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Sample records for tumor suppressor apc

  1. The APC tumor suppressor is required for epithelial cell polarization and three-dimensional morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesko, Alyssa C.; Goss, Kathleen H.; Yang, Frank F.; Schwertner, Adam; Hulur, Imge; Onel, Kenan; Prosperi, Jenifer R.

    2015-01-01

    The Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) tumor suppressor has been previously implicated in the control of apical-basal polarity; yet, the consequence of APC loss-of-function in epithelial polarization and morphogenesis has not been characterized. To test the hypothesis that APC is required for the establishment of normal epithelial polarity and morphogenesis programs, we generated APC-knockdown epithelial cell lines. APC depletion resulted in loss of polarity and multi-layering on permeable supports, and enlarged, filled spheroids with disrupted polarity in 3D culture. Importantly, these effects of APC knockdown were independent of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but were rescued with either full-length or a carboxy (c)-terminal segment of APC. Moreover, we identified a gene expression signature associated with APC knockdown that points to several candidates known to regulate cell-cell and cell-matrix communication. Analysis of epithelial tissues from mice and humans carrying heterozygous APC mutations further support the importance of APC as a regulator of epithelial behavior and tissue architecture. These data also suggest that the initiation of epithelial-derived tumors as a result of APC mutation or gene silencing may be driven by loss of polarity and dysmorphogenesis. PMID:25578398

  2. A targeted constitutive mutation in the APC tumor suppressor gene underlies mammary but not intestinal tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gaspar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene are responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, an autosomal dominant hereditary predisposition to the development of multiple colorectal adenomas and of a broad spectrum of extra-intestinal tumors. Moreover, somatic APC mutations play a rate-limiting and initiating role in the majority of sporadic colorectal cancers. Notwithstanding its multifunctional nature, the main tumor suppressing activity of the APC gene resides in its ability to regulate Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Notably, genotype-phenotype correlations have been established at the APC gene between the length and stability of the truncated proteins encoded by different mutant alleles, the corresponding levels of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling activity they encode for, and the incidence and distribution of intestinal and extra-intestinal tumors. Here, we report a novel mouse model, Apc1572T, obtained by targeting a truncated mutation at codon 1572 in the endogenous Apc gene. This hypomorphic mutant allele results in intermediate levels of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling activation when compared with other Apc mutations associated with multifocal intestinal tumors. Notwithstanding the constitutive nature of the mutation, Apc(+/1572T mice have no predisposition to intestinal cancer but develop multifocal mammary adenocarcinomas and subsequent pulmonary metastases in both genders. The histology of the Apc1572T primary mammary tumours is highly heterogeneous with luminal, myoepithelial, and squamous lineages and is reminiscent of metaplastic carcinoma of the breast in humans. The striking phenotype of Apc(+/1572T mice suggests that specific dosages of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling activity differentially affect tissue homeostasis and initiate tumorigenesis in an organ-specific fashion.

  3. USP7 Is a Tumor-Specific WNT Activator for APC-Mutated Colorectal Cancer by Mediating β-Catenin Deubiquitination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Novellasdemunt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC is mutated in most colorectal cancers (CRCs, resulting in constitutive Wnt activation. To understand the Wnt-activating mechanism of the APC mutation, we applied CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer various APC-truncated isogenic lines. We find that the β-catenin inhibitory domain (CID in APC represents the threshold for pathological levels of Wnt activation and tumor transformation. Mechanistically, CID-deleted APC truncation promotes β-catenin deubiquitination through reverse binding of β-TrCP and USP7 to the destruction complex. USP7 depletion in APC-mutated CRC inhibits Wnt activation by restoring β-catenin ubiquitination, drives differentiation, and suppresses xenograft tumor growth. Finally, the Wnt-activating role of USP7 is specific to APC mutations; thus, it can be used as a tumor-specific therapeutic target for most CRCs.

  4. Apoptosis in neural crest cells by functional loss of APC tumor suppressor gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Sato, Tomoyuki; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitoshi; Maeno, Akiteru; Ito, Masaki; Sugitani, Yoshinobu; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Katsuki, Motoya; Yamauchi, Yasutaka; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Katamine, Shigeru; Noda, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    Apc is a gene associated with familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP) and its inactivation is a critical step in colorectal tumor formation. The protein product, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), acts to down-regulate intracellular levels of β-catenin, a key signal transducer in the Wnt signaling. Conditional targeting of Apc in the neural crest of mice caused massive apoptosis of cephalic and cardiac neural crest cells at about 11.5 days post coitum, resulting in craniofacial and cardiac anomalies at birth. Notably, the apoptotic cells localized in the regions where β-catenin had accumulated. In contrast to its role in colorectal epithelial cells, inactivation of APC leads to dysregulation of β-catenin/Wnt signaling with resultant apoptosis in certain tissues including neural crest cells. PMID:11756652

  5. USP7 Is a Tumor-Specific WNT Activator for APC-Mutated Colorectal Cancer by Mediating β-Catenin Deubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellasdemunt, Laura; Foglizzo, Valentina; Cuadrado, Laura; Antas, Pedro; Kucharska, Anna; Encheva, Vesela; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Li, Vivian S W

    2017-10-17

    The tumor suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is mutated in most colorectal cancers (CRCs), resulting in constitutive Wnt activation. To understand the Wnt-activating mechanism of the APC mutation, we applied CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer various APC-truncated isogenic lines. We find that the β-catenin inhibitory domain (CID) in APC represents the threshold for pathological levels of Wnt activation and tumor transformation. Mechanistically, CID-deleted APC truncation promotes β-catenin deubiquitination through reverse binding of β-TrCP and USP7 to the destruction complex. USP7 depletion in APC-mutated CRC inhibits Wnt activation by restoring β-catenin ubiquitination, drives differentiation, and suppresses xenograft tumor growth. Finally, the Wnt-activating role of USP7 is specific to APC mutations; thus, it can be used as a tumor-specific therapeutic target for most CRCs. Copyright © 2017 The Francis Crick Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Functions of the APC tumor suppressor protein dependent and independent of canonical WNT signaling: implications for therapeutic targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, William; Frankel, Wendy L; Groden, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    The acquisition of biallelic mutations in the APC gene is a rate-limiting step in the development of most colorectal cancers and occurs in the earliest lesions. APC encodes a 312-kDa protein that localizes to multiple subcellular compartments and performs diverse functions. APC participates in a cytoplasmic complex that promotes the destruction of the transcriptional licensing factor β-catenin; APC mutations that abolish this function trigger constitutive activation of the canonical WNT signaling pathway, a characteristic found in almost all colorectal cancers. By negatively regulating canonical WNT signaling, APC counteracts proliferation, promotes differentiation, facilitates apoptosis, and suppresses invasion and tumor progression. APC further antagonizes canonical WNT signaling by interacting with and counteracting β-catenin in the nucleus. APC also suppresses tumor initiation and progression in the colorectal epithelium through functions that are independent of canonical WNT signaling. APC regulates the mitotic spindle to facilitate proper chromosome segregation, localizes to the cell periphery and cell protrusions to establish cell polarity and appropriate directional migration, and inhibits DNA replication by interacting directly with DNA. Mutations in APC are often frameshifts, insertions, or deletions that introduce premature stop codons and lead to the production of truncated APC proteins that lack its normal functions and possess tumorigenic properties. Therapeutic approaches in development for the treatment of APC-deficient tumors are focused on the inhibition of canonical WNT signaling, especially through targets downstream of APC in the pathway, or on the restoration of wild-type APC expression.

  7. APC/β-catenin-rich complexes at membrane protrusions regulate mammary tumor cell migration and mesenchymal morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odenwald, Matthew A; Prosperi, Jenifer R; Goss, Kathleen H

    2013-01-01

    The APC tumor suppressor is mutated or downregulated in many tumor types, and is prominently localized to punctate clusters at protrusion tips in migratory cells, such as in astrocytes where it has been implicated in directed cell motility. Although APC loss is considered an initiating event in colorectal cancer, for example, it is less clear what role APC plays in tumor cell motility and whether loss of APC might be an important promoter of tumor progression in addition to initiation. The localization of APC and β-catenin was analyzed in multiple cell lines, including non-transformed epithelial lines treated with a proteasome inhibitor or TGFβ to induce an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as several breast cancer lines, by immunofluorescence. APC expression was knocked down in 4T07 mammary tumor cells using lentiviral-mediated delivery of APC-specific short-hairpin (sh) RNAs, and assessed using quantitative (q) reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and western blotting. Tumor cell motility was analyzed by performing wound-filling assays, and morphology via immunofluorescence (IF) and phase-contrast microscopy. Additionally, proliferation was measured using BrdU incorporation, and TCF reporter assays were performed to determine β-catenin/TCF-mediated transcriptional activity. APC/β-catenin-rich complexes were observed at protrusion ends of migratory epithelial cells treated with a proteasome inhibitor or when EMT has been induced and in tumor cells with a mesenchymal, spindle-like morphology. 4T07 tumor cells with reduced APC levels were significantly less motile and had a more rounded morphology; yet, they did not differ significantly in proliferation or β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we found that APC/β-catenin-rich complexes at protrusion ends were dependent upon an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. These findings indicate that membrane protrusions with APC/β-catenin-containing puncta control the migratory potential and

  8. APC/β-catenin-rich complexes at membrane protrusions regulate mammary tumor cell migration and mesenchymal morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The APC tumor suppressor is mutated or downregulated in many tumor types, and is prominently localized to punctate clusters at protrusion tips in migratory cells, such as in astrocytes where it has been implicated in directed cell motility. Although APC loss is considered an initiating event in colorectal cancer, for example, it is less clear what role APC plays in tumor cell motility and whether loss of APC might be an important promoter of tumor progression in addition to initiation. Methods The localization of APC and β-catenin was analyzed in multiple cell lines, including non-transformed epithelial lines treated with a proteasome inhibitor or TGFβ to induce an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as several breast cancer lines, by immunofluorescence. APC expression was knocked down in 4T07 mammary tumor cells using lentiviral-mediated delivery of APC-specific short-hairpin (sh) RNAs, and assessed using quantitative (q) reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and western blotting. Tumor cell motility was analyzed by performing wound-filling assays, and morphology via immunofluorescence (IF) and phase-contrast microscopy. Additionally, proliferation was measured using BrdU incorporation, and TCF reporter assays were performed to determine β-catenin/TCF-mediated transcriptional activity. Results APC/β-catenin-rich complexes were observed at protrusion ends of migratory epithelial cells treated with a proteasome inhibitor or when EMT has been induced and in tumor cells with a mesenchymal, spindle-like morphology. 4T07 tumor cells with reduced APC levels were significantly less motile and had a more rounded morphology; yet, they did not differ significantly in proliferation or β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we found that APC/β-catenin-rich complexes at protrusion ends were dependent upon an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. Conclusions These findings indicate that membrane protrusions with APC/β-catenin-containing puncta

  9. Apc Restoration Promotes Cellular Differentiation and Reestablishes Crypt Homeostasis in Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, Lukas E; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Simon, Janelle; Tschaharganeh, Darjus F; van Es, Johan H; Clevers, Hans; Lowe, Scott W

    2015-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is mutated in the vast majority of human colorectal cancers (CRC) and leads to deregulated Wnt signaling. To determine whether Apc disruption is required for tumor maintenance, we developed a mouse model of CRC whereby Apc can be conditionally

  10. Tumor suppressors: enhancers or suppressors of regeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Jason H.; Blau, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor suppressors are so named because cancers occur in their absence, but these genes also have important functions in development, metabolism and tissue homeostasis. Here, we discuss known and potential functions of tumor suppressor genes during tissue regeneration, focusing on the evolutionarily conserved tumor suppressors pRb1, p53, Pten and Hippo. We propose that their activity is essential for tissue regeneration. This is in contrast to suggestions that tumor suppression is a trade-off for regenerative capacity. We also hypothesize that certain aspects of tumor suppressor pathways inhibit regenerative processes in mammals, and that transient targeted modification of these pathways could be fruitfully exploited to enhance processes that are important to regenerative medicine. PMID:23715544

  11. Analysis of APC allelic imbalance/loss of heterozygosity and APC protein expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gray, Sarah E

    2011-05-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is a tumor suppressor gene which is mutated in the hereditary disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Somatic mutations of the APC gene have also been identified in the majority of sporadic colorectal carcinomas, and mutation of the APC gene appears to be an early step in the initiation of colon cancer. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of APC has been described in a variety of other cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma, gastric cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, endometrial cancer and oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC).

  12. More than two decades of Apc modeling in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeineldin, Maged; Neufeld, Kristi L.

    2013-01-01

    Mutation of tumor suppressor gene Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is an initiating step in most colon cancers. This review summarizes Apc models in mice and rats, with particular concentration on those most recently developed, phenotypic variation among different models, and genotype/ phenotype correlations. PMID:23333833

  13. Regulation of APC and AXIN2 expression by intestinal tumor suppressor CDX2 in colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Krüger; Coskun, Mehmet; Bzorek, Michael

    2013-01-01

    was associated with endogenous downregulation of APC and AXIN2 expression in Caco-2 cells but did not affect GSK3β expression. Furthermore, elevated levels of nuclear β-catenin and reduced levels of cytoplasmic APC were correlated to a low CDX2 expression in migrating colon cancer cells in vivo. These results......Wnt signaling is often constitutively active in colorectal cancer cells. The expression of the intestinal specific transcription factor CDX2 is found to be transiently decreased in invasive cells at the tumor/stroma interface. A recent ChIP-Seq study has indicated that several Wnt signaling......-related genes are regulated by CDX2. The aim was to investigate the role of decreased CDX2 level on the expression of APC, AXIN2 and GSK3β in migrating colon cancer cells at the invasive front. CDX2-bound promoter and enhancer regions from APC, AXIN2 and GSK3β were analyzed for gene regulatory activity...

  14. The Role of Tumor Metastases Suppressor Gene, Drg-1, in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    evidence to validate 14 our data of breast cancer. However, these prostate cells and reagents were existing materials in our lab or purchased by using...J. Lab . Clin. Med. 133, 265–273. Sloane, B.F., Honn, K.V., 1984. Cysteine proteinases and metastasis. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 3, 249–263. Sridhar, S.C... Beest , P. Moerer, K. van der Horn, R. Goldschmeding, T. Logtenberg and H. Clevers: Synergy between tumor suppressor APC and the beta- catenin-Tcf4

  15. Interaction between APC and Fen1 during breast carcinogenesis.

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    Narayan, Satya; Jaiswal, Aruna S; Law, Brian K; Kamal, Mohammad A; Sharma, Arun K; Hromas, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant DNA base excision repair (BER) contributes to malignant transformation. However, inter-individual variations in DNA repair capacity plays a key role in modifying breast cancer risk. We review here emerging evidence that two proteins involved in BER - adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1) - promote the development of breast cancer through novel mechanisms. APC and Fen1 expression and interaction is increased in breast tumors versus normal cells, APC interacts with and blocks Fen1 activity in Pol-β-directed LP-BER, and abrogation of LP-BER is linked with cigarette smoke condensate-induced transformation of normal breast epithelial cells. Carcinogens increase expression of APC and Fen1 in spontaneously immortalized human breast epithelial cells, human colon cancer cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Since APC and Fen1 are tumor suppressors, an increase in their levels could protect against carcinogenesis; however, this does not seem to be the case. Elevated Fen1 levels in breast and lung cancer cells may reflect the enhanced proliferation of cancer cells or increased DNA damage in cancer cells compared to normal cells. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor functions of APC and Fen1 is due to their interaction, which may act as a susceptibility factor for breast cancer. The increased interaction of APC and Fen1 may occur due to polypmorphic and/or mutational variation in these genes. Screening of APC and Fen1 polymorphic and/or mutational variations and APC/Fen1 interaction may permit assessment of individual DNA repair capability and the risk for breast cancer development. Such individuals might lower their breast cancer risk by reducing exposure to carcinogens. Stratifying individuals according to susceptibility would greatly assist epidemiologic studies of the impact of suspected environmental carcinogens. Additionally, a mechanistic understanding of the interaction of APC and Fen1 may provide the basis for developing new and

  16. Apc1 is required for maintenance of local brain organizers and dorsal midbrain survival.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paridaen, J.T.M.; Danesin, C.; Elas, A.T.; van de Water, S.G.P.; Houart, C.; Zivkovic, D.

    2009-01-01

    The tumor suppressor Apc1 is an intracellular antagonist of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, which is vital for induction and patterning of the early vertebrate brain. However, its role in later brain development is less clear. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying effects of an Apc1

  17. Analysis of APC allelic imbalance/loss of heterozygosity and APC protein expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gray, Sarah E

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is a tumor suppressor gene which is mutated in the hereditary disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Somatic mutations of the APC gene have also been identified in the majority of sporadic colorectal carcinomas, and mutation of the APC gene appears to be an early step in the initiation of colon cancer. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of APC has been described in a variety of other cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma, gastric cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, endometrial cancer and oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). AIM: To determine the role played by APC gene in the genesis of cutaneous SCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Allelic imbalance\\/loss of heterozygosity (AI\\/LOH) was examined in twenty-two histologically confirmed cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) using microsatellite markers, proximal to the APC gene. Immunohistochemical analysis of APC protein expression was also examined in the cutaneous SCC. RESULTS: AI\\/LOH was detected in 60% of the SCC samples using D5S346 marker (proximal to the APC gene). Ninty-five percent of the SCC samples showed positive reduced APC expression, however the localization of the APC protein was abnormal. CONCLUSION: The abnormal expression of APC suggests that APC gene may play a role in cutaneous SCC development.

  18. Off and back-on again: a tumor suppressor's tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Jonuelle; Wang, Walter; Feldser, David M

    2018-06-01

    Tumor suppressor genes play critical roles orchestrating anti-cancer programs that are both context dependent and mechanistically diverse. Beyond canonical tumor suppressive programs that control cell division, cell death, and genome stability, unexpected tumor suppressor gene activities that regulate metabolism, immune surveillance, the epigenetic landscape, and others have recently emerged. This diversity underscores the important roles these genes play in maintaining cellular homeostasis to suppress cancer initiation and progression, but also highlights a tremendous challenge in discerning precise context-specific programs of tumor suppression controlled by a given tumor suppressor. Fortunately, the rapid sophistication of genetically engineered mouse models of cancer has begun to shed light on these context-dependent tumor suppressor activities. By using techniques that not only toggle "off" tumor suppressor genes in nascent tumors, but also facilitate the timely restoration of gene function "back-on again" in disease specific contexts, precise mechanisms of tumor suppression can be revealed in an unbiased manner. This review discusses the development and implementation of genetic systems designed to toggle tumor suppressor genes off and back-on again and their potential to uncover the tumor suppressor's tale.

  19. A metabolic switch controls intestinal differentiation downstream of Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC).

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    Sandoval, Imelda T; Delacruz, Richard Glenn C; Miller, Braden N; Hill, Shauna; Olson, Kristofor A; Gabriel, Ana E; Boyd, Kevin; Satterfield, Christeena; Remmen, Holly Van; Rutter, Jared; Jones, David A

    2017-04-11

    Elucidating signaling pathways that regulate cellular metabolism is essential for a better understanding of normal development and tumorigenesis. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) , a crucial player in pyruvate metabolism, is downregulated in colon adenocarcinomas. Utilizing zebrafish to examine the genetic relationship between MPC1 and Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), a key tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer, we found that apc controls the levels of mpc1 and that knock down of mpc1 recapitulates phenotypes of impaired apc function including failed intestinal differentiation. Exogenous human MPC1 RNA rescued failed intestinal differentiation in zebrafish models of apc deficiency. Our data demonstrate a novel role for apc in pyruvate metabolism and that pyruvate metabolism dictates intestinal cell fate and differentiation decisions downstream of apc .

  20. APC functions at the centrosome to stimulate microtubule growth.

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    Lui, Christina; Ashton, Cahora; Sharma, Manisha; Brocardo, Mariana G; Henderson, Beric R

    2016-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is multi-functional. APC is known to localize at the centrosome, and in mitotic cells contributes to formation of the mitotic spindle. To test whether APC contributes to nascent microtubule (MT) growth at interphase centrosomes, we employed MT regrowth assays in U2OS cells to measure MT assembly before and after nocodazole treatment and release. We showed that siRNA knockdown of full-length APC delayed both initial MT aster formation and MT elongation/regrowth. In contrast, APC-mutant SW480 cancer cells displayed a defect in MT regrowth that was unaffected by APC knockdown, but which was rescued by reconstitution of full-length APC. Our findings identify APC as a positive regulator of centrosome MT initial assembly and suggest that this process is disrupted by cancer mutations. We confirmed that full-length APC associates with the MT-nucleation factor γ-tubulin, and found that the APC cancer-truncated form (1-1309) also bound to γ-tubulin through APC amino acids 1-453. While binding to γ-tubulin may help target APC to the site of MT nucleation complexes, additional C-terminal sequences of APC are required to stimulate and stabilize MT growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of APC mutation in human ameloblastoma and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Liu, Bing; Sui, Chengguang; Jiang, Youhong

    2016-01-01

    As a highly conserved signaling pathway, Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway plays an important role in many processes. Either in the occurrence or development of tumor, activation of this pathway takes an important place. APC inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. This study aimed to investigate the function of cancer suppressor gene. PCR amplification and sequencing method was used to analyze APC mutations of human clinical specimens. The pathological specimens were collected for PCR and clear electrophoretic bands were obtained after electrophoresis. The gene sequence obtained after purification and sequencing analysis was compared with the known APC gene sequence (NM_000038.5). Base mutations at APC 1543 (T → C), APC-4564 (G → A), APC-5353 (T → G), APC-5550 (T → A) and APC-5969 (G → A) locus existed in 22 (27.5 %), 12 (15 %), 5 (6.25 %), 13 (16.25 %) and 12 patients (15 %), respectively. Gene mutations existed in ameloblastoma, and the mutation loci were 1543 locus (T → C), 4564 locus (G → A), 5353 locus (T → G), 5550 locus (T → A) and 5969 locus (G → A) 15 %, respectively. APC mutation plays a certain role in monitoring the tumor malignant degree as it may indicate the transition process of ameloblastoma malignant phenotype.

  2. Quantitative Methylation Profiles for Multiple Tumor Suppressor Gene Promoters in Salivary Gland Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Megan L.; Mydlarz, Wojciech K.; Shao, Chunbo; Zahurak, Marianna L.; Chuang, Alice Y.; Hoque, Mohammad O.; Westra, William H.; Liegeois, Nanette J.; Califano, Joseph A.; Sidransky, David; Ha, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Methylation profiling of tumor suppressor gene (TSGs) promoters is quickly becoming a powerful diagnostic tool for the early detection, prognosis, and even prediction of clinical response to treatment. Few studies address this in salivary gland tumors (SGTs); hence the promoter methylation profile of various TSGs was quantitatively assessed in primary SGT tissue to determine if tumor-specific alterations could be detected. Methodology DNA isolated from 78 tumor and 17 normal parotid gland specimens was assayed for promoter methylation status of 19 TSGs by fluorescence-based, quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP). The data were utilized in a binary fashion as well as quantitatively (using a methylation quotient) allowing for better profiling and interpretation of results. Principal Findings The average number of methylation events across the studied genes was highest in salivary duct carcinoma (SDC), with a methylation value of 9.6, compared to the normal 4.5 (ptrend for increasing methylation in APC, Mint 1, PGP9.5, RAR-β, and Timp3. Conclusions/Significance Screening promoter methylation profiles in SGTs showed considerable heterogeneity. The methylation status of certain markers was surprisingly high in even normal salivary tissue, confirming the need for such controls. Several TSGs were found to be associated with malignant SGTs, especially SDC. Further study is needed to evaluate the potential use of these associations in the detection, prognosis, and therapeutic outcome of these rare tumors. PMID:20520817

  3. APC selectively mediates response to chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKlompenberg, Monica K.; Bedalov, Claire O.; Soto, Katia Fernandez; Prosperi, Jenifer R.

    2015-01-01

    The Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) tumor suppressor is mutated or hypermethylated in up to 70 % of sporadic breast cancers depending on subtype; however, the effects of APC mutation on tumorigenic properties remain unexplored. Using the Apc Min/+ mouse crossed to the Polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) transgenic model, we identified enhanced breast tumorigenesis and alterations in genes critical in therapeutic resistance independent of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Apc mutation changed the tumor histopathology from solid to squamous adenocarcinomas, resembling the highly aggressive human metaplastic breast cancer. Mechanistic studies in tumor-derived cell lines demonstrated that focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Src/JNK signaling regulated the enhanced proliferation downstream of Apc mutation. Despite this mechanistic information, the role of APC in mediating breast cancer chemotherapeutic resistance is currently unknown. We have examined the effect of Apc loss in MMTV-PyMT mouse breast cancer cells on gene expression changes of ATP-binding cassette transporters and immunofluorescence to determine proliferative and apoptotic response of cells to cisplatin, doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Furthermore we determined the added effect of Src or JNK inhibition by PP2 and SP600125, respectively, on chemotherapeutic response. We also used the Aldefluor assay to measure the population of tumor initiating cells. Lastly, we measured the apoptotic and proliferative response to APC knockdown in MDA-MB-157 human breast cancer cells after chemotherapeutic treatment. Cells obtained from MMTV-PyMT;Apc Min/+ tumors express increased MDR1 (multidrug resistance protein 1), which is augmented by treatment with paclitaxel or doxorubicin. Furthermore MMTV-PyMT;Apc Min/+ cells are more resistant to cisplatin and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, and show a larger population of ALDH positive cells. In the human metaplastic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-157, APC knockdown led to paclitaxel and cisplatin

  4. High-resolution Melting Analysis for Gene Scanning of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) Gene With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Yang, Shu-Fen; Ho, Cheng Mao; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2016-02-01

    There have been many different mutations reported for the large adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene. APC mutations result in inactivation of APC tumor suppressor action, allowing the progression of tumorigenesis. The present study utilized a highly efficient method to identify APC mutations and investigated the association between the APC genetic variants Y486Y, A545A, T1493T, and D1822V and susceptibility to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was used to characterize APC mutations. Genomic DNA was extracted from 83 patient specimens of OSCC and 50 blood samples from healthy control subjects. The 14 exons and mutation cluster region of exon 15 were screened by HRM analysis. All mutations were confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Three mutations and 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in this study. The mutations were c.573T>C (Y191Y) in exon 5, c.1005A>G (L335L) in exon 9, and c.1488A>T (T496T) in exon 11. Two SNPs, c.4479G>A (T1493T) and c.5465A>T (D1822V), were located in exon 15, whereas c.1458T>C (Y486Y) and c.1635G>A (A545A) were located in exon 11 and 13, respectively. There was no observed association between OSCC risk and genotype for any of the 4 APC SNPs. The mutation of APC is rare in Taiwanese patients with OSCC. HRM analysis is a reliable, accurate, and fast screening method for APC mutations.

  5. Intestinal tumor suppression in ApcMin/+ mice by prostaglandin D2 receptor PTGDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippin, Brigette L; Kwong, Alan M; Inadomi, Michael J; Lee, Oliver J; Park, Jae Man; Materi, Alicia M; Buslon, Virgilio S; Lin, Amy M; Kudo, Lili C; Karsten, Stanislav L; French, Samuel W; Narumiya, Shuh; Urade, Yoshihiro; Salido, Eduardo; Lin, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Our earlier work showed that knockout of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS, an enzyme that produces prostaglandin D 2 ) caused more adenomas in Apc Min/+ mice. Conversely, highly expressed transgenic HPGDS allowed fewer tumors. Prostaglandin D 2 (PGD 2 ) binds to the prostaglandin D 2 receptor known as PTGDR (or DP1). PGD 2 metabolites bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG). We hypothesized that Ptgdr or Pparg knockouts may raise numbers of tumors, if these receptors take part in tumor suppression by PGD 2 . To assess, we produced Apc Min/+ mice with and without Ptgdr knockouts (147 mice). In separate experiments, we produced Apc Min/+ mice expressing transgenic lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (PTGDS), with and without heterozygous Pparg knockouts (104 mice). Homozygous Ptgdr knockouts raised total numbers of tumors by 30–40% at 6 and 14 weeks. Colon tumors were not affected. Heterozygous Pparg knockouts alone did not affect tumor numbers in Apc Min/+ mice. As mentioned above, our Pparg knockout assessment also included mice with highly expressed PTGDS transgenes. Apc Min/+ mice with transgenic PTGDS had fewer large adenomas (63% of control) and lower levels of v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) mRNA in the colon. Heterozygous Pparg knockouts appeared to blunt the tumor-suppressing effect of transgenic PTGDS. However, tumor suppression by PGD 2 was more clearly mediated by receptor PTGDR in our experiments. The suppression mechanism did not appear to involve changes in microvessel density or slower proliferation of tumor cells. The data support a role for PGD 2 signals acting through PTGDR in suppression of intestinal tumors

  6. Dietary fat and risk of colon and rectal cancer with aberrant MLH1 expression, APC or KRAS genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, M.P.; Luchtenborg, M.; Goeij, A.F. de; Brink, M.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Bruine, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate baseline fat intake and the risk of colon and rectal tumors lacking MLH1 (mutL homolog 1, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 2) repair gene expression and harboring mutations in the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) tumor suppressor gene and in the KRAS (v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat

  7. Human APC sequesters beta-catenin even in the absence of GSK-3beta in a Drosophila model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P R; Makhijani, K; Shashidhara, L S

    2008-04-10

    There have been conflicting reports on the requirement of GSK-3beta-mediated phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) vis-à-vis its ability to bind and degrade beta-catenin. Using a unique combination of loss of function for Shaggy/GSK-3beta and a gain of function for human APC in Drosophila, we show that misexpressed human APC (hAPC) can still sequester Armadillo/beta-catenin. In addition, human APC could suppress gain of Wnt/Wingless phenotypes associated with loss of Shaggy/GSK-3beta activity, suggesting that sequestered Armadillo/beta-catenin is non-functional. Based on these studies, we propose that binding per se of beta-catenin by APC does not require phosphorylation by GSK-3beta.

  8. Promoter methylation of APC and RAR-β genes as prognostic markers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hongxiang; Zhang, Zhenrong; Qing, Xin; Wang, Xiaowei; Liang, Chaoyang; Liu, Deruo

    2016-02-01

    Aberrant promoter hypermethylations of tumor suppressor genes are promising markers for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The purpose of this study was to determine methylation status at APC and RAR-β promoters in primary NSCLC, and whether they have any relationship with survival. APC and RAR-β promoter methylation status were determined in 41 NSCLC patients using methylation specific PCR. APC promoter methylation was detectable in 9 (22.0%) tumor samples and 6 (14.6%) corresponding non-tumor samples (P=0.391). RAR-β promoter methylation was detectable in 13 (31.7%) tumor samples and 4 (9.8%) corresponding non-tumor samples (P=0.049) in the NSCLC patients. APC promoter methylation was found to be associated with T stage (P=0.046) and nodal status (P=0.019) in non-tumor samples, and with smoking (P=0.004) in tumor samples. RAR-β promoter methylation was found associated with age (P=0.031) in non-tumor samples and with primary tumor site in tumor samples. Patients with APC promoter methylation in tumor samples showed significantly longer survival than patients without it (Log-rank P=0.014). In a multivariate analysis of prognostic factors, APC methylation in tumor samples was an independent prognostic factor (P=0.012), as were N1 positive lymph node number (P=0.025) and N2 positive lymph node number (P=0.06). Our study shows that RAR-β methylation detected in lung tissue may be used as a predictive marker for NSCLC diagnosis and that APC methylation in tumor sample may be a useful marker for superior survival in NSCLC patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) regulates miR17-92 cluster through β-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajuan; Lauriola, Mattia; Kim, Donghwa; Francesconi, Mirko; D'Uva, Gabriele; Shibata, Dave; Malafa, Mokenge P; Yeatman, Timothy J; Coppola, Domenico; Solmi, Rossella; Cheng, Jin Q

    2016-09-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation is the most common genetic change in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Although deregulations of miRNAs have been frequently reported in this malignancy, APC-regulated miRNAs have not been extensively documented. Here, by using an APC-inducible cell line and array analysis, we identified a total of 26 deregulated miRNAs. Among them, members of miR-17-92 cluster were dramatically inhibited by APC and induced by enforced expression of β-catenin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated β-catenin resulted from APC loss binds to and activates the miR-17-92 promoter. Notably, enforced expression of miR-19a overrides APC tumor suppressor activity, and knockdown of miR-19a in cancer cells with compromised APC function reduced their aggressive features in vitro. Finally, we observed that expression of miR-19a significantly correlates with β-catenin levels in colorectal cancer specimens, and it is associated to the aggressive stage of tumor progression. Thus, our study reveals that miR-17-92 cluster is directly regulated by APC/β-catenin pathway and could be a potential therapeutic target in colon cancers with aberrant APC/β-catenin signaling.

  10. Hypermethylated APC in serous carcinoma based on a meta-analysis of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chunyan; Sheng, Qifang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Fu, Yuling; Zhu, Kemiao

    2016-09-26

    The reduced expression of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, a tumor suppressor gene, through promoter hypermethylation has been reported to play a key role in the carcinogenesis. However, the correlation between APC promoter hypermethylation and ovarian cancer (OC) remains to be clarified. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in related research databases. The overall odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the effects of APC promoter hypermethylation on OC and clinicopathological characteristics. Ultimately, 12 eligible studies were used in our study, including 806 OC samples, 429 normal controls, 109 benign lesions and 75 LMP samples. The pooled OR showed that APC promoter hypermethylation was significantly higher in OC than in normal and benign controls (OR = 6.18 and OR = 3.26, respectively). No significant correlation was observed between OC and low malignant potential (LMP) tumors (P = 0.436). In the comparison of OC and normal controls, subgroup analysis based on race showed that the overall OR of APC promoter hypermethylation was significant and similar in Asians and Caucasians (OR = 8.34 and OR = 5.39, respectively). A subgroup analysis based on sample type found that the pooled OR was significantly higher in blood than in tissue (OR = 18.71 and OR = 5.74, respectively). A significant association was not observed between APC promoter hypermethylation and tumor grade or tumor stage. The pooled OR indicated that APC promoter hypermethylation was significantly lower in serous carcinoma than in non-serous carcinoma (OR = 0.56, P = 0.02). No obvious publication bias was detected by Egger's test (all P > 0.05). APC promoter hypermethylation may be linked to the increased risk of OC. It was associated with histological type, but not with tumor grade or tumor stage. Moreover, hypermethylated APC may be a noninvasive biomarker using blood samples. Future

  11. Reduced expression of APC-1B but not APC-1A by the deletion of promoter 1B is responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Nagayama, Satoshi; Shimizu, Eigo; Komura, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Rui; Shibuya, Tetsuo; Arai, Masami; Hatakeyama, Seira; Ikenoue, Tsuneo; Ueno, Masashi; Miyano, Satoru; Imoto, Seiya; Furukawa, Yoichi

    2016-05-24

    Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Here we applied whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to the DNA of a sporadic FAP patient in which we did not find any pathological APC mutations by direct sequencing. WGS identified a promoter deletion of approximately 10 kb encompassing promoter 1B and exon1B of APC. Additional allele-specific expression analysis by deep cDNA sequencing revealed that the deletion reduced the expression of the mutated APC allele to as low as 11.2% in the total APC transcripts, suggesting that the residual mutant transcripts were driven by other promoter(s). Furthermore, cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) demonstrated that the deleted promoter 1B region is responsible for the great majority of APC transcription in many tissues except the brain. The deletion decreased the transcripts of APC-1B to 39-45% in the patient compared to the healthy controls, but it did not decrease those of APC-1A. Different deletions including promoter 1B have been reported in FAP patients. Taken together, our results strengthen the evidence that analysis of structural variations in promoter 1B should be considered for the FAP patients whose pathological mutations are not identified by conventional direct sequencing.

  12. APC senses cell-cell contacts and moves to the nucleus upon their disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocardo, M G; Bianchini, M; Radrizzani, M; Reyes, G B; Dugour, A V; Taminelli, G L; Gonzalez Solveyra, C; Santa-Coloma, T A

    2001-06-22

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein is involved in the Wnt/wingless pathway, modulating beta-catenin activity. We report the development of a highly specific, chemically synthesized oligobody (oligonucleotide-based synthetic antibody), directed against the N-terminal region of APC. Using this reagent, we found that within 16 h of disrupting HT-29 cell-cell contacts by harvesting cells with trypsin/EDTA treatment and replating, APC was translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Five days after plating the cells, when the cells had returned to their normal confluent phenotype and cell-cell contacts were reestablished, APC returned to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that APC functions as part of a "sensor" system, and responds to the loss of cell-cell contacts by moving to the nucleus, and returning to the cytoplasm when the contacts are fully restored. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. C/EBP{delta} targets cyclin D1 for proteasome-mediated degradation via induction of CDC27/APC3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Snehalata A; Sarkar, Tapasree Roy; Balamurugan, Kuppusamy; Sharan, Shikha; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Youhong; Dowdy, Steven F; Huang, A-Mei; Sterneck, Esta

    2010-05-18

    The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPdelta, CEBPD, NFIL-6beta) has tumor suppressor function; however, the molecular mechanism(s) by which C/EBPdelta exerts its effect are largely unknown. Here, we report that C/EBPdelta induces expression of the Cdc27 (APC3) subunit of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which results in the polyubiquitination and degradation of the prooncogenic cell cycle regulator cyclin D1, and also down-regulates cyclin B1, Skp2, and Plk-1. In C/EBPdelta knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) Cdc27 levels were reduced, whereas cyclin D1 levels were increased even in the presence of activated GSK-3beta. Silencing of C/EBPdelta, Cdc27, or the APC/C coactivator Cdh1 (FZR1) in MCF-10A breast epithelial cells increased cyclin D1 protein expression. Like C/EBPdelta, and in contrast to cyclin D1, Cdc27 was down-regulated in several breast cancer cell lines, suggesting that Cdc27 itself may be a tumor suppressor. Cyclin D1 is a known substrate of polyubiquitination complex SKP1/CUL1/F-box (SCF), and our studies show that Cdc27 directs cyclin D1 to alternative degradation by APC/C. These findings shed light on the role and regulation of APC/C, which is critical for most cellular processes.

  14. β-Catenin destruction complex-independent regulation of Hippo–YAP signaling by APC in intestinal tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Maitra, Anirban; Anders, Robert A.; Taketo, Makoto M.; Pan, Duojia

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) underlie familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an inherited cancer syndrome characterized by the widespread development of colorectal polyps. APC is best known as a scaffold protein in the β-catenin destruction complex, whose activity is antagonized by canonical Wnt signaling. Whether other effector pathways mediate APC's tumor suppressor function is less clear. Here we report that activation of YAP, the downstream effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, is a general hallmark of tubular adenomas from FAP patients. We show that APC functions as a scaffold protein that facilitates the Hippo kinase cascade by interacting with Sav1 and Lats1. Consistent with the molecular link between APC and the Hippo signaling pathway, genetic analysis reveals that YAP is absolutely required for the development of APC-deficient adenomas. These findings establish Hippo–YAP signaling as a critical effector pathway downstream from APC, independent from its involvement in the β-catenin destruction complex. PMID:26193883

  15. Human xenospecific T suppressor cells inhibit T helper cell proliferation to porcine aortic endothelial cells, and NF-kappaB activity in porcine APC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotariu, R; Li, J; Colovai, A I; Platt, J L; Cortesini, R; Suciu Foca Cortesini, N

    2001-05-01

    Human T suppressor cells (Ts), capable of preventing autologous T helper cells (Th) from reacting against xenogeneic pig endothelial cells and pig APC can be generated in vitro. Ts derive from a population of CD3(+)CD8(+)CD28(-) T lymphocytes and specifically recognize the MHC class I antigens of the APC used for in vitro immunization. To study the mechanism that underlies suppression, we investigated whether Ts inhibit the expression of costimulatory molecules in xenogeneic professional and semiprofessional APC. We found that Ts down-regulate Th-induced expression of CD86 in pig APC, and that this effect occurs at the level of transcription, as indicated by nuclear run-on and Northern blot assays. EMSA results revealed that inhibition of CD86 expression is mediated by inactivation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. Furthermore, transfection of pig APC with a vector expressing NF-kappaB p65 partially rescued Th-induced expression of the CD86 molecule. These results strongly support the concept that xenospecific Ts inhibit the APC function of xenogeneic cells by preventing activation of NF-kappaB.

  16. Novel APC gene mutations associated with protein alteration in diffuse type gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Souvik; Chakraborty, Payel; Sarkar, Sandeep Roy; Chowdhury, Biswajit; Bhaumik, Arup; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil

    2017-06-02

    The role of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in mitosis might be critical for regulation of genomic stability and chromosome segregation. APC gene mutations have been associated to have a role in colon cancer and since gastric and colon tumors share some common genetic lesions, it is relevant to investigate the role of APC tumor suppressor gene in gastric cancer. We investigated for somatic mutations in the Exons 14 and 15 of APC gene from 40 diffuse type gastric cancersamples. Rabbit polyclonal anti-APC antibody was used, which detects the wild-type APC protein and was recommended for detection of the respective protein in human tissues. Cell cycle analysis was done from tumor and adjacent normal tissue. APC immunoreactivity showed positive expression of the protein in stages I, II, III and negative expression in Stages III and IV. Two novel deleterious variations (g.127576C > A, g.127583C > T) in exon 14 sequence were found to generate stop codon (Y622* and Q625*)in the tumor samples. Due to the generation of stop codon, the APC protein might be truncated and all the regulatory features could be lost which has led to the down-regulation of protein expression. Our results indicate that aneuploidy might occurdue to the codon 622 and 625 APC-driven gastric tumorigenesis, in agreement with our cell cycle analysis. The APC gene function in mitosis and chromosomal stability might be lost and G1 might be arrested with high quantity of DNA in the S phase. Six missense somatic mutations in tumor samples were detected in exon 15 A-B, twoof which showed pathological and disease causing effects based on SIFT, Polyphen2 and SNPs & GO score and were not previously reported in the literature or the public mutation databases. The two novel pathological somatic mutations (g.127576C > A, g.127583C > T) in exon 14 might be altering the protein expression leading to development of gastric cancer in the study population. Our study showed that mutations in the APC

  17. The Quest for the 1p36 Tumor Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Anindya; Mills, Alea A.

    2010-01-01

    Genomic analyses of late-stage human cancers have uncovered deletions encompassing 1p36, thereby providing an extensive body of literature supporting the idea that a potent tumor suppressor resides in this interval. Although a number of genes have been proposed as 1p36 candidate tumor suppressors, convincing evidence that their encoded products protect from cancer has been scanty. A recent functional study identified CHD5 as a novel tumor suppressor mapping to 1p36. Here we discuss evidence supporting CHD5’s tumor suppressive role. Together, these findings suggest that strategies designed to enhance CHD5 activity could provide novel approaches for treating a broad range of human malignancies. PMID:18413720

  18. Molecular biology III - Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaccia, Amato J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this course is to introduce to radiation oncologists the basic concepts of tumorigenesis, building on the information that will be presented in the first and second part of this series of lectures. Objective: Our objective is to increase the current understanding of radiation oncologists with the process of tumorigenesis, especially focusing on genes that are altered in many tumor types that are potential candidates for novel molecular strategies. As strategies to treat cancer of cancer are becoming more sophisticated, it will be important for both the practitioner and academician to develop a basic understanding of the function of cancer 'genes'. This will be the third in a series of refresher courses that are meant to address recent advances in Cancer Biology in a way that both clinicians without previous knowledge of molecular biology or experienced researchers will find interesting. The lecture will begin with a basic overview of tumorigenesis; methods of detecting chromosome/DNA alterations, approaches used to isolate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, and their role in cell killing by apoptosis. Special attention will be given to oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that are modulated by ionizing radiation and the tumor microenvironment. We will relate the biology of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes to basic aspects of radiation biology that would be important in clinical practice. Finally, we will review recent studies on the prognostic significance of p53 mutations and apoptosis in tumor specimens. The main point of this lecture is to relate both researcher and clinician what are the therapeutic ramifications of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene mutations found in human neoptasia

  19. Immunopurification of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene encodes a 2843 residue (310 kDa) protein. APC is a multifunctional protein involved in the regulation of β-catenin/Wnt signalling, cytoskeletal dynamics and cell adhesion. APC mutations occur in most colorectal cancers and typically result in truncation of the C-terminal half of the protein. Results In order to investigate the biophysical properties of APC, we have generated a set of monoclonal antibodies which enable purification of recombinant forms of APC. Here we describe the characterisation of these anti-APC monoclonal antibodies (APC-NT) that specifically recognise endogenous APC both in solution and in fixed cells. Full-length APC(1–2843) and cancer-associated, truncated APC proteins, APC(1–1638) and APC(1–1311) were produced in Sf9 insect cells. Conclusions Recombinant APC proteins were purified using a two-step affinity approach using our APC-NT antibodies. The purification of APC proteins provides the basis for detailed structure/function analyses of full-length, cancer-truncated and endogenous forms of the protein. PMID:24156781

  20. Myc deletion rescues Apc deficiency in the small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sansom, O.J.; Meniel, V.S.; Muncan, V.; Phesse, T.J.; Wilkins, J.A.; Reed, K.R.; Vass, J.K.; Athineos, D.; Clevers, J.C.; Clarke, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The APC gene encodes the adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor protein, germline mutation of which characterizes familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal intestinal cancer syndrome. Inactivation of APC is also recognized as the key early event in the development of sporadic

  1. Isoform-specific interactions of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein

    OpenAIRE

    Minervini, Giovanni; Mazzotta, Gabriella M.; Masiero, Alessandro; Sartori, Elena; Corr?, Samantha; Potenza, Emilio; Costa, Rodolfo; Tosatto, Silvio C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Deregulation of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL) is considered one of the main causes for malignant renal clear-cell carcinoma (ccRCC) insurgence. In human, pVHL exists in two isoforms, pVHL19 and pVHL30 respectively, displaying comparable tumor suppressor abilities. Mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene have been also correlated with ccRCC insurgence and ineffectiveness of treatment. A recent proteomic analysis linked full length pVHL30 with p53 pathway regulation t...

  2. RET is a potential tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanxin; Tsuchiya, Karen D.; Park, Dong Il; Fausel, Rebecca; Kanngurn, Samornmas; Welcsh, Piri; Dzieciatkowski, Slavomir; Wang, Jianping; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer arises as the consequence of mutations and epigenetic alterations that activate oncogenes and inactivate tumor suppressor genes. Through a genome-wide screen for methylated genes in colon neoplasms, we identified aberrantly methylated RET in colorectal cancer. RET, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase and a receptor for the GDNF-family ligands, was one of the first oncogenes to be identified and has been shown to be an oncogene in thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma. However, unexpectedly, we found RET is methylated in 27% of colon adenomas and in 63% of colorectal cancers, and now provide evidence that RET has tumor suppressor activity in colon cancer. The aberrant methylation of RET correlates with decreased RET expression, whereas the restoration of RET in colorectal cancer cell lines results in apoptosis. Furthermore, in support of a tumor suppressor function of RET, mutant RET has also been found in primary colorectal cancer. We now show that these mutations inactivate RET, which is consistent with RET being a tumor suppressor gene in the colon. These findings suggest that the aberrant methylation of RET and the mutational inactivation of RET promote colorectal cancer formation and that RET can serve as a tumor suppressor gene in the colon. Moreover, the increased frequency of methylated RET in colon cancers compared to adenomas suggests RET inactivation is involved in the progression of colon adenomas to cancer. PMID:22751117

  3. Dietary fat and risk of colon and rectal cancer with aberrant MLH1 expression, APC or KRAS genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, Matty P; Lüchtenborg, Margreet; de Goeij, Anton F P M; Brink, Mirian; van Muijen, Goos N P; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2007-10-01

    To investigate baseline fat intake and the risk of colon and rectal tumors lacking MLH1 (mutL homolog 1, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 2) repair gene expression and harboring mutations in the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) tumor suppressor gene and in the KRAS (v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) oncogene. After 7.3 years of follow-up of the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852), adjusted incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed, based on 401 colon and 130 rectal cancer patients. Total, saturated and monounsaturated fat were not associated with the risk of colon or rectal cancer, or different molecular subgroups. There was also no association between polyunsaturated fat and the risk of overall or subgroups of rectal cancer. Linoleic acid, the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the diet, was associated with increased risk of colon tumors with only a KRAS mutation and no additional truncating APC mutation or lack of MLH1 expression (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.18-1.69 for one standard deviation (i.e., 7.5 g/day) increase in intake, p-trend over the quartiles of intake colon tumors without any of the gene defects, or with tumors harboring aberrations in either MLH1 or APC. Linoleic acid intake is associated with colon tumors with an aberrant KRAS gene, but an intact APC gene and MLH1 expression, suggesting a unique etiology of tumors with specific genetic aberrations.

