  5. Persea americana Mill. Seed: Fractionation, Characterization, and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jerz, Maria del R.; Villanueva, Socorro; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Deters, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The methanol-water partition (M) from avocado seeds and HSCCC fraction 3 (M.3) were mostly composed of chlorogenic acid and its isomers. Both reduced NHDF but enhanced HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation. HSCCC fraction M.2 composed of quinic acid among chlorogenic acid and its isomers inhibited proliferation and directly induced differentiation of keratinocytes as observed on gene and protein level. Furthermore, M.2 increased NHDF proliferation via upregulation of growth factor receptors. Salidrosides and ABA derivatives present in HSCCC fraction M.6 increased NHDF and keratinocyte proliferation that resulted in differentiation. The residual solvent fraction M.7 contained among low concentrations of ABA derivatives high amounts of proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as an A-type trimer and stimulated proliferation of normal cells and inhibited the proliferation of immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. PMID:24371457

  6. Persea americana Mill. Seed: Fractionation, Characterization, and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del R. Ramos-Jerz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF. The methanol-water partition (M from avocado seeds and HSCCC fraction 3 (M.3 were mostly composed of chlorogenic acid and its isomers. Both reduced NHDF but enhanced HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation. HSCCC fraction M.2 composed of quinic acid among chlorogenic acid and its isomers inhibited proliferation and directly induced differentiation of keratinocytes as observed on gene and protein level. Furthermore, M.2 increased NHDF proliferation via upregulation of growth factor receptors. Salidrosides and ABA derivatives present in HSCCC fraction M.6 increased NHDF and keratinocyte proliferation that resulted in differentiation. The residual solvent fraction M.7 contained among low concentrations of ABA derivatives high amounts of proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as an A-type trimer and stimulated proliferation of normal cells and inhibited the proliferation of immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes.

  7. Nonhomologous DNA end joining and chromosome aberrations in human embryonic lung fibroblasts treated with environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Beskid, Olena; Tabashidze, Nana; Libalova, Helena; Uhlirova, Katerina; Topinka, Jan; Sram, Radim J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the effect of air pollutants on NHEJ and chromosome aberrations. • In HEL12469 cells B[a]P and extractable organic matter induced DSBs. • The compounds induced XRCC4 expression and a weak Ku70/80 response. • We found increased frequency of aberrations of chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 17. • The tested compounds preferentially affected chromosome 7. - Abstract: In order to evaluate the ability of a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and PAH-containing complex mixtures to induce double strand DNA breaks (DSBs) and repair of damaged DNA in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL12469 cells), we investigated the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and extractable organic matter (EOM) from ambient air particles <2.5 μm (PM2.5) on nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) and induction of stable chromosome aberrations (CAs). PM2.5 was collected in winter and summer 2011 in two Czech cities differing in levels and sources of air pollutants. The cells were treated for 24 h with the following concentrations of tested chemicals: B[a]P: 1 μM, 10 μM, 25 μM; EOMs: 1 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 25 μg/ml. We tested several endpoints representing key steps leading from DSBs to the formation of CAs including histone H2AX phosphorylation, levels of proteins Ku70, Ku80 and XRCC4 participating in NHEJ, in vitro ligation activity of nuclear extracts of the HEL12469 cells and the frequency of stable CAs assessed by whole chromosome painting of chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 17 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Our results show that 25 μM of B[a]P and most of the tested doses of EOMs induced DSBs as indicated by H2AX phosphorylation. DNA damage was accompanied by induction of XRCC4 expression and an increased frequency of CAs. Translocations most frequently affected chromosome 7. We observed only a weak induction of Ku70/80 expression as well as ligation activity of nuclear extracts. In summary, our data suggest the induction of DSBs and

  8. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA 18:1 transcriptional regulation of primary human gingival fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Roselyn Cerutis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pleiotropic, bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid [(LPA, 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate] exerts critical regulatory actions in physiology and pathophysiology in many systems. It is present in normal bodily fluids, and is elevated in pathology (1. In vivo, “LPA” exists as distinct molecular species, each having a single fatty acid of varying chain length and degree of unsaturation covalently attached to the glycerol backbone via an acyl, alkyl, or alkenyl link. These species differ in affinities for the individual LPA receptors [(LPARs, LPA1-6] and coupling to G proteins (2. However, LPA 18:1 has been and continues to be the most commonly utilized species in reported studies. The actions of “LPA” remain poorly defined in oral biology and pathophysiology. Our laboratory has addressed this knowledge gap by studying in vitro the actions of the major human salivary LPA species [18:1, 18:0, and 16:0 (3] in human oral cells (4–7. This includes gingival fibroblasts (GF, which our flow cytometry data from multiple donors found that they express LPA1-5 (6. We have also reported that these species are ten-fold elevated to pharmacologic levels in the saliva and gingival crevicular fluid obtained from patients with moderate–severe periodontitis (8. As the potential of LPA to regulate transcriptional activity had not been examined in the oral system, this study used whole human genome microarray analysis to test the hypothesis that LPA 18:1-treated human GF would show significant changes in gene transcripts relevant to their biology, wound-healing, and inflammatory responses. LPA 18:1 was found to significantly regulate a large, complex set of genes critical to GF biology in these categories and to periodontal disease. The raw data has been deposited at NCBI's GEO database as record GSE57496.

  9. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) 18:1 transcriptional regulation of primary human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutis, D Roselyn; Weston, Michael D; Ogunleye, Afolabi O; McVaney, Timothy P; Miyamoto, Takanari

    2014-12-01

    The pleiotropic, bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid [(LPA), 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate] exerts critical regulatory actions in physiology and pathophysiology in many systems. It is present in normal bodily fluids, and is elevated in pathology (1). In vivo, "LPA" exists as distinct molecular species, each having a single fatty acid of varying chain length and degree of unsaturation covalently attached to the glycerol backbone via an acyl, alkyl, or alkenyl link. These species differ in affinities for the individual LPA receptors [(LPARs), LPA1-6] and coupling to G proteins (2). However, LPA 18:1 has been and continues to be the most commonly utilized species in reported studies. The actions of "LPA" remain poorly defined in oral biology and pathophysiology. Our laboratory has addressed this knowledge gap by studying in vitro the actions of the major human salivary LPA species [18:1, 18:0, and 16:0 (3)] in human oral cells (4-7). This includes gingival fibroblasts (GF), which our flow cytometry data from multiple donors found that they express LPA1-5 (6). We have also reported that these species are ten-fold elevated to pharmacologic levels in the saliva and gingival crevicular fluid obtained from patients with moderate-severe periodontitis (8). As the potential of LPA to regulate transcriptional activity had not been examined in the oral system, this study used whole human genome microarray analysis to test the hypothesis that LPA 18:1-treated human GF would show significant changes in gene transcripts relevant to their biology, wound-healing, and inflammatory responses. LPA 18:1 was found to significantly regulate a large, complex set of genes critical to GF biology in these categories and to periodontal disease. The raw data has been deposited at NCBI's GEO database as record GSE57496.

  10. Comparison of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) growth rate in culture media supplemented with or without basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdian, Narges; Ghasemi-Dehkordi, Payam; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Ganji-Arjenaki, Mahbobe; Doosti, Abbas; Amiri, Beheshteh

    2015-12-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) is a member of the FGF family secreted by different kinds of cells like HDFs and it is an important nutritional factor for cell growth and differentiation. The HDFs release bFGF in culture media at very low. The present study aims to investigate the HDFs growth rate in culture media supplemented either with or without bFGF. In brief, HDFs were isolated from human foreskin sample and were cultured in vitro in media containing bFGF and lack of this factor. The cells growth rate was calculated by trypan blue. The karyotyping was performed using G-banding to investigate the chromosomal abnormality of HDFs in both groups. Total RNA of each groups were extracted and cDNA samples were synthesized then, real-time Q-PCR was used to measure the expression level of p27kip1 and cyclin D1 genes normalized to internal control gene (GAPDH). The karyotype analysis showed that HDFs cultured in media or without bFGF had normal karyotype (46 chromosomes, XY) and chromosomal abnormalities were not observed. The cell growth rates in both groups were normal with proliferated exponentially but the slope of growth curve in HDFs cultured in media containing bFGF was increased. Karyotyp test showed that bFGF does not affect on cytogenetic stability of cells. The survey of p27kip1 and cyclin D1 genes by real-time Q-PCR showed that the expression level of these genes were up-regulated when adding bFGF in culture media (p culture media with growth factor like bFGF could enhance the proliferation and differentiation capacity of cells and improve cells growth rate. Similarly, fibroblast growth factors did not induce any chromosomal abnormality in cells. Furthermore, in HDFs cultured in bFGF supplemented media, the p27kip1 and cyclin D1 genes were up-regulated and suggesting an important role for bFGF in cell-cycle regulation and progression and fibroblast division stimulation. It also suggests that the effects of bFGF on different cell types with

  11. A Major Human Oral Lysophosphatidic Acid Species, LPA 18:1, Regulates Novel Genes in Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutis, D Roselyn; Weston, Michael D; Alnouti, Yazen; Bathena, Sai P; Nunn, Martha E; Ogunleye, Afolabi O; McVaney, Timothy P; Headen, Karmel V; Miyamoto, Takanari

    2015-05-01

    The small bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) plays critical roles in both normal physiology and inflammation in many systems. However, its actions are just beginning to be defined in oral biology and pathophysiology. Microarray analysis was used to test the hypothesis that human gingival fibroblasts (GFs) would show significant changes in wound-healing and inflammation-related gene transcripts in response to a major human salivary and gingival crevicular fluid LPA species, 18:1, and that they would express transcript for the major LPA-producing enzyme autotaxin. The microarray results were validated for three highly relevant upregulated inflammatory transcripts using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to assay time-dependent LPA species production by GFs. LPA 18:1 significantly regulated 20 GF novel and 27 known genes linked to the control of inflammation (P ≤0.01). QRT-PCR validation of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-11, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) messenger RNAs confirmed statistically significant differences from control (P ≤0.05). Autotaxin transcript was present, and GFs were found to produce multiple LPA species in a time-dependent manner. The upregulation of transcripts for known GF proinflammatory (IL-6, IL-8) and anti-inflammatory (IL-11) ILs, along with SOCS2, shows that LPA transiently regulates a complex set of GF genes critical to periodontal wound healing and inflammation. These results implicate LPA exerting actions on GFs that are compatible with functioning as a mediator in oral fibroblast biology and inflammatory responses. Therefore, LPA may potentially modulate/regulate periodontal inflammation.

  12. Apoptosis-Like Cell Death Induction and Aberrant Fibroblast Properties in Human Incisional Hernia Fascia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ramon; Quiles, Maria T.; Guillem-Marti, Jordi; Lopez-Cano, Manuel; Huguet, Pere; Ramon-y-Cajal, Santiago; Reventos, Jaume; Armengol, Manel; Arbos, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Incisional hernia often occurs following laparotomy and can be a source of serious problems. Although there is evidence that a biological cause may underlie its development, the mechanistic link between the local tissue microenvironment and tissue rupture is lacking. In this study, we used matched tissue-based and in vitro primary cell culture systems to examine the possible involvement of fascia fibroblasts in incisional hernia pathogenesis. Fascia biopsies were collected at surgery from incisional hernia patients and non-incisional hernia controls. Tissue samples were analyzed by histology and immunoblotting methods. Fascia primary fibroblast cultures were assessed at morphological, ultrastructural, and functional levels. We document tissue and fibroblast loss coupled to caspase-3 activation and induction of apoptosis-like cell-death mechanisms in incisional hernia fascia. Alterations in cytoskeleton organization and solubility were also observed. Incisional hernia fibroblasts showed a consistent phenotype throughout early passages in vitro, which was characterized by significantly enhanced cell proliferation and migration, reduced adhesion, and altered cytoskeleton properties, as compared to non-incisional hernia fibroblasts. Moreover, incisional hernia fibroblasts displayed morphological and ultrastructural alterations compatible with autophagic processes or lysosomal dysfunction, together with enhanced sensitivity to proapoptotic challenges. Overall, these data suggest an ongoing complex interplay of cell death induction, aberrant fibroblast function, and tissue loss in incisional hernia fascia, which may significantly contribute to altered matrix maintenance and tissue rupture in vivo. PMID:21641387

  13. Bryostatin and its synthetic analog, picolog rescue dermal fibroblasts from prolonged stress and contribute to survival and rejuvenation of human skin equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tapan K; Wender, Paul A; Alkon, Daniel L

    2018-02-01

    Skin health is associated with the day-to-day activity of fibroblasts. The primary function of fibroblasts is to synthesize structural proteins, such as collagen, extracellular matrix proteins, and other proteins that support the structural integrity of the skin and are associated with younger, firmer, and more elastic skin that is better able to resist and recover from injury. At sub-nanomolar concentrations (0.03-0.3 nM), bryostatin-1 and its synthetic analog, picolog (0.1-10 nM) sustained the survival and activation of human dermal fibroblasts cultured under the stressful condition of prolonged serum deprivation. Bryostatin-1 treatment stabilized human skin equivalents (HSEs), a bioengineered combination of primary human skin cells (keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts) on an extracellular matrix composed of mainly collagen. Fibroblasts activated by bryostatin-1 protected the structural integrity of HSEs. Bryostatin-1 and picolog prolonged activation of Erk in fibroblasts to promote cell survival. Chronic stress promotes the progression of apoptosis. Dermal fibroblasts constitutively express all components of Fas associated apoptosis, including caspase-8, an initiator enzyme of apoptosis. Prolong bryostatin-1 treatment reduced apoptosis by decreasing caspase-8 and protected dermal fibroblasts. Our data suggest that bryostatin-1 and picolog could be useful in anti-aging skincare, and could have applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Stem Cell Surface Marker Expression Defines Late Stages of Reprogramming to Pluripotency in Human Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Jordan E; Hough, Shelley R; Davidson, Kathryn C; Quaas, Alex M; Rees, Jordan A; Pera, Martin F

    2016-07-01

    Our current understanding of the induction of pluripotency by defined factors indicates that this process occurs in discrete stages characterized by specific alterations in the cellular transcriptome and epigenome. However, the final phase of the reprogramming process is incompletely understood. We sought to generate tools to characterize the transition to a fully reprogramed state. We used combinations of stem cell surface markers to isolate colonies emerging after transfection of human fibroblasts with reprogramming factors and then analyzed their expression of genes associated with pluripotency and early germ lineage specification. We found that expression of a subset of these genes, including the cell-cell adhesion molecule CDH3, characterized a late stage in the reprogramming process. Combined live-cell staining with the antibody GCTM-2 and anti-CDH3 during reprogramming identified colonies of cells that showed gene expression patterns very similar to those of embryonic stem cell or established induced pluripotent stem cell lines, and gave rise to stable induced pluripotent stem cell lines at high frequency. Our findings will facilitate studies of the final stages of reprogramming of human cells to pluripotency and will provide a simple means for prospective identification of fully reprogrammed cells. Reprogramming of differentiated cells back to an embryonic pluripotent state has wide ranging applications in understanding and treating human disease. However, how cells traverse the barriers on the journey to pluripotency still is not fully understood. This report describes tools to study the late stages of cellular reprogramming. The findings enable a more precise approach to dissecting the final phases of conversion to pluripotency, a process that is particularly poorly defined. The results of this study also provide a simple new method for the selection of fully reprogrammed cells, which could enhance the efficiency of derivation of cell lines for research

  15. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts express pro-inflammatory factors in human breast and ovarian tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erez, Neta, E-mail: netaerez@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Glanz, Sarah [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Raz, Yael [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, LIS Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Avivi, Camilla [Department of Pathology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Barshack, Iris [Department of Pathology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Department of Pathology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express pro-inflammatory factors. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors correlates with tumor invasiveness. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors is associated with NF-κb activation in CAFs. -- Abstract: Inflammation has been established in recent years as a hallmark of cancer. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion. We previously demonstrated that CAFs also mediate tumor-enhancing inflammation in a mouse model of skin carcinoma. Breast and ovarian carcinomas are amongst the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in women and cancer-related inflammation is linked with both these tumor types. However, the role of CAFs in mediating inflammation in these malignancies remains obscure. Here we show that CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express high levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, COX-2 and CXCL1, previously identified to be part of a CAF pro-inflammatory gene signature. Moreover, we show that both pro-inflammatory signaling by CAFs and leukocyte infiltration of tumors are enhanced in invasive ductal carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma in situ. The pro-inflammatory genes expressed by CAFs are known NF-κB targets and we show that NF-κB is up-regulated in breast and ovarian CAFs. Our data imply that CAFs mediate tumor-promoting inflammation in human breast and ovarian tumors and thus may be an attractive target for stromal-directed therapeutics.

  16. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts express pro-inflammatory factors in human breast and ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erez, Neta; Glanz, Sarah; Raz, Yael; Avivi, Camilla; Barshack, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express pro-inflammatory factors. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors correlates with tumor invasiveness. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors is associated with NF-κb activation in CAFs. -- Abstract: Inflammation has been established in recent years as a hallmark of cancer. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion. We previously demonstrated that CAFs also mediate tumor-enhancing inflammation in a mouse model of skin carcinoma. Breast and ovarian carcinomas are amongst the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in women and cancer-related inflammation is linked with both these tumor types. However, the role of CAFs in mediating inflammation in these malignancies remains obscure. Here we show that CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express high levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, COX-2 and CXCL1, previously identified to be part of a CAF pro-inflammatory gene signature. Moreover, we show that both pro-inflammatory signaling by CAFs and leukocyte infiltration of tumors are enhanced in invasive ductal carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma in situ. The pro-inflammatory genes expressed by CAFs are known NF-κB targets and we show that NF-κB is up-regulated in breast and ovarian CAFs. Our data imply that CAFs mediate tumor-promoting inflammation in human breast and ovarian tumors and thus may be an attractive target for stromal-directed therapeutics

  17. Suppression of mRNA Nanoparticle Transfection in Human Fibroblasts by Selected Interferon Inhibiting Small Molecule Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Krishnan, Manoj N; Phua, Kyle K L

    2017-07-31

    In vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNA is increasingly applied in lieu of DNA to deliver reprogramming genes to fibroblasts for stem cell derivation. However, IVT mRNA induces interferon (IFN) responses from mammalian cells that reduces transfection efficiency. It has been previously suggested that small molecule inhibitors of IFN are a viable strategy to enhance mRNA transfection efficiency. Herein, we screen a list of commercially available small molecules, including published IFN inhibitors, for their potential to enhance mRNA transfection in BJ fibroblasts. Transfection enhancement is quantified by relative mean fluorescence intensity of translated green fluorescent protein (GFP) in treated cells compared to dimethyl sulfoxide treated controls. Within toxicological constrains, all tested small molecules did not enhance mRNA transfection in BJ fibroblasts while a third of the tested compounds unexpectedly inhibited GFP expression even though IFN-β production is inhibited. Based on the results of our study, we conclude that small molecule inhibitors, including IFN inhibitors, tested in this study do not enhance in vitro mRNA transfection efficiency in human fibroblasts.

  18. Substrate-mediated reprogramming of human fibroblasts into neural crest stem-like cells and their applications in neural repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ting-Chen; Hsieh, Fu-Yu; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Cell- and gene-based therapies have emerged as promising strategies for treating neurological diseases. The sources of neural stem cells are limited while the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have risk of tumor formation. Here, we proposed the generation of self-renewable, multipotent, and neural lineage-related neural crest stem-like cells by chitosan substrate-mediated gene transfer of a single factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3) for the use in neural repair. A simple, non-toxic, substrate-mediated method was applied to deliver the naked FOXD3 plasmid into human fibroblasts. The transfection of FOXD3 increased cell proliferation and up-regulated the neural crest marker genes (FOXD3, SOX2, and CD271), stemness marker genes (OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2), and neural lineage-related genes (Nestin, β-tubulin and GFAP). The expression levels of stemness marker genes and neural crest maker genes in the FOXD3-transfected fibroblasts were maintained until the fifth passage. The FOXD3 reprogrammed fibroblasts based on the new method significantly rescued the neural function of the impaired zebrafish. The chitosan substrate-mediated delivery of naked plasmid showed feasibility in reprogramming somatic cells. Particularly, the FOXD3 reprogrammed fibroblasts hold promise as an easily accessible cellular source with neural crest stem-like behavior for treating neural diseases in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ex vivo-transduced autologous skin fibroblasts expressing human Lim mineralization protein-3 efficiently form new bone in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, W; Parrilla, C; Fetoni, A; Logroscino, G; Straface, G; Pecorini, G; Stigliano, E; Tampieri, A; Bedini, R; Pecci, R; Michetti, F; Gambotto, A; Robbins, P D; Pola, E

    2008-10-01

    Local gene transfer of the human Lim mineralization protein (LMP), a novel intracellular positive regulator of the osteoblast differentiation program, can induce efficient bone formation in rodents. To develop a clinically relevant gene therapy approach to facilitate bone healing, we have used primary dermal fibroblasts transduced ex vivo with Ad.LMP-3 and seeded on a hydroxyapatite/collagen matrix prior to autologous implantation. Here, we demonstrate that genetically modified autologous dermal fibroblasts expressing Ad.LMP-3 are able to induce ectopic bone formation following implantation of the matrix into mouse triceps and paravertebral muscles. Moreover, implantation of the Ad.LMP-3-modified dermal fibroblasts into a rat mandibular bone critical size defect model results in efficient healing, as determined by X-rays, histology and three-dimensional microcomputed tomography (3DmuCT). These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the non-secreted intracellular osteogenic factor LMP-3 in inducing bone formation in vivo. Moreover, the utilization of autologous dermal fibroblasts implanted on a biomaterial represents a promising approach for possible future clinical applications aimed at inducing new bone formation.

  20. In vitro cytotoxicity of white MTA, MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Patrícia; Nishiyama, Celso Kenji; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Sipert, Carla Renata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement (PC) on human cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Periodontal ligament fibroblast culture was established and the cells were used for cytotoxic tests after the fourth passage. Cell density was set at 1.25 X10 4 cells/well in 96-well plates. Endodontic material extracts were prepared by placing sealer/cement specimens (5x3mm) in 1mL of culture medium for 72 h. The extracts were then serially two-fold diluted and inserted into the cell-seeded wells for 24, 48 and 72 h. MTT assay was employed for analysis of cell viability. Cell supernatants were tested for nitric oxide using the Griess reagent system. MTA presented cytotoxic effect in undiluted extracts at 24 and 72 h. MTA Fillapex® presented the highest cytotoxic levels with important cell viability reduction for pure extracts and at ½ and ¼ dilutions. In this study, PC did not induce alterations in fibroblast viability. Nitric oxide was detected in extract-treated cell supernatants and also in the extracts only, suggesting presence of nitrite in the soluble content of the tested materials. In the present study, MTA Fillapex displayed the highest cytotoxic effect on periodontal ligament fibroblasts followed by white MTA and PC.

  1. Proteome-wide analysis reveals an age-associated cellular phenotype of in situ aged human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldera-Lupa, Daniel M.; Kalfalah, Faiza; Florea, Ana-Maria; Sass, Steffen; Kruse, Fabian; Rieder, Vera; Tigges, Julia; Fritsche, Ellen; Krutmann, Jean; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Meyer, Helmut E.; Boege, Fritz; Theis, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed an ex vivo model of in situ aged human dermal fibroblasts, obtained from 15 adult healthy donors from three different age groups using an unbiased quantitative proteome-wide approach applying label-free mass spectrometry. Thereby, we identified 2409 proteins, including 43 proteins with an age-associated abundance change. Most of the differentially abundant proteins have not been described in the context of fibroblasts’ aging before, but the deduced biological processes confirmed known hallmarks of aging and led to a consistent picture of eight biological categories involved in fibroblast aging, namely proteostasis, cell cycle and proliferation, development and differentiation, cell death, cell organization and cytoskeleton, response to stress, cell communication and signal transduction, as well as RNA metabolism and translation. The exhaustive analysis of protein and mRNA data revealed that 77% of the age-associated proteins were not linked to expression changes of the corresponding transcripts. This is in line with an associated miRNA study and led us to the conclusion that most of the age-associated alterations detected at the proteome level are likely caused post-transcriptionally rather than by differential gene expression. In summary, our findings led to the characterization of novel proteins potentially associated with fibroblast aging and revealed that primary cultures of in situ aged fibroblasts are characterized by moderate age-related proteomic changes comprising the multifactorial process of aging. PMID:25411231

  2. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by e-cigarette fluids in human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancilio, Silvia; Gallorini, Marialucia; Cataldi, Amelia; di Giacomo, Viviana

    2016-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are generally acknowledged as a safer alternative to the use of combusted tobacco products. Nevertheless, there are increasing conflicting claims concerning the effect of these novel industrial products on the health of e-cigarettes users. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of the liquids of e-cigarettes on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and to compare the effects of nicotine-containing fluid to the fluid itself. HGFs were treated with different concentrations (0-5 mg/mL) of fluids of e-cigarettes for different times (0-72 h) and cytotoxicity was analyzed by MTT assay. Fluids were administered also after being vaped (e.g., warmed into the cartomizer). Apoptosis occurrence and Bax expression were evaluated by flow cytometry; ROS production was analyzed by fluorescence optical microscopy. Both nicotine-containing and nicotine-free fluids induced an increased ROS production after 24 h, along with an increased Bax expression, followed by apoptosis occurrence after 48 h of exposure. The cytotoxicity exerted on HGFs by e-cigarettes fluids is not entirely ascribable to nicotine. Since the e-cigarettes are advertised as a safer alternative to traditional ones, especially for the possibility of "smoking" nicotine-free fluids, further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism involved in the occurrence of cytotoxicity exerted by such compounds. Our results suggest a role for e-cigarette fluids in the pathogenesis of oral diseases, such as periodontitis.

  3. In vitro toxicity of propolis in comparison with other primary teeth pulpotomy agents on human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj Ali, Sanaa Najeh

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare the in vitro toxicity of propolis with other primary teeth pulpotomy medicaments. Human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were subjected to different concentrations of propolis, formocresol, ferric sulfate, and gray mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (0.05, 0.5, 5, 50, and 100 μg/mL) for 24 h at 37°C. Cells that were not exposed to the tested materials served as the negative control. In vitro toxicity was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished using anova and Tukey statistical tests (P propolis and gray MTA had comparable cell viability to the negative control group. Almost all remaining concentrations of tested materials were significantly inferior to the negative control after 24 h of exposure (P Propolis and MTA are more biocompatible than formocresol and ferric sulfate since they were both able to preserve PDL fibroblasts for up to 24 h. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Protective effect of porphyra-334 on UVA-induced photoaging in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jina; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, In-Hye; Choi, Youn Hee; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2014-09-01

    The significant increase in life expectancy is closely related to the growing interest in the impact of aging on the function and appearance of the skin. Skin aging is influenced by several factors, and solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is considered one of the most important causes of skin photoaging. The aim of this study was to examine the anti-photoaging role of porphyra-334 from Porphyra (P.) yezoensis, a mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA), using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and electrospray ionization‑mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In the present study, extracted UV‑absorbing compounds from P. yezoensis included palythine, asterina-330 and porphyra-334. Porphyra-334 was the most abundant MAA in P. yezoensis, and it was therefore used for conducting antiphotoaging experiments. The effect of porphyra-334 on the prevention of photoaging was investigated by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels, as well as extracellular matrix (ECM) components and protein expression in UVA‑irradiated human skin fibroblasts. Porphyra-334 suppressed ROS production and the expression of MMPs following UVA irradiation, while increasing levels of ECM components, such as procollagen, type I collagen, elastin. These results suggest that porphyra-334 has various applications in cosmetics and toiletries because of its anti‑photoaging activities and may serve as a novel anti-aging agent.

  5. Cl- transport pathways regulated by Ca++, cAMP, and pH in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, P.; Gruenstein, E.

    1987-01-01

    Under basal conditions Cl - efflux from human fibroblasts occurs with a rate constant of permeability of 0.08 min -1 . 50% of the basal efflux is due to Cl - /anion exchange and is DIDS inhibitable, 25% is due to Na + /K + /Cl - cotransport and is furosemide inhibitable, and 20% is due to an electrically conductive pathway. Increasing intracellular Ca ++ with A23187 stimulates Cl - efflux by 30%. This increase appears to occur entirely via an electrically conducting pathway, but unlike basal Cl - conductance, it is DIDS sensitive. Exposure of the cells to dibutyryl cAMP stimulates Cl - efflux by 15%. They do not yet know whether the cAMP stimulated pathway is electrically conductive, but the stimulation is additive with that caused by elevated Ca ++ suggesting that different pathways are activated. Elevation of intracellular pH by any of several standard methods increases Cl - efflux by as much as 700%. The pH effect appears to be mediated by a Cl - /anion exchange pathway since it is DIDS sensitive and electroneutral. Previous work from this laboratory describing a transient rapid efflux of Cl - followed by a slower efflux phase can now be explained as the result of a transient alkalinization of cells rather than as 2 subcellular Cl - compartments. This alkalinization occurs when cells are transferred from a 5% CO 2 atmosphere during 36 Cl - load to ambient CO 2 for efflux

  6. Orobanche cernua Loefling Attenuates Ultraviolet B-mediated Photoaging in Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Yu-Shuai; Qu, Zheng-Yi; Hwang, Eunson; Ngo, Hien T T; Wang, Ying-Ping; Bae, Jahyun; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2018-02-15

    UV radiation is the primary cause of skin photoaging, which results in an increase in matrix metalloproteinases and degradation of collagen. Developing new natural antioxidant as photoprotective agents has become a popular area of research. Orobanche cernua Loefling is a parasitic plant that is rich in phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs). This study investigated the photoprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of Orobanche cernua Loefling (OC) and its principal component acteoside on UVB-induced photoaging as well as their underlying molecular mechanisms in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Biological testing demonstrated that OC and acteoside possessed significant photoprotective activities, reducing MMP and IL-6 levels while improving type-I procollagen synthesis in UVB-irradiated NHDFs. Further study showed that the protective mechanisms were the improvement of transcription factor Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defensive system, suppression of MAPK/AP-1 and activation of the TGF-β/Smad pathway. Together, our results suggested that OC might be a promising antiphotoaging agent against UV radiation-induced skin damage. © 2018 The American Society of Photobiology.

  7. Effects of hyperthermia and ionizing radiation in normal and ataxia telangiectasia human fibroblast lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.; Chan, A.; Smith, B.P.; Child, S.D.; Paterson, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of 45 0 C hyperthermia and γ radiation have been studied in three normal human fibroblast lines (GM38, GM730, WI38) and compared to the effects in two lines derived from patients with the hereditary disease ataxia telangiectasia (AR3BI, AT5BI). All lines, both normal and γ-sensitive AT, showed a similar resistance to killing by heat alone, suggesting that the defect responsible for the increased radiation sensitivity in AT lines does not confer increased heat sensitivity. Shouldered survival curves were obtained in each case indicating the ability to accumulate sublethal heat damage. All normal and AT cell lines exhibited increased resistance to the lethal effects of heat in response to a thermal stress, indicating that the defect that causes radiosensitivity in AT cell lines does not prevent the induction of thermotolerance. It was hypothesized that in normal cells, this heat treatment inactivates the process which is already defective in AT lines, and that this process may be required for the proper rejoining of double-strand breaks produced during the repair of other radiation-induced lesions

  8. Increased levels of unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts pretreated with sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.I.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    Pretreatment of growing normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) human fibroblasts with sodium butyrate at concentrations of 5-20 mM results in increased levels of DNA repair synthesis measured by autoradiography after exposure of the cells to 254 nm UV radiation in the fluence range 0-25 J/m 2 . The phenomenon manifests as an increased extent and an increased initial rate of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). This experimental result is not due to an artifact of autoradiography related to cell size. Xeroderma pigmentosum cells from complementation groups A, C, D and E and XP variant cells all exhibit increases in the levels of UV-induced UDS in response to sodium butyrate proportional to those observed with normal cells. These UDS increases associated with butyrate pretreatment correlate with demonstrable changes in intracellular thymidine pool size and suggest that sodium butyrate enhances uptake of exogenous radiolabeled thymidine during UV-induced repair synthesis by reducing endogenous levels of thymidine. (author)

  9. Titanium surfaces with nanotopography modulate cytokine production in cultured human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Morandini, Ana Carolina Faria; Ramos-Junior, Erivan Schnaider; Jimbo, Ryo; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Marcantonio, Elcio; Wennerberg, Ann; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    2012-10-01

    Implant topography is an important factor that influences many cell types. To understand the role of topography in the inflammatory events, we evaluated the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) by the release pattern of cytokines. HGFs were cultured on Ti discs for 24 and 48 h. Four different surface treatments were used: machining method (turned), blasting followed by an acid-etching method (BAE), oxidative nanopatterning (ON) method, and an association of blasting followed by an acid-etching plus oxidative nanopatterning (BAE+ON) method. Extracellular levels of IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), IL-4, and IL-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Increased levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were observed in all surfaces after 24 h which decreased after 48 h. BAE, ON, and BAE+ON surfaces showed a reduction in IL-6 levels compared with the turned after 48 h (p < 0.05). On one hand, IL-8 production was lower in BAE+ON in comparison to the turned surface (p < 0.05). On the other hand, IL-4 showed increased levels with 48 h, which were significantly different between turned, BAE, and ON surfaces, but not with BAE+ON. Additionally, TGF-β and IL-10 production were not detected. This study indicates that nanotopography might be important in the modulation of the inflammatory response in cultured HGFs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Passiflora tarminiana fruits reduce UVB-induced photoaging in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Karent; Duque, Luisa; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; Osorio, Edison

    2017-03-01

    Skin aging is a complex process that is strongly affected by UV radiation, which stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epidermis and dermis and subsequently causes skin damage. Among the major consequences are increased collagen degradation and reduced collagen synthesis. Previous reports have demonstrated the beneficial effects of polyphenols for healthy skin. Passiflora tarminiana Coppens & V.E. Barney, a species of the Passifloraceae family, is widely distributed in South America and is rich in flavonoids. We show that UVB radiation increases metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) and reduces procollagen production in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We examined the antioxidant and antiaging effects of the extract and fractions of P. tarminiana fruits. The fractions showed high polyphenol content (620mg EAG/g) and antioxidant activity, as measured by ORAC (4097μmol ET/g) and ABTS (2992μmol ET/g) assays. The aqueous fraction drastically inhibited the collagenase enzyme (IC 50 0.43μg/mL). The extract and fractions presented photoprotective effects by reducing UVB-induced MMP-1 production, increasing UVB-inhibited procollagen production, and decreasing ROS production after UVB irradiation in HDF. Finally, the polyphenol contents of the extracts and fractions from P. tarminiana were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n , and procyanidins and glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of Tamarindus indica seed coat in human fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakchat, Oranuch; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of tamarind seed coat extracts (TSCEs) were compared between the two extracts using boiling-water (TSCE-W) and 70% ethanol (TSCE-E) for extraction. TSCE-W, consisting of the highest phenolic content, possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1 -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities much higher than TSCE-E and Trolox. Additionally, both TSCEs also exhibited superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities higher than Trolox and BHA. Anti-lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity of TSCE-W were also studied in human foreskin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells. Cytotoxic effect was not observed when exposed to TSCE-W up to 1 mg/mL for 12-48 h. However, TSCE-W significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in H202-damaged cells. HPLC analysis showed the presence of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 in TSCE-W, which could be responsible for antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. The results suggest that an inexpensive and simple boiling-water extraction of TSCE-W may provide a valuable natural antioxidant source having anti-lipid peroxidation for health food additives, nutraceuticals as well as cosmeceuticals.

  12. A cigarette component acrolein induces accelerated senescence in human diploid fibroblast IMR-90 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cheng; Li, Yan; Yang, Liang; Feng, Zhihui; Li, Yuan; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang

    2013-10-01

    Cigarette smoking causes various diseases, including lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, and reduces life span, though the mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesize that smoking may cause cellular mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, leading to aging acceleration. In the present study, we tested the effects of acrolein, a major representative smoking toxicant, on human lung fibroblast IMR-90 cells with regard to cellular senescence, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial function. The results showed that subacute treatment with low dose of acrolein induces the following events compared to the control cells: cell senescence demonstrated by increases in the activity of β-galactosidase, the higher expression of p53 and p21, decreases in DNA synthesis, Sirt1 expression, and telomere length; oxidative stress occurred as the increases in the production of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, and protein oxidation; and mitochondrial dysfunction shown as decreases in the mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial biogenesis regulator PGC-1 alpha and mitochondria complex I, II, III, and V. These results suggest that acrolein may accelerate aging through the mechanism of increasing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  13. Distinct cell stress responses induced by ATP restriction in quiescent human fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama Yalamanchili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quiescence is the prevailing state of many cell types under homeostatic conditions. Yet, surprisingly little is known about how quiescent cells respond to energetic and metabolic challenges. To better understand compensatory responses of quiescent cells to metabolic stress, we established, in human primary dermal fibroblasts, an experimental ‘energy restriction’ model. Quiescence was achieved by short-term culture in serum-deprived media and ATP supply restricted using a combination of glucose transport inhibitors and mitochondrial uncouplers. In aggregate, these measures led to markedly reduced intracellular ATP levels while not compromising cell viability over the observation period of 48 h. Analysis of the transcription factor landscape induced by this treatment revealed alterations in several signal transduction nodes beyond the expected biosynthetic adaptations. These included increased abundance of NF-κB regulated transcription factors and altered transcription factor subsets regulated by Akt and p53. The observed changes in gene regulation and corresponding alterations in key signaling nodes are likely to contribute to cell survival at intracellular ATP concentrations substantially below those achieved by growth factor deprivation alone. This experimental model provides a benchmark for the investigation of cell survival pathways and related molecular targets that are associated with restricted energy supply associated with biological aging and metabolic diseases.

  14. Strawberry-Based Cosmetic Formulations Protect Human Dermal Fibroblasts against UVA-Induced Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Gasparrini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme exposure of skin to Ultraviolet A (UVA-radiation may induce a dysregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS which can interact with cellular biomolecules leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, and alteration of cellular molecular pathways, responsible for skin photoaging, hyperplasia, erythema, and cancer. For these reasons, the use of dietary natural bioactive compounds with remarkable antioxidant activity could be a strategic tool to counteract these UVA-radiation-caused deleterious effects. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to test the efficacy of strawberry (50 μg/mL-based formulations supplemented with Coenzyme Q10 (100 μg/mL and sun protection factor 10 in human dermal fibroblasts irradiated with UVA-radiation. The apoptosis rate, the amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production, the expression of proteins involved in antioxidant and inflammatory response, and mitochondrial functionality were evaluated. The results showed that the synergic topical use of strawberry and Coenzyme Q10 provided a significant (p < 0.05 photoprotective effect, reducing cell death and ROS, increasing antioxidant defense, lowering inflammatory markers, and improving mitochondrial functionality. The obtained results suggest the use of strawberry-based formulations as an innovative, natural, and useful tool for the prevention of UVA exposure-induced skin diseases in order to decrease or substitute the amount of synthetic sunscreen agents.

  15. BIOACTIVATION, PROTEIN HAPTENATION, AND TOXICITY OF SULFAMETHOXAZOLE AND DAPSONE IN NORMAL HUMAN DERMAL FIBROBLASTS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaiya, Payal; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; Vyas, Piyush M.; Doll, Mark A.; Hein, David W.; Svensson, Craig K.

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous drug reactions (CDRs) associated with sulfonamides are believed to be mediated through the formation of reactive metabolites that result in cellular toxicity and protein haptenation. We evaluated the bioactivation and toxicity of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone (DDS) in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Incubation of cells with DDS or its metabolite (D-NOH) resulted in protein haptenation readily detected by confocal microscopy and ELISA. While the metabolite of SMX (S-NOH) haptenated intracellular proteins, adducts were not evident in incubations with SMX. Cells expressed abundant N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1) mRNA and activity, but little NAT2 mRNA or activity. Neither NAT1 nor NAT2 protein were detectable. Incubation of NHDF with S-NOH or D-NOH increased reactive oxygen species formation and reduced glutathione content. NHDF were less susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of S-NOH and D-NOH than are keratinocytes. Our studies provide the novel observation that NHDF are able to acetylate both arylamine compounds and bioactivate the sulfone, DDS, giving rise to haptenated proteins. The reactive metabolites of SMX and DDS also provoke oxidative stress in these cells in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. Further work is needed to determine the role of the observed toxicity in mediating CDRs observed with these agents. PMID:16603214

  16. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing human basic fibroblast growth factor increase vasculogenesis in ischemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.C. [Department of Vascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China); Zheng, G.F. [Department of Vascular Surgery, The People' s Hospital of Ganzhou, Ganzhou (China); Wu, L.; Ou Yang, L.Y.; Li, W.X. [Department of Vascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou (China)

    2014-08-08

    Administration or expression of growth factors, as well as implantation of autologous bone marrow cells, promote in vivo angiogenesis. This study investigated the angiogenic potential of combining both approaches through the allogenic transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF). After establishing a hind limb ischemia model in Sprague Dawley rats, the animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups: MSCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP-MSC), MSCs expressing hbFGF (hbFGF-MSC), MSC controls, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) controls. After 2 weeks, MSC survival and differentiation, hbFGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and microvessel density of ischemic muscles were determined. Stable hbFGF expression was observed in the hbFGF-MSC group after 2 weeks. More hbFGF-MSCs than GFP-MSCs survived and differentiated into vascular endothelial cells (P<0.001); however, their differentiation rates were similar. Moreover, allogenic transplantation of hbFGF-MSCs increased VEGF expression (P=0.008) and microvessel density (P<0.001). Transplantation of hbFGF-expressing MSCs promoted angiogenesis in an in vivo hind limb ischemia model by increasing the survival of transplanted cells that subsequently differentiated into vascular endothelial cells. This study showed the therapeutic potential of combining cell-based therapy with gene therapy to treat ischemic disease.

  17. Traumatic Acid Reduces Oxidative Stress and Enhances Collagen Biosynthesis in Cultured Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska-Trypuć, Agata; Pankiewicz, Walentyn; Czerpak, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic acid (TA) is a plant hormone (cytokinin) that in terms of chemical structure belongs to the group of fatty acids derivatives. It was isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris. TA activity and its influence on human cells and organism has not previously been the subject of research. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of TA on collagen content and basic oxidative stress parameters, such as antioxidative enzyme activity, reduced glutathione, thiol group content, and lipid peroxidation in physiological conditions. The results show a stimulatory effect of TA on tested parameters. TA caused a decrease in membrane phospholipid peroxidation and exhibited protective properties against ROS production. It also increases protein and collagen biosynthesis and its secretion into the culture medium. The present findings reveal that TA exhibits multiple and complex activity in fibroblast cells in vitro. TA, with its activity similar to unsaturated fatty acids, shows antioxidant and stimulatory effects on collagen biosynthesis. It is a potentially powerful agent with applications in the treatment of many skin diseases connected with oxidative stress and collagen biosynthesis disorders.

  18. Induction of Mitochondrial DNA Deletion by Ionizing Radiation in Human Lung Fibroblast IMR-90 Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Hyeon Soo; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion is a well-known marker for oxidative stress and aging and also contributes to their unfavorable effects in cultured cells and animal tissues. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation (IR) on mtDNA deletion and the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this process in human lung fibroblast (IMR-90) cells. Young IMR-90 cells at population doubling (PD) 39 were irradiated with {sup 137}Cs -rays and the intracellular ROS level was determined by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and mtDNA common deletion (4977bp) was detected by nested PCR. Old cells at PD 55 and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-treated young cells were compared as the positive control. IR increased the intracellular ROS level and mtDNA 4977 bp deletion in IMR-90 cells dose-dependently. The increases of ROS level and mtDNA deletion were also observed in old cells and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-treated young cells. To confirm the increased ROS level is essential for mtDNA deletion in irradiated cells, the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on IRinduced ROS and mtDNA deletion were examined. 5 mM NAC significantly attenuated the IR-induced ROS increase and mtDNA deletion. These results suggest that IR induces the mtDNA deletion and this process is mediated by ROS in IMR-90 cells.