  4. Indispensable role of Notch ligand-dependent signaling in the proliferation and stem cell niche maintenance of APC-deficient intestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Toru; Shimizu, Hiromichi; Nagata, Sayaka; Ito, Go; Fujii, Satoru; Suzuki, Kohei; Kawamoto, Ami; Ishibashi, Fumiaki; Kuno, Reiko; Anzai, Sho; Murano, Tatsuro; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Oshima, Shigeru; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Hozumi, Katsuto; Watanabe, Mamoru; Okamoto, Ryuichi

    2017-01-01

    Ligand-dependent activation of Notch signaling is required to maintain the stem-cell niche of normal intestinal epithelium. However, the precise role of Notch signaling in the maintenance of the intestinal tumor stem cell niche and the importance of the RBPJ-independent non-canonical pathway in intestinal tumors remains unknown. Here we show that Notch signaling was activated in LGR5 +ve cells of APC-deficient mice intestinal tumors. Accordingly, Notch ligands, including Jag1, Dll1, and Dll4, were expressed in these tumors. In vitro studies using tumor-derived organoids confirmed the intrinsic Notch activity-dependent growth of tumor cells. Surprisingly, the targeted deletion of Jag1 but not RBPJ in LGR5 +ve tumor-initiating cells resulted in the silencing of Hes1 expression, disruption of the tumor stem cell niche, and dramatic reduction in the proliferation activity of APC-deficient intestinal tumors in vivo. Thus, our results highlight the importance of ligand-dependent non-canonical Notch signaling in the proliferation and maintenance of the tumor stem cell niche in APC-deficient intestinal adenomas. - Highlights: • Notch signaling is activated in LGR5 +ve cells of APC-deficient intestinal tumors. • Lack of Jag1 but not RBPJ disrupts stem cell niche formation in those tumors. • Lack of Jag1 reduces the proliferation activity of APC-deficient intestinal tumors.

  5. Chlorinated Water Modulates the Development of Colorectal Tumors with Chromosomal Instability and Gut Microbiota in Apc-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, Tatsunari; Hinoi, Takao; Saito, Yasufumi; Adachi, Tomohiro; Takakura, Yuji; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Sotomaru, Yusuke; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Oue, Naohide; Yasui, Wataru; Ohdan, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to a variety of chemicals and commensal bacteria. Recent studies have shown that changes in gut microbial populations caused by chlorine or other chemicals in the drinking water influence the development of human colorectal cancer, although the mechanism of tumorigenesis in the gut epithelium is obfuscated by the diversity of microflora and complexity of the tumor microenvironment. In this regard, mouse models that recapitulate human colorectal cancer are an invaluable tool. In this study, we used two conditional adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) knockout mouse models to investigate the effect of chlorinated water on tumorigenesis in the digestive tract. Mice with colon-specific carcinoma--caused by either chromosomal (CDX2P 9.5-NLS Cre;Apc(+/flox), abbreviated to CPC;Apc) or microsatellite (CDX2P9.5-G19Cre;Apc(flox/flox) and CDX2P9.5-G22Cre;Apc(flox/flox)) instability, respectively--were administered chlorinated (10.0 mg/L chlorine) or tap (0.7 mg/L chlorine) water and evaluated for colon polyp formation. In CPC;Apc mice given chlorinated drinking water, tumors tended to develop in the colon, whereas in those that drank tap water, tumors were mostly observed in the small intestine. There was no difference in the rate of tumor formation of CDX2P9.5-G19Cre;Apc(flox/flox) and CDX2P9.5-G22Cre;Apc(flox/flox) mice consuming chlorinated as compared to tap water, suggesting that microsatellite instability in the Apc gene does not significantly affect tumorigenesis. Chlorinated water altered the enteric environment by reducing the fecal populations of the obligatory anaerobes Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile, as well as species belonging to the Atopobium cluster, including Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus sp., which was associated with colon tumorigenesis in CPC;Apc mice. These results suggest that differences in tumorigenesis among CPC;Apc mice consuming chlorinated versus tap water may be due to differences

  6. Apc1 is required for maintenance of local brain organizers and dorsal midbrain survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paridaen, Judith T M L; Danesin, Catherine; Elas, Abu Tufayal; van de Water, Sandra; Houart, Corinne; Zivkovic, Danica

    2009-07-15

    The tumor suppressor Apc1 is an intracellular antagonist of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, which is vital for induction and patterning of the early vertebrate brain. However, its role in later brain development is less clear. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying effects of an Apc1 zygotic-effect mutation on late brain development in zebrafish. Apc1 is required for maintenance of established brain subdivisions and control of local organizers such as the isthmic organizer (IsO). Caudal expansion of Fgf8 from IsO into the cerebellum is accompanied by hyperproliferation and abnormal cerebellar morphogenesis. Loss of apc1 results in reduced proliferation and apoptosis in the dorsal midbrain. Mosaic analysis shows that Apc is required cell-autonomously for maintenance of dorsal midbrain cell fate. The tectal phenotype occurs independently of Fgf8-mediated IsO function and is predominantly caused by stabilization of beta-catenin and subsequent hyperactivation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling, which is mainly mediated through LEF1 activity. Chemical activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin in wild-type embryos during late brain maintenance stages phenocopies the IsO and tectal phenotypes of the apc mutants. These data demonstrate that Apc1-mediated restriction of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling is required for maintenance of local organizers and tectal integrity.

  7. The human ARF tumor suppressor senses blastema activity and suppresses epimorphic tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Robert G; Kouklis, Gayle K; Ahituv, Nadav; Pomerantz, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    The control of proliferation and differentiation by tumor suppressor genes suggests that evolution of divergent tumor suppressor repertoires could influence species’ regenerative capacity. To directly test that premise, we humanized the zebrafish p53 pathway by introducing regulatory and coding sequences of the human tumor suppressor ARF into the zebrafish genome. ARF was dormant during development, in uninjured adult fins, and during wound healing, but was highly expressed in the blastema during epimorphic fin regeneration after amputation. Regenerative, but not developmental signals resulted in binding of zebrafish E2f to the human ARF promoter and activated conserved ARF-dependent Tp53 functions. The context-dependent activation of ARF did not affect growth and development but inhibited regeneration, an unexpected distinct tumor suppressor response to regenerative versus developmental environments. The antagonistic pleiotropic characteristics of ARF as both tumor and regeneration suppressor imply that inducing epimorphic regeneration clinically would require modulation of ARF –p53 axis activation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07702.001 PMID:26575287

  8. Structures of the APC-ARM domain in complexes with discrete Amer1/WTX fragments reveal that it uses a consensus mode to recognize its binding partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyi; Akyildiz, Senem; Xiao, Yafei; Gai, Zhongchao; An, Ying; Behrens, Jürgen; Wu, Geng

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor APC employs its conserved armadillo repeat (ARM) domain to recognize many of its binding partners, including Amer1/WTX, which is mutated in Wilms' tumor and bone overgrowth syndrome. The APC-Amer1 complex has important roles in regulating Wnt signaling and cell adhesion. Three sites A1, A2, and A3 of Amer1 have been reported to mediate its interaction with APC-ARM. In this study, crystal structures of APC-ARM in complexes with Amer1-A1, -A2, and -A4, which is newly identified in this work, were determined. Combined with our GST pull-down, yeast two-hybrid, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assay results using mutants of APC and Amer1 interface residues, our structures demonstrate that Amer1-A1, -A2, and -A4, as well as other APC-binding proteins such as Asef and Sam68, all employ a common recognition pattern to associate with APC-ARM. In contrast, Amer1-A3 binds to the C-terminal side of APC-ARM through a bipartite interaction mode. Composite mutations on either APC or Amer1 disrupting all four interfaces abrogated their association in cultured cells and impaired the membrane recruitment of APC by Amer1. Our study thus comprehensively elucidated the recognition mechanism between APC and Amer1, and revealed a consensus recognition sequence employed by various APC-ARM binding partners.

  9. ERF is a Potential ERK Modulated Tumor Suppressor in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    6/27/2016 - 6/27/2019 1.20 calendar Prostate Cancer Foundation (formerly CaP CURE) $ 75,000 Epigenetic ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0277 TITLE: ERF is a Potential ERK-Modulated Tumor Suppressor in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Rohit...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ERF is a Potential ERK-Modulated Tumor Suppressor in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0277

  10. ERF is a Potential ERK-Modulated Tumor Suppressor in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0277 TITLE: ERF is a Potential ERK-Modulated Tumor Suppressor in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr...Rohit Bose CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York NY 10065 REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ERF is a Potential ERK-Modulated Tumor Suppressor in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0277 5c

  11. Proteomic analysis reveals APC-dependent post-translational modifications and identifies a novel regulator of β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundon, Malachi A; Schlesinger, Danielle R; Parthasarathy, Amritha; Smith, Samantha L; Kolev, Hannah M; Vinson, David A; Kunttas-Tatli, Ezgi; McCartney, Brooke M; Minden, Jonathan S

    2016-07-15

    Wnt signaling generates patterns in all embryos, from flies to humans, and controls cell fate, proliferation and metabolic homeostasis. Inappropriate Wnt pathway activation results in diseases, including colorectal cancer. The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene encodes a multifunctional protein that is an essential regulator of Wnt signaling and cytoskeletal organization. Although progress has been made in defining the role of APC in a normal cellular context, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of APC-dependent cellular function and dysfunction. We expanded the APC-associated protein network using a combination of genetics and a proteomic technique called two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). We show that loss of Drosophila Apc2 causes protein isoform changes reflecting misregulation of post-translational modifications (PTMs), which are not dependent on β-catenin transcriptional activity. Mass spectrometry revealed that proteins involved in metabolic and biosynthetic pathways, protein synthesis and degradation, and cell signaling are affected by Apc2 loss. We demonstrate that changes in phosphorylation partially account for the altered PTMs in APC mutants, suggesting that APC mutants affect other types of PTM. Finally, through this approach Aminopeptidase P was identified as a new regulator of β-catenin abundance in Drosophila embryos. This study provides new perspectives on the cellular effects of APC that might lead to a deeper understanding of its role in development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Human microRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors show significantly different biological patterns: from functions to targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which play essential roles in many important biological processes. Therefore, their dysfunction is associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer. Increasing evidence shows that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, and although there is great interest in research into these cancer-associated miRNAs, little is known about them. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of putative human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. We found that miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors clearly show different patterns in function, evolutionary rate, expression, chromosome distribution, molecule size, free energy, transcription factors, and targets. For example, miRNA oncogenes are located mainly in the amplified regions in human cancers, whereas miRNA tumor suppressors are located mainly in the deleted regions. miRNA oncogenes tend to cleave target mRNAs more frequently than miRNA tumor suppressors. These results indicate that these two types of cancer-associated miRNAs play different roles in cancer formation and development. Moreover, the patterns identified here can discriminate novel miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors with a high degree of accuracy. This study represents the first large-scale bioinformatic analysis of human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Our findings provide help for not only understanding of miRNAs in cancer but also for the specific identification of novel miRNAs as miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. In addition, the data presented in this study will be valuable for the study of both miRNAs and cancer.

  13. Expression of the p16{sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in rodent lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swafford, D.S.; Tesfaigzi, J.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Aberrations on the short arm of chromosome 9 are among the earliest genetic changes in human cancer. p16{sup INK4a} is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that lies within human 9p21, a chromosome region associated with frequent loss of heterozygosity in human lung tumors. The p16{sup INK4a} protein functions as an inhibitor of cyclin D{sub 1}-dependent kinases that phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor gene product enabling cell-cycle progression. Thus, overexpression of cyclin D{sub 1}, mutation of cyclin-dependent kinase genes, or loss of p16{sup INK4a} function, can all result in functional inactivation of Rb. Inactivation of Rb by mutation or deletion can result in an increase in p16{sup INK4a} transcription, suggesting that an increased p16{sup INK4a} expression in a tumor cell signals dysfunction of the pathway. The p16{sup (INK4a)} gene, unlike some tumor suppressor genes, is rarely inactivated by mutation. Instead, the expression of this gene is suppressed in some human cancers by hypermethylation of the CpG island within the first exon or by homozygous deletion: 686. Chromosome losses have been observed at 9p21 syntenic loci in tumors of the mouse and rat, two species often used as animal models for pulmonary carcinogenesis. Expression of p16{sup INK4a} is lost in some mouse tumor cell lines, often due to homozygous deletion. These observations indicate that p16{sup INK4a} dysfunction may play a role in the development of neoplasia in rodents as well as humans. The purpose of the current investigation was to define the extent to which p16{sup INK4a} dysfunction contributes to the development of rodent lung tumors and to determine the mechanism of inactivation of the gene. There is no evidence to suggest a loss of function of the p16{sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in these primary murine lung tumors by mutation, deletion, or methylation.

  14. Kaiso overexpression promotes intestinal inflammation and potentiates intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Christina C; Longo, Joseph; Mavor, Meaghan; Milosavljevic, Snezana B; Chaudhary, Roopali; Gilbreath, Ebony; Yates, Clayton; Daniel, Juliet M

    2015-09-01

    Constitutive Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a key contributor to colorectal cancer (CRC). Although inactivation of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is recognized as an early event in CRC development, it is the accumulation of multiple subsequent oncogenic insults facilitates malignant transformation. One potential contributor to colorectal carcinogenesis is the POZ-ZF transcription factor Kaiso, whose depletion extends lifespan and delays polyp onset in the widely used Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal cancer. These findings suggested that Kaiso potentiates intestinal tumorigenesis, but this was paradoxical as Kaiso was previously implicated as a negative regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To resolve Kaiso's role in intestinal tumorigenesis and canonical Wnt signaling, we generated a transgenic mouse model (Kaiso(Tg/+)) expressing an intestinal-specific myc-tagged Kaiso transgene. We then mated Kaiso(Tg/+) and Apc(Min/+) mice to generate Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice for further characterization. Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice exhibited reduced lifespan and increased polyp multiplicity compared to Apc(Min/+) mice. Consistent with this murine phenotype, we found increased Kaiso expression in human CRC tissue, supporting a role for Kaiso in human CRC. Interestingly, Wnt target gene expression was increased in Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice, suggesting that Kaiso's function as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling, as seen in Xenopus, is not maintained in this context. Notably, Kaiso(Tg/+):Apc(Min/+) mice exhibited increased inflammation and activation of NFκB signaling compared to their Apc(Min/+) counterparts. This phenotype was consistent with our previous report that Kaiso(Tg/+) mice exhibit chronic intestinal inflammation. Together our findings highlight a role for Kaiso in promoting Wnt signaling, inflammation and tumorigenesis in the mammalian intestine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The potential for tumor suppressor gene therapy in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Andrew C; Ludwig, Megan L; Spector, Matthew E; Brenner, J Chad

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma remains a highly morbid and fatal disease. Importantly, genomic sequencing of head and neck cancers has identified frequent mutations in tumor suppressor genes. While targeted therapeutics increasingly are being investigated in head and neck cancer, the majority of these agents are against overactive/overexpressed oncogenes. Therapy to restore lost tumor suppressor gene function remains a key and under-addressed niche in trials for head and neck cancer. Recent advances in gene editing have captured the interest of both the scientific community and the public. As our technology for gene editing and gene expression modulation improves, addressing lost tumor suppressor gene function in head and neck cancers is becoming a reality. This review will summarize new techniques, challenges to implementation, future directions, and ethical ramifications of gene therapy in head and neck cancer.

  16. Modeling the Effect of APC Truncation on Destruction Complex Function in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Dipak; Hlavacek, William S.

    2013-01-01

    In colorectal cancer cells, APC, a tumor suppressor protein, is commonly expressed in truncated form. Truncation of APC is believed to disrupt degradation of β—catenin, which is regulated by a multiprotein complex called the destruction complex. The destruction complex comprises APC, Axin, β—catenin, serine/threonine kinases, and other proteins. The kinases and , which are recruited by Axin, mediate phosphorylation of β—catenin, which initiates its ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. The mechanism of regulation of β—catenin degradation by the destruction complex and the role of truncation of APC in colorectal cancer are not entirely understood. Through formulation and analysis of a rule-based computational model, we investigated the regulation of β—catenin phosphorylation and degradation by APC and the effect of APC truncation on function of the destruction complex. The model integrates available mechanistic knowledge about site-specific interactions and phosphorylation of destruction complex components and is consistent with an array of published data. We find that the phosphorylated truncated form of APC can outcompete Axin for binding to β—catenin, provided that Axin is limiting, and thereby sequester β—catenin away from Axin and the Axin-recruited kinases and . Full-length APC also competes with Axin for binding to β—catenin; however, full-length APC is able, through its SAMP repeats, which bind Axin and which are missing in truncated oncogenic forms of APC, to bring β—catenin into indirect association with Axin and Axin-recruited kinases. Because our model indicates that the positive effects of truncated APC on β—catenin levels depend on phosphorylation of APC, at the first 20-amino acid repeat, and because phosphorylation of this site is mediated by , we suggest that is a potential target for therapeutic intervention in colorectal cancer. Specific inhibition of is predicted to limit binding of β—catenin to truncated

  17. A kinetic model to study the regulation of β-catenin, APC, and Axin in the human colonic crypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Brooks; Schleiniger, Gilberto; Boman, Bruce M

    2017-11-01

    The Wnt/[Formula: see text]-catenin pathway plays a crucial role in stem cell renewal and differentiation in the normal human colonic crypt. The balance between [Formula: see text]-catenin and APC along the crypt axis determines its normal functionality. The mechanism that deregulates this balance may give insight into the initiation of colorectal cancer. This is significant because the spatial dysregulation of [Formula: see text]-catenin by the mutated tumor suppressor gene/protein APC in human colonic crypts is responsible for the initiation and growth of colorectal cancer. We consider a regulatory function that promotes APC synthesis within the cell and its effect on the accumulation of the Wnt target protein, [Formula: see text]-catenin. It is evident that an APC gradient exists along the crypt axis; however, the mechanism by which APC expression is regulated within the cell is not well known. We investigate the dynamics of an APC regulatory mechanism with an increased level of Axin at the subcellular level. Model output shows an increase of APC for a diminished Wnt signal, which explains the APC gradient along the crypt. We find that the dynamic interplay between [Formula: see text]-catenin, APC, and Axin produces oscillatory behavior, which is controlled by the Wnt stimulus. In the presence of reduced functional APC, the oscillations are amplified, which suggests that the cell remains in a more proliferative state for longer periods of time. Increased Axin levels (typical of mammalian cells) reduce oscillatory behavior and minimize the levels of [Formula: see text]-catenin within the cell while raising the levels of APC.

  18. Reversible Modification of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) with K63-linked Polyubiquitin Regulates the Assembly and Activity of the β-Catenin Destruction Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hoanh; Polakis, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor forms a complex with Axin and GSK3β to promote the phosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin, a key co-activator of Wnt-induced transcription. Here, we establish that APC is modified predominantly with K63-linked ubiquitin chains when it is bound to Axin in unstimulated HEK293 cells. Wnt3a stimulation induced a time-dependent loss of K63-polyubiquitin adducts from APC, an effect synchronous with the dissociation of Axin from APC and the stabilization of cytosolic β-catenin. RNAi-mediated depletion of Axin or β-catenin, which negated the association between APC and Axin, resulted in the absence of K63-adducts on APC. Overexpression of wild-type and phosphodegron-mutant β-catenin, combined with analysis of thirteen human cancer cell lines that harbor oncogenic mutations in APC, Axin, or β-catenin, support the hypothesis that a fully assembled APC-Axin-GSK3β-phospho-β-catenin complex is necessary for the K63-polyubiquitylation of APC. Intriguingly, the degree of this modification on APC appears to correlate inversely with the levels of β-catenin in cells. Together, our results indicate that K63-linked polyubiquitin adducts on APC regulate the assembly and/or efficiency of the β-catenin destruction complex. PMID:22761442

  19. Differential RNA-seq analysis comparing APC-defective and APC-restored SW480 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren E; Love, Christopher G; Sieber, Oliver M; Faux, Maree C; Burgess, Antony W

    2016-03-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene is mutated in about 80% of colorectal cancers (CRC) Brannon et al. (2014) [1]. APC is a large multifunctional protein that regulates many biological functions including Wnt signalling (through the regulation of beta-catenin stability) Reya and Clevers (2005) [2], cell migration Kroboth et al. (2007), Sansom et al. (2004) [3], [4], mitosis Kaplan et al. (2001) [5], cell adhesion Faux et al. (2004), Carothers et al. (2001) [6], [7] and differentiation Sansom et al. (2004) [4]. Although the role of APC in CRC is often described as the deregulation of Wnt signalling, its other biological functions suggest that there are other factors at play that contribute to the onset of adenomas and the progression of CRC upon the truncation of APC. To identify genes and pathways that are dysregulated as a consequence of loss of function of APC, we compared the gene expression profiles of the APC mutated human CRC cell line SW480 following reintroduction of wild-type APC (SW480 + APC) or empty control vector (SW480 + vector control) Faux et al. (2004) . Here we describe the RNA-seq data derived for three biological replicates of parental SW480, SW480 + vector control and SW480 + APC cells, and present the bioinformatics pipeline used to test for differential gene expression and pathway enrichment analysis. A total of 1735 genes showed significant differential expression when APC was restored and were enriched for genes associated with cell polarity, Wnt signalling and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. There was additional enrichment for genes involved in cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix junctions, angiogenesis, axon morphogenesis and cell movement. The raw and analysed RNA-seq data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE76307. This dataset is useful for further investigations of the impact of APC mutation on the properties of colorectal cancer cells.

  20. Reciprocal influence of B cells and tumor macro and microenvironments in the ApcMin/+ model of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mion, Francesca; Vetrano, Stefania; Tonon, Silvia; Valeri, Viviana; Piontini, Andrea; Burocchi, Alessia; Petti, Luciana; Frossi, Barbara; Gulino, Alessandro; Tripodo, Claudio; Colombo, Mario P; Pucillo, Carlo E

    2017-01-01

    One of the most fascinating aspects of the immune system is its dynamism, meant as the ability to change and readapt according to the organism needs. Following an insult, we assist to the spontaneous organization of different immune cells which cooperate, locally and at distance, to build up an appropriate response. Throughout tumor progression, adaptations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion and metastasis to distal organs, but also to dramatic changes in the activity and composition of the immune system. In this work, we show the changes of the B-cell arm of the immune system following tumor progression in the Apc Min/+ model of colorectal cancer. Tumor macroenvironment leads to an increased proportion of total and IL-10-competent B cells in draining LNs while activates a differentiation route that leads to the expansion of IgA + lymphocytes in the spleen and peritoneum. Importantly, serum IgA levels were significantly higher in Apc Min/+ than Wt mice. The peculiar involvement of IgA response in the adenomatous transformation had correlates in the gut-mucosal compartment where IgA-positive elements increased from normal mucosa to areas of low grade dysplasia while decreasing upon overt carcinomatous transformation. Altogether, our findings provide a snapshot of the tumor education of B lymphocytes in the Apc Min/+ model of colorectal cancer. Understanding how tumor macroenvironment affects the differentiation, function and distribution of B lymphocytes is pivotal to the generation of specific therapies, targeted to switching B cells to an anti-, rather than pro-, tumoral phenotype.

  1. Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) is involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal tumors with reduced APC expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinfei; Cortellino, Salvatore; Tricarico, Rossella; Chang, Wen-Chi; Scher, Gabrielle; Devarajan, Karthik; Slifker, Michael; Moore, Robert; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Caretti, Elena; Clapper, Margie; Cooper, Harry; Bellacosa, Alfonso

    2017-10-27

    Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) is a base excision repair enzyme that acts as a thymine and uracil DNA N-glycosylase on G:T and G:U mismatches, thus protecting CpG sites in the genome from mutagenesis by deamination. In addition, TDG has an epigenomic function by removing the novel cytosine derivatives 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) generated by Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) enzymes during active DNA demethylation. We and others previously reported that TDG is essential for mammalian development. However, its involvement in tumor formation is unknown. To study the role of TDG in tumorigenesis, we analyzed the effects of its inactivation in a well-characterized model of tumor predisposition, the Apc Min mouse strain. Mice bearing a conditional Tdg flox allele were crossed with Fabpl ::Cre transgenic mice, in the context of the Apc Min mutation, in order to inactivate Tdg in the small intestinal and colonic epithelium. We observed an approximately 2-fold increase in the number of small intestinal adenomas in the test Tdg -mutant Apc Min mice in comparison to control genotypes (p=0.0001). This increase occurred in female mice, and is similar to the known increase in intestinal adenoma formation due to oophorectomy. In the human colorectal cancer (CRC) TCGA database, the subset of patients with TDG and APC expression in the lowest quartile exhibits an excess of female cases. We conclude that TDG inactivation plays a role in intestinal tumorigenesis initiated by mutation/underexpression of APC . Our results also indicate that TDG may be involved in sex-specific protection from CRC.

  2. Antihelminth compound niclosamide downregulates Wnt signaling and elicits antitumor responses in tumors with activating APC mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Chen, Minyong; Yang, Xiao Yi; Spasojevic, Ivan; Vandeusen, Jeffrey B; Hsu, David; Clary, Bryan M; Clay, Timothy M; Chen, Wei; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2011-06-15

    Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation caused by adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations occurs in approximately 80% of sporadic colorectal cancers (CRC). The antihelminth compound niclosamide downregulates components of the Wnt pathway, specifically Dishevelled-2 (Dvl2) expression, resulting in diminished downstream β-catenin signaling. In this study, we determined whether niclosamide could inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in human CRCs and whether its inhibition might elicit antitumor effects in the presence of APC mutations. We found that niclosamide inhibited Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation, downregulated Dvl2, decreased downstream β-catenin signaling, and exerted antiproliferative effects in human colon cancer cell lines and CRC cells isolated by surgical resection of metastatic disease, regardless of mutations in APC. In contrast, inhibition of NF-κB or mTOR did not exert similar antiproliferative effects in these CRC model systems. In mice implanted with human CRC xenografts, orally administered niclosamide was well tolerated, achieved plasma and tumor levels associated with biologic activity, and led to tumor control. Our findings support clinical explorations to reposition niclosamide for the treatment of CRC.

  3. Prognostic role of APC and RASSF1A promoter methylation status in cell free circulating DNA of operable gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgkouranidou, I; Matthaios, D; Karayiannakis, A; Bolanaki, H; Michailidis, P; Xenidis, N; Amarantidis, K; Chelis, L; Trypsianis, G; Chatzaki, E; Lianidou, E S; Kakolyris, S

    2015-08-01

    Gastric carcinogenesis is a multistep process including not only genetic mutations but also epigenetic alterations. The best known and more frequent epigenetic alteration is DNA methylation affecting tumor suppressor genes that may be involved in various carcinogenetic pathways. The aim of the present study was to investigate the methylation status of APC promoter 1A and RASSF1A promoter in cell free DNA of operable gastric cancer patients. Using methylation specific PCR, we examined the methylation status of APC promoter 1A and RASSF1A promoter in 73 blood samples obtained from patients with gastric cancer. APC and RASSF1A promoters were found to be methylated in 61 (83.6%) and 50 (68.5%) of the 73 gastric cancer samples examined, but in none of the healthy control samples (p APC promoter and elevated CEA (p = 0.033) as well as CA-19.9 (p = 0.032) levels, was noticed. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, significantly favored patients with a non-methylated APC promoter status (p = 0.008). No other significant correlations between APC and RASSF1A methylation status and different tumor variables examined was observed. Serum RASSF1A and APC promoter hypermethylation is a frequent epigenetic event in patients with early operable gastric cancer. The observed correlations between APC promoter methylation status and survival as well as between a hypermethylated RASSF1A promoter and nodal positivity may be indicative of a prognostic role for those genes in early operable gastric cancer. Additional studies, in a larger cohort of patients are required to further explore whether these findings could serve as potential molecular biomarkers of survival and/or response to specific treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transducer of ERBB2.1 (TOB1) as a Tumor Suppressor: A Mechanistic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hun Seok; Kundu, Juthika; Kim, Ryong Nam; Shin, Young Kee

    2015-12-15

    Transducer of ERBB2.1 (TOB1) is a tumor-suppressor protein, which functions as a negative regulator of the receptor tyrosine-kinase ERBB2. As most of the other tumor suppressor proteins, TOB1 is inactivated in many human cancers. Homozygous deletion of TOB1 in mice is reported to be responsible for cancer development in the lung, liver, and lymph node, whereas the ectopic overexpression of TOB1 shows anti-proliferation, and a decrease in the migration and invasion abilities on cancer cells. Biochemical studies revealed that the anti-proliferative activity of TOB1 involves mRNA deadenylation and is associated with the reduction of both cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) expressions and the induction of CDK inhibitors. Moreover, TOB1 interacts with an oncogenic signaling mediator, β-catenin, and inhibits β-catenin-regulated gene transcription. TOB1 antagonizes the v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene (AKT) signaling and induces cancer cell apoptosis by activating BCL2-associated X (BAX) protein and inhibiting the BCL-2 and BCL-XL expressions. The tumor-specific overexpression of TOB1 results in the activation of other tumor suppressor proteins, such as mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) and phosphatase and tensin homolog-10 (PTEN), and blocks tumor progression. TOB1-overexpressing cancer cells have limited potential of growing as xenograft tumors in nude mice upon subcutaneous implantation. This review addresses the molecular basis of TOB1 tumor suppressor function with special emphasis on its regulation of intracellular signaling pathways.

  5. Transducer of ERBB2.1 (TOB1 as a Tumor Suppressor: A Mechanistic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Seok Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transducer of ERBB2.1 (TOB1 is a tumor-suppressor protein, which functions as a negative regulator of the receptor tyrosine-kinase ERBB2. As most of the other tumor suppressor proteins, TOB1 is inactivated in many human cancers. Homozygous deletion of TOB1 in mice is reported to be responsible for cancer development in the lung, liver, and lymph node, whereas the ectopic overexpression of TOB1 shows anti-proliferation, and a decrease in the migration and invasion abilities on cancer cells. Biochemical studies revealed that the anti-proliferative activity of TOB1 involves mRNA deadenylation and is associated with the reduction of both cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK expressions and the induction of CDK inhibitors. Moreover, TOB1 interacts with an oncogenic signaling mediator, β-catenin, and inhibits β-catenin-regulated gene transcription. TOB1 antagonizes the v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene (AKT signaling and induces cancer cell apoptosis by activating BCL2-associated X (BAX protein and inhibiting the BCL-2 and BCL-XL expressions. The tumor-specific overexpression of TOB1 results in the activation of other tumor suppressor proteins, such as mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4 and phosphatase and tensin homolog-10 (PTEN, and blocks tumor progression. TOB1-overexpressing cancer cells have limited potential of growing as xenograft tumors in nude mice upon subcutaneous implantation. This review addresses the molecular basis of TOB1 tumor suppressor function with special emphasis on its regulation of intracellular signaling pathways.

  6. TFPI-2 is a putative tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shumin; Ma, Ning; Murata, Mariko; Huang, Guangwu; Zhang, Zhe; Xiao, Xue; Zhou, Xiaoying; Huang, Tingting; Du, Chunping; Yu, Nana; Mo, Yingxi; Lin, Longde; Zhang, Jinyan

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes play important roles in NPC tumorgenesis. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), is a protease inhibitor. Recently, TFPI-2 was suggested to be a tumor suppressor gene involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis in some cancers. In this study, we investigated whether TFPI-2 was inactivated epigenetically in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Transcriptional expression levels of TFPI-2 was evaluated by RT-PCR. Methylation status were investigated by methylation specific PCR and bisulfate genomic sequencing. The role of TFPI-2 as a tumor suppressor gene in NPC was addressed by re-introducing TFPI-2 expression into the NPC cell line CNE2. TFPI-2 mRNA transcription was inactivated in NPC cell lines. TFPI-2 was aberrantly methylated in 66.7% (4/6) NPC cell lines and 88.6% (62/70) of NPC primary tumors, but not in normal nasopharyngeal epithelia. TFPI-2 expression could be restored in NPC cells after demethylation treatment. Ectopic expression of TFPI-2 in NPC cells induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation and cell migration. Epigenetic inactivation of TFPI-2 by promoter hypermethylation is a frequent and tumor specific event in NPC. TFPI-2 might be considering as a putative tumor suppressor gene in NPC

  7. CMTM5 exhibits tumor suppressor activity through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Heyu [Central Laboratory, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Nan, Xu [Center for Human Disease Genomics, Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Li, Xuefen [Central Laboratory, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jianyun [Department of Oral Pathology, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Sun, Lisha [Central Laboratory, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Han, Wenlin [Center for Human Disease Genomics, Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Li, Tiejun, E-mail: litiejun22@vip.sina.com [Department of Oral Pathology, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Down-regulation of CMTM5 expression in OSCC tissues was found. • The promoter methylation status of CMTM5 was measured. • CMTM5-v1 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. • CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene in OSCC. - Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of malignancies in the head and neck region. CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing member 5 (CMTM5) has been recently implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in several cancer types. Herein, we examined the expression and function of CMTM5 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CMTM5 was down-regulated in oral squamous cell lines and tumor samples from patients with promoter methylation. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored CMTM5 expression. In the OSCC cell lines CAL27 and GNM, the ectopic expression of CMTM5-v1 strongly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. In addition, CMTM5-v1 inhibited tumor formation in vivo. Therefore, CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  8. CMTM5 exhibits tumor suppressor activity through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Heyu; Nan, Xu; Li, Xuefen; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jianyun; Sun, Lisha; Han, Wenlin; Li, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Down-regulation of CMTM5 expression in OSCC tissues was found. • The promoter methylation status of CMTM5 was measured. • CMTM5-v1 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. • CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene in OSCC. - Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of malignancies in the head and neck region. CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing member 5 (CMTM5) has been recently implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in several cancer types. Herein, we examined the expression and function of CMTM5 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CMTM5 was down-regulated in oral squamous cell lines and tumor samples from patients with promoter methylation. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored CMTM5 expression. In the OSCC cell lines CAL27 and GNM, the ectopic expression of CMTM5-v1 strongly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. In addition, CMTM5-v1 inhibited tumor formation in vivo. Therefore, CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma

  9. Expression of the tumor suppressor genes NF2, 4.1B, and TSLC1 in canine meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, P J; Surace, E I; Cambell, M; Higgins, R J; Leutenegger, C M; Bollen, A W; LeCouteur, R A; Gutmann, D H

    2009-09-01

    Meningiomas are common primary brain tumors in dogs; however, little is known about the molecular genetic mechanisms involved in their tumorigenesis. Several tumor suppressor genes have been implicated in meningioma pathogenesis in humans, including the neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), protein 4.1B (4.1 B), and tumor suppressor in lung cancer-1 (TSLC1) genes. We investigated the expression of these tumor suppressor genes in a series of spontaneous canine meningiomas using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (NF2; n = 25) and western blotting (NF2/merlin, 4.1B, TSLC1; n = 30). Decreased expression of 4.1B and TSLC1 expression on western blotting was seen in 6/30 (20%) and in 15/30 (50%) tumors, respectively, with 18/30 (60%) of meningiomas having decreased or absent expression of one or both proteins. NF2 gene expression assessed by western blotting and RT-PCR varied considerably between individual tumors. Complete loss of NF2 protein on western blotting was not seen, unlike 4.1B and TSLC1. Incidence of TSLC1 abnormalities was similar to that seen in human meningiomas, while perturbation of NF2 and 4.1B appeared to be less common than reported for human tumors. No association was observed between tumor grade, subtype, or location and tumor suppressor gene expression based on western blot or RT-PCR. These results suggest that loss of these tumor suppressor genes is a frequent occurrence in canine meningiomas and may be an early event in tumorigenesis in some cases. In addition, it is likely that other, as yet unidentified, genes play an important role in canine meningioma formation and growth.

  10. Cancer stemness in Apc- vs. Apc/KRAS-driven intestinal tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Ghazvini

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of the Wnt pathway leads to adenoma formation, an obligatory step towards intestinal cancer. In view of the established role of Wnt in regulating stemness, we attempted the isolation of cancer stem cells (CSCs from Apc- and Apc/KRAS-mutant intestinal tumours. Whereas CSCs are present in Apc/KRAS tumours, they appear to be very rare (<10(-6 in the Apc-mutant adenomas. In contrast, the Lin(-CD24(hiCD29(+ subpopulation of adenocarcinoma cells appear to be enriched in CSCs with increased levels of active β-catenin. Expression profiling analysis of the CSC-enriched subpopulation confirmed their enhanced Wnt activity and revealed additional differential expression of other signalling pathways, growth factor binding proteins, and extracellular matrix components. As expected, genes characteristic of the Paneth cell lineage (e.g. defensins are co-expressed together with stem cell genes (e.g. Lgr5 within the CSC-enriched subpopulation. This is of interest as it may indicate a cancer stem cell niche role for tumor-derived Paneth-like cells, similar to their role in supporting Lgr5(+ stem cells in the normal intestinal crypt. Overall, our results indicate that oncogenic KRAS activation in Apc-driven tumours results in the expansion of the CSCs compartment by increasing ®-catenin intracellular stabilization.

  11. Anti-helminth compound niclosamide downregulates Wnt Signaling and elicits antitumor responses in tumors with activating APC mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Chen, Minyong; Yang, Xiao Yi; Spasojevic, Ivan; Vandeusen, Jeffrey B.; Hsu, David; Clary, Bryan M.; Clay, Timothy M.; Chen, Wei; Morse, Michael A.; Lyerly, H. Kim

    2011-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation caused by APC mutations occurs in approximately 80% of sporadic colorectal cancers. The anti-helminth compound niclosamide downregulates components of the Wnt pathway, specifically Dishevelled-2 (Dvl2) expression, resulting in diminished downstream β-catenin signaling. In this study, we determined if niclosamide could inhibit the Wnt/ β-catenin pathway in human colorectal cancers and whether its inhibition might elicit antitumor effects in the presence of APC mutations. We found that niclosamide inhibited Wnt/ β-catenin pathway activation, downregulated Dvl2, decreased downstream β-catenin signaling and exerted anti-proliferative effects in human colon cancer cell lines and colorectal cancer cells isolated by surgical resection of metastatic disease, regardless of mutations in APC. In contrast, inhibition of NF-κB or mTOR did not exert similar anti-proliferative effects in these colorectal cancer model systems. In mice implanted with human colorectal cancer xenografts, orally administered niclosamide was well tolerated, achieved plasma and tumor levels associated with biologic activity and led to tumor control. Our findings support clinical explorations to reposition niclosamide for treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:21531761

  12. Identification of a third protein 4.1 tumor suppressor, protein 4.1R, in meningioma pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Victoria A.; Li, Wen; Gascard, Philippe; Perry, Arie; Mohandas, Narla; Gutmann, David H.

    2003-06-11

    Meningiomas are common tumors of the central nervous system, however, the mechanisms under lying their pathogenesis are largely undefined. Two members of the Protein 4.1 super family, the neuro fibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene product (merlin/schwannomin) and Protein 4.1B have been implicated as meningioma tumor suppressors. In this report, we demonstrate that another Protein 4.1 family member, Protein 4.1R, also functions as a meningioma tumor suppressor. Based on the assignment of the Protein 4.1R gene to chromosome 1p32-36, a common region of deletion observed in meningiomas, we analyzed Protein 4.1R expression in meningioma cell lines and surgical tumor specimens. We observed loss of Protein 4.1R protein expression in two meningioma cell lines (IOMM-Lee, CH157-MN) by Western blotting as well as in 6 of 15 sporadic meningioma as by immuno histo chemistry (IHC). Analysis of a subset of these sporadic meningiomas by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a Protein 4.1R specific probe demonstrated 100 percent concordance with the IHC results. In support of a meningioma tumor suppressor function, over expression of Protein 4.1R resulted in suppression of IOMM-Lee and CH157MN cell proliferation. Similar to the Protein 4.1B and merlin meningioma tumor suppressors, Protein 4.1R localization in the membrane fraction increased significantly under conditions of growth arrest in vitro. Lastly, Protein 4.1R interacted with some known merlin/Protein 4.1B interactors such as CD44 and bII-spectrin, but did not associate with the Protein 4.1B interactors 14-3-3 and PRMT3 or the merlin binding proteins SCHIP-1 and HRS. Collectively, these results suggest that Protein 4.1R functions as an important tumor suppressor important in the molecular pathogenesis of meningioma.

  13. Epithelial-derived IL-33 promotes intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc Min/+ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengxiang; Chen, Lili; Souto, Fabricio O; Canasto-Chibuque, Claudia; Bongers, Gerold; Deshpande, Madhura; Harpaz, Noam; Ko, Huaibin M; Kelley, Kevin; Furtado, Glaucia C; Lira, Sergio A

    2017-07-14

    Increased expression of Interleukin (IL)-33 has been detected in intestinal samples of patients with ulcerative colitis, a condition associated with increased risk for colon cancer, but its role in the development of colorectal cancer has yet to be fully examined. Here, we investigated the role of epithelial expressed IL-33 during development of intestinal tumors. IL-33 expression was detected in epithelial cells in colorectal cancer specimens and in the Apc Min/+ mice. To better understand the role of epithelial-derived IL-33 in the intestinal tumorigenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing IL-33 in intestinal epithelial cells (V33 mice). V33 Apc Min/+ mice, resulting from the cross of V33 with Apc Min/+ mice, had increased intestinal tumor burden compared with littermate Apc Min/+ mice. Consistently, Apc Min/+ mice deficient for IL-33 receptor (ST2), had reduced polyp burden. Mechanistically, overexpression of IL-33 promoted expansion of ST2 + regulatory T cells, increased Th2 cytokine milieu, and induced alternatively activated macrophages in the gut. IL-33 promoted marked changes in the expression of antimicrobial peptides, and antibiotic treatment of V33 Apc Min/+ mice abrogated the tumor promoting-effects of IL-33 in the colon. In conclusion, elevated IL-33 signaling increases tumor development in the Apc Min/+ mice.

  14. APC promoter is frequently methylated in pancreatic juice of patients with pancreatic carcinomas or periampullary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginesta, Mireia M; Diaz-Riascos, Zamira Vanessa; Busquets, Juli; Pelaez, Núria; Serrano, Teresa; Peinado, Miquel Àngel; Jorba, Rosa; García-Borobia, Francisco Javier; Capella, Gabriel; Fabregat, Joan

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of pancreatic and periampullary neoplasms is critical to improve their clinical outcome. The present authors previously demonstrated that DNA hypermethylation of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), histamine receptor H2 (HRH2), cadherin 13 (CDH13), secreted protein acidic and cysteine rich (SPARC) and engrailed-1 (EN-1) promoters is frequently detected in pancreatic tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to assess their prevalence in pancreatic juice of carcinomas of the pancreas and periampullary area. A total of 135 pancreatic juices obtained from 85 pancreatic cancer (PC), 26 ampullary carcinoma (AC), 10 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and 14 chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients were analyzed. The methylation status of the APC, HRH2, CDH13, SPARC and EN-1 promoters was analyzed using methylation specific-melting curve analysis (MS-MCA). Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations were also tested with allele-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification. Out of the 5 promoters analyzed, APC (71%) and HRH2 (65%) were the most frequently methylated in PC juice. APC methylation was also detected at a high frequency in AC (76%) and IPMN (80%), but only occasionally observed in CP (7%). APC methylation had a high sensitivity (71-80%) for all types of cancer analyzed. The panel (where a sample scored as positive when ≥2 markers were methylated) did not outperform APC as a single marker. Finally, KRAS detection in pancreatic juice offered a lower sensitivity (50%) and specificity (71%) for detection of any cancer. APC hypermethylation in pancreatic juice, as assessed by MS-MCA, is a frequent event of potential clinical usefulness in the diagnosis of pancreatic and periampullary neoplasms.

  15. miR-339-5p regulates the p53 tumor-suppressor pathway by targeting MDM2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, M D; Djodji Damas, Nkerorema; Lees, M

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many key cancer-relevant pathways and may themselves possess oncogenic or tumor-suppressor functions. Consequently, miRNA dysregulation has been shown to be a prominent feature in many human cancers. The p53 tumor suppressor acts as a negative regulator of cell prolife...... tumor cells. Furthermore, we show that a negative correlation between miR-339-5p and MDM2 expression exists in human cancer, implying that the interaction is important for cancer development.Oncogene advance online publication, 2 June 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.130....

  16. Correlation between the methylation of APC gene promoter and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-Qiang; Liu, Peng-Peng; Zhang, Cai-Hua

    2017-08-01

    The present study was planned to explore the correlation between the methylation of APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) and colon carcinogenesis. Colon cancer tissues and tumor-adjacent normal tissues of 60 colon cancer patients (who received surgical operation in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2014) were collected. SW1116 cells in human colon cancer tissues were selected for culturing. 5-aza-2c-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) was utilized as an inhibitor of the methylation for APC gene. Methylation specific PCR (MSP) was utilized for detection of APC methylation in SW1116 cells. The MTT and Transwell assays were performed to detect the effect of the methylation of APC gene on the proliferation and invasive abilities of SW1116 cells. The correlation between the methylation of APC gene and pathological parameters of colon cancer patients was analyzed. MSP results revealed that 41 cases (68.33%) showed methylation of APC gene in colon cancer tissues. No methylation of APC gene was found in tumor-adjacent normal tissues. 5-aza-dC was able to inhibit the methylation of APC gene in SW1116 cells. APC gene methylation was correlated with tumor size, differentiation degree, lymph node metastasis and Dukes staging. In conclusion, the levels of the methylation of APC in colon cancer tissues and SW1116 cells are relatively high. The methylation of APC promoted the proliferation and invasion abilities of SW1116 cells. Furthermore, methylation is correlated with a variety of clinicopathological features of colon cancer patients.

  17. P18 tumor suppressor gene and progression of oligodendrogliomas to anaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Hoang-Xuan, K; Marie, Y; Leuraud, P; Mokhtari, K; Kujas, M; Delattre, J Y; Sanson, M

    2000-09-26

    P18INK4C is a good candidate to be the tumor suppressor gene involved in oligodendrogliomas on 1p32. Loss of heterozygosity on 1p, mutation(s), homozygous deletion(s), and expression of p18 in 30 oligodendroglial tumors were investigated. Loss of heterozygosity on 1p was found in 15 tumors. A p18 mutation was found at an recurrence of an anaplastic oligodendroglioma, but not in the primary, low-grade tumor. No homozygous deletions were found and p18 was expressed in all cases. These results show that p18 alteration is involved in tumor progression in a subset of oligodendrogliomas.

  18. APC/C Dysfunction Limits Excessive Cancer Chromosomal Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansregret, Laurent; Patterson, James O; Dewhurst, Sally; López-García, Carlos; Koch, André; McGranahan, Nicholas; Chao, William Chong Hang; Barry, David J; Rowan, Andrew; Instrell, Rachael; Horswell, Stuart; Way, Michael; Howell, Michael; Singleton, Martin R; Medema, René H; Nurse, Paul; Petronczki, Mark; Swanton, Charles

    2017-02-01

    Intercellular heterogeneity, exacerbated by chromosomal instability (CIN), fosters tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance. However, extreme CIN correlates with improved cancer outcome, suggesting that karyotypic diversity required to adapt to selection pressures might be balanced in tumors against the risk of excessive instability. Here, we used a functional genomics screen, genome editing, and pharmacologic approaches to identify CIN-survival factors in diploid cells. We find partial anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) dysfunction lengthens mitosis, suppresses pharmacologically induced chromosome segregation errors, and reduces naturally occurring lagging chromosomes in cancer cell lines or following tetraploidization. APC/C impairment caused adaptation to MPS1 inhibitors, revealing a likely resistance mechanism to therapies targeting the spindle assembly checkpoint. Finally, CRISPR-mediated introduction of cancer somatic mutations in the APC/C subunit cancer driver gene CDC27 reduces chromosome segregation errors, whereas reversal of an APC/C subunit nonsense mutation increases CIN. Subtle variations in mitotic duration, determined by APC/C activity, influence the extent of CIN, allowing cancer cells to dynamically optimize fitness during tumor evolution. We report a mechanism whereby cancers balance the evolutionary advantages associated with CIN against the fitness costs caused by excessive genome instability, providing insight into the consequence of CDC27 APC/C subunit driver mutations in cancer. Lengthening of mitosis through APC/C modulation may be a common mechanism of resistance to cancer therapeutics that increase chromosome segregation errors. Cancer Discov; 7(2); 218-33. ©2017 AACR.See related commentary by Burkard and Weaver, p. 134This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 115. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Tumor suppressor microRNAs are downregulated in myelodysplastic syndrome with spliceosome mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Derya; Garde, Christian; Nygaard, Mette Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Spliceosome mutations are frequently observed in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, it is largely unknown how these mutations contribute to the disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, which have been implicated in most human cancers due to their role in post...... the most downregulated miRNAs were several tumor-suppressor miRNAs, including several let-7 family members, miR-423, and miR-103a. Finally, we observed that the predicted targets of the most downregulated miRNAs were involved in apoptosis, hematopoiesis, and acute myeloid leukemia among other cancer......- and metabolic pathways. Our data indicate that spliceosome mutations may play an important role in MDS pathophysiology by affecting the expression of tumor suppressor miRNA genes involved in the development and progression of MDS....