  19. Surface modification of Polycaprolactone (PCL) microcarrier for performance improvement of human skin fibroblast cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, N.; Hashim, Y. Z. H.; Arifin, M. A.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. Mohd; Sopyan, I.; Hamid, M. Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) has many advantages for use in biomedical engineering field. In the present work PCL microcarriers of 150-200 μm were fabricated using oil-in-water (o/w) emulsification coupled with solvent evaporation method. The surface charge of PCL microcarrier was then been improved by using ultraviolet/ozone treatment to introduce oxygen functional group. Immobilisation of gelatin onto PCL microspheres using zero-length crosslinker provides a stable protein-support complex, with no diffusional barrier which is ideal for mass processing. The optimum concentration of carboxyl group (COOH) absorbed on the surface was 1495.9 nmol/g and the amount of gelatin immobilized was 1797.3 μg/g on UV/O3 treated microcarriers as compared to the untreated (320 μg/g) microcarriers. The absorption of functional oxygen groups on the surface and the immobilized gelatin was confirmed with Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy and the enhancement of hydrophilicity of the surface was confirmed using water contact angle measurement which decreased (86.93° - 49.34°) after UV/O3 treatment and subsequently after immobilisation of gelatin. The attachment and growth kinetics for human skin fibroblast cell (HSFC) showed that adhesion occurred much more rapidly for gelatin immobilised surface as compared to untreated PCL and UV/O3 PCL microcarrier.

  20. Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Cell Viability and PGE2 Production in Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Castiblanco, Gina; Yucel-Lindberg, Tulay; Roos, Stefan; Twetman, Svante

    2017-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that probiotic therapy can play a role in the prevention and management of oral inflammatory diseases through immunomodulation and down-regulation of the inflammatory cascade. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the viability of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and its production of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), when exposed to supernatants of two mixed Lactobacillus reuteri strains (ATCC PTA 5289 and DSM 17938). The experiments were conducted in the presence and absence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. L. reuteri strains were grown and the bacterial supernatant was collected. The cell-free supernatant was diluted to concentrations equivalent to the ones produced by 0.5 to 5.0 × 10 7  CFU/mL bacteria. Cell viability was assessed with the MTT colorimetric assay and the amount of PGE 2 in the cell culture medium was determined using the monoclonal enzyme immune assay kits. Our findings showed that none of the L. reuteri supernatants were cytotoxic or affected the viability of HGF. The most concentrated bacterial supernatant stimulated the production of PGE 2 by the gingival cells in a significant way in the presence of IL-1β (p reuteri might play a role in the resolution of inflammation in HGF. Thus, our findings justify further investigations on the influence of probiotic bacteria on gingival inflammatory reactions.

  1. [Effects of different concentrations of putrescine on proliferation, migration and apoptosis of human skin fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianxia; Rong, Xinzhou; Fan, Guicheng; Li, Songze; Li, Qinghui

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effects of different concentrations of putrescine on the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of human skin fibroblasts (HSF). HSF cultured in the presence of 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 µg/ putrescine for 24 h were examined for the changes in the cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis using MTS assay, Transwell migration assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. Compared with the control cells, HSF cultured with 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10 µg/ putrescine showed significantly increased cell proliferation (Pputrescine, whereas 500 and 1000 µg/ putrescine significantly reduced the cell proliferation (P0.05). Putrescine at 1 µg/ most significantly enhanced the cell migration (Pputrescine significantly suppressed the cell migration (Pputrescine produced no obvious effects on the cell migration (P>0.05). HSF treated with 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, and 10 µg/ putrescine obvious lowered the cell apoptosis rate compared with the control group (Pputrescine; but at the concentrations of 100, 500, and 1000 µg/, putrescine significantly increased the cell apoptosis rate (Pputrescine produced no obvious effect on cell apoptosis (P>0.05). Low concentrations of putrescine can obviously enhance the proliferation ability and maintain normal migration ability of HSF in vitro, but at high concentrations, putrescine can obviously inhibit the cell migration and proliferation and induce cells apoptosis, suggesting the different roles of different concentrations of putrescine in wound healing.

  2. Analysis of Gene Expression in Human Dermal Fibroblasts Treated with Senescence-Modulating COX Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong A. Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that NS-398, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2–selective inhibitor, inhibited replicative cellular senescence in human dermal fibroblasts and skin aging in hairless mice. In contrast, celecoxib, another COX-2–selective inhibitor, and aspirin, a non-selective COX inhibitor, accelerated the senescence and aging. To figure out causal factors for the senescence-modulating effect of the inhibitors, we here performed cDNA microarray experiment and subsequent Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. The data showed that several senescence-related gene sets were regulated by the inhibitor treatment. NS-398 up-regulated gene sets involved in the tumor necrosis factor β receptor pathway and the fructose and mannose metabolism, whereas it down-regulated a gene set involved in protein secretion. Celecoxib up-regulated gene sets involved in G2M checkpoint and E2F targets. Aspirin up-regulated the gene set involved in protein secretion, and down-regulated gene sets involved in RNA transcription. These results suggest that COX inhibitors modulate cellular senescence by different mechanisms and will provide useful information to understand senescence-modulating mechanisms of COX inhibitors.

  3. Morphological analysis and interleukin release in human gingival fibroblasts seeded on different denture base acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiani, O; Toniato, E; Di Iorio, D; Diomede, F; Merciaro, I; D' Arcangelo, C; Caputi, S

    2012-01-01

    The development of different types of materials with application in practice dentistry is an area of intense growth and research due to its importance in oral health. Among the diverse materials currently used in restoration or in dentures, the acrylic based resins have been widely employed. The release of toxic components and the changes on their physical and mechanical properties actually represent a goal of intensive research. In vivo analysis showed that the surface roughness of the acrylic resin represents a factor that could stimulate bacteria colonization and soft tissue inflammation. For this purpose, in this work, we have analyzed the cell response to acrylic based resins Ivoclar, Tokuso and Coldpack in basal conditions, unpolished, and after the polished procedure performed to reduce the surface roughness. Our in vitro results using human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) showed a decrease of cell growth, evaluated by MTT assay starting at 24 h of incubation, in samples seeded on resins in basal conditions and after the polished procedure. This cell growth reduction was associated to evident morphological changes in unpolished materials. After 24 h of culture in presence of polished and unpolished resins a spontaneous release was present of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and -8 (IL-8), which was higher in unpolished resins, indicating that the polished procedure, minimizing the cytotoxicity process, could contribute to reduce the gingival inflammation processes.

  4. Biological effects of in vitro THz radiation exposure in human foetal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Amicis, Andrea; Sanctis, Stefania De; Cristofaro, Sara Di; Franchini, Valeria; Lista, Florigio; Regalbuto, Elisa; Giovenale, Emilio; Gallerano, Gian Piero; Nenzi, Paolo; Bei, Roberto; Fantini, Massimo; Benvenuto, Monica; Masuelli, Laura; Coluzzi, Elisa; Cicia, Cristina; Sgura, Antonella

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, terahertz (THz) radiation has been widely used in a variety of applications: medical, security, telecommunications and military areas. However, few data are available on the biological effects of this type of electromagnetic radiation and the reported results, using different genetic or cellular assays, are quite discordant. This multidisciplinary study focuses on potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, evaluated by several end-points, associated with THz radiation. For this purpose, in vitro exposure of human foetal fibroblasts to low frequency THz radiation (0.1-0.15THz) was performed using a Compact Free Electron Laser. We did not observe an induction of DNA damage evaluated by Comet assay, phosphorylation of H2AX histone or telomere length modulation. In addiction, no induction of apoptosis or changes in pro-survival signalling proteins were detected. Moreover, our results indicated an increase in the total number of micronuclei and centromere positive micronuclei induction evaluated by CREST analysis, indicating that THz radiation could induce aneugenic rather than clastogenic effects, probably leading to chromosome loss. Furthermore, an increase of actin polymerization observed by ultrastructural analysis after THz irradiation, supports the hypothesis that an abnormal assembly of spindle proteins could lead to the observed chromosomal malsegregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Large-scale production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor in transgenic silkworm cocoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Riyuan; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-11-01

    With an increasing clinical demand for functional therapeutic proteins every year, there is an increasing requirement for the massive production of bioactive recombinant human acidic fibroblast growth factor (r-haFGF). In this present study, we delicately explore a strategy for the mass production of r-haFGF protein with biological activity in the transgenic silkworm cocoons. The sequence-optimized haFGF was inserted into an enhanced sericin-1 expression system to generate the original transgenic silkworm strain, which was then further crossed with a PIG jumpstarter strain to achieve the remobilization of the expression cassette to a “safe harbor” locus in the genome for the efficient expression of r-haFGF. In consequence, the expression of r-haFGF protein in the mutant line achieved a 5.6-fold increase compared to the original strain. The high content of r-haFGF facilitated its purification and large-scald yields. Furthermore, the r-haFGF protein bioactively promoted the growth, proliferation and migration of NIH/3T3 cells, suggesting the r-haFGF protein possessed native mitogenic activity and the potential for wound healing. These results show that the silk gland of silkworm could be an efficient bioreactor strategy for recombinant production of bioactive haFGF in silkworm cocoons.

  6. Comparative radical production and cytotoxicity induced by camphorquinone and 9-fluorenone against human pulp fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, T; Ishihara, M; Kadoma, Y; Tonosaki, K; Fujisawa, S

    2004-12-01

    Camphorquinone (CQ) is widely used as a photo-initiator in dental materials; however, its cytotoxicity against human pulp fibroblasts (HPF) and particularly the effects of 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMA), a reducing agent and visible light (VL) irradiation on it remain unknown. So we investigated the cytotoxic and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing effects of CQ with or without DMA, in the presence or absence of VL on HPF cells. The free-radical production activity of CQ was measured by two different methods [using diphenylpicryl hydrazyl and galvinoxyl]. The phase-transition properties of dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline (DPPC) liposomes, as a model for biomembranes, induced by CQ were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. These findings were compared with those of 9-fluorenone (9F), an aromatic photo-initiator with long conjugated groups. Camphorquinone with VL irradiation increased the radical production, whereas 9F with VL irradiation increased ROS production, as well as effecting changes in the DPPC phase-transition properties. The cytotoxicity of CQ towards HPF cells was smaller than that of 9F despite greater radical production. The addition of DMA to the photosensitizer enhanced the free-radical production without increasing the ROS level or the cytotoxicity. Camphorquinone/DMA is a valuable combination for the polymerization of dental resins.

  7. ROS formation and glutathione levels in human oral fibroblasts exposed to TEGDMA and camphorquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, J; Volk, J; Leyhausen, G; Geurtsen, W

    2005-11-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is important for the self-protection of cells against oxidative stress and toxic xenobiotics, whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) at elevated concentrations may cause detrimental alterations of cell membranes, DNA, and other cellular structures. The present investigation addressed the effects of triethylene-glycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and camphorquinone (CQ) on glutathione metabolism and the formation of ROS in oral cells. Primary human pulp fibroblasts were exposed to various concentrations of TEGDMA and CQ (0.1-5 mM). Subsequently, GSH concentration and ROS formation were analyzed with the use of the monobromobimane assay (GSH) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) (ROS). The endogenous ROS hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used as a positive control (0.02-2 mM). TEGDMA significantly decreased GSH at concentrations between 0.5 and 5 mM (por=1 mM, but had only a moderate effect on GSH at the highest test concentration. Hydrogen peroxide increased ROS and simultaneously decreased GSH at concentrations of >or=0.2 mM. These data show that the investigated substances may cause cell damage due to various mechanisms, GSH decrease and/or ROS increase. As a consequence, TEGDMA and CQ released into an aqueous environment from resinous materials might interact, thus generating significant cytotoxic effects even at low concentrations. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Subfractions of enamel matrix derivative differentially influence cytokine secretion from human oral fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Oscar; Brookes, Steven J; Thiede, Bernd; Heijl, Lars; Lyngstadaas, Staale P; Reseland, Janne E

    2015-01-01

    Enamel matrix derivative is used to promote periodontal regeneration during the corrective phase of the treatment of periodontal defects. Our main goal was to analyze the bioactivity of different molecular weight fractions of enamel matrix derivative. Enamel matrix derivative, a complex mixture of proteins, was separated into 13 fractions using size-exclusion chromatography and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were treated with either enamel matrix derivative or the different fractions. Proliferation and cytokine secretion to the cell culture medium were measured and compared to untreated cells. The liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the most abundant peptides were amelogenin and leucine-rich amelogenin peptide related. The fractions containing proteins above 20 kDa induced an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 secretion, whereas lower molecular weight fractions enhanced proliferation and secretion of interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and reduced interleukin-4 release. The various molecular components in the enamel matrix derivative formulation might contribute to reported effects on tissue regeneration through their influence on vascularization, the immune response, and chemotaxis.

  9. Cytotoxicity of two available mineral trioxide aggregate cements and a new formulation on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torshabi, Maryam; Amid, Reza; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Shahrbabaki, Sara Eslami; Tabatabaei, Fahimeh S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of nanohybrid mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in comparison with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and MTA-Angelus, using human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Nine disc-shaped specimens of each material (in 2 set stat: A, set for 24 h; B, set for 30 min; and C, fresh stat) were prepared. HGFs were exposed to tested materials' extracts or control media. Cytotoxicity testing was performed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay in two time intervals. Results were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and t -test. Statistical significance was set at P MTA = 24 h set CEM) at both time intervals. Interestingly, 24 h after incubation, CEM in Groups B and C demonstrated higher cell viability values than MTA ( P MTA showed equal cell viability. All samples of nanohybrid MTA had slight cytotoxic effects after 24 h of incubation, and moderate cytotoxic effects after 72 h of incubation. Set CEM and set MTA-Angelus exerted similar, favorable effects on cell viability. However, within the limitations of this in vitro study, the results suggest that nanohybrid MTA could not be recommended as a material of choice for cervical root resorption.

  10. Effects of Composition of Iron-Cross-Linked Alginate Hydrogels for Cultivation of Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Machida-Sano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the suitability of ferric-ion-cross-linked alginates (Fe-alginate with various proportions of L-guluronic acid (G and D-mannuronic acid (M residues as a culture substrate for human dermal fibroblasts. High-G and high-M Fe-alginate gels showed comparable efficacy in promoting initial cell adhesion and similar protein adsorption capacities, but superior cell proliferation was observed on high-G than on high-M Fe-alginate as culture time progressed. During immersion in culture medium, high-G Fe-alginate showed little change in gel properties in terms of swelling and polymer content, but the properties of high-M Fe-alginate gel were altered due to loss of ion cross-linking. However, the degree of cell proliferation on high-M Fe-alginate gel was improved after it had been stabilized by immersion in culture medium until no further changes occurred. These results suggest that the mode of cross-linkage between ferric ions and alginate differs depending on alginate composition and that the major factor giving rise to differences in cell growth on the two types of Fe-alginate films is gel stability during culture, rather than swelling of the original gel, polymer content, or protein adsorption ability. Our findings may be useful for extending the application of Fe-alginate to diverse biomedical fields.

  11. Luteolin decreases the UVA-induced autophagy of human skin fibroblasts by scavenging ROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Miaomiao; Liu, Zhongrong; Yang, Huilan; Li, Cuihua; Chen, Hulin; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Minling; Zhu, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Luteolin (LUT) is a flavone, which is universally present as a constituent of traditional Chinese herbs, and certain vegetables and spices, and has been demonstrated to exhibit potent radical scavenging and cytoprotective properties. Although LUT has various beneficial effects on health, the effects of LUT on the protection of skin remain to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated whether LUT can protect human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) from ultraviolet (UV) A irradiation. It was found that, following exposure to different doses of UVA irradiation, the HSFs exhibited autophagy, as observed by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) bursts, analyzed by flow cytometry, to differing degrees. Following incubation with micromolar concentrations of LUT, ROS production decreased and autophagy gradually declined. In addition, the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and the classical autophagy-associated proteins, LC3 and Beclin 1 were observed by western blotting. Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of HIF-1α, LC3-II and Beclin 1 gradually decreased in the UVA-irradiated HSFs following treatment with LUT. These data indicated that UVA-induced autophagy was mediated by ROS, suggesting the possibility of resistance against UV by certain natural antioxidants, including LUT. PMID:27430964

  12. Cordyceps militaris Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Myoung; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Ki Rim; Ha, Suk-Jin; Hong, Eock Kee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the major cause of degenerative disorders including aging and disease. In this study, we investigated whether Cordyceps militaris extract (CME) has in vitro protective effects on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Our results showed that the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of CME was increased in a dose-dependent manner. We found that hydrogen peroxide treatment in HDFs increased ROS generation and cell death as compared with the control. However, CME improved the survival of HDFs against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress via inhibition of intracellular ROS production. CME treatment inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic cell death and apoptotic nuclear condensation in HDFs. In addition, CME prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced SA-β-gal-positive cells suggesting CME could inhibit oxidative stress-induced premature senescence. Therefore, these results suggest that CME might have protective effects against oxidative stress-induced premature senescence via scavenging ROS. PMID:25230212

  13. In vitro effects of new artemisinin derivatives in Neospora caninum-infected human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Joachim; Balmer, Vreni; Winzer, Pablo; Rahman, Mahbubur; Manser, Vera; Haynes, Richard K; Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    From a panel of 34 artemisinin derivatives tested in vitro, artemisone, GC007 and GC012 were most efficacious at inhibiting Neospora caninum replication (IC50 values of 3-54nM), did not notably impair the invasiveness of tachyzoites and were non-toxic for human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). Transmission electron microscopy of drug-treated N. caninum-infected HFFs demonstrated severe alterations in the parasite cytoplasm, changes in the composition of the matrix of the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and diminished integrity of the PV membrane. To exert parasiticidal activity, parasites had to be cultured continuously in the presence of 5μM artemisone or GC007 for 3 weeks. N. caninum tachyzoites readily adapted to a stepwise increase in concentrations (0.5-10μM) of GC012, but not to artemisone or GC007. Drugs induced the expression of elevated levels of NcBAG1 and NcSAG4 mRNA, but only NcBAG1 could be detected by immunofluorescence. Thus, artemisinin derivatives represent interesting leads that should be investigated further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Wound healing potential of Spirulina platensis extracts on human dermal fibroblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarina, Pauzi Nur Aimi; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Abas, Faridah; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) is a well renowned nutri-supplement due to its high nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to examine the wound healing efficiency of Spirulina platensis at various solvent extracts using in vitro scratch assay on human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF). Various gradient solvent extracts (50 μg/ml of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts) from Spirulina platensis were treated on HDF cells to acquire its wound healing properties through scratch assay and in this investigation we have used allantoin, as a positive control to compare efficacy among the phytoextracts. Interestingly, aqueous extract were found to stimulate proliferation and migration of HDF cells at given concentrations and enhanced closure rate of wound area within 24 hours after treatment. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts have shown proliferative effect, however these extracts did not aid in the migration and closure of wound area when compared to aqueous extract. Based on phytochemical profile of the plant extracts analyzed by LC-MS/MS, it was shown that compounds supposedly involved in accelerating wound healing are cinnamic acid, narigenin, kaempferol, temsirolimus, phosphatidylserine isomeric derivatives and sulphoquinovosyl diacylglycerol. Our findings concluded that blue-green algae may pose potential biomedical application to treat various chronic wounds especially in diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:27004048

  15. The protective effects of fucosterol against skin damage in UVB-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunson; Park, Sang-Yong; Sun, Zheng-wang; Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Don-Gil; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) overexpression and extracellular matrix depletion, leading to skin photoaging. The activation of MMP is related to increased interlukin-6 (IL-6) and type I procollagen production, which is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation induces MMP-1 production and reduces type I procollagen secretion. Fucosterol, which is extracted and purified from the brown algae Hizikia fusiformis, is a phytosterol. We assessed the effects of fucosterol on photodamage and investigated its molecular mechanism of action in UVB-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that fucosterol significantly decreased the UVB-induced expression of MMP-1, IL-6, p-c-Jun, and p-c-Fos. Additionally, fucosterol markedly increased the UVB-induced production of type I procollagen and TGF-β1. Our results indicate that fucosterol regulates MMP-1 and type I procollagen expression by modulating AP-1 and TGF-β1 signaling and that MMP-1 activation is correlated with IL-6. These data suggest that fucosterol is a promising botanical agent to protect against skin photodamage.

  16. Using QCM-D to study the adhesion of human gingival fibroblasts on implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westas, Emma; Svanborg, Lory Melin; Wallin, Patric; Bauer, Brigitte; Ericson, Marica B; Wennerberg, Ann; Mustafa, Kamal; Andersson, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Sealing the soft tissue-implant interface is one of the key issues in preventing transcutaneous implant-associated infections. A promising surface modification for improving osseointegration and possibly soft tissue integration is to coat the implant surface with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. When new implant materials are developed, their ability to facilitate cell attachment and spreading are commonly investigated in vitro to establish their potential for good in vivo performance. However, commonly used techniques, such as microscopy methods, are time consuming, invasive, and subjective. This is the first study using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, where the real-time adhesion of biopsy-derived human gingival fibroblasts onto titanium and nanostructured HA was investigated. Experiments were performed for at least 16 h, and we found that cellular attachment and spreading kinetics can be followed in situ by observing the change in dissipation and frequency with time. Interestingly, a correlation between cell coverage and the magnitude of dissipation shift reached at the end of the experiment was found, but no such trend was observed for the frequency. Furthermore, the level of cell coverage was found to influence the cellular attachment and spreading behavior. No difference in cell response to the two surface types, Ti and nanostructured HA, was found. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing human basic fibroblast growth factor increase vasculogenesis in ischemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Administration or expression of growth factors, as well as implantation of autologous bone marrow cells, promote in vivo angiogenesis. This study investigated the angiogenic potential of combining both approaches through the allogenic transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs expressing human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF. After establishing a hind limb ischemia model in Sprague Dawley rats, the animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups: MSCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP-MSC, MSCs expressing hbFGF (hbFGF-MSC, MSC controls, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS controls. After 2 weeks, MSC survival and differentiation, hbFGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression, and microvessel density of ischemic muscles were determined. Stable hbFGF expression was observed in the hbFGF-MSC group after 2 weeks. More hbFGF-MSCs than GFP-MSCs survived and differentiated into vascular endothelial cells (P<0.001; however, their differentiation rates were similar. Moreover, allogenic transplantation of hbFGF-MSCs increased VEGF expression (P=0.008 and microvessel density (P<0.001. Transplantation of hbFGF-expressing MSCs promoted angiogenesis in an in vivo hind limb ischemia model by increasing the survival of transplanted cells that subsequently differentiated into vascular endothelial cells. This study showed the therapeutic potential of combining cell-based therapy with gene therapy to treat ischemic disease.

  18. Modulation of Cell Cycle Profile by Chlorella vulgaris Prevents Replicative Senescence of Human Diploid Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyebeh Saberbaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Chlorella vulgaris (CV on replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs were investigated. Hot water extract of CV was used to treat HDFs at passages 6, 15, and 30 which represent young, presenescence, and senescence ages, respectively. The level of DNA damage was determined by comet assay while apoptosis and cell cycle profile were determined using FACSCalibur flow cytometer. Our results showed direct correlation between increased levels of damaged DNA and apoptosis with senescence in untreated HDFs (P<0.05. Cell cycle profile showed increased population of untreated senescent cells that enter G0/G1 phase while the cell population in S phase decreased significantly (P<0.05. Treatment with CV however caused a significant reduction in the level of damaged DNA and apoptosis in all age groups of HDFs (P<0.05. Cell cycle analysis showed that treatment with CV increased significantly the percentage of senescent HDFs in S phase and G2/M phases but decreased the population of cells in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05. In conclusion, hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris effectively decreased the biomarkers of ageing, indicating its potential as an antiageing compound.

  19. Characterization of Human Gingival Fibroblasts on Zirconia Surfaces Containing Niobium Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Dan Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It was indicated that tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP containing yttria (Y2O3 and niobium oxide (Nb2O5 ((Y,Nb-TZP could be an adequate dental material to be used at esthetically important sites. The (Y,Nb-TZP was also proved to possess its osteogenic potential comparable with those conventional dental implant material, titanium (Ti. The objective of the current study was to characterize cellular response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs to smooth and rough surfaces of the (Y,Nb-TZP disc, which were obtained by polishing and sandblasting, respectively. Various microscopic, biochemical, and molecular techniques were used to investigate the disc surfaces and cellular responses for the experimental (Y,Nb-TZP and the comparing Ti groups. Sandblasted rough (Y,Nb-TZP (Zir-R discs had the highest surface roughness. HGFs cultured on polished (Y,Nb-TZP (Zir showed a rounded cell morphology and light spreading at 6 h after seeding and its proliferation rate significantly increased during seven days of culture compared to other surfaces. The mRNA expressions of type I collagen, integrin α2 and β1 were significantly stimulated for the Zir group at 24 h after seeding. The current findings, combined with the previous results, indicate that (Y,Nb-TZP provides appropriate surface condition for osseointegration at the fixture level and for peri-implant mucosal sealing at the abutment level producing a suitable candidate for dental implantation with an expected favorable clinical outcome.

  20. In vitro cytotoxicity of carbon black nanoparticles synthesized from solution plasma on human lung fibroblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panomsuwan, Gasidit; Chokradjaroen, Chayanaphat; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Ueno, Tomonaga; Saito, Nagahiro

    2018-01-01

    Carbon black nanoparticles (CB-NPs) have been synthesized from liquid benzene by a solution plasma method at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The morphological observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed the agglomeration of aggregated fine particles. The synthesized CB-NPs were predominantly amorphous as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The in vitro cytotoxicity of CB-NPs on the human lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cell line was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and systematically compared with those of two types of commercial carbon blacks (i.e., Vulcan XC-72 and Ketjenblack EC-600JD). Cell viabilities were studied at different concentrations of 32.5, 65, 125, and 250 µg/mL. It was found that the CB-NPs derived from solution plasma exhibited a lower cytotoxicity on the MRC-5 cells than the other two comparative carbon blacks. The viability of MRC-5 cells exposed to CB-NPs remained higher than 90% even at a high concentration of 250 µg/mL. This result preliminarily confirmed the biosafety and potential use of CB-NPs in the field of biological applications.

  1. Lidocaine impairs proliferative and biosynthetic functions of aged human dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentov, Itay; Damodarasamy, Mamatha; Spiekerman, Charles; Reed, May J

    2016-01-01

    Background The aged are at increased risk of postoperative wound healing complications. Since local anesthetics are commonly infiltrated into the dermis of surgical wounds, we sought to determine if local anesthetics adversely affect proliferative and biosynthetic functions of dermal fibroblasts. We also evaluated the effect of local anesthetics on IGF-1 and TGF-ß1, growth factors that are important regulators of wound healing. Methods Human dermal fibroblasts from aged and young donors (HFB) were exposed to local anesthetic agents at clinically relevant concentrations. We screened the effects of lidocaine, bupivacaine, mepivacaine and ropivacaine on proliferation of HFB. Lidocaine was the most detrimental to proliferation in HFB. We then evaluated the effect of lidocaine on expression and function of the growth factors, IGF-1 and TGF-ß1. Lastly, concurrent exposure to lidocaine and IGF-1 or TGF-ß1 were evaluated for their effects on proliferation and expression of dermal collagens, respectively. Results Lidocaine and mepivacaine inhibited proliferation in aged HFB (for lidocaine 88% of control, 95%CI 80%-98%, p=0.009 and for mepivacaine 90% of control, 95%CI 81%-99%, p=0.032), but not in young HFB. Ropivicaine and bupivicaine did not inhibit proliferation. Due to the clinical utility of lidocaine relative to mepivicaine, we focused on lidocaine. Lidocaine decreased proliferation in aged HFB, which was abrogated by IGF-1. Lidocaine inhibited transcripts for IGF-1 and IGF1R in fibroblasts from aged donors (IGF-1, log2 fold-change −1.25 {42% of control, 95%CI 19%-92%, p=0.035} and IGF1R, log2 fold-change of −1.00 {50% of control, 95%CI 31%-81%, p=0.014}). In contrast, lidocaine did not effect the expression of IGF-1 or IGF1R transcripts in the young HFB. Transcripts for collagen III were decreased after lidocaine exposure in aged and young HFB (log2 fold-change −1.28 {41% of control, 95%CI 20%-83%, p=0.022} in aged HFB and log2 fold-change −1.60 {33% of

  2. Differential production of proteolytic enzymes by normal human fibroblasts and their counterparts transformed by treatment with 60Co gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Koji; Namba, Masayoshi; Ohkubo, Shigeki; Kimoto, Tetsuo

    1985-01-01

    Production of proteolytic enzymes by human fibroblasts in the process of transformation was investigated. The cells used were normal human fibroblasts (KSM-6) and their in vitro counterparts transformed by treatment with 60 Co gamma rays (KMST-6). Cells seeded by treatment with EDTA were cultured in a serum free medium. Proteolytic enzymes in the culture medium of cells were assayed using a synthetic substrate, N-α-(p-tosyl)-L-arginine ( 3 H) methyl ester hydrochloride. The transformed cells (KMST-6) produced a larger amount of enzymes than normal cells (KMS-6). The enzyme production in both cell lines was high in the exponential growth stage and then decreased as the cells reached confluency. The proteolytic enzymes produced by these cells were trypsin- and thrombin-like enzymes. Cell growth of KMST-6 or KMS-6 was not inhibited by the addition of protease inhibitors to the culture medium. (author)

  3. Galactonojirimycin derivatives restore mutant human beta-galactosidase activities expressed in fibroblasts from enzyme-deficient knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, L; Ogawa, Y; Taniguchi, M; Ohno, K; Matsuda, J; Oshima, A; Suzuki, Y; Nanba, E

    2001-08-01

    Ten low molecular compounds analogous to galactose were screened for inhibition of human beta-galactosidase activity. Among them, 1-deoxy-galactonojirimycin and N-(n-butyl)-deoxy-galactonojirimycin showed an inhibitory effect at high concentrations. However, they restored mutant enzyme activities expressed in enzyme-deficient knockout mouse fibroblasts and human beta-galactosidosis fibroblasts at lower intracellular concentrations. This effect was more remarkable on G(M1)-gangliosidosis mutations (R201C, I51T, R201H, R457Q) than Morquio B disease mutations (W273L, Y83H). These low molecular compounds pass though the blood-brain barrier in mice. We hope that this new therapeutic approach will become clinically applicable in the near future.

  4. Spiral-Wave Dynamics in a Mathematical Model of Human Ventricular Tissue with Myocytes and Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Alok Ranjan; Shajahan, T. K.; Panfilov, A. V.; Pandit, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts, when coupled functionally with myocytes, can modulate the electrophysiological properties of cardiac tissue. We present systematic numerical studies of such modulation of electrophysiological properties in mathematical models for (a) single myocyte-fibroblast (MF) units and (b) two-dimensional (2D) arrays of such units; our models build on earlier ones and allow for zero-, one-, and two-sided MF couplings. Our studies of MF units elucidate the dependence of the action-potential (AP) morphology on parameters such as , the fibroblast resting-membrane potential, the fibroblast conductance , and the MF gap-junctional coupling . Furthermore, we find that our MF composite can show autorhythmic and oscillatory behaviors in addition to an excitable response. Our 2D studies use (a) both homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of fibroblasts, (b) various ranges for parameters such as , and , and (c) intercellular couplings that can be zero-sided, one-sided, and two-sided connections of fibroblasts with myocytes. We show, in particular, that the plane-wave conduction velocity decreases as a function of , for zero-sided and one-sided couplings; however, for two-sided coupling, decreases initially and then increases as a function of , and, eventually, we observe that conduction failure occurs for low values of . In our homogeneous studies, we find that the rotation speed and stability of a spiral wave can be controlled either by controlling or . Our studies with fibroblast inhomogeneities show that a spiral wave can get anchored to a local fibroblast inhomogeneity. We also study the efficacy of a low-amplitude control scheme, which has been suggested for the control of spiral-wave turbulence in mathematical models for cardiac tissue, in our MF model both with and without heterogeneities. PMID:24023798

  5. Differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into dermal fibroblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yanfu; Chai, Jiake; Sun, Tianjun; Li, Dongjie; Tao, Ran

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential seed cells for tissue-engineered skin. → Tissue-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UCMSCs) can readily be isolated in vitro. → We induce UCMSCs to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts via conditioned medium. → Collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA level was higher in differentiated cells. → UCMSCs-derived fibroblast-like cells strongly express fibroblast-specific protein. -- Abstract: Tissue-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) can be readily obtained, avoid ethical or moral constraints, and show excellent pluripotency and proliferation potential. UCMSCs are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In this study, we collected newborn umbilical cord tissue under sterile conditions and isolated UCMSCs through a tissue attachment method. UCMSC cell surface markers were examined using flow cytometry. On the third passage, UCMSCs were induced to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts in conditioned induction media. The induction results were detected using immunofluorescence with a fibroblast-specific monoclonal antibody and real time PCR for type I and type III collagen. UCMSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and reached 90% confluency 14 to 18 days after primary culture. Cultured UCMSCs showed strong positive staining for CD73, CD29, CD44, CD105, and HLA-I, but not CD34, CD45, CD31, or HLA-DR. After differentiation, immunostaining for collagen type I, type III, fibroblast-specific protein, vimentin, and desmin were all strongly positive in induced cells, and staining was weak or negative in non-induced cells; total transcript production of collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA was higher in induced cells than in non-induced cells. These results demonstrate that UCMSCs can be induced to differentiate into fibroblasts with conditioned induction media and, in turn, could be used as seed cells for tissue-engineered dermis.

  6. Spiral-wave dynamics in a mathematical model of human ventricular tissue with myocytes and fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Ranjan Nayak

    Full Text Available Cardiac fibroblasts, when coupled functionally with myocytes, can modulate the electrophysiological properties of cardiac tissue. We present systematic numerical studies of such modulation of electrophysiological properties in mathematical models for (a single myocyte-fibroblast (MF units and (b two-dimensional (2D arrays of such units; our models build on earlier ones and allow for zero-, one-, and two-sided MF couplings. Our studies of MF units elucidate the dependence of the action-potential (AP morphology on parameters such as [Formula: see text], the fibroblast resting-membrane potential, the fibroblast conductance [Formula: see text], and the MF gap-junctional coupling [Formula: see text]. Furthermore, we find that our MF composite can show autorhythmic and oscillatory behaviors in addition to an excitable response. Our 2D studies use (a both homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of fibroblasts, (b various ranges for parameters such as [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text], and (c intercellular couplings that can be zero-sided, one-sided, and two-sided connections of fibroblasts with myocytes. We show, in particular, that the plane-wave conduction velocity [Formula: see text] decreases as a function of [Formula: see text], for zero-sided and one-sided couplings; however, for two-sided coupling, [Formula: see text] decreases initially and then increases as a function of [Formula: see text], and, eventually, we observe that conduction failure occurs for low values of [Formula: see text]. In our homogeneous studies, we find that the rotation speed and stability of a spiral wave can be controlled either by controlling [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text]. Our studies with fibroblast inhomogeneities show that a spiral wave can get anchored to a local fibroblast inhomogeneity. We also study the efficacy of a low-amplitude control scheme, which has been suggested for the control of spiral-wave turbulence in mathematical models

  7. Differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into dermal fibroblasts in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yanfu [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Chai, Jiake, E-mail: cjk304@126.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Sun, Tianjun; Li, Dongjie; Tao, Ran [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Burns Institute, First Hospital Affiliated to General Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential seed cells for tissue-engineered skin. {yields} Tissue-derived umbilical cord MSCs (UCMSCs) can readily be isolated in vitro. {yields} We induce UCMSCs to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts via conditioned medium. {yields} Collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA level was higher in differentiated cells. {yields} UCMSCs-derived fibroblast-like cells strongly express fibroblast-specific protein. -- Abstract: Tissue-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) can be readily obtained, avoid ethical or moral constraints, and show excellent pluripotency and proliferation potential. UCMSCs are considered to be a promising source of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In this study, we collected newborn umbilical cord tissue under sterile conditions and isolated UCMSCs through a tissue attachment method. UCMSC cell surface markers were examined using flow cytometry. On the third passage, UCMSCs were induced to differentiate into dermal fibroblasts in conditioned induction media. The induction results were detected using immunofluorescence with a fibroblast-specific monoclonal antibody and real time PCR for type I and type III collagen. UCMSCs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and reached 90% confluency 14 to 18 days after primary culture. Cultured UCMSCs showed strong positive staining for CD73, CD29, CD44, CD105, and HLA-I, but not CD34, CD45, CD31, or HLA-DR. After differentiation, immunostaining for collagen type I, type III, fibroblast-specific protein, vimentin, and desmin were all strongly positive in induced cells, and staining was weak or negative in non-induced cells; total transcript production of collagen type I and collagen type III mRNA was higher in induced cells than in non-induced cells. These results demonstrate that UCMSCs can be induced to differentiate into fibroblasts with conditioned induction media and, in turn, could be used as seed cells for tissue

  8. Effect of enoxaparin and onion extract on human skin fibroblast cell line - therapeutic implications for the treatment of keloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuła, Michał; Żebrowska, Maria E; Pobłocka-Olech, Loretta; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława; Sznitowska, Małgorzata; Trzonkowski, Piotr

    2014-02-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are hyperproliferative skin disorders resulting in abnormal wound healing. In the prevention and treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars, ointments containing heparin and onion extract are very popular. Their therapeutic effects, however, are still controversial and the mechanism of action is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of enoxaparin and dry onion extract on proliferation, apoptosis and β1 integrin expression in human fibroblasts. Fibroblast human cell lines (46 BR.1 N) were treated for 48 h with various concentrations of enoxaparin sodium (20, 100, 500 µg/mL) and/or onion [Allium cepa L. (Alliaceae)] extract (50, 250, 1000 µg/mL). The cell proliferation was evaluated by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation assay. Furthermore, the expression of β1 integrin and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. The results demonstrate that enoxaparin and onion extract inhibited the proliferation of human fibroblasts. Almost complete inhibition of cell proliferation was achieved by enoxaparin in 500 µg/mL concentration (91.5% reduction). The onion extract at a concentration of 250 µg/mL also strongly inhibited the proliferation of cells (50.8% reduction). Depending on concentration, enoxaparin and onion extract induced apoptosis (500 and 1000 µg/mL, respectively) and, depending on concentration, downregulated the expression of β1 integrin on human fibroblasts. This work points at possible mechanism of action of enoxaparin and onion extract, when administered in the treatment of patients with keloids and hypertrophic scars.

  9. Gene expression of fibroblast growth factors in human gliomas and meningiomas: Demonstration of cellular source of basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA and peptide in tumor tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, J.A.; Mori, Hirotaka; Fukumoto, Manabu; Oda, Yoshifumi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Hatanaka, Masakazu; Igarashi, Koichi; Jaye, M.

    1990-01-01

    The growth autonomy of human tumor cells is considered due to the endogenous production of growth factors. Transcriptional expression of candidates for autocrine stimulatory factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), acidic FGF, and transforming growth factor type β were determined in human brain tumors. Basic FGF was expressed abundantly in 17 of 18 gliomas, 20 of 22 meningiomas, and 0 of 5 metastatic brain tumors. The level of mRNA expression of acidic FGF in gliomas was significant. In contrast, transforming growth factor type β1 was expressed in all the samples investigated. The mRNA for basic FGF and its peptide were localized in tumor cells in vivo by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, showing that basic FGF is actually produced in tumor cells. The results suggest that tumor-derived basic FGF is involved in the progression of gliomas and meningiomas in vivo, whereas acidic FGF is expressed in a tumor origin-specific manner, suggesting that acidic FGF works in tandem with basic FGF in glioma tumorigenesis

  10. Combining enamel matrix proteins with mechanical stimuli potentiates human periodontal ligament fibroblasts proliferation and periodontium remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rui; Wan, Wanting; Li, Jingjing; Du, Chanyuan; Wang, Yijie; Qian, Tian; Niu, Lin

    2018-02-27

    Collagen I (Col-I) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) have been implicated in the regeneration and remodeling of the periodontium. Studies have shown that enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) and mechanical stimuli can promote the synthesis and degradation, respectively, of Col-I and MMP-1. However, the effects of the combination of EMPs and mechanical stimuli on human periodontal ligament are not known. Our aim was to test the combined effects of EMPs and mechanical stimuli on the proliferation of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs) and Col-I and MMP-1 mRNA expression. Primary HPDLFs were isolated using an enzyme digestion method. To select the optimum EMP concentration and the optimum magnitude and loading time of mechanical stimuli, HPDLFs were stimulated with gradient concentration of EMPs (0 µg/mL, 25 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL and 200 µg/mL) and mechanical stimuli (0 kPa, 25 kPa, 50 kPa, 100 kPa, and 200 kPa for 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h), respectively. The cell proliferative response was tested by the MTT assay. The impact of EMPs combined with mechanical stimuli on Col-I and MMP-1 mRNA expression were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. 100 µg/mL of EMPs and a 50 kPa mechanical stimulus were chosen as the optimum parameters due to the higher proliferation rates than other doses. The combination of 100 µg/mL of EMPs and a 50 kPa mechanical stimulus significantly stimulated HPDLFs proliferation and increased Col-I and MMP-1 expression levels compared with incubation with two factors alone. We concluded that the combination of EMPs and mechanical stimulus have synergistic effects on cell growth, cell number, collagen turnover, and periodontium remodeling.

  11. SV40 T antigen alone drives karyotype instability that precedes neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, F A; Peabody, D S; Cooper, J L; Cram, L S; Kraemer, P M

    1990-01-01

    To define the role of SV40 large T antigen in the transformation and immortalization of human cells, we have constructed a plasmid lacking most of the unique coding sequences of small t antigen as well as the SV40 origin of replication. The promoter for T antigen, which lies within the origin of replication, was deleted and replaced by the Rous sarcoma virus promoter. This minimal construct was co-electroporated into normal human fibroblasts of neonatal origin along with a plasmid containing the neomycin resistance gene (neo). Three G418-resistant, T antigen-positive clones were expanded and compared to three T antigen-positive clones that received the pSV3neo plasmid (capable of expressing large and small T proteins and having two origins of replication). Autonomous replication of plasmid DNA was observed in all three clones that received pSV3neo but not in any of the three origin minus clones. Immediately after clonal expansion, several parameters of neoplastic transformation were assayed. Low percentages of cells in T antigen-positive populations were anchorage independent or capable of forming colonies in 1% fetal bovine serum. The T antigen-positive clones generally exhibited an extended lifespan in culture but rarely became immortalized. Large numbers of dead cells were continually generated in all T antigen-positive, pre-crisis populations. Ninety-nine percent of all T antigen-positive cells had numerical or structural chromosome aberrations. Control cells that received the neo gene did not have an extended life span, did not have noticeable numbers of dead cells, and did not exhibit karyotype instability. We suggest that the role of T antigen protein in the transformation process is to generate genetic hypervariability, leading to various consequences including neoplastic transformation and cell death.