  20. Alterations of tumor suppressor genes (Rb, p16, p27 and p53) and an increased FDG uptake in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masayuki; Sugio, Kenji; Kuwabara, Yasuo

    2003-01-01

    The FDG uptake in lung cancer is considered to reflect the degree of malignancy, while alterations of some tumor suppressor genes are considered to be related to the malignant biological behavior of tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between FDG-PET and alterations in the tumor suppression genes of lung cancer. We examined 28 patients with primary lung cancer who underwent FDG-PET before surgery consisting of 17 patients with adenocarcinoma, 10 with squamous cell carcinoma and 1 with large cell carcinoma. The FDG-PET findings were evaluated based on the standardized uptake value (SUV). Alterations in the tumor suppressor genes, Rb, p16, p27 and p53, were evaluated immunohistochemically. The FDG uptake in lung cancer with alteration in each tumor suppressor gene tended to be higher than in those genes without alterations, although the differences were not significant. In 15 tumors with alterations in either tumor suppressor genes, the FDG uptake was 6.83±3.21. On the other hand, the mean FDG uptake was 1.95 in 2 tumors without alterations in any genes. The difference in the FDG uptake between the 2 groups was statistically significant (p<0.001). In conclusion, the presence of abnormalities in the tumor suppressor genes, which results in an accelerated cell proliferation, is thus considered to increase the FDG uptake in lung cancer. (author)

  1. Tumor Suppressor Activity of the EphB2 Receptor in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pasquale, Elena B

    2007-01-01

    Mutations have been recently identified in the EphB2 receptor gene in prostate cancer suggesting that EphB2, a member of the large Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family, is a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer...

  2. Tumor Suppressor Activity of the EphB2 Receptor in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pasquale, Elena B

    2006-01-01

    Mutations have been recently identified in the EphB2 receptor gene in prostate cancer suggesting that EphB2, a member of the large Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family, is a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer...

  3. CD4+ T cell-mediated rejection of MHC class II-positive tumor cells is dependent on antigen secretion and indirect presentation on host APCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haabeth, Ole Audun Werner; Fauskanger, Marte; Manzke, Melanie; Lundin, Katrin U; Corthay, Alexandre; Bogen, Bjarne; Tveita, Anders Aune

    2018-05-11

    Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells have been shown to mediate efficient anti-tumor immune responses against cancer. Such responses can occur through direct binding to MHC class II (MHC II)-expressing tumor cells or indirectly via activation of professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) that take up and present the tumor antigen. We have previously shown that CD4+ T cells reactive against an epitope within the Ig light chain variable region of a murine B cell lymphoma can reject established tumors. Given the presence of MHC II molecules at the surface of lymphoma cells, we investigated whether MHC II-restricted antigen presentation on tumor cells alone was required for rejection. Variants of the A20 B lymphoma cell line that either secreted or intracellularly retained different versions of the tumor-specific antigen revealed that antigen secretion by the MHC II-expressing tumor cells was essential both for the priming and effector phase of CD4+ T cell-driven anti-tumor immune responses. Consistent with this, genetic ablation of MHC II in tumor cells, both in the case of B lymphoma and B16 melanoma, did not preclude rejection of tumors by tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vivo. These findings demonstrate that MHC class II expression on tumor cells themselves is not required for CD4+ T cell-mediated rejection, and that indirect display on host APC is sufficient for effective tumor elimination. These results support the importance of tumor-infiltrating APC as mediators of tumor cell killing by CD4+ T cells. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. The LKB1 tumor suppressor differentially affects anchorage independent growth of HPV positive cervical cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, Hildegard I.D.; Munger, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses is causally linked to cervical carcinogenesis. However, most lesions caused by high-risk HPV infections do not progress to cancer. Host cell mutations contribute to malignant progression but the molecular nature of such mutations is unknown. Based on a previous study that reported an association between liver kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor loss and poor outcome in cervical cancer, we sought to determine the molecular basis for this observation. LKB1-negative cervical and lung cancer cells were reconstituted with wild type or kinase defective LKB1 mutants and we examined the importance of LKB1 catalytic activity in known LKB1-regulated processes including inhibition of cell proliferation and elevated resistance to energy stress. Our studies revealed marked differences in the biological activities of two kinase defective LKB1 mutants in the various cell lines. Thus, our results suggest that LKB1 may be a cell-type specific tumor suppressor. - Highlights: • LKB1 is a tumor suppressor that is linked to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients have a high incidence of cervical cancer. • Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infections. • This study investigates LKB1 tumor suppressor activity in cervical cancer

  5. The Regulation of Tumor Suppressor p63 by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Armstrong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The protein p63 has been identified as a homolog of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and is capable of inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, or senescence. p63 has at least six isoforms, which can be divided into two major groups: the TAp63 variants that contain the N-terminal transactivation domain and the ΔNp63 variants that lack the N-terminal transactivation domain. The TAp63 variants are generally considered to be tumor suppressors involved in activating apoptosis and suppressing metastasis. ΔNp63 variants cannot induce apoptosis but can act as dominant negative inhibitors to block the function of TAp53, TAp73, and TAp63. p63 is rarely mutated in human tumors and is predominately regulated at the post-translational level by phosphorylation and ubiquitination. This review focuses primarily on regulation of p63 by the ubiquitin E-3 ligase family of enzymes via ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation, and introduces a new key regulator of the p63 protein.

  6. Estrogen receptor beta, a possible tumor suppressor involved in ovarian carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazennec, Gwendal

    2006-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading cause of death from gynecological tumors in women. Several lines of evidence suggest that estrogens may play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis, through their receptors, ERα and ERβ. Interestingly, malignant ovarian tumors originating from epithelial surface constitute about 90% of ovarian cancers and expressed low levels of ERβ, compared to normal tissues. In addition, restoration of ERβ in ovarian cancer cells, leads to strong inhibition of their proliferation and invasion, while apoptosis is enhanced. In this manuscript, recent data suggesting a possible tumor-suppressor role for ERβ in ovarian carcinogenesis are discussed. PMID:16399219

  7. A phase I study of hydralazine to demethylate and reactivate the expression of tumor suppressor genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambrano, Pilar; Sandoval, Karina; Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; Chanona-Vilchis, Jose; Duenas-González, Alfonso; Segura-Pacheco, Blanca; Perez-Cardenas, Enrique; Cetina, Lucely; Revilla-Vazquez, Alma; Taja-Chayeb, Lucía; Chavez-Blanco, Alma; Angeles, Enrique; Cabrera, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    The antihypertensive compound hydralazine is a known demethylating agent. This phase I study evaluated the tolerability and its effects upon DNA methylation and gene reactivation in patients with untreated cervical cancer. Hydralazine was administered to cohorts of 4 patients at the following dose levels: I) 50 mg/day, II) 75 mg/day, III) 100 mg/day and IV) 150 mg/day. Tumor biopsies and peripheral blood samples were taken the day before and after treatment. The genes APC, MGMT; ER, GSTP1, DAPK, RARβ, FHIT and p16 were evaluated pre and post-treatment for DNA promoter methylation and gene expression by MSP (Methylation-Specific PCR) and RT-PCR respectively in each of the tumor samples. Methylation of the imprinted H19 gene and the 'normally methylated' sequence clone 1.2 was also analyzed. Global DNA methylation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis and cytosine extension assay. Toxicity was evaluated using the NCI Common Toxicity Criteria. Hydralazine was well tolerated. Toxicities were mild being the most common nausea, dizziness, fatigue, headache and palpitations. Overall, 70% of the pretreatment samples and all the patients had at least one methylated gene. Rates of demethylation at the different dose levels were as follows: 50 mg/day, 40%; 75 mg/day, 52%, 100 mg/day, 43%, and 150 mg/day, 32%. Gene expression analysis showed only 12 informative cases, of these 9 (75%) re-expressed the gene. There was neither change in the methylation status of H19 and clone 1.2 nor changes in global DNA methylation. Hydralazine at doses between 50 and 150 mg/day is well tolerated and effective to demethylate and reactivate the expression of tumor suppressor genes without affecting global DNA methylation

  8. Expansion of myeloid immune suppressor Gr+CD11b+ cells in tumor-bearing host directly promotes tumor angiogenesis | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    We demonstrate a novel tumor-promoting role of myeloid immune suppressor Gr+CD11b+ cells, which are evident in cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals. These cells constitute approximately 5% of total cells in tumors. Tumors coinjected with Gr+CD11b+ cells exhibited increased vascular density, vascular maturation, and decreased necrosis. These immune cells produce high

  9. PLK1 has tumor-suppressive potential in APC-truncated colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Monika; Sanhaji, Mourad; Matthess, Yves; Hörlin, Albrecht; Lorenz, Ioana; Dötsch, Christina; Habbe, Nils; Waidmann, Oliver; Kurunci-Csacsko, Elisabeth; Firestein, Ron; Becker, Sven; Strebhardt, Klaus

    2018-03-16

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) acts as a molecular safeguard in ensuring faithful chromosome transmission during mitosis, which is regulated by a complex interplay between phosphatases and kinases including PLK1. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) germline mutations cause aneuploidy and are responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Here we study the role of PLK1 in colon cancer cells with chromosomal instability promoted by APC truncation (APC-ΔC). The expression of APC-ΔC in colon cells reduces the accumulation of mitotic cells upon PLK1 inhibition, accelerates mitotic exit and increases the survival of cells with enhanced chromosomal abnormalities. The inhibition of PLK1 in mitotic, APC-∆C-expressing cells reduces the kinetochore levels of Aurora B and hampers the recruitment of SAC component suggesting a compromised mitotic checkpoint. Furthermore, Plk1 inhibition (RNAi, pharmacological compounds) promotes the development of adenomatous polyps in two independent Apc Min/+ mouse models. High PLK1 expression increases the survival of colon cancer patients expressing a truncated APC significantly.

  10. Paternal B Vitamin Intake Is a Determinant of Growth, Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Tumor Volume in Female Apc1638N Mouse Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Sabet

    Full Text Available The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well.In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content.Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL, mildly deficient (DEF, or supplemental (SUPP quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden.No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring.In this animal model, modulation of paternal B vitamin intake prior to mating

  11. Microbial Regulation of p53 Tumor Suppressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I Zaika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available p53 tumor suppressor has been identified as a protein interacting with the large T antigen produced by simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40. Subsequent research on p53 inhibition by SV40 and other tumor viruses has not only helped to gain a better understanding of viral biology, but also shaped our knowledge of human tumorigenesis. Recent studies have found, however, that inhibition of p53 is not strictly in the realm of viruses. Some bacterial pathogens also actively inhibit p53 protein and induce its degradation, resulting in alteration of cellular stress responses. This phenomenon was initially characterized in gastric epithelial cells infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that commonly infects the human stomach and is strongly linked to gastric cancer. Besides H. pylori, a number of other bacterial species were recently discovered to inhibit p53. These findings provide novel insights into host-bacteria interactions and tumorigenesis associated with bacterial infections.

  12. Tumour Suppressor Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) localisation is regulated by both Kinesin-1 and Kinesin-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, Peter T; Gumy, Laura F; Bola, Becky; Anderson, Beverley; Wozniak, Marcin J; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Allan, Victoria J

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and their associated proteins (MAPs) underpin the polarity of specialised cells. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is one such MAP with a multifunctional agenda that requires precise intracellular localisations. Although APC has been found to associate with kinesin-2 subfamily members,

  13. MicroRNA-103 Promotes Colorectal Cancer by Targeting Tumor Suppressor DICER and PTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Geng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, noncoding RNAs that act as key regulators in various physiological and pathological processes. However, the regulatory mechanisms for miRNAs in colorectal cancer remain largely unknown. Here, we found that miR-103 is up-regulated in colorectal cancer and its overexpression is closely associated with tumor proliferation and migration. In addition, repressing the expression of miR-103 apparently inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro and HCT-116 xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Subsequent software analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay identified two tumor suppressor genes DICER and PTEN as direct targets of miR-103, and up-regulation of DICER and PTEN obtained similar results to that occurred in the silencing of miR-103. In addition, restoration of DICER and PTEN can inhibit miR-103-induced colorectal cancer cell proliferation and migration. Our data collectively demonstrate that miR-103 is an oncogene miRNA that promotes colorectal cancer proliferation and migration through down-regulation of the tumor suppressor genes DICER and PTEN. Thus, miR-103 may represent a new potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for colorectal cancer treatment.

  14. Early diagnostic potential of APC hypermethylation in esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bujiang; Song, Haojun; Jiang, Haizhong; Fu, Yangbo; Ding, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Chongchang

    2018-01-01

    The hypermethylation of APC gene is observed in various cancers, including esophageal cancer (EC). However, the association between APC methylation and the initiation and progression of EC is poorly understood. The current study systematically reviewed studies on abnormal methylation of APC in EC and quantitatively synthesized 18 studies by meta-analysis involving 1008 ECs, 570 Barrett's esophagus (BE), and 782 controls. Our results showed higher methylation of APC in EC (OR = 23.33, P APC methylation in EC was similar to that in BE ( P = 0.052), it was not associated with tumor stage ( P = 0.204). Additionally, APC methylation was not significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in patients with EC. The performance of APC methylation for the detection of EC and BE achieved areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.94 and 0.88, respectively. Our results imply that APC methylation detection is a potential diagnostic biomarker for EC and BE.

  15. Tumor suppressor genes are frequently methylated in lymph node metastases of breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Metastasis represents a major adverse step in the progression of breast carcinoma. Lymph node invasion is the most relevant prognostic factor; however little is known on the molecular events associated with lymph node metastasis process. This study is to investigate the status and role of methylation in lymph node metastatic tumors. Materials and methods Bisulfite pyrosequencing is used to screen 6 putative tumor suppressor genes (HIN-1, RASSF1A, RIL, CDH13, RARβ2 and E-cadherin in 38 pairs of primary breast tumors and lymph node metastases. Results We found that HIN-1, CDH13, RIL, RASSF1A and RARβ2 were frequently methylated both in primary and metastatic tissues (range: 55.3%~89.5%. E-cadherin was not frequently methylated in either setting (range: 18.4%~23.7%. The methylation status of HIN-1, CDH13, RIL, and RARβ2 in lymph nodes metastasis were correlated with that in primary tumors. The Pearson correlation values ranged from 0.624 to 0.472 (p values HIN-1 methylation and hormone status in metastatic lymph nodes. Hypermethylation of HIN-1 in metastasis lymph nodes was significantly associated with expression of ER (odds ratio, 1.070; P = 0.024 and with PR (odds ratio, 1.046; P = 0.026. Conclusions This study suggests that hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is extended from primary to metastatic tumors during tumor progression.

  16. Tumor suppressor WWOX and p53 alterations and drug resistance in glioblastomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fu eChiang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tumor suppressor p53 are frequently mutated in glioblastomas (GBMs and appears to contribute, in part, to resistance to temozolomide and therapeutic drugs. WW domain-containing oxidoreductase WWOX (FOR or WOX1 is a proapoptotic protein and is considered as a tumor suppressor. Loss of WWOX gene expression is frequently seen in malignant cancer cells due to promoter hypermethylation, genetic alterations, and translational blockade. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of wild type WWOX preferentially induces apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells harboring mutant p53. WWOX is known to physically bind and stabilize wild type p53. Here, we provide an overview for the updated knowledge in p53 and WWOX, and postulate a potential scenarios that wild type and mutant p53, or isoforms, modulate the apoptotic function of WWOX. We propose that triggering WWOX activation by therapeutic drugs under p53 functional deficiency is needed to overcome TMZ resistance and induce GBM cell death.

  17. Identification and Functional Analysis of Gene Regulatory Sequences Interacting with Colorectal Tumor Suppressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Katja; Troelsen, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Several tumor suppressors possess gene regulatory activity. Here, we describe how promoter and promoter/enhancer reporter assays can be used to characterize a colorectal tumor suppressor proteins’ gene regulatory activity of possible target genes. In the first part, a bioinformatic approach...... of the quick and efficient In-Fusion cloning method, and how to carry out transient transfections of Caco-2 colon cancer cells with the produced luciferase reporter plasmids using polyethyleneimine (PEI). A plan describing how to set up and carry out the luciferase expression assay is presented. The luciferase...... to identify relevant gene regulatory regions of potential target genes is presented. In the second part, it is demonstrated how to prepare and carry out the functional assay. We explain how to clone the bioinformatically identified gene regulatory regions into luciferase reporter plasmids by the use...

  18. LARG at chromosome 11q23 has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Danny C.T.; Rudduck, Christina; Chin, Koei; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lie, Daniel K.H.; Chua, Constance L.M.; Wong, Chow Yin; Hong, Ga Sze; Gray, Joe; Lee, Ann S.G.

    2008-05-06

    Deletion of 11q23-q24 is frequent in a diverse variety of malignancies, including breast and colorectal carcinoma, implicating the presence of a tumor suppressor gene at that chromosomal region. We show here that LARG, from 11q23, has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor. We examined a 6-Mb region on 11q23 by high-resolution deletion mapping, utilizing both loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis and microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). LARG (also called ARHGEF12), identified from the analyzed region, was underexpressed in 34% of primary breast carcinomas and 80% of breast cancer cell lines including the MCF-7 line. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification on 30 primary breast cancers and six breast cancer cell lines showed that LARG had the highest frequency of deletion compared to the BCSC-1 and TSLC1 genes, two known candidate tumor suppressor genes from 11q. In vitro analysis of breast cancer cell lines that underexpress LARG showed that LARG could be reactivated by trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, but not by 5-Aza-2{prime}-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent. Bisulfite sequencing and quantitative high-throughput analysis of DNA methylation confirmed the lack of CpG island methylation in LARG in breast cancer. Restoration of LARG expression in MCF-7 cells by stable transfection resulted in reduced proliferation and colony formation, suggesting that LARG has functional characteristics of a tumor suppressor gene.

  19. Inhibitor of differentiation 4 (Id4) is a potential tumor suppressor in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, Jason PW; Asirvatham, Ananthi J; Galm, Oliver; Ghogomu, Tandeih A; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation 4 (Id4), a member of the Id gene family is also a dominant negative regulator of basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factors. Some of the functions of Id4 appear to be unique as compared to its other family members Id1, Id2 and Id3. Loss of Id4 gene expression in many cancers in association with promoter hypermethylation has led to the proposal that Id4 may act as a tumor suppressor. In this study we provide functional evidence that Id4 indeed acts as a tumor suppressor and is part of a cancer associated epigenetic re-programming. Data mining was used to demonstrate Id4 expression in prostate cancer. Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) analysis was performed to understand molecular mechanisms associated with Id4 expression in prostate cancer cell lines. The effect of ectopic Id4 expression in DU145 cells was determined by cell cycle analysis (3H thymidine incorporation and FACS), expression of androgen receptor, p53 and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 and p21 by a combination of RT-PCR, real time-PCR, western blot and immuno-cytochemical analysis. Id4 expression was down-regulated in prostate cancer. Id4 expression was also down-regulated in prostate cancer line DU145 due to promoter hyper-methylation. Ectopic Id4 expression in DU145 prostate cancer cell line led to increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation due in part by an S-phase arrest. In addition to S-phase arrest, ectopic Id4 expression in PC3 cells also resulted in prolonged G2/M phase. At the molecular level these changes were associated with increased androgen receptor (AR), p21, p27 and p53 expression in DU145 cells. The results suggest that Id4 acts directly as a tumor suppressor by influencing a hierarchy of cellular processes at multiple levels that leads to a decreased cell proliferation and change in morphology that is possibly mediated through induction of previously silenced tumor suppressors

  20. A novel proapoptotic gene PANO encodes a post-translational modulator of the tumor suppressor p14ARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watari, Akihiro; Li, Yang; Higashiyama, Shinji; Yutsudo, Masuo, E-mail: yutsudo@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2012-02-01

    The protein p14ARF is a known tumor suppressor protein controlling cell proliferation and survival, which mainly localizes in nucleoli. However, the regulatory mechanisms that govern its activity or expression remain unclear. Here, we report that a novel proapoptotic nucleolar protein, PANO, modulates the expression and activity of p14ARF in HeLa cells. Overexpression of PANO enhances the stability of p14ARF protein by protecting it from degradation, resulting in an increase in p14ARF expression levels. Overexpression of PANO also induces apoptosis under low serum conditions. This effect is dependent on the nucleolar localization of PANO and inhibited by knocking-down p14ARF. Alternatively, PANO siRNA treated cells exhibit a reduction in p14ARF protein levels. In addition, ectopic expression of PANO suppresses the tumorigenicity of HeLa cells in nude mice. These results indicate that PANO is a new apoptosis-inducing gene by modulating the tumor suppressor protein, p14ARF, and may itself be a new candidate tumor suppressor gene.

  1. NDRG2 is a candidate tumor-suppressor for oral squamous-cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yuudai [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki-gun, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Division of Tumor and Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki-gun, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Nakahata, Shingo; Hamasaki, Makoto [Division of Tumor and Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki-gun, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Sakoda, Sumio [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki-gun, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Morishita, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kmorishi@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Division of Tumor and Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki-gun, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

    2010-01-22

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common phenotype of oral cancer. Although patients with OSCC have poor survival rates and a high incidence of metastasis, the molecular mechanisms of OSCC development have not yet been elucidated. This study investigated whether N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) contributes to the carcinogenesis of OSCC, as NDRG2 is reported to be a candidate tumor-suppressor gene in a wide variety of cancers. The down-regulation of NDRG2 mRNA, which was dependent on promoter methylation, was seen in the majority of OSCC cases and in several cases of precancerous leukoplakia with dysplasia. Induction of NDRG2 expression in an HSC-3/OSCC cell line significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased colony formation ability on soft agar. The majority of OSCC cell lines showed an activation of PI3K/Akt signaling, and enforced expression of NDRG2 in HSC-3 cells decreased the level of phosphorylated Akt at Serine 473 (p-Akt). Immunohistochemical p-Akt staining was detected in 56.5% of the OSCC tumors, and 80.4% of the tumors were negative for NDRG2 staining. Moreover, positive p-Akt staining was inversely correlated with decreased NDRG2 expression in OSCC tumors with moderate to poor differentiation (p < 0.005). Therefore, NDRG2 is a candidate tumor-suppressor gene for OSCC development and probably contributes to the tumorigenesis of OSCC partly via the modulation of Akt signaling.

  2. SIRT3: Oncogene and Tumor Suppressor in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margalida Torrens-Mas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3, the major deacetylase in mitochondria, plays a crucial role in modulating oxygen reactive species (ROS and limiting the oxidative damage in cellular components. SIRT3 targets different enzymes which regulate mitochondrial metabolism and participate in ROS detoxification, such as the complexes of the respiratory chain, the isocitrate dehydrogenase, or the manganese superoxide dismutase. Thus, SIRT3 activity is essential in maintaining mitochondria homeostasis and has recently received great attention, as it is considered a fidelity protein for mitochondrial function. In some types of cancer, SIRT3 functions as a tumoral promoter, since it keeps ROS levels under a certain threshold compatible with cell viability and proliferation. On the contrary, other studies describe SIRT3 as a tumoral suppressor, as SIRT3 could trigger cell death under stress conditions. Thus, SIRT3 could have a dual role in cancer. In this regard, modulation of SIRT3 activity could be a new target to develop more personalized therapies against cancer.

  3. KLF10, transforming growth factor-{beta}-inducible early gene 1, acts as a tumor suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki-Duk [Center for Agricultural Biomaterials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Comparative Immunology, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duk-Jung [The Institute of Hankook Life Science, 7-9 Myungryun-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-521 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Eun [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Cheol-Heui [Center for Agricultural Biomaterials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Comparative Immunology, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woon Kyu, E-mail: wklee@inha.ac.kr [Laboratory of Developmental Genetics, School of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Center for Advanced Medical Education, School of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon 400-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10{sup -/-} mice exhibited accelerated papilloma development after DMBA/TPA treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10{sup -/-} keratinocytes showed increased proliferation and apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10{sup -/-} MEFs yielded more colonies than wild-type one with H-Ras transfection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10 dose-dependently activated p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KLF10 is a tumor suppressor and that it targets p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} transcription. -- Abstract: Krueppel-like factor 10 (KLF10) has been suggested to be a putative tumor suppressor. In the present study, we generated KLF10 deficient mice to explore this hypothesis in vivo. KLF10 deficient mice exhibited increased predisposition to skin tumorigenesis and markedly accelerated papilloma development after DMBA/TPA treatment. On the other hand, KLF10 deficient keratinocytes showed increased proliferation and apoptosis. In colony formation assays after oncogenic H-Ras transfection, KLF10 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) yielded more colonies than wild-type MEFs. Furthermore, KLF10 dose-dependently activated p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} transcription, which was independent of p53 and Sp1 binding sites in p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} promoter. This study demonstrates that KLF10 is a tumor suppressor and that it targets p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} transcription.

  4. Mesenchymal Tumors Can Derive from Ng2/Cspg4-Expressing Pericytes with β-Catenin Modulating the Neoplastic Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Sato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The cell of origin for most mesenchymal tumors is unclear. One cell type that contributes to this lineages is the pericyte, a cell expressing Ng2/Cspg4. Using lineage tracing, we demonstrated that bone and soft tissue sarcomas driven by the deletion of the Trp53 tumor suppressor, or desmoid tumors driven by a mutation in Apc, can derive from cells expressing Ng2/Cspg4. Deletion of the Trp53 tumor suppressor gene in these cells resulted in the bone and soft tissue sarcomas that closely resemble human sarcomas, while stabilizing β-catenin in this same cell type caused desmoid tumors. Comparing expression between Ng2/Cspg4-expressing pericytes lacking Trp53 and sarcomas that arose from deletion of Trp53 showed inhibition of β-catenin signaling in the sarcomas. Activation of β-catenin inhibited the formation and growth of sarcomas. Thus, pericytes can be a cell of origin for mesenchymal tumors, and β-catenin dysregulation plays an important role in the neoplastic phenotype.

  5. Inhibitor of differentiation 4 (Id4 is a potential tumor suppressor in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Jason PW

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitor of differentiation 4 (Id4, a member of the Id gene family is also a dominant negative regulator of basic helix loop helix (bHLH transcription factors. Some of the functions of Id4 appear to be unique as compared to its other family members Id1, Id2 and Id3. Loss of Id4 gene expression in many cancers in association with promoter hypermethylation has led to the proposal that Id4 may act as a tumor suppressor. In this study we provide functional evidence that Id4 indeed acts as a tumor suppressor and is part of a cancer associated epigenetic re-programming. Methods Data mining was used to demonstrate Id4 expression in prostate cancer. Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP analysis was performed to understand molecular mechanisms associated with Id4 expression in prostate cancer cell lines. The effect of ectopic Id4 expression in DU145 cells was determined by cell cycle analysis (3H thymidine incorporation and FACS, expression of androgen receptor, p53 and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 and p21 by a combination of RT-PCR, real time-PCR, western blot and immuno-cytochemical analysis. Results Id4 expression was down-regulated in prostate cancer. Id4 expression was also down-regulated in prostate cancer line DU145 due to promoter hyper-methylation. Ectopic Id4 expression in DU145 prostate cancer cell line led to increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation due in part by an S-phase arrest. In addition to S-phase arrest, ectopic Id4 expression in PC3 cells also resulted in prolonged G2/M phase. At the molecular level these changes were associated with increased androgen receptor (AR, p21, p27 and p53 expression in DU145 cells. Conclusion The results suggest that Id4 acts directly as a tumor suppressor by influencing a hierarchy of cellular processes at multiple levels that leads to a decreased cell proliferation and change in morphology that is possibly mediated through induction of previously

  6. Detection of microsatellite instability but not truncating APC mutations in gastric adenocarcinomas in Brazilian patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilacqua Roberta A.U.; Corvello Cassandra M.; Duarte Ana Paula; Simpson Andrew J.G.

    2000-01-01

    A crucial role for the adenomatous polyposis colonic (APC) gene in colorectal carcinogenesis has been conclusively established, but, the role of APC in gastric tumors remains controversial. APC mutations have been detected at a relatively high frequency in gastric tumors of Japanese patients, yet such mutations have been reported to be extremely rare in British patients and patients from north-central-Italy. We here report the analysis of 40 primary sporadic gastric adenocarcinomas and 35 pri...

  7. Targeting Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells to Bypass Tumor-Induced Immunosuppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Fleming

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The immune system has many sophisticated mechanisms to balance an extensive immune response. Distinct immunosuppressive cells could protect from excessive tissue damage and autoimmune disorders. Tumor cells take an advantage of those immunosuppressive mechanisms and establish a strongly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME, which inhibits antitumor immune responses, supporting the disease progression. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC play a crucial role in this immunosuppressive TME. Those cells represent a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells with a strong immunosuppressive potential. They inhibit an antitumor reactivity of T cells and NK cells. Furthermore, they promote angiogenesis, establish pre-metastatic niches, and recruit other immunosuppressive cells such as regulatory T cells. Accumulating evidences demonstrated that the enrichment and activation of MDSC correlated with tumor progression, recurrence, and negative clinical outcome. In the last few years, various preclinical studies and clinical trials targeting MDSC showed promising results. In this review, we discuss different therapeutic approaches on MDSC targeting to overcome immunosuppressive TME and enhance the efficiency of current tumor immunotherapies.

  8. Pharmacological activation of tumor suppressor, wild-type p53 as a promising strategy to fight cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Sznarkowska

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A powerful tumor suppressor – p53 protein is a transcription factor which plays a critical role in eliciting cellular responses to a variety of stress signals, including DNA damage, hypoxia and aberrant proliferative signals, such as oncogene activation. Since its discovery thirty one years ago, p53 has been connected to tumorigenesis as it accumulates in the transformed tumor cells. Cellular stress induces stabilization of p53 and promotes, depending on the stress level, cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in the irreversibly damaged cells. The p53 protein is found inactive in more than 50�0of human tumors either by enhanced proteasomal degradation or due to the inactivating point mutations in its gene. Numerous data indicate that low molecular weight compounds, identified by molecular modeling or in the functional, cell-based assays, efficiently activate non-mutated p53 in cancer cells which in consequence leads to their elimination due to p53-dependent apoptosis. In this work we describe the structure and cellular function of p53 as well as the latest discoveries on the compounds with high anti-tumor activities aiming at reactivation of the tumor suppressor function of p53.

  9. Inactivation of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Reduces Bile Acid/Farnesoid X Receptor Expression through Fxr gene CpG Methylation in Mouse Colon Tumors and Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmin, Ornella I; Fang, Changming; Lyon, Adam M; Doetschman, Tom C; Thompson, Patricia A; Martinez, Jesse D; Smith, Jeffrey W; Lance, Peter M; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2016-02-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates bile acid (BA) metabolism and possesses tumor suppressor functions. FXR expression is reduced in colorectal tumors of subjects carrying inactivated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Identifying the mechanisms responsible for this reduction may offer new molecular targets for colon cancer prevention. We investigated how APC inactivation influences the regulation of FXR expression in colonic mucosal cells. We hypothesized that APC inactivation would epigenetically repress nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (FXR gene name) expression through increased CpG methylation. Normal proximal colonic mucosa and normal-appearing adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors were collected from wild-type C57BL/6J and Apc-deficient (Apc(Min) (/+)) male mice, respectively. The expression of Fxr, ileal bile acid-binding protein (Ibabp), small heterodimer partner (Shp), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In both normal and adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors, we measured CpG methylation of Fxr in bisulfonated genomic DNA. In vitro, we measured the impact of APC inactivation and deoxycholic acid (DCA) treatment on FXR expression in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells transfected with silencing RNA for APC and HT-29 cells carrying inactivated APC. In Apc(Min) (/+) mice, constitutive CpG methylation of the Fxrα3/4 promoter was linked to reduced (60-90%) baseline Fxr, Ibabp, and Shp and increased Cox-2 expression in apparently normal adjacent mucosa and colon tumors. Apc knockdown in HCT-116 cells increased cellular myelocytomatosis (c-MYC) and lowered (∼50%) FXR expression, which was further reduced (∼80%) by DCA. In human HCT-116 but not HT-29 colon cancer cells, DCA induced FXR expression and lowered CpG methylation of FXR. We conclude that the loss of APC function favors the silencing of FXR expression through CpG hypermethylation in mouse colonic mucosa and human colon cells

  10. The Ras effector RASSF2 is a novel tumor-suppressor gene in human colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akino, Kimishige; Toyota, Minoru; Suzuki, Hiromu; Mita, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Yasushi; Ohe-Toyota, Mutsumi; Issa, Jean-Pierre J; Hinoda, Yuji; Imai, Kohzoh; Tokino, Takashi

    2005-07-01

    Activation of Ras signaling is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the roles of negative regulators of Ras are not fully understood. Our aim was to address that question by surveying genetic and epigenetic alterations of Ras-Ras effector genes in CRC cells. The expression and methylation status of 6 RASSF family genes were examined using RT-PCR and bisulfite PCR in CRC cell lines and in primary CRCs and colorectal adenomas. Colony formation assays and flow cytometry were used to assess the tumor suppressor activities of RASSF1 and RASSF2. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to determine the effect of altered RASSF2 expression on cell morphology. Mutations of K- ras , BRAF, and p53 were identified using single-strand conformation analysis and direct sequencing. Aberrant methylation and histone deacetylation of RASSF2 was associated with the gene's silencing in CRC. The activities of RASSF2, which were distinct from those of RASSF1, included induction of morphologic changes and apoptosis; moreover, its ability to prevent cell transformation suggests that RASSF2 acts as a tumor suppressor in CRC. Primary CRCs that showed K- ras /BRAF mutations also frequently showed RASSF2 methylation, and inactivation of RASSF2 enhanced K- ras -induced oncogenic transformation. RASSF2 methylation was also frequently identified in colorectal adenomas. RASSF2 is a novel tumor suppressor gene that regulates Ras signaling and plays a pivotal role in the early stages of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  11. Sleep quality and methylation status of selected tumor suppressor genes among nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska-Damska, Agnieszka; Reszka, Edyta; Kaluzny, Pawel; Wieczorek, Edyta; Przybek, Monika; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Peplonska, Beata

    2018-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction may affect metabolism, hormone secretion patterns and inflammatory responses. Limited reports suggest also epigenetic effects, such as changes in DNA methylation profiles. The study aims to assess the potential association between poor sleep quality or sleep duration and the levels of 5-methylcytosine in the promoter regions of selected tumor suppressor genes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 710 nurses and midwives aged 40-60 years. Data from interviews regarding sleep habits and potential confounders were used. The methylation status of tumor suppressor genes was determined via qMSP reactions using DNA samples derived from leucocytes. No significant findings were observed in the total study population or in the two subgroups of women stratified by the current system of work. A borderline significance association was observed between a shorter duration of sleep and an increased methylation level in CDKN2A among day working nurses and midwives. Further studies are warranted to explore this under-investigated topic.

  12. APC loss in breast cancer leads to doxorubicin resistance via STAT3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanKlompenberg, Monica K; Leyden, Emily; Arnason, Anne H; Zhang, Jian-Ting; Stefanski, Casey D; Prosperi, Jenifer R

    2017-11-28

    Resistance to chemotherapy is one of the leading causes of death from breast cancer. We recently established that loss of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) in the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus - Polyoma middle T (MMTV-PyMT) transgenic mouse model results in resistance to cisplatin or doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Herein, we aim to establish the mechanism that is responsible for APC-mediated chemotherapeutic resistance. Our data demonstrate that MMTV-PyMT; Apc Min/+ cells have increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation. STAT3 can be constitutively activated in breast cancer, maintains the tumor initiating cell (TIC) population, and upregulates multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1). The activation of STAT3 in the MMTV-PyMT; Apc Min/+ model is independent of interleukin 6 (IL-6); however, enhanced EGFR expression in the MMTV-PyMT; Apc Min/+ cells may be responsible for the increased STAT3 activation. Inhibiting STAT3 with a small molecule inhibitor A69 in combination with doxorubicin, but not cisplatin, restores drug sensitivity. A69 also decreases doxorubicin enhanced MDR1 gene expression and the TIC population enhanced by loss of APC. In summary, these results have revealed the molecular mechanisms of APC loss in breast cancer that can guide future treatment plans to counteract chemotherapeutic resistance.

  13. LACTB, a novel epigenetic silenced tumor suppressor, inhibits colorectal cancer progression by attenuating MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kaixuan; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Xiuxiu; Liu, Xiangxiang; Xu, Tao; Sun, Huiling; Pan, Yuqin; He, Bangshun; Wang, Shukui

    2018-06-13

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common aggressive malignancies. Like other solid tumors, inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes occur during CRC development and progression. Recently, a novel tumor suppressor, LACTB, was proposed to inhibit tumor progression, but the functional and clinical significance of this tumor suppressor in CRC remains unexplored. Herein, we found LACTB was significantly downregulated in CRC due to promoter methylation and histone deacetylation, which was associated with metastasis and advanced clinical stage. CRC patients with low LACTB expression had poorer overall survival and LACTB also determined to be an independent prognostic factor for poorer outcome. Ectopic expression of LACTB suppressed CRC cells proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and inhibited CRC growth and metastasis in vivo, while knockout of LACTB by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technique resulted in an opposite phenotype. Interestingly, LACTB could exert antitumorigenic effect only in HCT116 and HCT8 cells harboring wild-type TP53, but not in HT29 and SW480 cells harboring mutant TP53 or HCT116 p53 -/- cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that LACTB could directly bind to the C terminus of p53 to inhibit p53 degradation by preventing MDM2 from interacting with p53. Moreover, ablation of p53 attenuated the antitumorigenic effects of LACTB overexpression in CRC. Collectively, our findings successfully demonstrate for the first time that LACTB is a novel epigenetic silenced tumor suppressor through modulating the stability of p53, supporting the pursuit of LACTB as a potential therapeutic target for CRC.

  14. APC/C--the master controller of origin licensing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, Umasundari; Machida, Yuichi J; Dutta, Anindya

    2007-02-23

    DNA replication must be tightly controlled to prevent initiation of a second round of replication until mitosis is complete. So far, components of the pre-replicative complex (Cdt1, Cdc6 and geminin) were considered key players in this regulation. In a new study, Machida and Dutta have shown that depletion of Emi1 caused cells to replicate their DNA more than once per cell cycle 1. This effect was dependent on the ability of Emi1 to inhibit the APC/C. In addition to its role in regulating entry into mitosis, oscillation of APC/C activity regulates pre-RC formation: high APC/C activity in late M/G1 allows pre-RC formation and low APC/C activity in S/G2 prevents pre-RC formation for a second time thereby preventing rereplication. Each redundant pathway to prevent rereplication is dependent on regulating one of the pre-RC components, and all of the pathways are co-regulated by Emi1 through the APC/C. In this commentary we discuss how this new role of Emi1 adds to our understanding of the regulation of replication initiation. We also review the literature to analyze whether APC/C has a role in regulating endoreduplication (a normal state of polyploidy in some differentiated cells). Similarly a role of premature APC/C activation in genomic instability of tumors is discussed.

  15. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor delta acts as a neuroblastoma tumor suppressor by destabilizing the aurora kinase a oncogene

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meehan, Maria

    2012-02-05

    Abstract Background Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor delta (PTPRD) is a member of a large family of protein tyrosine phosphatases which negatively regulate tyrosine phosphorylation. Neuroblastoma is a major childhood cancer arising from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system which is known to acquire deletions and alterations in the expression patterns of PTPRD, indicating a potential tumor suppressor function for this gene. The molecular mechanism, however, by which PTPRD renders a tumor suppressor effect in neuroblastoma is unknown. Results As a molecular mechanism, we demonstrate that PTPRD interacts with aurora kinase A (AURKA), an oncogenic protein that is over-expressed in multiple forms of cancer, including neuroblastoma. Ectopic up-regulation of PTPRD in neuroblastoma dephosphorylates tyrosine residues in AURKA resulting in a destabilization of this protein culminating in interfering with one of AURKA\\'s primary functions in neuroblastoma, the stabilization of MYCN protein, the gene of which is amplified in approximately 25 to 30% of high risk neuroblastoma. Conclusions PTPRD has a tumor suppressor function in neuroblastoma through AURKA dephosphorylation and destabilization and a downstream destabilization of MYCN protein, representing a novel mechanism for the function of PTPRD in neuroblastoma.

  16. Beta-Catenin Stability in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baswaran, Vijay

    1999-01-01

    .... beta-catenin also binds the adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC). The tumor suppressor function of APC is suggested to depend in part on its ability to bind beta-catenin and to facilitate beta-catenin degradation by an unknown mechanism...

  17. An identity crisis for fps/fes: oncogene or tumor suppressor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrar, Waheed; Zirgnibl, Ralph A; Gao, Yan; Muller, William J; Jia, Zongchao; Greer, Peter A

    2005-05-01

    Fps/Fes proteins were among the first members of the protein tyrosine kinase family to be characterized as dominant-acting oncoproteins. Addition of retroviral GAG sequences or other experimentally induced mutations activated the latent transforming potential of Fps/Fes. However, activating mutations in fps/fes had not been found in human tumors until recently, when mutational analysis of a panel of colorectal cancers identified four somatic mutations in sequences encoding the Fps/Fes kinase domain. Here, we report biochemical and theoretical structural analysis demonstrating that three of these mutations result in inactivation, not activation, of Fps/Fes, whereas the fourth mutation compromised in vivo activity. These results did not concur with a classic dominant-acting oncogenic role for fps/fes involving activating somatic mutations but instead raised the possibility that inactivating fps/fes mutations might promote tumor progression in vivo. Consistent with this, we observed that tumor onset in a mouse model of breast epithelial cancer occurred earlier in mice targeted with either null or kinase-inactivating fps/fes mutations. Furthermore, a fps/fes transgene restored normal tumor onset kinetics in targeted fps/fes null mice. These data suggest a novel and unexpected tumor suppressor role for Fps/Fes in epithelial cells.

  18. Genomic Analyses Reveal Global Functional Alterations That Promote Tumor Growth and Novel Tumor Suppressor Genes in Natural Killer-Cell Malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucuk, Can; Iqbal, Javeed; J. deLeeuw, Ronald

    in cell proliferation, growth and energy metabolic processes important for the neoplastic cells. In deleted regions, genes showing decreased expression included transcription factors or repressors (e.g. SP4, PRDM1, NCOR1 and ZNF10), tumor suppressors or negative regulators of the cell cycle (e.g. CDKN2C...

  19. Early diagnostic potential of APC hypermethylation in esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang B

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bujiang Wang,1 Haojun Song,1 Haizhong Jiang,1 Yangbo Fu,1 Xiaoyun Ding,1 Chongchang Zhou2 1Department of Gastroenterology, Laboratory of Digestive Diseases, Ningbo First Hospital, Ningbo, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Lihuili Hospital of Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Background: The hypermethylation of APC gene is observed in various cancers, including esophageal cancer (EC. However, the association between APC methylation and the initiation and progression of EC is poorly understood. Purpose and methods: The current study systematically reviewed studies on abnormal methylation of APC in EC and quantitatively synthesized 18 studies by meta-analysis involving 1008 ECs, 570 Barrett’s esophagus (BE, and 782 controls. Results: Our results showed higher methylation of APC in EC (OR = 23.33, P < 0.001 and BE (OR = 9.34, P < 0.001 than in normal controls. Whereas APC methylation in EC was similar to that in BE (P = 0.052, it was not associated with tumor stage (P = 0.204. Additionally, APC methylation was not significantly associated with overall survival (OS and relapse-free survival (RFS in patients with EC. The performance of APC methylation for the detection of EC and BE achieved areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.94 and 0.88, respectively. Conclusion: Our results imply that APC methylation detection is a potential diagnostic biomarker for EC and BE. Keywords: esophageal cancer, Barrett’s esophagus, methylation, APC

  20. PHTS, a novel putative tumor suppressor, is involved in the transformation reversion of HeLaHF cells independently of the p53 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dehua; Fan, Wufang; Liu, Guohong; Nguy, Vivian; Chatterton, Jon E.; Long Shilong; Ke, Ning; Meyhack, Bernd; Bruengger, Adrian; Brachat, Arndt; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Li, Qi-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    HeLaHF is a non-transformed revertant of HeLa cells, likely resulting from the activation of a putative tumor suppressor(s). p53 protein was stabilized in this revertant and reactivated for certain transactivation functions. Although p53 stabilization has not conclusively been linked to the reversion, it is clear that the genes in p53 pathway are involved. The present study confirms the direct role of p53 in HeLaHF reversion by demonstrating that RNAi-mediated p53 silencing partially restores anchorage-independent growth potential of the revertant through the suppression of anoikis. In addition, we identified a novel gene, named PHTS, with putative tumor suppressor properties, and showed that this gene is also involved in HeLaHF reversion independently of the p53 pathway. Expression profiling revealed that PHTS is one of the genes that is up-regulated in HeLaHF but not in HeLa. It encodes a putative protein with CD59-like domains. RNAi-mediated PHTS silencing resulted in the partial restoration of transformation (anchorage-independent growth) in HeLaHF cells, similar to that of p53 gene silencing, implying its tumor suppressor effect. However, the observed increased transformation potential by PHTS silencing appears to be due to an increased anchorage-independent proliferation rate rather than suppression of anoikis, unlike the effect of p53 silencing. p53 silencing did not affect PHTS gene expression, and vice versa, suggesting PHTS may function in a new and p53-independent tumor suppressor pathway. Furthermore, over-expression of PHTS in different cancer cell lines, in addition to HeLa, reduces cell growth likely via induced apoptosis, confirming the broad PHTS tumor suppressor properties

  1. AZU-1: A Candidate Breast Tumor Suppressor and Biomarker for Tumor Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Schmeichel, Karen L; Mian, I. Saira; Lelie`vre, Sophie; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2000-02-04

    To identify genes misregulated in the final stages of breast carcinogenesis, we performed differential display to compare the gene expression patterns of the human tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells, HMT-3522-T4-2, with those of their immediate premalignant progenitors, HMT-3522-S2. We identified a novel gene, called anti-zuai-1 (AZU-1), that was abundantly expressed in non- and premalignant cells and tissues but was appreciably reduced in breast tumor cell types and in primary tumors. The AZU-1 gene encodes an acidic 571-amino-acid protein containing at least two structurally distinct domains with potential protein-binding functions: an N-terminal serine and proline-rich domain with a predicted immunoglobulin-like fold and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. In HMT-3522 cells, the bulk of AZU-1 protein resided in a detergent-extractable cytoplasmic pool and was present at much lower levels in tumorigenic T4-2 cells than in their nonmalignant counterparts. Reversion of the tumorigenic phenotype of T4-2 cells, by means described previously, was accompanied by the up-regulation of AZU-1. In addition, reexpression of AZU-1 in T4-2 cells, using viral vectors, was sufficient to reduce their malignant phenotype substantially, both in culture and in vivo. These results indicate that AZU-1 is a candidate breast tumor suppressor that may exert its effects by promoting correct tissue morphogenesis.