  12. Cellular Response to Bleomycin-Induced DNA Damage in Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Outside the protection of the geomagnetic field, astronauts and other living organisms are constantly exposed to space radiation that consists of energetic protons and other heavier charged particles. Whether spaceflight factors, microgravity in particular, have effects on cellular responses to DNA damage induced by exposure to radiation or cytotoxic chemicals is still unknown, as is their impact on the radiation risks for astronauts and on the mutation rate in microorganisms. Although possible synergistic effects of space radiation and other spaceflight factors have been investigated since the early days of the human space program, the published results were mostly conflicting and inconsistent. To investigate effects of spaceflight on cellular responses to DNA damages, human fibroblast cells flown to the International Space Station (ISS) were treated with bleomycin for three hours in the true microgravity environment, which induced DNA damages including double-strand breaks (DSB) similar to the ionizing radiation. Damages in the DNA were measured by the phosphorylation of a histone protein H2AX (g-H2AX), which showed slightly more foci in the cells on ISS than in the ground control. The expression of genes involved in DNA damage response was also analyzed using the PCR array. Although a number of the genes, including CDKN1A and PCNA, were significantly altered in the cells after bleomycin treatment, no significant difference in the expression profile of DNA damage response genes was found between the flight and ground samples. At the time of the bleomycin treatment, the cells on the ISS were found to be proliferating faster than the ground control as measured by the percentage of cells containing positive Ki-67 signals. Our results suggested that the difference in g-H2AX focus counts between flight and ground was due to the faster growth rate of the cells in space, but spaceflight did not affect initial transcriptional responses of the DNA damage response genes to

  13. Elevated Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 in Humans with Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Vivek K; Beaver, Kristin M; Fisher, Ffolliott M; Singhal, Garima; Dushay, Jody R; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Flier, Sarah N

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic regulator Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is highly expressed in the acinar pancreas, but its role in pancreatic function is obscure. It appears to play a protective role in acute experimental pancreatitis in mice. The aim of this study was to define an association between FGF21 and the course and resolution of acute pancreatitis in humans. Twenty five subjects with acute pancreatitis admitted from May to September 2012 to the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) were analyzed. Serial serum samples were collected throughout hospitalization and analyzed for FGF21 levels by ELISA. Twenty healthy subjects sampled three times over a four week period were used as controls. We found that, in patients with pancreatitis, serum FGF21 rises significantly and peaks four to six days after the maximum lipase level, before slowly declining. Maximum FGF21 levels were significantly greater than baseline levels for acute pancreatitis subjects (1733 vs. 638 pg/mL, P = 0.003). This maximum value was significantly greater than the highest value observed for our control subjects (1733 vs. 322 pg/mL, P = 0.0002). The ratio of active to total FGF21 did not change during the course of the disease (42.5% vs. 44.4%, P = 0.58). Fold increases in FGF21 were significantly greater in acute pancreatitis subjects than the fold difference seen in healthy subjects (4.7 vs. 2.0, P = 0.01). Higher fold changes were also seen in severe compared to mild pancreatitis (18.2 vs. 4.4, P = 0.01). The timing of maximum FGF21 levels correlated with day of successful return to oral intake (R2 = 0.21, P = 0.04). Our results demonstrate that serum FGF21 rises significantly in humans with acute pancreatitis. The pancreas may be contributing to increased FGF21 levels following injury and FGF21 may play a role in the recovery process.

  14. Modulation of the Senescence-Associated Inflammatory Phenotype in Human Fibroblasts by Olive Phenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Menicacci

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Senescent cells display an increase in the secretion of growth factors, inflammatory cytokines and proteolytic enzymes, termed the “senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype” (SASP, playing a major role in many age-related diseases. The phenolic compounds present in extra-virgin olive oil are inhibitors of oxidative damage and have been reported to play a protective role in inflammation-related diseases. Particularly, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein are the most abundant and more extensively studied. Pre-senescent human lung (MRC5 and neonatal human dermal (NHDF fibroblasts were used as cellular model to evaluate the effect of chronic (4–6 weeks treatment with 1 μM hydroxytyrosol (HT or 10 μM oleuropein aglycone (OLE on senescence/inflammation markers. Both phenols were effective in reducing β-galactosidase-positive cell number and p16 protein expression. In addition, senescence/inflammation markers such as IL-6 and metalloprotease secretion, and Ciclooxigenase type 2 (COX-2 and α-smooth-actin levels were reduced by phenol treatments. In NHDF, COX-2 expression, Nuclear Factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB protein level and nuclear localization were augmented with culture senescence and decreased by OLE and HT treatment. Furthermore, the inflammatory effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα exposure was almost completely abolished in OLE- and HT-pre-treated NHDF. Thus, the modulation of the senescence-associated inflammatory phenotype might be an important mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of olive oil phenols.

  15. Irradiation effect on the apoptosis induction in the human cancer cell lines and the gingival fibroblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mu Soon; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo

    1998-01-01

    The radiation-induced apoptosis was studied for two human cancer cell lines (KB cells, RPMI 2650 cells) and the human gingival fibroblast cell line (HGF-1 cells). The single irradiation of 2, 10, 20 Gy was done with 241.5 cGy/min dose rate using the 137 Cs MK cell irradiator. The cell were stained with propidium iodide and examined under the fluoro-microscope and assayed with the flow cytometry a day after irradiation. Also, the LDH assay was done to determine the amount of necrotic cells. The obtained results were as follows : 1. On the fluoro-microscope, many fragmented nuclei were detected in the KB, RPMI 2650, and HGF-1 cells after irradiation. 2. On the DNA content histogram obtained from the flow cytometry, the percentages of the pre-G1 peak of the control and 2, 10 and 20 Gy irradiation group were 4.5, 55.0, 52.3, and 66.6% on KB cells, 2.7, 3.3, 31.8, and 32.6% on RPMI 2650 cells and 2.8, 21.8, 30.4, and 40.2% on HGF-1 cells respectively. 3. The number of G1-stage cells was abruptly decreased after 2 Gy irradiation on KB cells and 10 Gy irradiation on RPMI 2650 cells, But there was a slight decrease without regard to irradiation dose on HGF-1 cells. 4. There was no significantly different absorbance in extracellular LDH assay along the experimental cell lines

  16. Simultaneous silencing of TGF-β1 and COX-2 reduces human skin hypertrophic scar through activation of fibroblast apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia; Zhao, Yixuan; Simonenko, Vera; Xu, John J; Liu, Kai; Wang, Deling; Shi, Jingli; Zhong, Tianyi; Zhang, Lixia; Zeng, Lun; Huang, Bin; Tang, Shenggao; Lu, Alan Y; Mixson, A James; Sun, Yangbai; Lu, Patrick Y; Li, Qingfeng

    2017-10-06

    Excessive skin scars due to elective operations or trauma represent a challenging clinical problem. Pathophysiology of hypertrophic scars entails a prolonged inflammatory and proliferative phase of wound healing. Over expression of TGF-β1 and COX-2 play key regulatory roles of the aberrant fibrogenic responses and proinflammatory mediators. When we silenced TGF-β1 and COX-2 expression simultaneously in primary human fibroblasts, a marked increase in the apoptotic cell population occurred in contrast to those only treated with either TGF-β1 or COX-2 siRNA alone. Furthermore, using human hypertrophic scar and skin graft implant models in mice, we observed significant size reductions of the implanted tissues following intra-scar administration of TGF-β1/COX-2 specific siRNA combination packaged with Histidine Lysine Polymer (HKP). Gene expression analyses of those treated tissues revealed silencing of the target gene along with down regulations of pro-fibrotic factors such as α-SMA, hydroxyproline acid, Collagen 1 and Collagen 3. Using TUNEL assay detection, we found that the human fibroblasts in the implanted tissues treated with the TGF-β1/COX-2 siRNAs combination exhibited significant apoptotic activity. Therefore we conclude that a synergistic effect of the TGF-β1/COX-2siRNAs combination contributed to the size reductions of the hypertrophic scar implants, through activation of fibroblast apoptosis and re-balancing between scar tissue deposition and degradation.

  17. Reversal of il-1β-mediated human embryonic pulmonary fibroblast transdifferentiation by targeting the ERK signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Long-Teng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether Interleukin (IL-1β-mediated human embryonic pulmonary fibroblast transdifferentiation could be reversed by targeting of the ERK signaling pathway. The human embryonic pulmonary fibroblast MRC-5 cell line was used as a model to observe IL-1β-mediated transdifferentiation as well and the inhibitory effects of lentinan (LNT. Cell proliferation was examined by a CCK-8 assay. ERK signaling activity was detected using immunoblotting with phospho-ERK antibody. The expression levels of fibronectin (FN, Col I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were assessed by either reverse transcription PCR or the SABC assay. IL-1β-induced-ERK signaling activation in MRC-5 cells was inhibited by pretreatment with the LNT or ERK inhibitor U0126. IL-1β-enhanced cell proliferation and expression of FN, Col I and α-SMA were also attenuated by the treatment with LNT. Our study revealed that activation of ERK signaling is involved in IL-1β-mediated human embryonic pulmonary fibroblast proliferation, phenotypic switching and collagen secretion. These transdifferentiation events in MRC-5 cells could be reversed with LNT treatment by targeting the ERK signaling pathway.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide promotes lipid accumulation in human adventitial fibroblasts via TLR4-NF-κB pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic degenerative disease of the arteries and is thought to be one of the most common causes of death globally. In recent years, the functions of adventitial fibroblasts in the development of atherosclerosis and tissue repair have gained increased interests. LPS can increase the morbidity and mortality of atherosclerosis-associated cardiovascular disease. Although LPS increases neointimal via TLR4 activation has been reported, how LPS augments atherogenesis through acting on adventitial fibroblasts is still unknown. Here we explored lipid deposition within adventitial fibroblasts mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS to imitate inflammatory conditions. Results In our study, LPS enhanced lipid deposition by the up-regulated expression of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP as the silencing of ADRP abrogated lipid deposition in LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts. In addition, pre-treatment with anti-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 antibody diminished the LPS-induced lipid deposition and ADRP expression. Moreover, LPS induced translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, which could markedly up-regulate lipid deposition as pre-treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC, significantly reduced lipid droplets. In addition, the lowering lipid accumulation was accompanied with the decreased ADRP expression. Furthermore, LPS-induced adventitial fibroblasts secreted more monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, compared with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that LPS promotes lipid accumulation via the up-regulation of ADRP expression through TLR4 activated downstream of NF-κB in adventitial fibroblasts. Increased levels of MCP-1 released from LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts and lipid accumulation may accelerate monocytes recruitment and lipid-laden macrophage foam cells formation. Here, our study provides a new explanation as to how bacterial

  19. Oxidative actions of hydrogen peroxide in human gingival and oral periosteal fibroblasts: Responses to glutathione and nicotine, relevant to healing in a redox environment

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Tinti; Mena Soory

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aims to validate pro-oxidant actions of nicotine (N), using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the antioxidant glutathione (G) in an in vitro model of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and human oral periosteal fibroblasts (HPF); radiolabelled androgens are used as biomarkers of redox status. Oxidative stress is an important mediator of inflammatory repair. The androgen metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is an effective biomarker of oxidative stress and healing. Method...

  20. Isolation of Proteins Interacting with the Cyclin D1-CDK6 Complex from Normal and Tumorigenic Human Breast Cells Using a Novel Yeast Three-Hybrid System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichols, Michael

    1998-01-01

    ...% of human breast cancer cases. Cyclin D1, through its association with the catalytic subunit CDK6 and CDK4, controls G1 cell cycle progression, presumably by phosphorylating a substrate protein...

  1. Galvanic microparticles increase migration of human dermal fibroblasts in a wound-healing model via reactive oxygen species pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nina; Cimetta, Elisa; Villasante, Aranzazu; Kupferstein, Nicolette; Southall, Michael D; Fassih, Ali; Xie, Junxia; Sun, Ying; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Electrical signals have been implied in many biological mechanisms, including wound healing, which has been associated with transient electrical currents not present in intact skin. One method to generate electrical signals similar to those naturally occurring in wounds is by supplementation of galvanic particles dispersed in a cream or gel. We constructed a three-layered model of skin consisting of human dermal fibroblasts in hydrogel (mimic of dermis), a hydrogel barrier layer (mimic of epidermis) and galvanic microparticles in hydrogel (mimic of a cream containing galvanic particles applied to skin). Using this model, we investigated the effects of the properties and amounts of Cu/Zn galvanic particles on adult human dermal fibroblasts in terms of the speed of wound closing and gene expression. The collected data suggest that the effects on wound closing are due to the ROS-mediated enhancement of fibroblast migration, which is in turn mediated by the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway. These results imply that topical low-grade electric currents via microparticles could enhance wound healing. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An in vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of curcumin against human dental pulp fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveenkumar S Mandrol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of curcumin to primary dental pulp fibroblasts in vitro. Materials and Methods: Dental pulp fibroblasts from primary maxillary central incisors were cultured and used for cytotoxicity tests after the fourth passage. Ninety-five percent curcumin was diluted with dimethylsulfoxide to prepare 100%, 50%, and 25% concentrations. Each concentration of curcumin was added in triplicate into 96-well microtiter plate containing the fibroblast culture at 104/well. Cells without treatment served as a control group. The number of viable cells after 48 hrs incubation at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 % CO2 and 95 % air was determined by the 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The relative viability of pulp cells was expressed as color intensity of the number in the experimental wells relative to that of the control group. Absorbances were read at 492 nm on a microplate reader with a background subtraction at 620 nm. Results: Cell viability of primary dental pulp fibroblasts to 25%, 50%, and 100% curcumin concentration was 174%, 310%, and 317%, respectively. Conclusions: Curcumin promotes cell viability and induces proliferation of primary dental pulp fibroblasts and has the potential to be developed into an economical and reliable medicament for vital pulp therapy.

  3. Mycophenolic acid suppresses human pterygium and normal tenon fibroblast proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Radgonde; Rabinowich, Liane; Maftsir, Genia; Puxeddu, Ilaria; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca; Solomon, Abraham

    2010-10-01

    To investigate whether mycophenolic acid (MPA) exerts antifibrotic effects on pterygium fibroblasts (PFB) with and without stimulation with fibrogenic cytokines, and to compare the efficacy of MPA with mitomycin (MMC) and dexamethasone (DXM) on PFB and tenon fibroblasts (TFB). TFB and PFB were obtained from tissue explants during strabismus or pterygium surgery. Proliferation of subconfluent fibroblasts ± basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (10 ng/ml) was assessed by using the (3H) thymidine-incorporation assay. Cell cultures were incubated with MPA, MMC or DXM. Apoptosis was evaluated by quantifying Annexin V and propidium iodide positive cells with flow cytometry. MPA showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of proliferation of PFB ± bFGF as well as TFB ± bFGF. The antiproliferative effect of MPA was comparable with that of MMC and DXM. Short exposure of PFB to MPA under profibrogenic conditions was significantly inhibitory. No apoptotic effect was found on TFB. MPA suppressed tenon and pterygium fibroblast proliferation in vitro under basal and profibrogenic conditions. It was comparable with MMC under long-term exposure, but MMC was more suppressive under short-term exposure. MPA may be safer than MMC due to a more specific mechanism of action and lack of cytotoxicity. Further investigation is warranted regarding MPA concentrations that will lead to a potent antiproliferative effect in vivo.

  4. Inhibition of zymosan-induced cytokine and chemokine expression in human corneal fibroblasts by triptolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of triptolide on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression induced by the fungal component zymosan in cultured human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs. METHODS: HCFs were cultured in the absence or presence of zymosan or triptolide. The release of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 into culture supernatants was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The cellular abundance of the mRNAs for these proteins was determined by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and the endogenous nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB inhibitor IκB-α was examined by immunoblot analysis. The release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity from HCFs was measured with a colorimetric assay. RESULTS: Triptolide inhibited the zymosan-induced release of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 from HCFs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. It also inhibited the zymosan-induced up-regulation of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA abundance in these cells. Furthermore, triptolide attenuated zymosan-induced phosphorylation of the MAPKs extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38 as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α. Triptolide did not exhibit cytotoxicity for HCFs. CONCLUSION: Triptolide inhibited proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production by HCFs exposed to zymosan, with this action likely being mediated by suppression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. This compound might thus be expected to limit the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the cornea associated with fungal infection.

  5. Butyrate induces reactive oxygen species production and affects cell cycle progression in human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M-C; Tsai, Y-L; Chen, Y-W; Chan, C-P; Huang, C-F; Lan, W-C; Lin, C-C; Lan, W-H; Jeng, J-H

    2013-02-01

    Short-chain fatty acids, such as butyric acid and propionic acid, are metabolic by-products generated by periodontal microflora such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, and contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, the effects of butyrate on the biological activities of gingival fibroblasts (GFs) are not well elucidated. Human GFs were exposed to various concentrations of butyrate (0.5-16 mm) for 24 h. Viable cells that excluded trypan blue were counted. Cell cycle distribution of GFs was analyzed by propidium iodide-staining flow cytometry. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Total RNA and protein lysates were isolated and subjected to RT-PCR using specific primers or to western blotting using specific antibodies, respectively. Butyrate inhibited the growth of GFs, as indicated by a decrease in the number of viable cells. This event was associated with an induction of G0/G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest by butyrate (4-16 mm) in GFs. However, no marked apoptosis of GFs was noted in this experimental condition. Butyrate (> 2 mm) inhibited the expression of cdc2, cdc25C and cyclinB1 mRNAs and reduced the levels of Cdc2, Cdc25C and cyclinB1 proteins in GFs, as determined using RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. This toxic effect of butyrate was associated with the production of ROS. These results suggest that butyrate generated by periodontal pathogens may be involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases via the induction of ROS production and the impairment of cell growth, cell cycle progression and expression of cell cycle-related genes in GFs. These events are important in the initiation and prolongation of inflammatory processes in periodontal diseases. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Influence of beam shape on in-vitro cellular transformations in human skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthunzi, Patience; Forbes, Andrew; Hawkins, Denise; Abrahamse, Heidi; Karsten, Aletta E.

    2005-08-01

    A variety of strategies have been utilised for prevention and treatment of chronic wounds such as leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers and pressure sores1. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been reported to be an invaluable tool in the enhancement of wound healing through stimulating cell proliferation, accelerating collagen synthesis and increasing ATP synthesis in mitochondria to name but a few2. This study focused on an in-vitro analysis of the cellular responses induced by treatment with three different laser beam profiles namely, the Gaussian (G), Super Gaussian (SG) and Truncated Gaussian (TG), on normal wounded irradiated (WI) and wounded non-irradiated (WNI) human skin fibroblast cells (WS1), to test their influence in wound healing at 632.8 nm using a helium neon (HeNe) laser. For each beam profile, measurements were made using average energy densities over the sample ranging from 0.2 to 1 J, with single exposures on normal wounded cells. The cells were subjected to different post irradiation incubation periods, ranging from 0 to 24 hours to evaluate the duration (time) dependent effects resulting from laser irradiation. The promoted cellular alterations were measured by increase in cell viability, cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. The results obtained showed that treatment with the G compared to the SG and TG beams resulted in a marked increase in cell viability and proliferation. The data also showed that when cells undergo laser irradiation some cellular processes are driven by the peak energy density rather than the energy of the laser beam. We show that there exist threshold values for damage, and suggest optimal operating regimes for laser based wound healing.

  7. Surface modification and its effect on attachment, spreading, and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Huang, Ying; Li, Xiaodong; Zhao, Shifang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to exploit potential methods of surface modification for improving the seal between the neck portion of a dental implant and the surrounding soft tissue. Titanium surfaces were modified by machining (SM-Ti group); machining and acid etching (AE-Ti group); or machining, acid etching, and depositing 4.5 collagen/hyaluronic acid (col/HA) polyelectrolyte bilayers (CHC-Ti group). These were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, scanning force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, and quartz crystal microbalance measurement. The degradation behavior of the col/HA multilayer coating was measured. Next, human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were cultured on the different surfaces, and cell morphology and spreading were observed using fluorescence microscopy and a shape factor measurement. Cell proliferation was examined by fluorometric quantification of the amount of cellular DNA. Matrix formation of HGFs was determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gene expression was analyzed via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Similar surface topology for these three groups was observable on a microscopic scale, and morphologic differences were apparent on the nanoscale. Both acid etching and col/HA deposition improved the hydrophilicity of the titanium surface, in contrast to machining alone. Each col/HA bilayer was about 5 nm thick. The col/HA coating degraded in about a week. Attachment and spreading of HGFs was better on the CHC-Ti surface than on the SM-Ti or AE-Ti surfaces. Moreover, the proliferation and differentiation of HGFs were greatly stimulated when cultured on CHC-Ti. In contrast to two control surfaces (one machined, one machined and acid-etched), col/HA treatment of Ti improved the attachment, spreading, proliferation, and differentiation of HGFs.

  8. Charged-particle mutagenesis II. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-10-01

    The biological effects of high LET charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/μm to 975 KeV/gmm with particle energy (on the cells) between 94 - 603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/μm. The inactivation cross-section (αi) and the action-section for mutant induction (αm) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 μm2 and 0.09 to 5.56 × 10-3 μm2, respectively. The maximum values were obtained by 56Fe with an LET of 200 keV/μm. The mutagenicity (αm/αi) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 × 10-5 with the maximum value at 150 keV/μm. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  9. An RNA-seq screen of P. gingivalis LPS treated human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yufeng; Sun, Mengjun; Xia, Yiru; Shu, Rong

    2018-04-01

    In gingival tissues, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is the most critical stimulator for inducing inflammatory response. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) are the major constituents of gingival connective tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate P. gingivalis LPS induced whole transcriptional profile in HGFs and the potential crosstalk between microRNAs (miRNAs) and inflammatory cytokines. RNA-seq was performed on HGFs with and without P. gingivalis LPS treatment. The gene expression of selected inflammatory cytokines and miRNAs induced by LPS at different time points was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. The protein expression of chemokines was further confirmed by ELISA. Interestingly, most of the significantly changed genes (198/204) were up-regulated at 4 h after 10 μg/ml LPS stimulation, including inflammatory cytokines and miRNAs. Confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 showed single up-regulation peak (4 h/6 h) after 1 μg/ml and 10 μg/ml LPS treatment. Similarly, 1 μg/ml LPS induced single up-regulation peak (8 h) of miRNA-146a, -146b and -155 expression. However, 10 μg/ml LPS induced the increased expression of miRNA-146a and -155 at both early stage (2 h/4 h) and late stage (24 h). Taken together, we investigated P. gingivalis LPS induced whole transcriptional profile, and the different behaviors of miRNA expression induced by different doses of LPS in HGFs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of novel target genes specifically activated by deregulated E2F in human normal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hodaka; Ozono, Eiko; Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Bradford, Andrew P; Okuno, Junko; Shimizu, Emi; Kurayoshi, Kenta; Kugawa, Kazuyuki; Toh, Hiroyuki; Ohtani, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    The transcription factor E2F is the principal target of the tumor suppressor pRB. E2F plays crucial roles not only in cell proliferation by activating growth-related genes but also in tumor suppression by activating pro-apoptotic and growth-suppressive genes. We previously reported that, in human normal fibroblasts, the tumor suppressor genes ARF, p27(Kip1) and TAp73 are activated by deregulated E2F activity induced by forced inactivation of pRB, but not by physiological E2F activity induced by growth stimulation. In contrast, growth-related E2F targets are activated by both E2F activities, underscoring the roles of deregulated E2F in tumor suppression in the context of dysfunctional pRB. In this study, to further understand the roles of deregulated E2F, we explored new targets that are specifically activated by deregulated E2F using DNA microarray. The analysis identified nine novel targets (BIM, RASSF1, PPP1R13B, JMY, MOAP1, RBM38, ABTB1, RBBP4 and RBBP7), many of which are involved in the p53 and RB tumor suppressor pathways. Among these genes, the BIM gene was shown to be activated via atypical E2F-responsive promoter elements and to contribute to E2F1-mediated apoptosis. Our results underscore crucial roles of deregulated E2F in growth suppression to counteract loss of pRB function. © 2015 The Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. The fate of radiation induced giant-nucleated cells of human skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahwasi, A. A.; Jeynes, J. C.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.

    2017-11-01

    Radiation-induced giant-nucleated cells (GCs) have been observed to occur within survivors of irradiated cancerous and within healthy cells, both in vivo and in vitro. The expression of such morphological alterations is associated with genomic instability. This study was designed to investigate the fate of GCs induced in a normal human fibroblast cell line (AG1522) after exposure to 0.2, 1 or 2 Gy of X-ray or proton irradiation. The total of 79 individual AG1522 GCs present at 7, 14 or 21 days after each dose point were analysed from fluorescence microscopy images captured over approximately 120 h. The GCs were identified at the beginning of the observation period for each time point post-irradiation and the area of the cell nucleus was measured (μm2) using a cell-recognition MATLAB code. The results demonstrate that the majority of GCs had undergone a prolonged mitotic arrest, which might be an indication of the survival strategy. The live cell microscopy confirms that a giant-nucleated cell formed 14 days after exposure to 0.2 Gy of proton irradiation was divided into two asymmetrical normal-sized cells. These results suggest that a small fraction of GCs can proliferate and form progeny. Some of GCs had disappeared from the microscopy fields. The rate of their loss was decreased as the dose increased but there remains the potential for them to have progeny that could continue to proliferate, ultimately contributing to development of cancer risk. This important method to access delayed effects in normal tissues could act as a potential radioprotective assay for a dose-limiting parameter when applying radiotherapy. These results might have important implications in evaluating risk estimates for patients during radiation therapy treatment.

  12. Salidroside influences the cellular cross-talk of human fetal lung diploid fibroblasts: A proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wenmin; Gao, Wenyan; Su, Huili; Wang, Sanying; Zhang, Jing; Mao, Genxiang; Yan, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Senescence is a complex multiple factor proces, which is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to find the proteome of cultured human fetal lung diploid fibroblasts (2BS) of different population doubling (PD), as well as the altered proteome induced by salidroside (SAL) in 2BS cells. Proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combining matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time and flight mass spectrometry (MAL DI-TOF/MS). As a result, we found 16 proteins with two-fold variations in senescent cells or after SAL treatment, some being reduced such as reticulocalbin-1, heat shock protein beta-6, elongation factor 1-delta, F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1, and chloride intracellular channel 1. In contrast, 40S ribosomal protein SA, proteasome subunit alpha type-5, and zinc finger BED domain-containing protein 5 increased with cell age. Furthermore, heat shock protein beta-6, Zinc finger BED domain-containing protein 5 was increased in PD30 cells after 10 μM SAL treatment, whereas, elongation factor 1-delta, 6-phosphogluconolactonase, Nucleoside diphosphate kinase A, F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1, Probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX41, Chloride intracellular channel 1, and Peroxiredoxin-6 were increased in PD50 cells after 10 μM SAL treatment. Some of these proteins were involved in the protein synthetic and degradative pathways, which emphasizes the metabolic disorder or functional impairment of cell senescence. Moreover, these proteins could be candidate biomarkers for evaluating the SAL anti-senescence effect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of apigenin on gap junctional intercellular communication in human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts.

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    Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Jibing; Zou, Huihui; Huang, Xudong

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the effect of apigenin on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTFs) and its underlying mechanism. After a 48 h treatment of cultured HTFs with apigenin (80 micromol/L), the GJIC was detected by a scrape-loading/dye transfer technique with Lucifer yellow dye and rhodamine (Rh) dextran. The coupling index represents a quantification of GJIC where a high coupling index is associated with a greater number of cells demonstrating cell-cell communication through gap junction channels. The changes in connexin 43 (Cx43) distribution and the expression of Cx43 at the protein and mRNA levels were statistically compared between the two groups by means of immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functioning of GJIC in the HTFs was significantly enhanced after 48 hours by apigenin treatment when compared with the control cells. In the apigenin group, the intercellular dye transfer grade was above 9, while this value was only grade 3-4 in the control group. The coupling index was significantly increased up to 9.205+/-0.3621 in the apigenin group, compared with 5.1775+/-0.3177 in the control group (F=279.581, P=0.000). The expression of Cx43 at the protein and mRNA levels was significantly up-regulated in the apigenin group compared with the control group. Apigenin can significantly enhance the function of GJIC in HTFs by up-regulating the expression of Cx43 at both the protein and mRNA levels, suggesting that the enhancement of GJIC in HTFs by apigenin probably acts as an important mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of apigenin on HTF proliferation.

  14. Sp1 is essential for p16 expression in human diploid fibroblasts during senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: p16(INK4a tumor suppressor protein has been widely proposed to mediate entrance of the cells into the senescent stage. Promoter of p16(INK4a gene contains at least five putative GC boxes, named GC-I to V, respectively. Our previous data showed that a potential Sp1 binding site, within the promoter region from -466 to -451, acts as a positive transcription regulatory element. These results led us to examine how Sp1 and/or Sp3 act on these GC boxes during aging in cultured human diploid fibroblasts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mutagenesis studies revealed that GC-I, II and IV, especially GC-II, are essential for p16(INK4a gene expression in senescent cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA and ChIP assays demonstrated that both Sp1 and Sp3 bind to these elements and the binding activity is enhanced in senescent cells. Ectopic overexpression of Sp1, but not Sp3, induced the transcription of p16(INK4a. Both Sp1 RNAi and Mithramycin, a DNA intercalating agent that interferes with Sp1 and Sp3 binding activities, reduced p16(INK4a gene expression. In addition, the enhanced binding of Sp1 to p16(INK4a promoter during cellular senescence appeared to be the result of increased Sp1 binding affinity, not an alteration in Sp1 protein level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All these results suggest that GC- II is the key site for Sp1 binding and increase of Sp1 binding activity rather than protein levels contributes to the induction of p16(INK4a expression during cell aging.

  15. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of a New Nano Root Canal Sealer on Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Maryam; Dastmalchi, Parisa; Zarei, Mina; Shayani Rad, Maryam; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a new nano zinc-oxide eugenol (NZOE) sealer on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) compared with Pulpdent (micro-sized ZOE sealer) and AH-26 (resin-based sealer). Methods and Materials: The Pulpdent, AH-26, and NZOE sealers were prepared and exposed to cell culture media immediately after setting, and 24 h and one week after setting. Then, the primary cultured HGFs were incubated for 24 h with different dilutions (1:1 to 1:32) of each sealer extract. Cell viability was evaluated by methyl thiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results were compared using two-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: All sealer extracts, up to 32 times dilutions, showed cytotoxicity when exposed to HGF immediately after setting. The extracts obtained 24 h or one week after setting showed lower cytotoxicity than extracts obtained immediately after setting. At all setting times, NZOE showed lower cytotoxicity than Pulpdent and AH-26. While one-week extracts of NZOE had no significant effect on the viability of HGF at dilutions 1:4 to 1:32, both Pulpdent and AH-26 decreased the cell viability at dilutions of 1:4 and 1:8. Conclusion: NZOE exhibited lower cytotoxicity compared to Pulpdent and AH-26 on HGF and has the potential to be considered as a new root canal filling material. PMID:28512490

  16. Pretreatment of Ferulic Acid Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Ultraviolet A Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Ki Bbeum; Bae, Seunghee; Choi, Byung Gon; An, Sungkwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 90%~99% of ultraviolet A (UVA) ray reaches the Earth's surface. The deeply penetrating UVA rays induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which results in oxidative stress such as photoproducts, senescence, and cell death. Thus, UVA is considered a primary factor that promotes skin aging. Objective Researchers investigated whether pretreatment with ferulic acid protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) against UVA-induced cell damages. Methods HDF proliferation was analyzed using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. Cell cycle distribution and intracellular ROS levels were assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Senescence was evaluated using a senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay, while Gadd45α promoter activity was analyzed through a luciferase assay. The expression levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A and C, matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 3, as well as p21 and p16 were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Inhibition of proliferation and cell cycle arrest were detected in cells that were irradiated with UVA only. Pretreatment with ferulic acid significantly increased the proliferation and cell cycle progression in HDFs. Moreover, ferulic acid pretreatment produced antioxidant effects such as reduced DCF intensity, and affected SOD1 and CAT mRNA expression. These effects were also demonstrated in the analysis of cell senescence, promoter activity, expression of senescent markers, and DNA repair. Conclusion These results demonstrate that ferulic acid exerts protective effects on UVA-induced cell damages via anti-oxidant and stress-inducible cellular mechanisms in HDFs. PMID:27904274

  17. Induction of IL-6 and MMP-8 in human periodontal fibroblasts by static tensile strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Collin; Walter, Christian; Ziebart, Thomas; Grimm, Sarah; Meila, Dan; Krieger, Elena; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2014-04-01

    Mechanical loading is a potential activator of inflammation and able to stimulate factors for periodontal and alveolar bone destruction. Aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response and synthesis of proteinases by human periodontal ligament fibroblast (HPdLF) dependent on different strengths of static tensile strain (STS). HPdLFs were loaded with different STS strengths (1, 5, and 10 %) in vitro. Gene expressions of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Production of IL-6, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa ligand (RANKL) synthesis was detected by immunocytochemical staining. Ten percent STS led to an increased gene expression of IL-6 and COX-2 (34.4-fold) in HPdLF, and 1 and 5 % STS slightly reduced the gene expression of IL-6. Synthesis of IL-6 was significantly reduced by 1 % STS and stimulated by 10 % STS. Ten percent STS significantly induced PGE2 production. RANKL was not detectable at any strength of STS. MMP-8 synthesis showed significantly higher values only at 10 % STS, but TIMP-1 was stimulated by 5 and 10 % STS, resulting into highest TIMP-1/MMP-8 ratio at 5 % STS. High-strength STS is a potent inducer of periodontal inflammation and MMP-8, whereas low-strength STS shows an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-strength STS causes the highest TIMP-1/MMP-8 ratio, leading to appropriate conditions for reformation of the extracellular matrix. Furthermore, this study points out that the strength of force plays a pivotal role to achieve orthodontic tooth movement without inducing periodontal inflammation and to activate extracellular matrix regeneration.

  18. Influence of mechanical compression on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts and osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettelhoff, L; Grimm, S; Jacobs, C; Walter, C; Pabst, A M; Goldschmitt, J; Wehrbein, H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the changes in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPdLFs) and osteoblasts (HOBs) after the application of compressive force (CF) at two different strengths in vitro. HPdLF and HOB were exposed to CF with various strengths (5 and 10 %) using a Flexercell Compression Unit for 12 h in vitro. Viability was detected via 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and apoptosis rate by transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) was analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Osteopontin (OPN), matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and tissue inhibition of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were quantified by an ELISA. Ten percent CF decreased viability, particularly in HOBs, but did not induce increased apoptosis. ALP gene expression increased the most after 5 % CF in HPdLFs and after 10 % CF in HOB. OCN was not affected by CF in either cell line. The highest RANKL/OPG ratio was measured after 5 % CF in both cell lines. OPN was upregulated in HOB by 5 %. HPdLFs showed an upregulation of MMP-8-synthesis and an increased MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio. HOBs have a greater effect on bone remodeling through the upregulation of OPN, whereas HPdLFs facilitate orthodontic tooth movement by influencing the extracellular matrix via the MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio. High CF in orthodontics should be avoided to prevent tissue damage, whereas moderate CF enables active tissue remodeling and tooth movement.

  19. Fibroblasts derived from human pluripotent stem cells activate angiogenic responses in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Shamis

    Full Text Available Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC/hiPSC are promising cell sources for the derivation of large numbers of specific cell types for tissue engineering and cell therapy applications. We have describe a directed differentiation protocol that generates fibroblasts from both hESC and hiPSC (EDK/iPDK that support the repair and regeneration of epithelial tissue in engineered, 3D skin equivalents. In the current study, we analyzed the secretory profiles of EDK and iPDK cells to investigate the production of factors that activate and promote angiogenesis. Analysis of in vitro secretion profiles from EDK and iPDK cells demonstrated the elevated secretion of pro-angiogenic soluble mediators, including VEGF, HGF, IL-8, PDGF-AA, and Ang-1, that stimulated endothelial cell sprouting in a 3D model of angiogenesis in vitro. Phenotypic analysis of EDK and iPDK cells during the course of differentiation from hESCs and iPSCs revealed that both cell types progressively acquired pericyte lineage markers NG2, PDGFRβ, CD105, and CD73 and demonstrated transient induction of pericyte progenitor markers CD31, CD34, and Flk1/VEGFR2. Furthermore, when co-cultured with endothelial cells in 3D fibrin-based constructs, EDK and iPDK cells promoted self-assembly of vascular networks and vascular basement membrane deposition. Finally, transplantation of EDK cells into mice with hindlimb ischemia significantly reduced tissue necrosis and improved blood perfusion, demonstrating the potential of these cells to stimulate angiogenic responses in vivo. These findings demonstrate that stable populations of pericyte-like angiogenic cells can be generated with high efficiency from hESC and hiPSC using a directed differentiation approach. This provides new cell sources and opportunities for vascular tissue engineering and for the development of novel strategies in regenerative medicine.

  20. Effect of root canal sealers on human periodontal ligament fibroblast viability: ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurko, Grzegorz; Pawińska, Małgorzata; Łuczaj-Cepowicz, Elżbieta; Kierklo, Anna; Marczuk-Kolada, Grażyna; Hołownia, Adam

    2017-12-14

    The aim of the study was to compare ex vivo the toxic effects of six root canal sealers immediately after mixing or setting on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPdLF). Freshly mixed (I group) or set (allowed to dry for 24 h) (II group) specimens of AH Plus Jet (AH), Apexit Plus (AP), MTA Fillapex (FL), GuttaFlow (GF), MetaSEAL Soft (META), and Tubli-Seal (TS) were prepared. HPdLF were exposed for 24 h to the specimens. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolo-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to examine the effect of the root canal sealers on mitochondrial metabolic activity. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-annexin V (AnV) and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry was used to identify the effects of the materials on cell apoptosis/necrosis. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc tests, and significance was determined at P analysis showed significant differences in HPdLF viability between the individual materials in each group (P < 0.001). AH and AP induced a significant increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells, while TS, FL, and META elevated the proportion of necrotic cells compared with other materials and the controls (p < 0.05). The cytotoxic effects of the tested root canal sealers (both fresh and set) on HPdLF varied. Both forms of sealers were able to cause toxic effects by inducing apoptosis and necrosis in HPdLF. The cytotoxicity of FL, META, TS was mainly associated with necrosis, while AH and AP with apoptosis.

  1. Biocompatibility of polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network (PICN) materials with Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenade, Charlotte; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire; Gailly, Patrick; Vanheusden, Alain; Mainjot, Amélie

    2016-09-01

    Polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network (PICN) materials constitute an innovative class of CAD-CAM materials offering promising perspectives in prosthodontics, but no data are available in the literature regarding their biological properties. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility of PICNs with human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) in comparison with materials typically used for implant prostheses and abutments. HGF attachment, proliferation and spreading on discs made of PICN, grade V titanium (Ti), yttrium zirconia (Zi), lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (eM) and polytetrafluoroethylene (negative control), were evaluated using a specific insert-based culture system (IBS-R). Sample surface properties were characterized by XPS, contact angle measurement, profilometry and SEM. Ti and Zi gave the best results regarding HGF viability, morphology, number and coverage increase with time in comparison with the negative control, while PICN and eM gave intermediate results, cell spreading being comparable for PICN, Ti, Zi and eM. Despite the presence of polymers and their related hydrophobicity, PICN exhibited comparable results to glass-ceramic materials, which could be explained by the mode of polymerization of the monomers. The results of the present study confirm that the currently employed materials, i.e. Ti and Zi, can be considered to be the gold standard of materials in terms of HGF behavior, while PICN gave intermediate results comparable to eM. The impact of the present in vitro results needs to be further investigated clinically, particularly in the view of the utilization of PICNs for prostheses on bone-level implants. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium spirulan as an inducer of tissue-type plasminogen activator in human fetal lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y; Hayashi, T; Hayashi, K; Ozawa, T; Niiya, K; Sakuragawa, N

    1997-03-01

    Calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a novel sulfated polysaccharide isolated from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, has been found to have antiviral and heparin cofactor II-dependent antithrombin activities. We have obtained evidence that Ca-SP is a potent inducer of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) production. The addition of Ca-SP to a culture of IMR-90 human fetal lung fibroblasts increased t-PA concentrations in the conditioned medium, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but in the cell lysate, t-PA concentrations were unchanged, suggesting that t-PA induced by Ca-SP is easily secreted into the conditioned medium. The amount of newly synthesized t-PA in IMR-90 cells, as measured by labeling with [35S]methionine and subsequent immunoprecipitation of t-PA from conditioned medium, was significantly increased by Ca-SP-stimulation. However, Ca-SP did not increase the t-PA mRNA levels. As previously reported, thrombin stimulated t-PA gene transcription in IMR-90 cells, and the simultaneous treatment with Ca-SP and thrombin caused further enhancement of t-PA production, in a synergistic manner. It would thus appear that Ca-SP increases t-PA production through post-transcriptional processes. IMR-90 cells also produce plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), but Ca-SP showed little effect on the PAI-1 production. H-SP, which was obtained by removing the calcium from Ca-SP, had no effect on the t-PA production. Na-SP, which was prepared by replacement of the calcium with sodium, stimulated the t-PA production similarly to Ca-SP. Thus, Ca-SP specifically induces t-PA production, and the molecular conformation of Ca-SP maintained by Ca or Na may be essential for the stimulation of t-PA synthesis.

  3. Caveolin-1 serves as a negative effector in senescent human gingival fibroblasts during Fusobacterium nucleatum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, S H; Cho, S-H; Song, J-E; Kim, S; Oh, S S; Jung, S; Cho, K A; Lee, T-H

    2017-06-01

    It is well established that aging is associated with increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. Fusobacterium nucleatum is a well-known bacterial species that plays a central bridging role between early and late colonizers in the human oral cavity. Further, the ability of F. nucleatum to invade gingival fibroblasts (GFs) is critical to the development of periodontal diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the age-related infection of GFs by F. nucleatum remain unknown. We used young (fourth passage) and senescent (22nd passage) GFs to investigate the mechanisms of F. nucleatum infection in aged GFs and first observed increased invasion of F. nucleatum in senescent GFs. We also found that the co-localization of caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a protein marker of aging, with F. nucleatum and the knockdown of Cav-1 in GFs reduced F. nucleatum invasion. Additionally, F. nucleatum infection triggered the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through activation of NADPH oxidase in GFs, but senescent GFs exhibited significantly lower levels of NADPH oxidase activity and ROS production compared with young GFs in both the uninfected and infected conditions. Also, senescent GFs exhibited a decline in proinflammatory cytokine production and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation following F. nucleatum infection. Interestingly, the knockdown of Cav-1 in senescent GFs increased NADPH oxidase activity and caused the upregulation of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 and the phosphorylation of ERK. Collectively, the increased expression of Cav-1 might play a critical role in F. nucleatum invasion and could hinder the host response in senescent GFs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Aberrant regulation and modification of heat shock factor 1 in senescent human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Kwang; Liu, Diana J; Lu, Jiebo; Chen, Kuang Yu; Liu, Alice Y-C

    2009-02-01

    Induction of the heat shock response (HSR), determined by hsp70-luciferase reporter and HSP70 protein expression, is attenuated as a function of age of the IMR-90 human diploid fibroblasts. To better understand the underlying mechanism, we evaluated changes in the regulation and function of the HSF1 transcription factor. We show that the activation of HSF1 both in vivo and in vitro was decreased as a function of age, and this was attributable to a change in the regulation of HSF1 as the abundance of HSF1 protein and mRNA was unaffected. HSF1 was primarily cytosolic in young cells maintained at 37 degrees C, and heat shock promoted its quantitative nuclear translocation and trimerization. In old cells, some HSF1 was nuclear sequestered at 37 degrees C, and heat shock failed to promote the quantitative trimerization of HSF1. These changes in HSF1 could be reproduced by treating young cells with H2O2 to stunt them into premature senescence. Flow cytometry measurement of peroxide content showed higher levels in old cells and H2O2-induced premature senescent cells as compared to young cells. Experiments using isoelectric focusing and Western blot showed age-dependent changes in the mobility of HSF1 in a pattern consistent with its S-glutathiolation and S-nitrosylation; these changes could be mimicked by treating young cells with H2O2. Our results demonstrated dynamic age-dependent changes in the regulation but not the amount of HSF1. These changes are likely mediated by oxidative events that promote reversible and irreversible modification of HSF1 including S-glutathiolation and S-nitrosylation.