  2. The PTPN14 Tumor Suppressor Is a Degradation Target of Human Papillomavirus E7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalmás, Anita; Tomaić, Vjekoslav; Basukala, Om; Massimi, Paola; Mittal, Suruchi; Kónya, József; Banks, Lawrence

    2017-04-01

    Activation of signaling pathways ensuring cell growth is essential for the proliferative competence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells. Tyrosine kinases and phosphatases are key regulators of cellular growth control pathways. A recently identified potential cellular target of HPV E7 is the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN14, which is a potential tumor suppressor and is linked to the control of the Hippo and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways. In this study, we show that the E7 proteins of both high-risk and low-risk mucosal HPV types can interact with PTPN14. This interaction is independent of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and involves residues in the carboxy-terminal region of E7. We also show that high-risk E7 induces proteasome-mediated degradation of PTPN14 in cells derived from cervical tumors. This degradation appears to be independent of cullin-1 or cullin-2 but most likely involves the UBR4/p600 ubiquitin ligase. The degree to which E7 downregulates PTPN14 would suggest that this interaction is important for the viral life cycle and potentially also for the development of malignancy. In support of this we find that overexpression of PTPN14 decreases the ability of HPV-16 E7 to cooperate with activated EJ-ras in primary cell transformation assays. IMPORTANCE This study links HPV E7 to the deregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase signaling pathways. PTPN14 is classified as a potential tumor suppressor protein, and here we show that it is very susceptible to HPV E7-induced proteasome-mediated degradation. Intriguingly, this appears to use a mechanism that is different from that employed by E7 to target pRb. Therefore, this study has important implications for our understanding of the molecular basis for E7 function and also sheds important light on the potential role of PTPN14 as a tumor suppressor. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Misao; Ariumi, Yasuo; Hijikata, Makoto; Ikeda, Masanori; Dansako, Hiromichi; Wakita, Takaji; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Kato, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production. ► PML is dispensable for HCV RNA replication. ► HCV could not alter formation of PML-NBs. ► INI1 and DDX5, PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV life cycle. -- Abstract: PML tumor suppressor protein, which forms discrete nuclear structures termed PML-nuclear bodies, has been associated with several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and antiviral defense. Recently, it was reported that the HCV core protein colocalizes with PML in PML-NBs and abrogates the PML function through interaction with PML. However, role(s) of PML in HCV life cycle is unknown. To test whether or not PML affects HCV life cycle, we examined the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity of HCV in the culture supernatants as well as the level of HCV RNA in HuH-7-derived RSc cells, in which HCV-JFH1 can infect and efficiently replicate, stably expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to PML. In this context, the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity in the supernatants from PML knockdown cells was remarkably reduced, whereas the level of HCV RNA in the PML knockdown cells was not significantly affected in spite of very effective knockdown of PML. In fact, we showed that PML is unrelated to HCV RNA replication using the subgenomic HCV-JFH1 replicon RNA, JRN/3-5B. Furthermore, the infectivity of HCV-like particle in the culture supernatants was significantly reduced in PML knockdown JRN/3-5B cells expressing core to NS2 coding region of HCV-JFH1 genome using the trans-packaging system. Finally, we also demonstrated that INI1 and DDX5, the PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV production. Taken together, these findings suggest that PML is required for HCV production.

  4. Regulatory T cells as suppressors of anti-tumor immunity: Role of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Veronica; Di Rella, Francesca; Di Giacomo, Antonio; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    Novel concepts in immunometabolism support the hypothesis that glucose consumption is also used to modulate anti-tumor immune responses, favoring growth and expansion of specific cellular subsets defined in the past as suppressor T cells and currently reborn as regulatory T (Treg) cells. During the 1920s, Otto Warburg and colleagues observed that tumors consumed high amounts of glucose compared to normal tissues, even in the presence of oxygen and completely functioning mitochondria. However, the role of the Warburg Effect is still not completely understood, particularly in the context of an ongoing anti-tumor immune response. Current experimental evidence suggests that tumor-derived metabolic restrictions can drive T cell hyporesponsiveness and immune tolerance. For example, several glycolytic enzymes, deregulated in cancer, contribute to tumor progression independently from their canonical metabolic activity. Indeed, they can control apoptosis, gene expression and activation of specific intracellular pathways, thus suggesting a direct link between metabolic switches and pro-tumorigenic transcriptional programs. Focus of this review is to define the specific metabolic pathways controlling Treg cell immunobiology in the context of anti-tumor immunity and tumor progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disruption of estrogen receptor signaling enhances intestinal neoplasia in ApcMin/+ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Alicia G.; Oikarinen, Seija I.; Bynoté, Kimberly K.; Marttinen, Maija; Rafter, Joseph J.; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Roy, Shyamal K.; Pitot, Henry C.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Mutanen, Marja; Gould, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) [ERα (Esr1) and ERβ (Esr2)] are expressed in the human colon, but during the multistep process of colorectal carcinogenesis, expression of both ERα and ERβ is lost, suggesting that loss of ER function might promote colorectal carcinogenesis. Through crosses between an ERα knockout and ApcMin mouse strains, we demonstrate that ERα deficiency is associated with a significant increase in intestinal tumor multiplicity, size and burden in ApcMin/+ mice. Within the normal intestinal epithelium of ApcMin/+ mice, ERα deficiency is associated with an accumulation of nuclear β-catenin, an indicator of activation of the Wnt–β-catenin-signaling pathway, which is known to play a critical role in intestinal cancers. Consistent with the hypothesis that ERα deficiency is associated with activation of Wnt–β-catenin signaling, ERα deficiency in the intestinal epithelium of ApcMin/+ mice also correlated with increased expression of Wnt–β-catenin target genes. Through crosses between an ERβ knockout and ApcMin mouse strains, we observed some evidence that ERβ deficiency is associated with an increased incidence of colon tumors in ApcMin/+ mice. This effect of ERβ deficiency does not involve modulation of Wnt–β-catenin signaling. Our studies suggest that ERα and ERβ signaling modulate colorectal carcinogenesis, and ERα does so, at least in part, by regulating the activity of the Wnt–β-catenin pathway. PMID:19520794

  6. CpG methylation of APC promoter 1A in sporadic and familial breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debouki-Joudi, Saoussen; Trifa, Fatma; Khabir, Abdelmajid; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahia; Frikha, Mounir; Daoud, Jamel; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja

    2017-01-01

    Tumour suppressor gene (TSG) silencing through promoter hypermethylation plays an important role in cancer initiation. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of methylation of APC gene promoter in 91 sporadic and 44 familial cases of Tunisian patients with breast cancer (BC) in. The frequency of APC promoter methylation is somewhat similar for sporadic and familial breast cancer cases, (52.1%, and 54.5% respectively). For sporadic breast cancer patients, there was a significant correlation of APC promoter hypermethylation with TNM stage (p = 0.024) and 3-year survival (p = 0.025). Regarding the hormonal status (HR), we found significant association between negativity to PR and unmethylated APC (p= 0.005) while ER and Her2/neu are not correlated. Moreover, unmethylated APC promoter is more frequent in tumours expressing at least one out the 3 proteins compared to triple negative cases (p= 0.053). On the other hand, aberrant methylation of APC was associated with tumour size (p = 0.036), lymph node (p = 0.028), distant metastasis (p = 0.031), and 3-year survival (p = 0.046) in the group of patients with familial breast cancer. Moreover, patients with sporadic breast cancer displaying the unmethylated profile have a significant prolonged overall survival compared to those with the methylated pattern of APC promoter (p log rank = 0.008). Epigenetic change at the CpG islands in the APC promoter was associated with the silence of its transcript and the loss of protein expression suggesting that this event is the main mechanism regulating the APC expression in breast cancer. In conclusion, our data showed that the loss of APC through aberrant methylation is associated with the aggressive behavior of both sporadic and familial breast cancer in Tunisian patients.

  7. Tumor suppressor maspin as a modulator of host immune response to cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijana H. Dzinic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the promising clinical outcome, the primary challenge of the curative cancer immunotherapy is to overcome the dichotomy of the immune response: tumor-evoked immunostimulatory versus tumor-induced immunosuppressive. The goal needs to be two-fold, to re-establish sustainable antitumor-cancer immunity and to eliminate immunosuppression. The successful elimination of cancer cells by immunosurveillance requires the antigenic presentation of the tumor cells or tumor-associated antigens and the expression of immunostimulatory cytokines and chemokines by cancer and immune cells. Tumors are heterogeneous and as such, some of the tumor cells are thought to have stem cell characteristics that enable them to suppress or desensitize the host immunity due to acquired epigenetic changes. A central mechanism underlying tumor epigenetic instability is the increased histone deacetylase (HDAC-mediated repression of HDAC-target genes regulating homeostasis and differentiation. It was noted that pharmacological HDAC inhibitors are not effective in eliminating tumor cells partly because they may induce immunosuppression. We have shown that epithelial-specific tumor suppressor maspin, an ovalbumin-like non-inhibitory serine protease inhibitor, reprograms tumor cells toward better differentiated phenotypes by inhibiting HDAC1. Recently, we uncovered a novel function of maspin in directing host immunity towards tumor elimination. In this review, we discuss the maspin and maspin/HDAC1 interplay in tumor biology and immunology. We propose that maspin based therapies may eradicate cancer.

  8. Alternative polyadenylation of tumor suppressor genes in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, Anders; Plass, Mireya; Døssing, Kristina; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjær, Andreas; Krogh, Anders; Friis-Hansen, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    The tumorigenesis of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) is poorly understood. Recent studies have associated alternative polyadenylation (APA) with proliferation, cell transformation, and cancer. Polyadenylation is the process in which the pre-messenger RNA is cleaved at a polyA site and a polyA tail is added. Genes with two or more polyA sites can undergo APA. This produces two or more distinct mRNA isoforms with different 3' untranslated regions. Additionally, APA can also produce mRNAs containing different 3'-terminal coding regions. Therefore, APA alters both the repertoire and the expression level of proteins. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing data to map polyA sites and characterize polyadenylation genome-wide in three SI-NETs and a reference sample. In the tumors, 16 genes showed significant changes of APA pattern, which lead to either the 3' truncation of mRNA coding regions or 3' untranslated regions. Among these, 11 genes had been previously associated with cancer, with 4 genes being known tumor suppressors: DCC, PDZD2, MAGI1, and DACT2. We validated the APA in three out of three cases with quantitative real-time-PCR. Our findings suggest that changes of APA pattern in these 16 genes could be involved in the tumorigenesis of SI-NETs. Furthermore, they also point to APA as a new target for both diagnostic and treatment of SI-NETs. The identified genes with APA specific to the SI-NETs could be further tested as diagnostic markers and drug targets for disease prevention and treatment.

  9. Generation of two modified mouse alleles of the Hic1 tumor suppressor gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíchalová, Vendula; Turečková, Jolana; Fafílek, Bohumil; Vojtěchová, Martina; Krausová, Michaela; Lukáš, Jan; Šloncová, Eva; Takacova, S.; Divoký, V.; Leprince, D.; Plachý, Jiří; Kořínek, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2011), s. 142-151 ISSN 1526-954X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/1567; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Hypermethylated In Cancer 1 * Hic1 tumor suppressor * gene targeting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.527, year: 2011

  10. Targeting of the tumor suppressor GRHL3 by a miR-21-dependent proto-oncogenic network results in PTEN loss and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darido, Charbel; Georgy, Smitha R; Wilanowski, Tomasz; Dworkin, Sebastian; Auden, Alana; Zhao, Quan; Rank, Gerhard; Srivastava, Seema; Finlay, Moira J; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Pearson, Richard B; Jane, Stephen M

    2011-11-15

    Despite its prevalence, the molecular basis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains poorly understood. Here, we identify the developmental transcription factor Grhl3 as a potent tumor suppressor of SCC in mice, and demonstrate that targeting of Grhl3 by a miR-21-dependent proto-oncogenic network underpins SCC in humans. Deletion of Grhl3 in adult epidermis evokes loss of expression of PTEN, a direct GRHL3 target, resulting in aggressive SCC induced by activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Restoration of Pten expression completely abrogates SCC formation. Reduced levels of GRHL3 and PTEN are evident in human skin, and head and neck SCC, associated with increased expression of miR-21, which targets both tumor suppressors. Our data define the GRHL3-PTEN axis as a critical tumor suppressor pathway in SCC. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tumor induced hepatic myeloid derived suppressor cells can cause moderate liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Tobias; Medina-Echeverz, José; Kapanadze, Tamar; Kruhlak, Michael J; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL), while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage.

  12. APC/C – the master controller of origin licensing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Anindya

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract DNA replication must be tightly controlled to prevent initiation of a second round of replication until mitosis is complete. So far, components of the pre-replicative complex (Cdt1, Cdc6 and geminin were considered key players in this regulation. In a new study, Machida and Dutta have shown that depletion of Emi1 caused cells to replicate their DNA more than once per cell cycle 1. This effect was dependent on the ability of Emi1 to inhibit the APC/C. In addition to its role in regulating entry into mitosis, oscillation of APC/C activity regulates pre-RC formation: high APC/C activity in late M/G1 allows pre-RC formation and low APC/C activity in S/G2 prevents pre-RC formation for a second time thereby preventing rereplication. Each redundant pathway to prevent rereplication is dependent on regulating one of the pre-RC components, and all of the pathways are co-regulated by Emi1 through the APC/C. In this commentary we discuss how this new role of Emi1 adds to our understanding of the regulation of replication initiation. We also review the literature to analyze whether APC/C has a role in regulating endoreduplication (a normal state of polyploidy in some differentiated cells. Similarly a role of premature APC/C activation in genomic instability of tumors is discussed.

  13. Mouse model of proximal colon-specific tumorigenesis driven by microsatellite instability-induced Cre-mediated inactivation of Apc and activation of Kras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Hinoi, Takao; Saito, Yasufumi; Adachi, Tomohiro; Miguchi, Masashi; Niitsu, Hiroaki; Sasada, Tatsunari; Shimomura, Manabu; Egi, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Chayama, Kazuaki; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Oue, Naohide; Yasui, Wataru; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-05-01

    KRAS gene mutations are found in 40-50% of colorectal cancer cases, but their functional contribution is not fully understood. To address this issue, we generated genetically engineered mice with colon tumors expressing an oncogenic Kras(G12D) allele in the context of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) deficiency to compare them to tumors harboring Apc deficiency alone. CDX2P9.5-G22Cre (referred to as G22Cre) mice showing inducible Cre recombinase transgene expression in the proximal colon controlled under the CDX2 gene promoter were intercrossed with Apc (flox/flox) mice and LSL-Kras (G12D) mice carrying loxP-flanked Apc and Lox-Stop-Lox oncogenic Kras(G12D) alleles, respectively, to generate G22Cre; Apc(flox/flox); Kras(G12D) and G22Cre; Apc(flox/flox); KrasWT mice. Gene expression profiles of the tumors were analyzed using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Morphologically, minimal difference in proximal colon tumor was observed between the two mouse models. Consistent with previous findings in vitro, Glut1 transcript and protein expression was up-regulated in the tumors of G22Cre;Apc (flox/flox) ; Kras(G12D) mice. Immunohistochemical staining analysis revealed that GLUT1 protein expression correlated with KRAS mutations in human colorectal cancer. Microarray analysis identified 11 candidate genes upregulated more than fivefold and quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that Aqp8, Ttr, Qpct, and Slc26a3 genes were upregulated 3.7- to 30.2-fold in tumors with mutant Kras. These results demonstrated the validity of the G22Cre; Apc(flox/flox) ;Kras (G12D) mice as a new mouse model with oncogenic Kras activation. We believe that this model can facilitate efforts to define novel factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of human colorectal cancer with KRAS mutations.

  14. Structural investigation of nucleophosmin interaction with the tumor suppressor Fbw7γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, A; Franceschini, M; Paiardini, A; Grottesi, A; Chiarella, S; Rocchio, S; Di Natale, C; Marasco, D; Vitagliano, L; Travaglini-Allocatelli, C; Federici, L

    2017-09-18

    Nucleophosmin (NPM1) is a multifunctional nucleolar protein implicated in ribogenesis, centrosome duplication, cell cycle control, regulation of DNA repair and apoptotic response to stress stimuli. The majority of these functions are played through the interactions with a variety of protein partners. NPM1 is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors of different histological origin. Furthermore NPM1 is the most frequently mutated protein in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Mutations map to the C-terminal domain and lead to the aberrant and stable localization of the protein in the cytoplasm of leukemic blasts. Among NPM1 protein partners, a pivotal role is played by the tumor suppressor Fbw7γ, an E3-ubiquitin ligase that degrades oncoproteins like c-MYC, cyclin E, Notch and c-jun. In AML with NPM1 mutations, Fbw7γ is degraded following its abnormal cytosolic delocalization by mutated NPM1. This mechanism also applies to other tumor suppressors and it has been suggested that it may play a key role in leukemogenesis. Here we analyse the interaction between NPM1 and Fbw7γ, by identifying the protein surfaces implicated in recognition and key aminoacids involved. Based on the results of computational methods, we propose a structural model for the interaction, which is substantiated by experimental findings on several site-directed mutants. We also extend the analysis to two other NPM1 partners (HIV Tat and CENP-W) and conclude that NPM1 uses the same molecular surface as a platform for recognizing different protein partners. We suggest that this region of NPM1 may be targeted for cancer treatment.

  15. Protein kinase A antagonist inhibits β-catenin nuclear translocation, c-Myc and COX-2 expression and tumor promotion in ApcMin/+ mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brudvik Kristoffer W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC protein is part of the destruction complex controlling proteosomal degradation of β-catenin and limiting its nuclear translocation, which is thought to play a gate-keeping role in colorectal cancer. The destruction complex is inhibited by Wnt-Frz and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 - PI-3 kinase pathways. Recent reports show that PGE2-induced phosphorylation of β-catenin by protein kinase A (PKA increases nuclear translocation indicating two mechanisms of action of PGE2 on β-catenin homeostasis. Findings Treatment of ApcMin/+ mice that spontaneously develop intestinal adenomas with a PKA antagonist (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS selectively targeting only the latter pathway reduced tumor load, but not the number of adenomas. Immunohistochemical characterization of intestines from treated and control animals revealed that expression of β-catenin, β-catenin nuclear translocation and expression of the β-catenin target genes c-Myc and COX-2 were significantly down-regulated upon Rp-8-Br-cAMPS treatment. Parallel experiments in a human colon cancer cell line (HCT116 revealed that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS blocked PGE2-induced β-catenin phosphorylation and c-Myc upregulation. Conclusion Based on our findings we suggest that PGE2 act through PKA to promote β-catenin nuclear translocation and tumor development in ApcMin/+ mice in vivo, indicating that the direct regulatory effect of PKA on β-catenin nuclear translocation is operative in intestinal cancer.

  16. Tumor induced hepatic myeloid derived suppressor cells can cause moderate liver damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Eggert

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL, while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage.

  17. Apc inactivation, but not obesity, synergizes with Pten deficiency to drive intestinal stem cell-derived tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, Tahmineh; Wang, Donghai; Guan, Fangxia; Hu, Zunju; Beck, Amanda P; Delahaye, Fabien; Huffman, Derek M

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for colorectal cancer and can accelerate Lgr5+ intestinal stem cell (ISC)-derived tumorigenesis after the inactivation of Apc However, whether non-canonical pathways involving PI3K-Akt signaling in ISCs can lead to tumor formation, and if this can be further exacerbated by obesity is unknown. Despite the synergy between Pten and Apc inactivation in epithelial cells on intestinal tumor formation, their combined role in Lgr5+-ISCs, which are the most rapidly dividing ISC population in the intestine, is unknown. Lgr5+-GFP mice were provided low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 months, and the transcriptome was evaluated in Lgr5+-ISCs. For tumor studies, Lgr5+-GFP and Lgr5+-GFP- Pten flox/flox mice were tamoxifen treated to inactivate Pten in ISCs and provided LFD or HFD until 14-15 months of age. Finally, various combinations of Lgr5+-ISC-specific, Apc- and Pten -deleted mice were generated and evaluated for histopathology and survival. HFD did not overtly alter Akt signaling in ISCs, but did increase other metabolic pathways. Pten deficiency, but not HFD, increased BrdU-positive cells in the small intestine ( P  Apc deficiency synergistically increased proliferative markers, tumor pathology and mortality, in a dose-dependent fashion ( P  Apc deficiency in ISCs synergistically increases proliferation, tumor formation and mortality. Thus, aberrant Wnt/β-catenin, rather than PI3K-Akt signaling, is requisite for obesity to drive Lgr5+ ISC-derived tumorigenesis. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. MiR-206 functions as a tumor suppressor and directly targets K-Ras in human oral squamous cell carcinoma [Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin FO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Editor-in-Chief and Publisher of OncoTargets and Therapy have been alerted to unacceptable levels of duplication with another published paper: Zhang D, Ni Z, Xu X, and Xiao J. MiR-32 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor and Directly Targets EZH2 in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Medical Science Monitor. 20:2527–2535, 2014.Accordingly, we retract Lin FO, Yao LJ, Xiao J, Liu DF, and Ni ZY. MiR-206 functions as a tumor suppressor and directly targets K-Ras in human oral squamous cell carcinoma. OncoTargets and Therapy. 2014;7:1583–1591.This Retraction relates to 

  19. The tumor suppressor gene Trp53 protects the mouse lens against posterior subcapsular cataracts and the BMP receptor Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A. Wiley

    2011-07-01

    We previously found that lenses lacking the Acvr1 gene, which encodes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP receptor, had abnormal proliferation and cell death in epithelial and cortical fiber cells. We tested whether the tumor suppressor protein p53 (encoded by Trp53 affected this phenotype. Acvr1 conditional knockout (Acvr1CKO mouse fiber cells had increased numbers of nuclei that stained for p53 phosphorylated on serine 15, an indicator of p53 stabilization and activation. Deletion of Trp53 rescued the Acvr1CKO cell death phenotype in embryos and reduced Acvr1-dependent apoptosis in postnatal lenses. However, deletion of Trp53 alone increased the number of fiber cells that failed to withdraw from the cell cycle. Trp53CKO and Acvr1;Trp53DCKO (double conditional knockout, but not Acvr1CKO, lenses developed abnormal collections of cells at the posterior of the lens that resembled posterior subcapsular cataracts. Cells from human posterior subcapsular cataracts had morphological and molecular characteristics similar to the cells at the posterior of mouse lenses lacking Trp53. In Trp53CKO lenses, cells in the posterior plaques did not proliferate but, in Acvr1;Trp53DCKO lenses, many cells in the posterior plaques continued to proliferate, eventually forming vascularized tumor-like masses at the posterior of the lens. We conclude that p53 protects the lens against posterior subcapsular cataract formation by suppressing the proliferation of fiber cells and promoting the death of any fiber cells that enter the cell cycle. Acvr1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the lens. Enhancing p53 function in the lens could contribute to the prevention of steroid- and radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataracts.

  20. Key tumor suppressor genes inactivated by "greater promoter" methylation and somatic mutations in head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Michailidi, Christina; Marchionni, Luigi; Pickering, Curtis R.; Frederick, Mitchell J.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Hadar, Tal; Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Zizkova, Veronika; Fertig, Elana; Agrawal, Nishant; Westra, William; Koch, Wayne; Califano, Joseph; Velculescu, Victor E.; Sidransky, David

    Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) are commonly inactivated by somatic mutation and/or promoter methylation; yet, recent high-throughput genomic studies have not identified key TSGs inactivated by both mechanisms. We pursued an integrated molecular analysis based on methylation binding domain sequencing

  1. Tumor Suppressor Genes within Common Fragile Sites Are Active Players in the DNA Damage Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idit Hazan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of common fragile sites (CFSs in cancer remains controversial. Two main views dominate the discussion: one suggests that CFS loci are hotspots of genomic instability leading to inactivation of genes encoded within them, while the other view proposes that CFSs are functional units and that loss of the encoded genes confers selective pressure, leading to cancer development. The latter view is supported by emerging evidence showing that expression of a given CFS is associated with genome integrity and that inactivation of CFS-resident tumor suppressor genes leads to dysregulation of the DNA damage response (DDR and increased genomic instability. These two viewpoints of CFS function are not mutually exclusive but rather coexist; when breaks at CFSs are not repaired accurately, this can lead to deletions by which cells acquire growth advantage because of loss of tumor suppressor activities. Here, we review recent advances linking some CFS gene products with the DDR, genomic instability, and carcinogenesis and discuss how their inactivation might represent a selective advantage for cancer cells.

  2. Insight into the tumor suppressor function of CBP through the viral oncoprotein tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, K; Nyborg, J K

    2000-01-01

    CREB binding protein (CBP) is a cellular coactivator protein that regulates essentially all known pathways of gene expression. The transcriptional coactivator properties of CBP are utilized by at least 25 different transcription factors representing nearly all known classes of DNA binding proteins. Once bound to their target genes, these transcription factors are believed to tether CBP to the promoter, leading to activated transcription. CBP functions to stimulate transcription through direct recruitment of the general transcription machinery as well as acetylation of both histone and transcription factor substrates. Recent observations indicate that a critical dosage of CBP is required for normal development and tumor suppression, and that perturbations in CBP concentrations may disrupt cellular homeostasis. Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that CBP deregulation plays a direct role in hematopoietic malignancies. However, the molecular events linking CBP deregulation and malignant transformation are unclear. Further insight into the function of CBP, and its role as a tumor suppressor, can be gained through recent studies of the human T-cell leukemia virus, type I (HTLV-I) Tax oncoprotein. Tax is known to utilize CBP to stimulate transcription from the viral promoter. However, recent data suggest that as a consequence of the Tax-CBP interaction, many cellular transcription factor pathways may be deregulated. Tax disruption of CBP function may play a key role in transformation of the HTLV-I-infected cell. Thus, Tax derailment of CBP may lend important information about the tumor suppressor properties of CBP and serve as a model for the role of CBP in hematopoietic malignancies.

  3. Gene trapping identifies a putative tumor suppressor and a new inducer of cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiola-Serrano, Francisca; Haendeler, Judith; Lukosz, Margarete; Sturm, Karsten; Melchner, Harald von; Altschmied, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in apoptotic cell death, cellular proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. In tumors it is secreted by tumor associated macrophages and can have both pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects. To identify genes regulated by TNFα, we performed a gene trap screen in the mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7 and recovered 64 unique, TNFα-induced gene trap integration sites. Among these were the genes coding for the zinc finger protein ZC3H10 and for the transcription factor grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3). In line with the dual effects of TNFα on tumorigenesis, we found that ZC3H10 inhibits anchorage independent growth in soft agar suggesting a tumor suppressor function, whereas GRHL3 strongly stimulated the migration of endothelial cells which is consistent with an angiogenic, pro-tumorigenic function

  4. PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroki, Misao [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Ariumi, Yasuo, E-mail: ariumi@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Hijikata, Makoto [Department of Viral Oncology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ikeda, Masanori; Dansako, Hiromichi [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Shimotohno, Kunitada [Research Center for Hepatitis and Immunology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, Chiba 272-8516 (Japan); Kato, Nobuyuki [Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML tumor suppressor protein is required for HCV production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PML is dispensable for HCV RNA replication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCV could not alter formation of PML-NBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer INI1 and DDX5, PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV life cycle. -- Abstract: PML tumor suppressor protein, which forms discrete nuclear structures termed PML-nuclear bodies, has been associated with several cellular functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and antiviral defense. Recently, it was reported that the HCV core protein colocalizes with PML in PML-NBs and abrogates the PML function through interaction with PML. However, role(s) of PML in HCV life cycle is unknown. To test whether or not PML affects HCV life cycle, we examined the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity of HCV in the culture supernatants as well as the level of HCV RNA in HuH-7-derived RSc cells, in which HCV-JFH1 can infect and efficiently replicate, stably expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to PML. In this context, the level of secreted HCV core and the infectivity in the supernatants from PML knockdown cells was remarkably reduced, whereas the level of HCV RNA in the PML knockdown cells was not significantly affected in spite of very effective knockdown of PML. In fact, we showed that PML is unrelated to HCV RNA replication using the subgenomic HCV-JFH1 replicon RNA, JRN/3-5B. Furthermore, the infectivity of HCV-like particle in the culture supernatants was significantly reduced in PML knockdown JRN/3-5B cells expressing core to NS2 coding region of HCV-JFH1 genome using the trans-packaging system. Finally, we also demonstrated that INI1 and DDX5, the PML-related proteins, are involved in HCV production. Taken together, these findings suggest that PML is required for HCV production.

  5. Paracrine Apoptotic Effect of p53 Mediated by Tumor Suppressor Par-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravshan Burikhanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guardian of the genome, p53, is often mutated in cancer and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. Given that p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, we harnessed its potential to inhibit the growth of p53-deficient cancer cells. Specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts selectively induced apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine effect was mediated by p53-dependent secretion of the tumor suppressor Par-4. Accordingly, the activation of p53 in normal mice, but not p53−/− or Par-4−/− mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4, which induced apoptosis of p53-deficient tumor cells. Mechanistically, p53 induced Par-4 secretion by suppressing the expression of its binding partner, UACA, which sequesters Par-4. Thus, normal cells can be empowered by p53 activation to induce Par-4 secretion for the inhibition of therapy-resistant tumors.

  6. APC hypermethylation for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Hong-Xu; Zheng, Yan-Yan; Cao, Ying-Qing; Wu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Xin; Dong, Shu-Xiao

    2017-07-11

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) promoter hypermethylation has been frequently observed in colorectal cancer (CRC). The association between APC promoter methylation and clinicopathological significance in CRC is under investigation. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the significance of APC methylation in CRC. The study included a total of 24 articles and 2025 CRC patients. The frequency of APC promoter hypermethylation was significantly higher in colorectal adenoma than in normal colorectal tissue, OR was 5.76, 95% CI, 2.45-13.56; pAPC promoter more frequently hypermethylated in CRC stage I compared to normal colorectal tissue, OR was 13.42, 95% CI, 3.66-49.20; pAPC promoter hypermethylation, pooled OR was 9.80, 95%CI, 6.07-15.81; pAPC methylation was not associated with grade, stage of CRC as well as tumor location, patients' gender, and smoking behavior. The results indicate that APC promoter hypermethylation is an early event in carcinogenesis of CRC, could be a valuable diagnostic marker for early-stage CRC. APC methylation is not significantly associated with overall survival in patients with CRC. APC is a potential drug target for development of personalized treatment.

  7. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2012-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16 INK4a and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin

  8. p53 tumor suppressor gene: significance in neoplasia - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    p53 is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 17p13.1. Its function includes cell cycle control and apoptosis. Loss of p53 function, either due to decreased level or genetic transformation, is associated with loss of cell cycle control, decrease, apoptosis and genomic modification, such mutation of p53 gene is now assessed and the indicator of neoplasia of cancer of several organs and cell types, p53 has demonstrated to have critical role in defining various progressive stages of neoplasia, therapeutic strategies and clinical application. The present review briefly describes function of p53 in addition to its diagnostic and prognostic significance in detecting several types of neoplasia. (author)

  9. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor regulates programmed cell death 5-mediated degradation of Mdm2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, P B; Klasson, T D; Pereboom, T C; Mans, D A; Nicastro, M; Boldt, K; Giles, R H; MacInnes, A W

    2015-01-01

    Functional loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein (pVHL), which is part of an E3-ubiquitin ligase complex, initiates most inherited and sporadic clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC). Genetic inactivation of the TP53 gene in ccRCC is rare, suggesting that an alternate

  10. APC/C-Cdh1-dependent anaphase and telophase progression during mitotic slippage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toda Kazuhiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC inhibits anaphase progression in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments, but cells can eventually override mitotic arrest by a process known as mitotic slippage or adaptation. This is a problem for cancer chemotherapy using microtubule poisons. Results Here we describe mitotic slippage in yeast bub2Δ mutant cells that are defective in the repression of precocious telophase onset (mitotic exit. Precocious activation of anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C-Cdh1 caused mitotic slippage in the presence of nocodazole, while the SAC was still active. APC/C-Cdh1, but not APC/C-Cdc20, triggered anaphase progression (securin degradation, separase-mediated cohesin cleavage, sister-chromatid separation and chromosome missegregation, in addition to telophase onset (mitotic exit, during mitotic slippage. This demonstrates that an inhibitory system not only of APC/C-Cdc20 but also of APC/C-Cdh1 is critical for accurate chromosome segregation in the presence of insufficient kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Conclusions The sequential activation of APC/C-Cdc20 to APC/C-Cdh1 during mitosis is central to accurate mitosis. Precocious activation of APC/C-Cdh1 in metaphase (pre-anaphase causes mitotic slippage in SAC-activated cells. For the prevention of mitotic slippage, concomitant inhibition of APC/C-Cdh1 may be effective for tumor therapy with mitotic spindle poisons in humans.

  11. Tumor Suppressor Gene-Based Nanotherapy: From Test Tube to the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Shanker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major health problem in the world. Advances made in cancer therapy have improved the survival of patients in certain types of cancer. However, the overall five-year survival has not significantly improved in the majority of cancer types. Major challenges encountered in having effective cancer therapy are development of drug resistance by the tumor cells, nonspecific cytotoxicity, and inability to affect metastatic tumors by the chemodrugs. Overcoming these challenges requires development and testing of novel therapies. One attractive cancer therapeutic approach is cancer gene therapy. Several laboratories including the authors' laboratory have been investigating nonviral formulations for delivering therapeutic genes as a mode for effective cancer therapy. In this paper the authors will summarize their experience in the development and testing of a cationic lipid-based nanocarrier formulation and the results from their preclinical studies leading to a Phase I clinical trial for nonsmall cell lung cancer. Their nanocarrier formulation containing therapeutic genes such as tumor suppressor genes when administered intravenously effectively controls metastatic tumor growth. Additional Phase I clinical trials based on the results of their nanocarrier formulation have been initiated or proposed for treatment of cancer of the breast, ovary, pancreas, and metastatic melanoma, and will be discussed.

  12. Tumor suppressor gene-based nanotherapy: from test tube to the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Manish; Jin, Jiankang; Branch, Cynthia D; Miyamoto, Shinya; Grimm, Elizabeth A; Roth, Jack A; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in the world. Advances made in cancer therapy have improved the survival of patients in certain types of cancer. However, the overall five-year survival has not significantly improved in the majority of cancer types. Major challenges encountered in having effective cancer therapy are development of drug resistance by the tumor cells, nonspecific cytotoxicity, and inability to affect metastatic tumors by the chemodrugs. Overcoming these challenges requires development and testing of novel therapies. One attractive cancer therapeutic approach is cancer gene therapy. Several laboratories including the authors' laboratory have been investigating nonviral formulations for delivering therapeutic genes as a mode for effective cancer therapy. In this paper the authors will summarize their experience in the development and testing of a cationic lipid-based nanocarrier formulation and the results from their preclinical studies leading to a Phase I clinical trial for nonsmall cell lung cancer. Their nanocarrier formulation containing therapeutic genes such as tumor suppressor genes when administered intravenously effectively controls metastatic tumor growth. Additional Phase I clinical trials based on the results of their nanocarrier formulation have been initiated or proposed for treatment of cancer of the breast, ovary, pancreas, and metastatic melanoma, and will be discussed.

  13. Recurrent APC gene mutations in Polish FAP families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pławski Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular diagnostics of genetically conditioned disorders is based on the identification of the mutations in the predisposing genes. Hereditary cancer disorders of the gastrointestinal tracts are caused by mutations of the tumour suppressor genes or the DNA repair genes. Occurrence of recurrent mutation allows improvement of molecular diagnostics. The mutation spectrum in the genes causing hereditary forms of colorectal cancers in the Polish population was previously described. In the present work an estimation of the frequency of the recurrent mutations of the APC gene was performed. Eight types of mutations occurred in 19.4% of our FAP families and these constitute 43% of all Polish diagnosed families.

  14. Analysis of a Novel 17q25 Cell Cycle Gene Homolog: Is it a Breast Tumor Suppressor Gene?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalikin, Linda

    2000-01-01

    ... of these molecular reagents into successful tools for the medical management of breast cancer. We hypothesize that a 350 kb region on 17q25 detected by our allelic imbalance studies harbors a novel breast tumor suppressor gene...

  15. DLC1 tumor suppressor gene inhibits migration and invasion of multiple myeloma cells through RhoA GTPase pathway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ullmannová-Benson, Veronika; Guan, M.; Zhou, X. G.; Tripathi, V.; Yang, V.; Zimonjic, D. B.; Popescu, C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2009), s. 383-390 ISSN 0887-6924 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : multiple myeloma * tumor suppressor gene * promoter methylation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 8.296, year: 2009

  16. MicroRNA-34a is a potent tumor suppressor molecule in vivo in neuroblastoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tivnan, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a paediatric cancer which originates from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system and accounts for 15% of childhood cancer mortalities. With regards to the role of miRNAs in neuroblastoma, miR-34a, mapping to a chromosome 1p36 region that is commonly deleted, has been found to act as a tumor suppressor through targeting of numerous genes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  17. Targeting myeloid-derived suppressor cells augments antitumor activity against lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava MK

    2012-10-01

    immunotherapies. Optimization of combined approaches that simultaneously downregulate MDSC suppressor pathways, restore APC immune-stimulating activity, and expand tumor-reactive T cells will be useful in improving therapy.Keywords: MDSCs, antigen-presenting cells, natural killer cell activation, T-cell activation, immunotherapy

  18. Relationship of ultrasonic shear wave velocity with oncogene and tumor suppressor gene expression in primary liver cancer lesions as well as angiogenesis factor contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yin1

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the relationship of ultrasonic shear wave velocity (SWV with oncogene and tumor suppressor gene expression in primary liver cancer lesions as well as angiogenesis factor contents. Methods: 100 patients with primary liver cancer who underwent surgical treatment in our hospital between March 2014 and September 2016 were collected as observation group, and 50 healthy subjects who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were collected as normal control group. The ultrasonic SWV levels of two groups of subjects were measured before the operation, and the observation groups were further divided into high SWV group and low SWV group, 50 cases in each group. Intraoperative tumor tissue samples were kept and fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay was used to determine serum contents of angiogenesis factors in observation group before operation. Results: Hepatic ultrasonic SWV level in observation group was significantly higher than that in normal control group; proto-oncogene CK, Ki67, Gly-3, Survivin and Pokemon mRNA expression in tumor tissue of high SWV group were higher than those of low SWV group while tumor suppressor genes Tg737, p16, p27, PTEN and runx3 mRNA expression were lower than those of low SWV group; serum angiogenesis factors VEGF, MMP-9 and IGF-1R contents were higher than those in low SWV group. Conclusion: The hepatic ultrasonic SWV level increases in patients with primary liver cancer, and the SWV level is directly correlated with oncogene and tumor suppressor gene expression as well as angiogenesis factor contents.

  19. Regulation of nuclear envelope dynamics via APC/C is necessary for the progression of semi-open mitosis in Schizosaccharomyces japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Keita; Shiwa, Yuh; Takada, Hiraku; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Niki, Hironori

    2013-09-01

    Three types of mitosis, which are open, closed or semi-open mitosis, function in eukaryotic cells, respectively. The open mitosis involves breakage of the nuclear envelope before nuclear division, whereas the closed mitosis proceeds with an intact nuclear envelope. To understand the mechanism and significance of three types of mitotic division in eukaryotes, we investigated the process of semi-open mitosis, in which the nuclear envelope is only partially broken, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces japonicus. In anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) mutants of Sz. japonicus, the nuclear envelope remained relatively intact during anaphase, resulting in impaired semi-open mitosis. As a suppressor of apc2 mutant, a mutation of Oar2, which was a 3-oxoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] reductase, was obtained. The level of the Oar2, which had two destruction-box motifs recognized by APC/C, was increased in APC/C mutants. Furthermore, the defective semi-open mitosis observed in an apc2 mutant was restored by mutated oar2+. Based on these findings, we propose that APC/C regulates the dynamics of the nuclear envelope through degradation of Oar2 dependent on APC/C during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition of semi-open mitosis in Sz. japonicus. © 2013 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Understanding the tumor suppressor PTEN in chronic alcoholism and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn, Colin T; Petersen, Dennis R

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) phosphatase that regulates Akt activation via PtdIns 3 kinase. Changes in PTEN expression and/or activity have been identified in a variety of chronic hepatocellular disorders including obesity, NAFLD, NASH, and alcoholism. In cancer biology, PTEN is frequently mutated or deleted in a wide variety of tumors. Mutations, decreased promoter activity, and decreased expression in PTEN are frequently identified in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. While the majority of research on PTEN concerns obesity and NASH, PTEN clearly has a role in hepatic insulin sensitivity and in the development of steatosis during chronic alcoholism. Yet, in chronic alcoholics and HCC, very little is known concerning PTEN mutation/deletion or low PTEN expression. This review is focused on an overview of the current knowledge on molecular mechanisms of dysregulation of PTEN expression/activity in the liver and their relationship to development of ethanol-induced hepatocellular damage and cancer.

  1. PCR-RFLP to Detect Codon 248 Mutation in Exon 7 of "p53" Tumor Suppressor Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liming; Ge, Chongtao; Wu, Haizhen; Li, Suxia; Zhang, Huizhan

    2009-01-01

    Individual genome DNA was extracted fast from oral swab and followed up with PCR specific for codon 248 of "p53" tumor suppressor gene. "Msp"I restriction mapping showed the G-C mutation in codon 248, which closely relates to cancer susceptibility. Students learn the concepts, detection techniques, and research significance of point mutations or…

  2. Tumor Suppressor RARRES1 Regulates DLG2, PP2A, VCP, EB1, and Ankrd26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad J. Sahab, Michael D. Hall, Lihua Zhang, Amrita K. Cheema, Stephen W. Byers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder (RARRES1 initially identified as a novel retinoic acid receptor regulated gene in the skin is a putative tumor suppressor of unknown function. RARRES1 was knocked down in immortalized human prostatic epithelial cell line PWR-1E cells and differential protein expression was identified using differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI mass spectrometry and western Blot analysis excluding highly abundant proteins routinely identified in almost all proteomics projects. Knock-down of RARRES1: 1- down-regulates PP2A, an enzyme involved in the negative regulation of the growth hormone-stimulated signal transduction pathways; 2- down-regulates Valosin-containing protein causing impaired autophagy; 3- up-regulates the tumor suppressor disks large 2; 4- up-regulates Ankrd26 that belongs to the POTE family of genes that are highly expressed in cancer patients with poor outcome; and 5- down-regulates EB1, a protein that is involved in spindle dynamics and chromosome alignment during mitosis.

  3. Reverse engineering of TLX oncogenic transcriptional networks identifies RUNX1 as tumor suppressor in T-ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gatta, Giusy; Palomero, Teresa; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Bansal, Mukesh; Carpenter, Zachary W; De Keersmaecker, Kim; Sole, Xavier; Xu, Luyao; Paietta, Elisabeth; Racevskis, Janis; Wiernik, Peter H; Rowe, Jacob M; Meijerink, Jules P; Califano, Andrea; Ferrando, Adolfo A

    2012-02-26

    The TLX1 and TLX3 transcription factor oncogenes have a key role in the pathogenesis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here we used reverse engineering of global transcriptional networks to decipher the oncogenic regulatory circuit controlled by TLX1 and TLX3. This systems biology analysis defined T cell leukemia homeobox 1 (TLX1) and TLX3 as master regulators of an oncogenic transcriptional circuit governing T-ALL. Notably, a network structure analysis of this hierarchical network identified RUNX1 as a key mediator of the T-ALL induced by TLX1 and TLX3 and predicted a tumor-suppressor role for RUNX1 in T cell transformation. Consistent with these results, we identified recurrent somatic loss-of-function mutations in RUNX1 in human T-ALL. Overall, these results place TLX1 and TLX3 at the top of an oncogenic transcriptional network controlling leukemia development, show the power of network analyses to identify key elements in the regulatory circuits governing human cancer and identify RUNX1 as a tumor-suppressor gene in T-ALL.

  4. Epigenetic identification of ZNF545 as a functional tumor suppressor in multiple myeloma via activation of p53 signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yu [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology and Epigenetics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Zhan, Qian [The Center for Clinical Molecular Medical Detection, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xu, Hongying [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology and Epigenetics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Li, Lili; Li, Chen [Cancer Epigenetics Laboratory, Department of Clinical Oncology, Sir YK Pao Center for Cancer and Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong and CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute (Hong Kong); Xiao, Qian; Xiang, Shili; Hui, Tianli [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology and Epigenetics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xiang, Tingxiu, E-mail: larissaxiang@163.com [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology and Epigenetics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Ren, Guosheng, E-mail: rengs726@126.com [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology and Epigenetics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2016-06-10

    The KRAB–zinc-finger protein ZNF545 was recently identified as a potential suppressor gene in several tumors. However, the regulatory mechanisms of ZNF545 in tumorigenesis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression and roles of ZNF545 in multiple myeloma (MM). ZNF545 was frequently downregulated in MM tissues compared with non-tumor bone marrow tissues. ZNF545 expression was silenced by promoter methylation in MM cell lines, and could be restored by demethylation treatment. ZNF545 methylation was detected in 28.3% of MM tissues, compared with 4.3% of normal bone marrow tissues. ZNF545 transcriptionally activated the p53 signaling pathway but had no effect on Akt in MM, whereas ectopic expression of ZNF545 in silenced cells suppressed their proliferation and induced apoptosis. We therefore identified ZNF545 as a novel tumor suppressor inhibiting tumor growth through activation of the p53 pathway in MM. Moreover, tumor-specific methylation of ZNF545 may represent an epigenetic biomarker for MM diagnosis, and a potential target for specific therapy. -- Highlights: •Downregulated ZNF545 in MM tissues and cell lines and ectopic expression of ZNF545 suppresses tumor growth. •Tumor-specific methylation of ZNF545 represents an epigenetic biomarker for MM diagnosis, and a potential target for specific therapy. •ZNF545 exerts its tumor suppressive effects via transcriptional activating p53 pathway.

  5. Epigenetic identification of ZNF545 as a functional tumor suppressor in multiple myeloma via activation of p53 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yu; Zhan, Qian; Xu, Hongying; Li, Lili; Li, Chen; Xiao, Qian; Xiang, Shili; Hui, Tianli; Xiang, Tingxiu; Ren, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    The KRAB–zinc-finger protein ZNF545 was recently identified as a potential suppressor gene in several tumors. However, the regulatory mechanisms of ZNF545 in tumorigenesis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression and roles of ZNF545 in multiple myeloma (MM). ZNF545 was frequently downregulated in MM tissues compared with non-tumor bone marrow tissues. ZNF545 expression was silenced by promoter methylation in MM cell lines, and could be restored by demethylation treatment. ZNF545 methylation was detected in 28.3% of MM tissues, compared with 4.3% of normal bone marrow tissues. ZNF545 transcriptionally activated the p53 signaling pathway but had no effect on Akt in MM, whereas ectopic expression of ZNF545 in silenced cells suppressed their proliferation and induced apoptosis. We therefore identified ZNF545 as a novel tumor suppressor inhibiting tumor growth through activation of the p53 pathway in MM. Moreover, tumor-specific methylation of ZNF545 may represent an epigenetic biomarker for MM diagnosis, and a potential target for specific therapy. -- Highlights: •Downregulated ZNF545 in MM tissues and cell lines and ectopic expression of ZNF545 suppresses tumor growth. •Tumor-specific methylation of ZNF545 represents an epigenetic biomarker for MM diagnosis, and a potential target for specific therapy. •ZNF545 exerts its tumor suppressive effects via transcriptional activating p53 pathway.

  6. Tumor-suppressor genes that escape from X-inactivation contribute to cancer sex bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Andrew; Weinstock, David M; Savova, Virginia; Schumacher, Steven E; Cleary, John P; Yoda, Akinori; Sullivan, Timothy J; Hess, Julian M; Gimelbrant, Alexander A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lawrence, Michael S; Getz, Gad; Lane, Andrew A

    2017-01-01

    There is a striking and unexplained male predominance across many cancer types. A subset of X-chromosome genes can escape X-inactivation, which would protect females from complete functional loss by a single mutation. To identify putative 'escape from X-inactivation tumor-suppressor' (EXITS) genes, we examined somatic alterations from >4,100 cancers across 21 tumor types for sex bias. Six of 783 non-pseudoautosomal region (PAR) X-chromosome genes (ATRX, CNKSR2, DDX3X, KDM5C, KDM6A, and MAGEC3) harbored loss-of-function mutations more frequently in males (based on a false discovery rate < 0.1), in comparison to zero of 18,055 autosomal and PAR genes (Fisher's exact P < 0.0001). Male-biased mutations in genes that escape X-inactivation were observed in combined analysis across many cancers and in several individual tumor types, suggesting a generalized phenomenon. We conclude that biallelic expression of EXITS genes in females explains a portion of the reduced cancer incidence in females as compared to males across a variety of tumor types.