  5. Effects of an extract from the sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata on DNA synthesis and excision repair in human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.C.; Carrier, W.L.; Regan, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    An aqueous ethanol extract from the marine tunicate species Ecteinascidia turbinata was studied to determine its effect on semiconservative DNA synthesis in human skin fibroblast cultures as measured by (/sup 3/H) thymidine uptake in acid-insoluble cell fractions. In addition, the effect of this extract on DNA excision repair in ultraviolet light (254 nm) irradiated fibroblasts was measured by the bromodeoxyuridine photolysis assay, thymine dimer chromatography, and DNA single-strand break analysis on alkaline sucrose gradients. Repair inhibition was accompanied by an accumulation of single-strand DNA breaks which was enhanced by the addtion of 2 mM hydroxyurea. These results are discussed with respect to a mechanism of action of the marine tunicate extract at the level of DNA polymerases and are contrasted with previously studied inhibitory mechanisms of arabinofuranosyl nucleosides.

  6. CADM1 is a key receptor mediating human mast cell adhesion to human lung fibroblasts and airway smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P Moiseeva

    Full Text Available Mast cells (MCs play a central role in the development of many diseases including asthma and pulmonary fibrosis. Interactions of human lung mast cells (HLMCs with human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs are partially dependent on adhesion mediated by cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1, but the adhesion mechanism through which HLMCs interact with human lung fibroblasts (HLFs is not known. CADM1 is expressed as several isoforms (SP4, SP1, SP6 in HLMCs, with SP4 dominant. These isoforms differentially regulate HLMC homotypic adhesion and survival.In this study we have investigated the role of CADM1 isoforms in the adhesion of HLMCs and HMC-1 cells to primary HASMCs and HLFs.CADM1 overexpression or downregulation was achieved using adenoviral delivery of CADM1 short hairpin RNAs or isoform-specific cDNAs respectively.Downregulation of CADM1 attenuated both HLMC and HMC-1 adhesion to both primary HASMCs and HLFs. Overexpression of either SP1 or SP4 isoforms did not alter MC adhesion to HASMCs, whereas overexpression of SP4, but not SP1, significantly increased both HMC-1 cell and HLMC adhesion to HLFs. The expression level of CADM1 SP4 strongly predicted the extent of MC adhesion; linear regression indicated that CADM1 accounts for up to 67% and 32% of adhesion to HLFs for HMC-1 cells and HLMCs, respectively. HLFs supported HLMC proliferation and survival through a CADM1-dependent mechanism. With respect to CADM1 counter-receptor expression, HLFs expressed both CADM1 and nectin-3, whereas HASMCs expressed only nectin-3.Collectively these data indicate that the CADM1 SP4 isoform is a key receptor mediating human MC adhesion to HASMCs and HLFs. The differential expression of CADM1 counter-receptors on HLFs compared to HASMCs may allow the specific targeting of either HLMC-HLF or HLMC-HASMC interactions in the lung parenchyma and airways.

  7. Cell death effects of resin-based dental material compounds and mercurials in human gingival fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, Franz-Xaver [Walther-Straub-Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Munich (Germany); Esters, Magali; Simon, Sabine; Seiss, Mario [Walther-Straub-Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Kehe, Kai [Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munich (Germany); Kleinsasser, Norbert [University of Regensburg, Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, Regensburg (Germany); Folwaczny, Matthias; Glas, Juergen; Hickel, Reinhard [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Munich (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    In order to test the hypothesis that released dental restorative materials can reach toxic levels in human oral tissues, the cytotoxicities of the resin-based dental (co)monomers hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethanedimethacrylate (UDMA), and bisglycidylmethacrylate (BisGMA) compared with methyl mercury chloride (MeHgCl) and the amalgam component mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) were investigated on human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) using two different test systems: (1) the modified XTT-test and (2) the modified H 33342 staining assay. The HGF were exposed to various concentrations of the test-substances in all test systems for 24 h. All tested (co)monomers and mercury compounds significantly (P<0.05) decreased the formazan formation in the XTT-test. EC{sub 50} values in the XTT assay were obtained as half-maximum-effect concentrations from fitted curves. Following EC{sub 50} values were found (mean [mmol/l]; s.e.m. in parentheses; n=12; * significantly different to HEMA): HEMA 11.530 (0.600); TEGDMA* 3.460 (0.200); UDMA* 0.106 (0.005); BisGMA* 0.087 (0.001); HgCl{sub 2}* 0.013 (0.001); MeHgCl* 0.005 (0.001). Following relative toxicities were found: HEMA 1; TEGDMA 3; UDMA 109; BisGMA 133; HgCl{sub 2} 887; MeHgCl 2306. A significant (P<0.05) increase of the toxicity of (co)monomers and mercurials was found in the XTT-test in the following order: HEMA < TEGDMA < UDMA < BisGMA < HgCl{sub 2} < MeHgCl. TEGDMA and MeHgCl induced mainly apoptotic cell death. HEMA, UDMA, BisGMA, and HgCl{sub 2} induced mainly necrotic cell death. The results of this study indicate that resin composite components have a lower toxicity than mercury from amalgam in HGF. HEMA, BisGMA, UDMA, and HgCl{sub 2} induced mainly necrosis, but it is rather unlikely that eluted substances (solely) can reach concentrations, which might induce necrotic cell death in the human physiological situation, indicating that other (additional) factors may be involved in

  8. The Composition of Cigarette Smoke: Problems with Lists of Tumorigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1960s, various investigators, agencies, and institutions have disseminated lists of cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS components reported to be tumorigenic on the basis of laboratory bioassays conducted under conditions significantly different from those encountered by the smoker during exposure to the components in the cigarette MSS aerosol. Since 1990, numerous lists of cigarette MSS components, defined as significant tumorigens, have been compiled by American Health Foundation personnel, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, Fowles and Bates, and R.J. Reynolds R&D personnel. The purpose of most of the reports was to define human risk assessment and to dissuade smokers from smoking. Various investigators and agencies have frequently cited the earlier and/or the more recent lists of tumorigenic entities. The recent compilations, involving nearly 80 MSS components, suffer from serious deficiencies including: a Use of per cigarette delivery ranges for specified components which often include analytical data from cigarettes manufactured in the 1950s and 1960s which are not comparable to lower-'tar’ yield cigarettes manufactured since the mid-1970s. b Absence of standard analytical procedures for most of the listed components. c Methodological considerations regarding bioassays used to determine tumorigenicity of the listed MSS components. d Difficulty in extrapolating in vivo bioassay data obtained by non-inhalation modes of administration of a single compound to the human smoking situation involving inhalation of a complex aerosol containing that compound. e Inhalation data inadequacies regarding the tumorigenicity of many of the components. f Several tobacco smoke components are listed despite the fact their presence has not been confirmed, their MSS level has not been defined, or their MSS level is no longer relevant. g Insufficient consideration of inhibitors of tumorigenesis and mutagenesis found in MSS. h

  9. Effect of phosphatidylserine on free radical susceptibility in human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorraca, S; Piersanti, P; Tesco, G; Piacentini, S; Amaducci, L; Sorbi, S

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of phosphatidylserine (PdtSER) on oxygen metabolite toxicity in skin fibroblast cell lines from apparently normal subjects. Fibroblast damage was produced by the generation of oxygen metabolites during the enzymatic oxidation of acetaldehyde by xanthine-oxidase (Xo). In order to quantify cell damage, we measured lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in culture medium and cell viability in fibroblast cultures, with and without preincubation for 4 days with PdtSER 13 microM, after Xo incubation. We found a significant increase of LDH activity in culture medium of cells without preincubation with PdtSER. No significant increase of LDH activity was observed in the same cell lines after preincubation with PdtSER.

  10. Radiation-induced gene expression in human subcutaneous fibroblasts is predictive of radiation-induced fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødningen, Olaug Kristin; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Alsner, Jan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients show a large variation in normal tissue reactions after ionizing radiation (IR) therapy. One of the most common long-term adverse effects of ionizing radiotherapy is radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), and several attempts have been made over the last...... years to develop predictive assays for RIF. Our aim was to identify basal and radiation-induced transcriptional profiles in fibroblasts from breast cancer patients that might be related to the individual risk of RIF in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fibroblast cell lines from 31 individuals......-treated fibroblasts. Transcriptional differences in basal and radiation-induced gene expression profiles were investigated using 15K cDNA microarrays, and results analyzed by both SAM and PAM. RESULTS: Sixty differentially expressed genes were identified by applying SAM on 10 patients with the highest risk of RIF...

  11. Restricted growth of human cytomegalovirus in uv-irradiated WI-38 human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, T.; Tanaka, S.; Plotkin, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    The growth of human CMV was inhibited by uv irradiation of cells prior to infection or during the 48-hr latent period of virus replication but not after virus synthesis began. The duration of uv exposure sufficient to inhibit CMV replication was insufficient to inhibit replication of Herpes simplex and did not prevent uninfected cells from dividing normally. The effect of uv irradiation on CMV replication may have been mediated through prevention of the stimulating effect of the virus on host cell RNA(s) synthesis. (U.S.)

  12. Human periodontal ligament fibroblast response to PDGF-BB and IGF-1 application on tetracycline HCI conditioned root surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, A Y; Mailhot, J M; Garnick, J J; Newhouse, R; Sharawy, M M

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 growth factors, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), alone or in combination, on the adherence of human periodontal ligament fibroblast (PDL) to tetracycline HCl (TTC) conditioned and nonconditioned periodontally involved root surfaces. There were 80 root dentine chips from 80 patients, ranging from 35 to 70 years of age, each with one periodontally involved tooth requiring extraction. A root dentine chip was obtained from the subgingival surface opposite to the periodontal pocket of each extracted tooth. The dentine chips were randomly distributed into one of 8 groups. In group 1, PDL fibroblasts were cultured and allowed to attach on the dentine surface. In group 2, PDL fibroblasts were cultured on a PDGF-BB pre-treated dentine surface and in group 3, they were cultured on a IGF-1 pre-treated dentine surface. In group 4, PDL fibroblasts were cultured on a dentine surface pretreated with a combination of PDGF-BB and IGF-1. In group 5, PDL fibroblasts were cultured and allowed to attach on the TTC conditioned dentine surfaces. In groups 6 and 7, surface of dentine chips were conditioned with TTC and then were treated with PDGF-BB or IGF-1 respectively, followed by placement of PDL fibroblast and cultured. In group 8, dentine surfaces were conditioned with TTC and then pre-treated with a combination of PDGF-BB and IGF-1 before the fibroblasts were cultured. After 24 h of incubation, the media was removed and samples were fixed and processed for SEM at magnifications of x34, x750, x2000. Photographing and evaluation of samples was performed at x750 in which fibroblast adherence was measured by counting cells within a standard test area. The results of the non-TTC conditioned root surfaces demonstrated a significant increase in fibroblasts adherence in the PDGF-BB and combination PDGF-BB/IGF-I treatment groups (groups 2, 4) when compared to the control (group

  13. Adult human glia, pericytes and meningeal fibroblasts respond similarly to IFNy but not to TGFβ1 or M-CSF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Smith

    Full Text Available The chemokine Interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA are widely used indicators of glial activation and neuroinflammation and are up-regulated in many brain disorders. These inflammatory mediators have been widely studied in rodent models of brain disorders, but less work has been undertaken using human brain cells. In this study we investigate the regulation of HLA and IP-10, as well as other cytokines and chemokines, in microglia, astrocytes, pericytes, and meningeal fibroblasts derived from biopsy and autopsy adult human brain, using immunocytochemistry and a Cytometric Bead Array. Interferonγ (IFNγ increased microglial HLA expression, but contrary to data in rodents, the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1 did not inhibit this increase in HLA, nor did TGFβ1 affect basal microglial HLA expression or IFNγ-induced astrocytic HLA expression. In contrast, IFNγ-induced and basal microglial HLA expression, but not IFNγ-induced astrocytic HLA expression, were strongly inhibited by macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF. IFNγ also strongly induced HLA expression in pericytes and meningeal fibroblasts, which do not basally express HLA, and this induction was completely blocked by TGFβ1, but not affected by M-CSF. In contrast, TGFβ1 did not block the IFNγ-induced increase in IP-10 in pericytes and meningeal fibroblasts. These results show that IFNγ, TGFβ1 and M-CSF have species- and cell type-specific effects on human brain cells that may have implications for their roles in adult human brain inflammation.

  14. Dynamic distribution of NuMA and microtubules in human fetal fibroblasts, developing oocytes and somatic cell nuclear transferred embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Duan, Xin; Lu, Changfu; Lin, Ge; Lu, Guangxiu

    2011-05-01

    The nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) plays a central role in the assembly and maintenance of spindle poles. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) studies on non-human primates have shown that meiotic spindle removal during enucleation causes depletion of NuMA and the minus-end-directed motor protein (HSET) from the ooplasm, and this in turn leads to failure of embryo development. To determine whether NuMA from somatic cells could compensate for NuMA loss during enucleation, the distribution of NuMA and microtubule organization were investigated in human fibroblasts, developing oocytes and SCNT embryos. Human fetal fibroblasts, oocytes at various maturation stages and human embryos reconstructed by different SCNT methods were analyzed for NuMA and α-tubulin using immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. NuMA was detected in interphase nuclei of fibroblasts and oocytes. During mitosis and meiosis, NuMA relocated to the domain surrounding the two spindle poles. During the enucleation process, NuMA was removed along with the meiotic spindle. At 2 h after injection into a donor cell, transitory bipolar spindles were organized and NuMA was detected in the reformed poles. NuMA could be detected spreading uniformly across the nucleoplasm of one pseudo-pronucleus in SCNT embryos but was excluded from the nucleolus. Regardless of the method used for SCNT (enucleation-injection or injection-pronuclei enucleation), NuMA aggregated and relocated to the reformed spindle poles at metaphase of the first mitotic event. At interphase, NuMA relocated throughout the nucleus in developmentally arrested SCNT embryos. Our results show that donor cell nuclei contain NuMA, which might contribute to the maintenance of spindle morphology in SCNT embryos. Normal spindle and NuMA expression were found in human SCNT embryos at different developmental stages.

  15. Delayed changes in gene expression in human fibroblasts after alpha irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, A.; Peraelae, M.; Mustonen, R.; Kadhim, M.; Marsden, S.; Sabatier, L.; Martins, L.

    2003-01-01

    endpoints with radiation-induced cancer. Gene expression changes in human fibroblast cells at delayed time points after alpha particle irradiation were studied. The aim was to identify genes playing pivotal role in inducing genomic instability. (orig.)

  16. Mutations in BALB mitochondrial DNA induce CCL20 up-regulation promoting tumorigenic phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sligh, James [Department of Medicine—Dermatology Division, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 857 24 (United States); University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Janda, Jaroslav [University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Jandova, Jana, E-mail: jjandova@email.arizona.edu [Department of Medicine—Dermatology Division, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 857 24 (United States); University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Alterations in mitochondrial DNA are commonly found in various human cancers. • Mutations in BALB mitochondrial DNA induce up-regulation of chemokine CCL20. • Increased growth and motility of mtBALB cells is associated with CCL20 levels. • mtDNA changes in BALB induce in vivo tumor growth through CCL20 up-regulation. • Mutations in mitochondrial DNA play important roles in keratinocyte neoplasia. - Abstract: mtDNA mutations are common in human cancers and are thought to contribute to the process of neoplasia. We examined the role of mtDNA mutations in skin cancer by generating fibroblast cybrids harboring a mutation in the gene encoding the mitochondrial tRNA for arginine. This somatic mutation (9821insA) was previously reported in UV-induced hyperkeratotic skin tumors in hairless mice and confers specific tumorigenic phenotypes to mutant cybrids. Microarray analysis revealed and RT-PCR along with Western blot analysis confirmed the up-regulation of CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 in mtBALB haplotype containing the mt-Tr 9821insA allele compared to wild type mtB6 haplotype. Based on reported role of CCL20 in cancer progression we examined whether the hyper-proliferation and enhanced motility of mtBALB haplotype would be associated with CCL20 levels. Treatment of both genotypes with recombinant CCL20 (rmCCL20) resulted in enhanced growth and motility of mtB6 cybrids. Furthermore, the acquired somatic alteration increased the in vivo tumor growth of mtBALB cybrids through the up-regulation of CCL20 since neutralizing antibody significantly decreased in vivo tumor growth of these cells; and tumors from anti-CCL20 treated mice injected with mtBALB cybrids showed significantly decreased CCL20 levels. When rmCCL20 or mtBALB cybrids were used as chemotactic stimuli, mtB6 cybrids showed increased motility while anti-CCL20 antibody decreased the migration and in vivo tumor growth of mtBALB cybrids. Moreover, the inhibitors of MAPK signaling and NF

  17. Induction of anchorage-independent growth of human embryonic fibroblasts with a deletion in the short arm of chromosome 11 by human papillomavirus type 16 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, H.L.; Raadsheer, E.; Rood, I.; Mehendale, S.; Slater, R.M.; van der Noordaa, J.; Ter Schegget, J.

    1988-01-01

    Human embryonic fibroblasts with a large deletion (11p11.11p15.1) in the short arm of one chromosome 11 (del-11 cells) appeared to be susceptible to transformation by early human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) DNA, whereas diploid human embryonic fibroblasts were not. This difference in susceptibility might be explained by the absence of a tumor suppressor gene located within the deleted part on the short arm of chromosome 11. The presence of abundant viral early-gene transcripts in transformed cells suggests that transformation was induced by an elevated level of an HPV-16 early-gene product(s). The low transcriptional activity of HPV-16 in diploid cells may indicate that cellular genes affect viral transcription. Interruption of the HPV-16 E2 early open reading frame is probably required for high-level HPV-16 early-gene expression driven from the homologous enhancer-promoter region

  18. Intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation and segregation in a rat fibroblast cell line transfected with a human insulin receptor gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.R.; Olefsky, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The cellular processing of insulin and insulin receptors was studied using a rat fibroblast cell line that had been transfected with a normal human insulin receptor gene, expressing approximately 500 times the normal number of native fibroblasts insulin receptors. These cells bind and internalize insulin normally. Biochemically assays based on the selective precipitation by polyethylene glycol of intact insulin-receptor complexes but not of free intracellular insulin were developed to study the time course of intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation. Fibroblasts were incubated with radiolabeled insulin at 4 0 C, and internalization of insulin-receptor complexes was initiated by warming the cells to 37 0 C. Within 2 min, 90% of the internalized radioactivity was composed of intact insulin-receptor complexes. The dissociation of insulin from internalized insulin-receptor complexes was markedly inhibited by monensin and chloroquine. Furthermore, chloroquine markedly increased the number of cross-linkable intracellular insulin-receptor complexes, as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiography. These findings suggest that acidification of intracellular vesicles is responsible for insulin-receptor dissociation. Physical segregation of dissociated intracellular insulin from its receptor was monitored. The results are consistent with the view that segregation of insulin and receptor occurs 5-10 min after initiation of dissociation. These studies demonstrate the intracellular itinerary of insulin-receptor complexes, including internalization, dissociation of insulin from the internalized receptor within an acidified compartment, segregation of insulin from the receptor, and subsequent ligand degradation

  19. Gold Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of Molecules into Primary Human Gingival Fibroblasts Using ns-Laser Pulses: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Krawinkel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs in the vicinity of cells’ membrane with a pulsed laser (λ = 532 nm, τ = 1 ns leads to perforation of the cell membrane, thereby allowing extracellular molecules to diffuse into the cell. The objective of this study was to develop an experimental setting to deliver molecules into primary human gingival fibroblasts (pHFIB-G by using ns-laser pulses interacting with AuNPs (study group. To compare the parameters required for manipulation of pHFIB-G with those needed for cell lines, a canine pleomorphic adenoma cell line (ZMTH3 was used (control group. Non-laser-treated cells incubated with AuNPs and the delivery molecules served as negative control. Laser irradiation (up to 35 mJ/cm2 resulted in a significant proportion of manipulated fibroblasts (up to 85%, compared to non-irradiated cells: p < 0.05, while cell viability (97% was not reduced significantly. pHFIB-G were perforated as efficiently as ZMTH3. No significant decrease of metabolic cell activity was observed up to 72 h after laser treatment. The fibroblasts took up dextrans with molecular weights up to 500 kDa. Interaction of AuNPs and a pulsed laser beam yields a spatially selective technique for manipulation of even primary cells such as pHFIB-G in high throughput.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor-21 is induced in human skeletal muscles by hyperinsulinemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Pedersen, Maria; Nielsen, Anders Rinnov

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) is a potent metabolic regulator, which in animal models has been shown to improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Recently, FGF-21 was shown to be expressed and secreted from murine muscle cells in response to insulin stimulation. RESEARCH...

  1. Combined replacement effects of human modified β-hexosaminidase B and GM2 activator protein on GM2 gangliosidoses fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitakaze, Keisuke; Tasaki, Chikako; Tajima, Youichi; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Tsuji, Daisuke; Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Itoh, Kohji

    2016-09-01

    GM2 gangliosidoses are autosomal recessive lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) caused by mutations in the HEXA , HEXB and GM2A genes, which encode the human lysosomal β-hexosaminidase (Hex) α- and β-subunits, and GM2 activator protein (GM2A), respectively. These diseases are associated with excessive accumulation of GM2 ganglioside (GM2) in the brains of patients with neurological symptoms. Here we established a CHO cell line overexpressing human GM2A, and purified GM2A from the conditioned medium, which was taken up by fibroblasts derived from a patient with GM2A deficiency, and had the therapeutic effects of reducing the GM2 accumulated in fibroblasts when added to the culture medium. We also demonstrated for the first time that recombinant GM2A could enhance the replacement effect of human modified HexB (modB) with GM2-degrading activity, which is composed of homodimeric altered β-subunits containing a partial amino acid sequence of the α-subunit, including the GSEP loop necessary for binding to GM2A, on reduction of the GM2 accumulated in fibroblasts derived from a patient with Tay-Sachs disease, a HexA (αβ heterodimer) deficiency, caused by HEXA mutations. We predicted the same manner of binding of GM2A to the GSEP loop located in the modified HexB β-subunit to that in the native HexA α-subunit on the basis of the x-ray crystal structures. These findings suggest the effectiveness of combinational replacement therapy involving the human modified HexB and GM2A for GM2 gangliosidoses.