  7. A tumor suppressor role of the Bub3 spindle checkpoint protein after apoptosis inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho-Santos, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Most solid tumors contain aneuploid cells, indicating that the mitotic checkpoint is permissive to the proliferation of chromosomally aberrant cells. However, mutated or altered expression of mitotic checkpoint genes accounts for a minor proportion of human tumors. We describe a Drosophila melanogaster tumorigenesis model derived from knocking down spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes and preventing apoptosis in wing imaginal discs. Bub3-deficient tumors that were also deficient in apoptosis displayed neoplastic growth, chromosomal aneuploidy, and high proliferative potential after transplantation into adult flies. Inducing aneuploidy by knocking down CENP-E and preventing apoptosis does not induce tumorigenesis, indicating that aneuploidy is not sufficient for hyperplasia. In this system, the aneuploidy caused by a deficient SAC is not driving tumorigenesis because preventing Bub3 from binding to the kinetochore does not cause hyperproliferation. Our data suggest that Bub3 has a nonkinetochore-dependent function that is consistent with its role as a tumor suppressor. PMID:23609535

  8. Epigenetic profiling of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: promoter hypermethylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes including BCL7a, PTPRG, and p73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Remco; Zoutman, Willem H; Dijkman, Remco; de Menezes, Renee X; Commandeur, Suzan; Mulder, Aat A; van der Velden, Pieter A; Vermeer, Maarten H; Willemze, Rein; Yan, Pearlly S; Huang, Tim H; Tensen, Cornelis P

    2005-06-10

    To analyze the occurrence of promoter hypermethylation in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) on a genome-wide scale, focusing on epigenetic alterations with pathogenetic significance. DNA isolated from biopsy specimens of 28 patients with CTCL, including aggressive CTCL entities (transformed mycosis fungoides and CD30-negative large T-cell lymphoma) and an indolent entity (CD30-positive large T-cell lymphoma), were investigated. For genome-wide DNA methylation screening, differential methylation hybridization using CpG island microarrays was applied, which allows simultaneous detection of the methylation status of 8640 CpG islands. Bisulfite sequence analysis was applied for confirmation and detection of hypermethylation of eight selected tumor suppressor genes. The DNA methylation patterns of CTCLs emerging from differential methylation hybridization analysis included 35 CpG islands hypermethylated in at least four of the 28 studied CTCL samples when compared with benign T-cell samples. Hypermethylation of the putative tumor suppressor genes BCL7a (in 48% of CTCL samples), PTPRG (27%), and thrombospondin 4 (52%) was confirmed and demonstrated to be associated with transcriptional downregulation. BCL7a was hypermethylated at a higher frequency in aggressive (64%) than in indolent (14%) CTCL entities. In addition, the promoters of the selected tumor suppressor genes p73 (48%), p16 (33%), CHFR (19%), p15 (10%), and TMS1 (10%) were hypermethylated in CTCL. Malignant T cells of patients with CTCL display widespread promoter hypermethylation associated with inactivation of several tumor suppressor genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle, and apoptosis signaling pathways. In view of this, CTCL may be amenable to treatment with demethylating agents.

  9. Tumor Suppressor Function of CYLD in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Masoumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related proteins posttranslationally modify substrates, and thereby alter the functions of their targets. The ubiquitination process is involved in various physiological responses, and dysregulation of components of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases including skin cancer. The ubiquitin pathways activated among skin cancers are highly diverse and may reflect the various characteristics of the cancer type. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the most common types of human skin cancer, are instances where the involvement of the deubiquitination enzyme CYLD has been recently highlighted. In basal cell carcinoma, the tumor suppressor protein CYLD is repressed at the transcriptional levels through hedgehog signaling pathway. Downregulation of CYLD in basal cell carcinoma was also shown to interfere with TrkC expression and signaling, thereby promoting cancer progression. By contrast, the level of CYLD is unchanged in squamous cell carcinoma, instead, catalytic inactivation of CYLD in the skin has been linked to the development of squamous cell carcinoma. This paper will focus on the current knowledge that links CYLD to nonmelanoma skin cancers and will explore recent insights regarding CYLD regulation of NF-κB and hedgehog signaling during the development and progression of these types of human tumors.

  10. The tumor suppressors p33ING1 and p33ING2 interact with alien in vivo and enhance alien-mediated gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegers, Inga; Kob, Robert; Eckey, Maren; Schmidt, Oliver; Goeman, Frauke; Papaioannou, Maria; Escher, Niko; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Melle, Christian; Baniahmad, Aria

    2007-11-01

    The tumor suppressor p33ING1 is involved in DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. Furthermore, p33ING1 is a transcriptional silencer that recognizes the histone mark for trimethylated lysine 4 at histone H3. Interestingly, expression of p33ING1 and p33ING2 is able to induce premature senescence in primary human fibroblasts. The corepressor Alien is involved in gene silencing mediated by selected members of nuclear hormone receptors. In addition, Alien acts as a corepressor for E2F1, a member of the E2F cell cycle regulatory family. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that Alien is complexed with transcription factors participating in DNA repair and chromatin. Here, using a proteomic approach by surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization and mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS) combined with immunological techniques, we show that Alien interacts in vivo with the tumor suppressor p33ING1 as well as with the related tumor suppressor candidate p33ING2. The interaction of Alien with p33ING1 and p33ING2 was confirmed in vitro with GST-pull-down, suggesting a direct binding of Alien to these factors. The binding domain was mapped to a central region of Alien. Functionally, the expression of p33ING1 or p33ING2 enhances the Alien-mediated silencing, suggesting that the interaction plays a role in transcriptional regulation. Thus, the findings suggest that the identified interaction between Alien and the tumor suppressors p33ING1 and p33ING2 reveals a novel cellular protein network.

  11. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cells in Tumor Suppressor Mouse Models of Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara Llaguno, Sheila R; Xie, Xuanhua; Parada, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    The cellular origins and the mechanisms of progression, maintenance of tumorigenicity, and therapeutic resistance are central questions in the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) field. Using tumor suppressor mouse models, our group recently reported two independent populations of adult GBM-initiating central nervous system progenitors. We found different functional and molecular subtypes depending on the tumor-initiating cell lineage, indicating that the cell of origin is a driver of GBM subtype diversity. Using an in vivo model, we also showed that GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs) or glioma stem cells (GSCs) contribute to resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and that genetic ablation of GSCs leads to a delay in tumor progression. These studies are consistent with the cell of origin and CSCs as critical regulators of the pathogenesis of GBM. © 2016 Alcantara Llaguno et al; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Axl acts as a tumor suppressor by regulating LIGHT expression in T lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kon-Ji; Park, A-Reum; Choi, Ha-Rim; Lee, Hwa-Youn; Kim, Su-Man; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Park, Chul-Hong; Choi, Hyo Jin; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Kang, Hyung-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Axl is an oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a role in many cancers. LIGHT (Lymphotoxin-related inducible ligand that competes for glycoprotein D binding to herpesvirus entry mediator on T cells) is a ligand that induces robust anti-tumor immunity by enhancing the recruitment and activation of effector immune cells at tumor sites. We observed that mouse EL4 and human Jurkat T lymphoma cells that stably overexpressed Axl also showed high expression of LIGHT. When Jurkat-Axl cells were treated with Gas6, a ligand for Axl, LIGHT expression was upregulated through activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and transcriptional induction by Sp1. The lytic activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells was enhanced by EL4-Axl cells. In addition, tumor volume and growth were markedly reduced due to enhanced apoptotic cell death in EL4-Axl tumor-bearing mice as compared to control mice. We also observed upregulated expression of CCL5 and its receptor, CCR5, and enhanced intratumoral infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells in EL4-Axl-bearing mice as compared to mock controls. These data strongly suggested that Axl exerts novel tumor suppressor effects by inducing upregulation of LIGHT in the tumor microenvironment of T lymphoma. PMID:28423548

  13. Repression of Akt3 gene transcription by the tumor suppressor RIZ1

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qingnan; Qu, Xiaotian; Xie, Xiaolei; He, Pei; Huang, Shi

    2018-01-01

    RIZ1 has been studied as a tumor suppressor and may play a role in metabolic diseases related to the Western style diet, such as cancer and obesity. The Akt pathway is known to play a role in both cancer and obesity, and a link between Akt and RIZ1 has also been found. To better understand the role of RIZ1 in obesity and cancer, we investigated how RIZ1 regulates the expression of Akt3. We found that overexpression of RIZ1 in HEK293 cells reduced the expression of Akt3 protein. Luciferase rep...

  14. Molecular studies on the function of tumor suppressor gene in gastrointestinal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Cheoul

    1993-01-01

    Cancer of stomach, colon and liver are a group of the most common cancer in Korea. However, results with current therapeutic modalities are still unsatisfactory. The intensive efforts have been made to understand basic pathogenesis and to find better therapeutic tools for the treatment of this miserable disease. We studies the alteration of tumor suppressor gene in various Gastrointestinal cancer in Korea. Results showed that genetic alteration of Rb gene was in 83% of colorectal cancer. Our results suggest that genetic alteration of Rb gene is crucially involved in the tumorigenesis of colorectum in Korea. (Author)

  15. ETS transcription factors control transcription of EZH2 and epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor gene Nkx3.1 in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Kunderfranco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available ETS transcription factors regulate important signaling pathways involved in cell differentiation and development in many tissues and have emerged as important players in prostate cancer. However, the biological impact of ETS factors in prostate tumorigenesis is still debated.We performed an analysis of the ETS gene family using microarray data and real-time PCR in normal and tumor tissues along with functional studies in normal and cancer cell lines to understand the impact in prostate tumorigenesis and identify key targets of these transcription factors. We found frequent dysregulation of ETS genes with oncogenic (i.e., ERG and ESE1 and tumor suppressor (i.e., ESE3 properties in prostate tumors compared to normal prostate. Tumor subgroups (i.e., ERG(high, ESE1(high, ESE3(low and NoETS tumors were identified on the basis of their ETS expression status and showed distinct transcriptional and biological features. ERG(high and ESE3(low tumors had the most robust gene signatures with both distinct and overlapping features. Integrating genomic data with functional studies in multiple cell lines, we demonstrated that ERG and ESE3 controlled in opposite direction transcription of the Polycomb Group protein EZH2, a key gene in development, differentiation, stem cell biology and tumorigenesis. We further demonstrated that the prostate-specific tumor suppressor gene Nkx3.1 was controlled by ERG and ESE3 both directly and through induction of EZH2.These findings provide new insights into the role of the ETS transcriptional network in prostate tumorigenesis and uncover previously unrecognized links between aberrant expression of ETS factors, deregulation of epigenetic effectors and silencing of tumor suppressor genes. The link between aberrant ETS activity and epigenetic gene silencing may be relevant for the clinical management of prostate cancer and design of new therapeutic strategies.

  16. Overexpression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene product in primary lung adenocarcinomas is associated with cigarette smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, W. H.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Goodman, S. N.; Slebos, R. J.; Polak, M.; Baas, I. O.; Rodenhuis, S.; Hruban, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are frequently observed in primary lung adenocarcinomas, suggesting that these mutations are critical events in the malignant transformation of airway cells. These mutations are often associated with stabilization of the p53 gene product, resulting in the

  17. Cdh11 Acts as a Tumor Suppressor in a Murine Retinoblastoma Model by Facilitating Tumor Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchong, Mellone N.; Yurkowski, Christine; Ma, Clement; Spencer, Clarellen; Pajovic, Sanja; Gallie, Brenda L.

    2010-01-01

    CDH11 gene copy number and expression are frequently lost in human retinoblastomas and in retinoblastomas arising in TAg-RB mice. To determine the effect of Cdh11 loss in tumorigenesis, we crossed Cdh11 null mice with TAg-RB mice. Loss of Cdh11 had no gross morphological effect on the developing retina of Cdh11 knockout mice, but led to larger retinal volumes in mice crossed with TAg-RB mice (p = 0.01). Mice null for Cdh11 presented with fewer TAg-positive cells at postnatal day 8 (PND8) (p = 0.01) and had fewer multifocal tumors at PND28 (p = 0.016), compared to mice with normal Cdh11 alleles. However, tumor growth was faster in Cdh11-null mice between PND8 and PND84 (p = 0.003). In tumors of Cdh11-null mice, cell death was decreased 5- to 10-fold (p<0.03 for all markers), while proliferation in vivo remained unaffected (p = 0.121). Activated caspase-3 was significantly decreased and β-catenin expression increased in Cdh11 knockdown experiments in vitro. These data suggest that Cdh11 displays tumor suppressor properties in vivo and in vitro in murine retinoblastoma through promotion of cell death. PMID:20421947

  18. Cdh11 acts as a tumor suppressor in a murine retinoblastoma model by facilitating tumor cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellone N Marchong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available CDH11 gene copy number and expression are frequently lost in human retinoblastomas and in retinoblastomas arising in TAg-RB mice. To determine the effect of Cdh11 loss in tumorigenesis, we crossed Cdh11 null mice with TAg-RB mice. Loss of Cdh11 had no gross morphological effect on the developing retina of Cdh11 knockout mice, but led to larger retinal volumes in mice crossed with TAg-RB mice (p = 0.01. Mice null for Cdh11 presented with fewer TAg-positive cells at postnatal day 8 (PND8 (p = 0.01 and had fewer multifocal tumors at PND28 (p = 0.016, compared to mice with normal Cdh11 alleles. However, tumor growth was faster in Cdh11-null mice between PND8 and PND84 (p = 0.003. In tumors of Cdh11-null mice, cell death was decreased 5- to 10-fold (p<0.03 for all markers, while proliferation in vivo remained unaffected (p = 0.121. Activated caspase-3 was significantly decreased and beta-catenin expression increased in Cdh11 knockdown experiments in vitro. These data suggest that Cdh11 displays tumor suppressor properties in vivo and in vitro in murine retinoblastoma through promotion of cell death.

  19. DA-Raf, a dominant-negative antagonist of the Ras-ERK pathway, is a putative tumor suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Emiri; Kawasaki, Osamu; Takahashi, Kazuya; Takano, Kazunori; Endo, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    Activating mutations of RAS genes, particularly KRAS, are detected with high frequency in human tumors. Mutated Ras proteins constitutively activate the ERK pathway (Raf-MEK-ERK phosphorylation cascade), leading to cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. DA-Raf1 (DA-Raf) is a splicing variant of A-Raf and contains the Ras-binding domain (RBD) but lacks the kinase domain. Accordingly, DA-Raf antagonizes the Ras-ERK pathway in a dominant-negative fashion and suppresses constitutively activated K-Ras-induced cellular transformation. Thus, we have addressed whether DA-Raf serves as a tumor suppressor of Ras-induced tumorigenesis. DA-Raf(R52Q), which is generated from a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the RBD, and DA-Raf(R52W), a mutant detected in a lung cancer, neither bound to active K-Ras nor interfered with the activation of the ERK pathway. They were incapable of suppressing activated K-Ras-induced cellular transformation and tumorigenesis in mice, in which K-Ras-transformed cells were transplanted. Furthermore, although DA-Raf was highly expressed in lung alveolar epithelial type 2 (AE2) cells, its expression was silenced in AE2-derived lung adenocarcinoma cell lines with oncogenic KRAS mutations. These results suggest that DA-Raf represents a tumor suppressor protein against Ras-induced tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A limited role for p53 in modulating the immediate phenotype of Apc loss in the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Karen R; Meniel, Valerie S; Marsh, Victoria; Cole, Alicia; Sansom, Owen J; Clarke, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    p53 is an important tumour suppressor with a known role in the later stages of colorectal cancer, but its relevance to the early stages of neoplastic initiation remains somewhat unclear. Although p53-dependent regulation of Wnt signalling activity is known to occur, the importance of these regulatory mechanisms during the early stages of intestinal neoplasia has not been demonstrated. We have conditionally deleted the Adenomatous Polyposis coli gene (Apc) from the adult murine intestine in wild type and p53 deficient environments and subsequently compared the phenotype and transcriptome profiles in both genotypes. Expression of p53 was shown to be elevated following the conditional deletion of Apc in the adult small intestine. Furthermore, p53 status was shown to impact on the transcription profile observed following Apc loss. A number of key Wnt pathway components and targets were altered in the p53 deficient environment. However, the aberrant phenotype observed following loss of Apc (rapid nuclear localisation of β-catenin, increased levels of DNA damage, nuclear atypia, perturbed cell death, proliferation, differentiation and migration) was not significantly altered by the absence of p53. p53 related feedback mechanisms regulating Wnt signalling activity are present in the intestine, and become activated following loss of Apc. However, the physiological Wnt pathway regulation by p53 appears to be overwhelmed by Apc loss and consequently the activity of these regulatory mechanisms is not sufficient to modulate the immediate phenotypes seen following Apc loss. Thus we are able to provide an explanation to the apparent contradiction that, despite having a Wnt regulatory capacity, p53 loss is not associated with early lesion development

  1. Association between cigarette smoking, APC mutations and the risk of developing sporadic colorectal adenomas and carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sæbø, Mona; Skjelbred, Camilla F; Breistein, Rebecca; Lothe, Inger Marie B; Hagen, Per Chr; Bock, Gunter; Hansteen, Inger-Lise; Kure, Elin H

    2006-01-01

    The association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and smoking has not been consistent. Incomplete smoking history and association to a specific subset of CRC tumors have been proposed as explanations. The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene has been reported to have a 'gatekeeper' function in the colonic mucosa. To evaluate the hypothesis that cigarette smoking is associated with adenoma and carcinoma development and further to investigate whether this association is due to mutations in the APC gene, we used a study population consisting of 133 cases (45 adenomas and 88 carcinomas) and 334 controls. All tumors were sequenced in the mutation cluster region (MCR) of the APC gene. Cases and controls were drawn from a homogeneous cohort of Norwegian origin. The mutational spectra of the APC gene revealed no difference in frequencies of mutations in cases based on ever and never smoking status. An overall case-control association was detected for adenomas and 'ever smoking' OR = 1.73 (95% CI 0.83–3.58). For CRC cases several smoking parameters for dose and duration were used. We detected an association for all smoking parameters and 'duration of smoking > 30 years', yielded a statistically significant OR = 2.86 (1.06–7.7). When cases were divided based on APC truncation mutation status, an association was detected in adenomas without APC mutation in relation to 'ever smoking', with an OR = 3.97 (1.26–12.51). For CRC cases without APC mutation 'duration of smoking > 30 years', yielded a statistically significant OR = 4.06 (1.20–13.7). The smoking parameter 'starting smoking ≥ 40 years ago' was only associated with CRC cases with APC mutations, OR = 2.0 (0.34–11.95). A case-case comparison revealed similar findings for this parameter, OR = 2.24 (0.73–6.86). Our data suggest an association between smoking and adenoma and CRC development. This association was strongest for cases without APC truncation

  2. Enlightened protein: Fhit tumor suppressor protein structure and function and its role in the toxicity of protoporphyrin IX-mediated photodynamic reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawacka-Pankau, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    The Fhit tumor suppressor protein possesses Ap 3 A (diadenosine triphosphate - ApppA) hydrolytic activity in vitro and its gene is found inactive in many pre-malignant states due to gene inactivation. For several years Fhit has been a widely investigated protein as its cellular function still remains largely unsolved. Fhit was shown to act as a molecular 'switch' of cell death via cascade operating on the influence of ATR-Chk1 pathway but also through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Notably, Fhit was reported by our group to enhance the overall eradication effect of porphyrin-mediated photodynamic treatment (PDT). In this review the up-to-date findings on Fhit protein as a tumor suppressor and its role in PDT are presented.

  3. Different effection of p.1125Val>Ala and rs11954856 in APC on Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Feng; Zhao, Zhi-Xun; Yan, Peng; Wang, Song; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Qiong; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Sun, Chang-Hao; Wang, Xi-Shan; Wang, Gui-Yu; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2017-09-19

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common and fatal forms of solid tumors worldwide and more than two thirds of CRC and adenomas patients have APC gene mutations. APC is a key regulator in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway but its roles in CRC remains to be elucidated. In this study, we compared APC genes between CRC patients and controls to determine possible associations of nucleotide changes in the APC gene with the pathways involved in CRC pathogenesis. All participants received physical and enteroscopic examinations. The APC gene was sequenced for 300 Chinese Han CRC patients and 411 normal controls, and the expression levels of genes in the signaling pathway were analyzed using Western Blotting. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS (version 19.0) software. We found that rs11954856 in the APC gene was associated with colorectal cancer and could increase the expression levels of APC , β-catenin , TCF7L1 , TCF7L2 and LEF1 genes in the pathway in the CRC patients, demonstrating the involvement of APC in the pathological processes leading to CRC.

  4. Germline APC mutations in hepatoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Adeline; Sisson, Rebecca; Gupta, Anita; Tiao, Greg; Geller, James I

    2018-04-01

    Conflicting reports on the frequency of germline adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutations in patients with hepatoblastoma (HB) have called into question the clinical value of APC mutation testing on apparently sporadic HB. An Institutional Review Board approved retrospective review of clinical data collected from patients with HB who received APC testing at our institution was conducted. All HB patients seen at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center were eligible for testing. Potential genotype/phenotype correlations were assessed. As of July 2015, 29 patients with HB had received constitutional APC testing. Four (14%) were found to have APC pathogenic truncations of the APC protein and in addition two (7%) had APC missense variants of unknown clinical significance. Two patients (7%) had family histories indicative of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Response to chemotherapy tracked differently in APC pathogenic cases, with a slower imaging response despite an equivalent or slightly faster α-fetoprotein (AFP) response. The prevalence of pathogenic APC variants in apparently sporadic HB may be higher than previously detected. Differences in time to imaging response, despite similar AFP response, may impact surgical planning. All patients with HB warrant germline APC mutation testing for underlying FAP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The tumor suppressor Rb and its related Rbl2 genes are regulated by Utx histone demethylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terashima, Minoru; Ishimura, Akihiko; Yoshida, Masakazu [Division of Functional Genomics, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Ishikawa (Japan); Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561, Chiba (Japan); Suzuki, Takeshi, E-mail: suzuki-t@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Functional Genomics, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Utx increases expression of Rb and Rbl2 genes through its demethylase activity. {yields} Utx changes histone H3 methylation on the Rb and Rbl2 promoters. {yields} Utx induces decreased cell proliferation of mammalian primary cells. -- Abstract: Utx is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that encodes histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase. In this study, we found that ectopic expression of Utx enhanced the expression of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene Rb and its related gene Rbl2. This activation was dependent on the demethylase activity of Utx, and was suggested to contribute to the decreased cell proliferation induced by Utx. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that over-expressed Utx was associated with the promoter regions of Rb and Rbl2 resulting in the removal of repressive H3K27 tri-methylation and the increase in active H3K4 tri-methylation. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Utx revealed the recruitment of endogenous Utx protein on the promoters of Rb and Rbl2 genes. These results indicate that Rb and Rbl2 are downstream target genes of Utx and may play important roles in Utx-mediated cell growth control.

  6. Genome‐wide DNA methylation analysis identifies MEGF10 as a novel epigenetically repressed candidate tumor suppressor gene in neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Jessica; Tomari, Ayumi; Dallosso, Anthony R.; Szemes, Marianna; Kaselova, Martina; Curry, Thomas J.; Almutairi, Bader; Etchevers, Heather C.; McConville, Carmel; Malik, Karim T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer in which many children still have poor outcomes, emphasising the need to better understand its pathogenesis. Despite recent genome‐wide mutation analyses, many primary neuroblastomas do not contain recognizable driver mutations, implicating alternate molecular pathologies such as epigenetic alterations. To discover genes that become epigenetically deregulated during neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, we took the novel approach of comparing neuroblastomas to neural crest precursor cells, using genome‐wide DNA methylation analysis. We identified 93 genes that were significantly differentially methylated of which 26 (28%) were hypermethylated and 67 (72%) were hypomethylated. Concentrating on hypermethylated genes to identify candidate tumor suppressor loci, we found the cell engulfment and adhesion factor gene MEGF10 to be epigenetically repressed by DNA hypermethylation or by H3K27/K9 methylation in neuroblastoma cell lines. MEGF10 showed significantly down‐regulated expression in neuroblastoma tumor samples; furthermore patients with the lowest‐expressing tumors had reduced relapse‐free survival. Our functional studies showed that knock‐down of MEGF10 expression in neuroblastoma cell lines promoted cell growth, consistent with MEGF10 acting as a clinically relevant, epigenetically deregulated neuroblastoma tumor suppressor gene. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27862318

  7. P53 and Rb tumor suppressor gene alterations in gastric cancer Alterações dos genes supressores tumorais p53 e Rb no câncer gástrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Mattar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes has been frequently observed in gastric carcinogenesis. Our purpose was to study the involvement of p53, APC, DCC, and Rb genes in gastric carcinoma. METHOD: Loss of heterozygosity of the p53, APC, DCC and Rb genes was studied in 22 gastric cancer tissues using polymerase chain reaction; single-strand conformation polymorphism of the p53 gene exons 5-6 and exons 7-8 was studied using 35S-dATP, and p53 expression was detected using a histological immunoperoxidase method with an anti-p53 clone. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: No loss of heterozygosity was observed in any of these tumor suppressor genes; homozygous deletion was detected in the Rb gene in 23% (3/13 of the cases of intestinal-type gastric carcinoma. Eighteen (81.8% cases showed band mobility shifts in exons 5-6 and/or 7-8 of the p53 gene. The presence of the p53 protein was positive in gastric cancer cells in 14 cases (63.6%. Normal gastric mucosa showed negative staining for p53; thus, the immunoreactivity was likely to represent mutant forms. The correlation of band mobility shift and the immunoreactivity to anti-p53 was not significant (P = .90. There was no correlation of gene alterations with the disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: The inactivation of Rb and p53 genes is involved in gastric carcinogenesis in our environment. Loss of the Rb gene observed only in the intestinal-type gastric cancer should be further evaluated in association with Helicobacter pylori infection. The p53 gene was affected in both intestinal and diffuse histological types of gastric cancer.A inativação de genes supressores tumorais tem sido freqüentemente observada na carcinogênese gástrica. O nosso objetivo foi estudar o envolvimento dos genes p53, APC, DCC e Rb no câncer gástrico. MÉTODO: Vinte e dois casos de câncer gástrico foram estudados por PCR-LOH (reação de polimerase em cadeia- perda de alelo heterozigoto dos genes p53, APC, DCC e Rb; e por PCR-SSCP (rea

  8. Voluntary exercise inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Jihyeung; Nolan, Bonnie; Cheh, Michelle; Bose, Mousumi; Lin, Yong; Wagner, George C; Yang, Chung S

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer in humans. Results from animal studies, however, are inconclusive. The present study investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on intestinal tumor formation in two different animal models, Apc Min/+ mice and azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. In Experiments 1 and 2, five-week old female Apc Min/+ mice were either housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 6 weeks (for mice maintained on the AIN93G diet; Experiment 1) or 9 weeks (for mice on a high-fat diet; Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, male CF-1 mice at 6 weeks of age were given a dose of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) and, 12 days later, 1.5% DSS in drinking fluid for 1 week. The mice were then maintained on a high-fat diet and housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 16 weeks. In the Apc Min/+ mice maintained on either the AIN93G or the high-fat diet, voluntary exercise decreased the number of small intestinal tumors. In the AOM/DSS-treated mice maintained on a high-fat diet, voluntary exercise also decreased the number of colon tumors. In Apc Min/+ mice, voluntary exercise decreased the ratio of serum insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 to IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels. It also decreased prostaglandin E 2 and nuclear β-catenin levels, but increased E-cadherin levels in the tumors. These results indicate hat voluntary exercise inhibited intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc Min/+ mice and AOM/DSS-treated mice, and the inhibitory effect is associated with decreased IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, aberrant β-catenin signaling, and arachidonic acid metabolism

  9. Inhibition of tumor growth in syngenetic chimeric mice mediated by a depletion of suppressor T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, V.; Trainin, N.

    1975-01-01

    Syngeneic chimeric (lethally irradiated and reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow cells) mice manifested an increased resistance to the development of Lewis lung carcinoma. In addition, these mice had a higher response to polyvinylpyrrolidone and a reduced reactivity to T mitogens. The present findings suggest that syngeneic chimeric mice lack suppressor T cells shown to regulate the development of Lewis lung tumor and the response to polyvinylpyrrolidone. Other components of the T cell population, such as helper cells responding to sheep red blood cells or cells involved in allograft rejection, assayed in these syngeneic chimeras were found unaffected. The fact that chimeric mice are deficient in a certain suppressor T cell population whereas other T activities are normal suggests the existence of different cell lines within the T cell population. (U.S.)

  10. Electrochemical sensing of tumor suppressor protein p53-deoxyribonucleic acid complex stability at an electrified interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Emil; Černocká, Hana; Ostatná, Veronika; Navrátilová, Lucie; Brázdová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 828, MAY2014 (2014), s. 1-8 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00956S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-36108S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Deoxyribonucleic acid-protein binding * Tumor suppressor protein p53 * Electrochemical sensing Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.513, year: 2014

  11. Dissecting functions of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor and the related pocket proteins by integrating genetic, cell biology, and electrophoretic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus; Lukas, J; Holm, K

    1999-01-01

    The members of the 'pocket protein' family, comprising the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRB) and its relatives, p107 and p130, negatively regulate cell proliferation and modulate fundamental biological processes including embryonic development, differentiation, homeostatic tissue renewal...

  12. Enhancement of the RAD51 Recombinase Activity by the Tumor Suppressor PALB2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dray, Eloise; Etchin, Julia; Wiese, Claudia; Saro, Dorina; Williams, Gareth J.; Hammel, Michal; Yu, Xiong; Galkin, Vitold E.; Liu, Dongqing; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Sy, Shirley M-H.; Egelman, Edward; Chen, Junjie; Sung, Patrick; Schild, D.

    2010-08-24

    Homologous recombination mediated by the RAD51 recombinase helps eliminate chromosomal lesions, such as DNA double-stranded breaks induced by radiation or arising from injured DNA replication forks. The tumor suppressors BRCA2 and PALB2 act together to deliver RAD51 to chromosomal lesions to initiate repair. Here we document a new function of PALB2 in the enhancement of RAD51's ability to form the D-loop. We show that PALB2 binds DNA and physically interacts with RAD51. Importantly, while PALB2 alone stimulates D-loop formation, a cooperative effect is seen with RAD51AP1, an enhancer of RAD51. This stimulation stems from PALB2's ability to function with RAD51 and RAD51AP1 to assemble the synaptic complex. Our results help unveil a multi-faceted role of PALB2 in chromosome damage repair. Since PALB2 mutations can cause breast and other tumors or lead to Fanconi anemia, our findings are important for understanding the mechanism of tumor suppression in humans.

  13. Inducible and transmissible genetic events and pediatric tumors of the nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Jerry M.

    2006-01-01

    Tumors of the nervous system most often occur in both children and adults as sporadic events with no family history of the disease, but they are also among the clinical manifestations of a significant number of familial cancer syndromes, including familial retinoblastoma, neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, tuberous sclerosis, and Cowden, Turcot, Li-Fraumeni and nevoid basal cell carcinoma (Gorlin) syndromes. All of these syndromes involve transmissible genetic risk resulting from loss of a functional allele, or inheritance of a structurally defective allele, of a specific gene. These genes include RB1, NF1, NF2, TSC1, TSC2, TP53, PTEN, APC, hMLH1, hPSM2, and PTCH, most of which function as tumor suppressor genes. The same genes are also observed in mutated and inactive forms, or are deleted, in tumor cells in sporadic cases of the same tumors. The nature of the mutational events that give rise to these inactivated alleles suggests a possible role of environmental mutagens in their causation. However, only external ionizing radiation at high doses is clearly established as an environmental cause of brain, nerve and meningeal tumors in humans. Transplacental carcinogenesis studies in rodents and other species emphasize the extraordinary susceptibility of the developing mammalian nervous system to carcinogenesis, but the inverse relationship of latency to dose suggests that low transplacental exposures to genotoxicants are more likely to result in brain tumors late in life, rather than in childhood. While not all neurogenic tumor-related genes in humans have similar effects in experimental rodents, genetically engineered mice (GEM) increasingly provide useful insights into the combined effects of multiple tumor suppressor genes and of gene-environment interactions in the genesis of brain tumors, especially pediatric brain tumors such as medulloblastoma. (author)

  14. Tumor suppressor protein SMAR1 modulates the roughness of cell surface: combined AFM and SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamgain Hitesh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imaging tools such as scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM can be used to produce high-resolution topographic images of biomedical specimens and hence are well suited for imaging alterations in cell morphology. We have studied the correlation of SMAR1 expression with cell surface smoothness in cell lines as well as in different grades of human breast cancer and mouse tumor sections. Methods We validated knockdown and overexpression of SMAR1 using RT-PCR as well as Western blotting in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293, human breast cancer (MCF-7 and mouse melanoma (B16F1 cell lines. The samples were then processed for cell surface roughness studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The same samples were used for microarray analysis as well. Tumors sections from control and SMAR1 treated mice as well as tissues sections from different grades of human breast cancer on poly L-lysine coated slides were used for AFM and SEM studies. Results Tumor sections from mice injected with melanoma cells showed pronounced surface roughness. In contrast, tumor sections obtained from nude mice that were first injected with melanoma cells followed by repeated injections of SMAR1-P44 peptide, exhibited relatively smoother surface profile. Interestingly, human breast cancer tissue sections that showed reduced SMAR1 expression exhibited increased surface roughness compared to the adjacent normal breast tissue. Our AFM data establishes that treatment of cells with SMAR1-P44 results into increase in cytoskeletal volume that is supported by comparative gene expression data showing an increase in the expression of specific cytoskeletal proteins compared to the control cells. Altogether, these findings indicate that tumor suppressor function of SMAR1 might be exhibited through smoothening of cell surface by regulating expression of cell surface proteins. Conclusion Tumor suppressor

  15. The effect of age at exposure on the inactivating mechanisms and relative contributions of key tumor suppressor genes in radiation-induced mouse T-cell lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaoshi, Masaaki [Radiobiology for Children' s Health Program, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Amasaki, Yoshiko; Hirano-Sakairi, Shinobu; Blyth, Benjamin J. [Radiobiology for Children' s Health Program, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Morioka, Takamitsu [Radiobiology for Children' s Health Program, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Radiation Effect Accumulation and Prevention Project, Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kaminishi, Mutsumi [Radiobiology for Children' s Health Program, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shang, Yi [Radiation Effect Accumulation and Prevention Project, Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya [Radiobiology for Children' s Health Program, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Radiation Effect Accumulation and Prevention Project, Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Tachibana, Akira [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); and others

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • T-cell lymphoma incidence, latency and weight did not change with age at exposure. • Lymphomas had frequent loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 4, 11 and 19. • These lesions targeted the Cdkn2a, Ikaros and Pten tumor suppressor genes. • Age at exposure may influence which tumor suppressor genes are lost in each tumor. • The mechanisms of tumor suppressor gene loss were different at each locus. - Abstract: Children are considered more sensitive to radiation-induced cancer than adults, yet any differences in genomic alterations associated with age-at-exposure and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We assessed genome-wide DNA copy number and mutation of key tumor suppressor genes in T-cell lymphomas arising after weekly irradiation of female B6C3F1 mice with 1.2 Gy X-rays for 4 consecutive weeks starting during infancy (1 week old), adolescence (4 weeks old) or as young adults (8 weeks old). Although T-cell lymphoma incidence was similar, loss of heterozygosity at Cdkn2a on chromosome 4 and at Ikaros on chromosome 11 was more frequent in the two older groups, while loss at the Pten locus on chromosome 19 was more frequent in the infant-irradiated group. Cdkn2a and Ikaros mutation/loss was a common feature of the young adult-irradiation group, with Ikaros frequently (50%) incurring multiple independent hits (including deletions and mutations) or suffering a single hit predicted to result in a dominant negative protein (such as those lacking exon 4, an isoform we have designated Ik12, which lacks two DNA binding zinc-finger domains). Conversely, Pten mutations were more frequent after early irradiation (60%) than after young adult-irradiation (30%). Homozygous Pten mutations occurred without DNA copy number change after irradiation starting in infancy, suggesting duplication of the mutated allele by chromosome mis-segregation or mitotic recombination. Our findings demonstrate that while deletions on chromosomes 4 and 11 affecting Cdkn2

  16. Tumor Suppressor Function of CYLD in Non melanoma Skin Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoumi, K. C.; Hallgren, G. S.; Massoumi, R.

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-related proteins post translationally modify substrates, and thereby alter the functions of their targets. The ubiquitination process is involved in various physiological responses, and dysregulation of components of the ubiquitin system has been linked to many diseases including skin cancer. The ubiquitin pathways activated among skin cancers are highly diverse and may reflect the various characteristics of the cancer type. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the most common types of human skin cancer, are instances where the involvement of the deubiquitination enzyme CYLD has been recently highlighted. In basal cell carcinoma, the tumor suppressor protein CYLD is repressed at the transcriptional levels through hedgehog signaling pathway. Downregulation of CYLD in basal cell carcinoma was also shown to interfere with TrkC expression and signaling, thereby promoting cancer progression. By contrast, the level of CYLD is unchanged in squamous cell carcinoma, instead, catalytic inactivation of CYLD in the skin has been linked to the development of squamous cell carcinoma. This paper will focus on the current knowledge that links CYLD to non melanoma skin cancers and will explore recent insights regarding CYLD regulation of NF-κB and hedgehog signaling during the development and progression of these types of human tumors.

  17. Inhibition of intestinal adenoma formation in APC(Min/+ mice by Riccardin D, a natural product derived from liverwort plant Dumortiera hirsuta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutation of tumor suppressor gene, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC, is the primary molecular event in the development of most intestinal carcinomas. Animal model with APC gene mutation is an effective tool for study of preventive approaches against intestinal carcinomas. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Riccardin D, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound, as a chemopreventive agent against intestinal adenoma formation in APC(Min/+ mice. METHODS: APC(Min/+ mice were given Riccardin D by p.o. gavage for 7 weeks. Mice were sacrificed, and the number, size and histopathology of intestinal polyps were examined under a microscope. We performed immunohistochemical staining, western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in intestinal polyps to investigate the mechanism of chemopreventive effect of Riccardin D. RESULTS: Riccardin D treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of intestinal adenoma formation, showing a reduction of polyp number by 41.7%, 31.1% and 44.4%, respectively, in proximal, middle and distal portions of small intestine. The activity of Riccardin D against polyp formation was more profound in colon, wherein Riccardin D decreased polyp number by 79.3%. Size distribution analysis revealed a significant reduction in large-size polyps (2-3 mm by 40.0%, 42.5% and 33.3%, respectively, in proximal, middle and distal portions of small intestine, and 77.8% in colon. Histopathological analysis of the intestinal polyps revealed mostly hyperplastic morphology without obvious dysplasia in Riccardin D-treated mice. Molecular analyses of the polyps suggested that the inhibitory effect of Riccardin D on intestinal adenoma formation was associated with its abilities of reduction in cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antiangiogenesis, inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway and suppression of inflammatory mediators in polyps. CONCLUSIONS: Our results

  18. Genetic and Epigenetic Tumor Suppressor Gene Silencing Are Distinct Molecular Phenotypes Driven by Growth Promoting Mutations in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen J. Marsit

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Both genetic and epigenetic alterations characterize human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC, but the biological processes that create or select these alterations remain incompletely investigated. Our hypothesis posits that a roughly reciprocal relationship between the propensity for promoter hypermethylation and a propensity for genetic deletion leads to distinct molecular phenotypes of lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we examined promoter hypermethylation of 17 tumor suppressor genes, as a marker of epigenetic alteration propensity, and deletion events at the 3p21 region, as a marker of genetic alteration. To model the complex biology between these somatic alterations, we utilized an item response theory model. We demonstrated that tumors exhibiting LOH at greater than 30% of informative alleles in the 3p21 region have a significantly reduced propensity for hypermethylation. At the same time, tumors with activating KRAS mutations showed a significantly increased propensity for hypermethylation of the loci examined, a result similar to what has been observed in colon cancer. These data suggest that NSCLCs have distinct epigenetic or genetic alteration phenotypes acting upon tumor suppressor genes and that mutation of oncogenic growth promoting genes, such as KRAS, is associated with the epigenetic phenotype.

  19. MiR-142-3p Functions as a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Human Osteosarcoma by Targeting HMGA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Mounting evidence has shown that aberrant expression of miRNAs correlates with human cancers, and that miRNAs can function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Here, we investigated the role and mechanism of miR-142-3p in human osteosarcoma. Methods: We used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to measure the expression of miR-142-3p in human osteosarcoma cell lines and tissues. The roles of miR-142-3p in osteosarcoma development were studied using cultured HOS, MG63 and Saos-2 cells and tumor xenograft analyses in nude mice; their target genes were also investigated. Results: We found that miR-142-3p was significantly downregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and clinical specimens. Overexpression of miR-142-3p suppressed osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas miR-142-3p knockdown increased these parameters. The xenograft mouse model also revealed the suppressive effect of miR-142-3p on tumor growth. High mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1 was identified as a target of miR-142-3p. Downregulation of HMGA1 induced effects on osteosarcoma cell lines similar to those induced by miR-142-3p. In contrast, restoration of HMGA1 abrogated the effects induced by miR-142-3p up-regulation. Conclusion: These results indicated that miR-142-3p may function as a tumor suppressor by targeting HMGA1 in osteosarcoma.

  20. Polymorphism of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is associated with susceptibility to uterine leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denschlag, Dominik; Bettendorf, Herta; Watermann, Dirk; Keck, Christoph; Tempfer, Clemens; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the association between the presence of uterine leiomyoma and two single nuclear polymorphisms of the p53 tumor suppressor and the angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) genes. Prospective case control study. Academic research institution. One hundred thirty-two women with clinically and surgically diagnosed uterine leiomyomas and 280 controls. Peripheral venous puncture. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-based amplification of the Arg and Pro variants at codon 72 of the p53 gene and by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the G/G and G/A alleles in exon 4 of the ANGPT2 gene. Comparing women with uterine leiomyomas and controls, no statistically significant difference with respect to allele frequency and genotype distribution were ascertained for the ANGPT2 polymorphism (P=.2 and P=.5, respectively). However, for the p53 tumor suppressor gene polymorphism, statistically significant differences in terms of a higher Pro allele frequency and a higher prevalence of the Pro/Pro genotype among women with uterine leiomyoma (32.0% vs. 16.0%, respectively, and 21.3% vs. 4.7%, respectively) were ascertained (P=.001, OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.24-2.45, P=.001; OR 3.84, 95% CI 1.81-8.14; respectively). Carriage of the p53 polymorphism at codon 72 predicts the susceptibility to leiomyoma in a Caucasian population and may contribute to the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma.

  1. Functional Analysis of In-frame Indel ARID1A Mutations Reveals New Regulatory Mechanisms of Its Tumor Suppressor Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Guan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A has emerged as a new tumor suppressor in which frequent somatic mutations have been identified in several types of human cancers. Although most ARID1A somatic mutations are frame-shift or nonsense mutations that contribute to mRNA decay and loss of protein expression, 5% of ARID1A mutations are in-frame insertions or deletions (indels that involve only a small stretch of peptides. Naturally occurring in-frame indel mutations provide unique and useful models to explore the biology and regulatory role of ARID1A. In this study, we analyzed indel mutations identified in gynecological cancers to determine how these mutations affect the tumor suppressor function of ARID1A. Our results demonstrate that all in-frame mutants analyzed lost their ability to inhibit cellular proliferation or activate transcription of CDKN1A, which encodes p21, a downstream effector of ARID1A. We also showed that ARID1A is a nucleocytoplasmic protein whose stability depends on its subcellular localization. Nuclear ARID1A is less stable than cytoplasmic ARID1A because ARID1A is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the nucleus. In-frame deletions affecting the consensus nuclear export signal reduce steady-state protein levels of ARID1A. This defect in nuclear exportation leads to nuclear retention and subsequent degradation. Our findings delineate a mechanism underlying the regulation of ARID1A subcellular distribution and protein stability and suggest that targeting the nuclear ubiquitin-proteasome system can increase the amount of the ARID1A protein in the nucleus and restore its tumor suppressor functions.

  2. Frequent loss of heterozygosity and altered expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene 'FAT' in human astrocytic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chosdol, Kunzang; Misra, Anjan; Puri, Sachin; Srivastava, Tapasya; Chattopadhyay, Parthaprasad; Sarkar, Chitra; Mahapatra, Ashok K; Sinha, Subrata

    2009-01-01

    We had earlier used the comparison of RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) DNA fingerprinting profiles of tumor and corresponding normal DNA to identify genetic alterations in primary human glial tumors. This has the advantage that DNA fingerprinting identifies the genetic alterations in a manner not biased for locus. In this study we used RAPD-PCR to identify novel genomic alterations in the astrocytic tumors of WHO grade II (Low Grade Diffuse Astrocytoma) and WHO Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme). Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the altered region was studied by microsatellite and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Expression study of the gene identified at the altered locus was done by semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR). Bands consistently altered in the RAPD profile of tumor DNA in a significant proportion of tumors were identified. One such 500 bp band, that was absent in the RAPD profile of 33% (4/12) of the grade II astrocytic tumors, was selected for further study. Its sequence corresponded with a region of FAT, a putative tumor suppressor gene initially identified in Drosophila. Fifty percent of a set of 40 tumors, both grade II and IV, were shown to have Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) at this locus by microsatellite (intragenic) and by SNP markers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed low FAT mRNA levels in a major subset of tumors. These results point to a role of the FAT in astrocytic tumorigenesis and demonstrate the use of RAPD analysis in identifying specific alterations in astrocytic tumors

  3. Genistein up-regulates tumor suppressor microRNA-574-3p in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Chiyomaru

    Full Text Available Genistein has been shown to inhibit cancers both in vitro and in vivo, by altering the expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs. In this study, we focused on tumor suppressor miRNAs regulated by genistein and investigated their function in prostate cancer (PCa and target pathways. Using miRNA microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR we observed that miR-574-3p was significantly up-regulated in PCa cells treated with genistein compared with vehicle control. The expression of miR-574-3p was significantly lower in PCa cell lines and clinical PCa tissues compared with normal prostate cells (RWPE-1 and adjacent normal tissues. Low expression level of miR-574-3p was correlated with advanced tumor stage and higher Gleason score in PCa specimens. Re-expression of miR-574-3p in PCa cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. miR-574-3p restoration induced apoptosis through reducing Bcl-xL and activating caspase-9 and caspase-3. Using GeneCodis software analysis, several pathways affected by miR-574-3p were identified, such as 'Pathways in cancer', 'Jak-STAT signaling pathway', and 'Wnt signaling pathway'. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-574-3p directly binds to the 3' UTR of several target genes (such as RAC1, EGFR and EP300 that are components of 'Pathways in cancer'. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western analysis showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of the three target genes in PCa cells were markedly down-regulated with miR-574-3p. Loss-of-function studies demonstrated that the three target genes significantly affect cell proliferation, migration and invasion in PCa cell lines. Our results show that genistein up-regulates tumor suppressor miR-574-3p expression targeting several cell signaling pathways. These findings enhance understanding of how genistein regulates with miRNA in PCa.

  4. A Catalog of Genes Homozygously Deleted in Human Lung Cancer and the Candidacy of PTPRD as a Tumor Suppressor Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Takashi; Otsuka, Ayaka; Girard, Luc; Sato, Masanori; Iwakawa, Reika; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse; Minna, John D.; Yokota, Jun

    2010-01-01

    A total of 176 genes homozygously deleted in human lung cancer were identified by DNA array-based whole genome scanning of 52 lung cancer cell lines and subsequent genomic PCR in 74 cell lines, including the 52 cell lines scanned. One or more exons of these genes were homozygously deleted in one (1%) to 20 (27%) cell lines. These genes included known tumor suppressor genes, e.g., CDKN2A/p16, RB1, and SMAD4, and candidate tumor suppressor genes whose hemizygous or homozygous deletions were reported in several types of human cancers, such as FHIT, KEAP1, and LRP1B/LRP-DIP. CDKN2A/p16 and p14ARF located in 9p21 were most frequently deleted (20/74, 27%). The PTPRD gene was most frequently deleted (8/74, 11%) among genes mapping to regions other than 9p21. Somatic mutations, including a nonsense mutation, of the PTPRD gene were detected in 8/74 (11%) of cell lines and 4/95 (4%) of surgical specimens of lung cancer. Reduced PTPRD expression was observed in the majority (>80%) of cell lines and surgical specimens of lung cancer. Therefore, PTPRD is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in lung cancer. Microarray-based expression profiling of 19 lung cancer cell lines also indicated that some of the 176 genes, such as KANK and ADAMTS1, are preferentially inactivated by epigenetic alterations. Genetic/epigenetic as well as functional studies of these 176 genes will increase our understanding of molecular mechanisms behind lung carcinogenesis. PMID:20073072

  5. Catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-19 is essential for tumor suppressor and anti-angiogenic activities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chan, K.C.; Ko, J.M.; Lung, H.L.; Sedláček, Radislav; Zhang, Z.F.; Luo, D.Z.; Feng, Z.B.; Chen, S.; Chen, H.; Chan, K.W.; Tsao, S.W.; Chua, D.T.; Zabarovsky, E.R.; Stanbridge, E.J.; Lung, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 8 (2011), s. 1826-1837 ISSN 0020-7136 Grant - others:Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region(CN) HKU661708M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : MMP19 * nasopharyngeal carcinoma * tumor suppressor gene * angiogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.444, year: 2011

  6. WD40 domain of Apc1 is critical for the coactivator-induced allosteric transition that stimulates APC/C catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuhong; Chang, Leifu; Aibara, Shintaro; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Ziguo; Barford, David

    2016-09-20

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multimeric cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that orchestrates cell-cycle progression by targeting cell-cycle regulatory proteins for destruction via the ubiquitin proteasome system. The APC/C assembly comprises two scaffolding subcomplexes: the platform and the TPR lobe that together coordinate the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules. The platform comprises APC/C subunits Apc1, Apc4, Apc5, and Apc15. Although the role of Apc1 as an APC/C scaffolding subunit has been characterized, its specific functions in contributing toward APC/C catalytic activity are not fully understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of human Apc1 (Apc1N) determined at 2.2-Å resolution and provide an atomic-resolution description of the architecture of its WD40 (WD40 repeat) domain (Apc1(WD40)). To understand how Apc1(WD40) contributes to APC/C activity, a mutant form of the APC/C with Apc1(WD40) deleted was generated and evaluated biochemically and structurally. We found that the deletion of Apc1(WD40) abolished the UbcH10-dependent ubiquitination of APC/C substrates without impairing the Ube2S-dependent ubiquitin chain elongation activity. A cryo-EM structure of an APC/C-Cdh1 complex with Apc1(WD40) deleted showed that the mutant APC/C is locked into an inactive conformation in which the UbcH10-binding site of the catalytic module is inaccessible. Additionally, an EM density for Apc15 is not visible. Our data show that Apc1(WD40) is required to mediate the coactivator-induced conformational change of the APC/C that is responsible for stimulating APC/C catalytic activity by promoting UbcH10 binding. In contrast, Ube2S activity toward APC/C substrates is not dependent on the initiation-competent conformation of the APC/C.

  7. Zebrafish mutants in the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor display a hypoxic response and recapitulate key aspects of Chuvash polycythemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, E.; Voest, E.E.; Logister, I.; Korving, J.; Schwerte, T.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Giles, R.H.; van Eeden, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    We have generated 2 zebrafish lines carrying inactivating germline mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene ortholog vhl. Mutant embryos display a general systemic hypoxic response, including the up-regulation of hypoxia-induced genes by 1 day after fertilization and a severe

  8. Cell size checkpoint control by the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Chiung; de los Reyes, Chris; Umen, James G

    2006-10-13

    Size control is essential for all proliferating cells, and is thought to be regulated by checkpoints that couple cell size to cell cycle progression. The aberrant cell-size phenotypes caused by mutations in the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway are consistent with a role in size checkpoint control, but indirect effects on size caused by altered cell cycle kinetics are difficult to rule out. The multiple fission cell cycle of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii uncouples growth from division, allowing direct assessment of the relationship between size phenotypes and checkpoint function. Mutations in the C. reinhardtii RB homolog encoded by MAT3 cause supernumerous cell divisions and small cells, suggesting a role for MAT3 in size control. We identified suppressors of an mat3 null allele that had recessive mutations in DP1 or dominant mutations in E2F1, loci encoding homologs of a heterodimeric transcription factor that is targeted by RB-related proteins. Significantly, we determined that the dp1 and e2f1 phenotypes were caused by defects in size checkpoint control and were not due to a lengthened cell cycle. Despite their cell division defects, mat3, dp1, and e2f1 mutants showed almost no changes in periodic transcription of genes induced during S phase and mitosis, many of which are conserved targets of the RB pathway. Conversely, we found that regulation of cell size was unaffected when S phase and mitotic transcription were inhibited. Our data provide direct evidence that the RB pathway mediates cell size checkpoint control and suggest that such control is not directly coupled to the magnitude of periodic cell cycle transcription.

  9. The human LIS1 is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and plays a tumor suppressor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Zhen; Tang, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Da, Liang; Song, Hai; Wang, Suiquan; Tiollais, Pierre; Li, Tsaiping; Zhao, Mujun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → LIS1 mRNA and protein levels are decreased in 70% HCC tissues. → Downregulation of LIS1 expression induces oncogenic transformation of QSG7701 and NIH3T3 cells in vitro and in vivo. → LIS1 downregulation leads to mitotic errors including spindle and chromosome defects. → Ectopic expression of LIS1 could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. → Our results suggest that LIS1 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in the development and progression of HCC. -- Abstract: The human lissencephaly-1 gene (LIS1) is a disease gene responsible for Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome (MDL). LIS1 gene is located in the region of chromosome 17p13.3 that is frequency deleted in MDL patients and in human liver cancer cells. However, the expression and significance of LIS1 in liver cancer remain unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of LIS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues by real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein levels of LIS1 were downregulated in about 70% of HCC tissues, and this downregulation was significantly associated with tumor progression. Functional studies showed that the reduction of LIS1 expression in the normal human liver cell line QSG7701 or the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 by shRNA resulted in colony formation in soft agar and xenograft tumor formation in nude mice, demonstrating that a decrease in the LIS1 level can promote the oncogenic transformation of cells. We also observed that the phenotypes of LIS1-knockdown cells displayed various defective mitotic structures, suggesting that the mechanism by which reduced LIS1 levels results in tumorigenesis is associated with its role in mitosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of LIS1 could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. Our results suggest that LIS1 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in the development and

  10. The human LIS1 is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and plays a tumor suppressor function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Zhen; Tang, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Da, Liang; Song, Hai; Wang, Suiquan [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Tiollais, Pierre [Unite' d' Organisation Nucleaire et Oncogenese, INSERM U.579, Institut Pasteur, Paris (France); Li, Tsaiping [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Mujun, E-mail: mjzhao@sibs.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} LIS1 mRNA and protein levels are decreased in 70% HCC tissues. {yields} Downregulation of LIS1 expression induces oncogenic transformation of QSG7701 and NIH3T3 cells in vitro and in vivo. {yields} LIS1 downregulation leads to mitotic errors including spindle and chromosome defects. {yields} Ectopic expression of LIS1 could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. {yields} Our results suggest that LIS1 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in the development and progression of HCC. -- Abstract: The human lissencephaly-1 gene (LIS1) is a disease gene responsible for Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome (MDL). LIS1 gene is located in the region of chromosome 17p13.3 that is frequency deleted in MDL patients and in human liver cancer cells. However, the expression and significance of LIS1 in liver cancer remain unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of LIS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues by real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein levels of LIS1 were downregulated in about 70% of HCC tissues, and this downregulation was significantly associated with tumor progression. Functional studies showed that the reduction of LIS1 expression in the normal human liver cell line QSG7701 or the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 by shRNA resulted in colony formation in soft agar and xenograft tumor formation in nude mice, demonstrating that a decrease in the LIS1 level can promote the oncogenic transformation of cells. We also observed that the phenotypes of LIS1-knockdown cells displayed various defective mitotic structures, suggesting that the mechanism by which reduced LIS1 levels results in tumorigenesis is associated with its role in mitosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of LIS1 could significantly inhibit HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. Our results suggest that LIS1 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in the

  11. BASP1 is a transcriptional cosuppressor for the Wilms' tumor suppressor protein WT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpenter, Brian; Hill, Kathryn J; Charalambous, Marika

    2004-01-01

    The Wilms' tumor suppressor protein WT1 is a transcriptional regulator that plays a key role in the development of the kidneys. The transcriptional activation domain of WT1 is subject to regulation by a suppression region within the N terminus of WT1. Using a functional assay, we provide direct...... evidence that this requires a transcriptional cosuppressor, which we identify as brain acid soluble protein 1 (BASP1). WT1 and BASP1 associate within the nuclei of cells that naturally express both proteins. BASP1 can confer WT1 cosuppressor activity in transfection assays, and elimination of endogenous...

  12. Germ-line mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in patients with high risk for cancer inactivate the p53 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frebourg, T; Kassel, J; Lam, K T; Gryka, M A; Barbier, N; Andersen, T I; Børresen, A L; Friend, S H

    1992-07-15

    Germ-line mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have been observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, brain tumors, second malignancies, and breast cancers. It is unclear whether all of these mutations have inactivated p53 and thereby provide an increased risk for cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the biological significance of these germ-line mutations by the functional and structural analysis of the resulting mutant p53 proteins. We analyzed the ability of seven germ-line mutant proteins observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, second primary neoplasms, or familial breast cancer to block the growth of malignant cells and compared the structural properties of the mutant proteins to that of the wild-type protein. Six of seven missense mutations disrupted the growth inhibitory properties and structure of the wild-type protein. One germ-line mutation retained the features of the wild-type p53. Genetic analysis of the breast cancer family in which this mutation was observed indicated that this germ-line mutation was not associated with the development of cancer. These results demonstrate that germ-line p53 mutations observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome and with second malignancies have inactivated the p53 tumor suppressor gene. The inability of the germ-line p53 mutants to block the growth of malignant cells can explain why patients with these germ-line mutations have an increased risk for cancer. The observation of a functionally silent germ-line mutation indicates that, before associating a germ-line tumor suppressor gene mutation with cancer risk, it is prudent to consider its functional significance.

  13. Germ-line mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in patients with high risk for cancer inactivate the p53 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frebourg, T; Kassel, J; Lam, K T; Gryka, M A; Barbier, N; Andersen, T I; Børresen, A L; Friend, S H

    1992-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have been observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, brain tumors, second malignancies, and breast cancers. It is unclear whether all of these mutations have inactivated p53 and thereby provide an increased risk for cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the biological significance of these germ-line mutations by the functional and structural analysis of the resulting mutant p53 proteins. We analyzed the ability of seven germ-line mutant proteins observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, second primary neoplasms, or familial breast cancer to block the growth of malignant cells and compared the structural properties of the mutant proteins to that of the wild-type protein. Six of seven missense mutations disrupted the growth inhibitory properties and structure of the wild-type protein. One germ-line mutation retained the features of the wild-type p53. Genetic analysis of the breast cancer family in which this mutation was observed indicated that this germ-line mutation was not associated with the development of cancer. These results demonstrate that germ-line p53 mutations observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome and with second malignancies have inactivated the p53 tumor suppressor gene. The inability of the germ-line p53 mutants to block the growth of malignant cells can explain why patients with these germ-line mutations have an increased risk for cancer. The observation of a functionally silent germ-line mutation indicates that, before associating a germ-line tumor suppressor gene mutation with cancer risk, it is prudent to consider its functional significance. Images PMID:1631137

  14. The Tumor Suppressor Hace1 Is a Critical Regulator of TNFR1-Mediated Cell Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Tortola

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The HECT domain E3 ligase HACE1 has been identified as a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers. Here, we report that HACE1 is a central gatekeeper of TNFR1-induced cell fate. Genetic inactivation of HACE1 inhibits TNF-stimulated NF-κB activation and TNFR1-NF-κB-dependent pathogen clearance in vivo. Moreover, TNF-induced apoptosis was impaired in hace1 mutant cells and knockout mice in vivo. Mechanistically, HACE1 is essential for the ubiquitylation of the adaptor protein TRAF2 and formation of the apoptotic caspase-8 effector complex. Intriguingly, loss of HACE1 does not impair TNFR1-mediated necroptotic cell fate via RIP1 and RIP3 kinases. Loss of HACE1 predisposes animals to colonic inflammation and carcinogenesis in vivo, which is markedly alleviated by genetic inactivation of RIP3 kinase and TNFR1. Thus, HACE1 controls TNF-elicited cell fate decisions and exerts tumor suppressor and anti-inflammatory activities via a TNFR1-RIP3 kinase-necroptosis pathway. : Tortola et al. report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase HACE1 is a gatekeeper of TNFR1-mediated cell fate. Hace1 deficiency impairs TNF-driven NF-κB activation and apoptosis and predisposes cells to necroptosis. Consequently, hace1–/– mice show enhanced colitis and colon cancer, which can be reverted by inactivation of pro-necroptotic kinase RIP3 and TNFR1.

  15. Negative Regulation of the Stability and Tumor Suppressor Function of Fbw7 by the Pin1 Prolyl Isomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sang-Hyun; Lau, Alan W.; Lee, Tae Ho; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Wei, Shuo; Huang, Pengyu; Shaik, Shavali; Lee, Daniel Yenhong; Finn, Greg; Balastik, Martin; Chen, Chun-Hau; Luo, Manli; Tron, Adriana E.; DeCaprio, James A.; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Wei, Wenyi; Lu, Kun Ping

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Fbw7 is the substrate recognition component of the SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F-box)-type E3 ligase complex and a well-characterized tumor suppressor that targets numerous oncoproteins for destruction. Genomic deletion or mutation of FBW7 has been frequently found in various types of human cancers, however, little is known about the upstream signaling pathway(s) governing Fbw7 stability and cellular functions. Here we report that Fbw7 protein destruction and tumor suppressor function are negatively regulated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. Pin1 interacts with Fbw7 in a phoshorylation-dependent manner and promotes Fbw7 self-ubiquitination and protein degradation by disrupting Fbw7 dimerization. Consequently, over-expressing Pin1 reduces Fbw7 abundance and suppresses Fbw7’s ability to inhibit proliferation and transformation. By contrast, depletion of Pin1 in cancer cells leads to elevated Fbw7 expression, which subsequently reduces Mcl-1 abundance, sensitizing cancer cells to Taxol. Thus, Pin1-mediated inhibition of Fbw7 contributes to oncogenesis and Pin1 may be a promising drug target for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:22608923

  16. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa, the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  17. Promoter hypermethylation of KLF4 inactivates its tumor suppressor function in cervical carcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ting Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The KLF4 gene has been shown to be inactivated in cervical carcinogenesis as a tumor suppressor. However, the mechanism of KLF4 silencing in cervical carcinomas has not yet been identified. DNA methylation plays a key role in stable suppression of gene expression. METHODS: The methylation status of the KLF4 promoter CpG islands was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing (BSQ in tissues of normal cervix and cervical cancer. KLF4 gene expression was detected by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot. KLF4 promoter methylation in cervical cancer cell line was determined by BSQ and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR. Cell proliferation ability was detected by cell growth curve and MTT assay. RESULTS: The methylated allele was found in 41.90% of 24 cervical cancer tissues but only in 11.11% of 11 normal cervix tissues (P<0.005. KLF4 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in cervical cancer tissues compared with normal cervix tissues (P<0.01 and KLF4 mRNA expression showed a significant negative correlation with the promoter hypermethylation (r = -0.486, P = 0.003. Cervical cancer cell lines also showed a significant negative correlation between KLF4 expression and hypermethylation. After treatment with the demethylating agent 5-Azacytidine (5-Aza, the expression of KLF4 in the cervical cancer cell lines at both mRNA and protein levels was drastically increased, the cell proliferation ability was inhibited and the chemosensitivity for cisplatin was significantly increased. CONCLUSION: KLF4 gene is inactivated by methylation-induced silencing mechanisms in a large subset of cervical carcinomas and KLF4 promoter hypermethylation inactivates the gene's function as a tumor suppressor in cervical carcinogenesis.

  18. Silibinin inhibits accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor growth of murine breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forghani, Parvin; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad R; Waller, Edmund K

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC)s increase in blood and accumulate in the tumor microenvironment of tumor-bearing animals, contributing to immune suppression in cancer. Silibinin, a natural flavonoid from the seeds of milk thistle, has been developed as an anti-inflammatory agent and supportive care agent to reduce the toxicity of cancer chemotherapy. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effect of silibinin on MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice and antitumor activity of silibinin in a mouse model of breast cancer. 4T1 luciferase-transfected mammary carcinoma cells were injected into in the mammary fat pad female BALB/c mice, and female CB17-Prkdc Scid/J mice. Silibinin treatment started on day 4 or day 14 after tumor inoculation continued every other day. Tumor growth was monitored by bioluminescent imaging (BLI) measuring total photon flux. Flow cytometry measured total leukocytes, CD11b + Gr-1 + MDSC, and T cells in the blood and tumors of tumor-bearing mice. The effects of silibinin on 4T1 cell viability in vitro were measured by BLI. Treatment with silibinin increased overall survival in mice harboring tumors derived from the 4T1-luciferase breast cancer cell line, and reduced tumor volumes and numbers of CD11b + Gr-1 + MDSCs in the blood and tumor, and increased the content of T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Silibinin failed to inhibit tumor growth in immunocompromised severe combined immunodeficiency mice, supporting the hypothesis that anticancer effect of silibinin is immune-mediated. The antitumor activity of silibinin requires an intact host immune system and is associated with decreased accumulation of blood and tumor-associated MDSCs

  19. The Innate Immune Receptor NLRX1 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor by Reducing Colon Tumorigenesis and Key Tumor-Promoting Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alicia Koblansky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available NOD-like receptor (NLR proteins are intracellular innate immune sensors/receptors that regulate immunity. This work shows that NLRX1 serves as a tumor suppressor in colitis-associated cancer (CAC and sporadic colon cancer by keeping key tumor promoting pathways in check. Nlrx1−/− mice were highly susceptible to CAC, showing increases in key cancer-promoting pathways including nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, and interleukin 6 (IL-6. The tumor-suppressive function of NLRX1 originated primarily from the non-hematopoietic compartment. This prompted an analysis of NLRX1 function in the Apcmin/+ genetic model of sporadic gastrointestinal cancer. NLRX1 attenuated Apcmin/+ colon tumorigenesis, cellular proliferation, NF-κB, MAPK, STAT3 activation, and IL-6 levels. Application of anti-interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R antibody therapy reduced tumor burden, increased survival, and reduced STAT3 activation in Nlrx1−/−Apcmin/+ mice. As an important clinical correlate, human colon cancer samples expressed lower levels of NLRX1 than healthy controls in multiple patient cohorts. These data implicate anti-IL6R as a potential personalized therapy for colon cancers with reduced NLRX1.

  20. Tumor suppressor gene mutation in a patient with a history of hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and healed generalized osteitis fibrosa cystica: a case report and genetic pathophysiology review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Joshua; Harris, Malcolm; Wright, John M; Kalamchi, Sabah

    2015-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) was first observed by Jackson in 1958 in a family who exhibited hyperparathyroidism and recurrent pancreatitis. The author noticed the presence of jaw tumors in the affected family and reported them as fibrous dysplasia. However, it was not until 1990 that a familial variety of hyperparathyroidism with fibro-osseous jaw tumors was recognized as HPT-JT syndrome and reported as a clinically and genetically distinct syndrome. Hyperparathyroidism generally arises from glandular hyperplasia or parathyroid adenomas, with only about 1% of cases resulting from parathyroid carcinoma. However, parathyroid carcinoma develops in about 15% of HPT-JT patients. The true incidence of HPT-JT is unknown, although the prevalence of about 100 published cases suggests its rarity. Twenty percent of HPT-JT cases have renal hamartomas or tumors, and female patients with HPT-JT have been reported to have carcinoma of the uterus. This syndrome appears to arise from a variety of mutations that deactivate the tumor suppressor gene CDC73 (also known as HRPT2) and its production of the tumor suppressor protein parafibromin. Functional parafibromin has 531 amino acids, and mutations result in a short nonfunctional protein. CDC73 disorders exhibit dominant germline gene behavior, with varying degrees of penetration. In most cases an affected person has 1 parent with the condition, which raises the need for family investigation and genetic counseling. We report a case of HPT-JT syndrome in a male patient who presented to the local community hospital 6 years previously with a history of back pain. Investigations showed elevated serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels, and a technetium 99m sestamibi parathyroid scan showed increased activity at the site of the lower left gland that proved to be a substernal parathyroid carcinoma. The patient's parathyroid hormone level dropped from 126 to 97 pg/mL at 5 minutes and was 65 pg/mL at 10 minutes after excision

  1. Syk Tyrosine Kinase Acts as a Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Tumor Suppressor by Regulating Cellular Growth and Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Layton, Tracy; Stalens, Cristel; Gunderson, Felizza; Goodison, Steve; Silletti, Steve

    2009-01-01

    We have identified the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase syk as a marker of differentiation/tumor suppressor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Syk expression is lost in poorly differentiated PDAC cells in vitro and in situ, and stable reexpression of syk in endogenously syk-negative Panc1 (Panc1/syk) cells retarded their growth in vitro and in vivo and reduced anchorage-independent growth in vitro. Panc1/syk cells exhibited a more differentiated morphology and down-regulated cyclin D1, ak...

  2. Expression of arf tumor suppressor in spermatogonia facilitates meiotic progression in male germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Churchman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian Cdkn2a (Ink4a-Arf locus encodes two tumor suppressor proteins (p16(Ink4a and p19(Arf that respectively enforce the anti-proliferative functions of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb and the p53 transcription factor in response to oncogenic stress. Although p19(Arf is not normally detected in tissues of young adult mice, a notable exception occurs in the male germ line, where Arf is expressed in spermatogonia, but not in meiotic spermatocytes arising from them. Unlike other contexts in which the induction of Arf potently inhibits cell proliferation, expression of p19(Arf in spermatogonia does not interfere with mitotic cell division. Instead, inactivation of Arf triggers germ cell-autonomous, p53-dependent apoptosis of primary spermatocytes in late meiotic prophase, resulting in reduced sperm production. Arf deficiency also causes premature, elevated, and persistent accumulation of the phosphorylated histone variant H2AX, reduces numbers of chromosome-associated complexes of Rad51 and Dmc1 recombinases during meiotic prophase, and yields incompletely synapsed autosomes during pachynema. Inactivation of Ink4a increases the fraction of spermatogonia in S-phase and restores sperm numbers in Ink4a-Arf doubly deficient mice but does not abrogate γ-H2AX accumulation in spermatocytes or p53-dependent apoptosis resulting from Arf inactivation. Thus, as opposed to its canonical role as a tumor suppressor in inducing p53-dependent senescence or apoptosis, Arf expression in spermatogonia instead initiates a salutary feed-forward program that prevents p53-dependent apoptosis, contributing to the survival of meiotic male germ cells.

  3. Genetic and Epigenetic Tumor Suppressor Gene Silencing are Distinct Molecular Phenotypes Driven by Growth Promoting Mutations in Non small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsit, C. J.; Kelsey, K. T.; Houseman, E. A.; Kelsey, K. T.; Houseman, E. A.; Nelson, H. H.

    2008-01-01

    Both genetic and epigenetic alterations characterize human non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the biological processes that create or select these alterations remain incompletely investigated. Our hypothesis posits that a roughly reciprocal relationship between the propensity for promoter hyper methylation and a propensity for genetic deletion leads to distinct molecular phenotypes of lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we examined promoter hyper methylation of 17 tumor suppressor genes, as a marker of epigenetic alteration propensity, and deletion events at the 3p21 region, as a marker of genetic alteration. To model the complex biology between these somatic alterations, we utilized an item response theory model. We demonstrated that tumors exhibiting LOH at greater than 30% of informative alleles in the 3p21 region have a significantly reduced propensity for hyper methylation. At the same time, tumors with activating KRAS mutations showed a significantly increased propensity for hyper methylation of the loci examined, a result similar to what has been observed in colon cancer. These data suggest that NSCLCs have distinct epigenetic or genetic alteration phenotypes acting upon tumor suppressor genes and that mutation of oncogenic growth promoting genes, such as KRAS, is associated with the epigenetic phenotype.

  4. Sex-dependent Differences in Intestinal Tumorigenesis Induced in Apc1638N/+ Mice by Exposure to {gamma} Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trani, Daniela [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Maastricht Radiation Oncology (MaastRO) Lab, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, University of Maastricht (Netherlands); Moon, Bo-Hyun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kallakury, Bhaskar; Hartmann, Dan P. [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Datta, Kamal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Fornace, Albert J., E-mail: af294@georgetown.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 and 5 Gy radiation doses and to investigate the interplay of gender and radiation with regard to intestinal tumorigenesis in an adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutant mouse model. Methods and Materials: Apc1638N/+ female and male mice were exposed whole body to either 1 Gy or 5 Gy of {gamma} rays and euthanized when most of the treated mice became moribund. Small and large intestines were processed to determine tumor burden, distribution, and grade. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 and estrogen receptor (ER)-{alpha} were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: We observed that, with both 1 Gy and 5 Gy of {gamma} rays, females displayed reduced susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis compared with males. As for radiation effect on small intestinal tumor progression, although no substantial differences were found in the relative frequency and degree of dysplasia of adenomas in irradiated animals compared with controls, invasive carcinomas were found in 1-Gy- and 5-Gy-irradiated animals. Radiation exposure was also shown to induce an increase in protein levels of proliferation marker Ki-67 and sex-hormone receptor ER-{alpha} in both non tumor mucosa and intestinal tumors from irradiated male mice. Conclusions: We observed important sex-dependent differences in susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc1638N/+ mutants. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that exposure to radiation doses as low as 1 Gy can induce a significant increase in intestinal tumor multiplicity as well as enhance tumor progression in vivo.

  5. A study on tumor suppressor genes mutations associated with different pathological colorectal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matar, S.N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. In Egypt; there is an increasing incidence of the disease, especially among patients ≤40 years age. While CRC have been reported in low incidence rate in developing countries, it is the third most common tumor in male and the fifth common tumor in females in Egypt. Early diagnosis and surgical interference guarantee long survival of most CRC patients. Early diagnosis is impeded by the disease onset at young age and imprecise symptoms at the initial stages of the disease. As in most solid tumors, the malignant transformation of colonic epithelial cells is to arise through a multistep process during which they acquire genetic changes involving the activation of proto-oncogenes and the loss of tumor suppressor genes. Recently, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, KLF6, which is mapped to chromosome 10p, was found to be frequently mutated in a number of cancers. There are some evidences suggesting that the disruption of the functional activity of KLF6 gene products may be one of the early events in tumor genesis of the colon. The main objective of the present study was to detect mutational changes of KLF6 tumor suppressor gene and to study the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) markers at chromosome 10p15 (KLF6 locus) in colorectal lesions and colorectal cancer in Egyptian patients. The patients included in this study were 83 presented with different indications for colonoscopic examination. Selecting patients with colorectal pre-cancerous lesions or colorectal cancer was done according to the results of tissue biopsy from lesion and adjacent normal. The patients were classified into three main groups; (G I) Cancerous group, (G II) polyps group including patients with adenomatous polyps (AP), familial adenomatous polyps (FAP) and hyperplastic polyps (HP) and (G III) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) including patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD

  6. Loss of Mitochondrial Tumor Suppressor Genes Expression Is Associated with Unfavorable Clinical Outcome in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Data from Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat Mahjabeen

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genes play important roles in cellular energy metabolism, free radical generation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of these genes have long been suspected to contribute to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, increased proliferation and progression of cancer. A family of orthologues of yeast silent information regulator 3 (SIRT3, 4 (SIRT4 and mitochondrial tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1 are important mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes which play an important role in the progression of multiple cancers. However, their role in the development of oxidative stress, enhanced proliferation and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC has not yet been studied. In this study we aimed to test the association between reduced mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes' activities and enhancement in tissue oxidative stress and cell proliferation in HNSCC cases. The expression of mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes (SIRT3, SIRT4 and MTUS1, mitochondrial DNA repair gene (OGG1-2a and a proliferation marker (Ki-67 was studied in a study cohort of 120 HNSCC patients and controls with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR in order to determine the potential prognostic significance of these genes. A statistically significant downregulation of SIRT3 (p<0.001, SIRT4 (p<0.0001, MTUS1 (p<0.002 and OGG1 (p<0.0001 was observed in HNSCC compared to control samples. Ki-67 was also overexpressed (p<0.0001 in HNSCC versus control samples. Additionally, to explore gene-gene relationship, we observed a positive spearmen correlation between SIRT3 versus SIRT4 (r = 0.523***, p<0.0001, SIRT3 versus MTUS1 (r = 0.273***, p<0.001, SIRT3 versus OGG1-2a (r = 0.213*, p<0.03, SIRT4 versus OGG1 (r = 0.338***, p<0.0001 and MTUS1 versus OGG1-2a (r = 0.215*, p<0.03 in HNSCC cases. A negative spearman correlation was observed between OGG1 versus Ki-67 (r = -0.224**, p<0.01 and OGG1-2a versus Ki-67 (r = -0.224**, p<0

  7. Restoration of tumor suppressor miR-34 inhibits human p53-mutant gastric cancer tumorspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qing; Hao, Xinbao; Meng, Yang; Zhang, Min; DeSano, Jeffrey; Fan, Daiming; Xu, Liang

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), some of which function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, are involved in carcinogenesis via regulating cell proliferation and/or cell death. MicroRNA miR-34 was recently found to be a direct target of p53, functioning downstream of the p53 pathway as a tumor suppressor. miR-34 targets Notch, HMGA2, and Bcl-2, genes involved in the self-renewal and survival of cancer stem cells. The role of miR-34 in gastric cancer has not been reported previously. In this study, we examined the effects of miR-34 restoration on p53-mutant human gastric cancer cells and potential target gene expression. Human gastric cancer cells were transfected with miR-34 mimics or infected with the lentiviral miR-34-MIF expression system, and validated by miR-34 reporter assay using Bcl-2 3'UTR reporter. Potential target gene expression was assessed by Western blot for proteins, and by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for mRNAs. The effects of miR-34 restoration were assessed by cell growth assay, cell cycle analysis, caspase-3 activation, and cytotoxicity assay, as well as by tumorsphere formation and growth. Human gastric cancer Kato III cells with miR-34 restoration reduced the expression of target genes Bcl-2, Notch, and HMGA2. Bcl-2 3'UTR reporter assay showed that the transfected miR-34s were functional and confirmed that Bcl-2 is a direct target of miR-34. Restoration of miR-34 chemosensitized Kato III cells with a high level of Bcl-2, but not MKN-45 cells with a low level of Bcl-2. miR-34 impaired cell growth, accumulated the cells in G1 phase, increased caspase-3 activation, and, more significantly, inhibited tumorsphere formation and growth. Our results demonstrate that in p53-deficient human gastric cancer cells, restoration of functional miR-34 inhibits cell growth and induces chemosensitization and apoptosis, indicating that miR-34 may restore p53 function. Restoration of miR-34 inhibits tumorsphere formation and growth, which is reported to be

  8. Retinoid-induced expression and activity of an immediate early tumor suppressor gene in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Streb

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids are used clinically to treat a number of hyper-proliferative disorders and have been shown in experimental animals to attenuate vascular occlusive diseases, presumably through nuclear receptors bound to retinoic acid response elements (RARE located in target genes. Here, we show that natural or synthetic retinoids rapidly induce mRNA and protein expression of a specific isoform of A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 12 (AKAP12β in cultured smooth muscle cells (SMC as well as the intact vessel wall. Expression kinetics and actinomycin D studies indicate Akap12β is a retinoid-induced, immediate-early gene. Akap12β promoter analyses reveal a conserved RARE mildly induced with atRA in a region that exhibits hyper-acetylation. Immunofluorescence microscopy and protein kinase A (PKA regulatory subunit overlay assays in SMC suggest a physical association between AKAP12β and PKA following retinoid treatment. Consistent with its designation as a tumor suppressor, inducible expression of AKAP12β attenuates SMC growth in vitro. Further, immunohistochemistry studies establish marked decreases in AKAP12 expression in experimentally-injured vessels of mice as well as atheromatous lesions in humans. Collectively, these results demonstrate a novel role for retinoids in the induction of an AKAP tumor suppressor that blocks vascular SMC growth thus providing new molecular insight into how retiniods may exert their anti-proliferative effects in the injured vessel wall.

  9. Measuring APC/C-Dependent Ubiquitylation In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Marc A; Brown, Nicholas G; Watson, Edmond R; VanderLinden, Ryan; Schulman, Brenda A; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2016-01-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a 1.2 MDa ubiquitin ligase complex with important functions in both proliferating and post-mitotic differentiated cells. In proliferating cells, APC/C controls cell cycle progression by targeting inhibitors of chromosome segregation and mitotic exit for degradation by the 26S proteasome. To understand how APC/C recruits and ubiquitylates its substrate proteins and how these processes are controlled, it is essential to analyze APC/C activity in vitro. In the past, such experiments have been limited by the fact that large quantities of purified APC/C were difficult to obtain and that mutated versions of the APC/C could not be easily generated. In this chapter we review recent advances in generating and purifying recombinant forms of the human APC/C and its co-activators, using methods that are scalable and compatible with mutagenesis. We also describe a method that allows the quantitative analysis of APC/C activity using fluorescently labeled substrate proteins.

  10. The Drosophila Netrin receptor frazzled/DCC functions as an invasive tumor suppressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duman-Scheel Molly

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of heterozygosity at 18q, which includes the Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC gene, has been linked to many human cancers. However, it is unclear if loss of DCC is the specific underlying cause of these cancers. The Drosophila imaginal discs are excellent systems in which to study DCC function, as it is possible to model human tumors through the generation of somatic clones of cells bearing multiple genetic lesions. Here, these attributes of the fly system were utilized to investigate the potential tumor suppressing functions of the Drosophila DCC homologue frazzled (fra during eye-antennal disc development. Results Most fra loss of function clones are eliminated during development. However, when mutant clone cells generated in the developing eye were rescued from death, partially differentiated eye cells were found outside of the normal eye field, and in extreme cases distant sites of the body. Characterization of these cells during development indicates that fra mutant cells display characteristics of invasive tumor cells, including increased levels of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK, and Mmp-1, changes in cadherin expression, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and loss of polarity. Mutation of fra promotes basement membrane degradation and invasion which are repressed by inhibition of Rho1 signaling. Although inhibition of JNK signaling blocks invasive phenotypes in some metastatic cancer models in flies, blocking JNK signaling inhibits fra mutant cell death, thereby enhancing the fra mutant phenotype. Conclusions The results of this investigation provide the first direct link between point mutations in fra/DCC and metastatic phenotypes in an animal model and suggest that Fra functions as an invasive tumor suppressor during Drosophila development.

  11. SIGNALING TO THE P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR THROUGH PATHWAYS ACTIVATED BY GENOTOXIC AND NON-GENOTOXIC STRESSES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,C.W.APPELLA,E.

    2002-07-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is post-translational modified at {approx}18 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review the posttranslational modifications to p53 and the pathways that produce them in response to both genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses.

  12. Interleukin 33 in tumor microenvironment is crucial for the accumulation and function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peng; Wan, Xiaopeng; Cui, Bijun; Liu, Yang; Qiu, Chenyang; Rong, Jiabing; Zheng, Mingzhu; Song, Yinjing; Chen, Luoquan; He, Jia; Tan, Qinchun; Wang, Xiaojia; Shao, Xiying; Liu, Yuhua; Cao, Xuetao; Wang, Qingqing

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor-induced, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs)-mediated immune dysfunction is an important mechanism that leads to tumor immune escape and the inefficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Importantly, tumor-infiltrating MDSCs have much stronger ability compared to MDSCs in the periphery. However, the mechanisms that tumor microenvironment induces the accumulation and function of MDSCs are poorly understood. Here, we report that Interleukin-33 (IL-33) – a cytokine which can be abundantly released in tumor tissues both in 4T1-bearing mice and breast cancer patients, is crucial for facilitating the expansion of MDSCs. IL-33 in tumor microenvironment reduces the apoptosis and sustains the survival of MDSCs through induction of autocrine secretion of GM-CSF, which forms a positive amplifying loop for MDSC accumulation. This is in conjunction with IL-33-driven induction of arginase-1 expression and activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling in MDSCs which augments their immunosuppressive ability, and histone modifications were involved in IL-33 signaling in MDSCs. In ST2−/− mice, the defect of IL-33 signaling in MDSCs attenuates the immunosuppressive and pro-tumoral capacity of MDSCs. Our results identify IL-33 as a critical mediator that contributes to the abnormal expansion and enhanced immunosuppressive function of MDSCs within tumor microenvironment, which can be potentially targeted to reverse MDSC-mediated tumor immune evasion. PMID:26942079

  13. Inactivation of the Tumor Suppressor Genes Causing the Hereditary Syndromes Predisposing to Head and Neck Cancer via Promoter Hypermethylation in Sporadic Head and Neck Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ian M.; Mithani, Suhail K.; Mydlarz, Wojciech K.; Chang, Steven S.; Califano, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) and dyskeratosis congenita (DC) are rare inherited syndromes that cause head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Prior studies of inherited forms of cancer have been extremely important in elucidating tumor suppressor genes inactivated in sporadic tumors. Here, we studied whether sporadic tumors have epigenetic silencing of the genes causing the inherited forms of HNSCC. Using bisulfite sequencing, we investigated the incidence of promoter hypermethylation of the 17 Fan...

  14. CD40 dependent exacerbation of immune mediated hepatitis by hepatic CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Manns, Michael P.; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing mice. We studied hepatic MDSC in two murine models of immune mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of tumor bearing mice with Concanavalin A or α-Galactosylceramide resulted in increased ALT and AST serum levels in comparison to tumor free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC into naïve mice exacerbated Concanavalin A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells revealed a polarized pro-inflammatory gene signature after Concanavalin A treatment. An interferon gamma- dependent up-regulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells along with an up-regulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Concanavalin A treatment was observed. Concanavalin A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSC as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSC led to increased arginase activity upon Concanavalin A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40−/− tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased reactive oxygen species production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSC act as pro-inflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner. PMID:25616156

  15. Fission Yeast Apc15 Stabilizes MCC-Cdc20-APC/C Complexes, Ensuring Efficient Cdc20 Ubiquitination and Checkpoint Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Karen M; Paldi, Flora; Hardwick, Kevin G

    2017-04-24

    During mitosis, cells must segregate the replicated copies of their genome to their daughter cells with extremely high fidelity. Segregation errors lead to an abnormal chromosome number (aneuploidy), which typically results in disease or cell death [1]. Chromosome segregation and anaphase onset are initiated through the action of the multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C [2]). The APC/C is inhibited by the spindle checkpoint in the presence of kinetochore attachment defects [3, 4]. Here we demonstrate that two non-essential APC/C subunits (Apc14 and Apc15) regulate association of spindle checkpoint proteins, in the form of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), with the APC/C. apc14Δ mutants display increased MCC association with the APC/C and are unable to silence the checkpoint efficiently. Conversely, apc15Δ mutants display reduced association between the MCC and APC/C, are defective in poly-ubiquitination of Cdc20, and are checkpoint defective. In vitro reconstitution studies have shown that human MCC-APC/C can contain two molecules of Cdc20 [5-7]. Using a yeast strain expressing two Cdc20 genes with different epitope tags, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that this is true in vivo. MCC binding to the second molecule of Cdc20 is mediated via the C-terminal KEN box in Mad3. Somewhat surprisingly, complexes containing both molecules of Cdc20 accumulate in apc15Δ cells, and the implications of this observation are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-cell autonomous or secretory tumor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Christelle En Lin; Chan, Shu Ning; Tang, Bor Luen

    2014-10-01

    Many malignancies result from deletions or loss-of-function mutations in one or more tumor suppressor genes, the products of which curb unrestrained growth or induce cell death in those with dysregulated proliferative capacities. Most tumor suppressors act in a cell autonomous manner, and only very few proteins are shown to exert a non-cell autonomous tumor suppressor function on other cells. Examples of these include members of the secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) family and the secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)-related proteins. Very recent findings have, however, considerably expanded our appreciation of non-cell autonomous tumor suppressor functions. Broadly, this may occur in two ways. Intracellular tumor suppressor proteins within cells could in principle inhibit aberrant growth of neighboring cells by conditioning an antitumor microenvironment through secreted factors. This is demonstrated by an apparent non-cell autonomous tumor suppressing property of p53. On the other hand, a tumor suppressor produced by a cell may be secreted extracellularly, and taken up by another cell with its activity intact. Intriguingly, this has been recently shown to occur for the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by both conventional and unconventional modes of secretion. These recent findings would aid the development of therapeutic strategies that seek to reinstate tumor suppression activity in therapeutically recalcitrant tumor cells, which have lost it in the first place. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Differential splicing of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in African and Caucasian American populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Norman H Lee, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: George Washington...splicing of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in African and Caucasian American populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities? 5b...American (AA) versus Caucasian American (CA) prostate cancer (PCa). We focused our efforts on two oncogenes, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3

  18. EXPRESSION OF E-CADHERIN AND WNT PATHWAY PROTEINS BETACATENIN, APC, TCF-4 AND SURVIVIN IN GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA: CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL IMPLICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Rodrigo Rego; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Oliveira, Levindo Alves de; Silva, Marcelo Souza; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antonio; Waisberg, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.It has been reported that Wnt/ betacatenin pathway is activated in 30-50% of these tumors. However,the deregulation of this pathway has not been fully elucidated. To determine the expression of E-cadherin, betacatenin, APC, TCF-4 and survivin proteins in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and correlate with clinical and pathological parameters. Seventy-one patients with gastric adenocarcinoma undergoing gastrectomy were enrolled. The expression of E-cadherin, betacatenin, APC, TCF-4 and survivin proteins was detected by immunohistochemistryand related to the clinical and pathological parameters. The expression rates of E-cadherin in the membrane was 3%; betacatenin in the cytoplasm and nucleus were 23,4% and 3,1% respectively; APC in the cytoplasm was 94,6%; TCF-4 in the nucleus was 19,4%; and survivin in the nucleus 93,9%. The expression rate of E-cadherin was correlated with older patients (p=0,007), while betacatenin with tumors citoplasma e 3,1% no núcleo; APC em 94,6% no citoplasma; TCF-4 em19,4% no núcleo; e survivina em 93,9% no núcleo. Houve relação entre expressão da proteína E-caderina com a idade mais avançada (p=0,007); betacatenina com tumores <5 cm de diâmetro (p=0,041);APC com tumores proximais (p=0,047); e TCF-4 com tipo difuso da classificação de Lauren (p=0,017) e com o grau de penetração tumoral (p=0,002). A via Wnt/betacatenina não está envolvida na carcinogênese gástrica. Porém, a frequência elevada de survivina permite sugerir que outras vias sinalizadoras devam estar envolvidas na transformação do tecido gástrico.

  19. Antihelminthic drug niclosamide inhibits CIP2A and reactivates tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Ok; Choe, Min Ho; Yoon, Yi Na; Ahn, Jiyeon; Yoo, Minjin; Jung, Kwan-Young; An, Sungkwan; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Oh, Jeong Su; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2017-11-15

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a critical tumor suppressor complex responsible for the inactivation of various oncogenes. Recently, PP2A reactivation has emerged asan anticancer strategy. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), an endogenous inhibitor of PP2A, is upregulated in many cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We demonstrated that the antihelminthic drug niclosamide inhibited the expression of CIP2A and reactivated the tumor suppressor PP2A in NSCLC cells. We performed a drug-repurposing screen and identified niclosamide asa CIP2A suppressor in NSCLC cells. Niclosamide inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumor sphere formation, and induced mitochondrial dysfunction through increased mitochondrial ROS production in NSCLC cells; however, these effects were rescued by CIP2A overexpression, which indicated that the antitumor activity of niclosamide was dependent on CIP2A. We found that niclosamide increased PP2A activity through CIP2A inhibition, which reduced the phosphorylation of several oncogenic proteins. Moreover, we found that a niclosamide analog inhibited CIP2A expression and increased PP2A activity in several types of NSCLC cells. Finally, we showed that other well-known PP2A activators, including forskolin and FTY720, did not inhibit CIP2A and that their activities were not dependent on CIP2A. Collectively, our data suggested that niclosamide effectively suppressed CIP2A expression and subsequently activated PP2A in NSCLC cells. This provided strong evidence for the potential use of niclosamide asa PP2A-activating drug in the clinical treatment of NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure of an APC3-APC16 complex: Insights into assembly of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaya; Yu, Shanshan; Qiao, Renping; Weissmann, Florian; Miller, Darcie J.; VanderLinden, Ryan; Brown, Nicholas G.; Frye, Jeremiah J.; Peters, Jan-Michael; Schulman, Brenda A.

    2014-01-01

    The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is a massive E3 ligase that controls mitosis by catalyzing ubiquitination of key cell cycle regulatory proteins. The APC/C assembly contains two subcomplexes: the “Platform” centers around a cullin-RING-like E3 ligase catalytic core; the “Arc Lamp” is a hub that mediates transient association with regulators and ubiquitination substrates. The Arc Lamp contains the small subunits APC16, CDC26, and APC13, and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protei...

  1. Transforming activity and therapeutic targeting of C-terminal-binding protein 2 in Apc-mutated neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, E T; Chawla, A T; Cororaton, A D; Koblinski, J E; Kovi, R C; Love, I M; Szomju, B B; Korwar, S; Ellis, K C; Grossman, S R

    2017-08-17

    Overexpression of the transcriptional coregulators C-terminal binding proteins 1 and 2 (CtBP1 and 2) occurs in many human solid tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. CtBP modulates oncogenic gene expression programs and is an emerging drug target, but its oncogenic role is unclear. Consistent with this oncogenic potential, exogenous CtBP2 transformed primary mouse and human cells to anchorage independence similarly to mutant H-Ras. To investigate CtBP's contribution to in vivo tumorigenesis, Apc min/+ mice, which succumb to massive intestinal polyposis, were bred to Ctbp2 +/- mice. CtBP interacts with adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein, and is stabilized in both APC-mutated human colon cancers and Apc min/+ intestinal polyps. Ctbp2 heterozygosity increased the median survival of Apc min/+ mice from 21 to 48 weeks, and reduced polyp formation by 90%, with Ctbp2 +/- polyps exhibiting reduced levels of β-catenin and its oncogenic transcriptional target, cyclin D1. CtBP's potential as a therapeutic target was studied by treating Apc min/+ mice with the CtBP small-molecule inhibitors 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid and 2-hydroxy-imino phenylpyruvic acid, both of which reduced polyposis by more than half compared with vehicle treatment. Phenocopying Ctbp2 deletion, both Ctbp inhibitors caused substantial decreases in the protein level of Ctbp2, as well its oncogenic partner β-catenin, and the effects of the inhibitors on CtBP and β-catenin levels could be modeled in an APC-mutated human colon cancer cell line. CtBP2 is thus a druggable transforming oncoprotein critical for the evolution of neoplasia driven by Apc mutation.

  2. The milk protein α-casein functions as a tumor suppressor via activation of STAT1 signaling, effectively preventing breast cancer tumor growth and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuccelli, Gloria; Castello-Cros, Remedios; Capozza, Franco; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lin, Zhao; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Xuanmao, Jiao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Lisanti, Michael P.; Sotgia, Federica

    2012-01-01

    Here, we identified the milk protein α-casein as a novel suppressor of tumor growth and metastasis. Briefly, Met-1 mammary tumor cells expressing α-casein showed a ~5-fold reduction in tumor growth and a near 10-fold decrease in experimental metastasis. To identify the molecular mechanism(s), we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Interestingly, our results show that α-casein upregulates gene transcripts associated with interferon/STAT1 signaling and downregulates genes associated with “stemness.” These findings were validated by immunoblot and FACS analysis, which showed the upregulation and hyperactivation of STAT1 and a decrease in the number of CD44(+) “cancer stem cells.” These gene signatures were also able to predict clinical outcome in human breast cancer patients. Thus, we conclude that a lactation-based therapeutic strategy using recombinant α-casein would provide a more natural and non-toxic approach to the development of novel anticancer therapies. PMID:23047602

  3. Generation and characterization of mice carrying a conditional allele of the Wwox tumor suppressor gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Ludes-Meyers

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available WWOX, the gene that spans the second most common human chromosomal fragile site, FRA16D, is inactivated in multiple human cancers and behaves as a suppressor of tumor growth. Since we are interested in understanding WWOX function in both normal and cancer tissues we generated mice harboring a conditional Wwox allele by flanking Exon 1 of the Wwox gene with LoxP sites. Wwox knockout (KO mice were developed by breeding with transgenic mice carrying the Cre-recombinase gene under the control of the adenovirus EIIA promoter. We found that Wwox KO mice suffered from severe metabolic defect(s resulting in growth retardation and all mice died by 3 wk of age. All Wwox KO mice displayed significant hypocapnia suggesting a state of metabolic acidosis. This finding and the known high expression of Wwox in kidney tubules suggest a role for Wwox in acid/base balance. Importantly, Wwox KO mice displayed histopathological and hematological signs of impaired hematopoiesis, leukopenia, and splenic atrophy. Impaired hematopoiesis can also be a contributing factor to metabolic acidosis and death. Hypoglycemia and hypocalcemia was also observed affecting the KO mice. In addition, bone metabolic defects were evident in Wwox KO mice. Bones were smaller and thinner having reduced bone volume as a consequence of a defect in mineralization. No evidence of spontaneous neoplasia was observed in Wwox KO mice. We have generated a new mouse model to inactivate the Wwox tumor suppressor gene conditionally. This will greatly facilitate the functional analysis of Wwox in adult mice and will allow investigating neoplastic transformation in specific target tissues.

  4. Germ-line mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in patients with high risk for cancer inactivate the p53 protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Frebourg, T; Kassel, J; Lam, K T; Gryka, M A; Barbier, N; Andersen, T I; Børresen, A L; Friend, S H

    1992-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have been observed in patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, brain tumors, second malignancies, and breast cancers. It is unclear whether all of these mutations have inactivated p53 and thereby provide an increased risk for cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the biological significance of these germ-line mutations by the functional and structural analysis of the resulting mutant p53 proteins. We analyzed the ability of seven germ-...