  2. Cyclic phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid induce hyaluronic acid synthesis via CREB transcription factor regulation in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda-Sano, Katsura; Gotoh, Mari; Morohoshi, Toshiro; Someya, Takao; Murofushi, Hiromu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2014-09-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator and an analog of the growth factor-like phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). cPA has a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. We showed before that a metabolically stabilized cPA derivative, 2-carba-cPA, relieved osteoarthritis pathogenesis in vivo and induced hyaluronic acid synthesis in human osteoarthritis synoviocytes in vitro. This study focused on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts, which retain moisture and maintain health in the dermis. We investigated the effects of cPA and LPA on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts (NB1RGB cells). Using particle exclusion and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we found that both cPA and LPA dose-dependently induced hyaluronic acid synthesis. We revealed that the expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 messenger RNA and protein is up-regulated by cPA and LPA treatment time dependently. We then characterized the signaling pathways up-regulating hyaluronic acid synthesis mediated by cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. Pharmacological inhibition and reporter gene assays revealed that the activation of the LPA receptor LPAR1, Gi/o protein, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) but not nuclear factor κB induced hyaluronic acid synthesis by the treatment with cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that cPA and LPA induce hyaluronic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts mainly through the activation of LPAR1-Gi/o followed by the PI3K, ERK, and CREB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ALDH/CD44 identifies uniquely tumorigenic cancer stem cells in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Pearson, Alexander T; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Kim, Hong Sun; Mochizuki, Daiki; Basura, Gregory; Helman, Joseph; Mantesso, Andrea; Castilho, Rogério M; Wicha, Max S; Nör, Jacques E

    2015-09-29

    A small sub-population of cells characterized by increased tumorigenic potential, ability to self-renew and to differentiate into cells that make up the tumor bulk, has been characterized in some (but not all) tumor types. These unique cells, namedcancer stem cells, are considered drivers of tumor progression in these tumors. The purpose of this work is to understand if cancer stem cells play a functional role in the tumorigenesis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Here, we investigated the expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (ALDH, CD10, CD24, CD44) in primary human mucoepidermoid carcinomas by immunofluorescence, in vitro salisphere assays, and in vivo tumorigenicity assays in immunodeficient mice. Human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B) sorted for high levels of ALDH activity and CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) consistently formed primary and secondary salispheres in vitro, and showed enhanced tumorigenic potential in vivo (defined as time to tumor palpability, tumor growth after palpability), when compared to ALDHlowCD44low cells. Cells sorted for CD10/CD24, and CD10/CD44 showed varying trends of salisphere formation, but consistently low in vivo tumorigenic potential. And finally, cells sorted for CD44/CD24 showed inconsistent results in salisphere formation and tumorigenic potential assays when different cell lines were evaluated. Collectively, these data demonstrate that salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression. These results suggest that patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma might benefit from therapies that ablate these highly tumorigenic cells.

  4. Cultivation and irradiation of human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with platelet lysate for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    For over 30 years, the use of culture medium, enriched with bovine serum, and murines fibroblasts, with the rate of proliferation controlled by irradiation or by share anticarcinogenic drugs, has been playing successfully its role in assisting in the development of keratinocytes in culture, for clinical purposes. However, currently there is a growing concern about the possibility of transmitting prions and animals viruses to transplanted patients. Taking into account this concern, the present work aims to cultivate human fibroblasts in a medium enriched with human platelets lysate and determine the irradiation dose of these cells, for obtaining feeder layer in epidermal cell culture. For carrying out the proposed objective, platelets lysis has standardized, this lysate was used for human fibroblasts cultivation and the irradiation dose enough to inhibit its duplication was evaluated. Human keratinocytes were cultivated in these feeder layers, in culture medium enriched with the lysate. With these results we conclude that the 10% platelets lysate promoted a better adhesion and proliferation of human fibroblasts and in all dose levels tested (60 to 300 Gy), these had their mitotic activity inactivated by ionizing irradiation, being that the feeder layers obtained with doses from 70 to 150 Gy were those that provided the best development of keratinocytes in medium containing 2.5% of human platelet lysate. Therefore, it was possible to standardize both the cultivation of human fibroblasts as its inactivation for use as feeder layer in culture of keratinocytes, so as to eliminate xenobiotics components. (author)

  5. Characterization of ultraviolet light-induced diphtheria toxin-resistant mutations in normal and Xeroderma pigmentosum human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative mutagenesis studies in human cells have been severely limited by the lack of reliable genetic markers. Experiments were therefore performed to develop and characterize a better quantitative mutation assay for human cells. The uv-induction of diphtheria toxin resistant (DT/sup r/) mutations in normal and excision repair defective xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) fibroblasts has been quantitatively characterized. A concentration of diphtheria toxin to use in the selection of resistant mutants was determined whereby DT/sup r/ cells are cross-resistant to Pseudomonas aeurginosa exotoxin A, indicating mutants have altered elongation factor-2 (EF-2) which is not susceptible to ADP-ribosylation by either toxin. Results of this study indicate that XP fibroblasts have higher uv-induced mutation frequencies per unit uv-dose but similar frequencies per unit survival compared to normal cells as measured using a new genetic marker for quantitative mutagenesis. Furthermore, these results support a prediction of the mutation theory of cancer, namely, that cells from individuals with certain human syndromes that predispose the individual to cancer will have higher induced mutation frequencies than cells from non-susceptible individuals. This newly characterized genetic marker should be useful in quantitative mutagenesis studies in human cells

  6. Fibroblast growth factor 23 inhibits extrarenal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Justine; Sea, Jessica L; Chun, Rene F; Lisse, Thomas S; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Gales, Barbara; Adams, John S; Salusky, Isidro B; Hewison, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is a potent stimulator of monocyte innate immunity, and this effect is mediated via intracrine conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2) D). In the kidney, synthesis of 1,25(OH)(2) D is suppressed by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), via transcriptional suppression of the vitamin D-activating enzyme 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). We hypothesized that FGF23 also suppresses CYP27B1 in monocytes, with concomitant effects on intracrine responses to 1,25(OH)(2) D. Healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cell monocytes (PBMCm) and peritoneal dialysate monocyte (PDm) effluent from kidney disease patients were assessed at baseline to confirm the presence of mRNA for FGF23 receptors (FGFRs), with Klotho and FGFR1 being more strongly expressed than FGFR2/3/4 in both cell types. Immunohistochemistry showed coexpression of Klotho and FGFR1 in PBMCm and PDm, with this effect being enhanced following treatment with FGF23 in PBMCm but not PDm. Treatment with FGF23 activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt) pathways in PBMCm, demonstrating functional FGFR signaling in these cells. FGF23 treatment of PBMCm and PDm decreased expression of mRNA for CYP27B1. In PBMCm this was associated with downregulation of 25OHD to 1,25(OH)(2) D metabolism, and concomitant suppression of intracrine induced 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and antibacterial cathelicidin (LL37). FGF23 suppression of CYP27B1 was particularly pronounced in PBMCm treated with interleukin-15 to stimulate synthesis of 1,25(OH)(2) D. These data indicate that FGF23 can inhibit extra-renal expression of CYP27B1 and subsequent intracrine responses to 1,25(OH)(2) D in two different human monocyte models. Elevated expression of FGF23 may therefore play a crucial role in defining immune responses to vitamin D and this, in turn, may be a key determinant of infection in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Copyright © 2013 American Society for

  7. MiR-590 Promotes Transdifferentiation of Porcine and Human Fibroblasts Toward a Cardiomyocyte-Like Fate by Directly Repressing Specificity Protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vivek P; Mathison, Megumi; Patel, Vivekkumar; Sanagasetti, Deepthi; Gibson, Brian W; Yang, Jianchang; Rosengart, Todd K

    2016-11-10

    Reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells represents a promising potential new therapy for treating heart disease, inducing significant improvements in postinfarct ventricular function in rodent models. Because reprogramming factors effective in transdifferentiating rodent cells are not sufficient to reprogram human cells, we sought to identify reprogramming factors potentially applicable to human studies. Lentivirus vectors expressing Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT); Hand2 (H), Myocardin (My), or microRNA (miR)-590 were administered to rat, porcine, and human cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. induced cardiomyocyte-like cell production was then evaluated by assessing expression of the cardiomyocyte marker, cardiac troponin T (cTnT), whereas signaling pathway studies were performed to identify reprogramming factor targets. GMT administration induced cTnT expression in ≈6% of rat fibroblasts, but failed to induce cTnT expression in porcine or human cardiac fibroblasts. Addition of H/My and/or miR-590 to GMT administration resulted in cTNT expression in ≈5% of porcine and human fibroblasts and also upregulated the expression of the cardiac genes, MYH6 and TNNT2. When cocultured with murine cardiomyocytes, cTnT-expressing porcine cardiac fibroblasts exhibited spontaneous contractions. Administration of GMT plus either H/My or miR-590 alone also downregulated fibroblast genes COL1A1 and COL3A1. miR-590 was shown to directly suppress the zinc finger protein, specificity protein 1 (Sp1), which was able to substitute for miR-590 in inducing cellular reprogramming. These data support porcine studies as a surrogate for testing human cardiac reprogramming, and suggest that miR-590-mediated repression of Sp1 represents an alternative pathway for enhancing human cardiac cellular reprogramming. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  8. Comparative proteomics of exosomes secreted by tumoral Jurkat T cells and normal human T cell blasts unravels a potential tumorigenic role for valosin-containing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque, Alberto; Dietz, Lisa; Gallego-Lleyda, Ana; Sanclemente, Manuel; Iturralde, María; Naval, Javier; Alava, María Angeles; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Thierse, Hermann-Josef; Anel, Alberto

    2016-05-17

    We have previously characterized that FasL and Apo2L/TRAIL are stored in their bioactive form inside human T cell blasts in intraluminal vesicles present in multivesicular bodies. These vesicles are rapidly released to the supernatant in the form of exosomes upon re-activation of T cells. In this study we have compared for the first time proteomics of exosomes produced by normal human T cell blasts with those produced by tumoral Jurkat cells, with the objective of identify proteins associated with tumoral exosomes that could have a previously unrecognized role in malignancy. We have identified 359 and 418 proteins in exosomes from T cell blasts and Jurkat cells, respectively. Interestingly, only 145 (around a 40%) are common. The major proteins in both cases are actin and tubulin isoforms and the common interaction nodes correspond to these cytoskeleton and related proteins, as well as to ribosomal and mRNA granule proteins. We detected 14 membrane proteins that were especially enriched in exosomes from Jurkat cells as compared with T cell blasts. The most abundant of these proteins was valosin-containing protein (VCP), a membrane ATPase involved in ER homeostasis and ubiquitination. In this work, we also show that leukemic cells are more sensitive to cell death induced by the VCP inhibitor DBeQ than normal T cells. Furthermore, VCP inhibition prevents functional exosome secretion only in Jurkat cells, but not in T cell blasts. These results suggest VCP targeting as a new selective pathway to exploit in cancer treatment to prevent tumoral exosome secretion.

  9. Characterization of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 overexpression in the human breast cancer cell line SUM-52PE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannheimer, Stacey L; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Ethier, Stephen P

    2000-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)2 gene has been shown to be amplified in 5-10% of breast cancer patients. A breast cancer cell line developed in our laboratory, SUM-52PE, was shown to have a 12-fold amplification of the FGFR2 gene, and FGFR2 message was found to be overexpressed 40-fold in SUM-52PE cells as compared with normal human mammary epithelial (HME) cells. Both human breast cancer (HBC) cell lines and HME cells expressed two FGFR2 isoforms, whereas SUM-52PE cells overexpressed those two isoforms, as well as several unique FGFR2 polypeptides. SUM-52PE cells expressed exclusively FGFR2-IIIb isoforms, which are high-affinity receptors for fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 and FGF-7. Differences were identified in the expression of the extracellular Ig-like domains, acid box and carboxyl termini, and several variants not previously reported were isolated from these cells. The FGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases includes four members, all of which are highly alternatively spliced and glycosylated. For FGFR2, alternative splicing of the second half of the third Ig-like domain, involving exons IIIb and IIIc, is a mutually exclusive choice that affects ligand binding specificity and affinity [1,2,3]. It appears that the second half of the third Ig-like domain can dictate high affinity for FGF-2 or keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), whereas affinity for FGF-1 appears to remain the same [3]. Alternative splicing of the carboxyl terminus has been shown to involve at least two different exons that can produce at least three different variants. The C1-type and C2-type carboxyl termini are encoded by the same exon, and have two different splice acceptor sites, whereas the C3-type carboxyl terminus is encoded by a separate exon [4]. The biologic significance of the C1 carboxyl terminus, as compared with the shorter C3 variant found primarily in tumorigenic samples, has been studied in NIH3T3 transfection assays, in which C3 variants were able to produce

  10. Sulfation by human lung fibroblasts: SO4(2-) and sulfur-containing amino acids as sources for macromolecular sulfation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgavish, A; Meezan, E

    1991-06-01

    Studies were carried out in human lung fibroblasts (IMR-90) to investigate 1) the relative contribution of two extracellular pools, inorganic sulfate and sulfur-containing amino acids, to the intracellular fraction precipitable by trichloroacetic acid and 2) the possibility that the transport of these sulfur-containing substrates at the plasma membrane may be a limiting step for macromolecular sulfation. Our studies indicate that the ability to use SO4(2-) released by intracellular catabolism of the sulfur-containing amino acid L-cysteine differs from one cell system to another. In contrast to smooth muscle cells, in the human lung fibroblast, L-cysteine contributes significantly to the intercellular pool of SO4(2-) used for sulfation at extracellular [SO4(2-)] less than 100 microM. However, under physiological conditions with respect to SO4(2-) ([SO4(2-)]0 = 300 microM), L-cysteine does not contribute greater than 30% of the sulfate incorporated into the cellular fraction. Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) inhibits SO4(2-) incorporation into the cell-associated macromolecular fraction. However, results suggest that the effect is not due to either SO4(2-) released by its catabolism or to an effect on SO4(2-) transport into the cell. The fact that the transport inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid inhibits sulfate incorporation indicates that carrier-mediated sulfate transport at the cellular plasma membrane may be a limiting step for sulfate incorporation. In conclusion, under physiological conditions with respect to SO4(2-), inorganic sulfate is a major source of sulfate for sulfation in human lung fibroblasts and macromolecular sulfation may be limited by its transport into the cells.

  11. Adenoviral-mediated correction of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency in murine fibroblasts and human hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korson Mark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA, a common organic aciduria, is caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial localized, 5'deoxyadenosylcobalamin dependent enzyme, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT. Liver transplantation in the absence of gross hepatic dysfunction provides supportive therapy and metabolic stability in severely affected patients, which invites the concept of using cell and gene delivery as future treatments for this condition. Methods To assess the effectiveness of gene delivery to restore the defective metabolism in this disorder, adenoviral correction experiments were performed using murine Mut embryonic fibroblasts and primary human methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficient hepatocytes derived from a patient who harbored two early truncating mutations, E224X and R228X, in the MUT gene. Enzymatic and expression studies were used to assess the extent of functional correction. Results Primary hepatocytes, isolated from the native liver after removal subsequent to a combined liver-kidney transplantation procedure, or Mut murine fibroblasts were infected with a second generation recombinant adenoviral vector that expressed the murine methylmalonyl-CoA mutase as well as eGFP from distinct promoters. After transduction, [1-14C] propionate macromolecular incorporation studies and Western analysis demonstrated complete correction of the enzymatic defect in both cell types. Viral reconstitution of enzymatic expression in the human methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficient hepatocytes exceeded that seen in fibroblasts or control hepatocytes. Conclusion These experiments provide proof of principle for viral correction in methylmalonic acidemia and suggest that hepatocyte-directed gene delivery will be an effective therapeutic treatment strategy in both murine models and in human patients. Primary hepatocytes from a liver that was unsuitable for transplantation provided an important resource for these studies.

  12. The Effect of Capsaicine in Human Pulp Fibroblasts, in the Production of PGE2 and Proinflammatory Cytokines...

    OpenAIRE

    Bedoya Mejía, María Alexandra; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Rodríguez Camacho, Luz Stella; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá; Jaramillo Gómez, Lorenza María; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá; Moreno Abello, Gloria Cristina; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Background: due of capsaicin effect on the control of various inflammatory mediators, it has been proposed to modulate inflammatory processes caused by physical assaults to pulp tissue. Purpose: to evaluate the effect of capsaicin diluted in 0.05 % ethanol and its vehicle on PGE2 production, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-12p70 in Human Fibroblasts Pulp (FPH). Methods: concentrations of PGE2, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-12p70 were analyzed by ELISA or flow cytometry in supernatants of FPH ...

  13. Evaluating the potential of poly(beta-amino ester) nanoparticles for reprogramming human fibroblasts to become induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhise, Nupura S; Wahlin, Karl J; Zack, Donald J; Green, Jordan J

    2013-01-01

    Gene delivery can potentially be used as a therapeutic for treating genetic diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, as well as an enabling technology for regenerative medicine. A central challenge in many gene delivery applications is having a safe and effective delivery method. We evaluated the use of a biodegradable poly(beta-amino ester) nanoparticle-based nonviral protocol and compared this with an electroporation-based approach to deliver episomal plasmids encoding reprogramming factors for generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from human fibroblasts. A polymer library was screened to identify the polymers most promising for gene delivery to human fibroblasts. Feeder-independent culturing protocols were developed for nanoparticle-based and electroporation-based reprogramming. The cells reprogrammed by both polymeric nanoparticle-based and electroporation-based nonviral methods were characterized by analysis of pluripotency markers and karyotypic stability. The hiPSC-like cells were further differentiated toward the neural lineage to test their potential for neurodegenerative retinal disease modeling. 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine end-terminated poly(1,4-butanediol diacry-late-co-4-amino-1-butanol) polymer (B4S4E7) self-assembled with plasmid DNA to form nanoparticles that were more effective than leading commercially available reagents, including Lipofectamine® 2000, FuGENE® HD, and 25 kDa branched polyethylenimine, for nonviral gene transfer. B4S4E7 nanoparticles showed effective gene delivery to IMR-90 human primary fibroblasts and to dermal fibroblasts derived from a patient with retinitis pigmentosa, and enabled coexpression of exogenously delivered genes, as is needed for reprogramming. The karyotypically normal hiPSC-like cells generated by conventional electroporation, but not by poly(beta-amino ester) reprogramming, could be differentiated toward the neuronal lineage, specifically pseudostratified optic cups. This

  14. Data on cell viability of human lung fibroblasts treated with polyphenols-rich extract from Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloni, Caroline; Silva Santos, Luciana Fernandes; Martínez, Luana Soares; Salvador, Mirian

    2016-01-01

    Jaboticaba (Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel) is a Brazilian native berry, which presents high levels of polyphenols. Here we provide data related to the effects of the polyphenols-rich extract from jaboticaba on the cell viability, mitochondrial complex I (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/CoQ oxidoreductase) activity and ATP biosynthesis of human lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5) treated with amiodarone. The data presented in this article demonstrate that the polyphenols-rich extract from jaboticaba was able to reduce cell death as well as the decrease in complex I activity and ATP biosynthesis caused by amiodarone in MRC-5 cells. PMID:26870757

  15. Induction of chromatin damage and distribution of isochromatid breaks in human fibroblast cells exposed to heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Tetsuya; Ito, Hisao; Motoori, Ken; Ueda, Takuya; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Durante, Marco; George, Kerry; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of chromatid breaks and the distribution of isochromatid breaks were measured in G2-phase normal human fibroblasts prematurely condensed a short time after exposure to low- or high-LET radiations. The average number of isochromatid breaks from a single particle traversal increased with increasing LET values, while the average number of chromatid-type breaks appeared to reach a plateau. The distribution of isochromatid breaks after high-LET iron particles exposure was overdispersed compared to gamma-rays, indicating that a single iron particle traversal through a cell nucleus can produce multiple isochromatid breaks.

  16. The effects of calcium silicate cement/fibroblast growth factor-2 composite on osteogenesis accelerator in human dental pulp cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Buor-Chang; Youn, Su-Chung; Kao, Chia-Tze; Huang, Shu-Ching; Hung, Chi-Jr; Chou, Ming-Yung; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-01-01

    Background/purpose: To examine the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)/calcium silicate (CS) cement on material characters and in vitro primary human dental pulp cell (hDPC) behavior. Materials and methods: Setting time and diametral tensile strength (DTS) of CS and CS/FGF-2 composite were measured. PrestoBlue assay was used for evaluating primary hDPC proliferation. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression in HDPCs cultured on the specimens were determined by enzyme-linke...

  17. Exposure to titanium dioxide and other metallic oxide nanoparticles induces cytotoxicity on human neural cells and fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C K Lai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available James C K Lai1, Maria B Lai1, Sirisha Jandhyam1, Vikas V Dukhande1, Alok Bhushan1, Christopher K Daniels1, Solomon W Leung21Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, and Biomedical Research Institute; 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering and Biomedical Research Institute, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, USAAbstract: The use of titanium dioxide (TiO2 in various industrial applications (eg, production of paper, plastics, cosmetics, and paints has been expanding thereby increasing the occupational and other environmental exposure of these nanoparticles to humans and other species. However, the health effects of exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles have not been systematically assessed even though recent studies suggest that such exposure induces inflammatory responses in lung tissue and cells. Because the effects of such nanoparticles on human neural cells are unknown, we have determined the putative cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles on human astrocytes-like astrocytoma U87 cells and compared their effects on normal human fibroblasts. We found that TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles induced cell death on both human cell types in a concentration-relat