  5. Mathematical modeling of tumor-induced immunosuppression by myeloid-derived suppressor cells: Implications for therapeutic targeting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatpanahi, Seyed Peyman; Shariatpanahi, Seyed Pooya; Madjidzadeh, Keivan; Hassan, Moustapha; Abedi-Valugerdi, Manuchehr

    2018-04-07

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) belong to immature myeloid cells that are generated and accumulated during the tumor development. MDSCs strongly suppress the anti-tumor immunity and provide conditions for tumor progression and metastasis. In this study, we present a mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) to describe tumor-induced immunosuppression caused by MDSCs. The model consists of four equations and incorporates tumor cells, cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), natural killer (NK) cells and MDSCs. We also provide simulation models that evaluate or predict the effects of anti-MDSC drugs (e.g., l-arginine and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)) on the tumor growth and the restoration of anti-tumor immunity. The simulated results obtained using our model were in good agreement with the corresponding experimental findings on the expansion of splenic MDSCs, immunosuppressive effects of these cells at the tumor site and effectiveness of l-arginine and 5-FU on the re-establishment of antitumor immunity. Regarding this latter issue, our predictive simulation results demonstrated that intermittent therapy with low-dose 5-FU alone could eradicate the tumors irrespective of their origins and types. Furthermore, at the time of tumor eradication, the number of CTLs prevailed over that of cancer cells and the number of splenic MDSCs returned to the normal levels. Finally, our predictive simulation results also showed that the addition of l-arginine supplementation to the intermittent 5-FU therapy reduced the time of the tumor eradication and the number of iterations for 5-FU treatment. Thus, the present mathematical model provides important implications for designing new therapeutic strategies that aim to restore antitumor immunity by targeting MDSCs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanism of APC/CCDC20 activation by mitotic phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Renping; Weissmann, Florian; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Brown, Nicholas G; VanderLinden, Ryan; Imre, Richard; Jarvis, Marc A; Brunner, Michael R; Davidson, Iain F; Litos, Gabriele; Haselbach, David; Mechtler, Karl; Stark, Holger; Schulman, Brenda A; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2016-05-10

    Chromosome segregation and mitotic exit are initiated by the 1.2-MDa ubiquitin ligase APC/C (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome) and its coactivator CDC20 (cell division cycle 20). To avoid chromosome missegregation, APC/C(CDC20) activation is tightly controlled. CDC20 only associates with APC/C in mitosis when APC/C has become phosphorylated and is further inhibited by a mitotic checkpoint complex until all chromosomes are bioriented on the spindle. APC/C contains 14 different types of subunits, most of which are phosphorylated in mitosis on multiple sites. However, it is unknown which of these phospho-sites enable APC/C(CDC20) activation and by which mechanism. Here we have identified 68 evolutionarily conserved mitotic phospho-sites on human APC/C bound to CDC20 and have used the biGBac technique to generate 47 APC/C mutants in which either all 68 sites or subsets of them were replaced by nonphosphorylatable or phospho-mimicking residues. The characterization of these complexes in substrate ubiquitination and degradation assays indicates that phosphorylation of an N-terminal loop region in APC1 is sufficient for binding and activation of APC/C by CDC20. Deletion of the N-terminal APC1 loop enables APC/C(CDC20) activation in the absence of mitotic phosphorylation or phospho-mimicking mutations. These results indicate that binding of CDC20 to APC/C is normally prevented by an autoinhibitory loop in APC1 and that its mitotic phosphorylation relieves this inhibition. The predicted location of the N-terminal APC1 loop implies that this loop controls interactions between the N-terminal domain of CDC20 and APC1 and APC8. These results reveal how APC/C phosphorylation enables CDC20 to bind and activate the APC/C in mitosis.

  7. Redox Regulation of the Tumor Suppressor PTEN by Hydrogen Peroxide and Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic peroxides and hydroperoxides are skin tumor promoters. Free radical derivatives from these compounds are presumed to be the prominent mediators of tumor promotion. However, the molecular targets of these species are unknown. Phosphatase and tensin homologs deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN are tumor suppressors that play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, and cell survival by negative regulation of phosphoinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling. PTEN is reversibly oxidized in various cells by exogenous and endogenous hydrogen peroxide. Oxidized PTEN is converted back to the reduced form by cellular reducing agents, predominantly by the thioredoxin (Trx system. Here, the role of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP in redox regulation of PTEN was analyzed by using cell-based and in vitro assays. Exposure to t-BHP led to oxidation of recombinant PTEN. In contrast to H2O2, PTEN oxidation by t-BHP was irreversible in HeLa cells. However, oxidized PTEN was reduced by exogenous Trx system. Taken together, these results indicate that t-BHP induces PTEN oxidation and inhibits Trx system, which results in irreversible PTEN oxidation in HeLa cells. Collectively, these results suggest a novel mechanism of t-BHP in the promotion of tumorigenesis.

  8. ABERRANT METHYLATION OF THE PROMOTER OF APC, CDH13 AND MGMT GENES IN COLORECTAL CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant methylation of gene promoter regions is the main epigenetic change characterizing colorectal cancer. Methylation levels of 42 CpG-sites of promoter regions of the MGMT, APC and CDH13 genes in colorectal cancer were studied in comparison with methylation levels of the adjacent normal tissue in 25 patients. Pyrosequencing showed an increase in methylation levels of promoter regions of the MGMT, APC and CDH13 genes in tumor samples by 3 to 5 times. These tumor samples were screened for activating SNP-mutations in the KRAS (40 %, NRAS (0 % and BRAF (0 % oncogenes. SNP-mutations in the KRAS gene were accompanied by hypermethylation of one or more promoters of the studied genes. Association of this epigenetic index with tumor metastasis was proved. The data on an increase in methylation of the promoter regions of oncosupressor genes can be used as sensitive prognostic markers of progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer.

  9. Complementation of non-tumorigenicity of HPV18-positive cervical carcinoma cells involves differential mRNA expression of cellular genes including potential tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 11q13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrmann, Angela; Truong, Ha; Repenning, Antje; Boger, Regina; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Pascheberg, Ulrich; Beckmann, Alf; Opalka, Bertram; Kleine-Lowinski, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    The fusion between human tumorigenic cells and normal human diploid fibroblasts results in non-tumorigenic hybrid cells, suggesting a dominant role for tumor suppressor genes in the generated hybrid cells. After long-term cultivation in vitro, tumorigenic segregants may arise. The loss of tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 11q13 has been postulated to be involved in the induction of the tumorigenic phenotype of human papillomavirus (HPV)18-positive cervical carcinoma cells and their derived tumorigenic hybrid cells after subcutaneous injection in immunocompromised mice. The aim of this study was the identification of novel cellular genes that may contribute to the suppression of the tumorigenic phenotype of non-tumorigenic hybrid cells in vivo. We used cDNA microarray technology to identify differentially expressed cellular genes in tumorigenic HPV18-positive hybrid and parental HeLa cells compared to non-tumorigenic HPV18-positive hybrid cells. We detected several as yet unknown cellular genes that play a role in cell differentiation, cell cycle progression, cell-cell communication, metastasis formation, angiogenesis, antigen presentation, and immune response. Apart from the known differentially expressed genes on 11q13 (e.g., phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 1 (PACS1) and FOS ligand 1 (FOSL1 or Fra-1)), we detected novel differentially expressed cellular genes located within the tumor suppressor gene region (e.g., EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 2 (EFEMP2) and leucine rich repeat containing 32 (LRRC32) (also known as glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant (GARP)) that may have potential tumor suppressor functions in this model system of non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic HeLa x fibroblast hybrid cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancer-Mediated Oncogenic Function of the Menin Tumor Suppressor in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen M.A. Dreijerink

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 gene functions as a tumor suppressor in a variety of cancer types, we explored its oncogenic role in breast tumorigenesis. The MEN1 gene product menin is involved in H3K4 trimethylation and co-activates transcription. We integrated ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data to identify menin target genes. Our analysis revealed that menin-dependent target gene promoters display looping to distal enhancers that are bound by menin, FOXA1 and GATA3. In this fashion, MEN1 co-regulates a proliferative breast cancer-specific gene expression program in ER+ cells. In primary mammary cells, MEN1 exerts an anti-proliferative function by regulating a distinct expression signature. Our findings clarify the cell-type-specific functions of MEN1 and inform the development of menin-directed treatments for breast cancer.

  11. Engineered artificial antigen presenting cells facilitate direct and efficient expansion of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coukos George

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of a standardized platform for the rapid expansion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs with anti-tumor function from patients with limited TIL numbers or tumor tissues challenges their clinical application. Methods To facilitate adoptive immunotherapy, we applied genetically-engineered K562 cell-based artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs for the direct and rapid expansion of TILs isolated from primary cancer specimens. Results TILs outgrown in IL-2 undergo rapid, CD28-independent expansion in response to aAPC stimulation that requires provision of exogenous IL-2 cytokine support. aAPCs induce numerical expansion of TILs that is statistically similar to an established rapid expansion method at a 100-fold lower feeder cell to TIL ratio, and greater than those achievable using anti-CD3/CD28 activation beads or extended IL-2 culture. aAPC-expanded TILs undergo numerical expansion of tumor antigen-specific cells, remain amenable to secondary aAPC-based expansion, and have low CD4/CD8 ratios and FOXP3+ CD4+ cell frequencies. TILs can also be expanded directly from fresh enzyme-digested tumor specimens when pulsed with aAPCs. These "young" TILs are tumor-reactive, positively skewed in CD8+ lymphocyte composition, CD28 and CD27 expression, and contain fewer FOXP3+ T cells compared to parallel IL-2 cultures. Conclusion Genetically-enhanced aAPCs represent a standardized, "off-the-shelf" platform for the direct ex vivo expansion of TILs of suitable number, phenotype and function for use in adoptive immunotherapy.

  12. Prognostic value of tumor suppressors in osteosarcoma before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robl, Bernhard; Pauli, Chantal; Botter, Sander Martijn; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata; Fuchs, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Primary bone cancers are among the deadliest cancer types in adolescents, with osteosarcomas being the most prevalent form. Osteosarcomas are commonly treated with multi-drug neoadjuvant chemotherapy and therapy success as well as patient survival is affected by the presence of tumor suppressors. In order to assess the prognostic value of tumor-suppressive biomarkers, primary osteosarcoma tissues were analyzed prior to and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We constructed a tissue microarray from high grade osteosarcoma samples, consisting of 48 chemotherapy naïve biopsies (BXs) and 47 tumor resections (RXs) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We performed immunohistochemical stainings of P53, P16, maspin, PTEN, BMI1 and Ki67, characterized the subcellular localization and related staining outcome with chemotherapy response and overall survival. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyze chemotherapy response and Kaplan-Meier-analysis as well as the Cox proportional hazards model was applied for analysis of patient survival. No significant associations between biomarker expression in BXs and patient survival or chemotherapy response were detected. In univariate analysis, positive immunohistochemistry of P53 (P = 0.008) and P16 (P16; P = 0.033) in RXs was significantly associated with poor survival prognosis. In addition, presence of P16 in RXs was associated with poor survival in multivariate regression analysis (P = 0.003; HR = 0.067) while absence of P16 was associated with good chemotherapy response (P = 0.004; OR = 74.076). Presence of PTEN on tumor RXs was significantly associated with an improved survival prognosis (P = 0.022). Positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) of P16 and P53 in RXs was indicative for poor overall patient survival whereas positive IHC of PTEN was prognostic for good overall patient survival. In addition, we found that P16 might be a marker of osteosarcoma chemotherapy resistance. Therefore, our study supports the use of tumor RXs to

  13. Prognostic value of tumor suppressors in osteosarcoma before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Bernhard; Pauli, Chantal; Botter, Sander Martijn; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata; Fuchs, Bruno

    2015-05-09

    Primary bone cancers are among the deadliest cancer types in adolescents, with osteosarcomas being the most prevalent form. Osteosarcomas are commonly treated with multi-drug neoadjuvant chemotherapy and therapy success as well as patient survival is affected by the presence of tumor suppressors. In order to assess the prognostic value of tumor-suppressive biomarkers, primary osteosarcoma tissues were analyzed prior to and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We constructed a tissue microarray from high grade osteosarcoma samples, consisting of 48 chemotherapy naïve biopsies (BXs) and 47 tumor resections (RXs) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We performed immunohistochemical stainings of P53, P16, maspin, PTEN, BMI1 and Ki67, characterized the subcellular localization and related staining outcome with chemotherapy response and overall survival. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyze chemotherapy response and Kaplan-Meier-analysis as well as the Cox proportional hazards model was applied for analysis of patient survival. No significant associations between biomarker expression in BXs and patient survival or chemotherapy response were detected. In univariate analysis, positive immunohistochemistry of P53 (P = 0.008) and P16 (P16; P = 0.033) in RXs was significantly associated with poor survival prognosis. In addition, presence of P16 in RXs was associated with poor survival in multivariate regression analysis (P = 0.003; HR = 0.067) while absence of P16 was associated with good chemotherapy response (P = 0.004; OR = 74.076). Presence of PTEN on tumor RXs was significantly associated with an improved survival prognosis (P = 0.022). Positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) of P16 and P53 in RXs was indicative for poor overall patient survival whereas positive IHC of PTEN was prognostic for good overall patient survival. In addition, we found that P16 might be a marker of osteosarcoma chemotherapy resistance. Therefore, our study supports the use of tumor RXs to

  14. The Putative PAX8/PPARγ Fusion Oncoprotein Exhibits Partial Tumor Suppressor Activity through Up-Regulation of Micro-RNA-122 and Dominant-Negative PPARγ Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Honey V; Madde, Pranathi; Milosevic, Dragana; Hackbarth, Jennifer S; Algeciras-Schimnich, Alicia; McIver, Bryan; Grebe, Stefan K G; Eberhardt, Norman L

    2011-01-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that the PAX8/PPARγ fusion protein (PPFP), which occurs frequently in follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC), exhibits oncogenic activity. However, paradoxically, a meta-analysis of extant tumor outcome studies indicates that 68% of FTC-expressing PPFP are minimally invasive compared to only 32% of those lacking PPFP (χ(2) = 6.86, P = 0.008), suggesting that PPFP favorably impacts FTC outcomes. In studies designed to distinguish benign thyroid neoplasms from thyroid carcinomas, the previously identified tumor suppressor miR-122, a major liver micro-RNA (miR) that is decreased in hepatocellular carcinoma, was increased 8.9-fold (P negative PPARγ mutant in WRO cells was less effective than PPFP at inhibiting xenograft tumor progression (1.8-fold [P negative PPARγ activity. Up-regulation of miR-122 negatively regulates ADAM-17, a known downstream target, in thyroid cells, suggesting an antiangiogenic mechanism in thyroid carcinoma. This latter inference is directly supported by reduced CD-31 expression in WRO xenografts expressing PPFP, miR-122, and DN-PPARγ. We conclude that, in addition to its apparent oncogenic potential in vitro, PPFP exhibits paradoxical tumor suppressor activity in vivo, mediated by multiple mechanisms including up-regulation of miR-122 and dominant-negative inhibition of PPARγ activity.

  15. The tumor suppressor role of miR-124 in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Geng

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have crucial roles in development and progression of human cancers, including osteosarcoma. Recent studies have shown that miR-124 was down-regulated in many cancers; however, the role of miR-124 in osteosarcoma development is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of miR-124 is significantly downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines, compared to the adjacent tissues. The expression of miR-124 in the metastases osteosarcoma tissues was lower than that in non- metastases tissues. We identified and confirmed Rac1 as a novel, direct target of miR-124 using prediction algorithms and luciferase reporter gene assays. Overexpression of miR-124 suppressed Rac1 protein expression and attenuated cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced apoptosis in MG-63 and U2OS in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of Rac1 in miR-124-transfected osteosarcoma cells effectively rescued the inhibition of cell invasion caused by miR-124. Therefore, our results demonstrate that miR-124 is a tumor suppressor miRNA and suggest that this miRNA could be a potential target for the treatment of osteosarcoma in future.

  16. Sumoylation promotes optimal APC/C Activation and Timely Anaphase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine C; Li, Bing; Yu, Hongtao; Matunis, Michael J

    2018-03-08

    The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that functions as the gatekeeper to mitotic exit. APC/C activity is controlled by an interplay of multiple pathways during mitosis, including the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), that are not yet fully understood. Here, we show that sumoylation of the APC4 subunit of the APC/C peaks during mitosis and is critical for timely APC/C activation and anaphase onset. We have also identified a functionally important SUMO interacting motif in the cullin-homology domain of APC2 located near the APC4 sumoylation sites and APC/C catalytic core. Our findings provide evidence of an important regulatory role for SUMO modification and binding in affecting APC/C activation and mitotic exit. © 2018, Lee et al.

  17. Data sharing system for lithography APC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Eiichi; Teranishi, Yoshiharu; Shimabara, Masanori

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a simple and cost-effective data sharing system between fabs for lithography advanced process control (APC). Lithography APC requires process flow, inter-layer information, history information, mask information and so on. So, inter-APC data sharing system has become necessary when lots are to be processed in multiple fabs (usually two fabs). The development cost and maintenance cost also have to be taken into account. The system handles minimum information necessary to make trend prediction for the lots. Three types of data have to be shared for precise trend prediction. First one is device information of the lots, e.g., process flow of the device and inter-layer information. Second one is mask information from mask suppliers, e.g., pattern characteristics and pattern widths. Last one is history data of the lots. Device information is electronic file and easy to handle. The electronic file is common between APCs and uploaded into the database. As for mask information sharing, mask information described in common format is obtained via Wide Area Network (WAN) from mask-vender will be stored in the mask-information data server. This information is periodically transferred to one specific lithography-APC server and compiled into the database. This lithography-APC server periodically delivers the mask-information to every other lithography-APC server. Process-history data sharing system mainly consists of function of delivering process-history data. In shipping production lots to another fab, the product-related process-history data is delivered by the lithography-APC server from the shipping site. We have confirmed the function and effectiveness of data sharing systems.

  18. miR-126 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor in Osteosarcoma by Targeting Sox2

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    Chenglin Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults, the early symptoms and signs of which are non-specific. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs provides a new avenue for the early diagnosis and treatment of OS. miR-126 has been reported to be highly expressed in vascularized tissues, and is recently widely studied in cancers. Herein, we explored the expression and significance of miR-126 in OS. Using TaqMan RT-PCR analysis, we analyzed the expression of miR-126 in 32 paired OS tumor tissues and 4 OS cell lines and found that miR-126 was consistently under-expressed in OS tissues and cell lines compared with normal bone tissues and normal osteoblast cells (NHOst, respectively. As miR-126 is significantly decreased in OS tissues and cell lines, we sought to compensate for its loss through exogenous transfection into MG-63 cells with a miR-126 mimic. Ectopic expression of miR-126 inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced apoptosis of MG-63 cells. Moreover, bioinformatic prediction suggested that the sex-determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2 is a target gene of miR-126. Using mRNA and protein expression analysis, luciferase assays and rescue assays, we demonstrate that restored expression of Sox2 dampened miR-126-mediated suppression of tumor progression, which suggests the important role of miR-126/Sox2 interaction in tumor progression. Taken together, our data indicate that miR-126 functions as a tumor suppressor in OS, which exerts its activity by suppressing the expression of Sox2.

  19. Novel interactions of the von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL) tumor suppressor with the CDKN1 family of cell cycle inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Minervini; Raffaele Lopreiato; Raissa Bortolotto; Antonella Falconieri; Geppo Sartori; Silvio C. E. Tosatto

    2017-01-01

    Germline inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor predisposes patients to develop different highly vascularized cancers. pVHL targets the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF-1?) for degradation, modulating the activation of various genes involved in hypoxia response. Hypoxia plays a relevant role in regulating cell cycle progression, inducing growth arrest in cells exposed to prolonged oxygen deprivation. However, the exact molecular details driving this transition...

  20. APC-II: an electron beam propagation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwan, D.C.; Freeman, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The computer code APC-II simulates the propagation of a relativistic electron beam through air. APC-II is an updated version of the APC envelope model code. It incorporates an improved conductivity model which significantly extends the range of stable calculations. A number of test cases show that these new models are capable of reproducing the simulations of the original APC code. As the result of a major restructuring and reprogramming of the code, APC-II is now friendly to both the occasional user and the experienced user who wishes to make modifications. Most of the code is in standard ANS-II Fortran 77 so that it can be easily transported between machines

  1. The Pleiotropic Phenotype of Apc Mutations in the Mouse: Allele Specificity and Effects of the Genetic Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, Richard B.; Chen, Xiaodi; Amos-Landgraf, James M.; White, Alanna; Rasmussen, Kristin; Clipson, Linda; Pasch, Cheri; Sullivan, Ruth; Pitot, Henry C.; Dove, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a human cancer syndrome characterized by the development of hundreds to thousands of colonic polyps and extracolonic lesions including desmoid fibromas, osteomas, epidermoid cysts, and congenital hypertrophy of the pigmented retinal epithelium. Afflicted individuals are heterozygous for mutations in the APC gene. Detailed investigations of mice heterozygous for mutations in the ortholog Apc have shown that other genetic factors strongly influence the phenotype. Here we report qualitative and quantitative modifications of the phenotype of Apc mutants as a function of three genetic variables: Apc allele, p53 allele, and genetic background. We have found major differences between the Apc alleles Min and 1638N in multiplicity and regionality of intestinal tumors, as well as in incidence of extracolonic lesions. By contrast, Min mice homozygous for either of two different knockout alleles of p53 show similar phenotypic effects. These studies illustrate the classic principle that functional genetics is enriched by assessing penetrance and expressivity with allelic series. The mouse permits study of an allelic gene series on multiple genetic backgrounds, thereby leading to a better understanding of gene action in a range of biological processes. PMID:18723878

  2. Molecular mechanism of APC/C activation by mitotic phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyang; Chang, Leifu; Alfieri, Claudio; Zhang, Ziguo; Yang, Jing; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, Mark; Barford, David

    2016-05-12

    In eukaryotes, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C, also known as the cyclosome) regulates the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of specific cell-cycle proteins to coordinate chromosome segregation in mitosis and entry into the G1 phase. The catalytic activity of the APC/C and its ability to specify the destruction of particular proteins at different phases of the cell cycle are controlled by its interaction with two structurally related coactivator subunits, Cdc20 and Cdh1. Coactivators recognize substrate degrons, and enhance the affinity of the APC/C for its cognate E2 (refs 4-6). During mitosis, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) and polo-like kinase (Plk) control Cdc20- and Cdh1-mediated activation of the APC/C. Hyperphosphorylation of APC/C subunits, notably Apc1 and Apc3, is required for Cdc20 to activate the APC/C, whereas phosphorylation of Cdh1 prevents its association with the APC/C. Since both coactivators associate with the APC/C through their common C-box and Ile-Arg tail motifs, the mechanism underlying this differential regulation is unclear, as is the role of specific APC/C phosphorylation sites. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy and biochemical analysis, we define the molecular basis of how phosphorylation of human APC/C allows for its control by Cdc20. An auto-inhibitory segment of Apc1 acts as a molecular switch that in apo unphosphorylated APC/C interacts with the C-box binding site and obstructs engagement of Cdc20. Phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory segment displaces it from the C-box-binding site. Efficient phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory segment, and thus relief of auto-inhibition, requires the recruitment of Cdk-cyclin in complex with a Cdk regulatory subunit (Cks) to a hyperphosphorylated loop of Apc3. We also find that the small-molecule inhibitor, tosyl-l-arginine methyl ester, preferentially suppresses APC/C(Cdc20) rather than APC/C(Cdh1), and interacts with the binding sites of both the C-box and Ile-Arg tail motifs. Our

  3. Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling promotes metastatic prostate cancer through microRNA-96-mediated downregulation of the tumor suppressor ETV6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yuan-Chin; Chen, Wei-Yu; Siu, Man Kit; Tsai, Hong-Yuan; Yin, Juan Juan; Huang, Jiaoti; Liu, Yen-Nien

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that ETV6 serves as a tumor suppressor; however, its molecular regulation and cellular functions remain unclear. We used prostate cancer as a model system and demonstrated a molecular mechanism in which ETV6 can be regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling through microRNA-96 (miR-96)-mediated downregulation. In addition, EGFR acts as a transcriptional coactivator that binds to the promoter of primary miR-96 and transcriptionally regulates miR-96 levels. We analyzed two sets of clinical prostate cancer samples, confirmed association patterns that were consistent with the EGFR-miR-96-ETV6 signaling model and demonstrated that the reduced ETV6 levels were associated with malignant prostate cancer. Based on results derived from multiple approaches, we identified the biological functions of ETV6 as a tumor suppressor that inhibits proliferation and metastasis in prostate cancer. We present a molecular mechanism in which EGFR activation leads to the induction of miR-96 expression and suppression of ETV6, which contributes to prostate cancer progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Different Phenotypic Consequences of Simultaneous Versus Stepwise Apc Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Jared M; Miller, Ashleigh J; Shibata, Darryl; Liskay, R Michael

    2011-01-01

    APC is considered a gatekeeper for colorectal cancer (CRC). Cells with heterozygous APC mutations have altered expression profiles suggesting that the first APC hit may help set the stage for subsequent transformation. Therefore, we measured transformation efficiency following what we have designated as “simultaneous” versus “stepwise” Apc loss. We combined a conditional Apc allele (ApcCKO ) with a Cre reporter gene and an out-of-frame Cre allele (Pms2cre ) that stochastically becomes functio...

  5. Potential role of estrogen receptor beta as a tumor suppressor of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Bossard

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the gynecological cancer exhibiting the highest morbidity and improvement of treatments is still required. Previous studies have shown that Estrogen-receptor beta (ERβ levels decreased along with ovarian carcinogenesis. Here, we present evidence that reintroduction of ERβ in BG-1 epithelial ovarian cancer cells, which express ERα, leads in vitro to a decrease of basal and estradiol-promoted cell proliferation. ERβ reduced the frequency of cells in S phase and increased the one of cells in G2/M phase. At the molecular level, we found that ERβ downregulated total retinoblastoma (Rb, phosphorylated Rb and phospho-AKT cellular content as well as cyclins D1 and A2. In addition, ERβ had a direct effect on ERα, by strongly inhibiting its expression and activity, which could explain part of the anti-proliferative action of ERβ. By developing a novel preclinical model of ovarian cancer based on a luminescent orthotopic xenograft in athymic Nude mice, we further revealed that ERβ expression reduces tumor growth and the presence of tumor cells in sites of metastasis, hence resulting in improved survival of mice. Altogether, these findings unveil a potential tumor-suppressor role of ERβ in ovarian carcinogenesis, which could be of potential clinical relevance for the selection of the most appropriate treatment for patients.

  6. Potential Role of Estrogen Receptor Beta as a Tumor Suppressor of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Françoise; Machelon, Véronique; Brigitte, Madly; Jacquard, Carine; Pillon, Arnaud; Balaguer, Patrick; Balabanian, Karl; Lazennec, Gwendal

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the gynecological cancer exhibiting the highest morbidity and improvement of treatments is still required. Previous studies have shown that Estrogen-receptor beta (ERβ) levels decreased along with ovarian carcinogenesis. Here, we present evidence that reintroduction of ERβ in BG-1 epithelial ovarian cancer cells, which express ERα, leads in vitro to a decrease of basal and estradiol-promoted cell proliferation. ERβ reduced the frequency of cells in S phase and increased the one of cells in G2/M phase. At the molecular level, we found that ERβ downregulated total retinoblastoma (Rb), phosphorylated Rb and phospho-AKT cellular content as well as cyclins D1 and A2. In addition, ERβ had a direct effect on ERα, by strongly inhibiting its expression and activity, which could explain part of the anti-proliferative action of ERβ. By developing a novel preclinical model of ovarian cancer based on a luminescent orthotopic xenograft in athymic Nude mice, we further revealed that ERβ expression reduces tumor growth and the presence of tumor cells in sites of metastasis, hence resulting in improved survival of mice. Altogether, these findings unveil a potential tumor-suppressor role of ERβ in ovarian carcinogenesis, which could be of potential clinical relevance for the selection of the most appropriate treatment for patients. PMID:22970307

  7. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C interact with p73: Interplay between a viral oncoprotein and cellular tumor suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Kumar, Amit [Division of Infectious Disease Biology, Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 751023 (India); Kundu, Chanakya N. [School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar (India); Verma, Subhash C. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Choudhuri, Tathagata, E-mail: tatha@ils.res.in [Division of Infectious Disease Biology, Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 751023 (India); Department of Biotechnology, Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati, Santiniketan, Bolpur (India)

    2014-01-05

    The p73 protein has structural and functional homology with the tumor suppressor p53, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The p73 locus encodes both a tumor suppressor (TAp73) and a putative oncogene (ΔNp73). p73 May play a significant role in p53-deficient lymphomas infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). EBV produces an asymptomatic infection in the majority of the global population, but it is associated with several human B-cell malignancies. The EBV-encoded Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is thought to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint by interacting directly with p53 family proteins. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, induces apoptosis through p53 and p73 signaling such that the lowΔNp73 level promotes the p73-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which EBV infection counters p73α-induced apoptosis through EBNA3C. - Highlights: • EBV-encoded EBNA3C suppresses doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in B-cell lymphomas. • EBNA3C binds to p73 to suppress its apoptotic effect. • EBNA3C maintains latency by regulating downstream mitochondrial pathways.

  8. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C interact with p73: Interplay between a viral oncoprotein and cellular tumor suppressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Kumar, Amit; Kundu, Chanakya N.; Verma, Subhash C.; Choudhuri, Tathagata

    2014-01-01

    The p73 protein has structural and functional homology with the tumor suppressor p53, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The p73 locus encodes both a tumor suppressor (TAp73) and a putative oncogene (ΔNp73). p73 May play a significant role in p53-deficient lymphomas infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). EBV produces an asymptomatic infection in the majority of the global population, but it is associated with several human B-cell malignancies. The EBV-encoded Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is thought to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint by interacting directly with p53 family proteins. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, induces apoptosis through p53 and p73 signaling such that the lowΔNp73 level promotes the p73-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which EBV infection counters p73α-induced apoptosis through EBNA3C. - Highlights: • EBV-encoded EBNA3C suppresses doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in B-cell lymphomas. • EBNA3C binds to p73 to suppress its apoptotic effect. • EBNA3C maintains latency by regulating downstream mitochondrial pathways

  9. Clinical Utility of promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes DKK3, and RASSF1A in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa H. Saied

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: DNA methylation is the commonest known epigenetic change that results in silencing of tumor suppressor genes. Promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes has the potential for early detection of breast cancer. Aim: Aim is to examine the potential usefulness of blood based methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP of methylated DKK3 and RASSF1A genes in early detection of breast cancer. Method: Methylation status of DKK3 and RASSF1 was investigated in forty breast cancer patients, twenty fibroadenoma patients and twenty healthy ladies as control group using MSP. Results: Methylation of DKK3 promoter was found in 22.5% of breast cancer patients, while DKK3 methylation was absent in both fibroadenoma patients and control group. Similarly, methylation of RASSF1 promoter was found in 17.5% of breast cancer patients and in none of fibroadenoma and control group. Conclusion: Promoter methylation of DKK3 and RASSF1 was found in breast cancer patients while absent in control group suggesting that tumorspecific methylation of the two genes (DKK3 and RASSF1A might be a valuable biomarker for the early detection of breast cancer. Keywords: DNA methylation, Breast cancer, DKK3, RASSF1

  10. TIG3 tumor suppressor-dependent organelle redistribution and apoptosis in skin cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M Scharadin

    Full Text Available TIG3 is a tumor suppressor protein that limits keratinocyte survival during normal differentiation. It is also important in cancer, as TIG3 level is reduced in tumors and in skin cancer cell lines, suggesting that loss of expression may be required for cancer cell survival. An important goal is identifying how TIG3 limits cell survival. In the present study we show that TIG3 expression in epidermal squamous cell carcinoma SCC-13 cells reduces cell proliferation and promotes morphological and biochemical apoptosis. To identify the mechanism that drives these changes, we demonstrate that TIG3 localizes near the centrosome and that pericentrosomal accumulation of TIG3 alters microtubule and microfilament organization and organelle distribution. Organelle accumulation at the centrosome is a hallmark of apoptosis and we demonstrate that TIG3 promotes pericentrosomal organelle accumulation. These changes are associated with reduced cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A, and increased p21 level. In addition, Bax level is increased and Bcl-XL level is reduced, and cleavage of procaspase 3, procaspase 9 and PARP is enhanced. We propose that pericentrosomal localization of TIG3 is a key event that results in microtubule and microfilament redistribution and pericentrosomal organelle clustering and that leads to cancer cell apoptosis.

  11. The Oncogenic STP Axis Promotes Triple-Negative Breast Cancer via Degradation of the REST Tumor Suppressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Karlin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Defining the molecular networks that drive breast cancer has led to therapeutic interventions and improved patient survival. However, the aggressive triple-negative breast cancer subtype (TNBC remains recalcitrant to targeted therapies because its molecular etiology is poorly defined. In this study, we used a forward genetic screen to discover an oncogenic network driving human TNBC. SCYL1, TEX14, and PLK1 (“STP axis” cooperatively trigger degradation of the REST tumor suppressor protein, a frequent event in human TNBC. The STP axis induces REST degradation by phosphorylating a conserved REST phospho-degron and bridging REST interaction with the ubiquitin-ligase βTRCP. Inhibition of the STP axis leads to increased REST protein levels and impairs TNBC transformation, tumor progression, and metastasis. Expression of the STP axis correlates with low REST protein levels in human TNBCs and poor clinical outcome for TNBC patients. Our findings demonstrate that the STP-REST axis is a molecular driver of human TNBC.

  12. Alterations in tumour suppressor gene p53 in human gliomas from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Alterations in the tumour suppressor p53 gene are among the most common defects seen in a variety of human cancers. ..... rangement of the EGF receptor gene in primary human brain tumors ... the INK4A gene in superficial bladder tumors.

  13. P53 tumor suppressor gene and protein expression is altered in cell lines derived from spontaneous and alpha-radiation-induced canine lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, L.A.; Johnson, N.F.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are the most frequently occurring gene alterations in malignant human cancers, including lung cancer. In lung cancer, common point mutations within conserved exons of the p53 gene result in a stabilized form of mutant protein which is detectable in most cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition to point mutations, allelic loss, rearrangements, and deletions of the p53 gene have also been detected in both human and rodent tumors. It has been suggested that for at least some epithelial neoplasms, the loss of expression of wild-type p53 protein may be more important for malignant transformation than the acquisition of activating mutations. Mechanisms responsible for the loss of expression of wild-type protein include gene deletion or rearrangement, nonsense or stop mutations, mutations within introns or upstream regulatory regions of the gene, and accelerated rates of degradation of the protein by DNA viral oncoproteins

  14. Novel roles for MLH3 deficiency and TLE6-like amplification in DNA mismatch repair-deficient gastrointestinal tumorigenesis and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Chieh Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA mismatch repair suppresses gastrointestinal tumorgenesis. Four mammalian E. coli MutL homologues heterodimerize to form three distinct complexes: MLH1/PMS2, MLH1/MLH3, and MLH1/PMS1. To understand the mechanistic contributions of MLH3 and PMS2 in gastrointestinal tumor suppression, we generated Mlh3(-/-;Apc(1638N and Mlh3(-/-;Pms2(-/-;Apc(1638N (MPA mice. Mlh3 nullizygosity significantly increased Apc frameshift mutations and tumor multiplicity. Combined Mlh3;Pms2 nullizygosity further increased Apc base-substitution mutations. The spectrum of MPA tumor mutations was distinct from that observed in Mlh1(-/-;Apc(1638N mice, implicating the first potential role for MLH1/PMS1 in tumor suppression. Because Mlh3;Pms2 deficiency also increased gastrointestinal tumor progression, we used array-CGH to identify a recurrent tumor amplicon. This amplicon contained a previously uncharacterized Transducin enhancer of Split (Tle family gene, Tle6-like. Expression of Tle6-like, or the similar human TLE6D splice isoform in colon cancer cells increased cell proliferation, colony-formation, cell migration, and xenograft tumorgenicity. Tle6-like;TLE6D directly interact with the gastrointestinal tumor suppressor RUNX3 and antagonize RUNX3 target transactivation. TLE6D is recurrently overexpressed in human colorectal cancers and TLE6D expression correlates with RUNX3 expression. Collectively, these findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms of individual MutL homologue tumor suppression and demonstrate an association between TLE mediated antagonism of RUNX3 and accelerated human colorectal cancer progression.

  15. Effects of the APC materials on c-axis correlated pinning effects in a-axis oriented Y123/2D APC multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, M.; Mukaida, M.; Horii, S.; Ichinose, A.; Kita, R.; Namba, M.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Teranishi, R.; Yamada, K.; Mori, N.

    2009-01-01

    For a-axis oriented and c-axis in-plane aligned YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ /artificial pinning center (Y123/APC) alternately-layered thin films, effects of the APC materials on the multilayer structures are discussed. Pr123, (Y 1-x Pr x )123 and Gd 2 CuO 4 (Gd214) were used as APCs. The multilayer structure was observed for Y123/Pr123 films and Y123/Gd214 films. However, some grains are also grown in the Y123/Gd214 film. For the Y123/Pr123 multilayer film, each Pr123 layer act as two-dimensional APCs (2D APCs) in the magnetic field angular dependences of the critical current density. The growth mechanism of the multilayer structure in the Y123/2D APC films is discussed by a transmission electron microscopy and an atomic force microscope. It is found that two conditions are needed to obtain the c-axis correlated pinning effects by 2D APC in the a-axis oriented and c-axis in-plane aligned Y123/APC multilayer films: the same structure as Y123; Y-free APC materials.

  16. ARF tumor suppression in the nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Leonard B; Winkeler, Crystal L; Miceli, Alexander P; Apicelli, Anthony J; Brady, Suzanne N; Kuchenreuther, Michael J; Weber, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Since its discovery close to twenty years ago, the ARF tumor suppressor has played a pivotal role in the field of cancer biology. Elucidating ARF's basal physiological function in the cell has been the focal interest of numerous laboratories throughout the world for many years. Our current understanding of ARF is constantly evolving to include novel frameworks for conceptualizing the regulation of this critical tumor suppressor. As a result of this complexity, there is great need to broaden our understanding of the intricacies governing the biology of the ARF tumor suppressor. The ARF tumor suppressor is a key sensor of signals that instruct a cell to grow and proliferate and is appropriately localized in nucleoli to limit these processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tumor suppressor roles of CENP-E and Nsl1 in Drosophila epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Muzzopappa, Mariana; Milán, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Depletion of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes in Drosophila epithelial tissues leads to JNK-dependent programmed cell death and additional blockade of the apoptotic program drives tumorigenesis. A recent report proposes that chromosomal instability (CIN) is not the driving force in the tumorigenic response of the SAC-deficient tissue, and that checkpoint proteins exert a SAC-independent tumor suppressor role. This notion is based on observations that the depletion of CENP-E levels or prevention of Bub3 from binding to the kinetochore in Drosophila tissues unable to activate the apoptotic program induces CIN but does not cause hyperproliferation. Here we re-examined this proposal. In contrast to the previous report, we observed that depletion of CENP-E or Nsl1-the latter mediating kinetochore targeting of Bub3-in epithelial tissues unable to activate the apoptotic program induces significant levels of aneuploidy and drives tumor-like growth. The induction of the JNK transcriptional targets Wingless, a mitogenic molecule, and MMP1, a matrix metaloproteinase 1 involved in basement membrane degradation was also observed in these tumors. An identical response of the tissue was previously detected upon depletion of several SAC genes or genes involved in spindle assembly, chromatin condensation, and cytokinesis, all of which have been described to cause CIN. All together, these results reinforce the role of CIN in driving tumorigenesis in Drosophila epithelial tissues and question the proposed SAC-independent roles of checkpoint proteins in suppressing tumorigenesis. Differences in aneuploidy rates might explain the discrepancy between the previous report and our results.

  18. Tumor-Derived G-CSF Facilitates Neoplastic Growth through a Granulocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell-Dependent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, Jeremy D.; Hu, Qiang; Miller, Austin; Liu, Song; Abrams, Scott I.

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are induced under diverse pathologic conditions, including neoplasia, and suppress innate and adaptive immunity. While the mechanisms by which MDSC mediate immunosuppression are well-characterized, details on how they develop remain less understood. This is complicated further by the fact that MDSC comprise multiple myeloid cell types, namely monocytes and granulocytes, reflecting diverse stages of differentiation and the proportion of these subpopulations vary among different neoplastic models. Thus, it is thought that the type and quantities of inflammatory mediators generated during neoplasia dictate the composition of the resultant MDSC response. Although much interest has been devoted to monocytic MDSC biology, a fundamental gap remains in our understanding of the derivation of granulocytic MDSC. In settings of heightened granulocytic MDSC responses, we hypothesized that inappropriate production of G-CSF is a key initiator of granulocytic MDSC accumulation. We observed abundant amounts of G-CSF in vivo, which correlated with robust granulocytic MDSC responses in multiple tumor models. Using G-CSF loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we demonstrated for the first time that: 1) abrogating G-CSF production significantly diminished granulocytic MDSC accumulation and tumor growth; 2) ectopically over-expressing G-CSF in G-CSF-negative tumors significantly augmented granulocytic MDSC accumulation and tumor growth; and 3) treatment of naïve healthy mice with recombinant G-CSF protein elicited granulocytic-like MDSC remarkably similar to those induced under tumor-bearing conditions. Collectively, we demonstrated that tumor-derived G-CSF enhances tumor growth through granulocytic MDSC-dependent mechanisms. These findings provide us with novel insights into MDSC subset development and potentially new biomarkers or targets for cancer therapy. PMID:22110722

  19. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela; Sarasin, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis

  20. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)]. E-mail: daya@igr.fr; Sarasin, Alain [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2005-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis.

  1. The effect of EBV on WIF1, NLK, and APC gene methylation and expression in gastric carcinoma and nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Wen; Liu, Jincheng; Wang, Jiayi; Luo, Bing

    2017-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important DNA tumor virus that is associated with approximately 10% of gastric carcinomas and 99% of nasopharyngeal cancers (NPC). DNA methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most studied epigenetic mechanisms that can prompt disease susceptibility. This study aimed to detect the effect of EBV on Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), Nemo-like kinase (NLK), and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene methylation, and expression in gastric carcinoma and NPC. The WIF1, NLK, and APC gene mRNA expression levels were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in four EBV-positive cell lines and four EBV-negative cell lines. Bisulfite genomic sequencing or methylation-specific PCR was used to detect the methylation status of the WIF1, NLK, and APC promoters. All cell lines were treated with 5-azacytidine (5-aza-dC), miR-BART19-3p mimics or an inhibitor, and analyzed by flow cytometry and MTT cell proliferation assays. The WIF1, NLK, and APC promoters were hypermethylated in all eight cell lines. 5-Aza-dC displayed a growth inhibitory effect on cells . After transfection with miR-BART19-3p mimics, the expression of WIF1, and APC decreased, and the cellular proliferation rate increased. After transfection with the miR-BART19-3p inhibitor, the expression levels were higher, and the cell growth was inhibited. In the NPC and GC cell lines, the promoters of WIF1, NLK, and APC are highly methylated, and the expression of these three genes is regulated by miR-BART19-3p. The activity of the Wnt pathway in EBV-associated tumors may be enhanced by miR-BART19-3p. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. lemmingA encodes the Apc11 subunit of the APC/C in Drosophila melanogaster that forms a ternary complex with the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, Vihar and Morula/Apc2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Olga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation is a critical step in key cell cycle events, such as metaphase-anaphase transition and mitotic exit. The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C plays a pivotal role in these transitions by recognizing and marking regulatory proteins for proteasomal degradation. Its overall structure and function has been elucidated mostly in yeasts and mammalian cell lines. The APC/C is, however, a multisubunit assembly with at least 13 subunits and their function and interaction within the complex is still relatively uncharacterized, particularly in metazoan systems. Here, lemming (lmg mutants were used to study the APC/C subunit, Apc11, and its interaction partners in Drosophila melanogaster. Results The lmg gene was initially identified through a pharate adult lethal P element insertion mutation expressing developmental abnormalities and widespread apoptosis in larval imaginal discs and pupal abdominal histoblasts. Larval neuroblasts were observed to arrest mitosis in a metaphase-like state with highly condensed, scattered chromosomes and frequent polyploidy. These neuroblasts contain high levels of both cyclin A and cyclin B. The lmg gene was cloned by virtue of the lmg03424 P element insertion which is located in the 5' untranslated region. The lemming locus is transcribed to give a 2.0 kb mRNA that contains two ORFs, lmgA and lmgB. The lmgA ORF codes for a putative protein with more than 80% sequence homology to the APC11 subunit of the human APC/C. The 85 amino acid protein also contains a RING-finger motif characteristic of known APC11 subunits. The lmgA ORF alone was sufficient to rescue the lethal and mitotic phenotypes of the lmg138 null allele and to complement the temperature sensitive lethal phenotype of the APC11-myc9 budding yeast mutant. The LmgA protein interacts with Mr/Apc2, and they together form a binding site for Vihar, the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme. Despite

  3. Primary microcephaly gene MCPH1 shows signatures of tumor suppressors and is regulated by miR-27a in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thejaswini Venkatesh

    Full Text Available Mutations in the MCPH1 (microcephalin 1 gene, located at chromosome 8p23.1, result in two autosomal recessive disorders: primary microcephaly and premature chromosome condensation syndrome. MCPH1 has also been shown to be downregulated in breast, prostate and ovarian cancers, and mutated in 1/10 breast and 5/41 endometrial tumors, suggesting that it could also function as a tumor suppressor (TS gene. To test the possibility of MCPH1 as a TS gene, we first performed LOH study in a panel of 81 matched normal oral tissues and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC samples, and observed that 14/71 (19.72% informative samples showed LOH, a hallmark of TS genes. Three protein truncating mutations were identified in 1/15 OSCC samples and 2/5 cancer cell lines. MCPH1 was downregulated at both the transcript and protein levels in 21/41 (51.22% and 19/25 (76% OSCC samples respectively. A low level of MCPH1 promoter methylation was also observed in 4/40 (10% tumor samples. We further observed that overexpression of MCPH1 decreased cellular proliferation, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, cell invasion and tumor size in nude mice, indicating its tumor suppressive function. Using bioinformatic approaches and luciferase assay, we showed that the 3'-UTR of MCPH1 harbors two non-overlapping functional seed regions for miR-27a which negatively regulated its level. The expression level of miR-27a negatively correlated with the MCPH1 protein level in OSCC. Our study indicates for the first time that, in addition to its role in brain development, MCPH1 also functions as a tumor suppressor gene and is regulated by miR-27a.

  4. Multi-gene epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in T-cell lymphoma cells; delayed expression of the p16 protein upon reversal of the silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagasawa, T; Zhang, Q; Raghunath, P N

    2006-01-01

    To understand better T-cell lymphomagenesis, we examined promoter CpG methylation and mRNA expression of closely related genes encoding p16, p15, and p14 tumor suppressor genes in cultured malignant T-cells that were derived from cutaneous, adult type, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-express...

  5. Tumor-reactive immune cells protect against metastatic tumor and induce immunoediting of indolent but not quiescent tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Kyle K; Keim, Rebecca C; Graham, Laura; Idowu, Michael O; Wan, Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Toor, Amir A; Bear, Harry D; Manjili, Masoud H

    2016-09-01

    Two major barriers to cancer immunotherapy include tumor-induced immune suppression mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells and poor immunogenicity of the tumor-expressing self-antigens. To overcome these barriers, we reprogrammed tumor-immune cell cross-talk by combined use of decitabine and adoptive immunotherapy, containing tumor-sensitized T cells and CD25(+) NKT cells. Decitabine functioned to induce the expression of highly immunogenic cancer testis antigens in the tumor, while also reducing the frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and the presence of CD25(+) NKT cells rendered T cells, resistant to remaining myeloid-derived suppressor cells. This combinatorial therapy significantly prolonged survival of animals bearing metastatic tumor cells. Adoptive immunotherapy also induced tumor immunoediting, resulting in tumor escape and associated disease-related mortality. To identify a tumor target that is incapable of escape from the immune response, we used dormant tumor cells. We used Adriamycin chemotherapy or radiation therapy, which simultaneously induce tumor cell death and tumor dormancy. Resultant dormant cells became refractory to additional doses of Adriamycin or radiation therapy, but they remained sensitive to tumor-reactive immune cells. Importantly, we discovered that dormant tumor cells contained indolent cells that expressed low levels of Ki67 and quiescent cells that were Ki67 negative. Whereas the former were prone to tumor immunoediting and escape, the latter did not demonstrate immunoediting. Our results suggest that immunotherapy could be highly effective against quiescent dormant tumor cells. The challenge is to develop combinatorial therapies that could establish a quiescent type of tumor dormancy, which would be the best target for immunotherapy. © The Author(s).

  6. Synergistic inhibition of the APC/C by the removal of APC15 in HCT116 cells lacking UBE2C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvanska, Dimitriya H; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Nilsson, Jakob

    2016-10-15

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in response to unattached kinetochores by generating a diffusible inhibitor termed the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). At metaphase, rapid activation of the APC/C requires removal of the MCC, a process that has been shown to depend on the APC/C E2 enzymes, UBE2C and UBE2S. Here we investigate the in vivo role of the APC/C E2 enzymes in SAC silencing using CRISPR/Cas9 genetically engineered HCT116 UBE2C or UBE2S null cell lines. Using live cell assays, we show that UBE2C and UBE2S make a minor contribution to SAC silencing in HCT116 cells. Strikingly, in cells specifically lacking UBE2C, we observe a strong synergistic inhibition of mitotic progression when we stabilize the MCC on the APC/C by depleting APC15, potentially reflecting increased competition between the MCC and the remaining initiating E2 enzyme UBE2D. In conclusion, we provide in vivo insight into the APC/C E2 module and its interplay with SAC silencing components. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Phytochemical Compositions of Immature Wheat Bran, and Its Antioxidant Capacity, Cell Growth Inhibition, and Apoptosis Induction through Tumor Suppressor Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jeong Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant capacity, cell growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction in extracts of immature wheat bran. Immature wheat bran (IWB was obtained from immature wheat harvested 10 days earlier than mature wheat. The phytochemical compositions of bran extract samples were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The total ferulic acid (3.09 mg/g and p-coumaric acid (75 µg/g in IWB were significantly higher than in mature wheat bran (MWB, ferulic acid: 1.79 mg/g; p-coumaric acid: 55 µg/g. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC: 327 µM Trolox equivalents (TE/g and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA: 4.59 µM Quercetin equivalents (QE/g of the IWB were higher than those of the MWB (ORAC: 281 µM TE/g; CAA: 0.63 µM QE/g. When assessing cell proliferation, the IWB extracts resulted in the lowest EC50 values against HT-29 (18.9 mg/mL, Caco-2 (7.74 mg/mL, and HeLa cells (8.17 mg/mL among bran extract samples. Additionally, the IWB extracts increased the gene expression of p53 and PTEN (tumor suppressor genes in HT-29 cells, indicating inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis through tumor suppressor genes.

  8. The role of tumor suppressor p15Ink4b in the regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cell fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeniuk, R; Rosu-Myles, M; Fares, J; Koller, R; Bies, J; Wolff, L

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor gene p15Ink4b (CDKN2B) is a frequent event in blood disorders like acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. The molecular function of p15Ink4b in hematopoietic differentiation still remains to be elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that loss of p15Ink4b in mice results in skewing of the differentiation pattern of the common myeloid progenitor towards the myeloid lineage. Here, we investigated a function of p15Ink4b tumor suppressor gene in driving erythroid lineage commitment in hematopoietic progenitors. It was found that p15Ink4b is expressed more highly in committed megakaryocyte–erythroid progenitors than granulocyte–macrophage progenitors. More importantly, mice lacking p15Ink4b have lower numbers of primitive red cell progenitors and a severely impaired response to 5-fluorouracil- and phenylhydrazine-induced hematopoietic stress. Introduction of p15Ink4b into multipotential progenitors produced changes at the molecular level, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling, increase GATA-1, erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and decrease Pu1, GATA-2 expression. These changes rendered cells more permissive to erythroid commitment and less permissive to myeloid commitment, as demonstrated by an increase in early burst-forming unit-erythroid formation with concomitant decrease in myeloid colonies. Our results indicate that p15Ink4b functions in hematopoiesis, by maintaining proper lineage commitment of progenitors and assisting in rapid red blood cells replenishment following stress

  9. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Indicates Silencing of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Uterine Leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Antonia; Yin, Ping; Monsivais, Diana; Lin, Simon M.; Du, Pan; Wei, Jian-Jun; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, represent the most common benign tumor of the female reproductive tract. Fibroids become symptomatic in 30% of all women and up to 70% of African American women of reproductive age. Epigenetic dysregulation of individual genes has been demonstrated in leiomyoma cells; however, the in vivo genome-wide distribution of such epigenetic abnormalities remains unknown. Principal Findings We characterized and compared genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiles in uterine leiomyoma and matched adjacent normal myometrial tissues from 18 African American women. We found 55 genes with differential promoter methylation and concominant differences in mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma versus normal myometrium. Eighty percent of the identified genes showed an inverse relationship between DNA methylation status and mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma tissues, and the majority of genes (62%) displayed hypermethylation associated with gene silencing. We selected three genes, the known tumor suppressors KLF11, DLEC1, and KRT19 and verified promoter hypermethylation, mRNA repression and protein expression using bisulfite sequencing, real-time PCR and western blot. Incubation of primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor restored KLF11, DLEC1 and KRT19 mRNA levels. Conclusions These results suggest a possible functional role of promoter DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma in African American women. PMID:22428009

  10. Corruption of homeostatic mechanisms in the guanylyl cyclase C signaling pathway underlying colorectal tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Waldman, Scott A

    2010-08-01

    Colon cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, originates from the malignant transformation of intestinal epithelial cells. The intestinal epithelium undergoes a highly organized process of rapid regeneration along the crypt-villus axis, characterized by proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis, whose coordination is essential to maintaining the mucosal barrier. Disruption of these homeostatic processes predisposes cells to mutations in tumor suppressors or oncogenes, whose dysfunction provides transformed cells an evolutionary growth advantage. While sequences of genetic mutations at different stages along the neoplastic continuum have been established, little is known of the events initiating tumorigenesis prior to adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations. Here, we examine a role for the corruption of homeostasis induced by silencing novel tumor suppressors, including the intestine-specific transcription factor CDX2 and its gene target guanylyl cyclase C (GCC), as early events predisposing cells to mutations in APC and other sequential genes that initiate colorectal cancer. CDX2 and GCC maintain homeostatic regeneration in the intestine by restricting cell proliferation, promoting cell maturation and adhesion, regulating cell migration and defending the intestinal barrier and genomic integrity. Elimination of CDX2 or GCC promotes intestinal tumor initiation and growth in aged mice, mice carrying APC mutations or mice exposed to carcinogens. The roles of CDX2 and GCC in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis, universal disruption in their signaling through silencing of hormones driving GCC, and the uniform overexpression of GCC by tumors underscore the potential value of oral replacement with GCC ligands as targeted prevention and therapy for colorectal cancer.

  11. RASSF6; the Putative Tumor Suppressor of the RASSF Family

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    Hiroaki Iwasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans have 10 genes that belong to the Ras association (RA domain family (RASSF. Among them, RASSF7 to RASSF10 have the RA domain in the N-terminal region and are called the N-RASSF proteins. In contradistinction to them, RASSF1 to RASSF6 are referred to as the C-RASSF proteins. The C-RASSF proteins have the RA domain in the middle region and the Salvador/RASSF/Hippo domain in the C-terminal region. RASSF6 additionally harbors the PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ-binding motif. Expression of RASSF6 is epigenetically suppressed in human cancers and is generally regarded as a tumor suppressor. RASSF6 induces caspase-dependent and -independent apoptosis. RASSF6 interacts with mammalian Ste20-like kinases (homologs of Drosophila Hippo and cross-talks with the Hippo pathway. RASSF6 binds MDM2 and regulates p53 expression. The interactions with Ras and Modulator of apoptosis 1 (MOAP1 are also suggested by heterologous protein-protein interaction experiments. RASSF6 regulates apoptosis and cell cycle through these protein-protein interactions, and is implicated in the NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways. We summarize our current knowledge about RASSF6 and discuss what common and different properties RASSF6 and the other C-RASSF proteins have.

  12. Panta rhei: The APC/C at steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is a conserved, multisubunit E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that is active both in dividing and in postmitotic cells. Its contributions to life are especially well studied in the domain of cell division, in which the APC/C lies at the epicenter of a regulatory network that controls the directionality and timing of cell cycle events. Biochemical and structural work is shedding light on the overall organization of APC/C subunits and on the mechanism of substrate recognition and Ub chain initiation and extension as well as on the molecular mechanisms of a checkpoint that seizes control of APC/C activity during mitosis. Here, we review how these recent advancements are modifying our understanding of the APC/C. PMID:23589490

  13. NF2 tumor suppressor gene: a comprehensive and efficient detection of somatic mutations by denaturing HPLC and microarray-CGH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szijan, Irene; Rochefort, Daniel; Bruder, Carl; Surace, Ezequiel; Machiavelli, Gloria; Dalamon, Viviana; Cotignola, Javier; Ferreiro, Veronica; Campero, Alvaro; Basso, Armando; Dumanski, Jan P; Rouleau, Guy A

    2003-01-01

    The NF2 tumor suppressor gene, located in chromosome 22q12, is involved in the development of multiple tumors of the nervous system, either associated with neurofibromatosis 2 or sporadic ones, mainly schwannomas and meningiomas. In order to evaluate the role of the NF2 gene in sporadic central nervous system (CNS) tumors, we analyzed NF2 mutations in 26 specimens: 14 meningiomas, 4 schwannomas, 4 metastases, and 4 other histopathological types of neoplasms. Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (denaturing HPLC) and comparative genomic hybridization on a DNA microarray (microarray- CGH) were used as scanning methods for small mutations and gross rearrangements respectively. Small mutations were identified in six out of seventeen meningiomas and schwannomas, one mutation was novel. Large deletions were detected in six meningiomas. All mutations were predicted to result in truncated protein or in the absence of a large protein domain. No NF2 mutations were found in other histopathological types of CNS tumors. These results provide additional evidence that mutations in the NF2 gene play an important role in the development of sporadic meningiomas and schwannomas. Denaturing HPLC analysis of small mutations and microarray-CGH of large deletions are complementary, fast, and efficient methods for the detection of mutations in tumor tissues.

  14. APC Inhibits Ligand-Independent Wnt Signaling by the Clathrin Endocytic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Diaz, Kenyi; Benchabane, Hassina; Tiwari, Ajit; Tian, Ai; Li, Bin; Thompson, Joshua J; Hyde, Annastasia S; Sawyer, Leah M; Jodoin, Jeanne N; Santos, Eduardo; Lee, Laura A; Coffey, Robert J; Beauchamp, R Daniel; Williams, Christopher S; Kenworthy, Anne K; Robbins, David J; Ahmed, Yashi; Lee, Ethan

    2018-03-12

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations cause Wnt pathway activation in human cancers. Current models for APC action emphasize its role in promoting β-catenin degradation downstream of Wnt receptors. Unexpectedly, we find that blocking Wnt receptor activity in APC-deficient cells inhibits Wnt signaling independently of Wnt ligand. We also show that inducible loss of APC is rapidly followed by Wnt receptor activation and increased β-catenin levels. In contrast, APC2 loss does not promote receptor activation. We show that APC exists in a complex with clathrin and that Wnt pathway activation in APC-deficient cells requires clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Finally, we demonstrate conservation of this mechanism in Drosophila intestinal stem cells. We propose a model in which APC and APC2 function to promote β-catenin degradation, and APC also acts as a molecular "gatekeeper" to block receptor activation via the clathrin pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Peptidomimetic inhibitors of APC-Asef interaction block colorectal cancer migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiming; Deng, Rong; Yang, Xiuyan; Shang, Jialin; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhao, Yanlong; Song, Kun; Liu, Xinyi; Zhang, Qiufen; Chen, Yu; Chinn, Y Eugene; Wu, Geng; Li, Jian; Chen, Guoqiang; Yu, Jianxiu; Zhang, Jian

    2017-09-01

    The binding of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) to its receptor Asef relieves the negative intramolecular regulation of Asef and leads to aberrant cell migration in human colorectal cancer. Because of its crucial role in metastatic dissemination, the interaction between APC and Asef is an attractive target for anti-colorectal-cancer therapy. We rationally designed a series of peptidomimetics that act as potent inhibitors of the APC interface. Crystal structures and biochemical and cellular assays showed that the peptidomimetics in the APC pocket inhibited the migration of colorectal cells by disrupting APC-Asef interaction. By using the peptidomimetic inhibitor as a chemical probe, we found that CDC42 was the downstream GTPase involved in APC-stimulated Asef activation in colorectal cancer cells. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of exploiting APC-Asef interaction to regulate the migration of colorectal cancer cells, and provides what to our knowledge is the first class of protein-protein interaction inhibitors available for the development of cancer therapeutics targeting APC-Asef signaling.

  16. The Ras suppressor-1 (RSU-1 in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefteris C Zacharia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary tumors are seldom the cause of death for cancer patients as most patients die from metastatic disease. Thus, deciphering metastatic mechanisms and key molecules involved is of utmost importance for the improved survival of cancer patients. Metastasis is a complex process in which cancer cells dissociate from the original tumor and spread to distant sites of the body. During the metastatic process, cancer cells lose contact both with the extracellular matrix (ECM and the neighboring cells within the primary tumor, thus invading though surrounding tissues. Therefore, ECM, and ECM-related adhesion proteins play a critical role in the metastatic process. Ras suppressor-1 (RSU-1 was first identified as a suppressor of Ras-dependent oncogenic transformation and is localized to cell-ECM adhesions where it is known to interact with the pro-survival adhesion protein PINCH-1. Although the connection to cancer is obvious, little is known regarding its expression in various cancer types. This opinion piece is focusing on recent literature regarding the expression of RSU-1 in various cancer types and the possible molecular mechanism of its action, pointing towards questions that need still to be addressed in this research field.

  17. Extensive metabolic disorders are present in APC(min) tumorigenesis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Xiao, Yi; Zhou, Zhengxiang; Mao, Xiaoxiao; Cai, Jinxing; Xiong, Lu; Liao, Chaonan; Huang, Fulian; Liu, Zehao; Ali Sheikh, Md Sayed; Plutzky, Jorge; Huang, He; Yang, Tianlun; Duan, Qiong

    2016-05-15

    Wnt signaling plays essential role in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Activation of Wnt signaling suppresses adipogenesis, but promotes osteogenesis in MSC. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a negative regulator of β-catenin and Wnt signaling activity. The mutation of APC gene leads to the activation of Wnt signaling and is responsible for tumorigenesis in APC(min) mouse; however, very few studies focused on its metabolic abnormalities. The present study reports a widespread metabolic disorder phenotype in APC(min) mice. The old APC(min) mice have decreased body weight and impaired adipogenesis, but severe hyperlipidemia, which mimic the phenotypes of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), an inherited disease also caused by APC gene mutation in human. We found that the expression of lipid metabolism and free fat acids (FA) use genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of the APC(min) mice is much lower than those of control. The changed gene expression pattern may lead to the disability of circulatory lipid transportation and storage at WAT. Moreover, the APC(min) mice could not maintain the core body temperature in cold condition. PET-CT determination revealed that the BAT of APC(min) mice has significantly impaired ability to take up (18)FDG from the blood. Morphological studies identified that the brown adipocytes of APC(min) mice were filled with lipid droplets but fewer mitochondria. These results matched with the findings of impaired BAT function in APC(min) mice. Collectively, our study explores a new mechanism that explains abnormal metabolism in APC(min) mice and provides insights into studying the metabolic disorders of FAP patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The tumor suppressor gene TRC8/RNF139 is disrupted by a constitutional balanced translocation t(8;22(q24.13;q11.21 in a young girl with dysgerminoma

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    Fiorio Patrizia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNF139/TRC8 is a potential tumor suppressor gene with similarity to PTCH, a tumor suppressor implicated in basal cell carcinomas and glioblastomas. TRC8 has the potential to act in a novel regulatory relationship linking the cholesterol/lipid biosynthetic pathway with cellular growth control and has been identified in families with hereditary renal (RCC and thyroid cancers. Haploinsufficiency of TRC8 may facilitate development of clear cell-RCC in association with VHL mutations, and may increase risk for other tumor types. We report a paternally inherited balanced translocation t(8;22 in a proposita with dysgerminoma. Methods The translocation was characterized by FISH and the breakpoints cloned, sequenced, and compared. DNA isolated from normal and tumor cells was checked for abnormalities by array-CGH. Expression of genes TRC8 and TSN was tested both on dysgerminoma and in the proposita and her father. Results The breakpoints of the translocation are located within the LCR-B low copy repeat on chromosome 22q11.21, containing the palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR involved in recurrent and non-recurrent translocations, and in an AT-rich sequence inside intron 1 of the TRC8 tumor-suppressor gene at 8q24.13. TRC8 was strongly underexpressed in the dysgerminoma. Translin is underexpressed in the dysgerminoma compared to normal ovary. TRC8 is a target of Translin (TSN, a posttranscriptional regulator of genes transcribed by the transcription factor CREM-tau in postmeiotic male germ cells. Conclusion A role for TRC8 in dysgerminoma may relate to its interaction with Translin. We propose a model in which one copy of TRC8 is disrupted by a palindrome-mediated translocation followed by complete loss of expression through suppression, possibly mediated by miRNA.

  19. The epigenetic modifier PRDM5 functions as a tumor suppressor through modulating WNT/β-catenin signaling and is frequently silenced in multiple tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-sheng Shu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PRDM (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ domain containing proteins are zinc finger proteins involved in multiple cellular regulations by acting as epigenetic modifiers. We studied a recently identified PRDM member PRDM5 for its epigenetic abnormality and tumor suppressive functions in multiple tumorigeneses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that PRDM5 was broadly expressed in human normal tissues, but frequently silenced or downregulated in multiple carcinoma cell lines due to promoter CpG methylation, including 80% (4/5 nasopharyngeal, 44% (8/18 esophageal, 76% (13/17 gastric, 50% (2/4 cervical, and 25% (3/12 hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, but not in any immortalized normal epithelial cell lines. PRDM5 expression could be restored by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine demethylation treatment in silenced cell lines. PRDM5 methylation was frequently detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP in multiple primary tumors, including 93% (43/46 nasopharyngeal, 58% (25/43 esophageal, 88% (37/42 gastric and 63% (29/46 hepatocellular tumors. PRDM5 was further found a stress-responsive gene, but its response was impaired when the promoter was methylated. Ectopic PRDM5 expression significantly inhibited tumor cell clonogenicity, accompanied by the inhibition of TCF/β-catenin-dependent transcription and downregulation of CDK4, TWIST1 and MDM2 oncogenes, while knocking down of PRDM5 expression lead to increased cell proliferation. ChIP assay showed that PRDM5 bound to its target gene promoters and suppressed their transcription. An inverse correlation between the expression of PRDM5 and activated β-catenin was also observed in cell lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PRDM5 functions as a tumor suppressor at least partially through antagonizing aberrant WNT/β-catenin signaling and oncogene expression. Frequent epigenetic silencing of PRDM5 is involved in multiple tumorigeneses, which could serve as a tumor biomarker.

  20. Mammary tumorigenesis in APC{sup min/+} mice is enhanced by X-irradiation with a characteristic age dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuhiko, Imaoka; Mayumi, Nishimura; Shizuko, Kakinuma; Yoshiya, Shimada [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Experimental Radiobiology for Children' s Health Research Group, Research, Center for Radiation Protection (Japan); Mieko, Okamoto [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    The ApcM{sup min/+} (Min) mouse is a genetically predisposed model of both intestinal and mammary tumorigenesis. We investigated age-related changes in the susceptibility of mice (before, during and after puberty) to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis using this model. Female Min and wild-type mice having the C57BL/6J background were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays at 2, 5, 7 and 10 weeks and sacrificed at 18 weeks of age. Min mice irradiated at 7 to 10 weeks of age (after puberty) developed mammary tumors with squamous metaplasia, whereas their wild-type litter-mates did not. Interestingly, irradiation of Min mice at 2 to 5 weeks (before and during puberty, respectively) did not induce mammary tumors but rather cystic nodules with metaplasia. The mammary tumors exhibited increased nuclear beta-catenin protein and loss of the wild-type Apc allele. Our results show that susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis increases after puberty in Min mice, suggesting that the tumorigenic effect of ionizing radiation targets the lobular-alveolar progenitor cells, which increase in number with age and are controlled by beta-catenin signaling. (author)

  1. Chemopreventive Effects of RXR-Selective Rexinoid Bexarotene on Intestinal Neoplasia of ApcMin/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena B. Janakiram

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Retinoid X receptor (RXR has been implicated in several neoplastic diseases. Previously, we have shown that RXR-α is downregulated in human and rodent colonic tumors, suggesting a potential target for colon cancer prevention (http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/ColonandRectumCancer/DetailedGuide/colorectal-cancer-key-statistics. Experiments were designed to assess the chemopreventive efficacy of the selective RXR agonist bexarotene for the suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. Before the efficacy studies, we determined that the maximal tolerated dose in C57BL/6J mice was less than 400 ppm. For the efficacy study, 6-week-old male and female C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ mice (nine mice per group were fed diets containing 0, 30, and 60 ppm of bexarotene or 200 ppm of bexarotene for 80 days before intestinal tumors were evaluated. Dietary administration of 30 and 60 ppm of bexarotene suppressed the intestinal polyp formation by 38% (P < .015 and 60% (P < .0001 in males, respectively, and by 8.5% and 37% (P < .007 in females, respectively. Also, significant inhibition (50%–100% of colonic tumor formation was observed in both male and female mice with bexarotene treatment. Administration of 200 ppm of bexarotene showed significant suppression of tumor formation (66%, P < .0001; however, it had significant toxicity. Intestinal tumors of bexarotene-fed mice showed significantly reduced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (60%, P < .0001, cyclin D1, and cyclooxygenase 2 and increased RXR-α messenger RNA and uptake of oleate (34%, P < .01. Also, bexarotene-fed mice showed dose-dependent suppression of serum triglycerides (25%–72%, P < .0001 and inflammatory cytokines.

  2. A genome-wide shRNA screen identifies GAS1 as a novel melanoma metastasis suppressor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeil, Stephane; Zhu, Xiaochun; Doillon, Charles J; Green, Michael R

    2008-11-01

    Metastasis suppressor genes inhibit one or more steps required for metastasis without affecting primary tumor formation. Due to the complexity of the metastatic process, the development of experimental approaches for identifying genes involved in metastasis prevention has been challenging. Here we describe a genome-wide RNAi screening strategy to identify candidate metastasis suppressor genes. Following expression in weakly metastatic B16-F0 mouse melanoma cells, shRNAs were selected based upon enhanced satellite colony formation in a three-dimensional cell culture system and confirmed in a mouse experimental metastasis assay. Using this approach we discovered 22 genes whose knockdown increased metastasis without affecting primary tumor growth. We focused on one of these genes, Gas1 (Growth arrest-specific 1), because we found that it was substantially down-regulated in highly metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells, which contributed to the high metastatic potential of this mouse cell line. We further demonstrated that Gas1 has all the expected properties of a melanoma tumor suppressor including: suppression of metastasis in a spontaneous metastasis assay, promotion of apoptosis following dissemination of cells to secondary sites, and frequent down-regulation in human melanoma metastasis-derived cell lines and metastatic tumor samples. Thus, we developed a genome-wide shRNA screening strategy that enables the discovery of new metastasis suppressor genes.

  3. Concanavalin A-induced and spontaneous suppressor cell activities in peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen cells from gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toge, T; Hamamoto, S; Itagaki, E; Yajima, K; Tanada, M; Nakane, H; Kohno, H; Nakanishi, K; Hattori, T

    1983-11-01

    In 173 gastric cancer patients, activities of Concanavalin-A-induced suppressor cells (Con-AS) and spontaneous suppressor cells (SpS) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), splenic vein lymphocytes (SVL), and spleen cells (SCs) were investigated. Suppressions by Con-AS in PBL were significantly effective in patients of Stages III and IV, while suppressions by SpS were effective in patients with recurrent tumors. Thus, in PBLs of cancer patients, suppressor precursors, which are considered to be activated in vitro by Concanavalin-A, seemed to appear with the advances of the disease, and SpS activities, which could be already activated in vivo, seemed to increase in the terminal stage. In SCs, increased activities of Con-AS, but normal activities of SpS, were observed, and these suppressor-cell populations consisted of glass nonadherent cells. Suppressor activities of SCs would be due to suppressor T-cells, not to other types of cells. Furthermore, Con-AS existed in the medium-sized lymphocytes, which were fractionated on the basis of cell size, while SpS in the large-sized lymphocytes. A higher proportion of T-cells, bearing Fc receptors for IgG, was observed in the larger-sized lymphocyte fractions. Cell numbers in the large-sized lymphocyte fraction tended to increase with the advances of tumors. From these results, it is suggested that higher presence of suppressor precursors and the increase of SpS activities may occur in cancer patients, depending on the tumor advancing.

  4. State of the APC/C: Organization, function, and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Janel R.; Chaix, Denis; Ohi, Melanie D.; Gould, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation system is involved in many essential cellular processes including cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation, and the unfolded protein response.The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), an evolutionary conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase, was discovered 15 years ago because of its pivotal role in cyclin degradation and mitotic progression. Since then, we have learned that the APC/C is a very large, complex E3 ligase composed of 13 subunits, yielding a molecular machine of approximately 1 MDa. The intricate regulation of the APC/C is mediated by the Cdc20 family of activators, pseudosubstrate inhibitors, protein kinases and phosphatases and the spindle assembly checkpoint. The large size, complexity, and dynamic nature of the APC/C represent significant obstacles toward high-resolution structural techniques; however, over the last decade, there have been a number of lower resolution APC/C structures determined using single particle electron microscopy. These structures, when combined with data generated from numerous genetic and biochemical studies, have begun to shed light on how APC/C activity is regulated. Here, we discuss the most recent developments in the APC/C field concerning structure, substrate recognition, and catalysis. PMID:21261459

  5. Synergistic inhibition of the APC/C by the removal of APC15 in HCT116 cells lacking UBE2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvanska, Dimitriya H; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Nilsson, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    that has been shown to depend on the APC/C E2 enzymes, UBE2C and UBE2S. Here we investigate the in vivo role of the APC/C E2 enzymes in SAC silencing using CRISPR/Cas9 genetically engineered HCT116 UBE2C or UBE2S null cell lines. Using live cell assays, we show that UBE2C and UBE2S make a minor...... contribution to SAC silencing in HCT116 cells. Strikingly in cells specifically lacking UBE2C, we observe a strong synergistic inhibition of mitotic progression when we stabilize the MCC on the APC/C by depleting APC15, potentially reflecting increased competition between the MCC and the remaining initiating E...

  6. AICAR Antiproliferative Properties Involve the AMPK-Independent Activation of the Tumor Suppressors LATS 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Chloé; Pinson, Benoît; Dompierre, Jim; Pantesco, Véronique; Viollet, Benoît; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand; Moenner, Michel

    2018-06-01

    AICAR (Acadesine) is a pharmacological precursor of purine nucleotide biosynthesis with anti-tumoral properties. Although recognized as an AMP mimetic activator of the protein kinase AMPK, the AICAR monophosphate derivative ZMP was also shown to mediate AMPK-independent effects. In order to unveil these AMPK-independent functions, we performed a transcriptomic analysis in AMPKα1/α2 double knockout murine embryonic cells. Kinetic analysis of the cellular response to AICAR revealed the up-regulation of the large tumor suppressor kinases (Lats) 1 and 2 transcripts, followed by the repression of numerous genes downstream of the transcriptional regulators Yap1 and Taz. This transcriptional signature, together with the observation of increased levels in phosphorylation of Lats1 and Yap1 proteins, suggested that the Hippo signaling pathway was activated by AICAR. This effect was observed in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Knockdown of Lats1/2 prevented the cytoplasmic delocalization of Yap1/Taz proteins in response to AICAR and conferred a higher resistance to the drug. These results indicate that activation of the most downstream steps of the Hippo cascade participates to the antiproliferative effects of AICAR. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical mapping of chromosome 17p13.3 in the region of a putative tumor suppressor gene important in medulloblastoma

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    McDonald, J.D.; Daneshvar, L.; Willert, J.R. [Univ. of California, San Franciso, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Deletion mapping of a medulloblastoma tumor panel revealed loss of distal chromosome 17p13.3 sequences in tumors from 14 of 32 patients (44%). Of the 14 tumors showing loss of heterozygosity by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, 14 of 14 (100%) displayed loss of the telomeric marker p144-D6 (D17S34), while a probe for the ABR gene on 17p13.3 was lost in 7 of 8 (88%) informative cases. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we localized the polymorphic marker (VNTR-A) of the ABR gene locus to within 220 kb of the p144-D6 locus. A cosmid contig constructed in this region was used to demonstrate by fluorescence in situ hybridization that the ABR gene is oriented transcriptionally 5{prime} to 3{prime} toward the telomere. This report provides new physical mapping data for the ABR gene, which has not been previously shown to be deleted in medulloblastoma. These results provide further evidence for the existence of a second tumor suppressor gene distinct from p53 on distal chromosome 17p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  8. The tumor suppressor CDX2 opposes pro-metastatic biomechanical modifications of colon cancer cells through organization of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platet, Nadine; Hinkel, Isabelle; Richert, Ludovic; Murdamoothoo, Devadarssen; Moufok-Sadoun, Ahlam; Vanier, Marie; Lavalle, Philippe; Gaiddon, Christian; Vautier, Dominique; Freund, Jean-Noel; Gross, Isabelle

    2017-02-01

    The vast majority of cancer deaths are caused by the formation of metastases rather than the primary tumor itself. Despite this clinical importance, the molecular and cellular events that support the dissemination of cancer cells are not yet fully unraveled. We have previously shown that CDX2, a homeotic transcription factor essential for gut development, acts as a colon-specific tumor suppressor and opposes metastasis. Here, using a combination of biochemical, biophysical, and immunofluorescence techniques, we further investigated the mechanisms promoted by CDX2 that might antagonize tumor cell dissemination. We found that CDX2 expression regulates the transcription of RHO GEFs, thereby activating RHO signaling cascades that lead to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and enhanced adherent junctions. Accordingly, we observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that colon cancer cells expressing CDX2 are less deformable, a feature that has been shown to correlate with poor metastatic potential. Thus, this study illustrates how the loss of expression of a transcription factor during colon cancer progression modifies the biomechanical characteristics of tumor cells and hence facilitates invasion and metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular basis of APC/C regulation by the spindle assembly checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziguo; Yang, Jing; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, Mark; Barford, David

    2016-01-01

    In the dividing eukaryotic cell the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures each daughter cell inherits an identical set of chromosomes. The SAC coordinates the correct attachment of sister chromatid kinetochores to the mitotic spindle with activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), the E3 ubiquitin ligase that initiates chromosome separation. In response to unattached kinetochores, the SAC generates the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), a multimeric assembly that inhibits the APC/C, delaying chromosome segregation. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy we determined the near-atomic resolution structure of an APC/C-MCC complex (APC/CMCC). We reveal how degron-like sequences of the MCC subunit BubR1 block degron recognition sites on Cdc20, the APC/C coactivator subunit (Cdc20APC/C) responsible for substrate interactions. BubR1 also obstructs binding of UbcH10 (APC/C’s initiating E2) to repress APC/C ubiquitination activity. Conformational variability of the complex allows for UbcH10 association, and we show from a structure of APC/CMCC in complex with UbcH10 how the Cdc20 subunit intrinsic to the MCC (Cdc20MCC) is ubiquitinated, a process that results in APC/C reactivation when the SAC is silenced. PMID:27509861

  10. Focal Adhesion Kinase Is Required for Intestinal Regeneration and Tumorigenesis Downstream of Wnt/c-Myc Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Gabrielle H.; Morton, Jennifer P.; Myant, Kevin; Phesse, Toby J.; Ridgway, Rachel A.; Marsh, Victoria; Wilkins, Julie A.; Athineos, Dimitris; Muncan, Vanesa; Kemp, Richard; Neufeld, Kristi; Clevers, Hans; Brunton, Valerie; Winton, Douglas J.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sears, Rosalie C.; Clarke, Alan R.; Frame, Margaret C.; Sansom, Owen J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The intestinal epithelium has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury and DNA damage. Here, we show that the integrin effector protein Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is dispensable for normal intestinal homeostasis and DNA damage signaling, but is essential for intestinal regeneration following DNA damage. Given Wnt/c-Myc signaling is activated following intestinal regeneration, we investigated the functional importance of FAK following deletion of the Apc tumor suppressor protein within the intestinal epithelium. Following Apc loss, FAK expression increased in a c-Myc-dependent manner. Codeletion of Apc and Fak strongly reduced proliferation normally induced following Apc loss, and this was associated with reduced levels of phospho-Akt and suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc heterozygous mice. Thus, FAK is required downstream of Wnt Signaling, for Akt/mTOR activation, intestinal regeneration, and tumorigenesis. Importantly, this work suggests that FAK inhibitors may suppress tumorigenesis in patients at high risk of developing colorectal cancer. PMID:20708588

  11. Quantitative framework for ordered degradation of APC/C substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dan; Girard, Juliet R; Li, Weihan; Mizrak, Arda; Morgan, David O

    2015-11-16

    During cell-cycle progression, substrates of a single master regulatory enzyme can be modified in a specific order. Here, we used experimental and computational approaches to dissect the quantitative mechanisms underlying the ordered degradation of the substrates of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C(Cdc20), a key regulator of chromosome segregation in mitosis. We show experimentally that the rate of catalysis varies with different substrates of APC/C(Cdc20). Using a computational model based on multi-step ubiquitination, we then show how changes in the interaction between a single substrate and APC/C(Cdc20) can alter the timing of degradation onset relative to APC/C(Cdc20) activation, while ensuring a fast degradation rate. Degradation timing and dynamics depend on substrate affinity for the enzyme as well as the catalytic rate at which the substrate is modified. When two substrates share the same pool of APC/C(Cdc20), their relative enzyme affinities and rates of catalysis influence the partitioning of APC/C(Cdc20) among substrates, resulting in substrate competition. Depending on how APC/C(Cdc20) is partitioned among its substrates, competition can have minor or major effects on the degradation of certain substrates. We show experimentally that increased expression of the early APC/C(Cdc20) substrate Clb5 does not delay the degradation of the later substrate securin, arguing against a role for competition with Clb5 in establishing securin degradation timing. The degradation timing of APC/C(Cdc20) substrates depends on the multi-step nature of ubiquitination, differences in substrate-APC/C(Cdc20) interactions, and competition among substrates. Our studies provide a conceptual framework for understanding how ordered modification can be established among substrates of the same regulatory enzyme, and facilitate our understanding of how precise temporal control is achieved by a small number of master regulators to ensure a successful cell division cycle.

  12. Prdm5 suppresses Apc(Min)-driven intestinal adenomas and regulates monoacylglycerol lipase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, G G; Multhaupt, H A; Carrara, M

    2013-01-01

    PRDM proteins are tissue-specific transcription factors often deregulated in diseases, particularly in cancer where different members have been found to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. PRDM5 is a poorly characterized member of the PRDM family for which several studies have reported a high ...... PRDM5 target repertoire likely facilitating the tumor-suppressive functions of PRDM5.Oncogene advance online publication, 22 July 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.283....

  13. Emerging differential roles of the pRb tumor suppressor in trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus and Merkel cell polyomavirus pathogeneses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Julie H; Simonette, Rebecca A; Nguyen, Harrison P; Doan, Hung Q; Rady, Peter L; Tyring, Stephen K

    2016-03-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS) are two proliferative cutaneous diseases caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) respectively. Recently, studies have elucidated a key role of the small tumor (sT) antigen in the proliferative pathogenic mechanisms of MCPyV and likely TSPyV. While both sT antigens have demonstrated a capacity in regulating cellular pathways, it remains unknown whether MCPyV and TSPyV sT antigens contribute similarly or differentially to cell proliferation. The present study aims to explore the proliferative potential of MCPyV and TSPyV sT antigens by investigating their regulatory effects on the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) tumor suppressor. Inducible cell lines expressing MCPyV sT or TSPyV sT were created using a lentiviral packaging system. Cellular proteins were extracted and subjected to SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot detection and densitometric analysis. Expression of TSPyV sT markedly enhanced the phosphorylation of pRb in Western blot experiments. In contrast, expression of MCPyV sT did not alter pRb phosphorylation under the same experimental conditions. Densitometric analysis revealed that TSPyV sT antigen expression nearly doubled the ratio of phosphorylated to total pRb (P<0.001, Student's T-test), while MCPyV sT antigen expression did not cause significant change in pRb phosphorylation status. Given that hyperphosphorylation of pRb is associated with dysregulation of the cell cycle, S-phase induction, and increased cell proliferation, our findings support an important role of TSPyV-mediated pRb deactivation in the development of TS. The observation that the pRb tumor suppressor is inactivated by TSPyV sT but not MCPyV sT provides further insights into the distinct pathobiological mechanisms of MCC and TS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. MicroRNA-148b is frequently down-regulated in gastric cancer and acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are involved in cancer development and progression, acting as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Our previous studies have revealed that miR-148a and miR-152 are significantly down-regulated in gastrointestinal cancers. Interestingly, miR-148b has the same "seed sequences" as miR-148a and miR-152. Although aberrant expression of miR-148b has been observed in several types of cancer, its pathophysiologic role and relevance to tumorigenesis are still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which miR-148b acts as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. Results We showed significant down-regulation of miR-148b in 106 gastric cancer tissues and four gastric cancer cell lines, compared with their non-tumor counterparts by real-time RT-PCR. In situ hybridization of ten cases confirmed an overt decrease in the level of miR-148b in gastric cancer tissues. Moreover, the expression of miR-148b was demonstrated to be associated with tumor size (P = 0.027 by a Mann-Whitney U test. We also found that miR-148b could inhibit cell proliferation in vitro by MTT assay, growth curves and an anchorage-independent growth assay in MGC-803, SGC-7901, BGC-823 and AGS cells. An experiment in nude mice revealed that miR-148b could suppress tumorigenicity in vivo. Using a luciferase activity assay and western blot, CCKBR was identified as a target of miR-148b in cells. Moreover, an obvious inverse correlation was observed between the expression of CCKBR protein and miR-148b in 49 pairs of tissues (P = 0.002, Spearman's correlation. Conclusions These findings provide important evidence that miR-148b targets CCKBR and is significant in suppressing gastric cancer cell growth. Maybe miR-148b would become a potential biomarker and therapeutic target against gastric cancer.

  15. IL-33 activates tumor stroma to promote intestinal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Rebecca L; Doerner, Stephanie K; Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Benton, Susan M; Dawson, Emily P; Lanza, Denise G; Berger, Nathan A; Markowitz, Sanford D; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Nadeau, Joseph H; Pizarro, Theresa T; Heaney, Jason D

    2015-05-12

    Tumor epithelial cells develop within a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix, growth factors, and cytokines produced by nonepithelial stromal cells. In response to paracrine signals from tumor epithelia, stromal cells modify the microenvironment to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we identify interleukin 33 (IL-33) as a regulator of tumor stromal cell activation and mediator of intestinal polyposis. In human colorectal cancer, IL-33 expression was induced in the tumor epithelium of adenomas and carcinomas, and expression of the IL-33 receptor, IL1RL1 (also referred to as IL1-R4 or ST2), localized predominantly to the stroma of adenoma and both the stroma and epithelium of carcinoma. Genetic and antibody abrogation of responsiveness to IL-33 in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed angiogenesis in adenomatous polyps, which reduced both tumor number and size. Similar to human adenomas, IL-33 expression localized to tumor epithelial cells and expression of IL1RL1 associated with two stromal cell types, subepithelial myofibroblasts and mast cells, in Apc(Min/+) polyps. In vitro, IL-33 stimulation of human subepithelial myofibroblasts induced the expression of extracellular matrix components and growth factors associated with intestinal tumor progression. IL-33 deficiency reduced mast cell accumulation in Apc(Min/+) polyps and suppressed the expression of mast cell-derived proteases and cytokines known to promote polyposis. Based on these findings, we propose that IL-33 derived from the tumor epithelium promotes polyposis through the coordinated activation of stromal cells and the formation of a protumorigenic microenvironment.

  16. miR-132 and miR-212 are increased in pancreatic cancer and target the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Kook; Henry, Jon C.; Jiang, Jinmai; Esau, Christine; Gusev, Yuriy; Lerner, Megan R.; Postier, Russell G.; Brackett, Daniel J.; Schmittgen, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The expression of miR-132 and miR-212 are significantly increased in pancreatic cancer. → miR-132 and miR-212 target the tumor suppressor pRb, resulting in enhanced proliferation. → miR-132 and miR-212 expression is increased by a β2 adrenergic receptor agonist, suggesting a novel mechanism for pancreatic cancer progression. -- Abstract: Numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) are reported as differentially expressed in cancer, however the consequence of miRNA deregulation in cancer is unknown for many miRNAs. We report that two miRNAs located on chromosome 17p13, miR-132 and miR-212, are over-expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues. Both miRNAs are predicted to target the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor, Rb1. Validation of this interaction was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay and western blot in a pancreatic cancer cell line transfected with pre-miR-212 and pre-miR-132 oligos. Cell proliferation was enhanced in Panc-1 cells transfected with pre-miR-132/-212 oligos. Conversely, antisense oligos to miR-132/-212 reduced cell proliferation and caused a G 2 /M cell cycle arrest. The mRNA of a number of E2F transcriptional targets were increased in cells over expressing miR-132/-212. Exposing Panc-1 cells to the β2 adrenergic receptor agonist, terbutaline, increased the miR-132 and miR-212 expression by 2- to 4-fold. We report that over-expression of miR-132 and miR-212 result in reduced pRb protein in pancreatic cancer cells and that the increase in cell proliferation from over-expression of these miRNAs is likely due to increased expression of several E2F target genes. The β2 adrenergic pathway may play an important role in this novel mechanism.

  17. APC implementation in Chandra Asri - ethylene plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiq, Mochamad; Mustofa, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the modern process plants are continuously improved for maximizing production, Optimization of the energy and raw material and reducing the risk. Due to many disturbances appearance between the process units, hence, the failure of one unit might have a bad effect on the overall productivity. Ethylene Plant have significant opportunities for using Advanced Process Control (APC) technologies to improve operation stability, push closer to quality or equipment limit, and improve the capability of process units to handle disturbances. APC implementation had considered a best answer for solving multivariable control problem. PT. Chandra Asri Petrochemical, Tbk (CAP) operates a large naphtha cracker complex at Cilegon, Indonesia. To optimize the plant operation and to enhance the benefit, Chandra Asri has been decided to implement Advance Process Control (APC) for ethylene plant. The APC implementation technology scopes at CAP are as follows: 1. Hot Section : Furnaces, Quench Tower 2. Cold Section : Demethanizer, Deethanizer, Acetylene Converter, Ethylene Fractionator, Depropanizer, Propylene Fractionator, Debutanizer

  18. Genetic and biochemical evidence that haploinsufficiency of the Nf1 tumor suppressor gene modulates melanocyte and mast cell fates in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D A; Yang, F C; Travers, J B; Wenning, M J; Hiatt, K; New, S; Hood, A; Shannon, K; Williams, D A; Clapp, D W

    2000-01-03

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutaneous neurofibromas infiltrated with large numbers of mast cells, melanocyte hyperplasia, and a predisposition to develop malignant neoplasms. NF1 encodes a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Ras. Consistent with Knudson's "two hit" model of tumor suppressor genes, leukemias and malignant solid tumors in NF1 patients frequently demonstrate somatic loss of the normal NF1 allele. However, the phenotypic and biochemical consequences of heterozygous inactivation of Nf1 are largely unknown. Recently neurofibromin, the protein encoded by NF1, was shown to negatively regulate Ras activity in Nf1-/- murine myeloid hematopoietic cells in vitro through the c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase (dominant white spotting, W). Since the W and Nf1 locus appear to function along a common developmental pathway, we generated mice with mutations at both loci to examine potential interactions in vivo. Here, we show that haploinsufficiency at Nf1 perturbs cell fates in mast cells in vivo, and partially rescues coat color and mast cell defects in W(41) mice. Haploinsufficiency at Nf1 also increased mast cell proliferation, survival, and colony formation in response to Steel factor, the ligand for c-kit. Furthermore, haploinsufficiency was associated with enhanced Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, a major downstream effector of Ras, via wild-type and mutant (W(41)) c-kit receptors. These observations identify a novel interaction between c-kit and neurofibromin in vivo, and offer experimental evidence that haploinsufficiency of Nf1 alters both cellular and biochemical phenotypes in two cell lineages that are affected in individuals with NF1. Collectively, these data support the emerging concept that heterozygous inactivation of tumor suppressor genes may have profound biological effects in multiple cell types.

  19. Selenium and sulindac are synergistic to inhibit intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc/p21 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Xiuli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both selenium and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID sulindac are effective in cancer prevention, but their effects are affected by several factors including epigenetic alterations and gene expression. The current study was designed to determine the effects of the combination of selenium and sulindac on tumor inhibition and the underlying mechanisms. Results We fed the intestinal tumor model Apc/p21 mice with selenium- and sulindac-supplemented diet for 24 weeks, and found that the combination of selenium and sulindac significantly inhibited intestinal tumorigenesis, in terms of reducing tumor incidence by 52% and tumor multiplicities by 80% (p Conclusions The selenium is synergistic with sulindac to exert maximal effects on tumor inhibition. This finding provides an important chemopreventive strategy using combination of anti-cancer agents, which has a great impact on cancer prevention and has a promising translational potential.

  20. Inactivation of promoter 1B of APC causes partial gene silencing: evidence for a significant role of the promoter in regulation and causative of familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohlin, A; Engwall, Y; Fritzell, K

    2011-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Two promoters, 1A and 1B, have been recognized in APC, and 1B is thought to have a minor role in the regulation of the gene. We have identified a novel deletion encompassing half of ...... homozygous inactivation of APC allowing for alternative genetic models as basis for adenoma formation.Oncogene advance online publication, 6 June 2011; doi:10.1038/onc.2011.201....... in a panel of 20 various normal tissues examined. In FAP-related tumors, the APC germline mutation is proposed to dictate the second hit. Mutations leaving two or three out of seven 20-amino-acid repeats in the central domain of APC intact seem to be required for tumorigenesis. We examined adenomas from...... mutation carriers in Family 1 for second hits in the entire gene without any findings, however, loss of the residual expression of the deleterious allele was observed. Three major conclusions of significant importance in relation to the function of APC can be drawn from this study; (i) germline...

  1. Epigenetic regulation of APC in the molecular pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekcham, Dinesh Singh; Poojary, Satish S; Bhunia, Shushruta; Barbhuiya, Mustafa Ahmed; Gupta, Sanjeev; Shrivastav, Braj Raj; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Loss of function of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) has been reported in cancer. The two promoters of APC, 1A and 1B also have roles in cancer. But, the epigenetic role of APC promoters is not yet clear in gallbladder cancer (GBC) and gallstone diseases (GSD). We undertook this study to determine the epigenetic role of APC in GBC and GSD. Methylation-specific (MS)-PCR was used to analyze the methylation of APC gene. The expression of APC gene was studied by semi-quantitative PCR, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in GBC, GSD and adjacent normal tissues. Of the two promoters, APC 1A promoter was found methylated in 96 per cent GBC ( P=0.0155) and 80 per cent GSD (P=0.015). Exon 1 was downregulated in grade II (P=0.002) and grade III (P=0.0001) of GBC, while exon 2 was normally expressed. Scoring analysis of IHC revealed 0 or negativity in 34.48 per cent (P=0.057) and 1+ in 24.14 per cent (P=0.005) GBC cases suggesting loss of APC expression. The present findings indicate epigenetic silencing of APC in advanced GBC. The methylation pattern, followed by expression analysis of APC may be suggested for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic purposes in GBC in future.

  2. Occult progression by Apc-deficient intestinal crypts as a target for chemoprevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskay, R.Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although Apc mutation is widely considered an initiating event in colorectal cancer, little is known about the earliest stages of tumorigenesis following sporadic Apc loss. Therefore, we have utilized a novel mouse model that facilitates the sporadic inactivation of Apc via frameshift reversion of Cre in single, isolated cells and subsequently tracks the fates of Apc-deficient intestinal cells. Our results suggest that consistent with Apc being a ‘gatekeeper’, loss of Apc early in life during intestinal growth leads to adenomas or increased crypt fission, manifested by fields of mutant but otherwise normal-appearing crypts. In contrast, Apc loss occurring later in life has minimal consequences, with mutant crypts being less prone to either increased crypt fission or adenoma formation. Using the stem cell-specific Lgr5-CreER mouse, we generated different sized fields of Apc-deficient crypts via independent recombination events and found that field size correlates with progression to adenoma. To evaluate this early stage prior to adenoma formation as a therapeutic target, we examined the chemopreventive effects of sulindac on Apc-deficient occult crypt fission. We found that sulindac treatment started early in life inhibits the morphologically occult spread of Apc-deficient crypts and thus reduces adenoma numbers. Taken together these results suggest that: (i) earlier Apc loss promotes increased crypt fission, (ii) a field of Apc-deficient crypts, which can form via occult crypt fission or independent neighboring events, is an important intermediate between loss of Apc and adenoma formation and (iii) normal-appearing Apc-deficient crypts are potential unappreciated targets for cancer screening and chemoprevention. PMID:23996931

  3. Identification of myeloid derived suppressor cells in the peripheral blood of tumor bearing dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherger Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are a recently described population of immune cells that significantly contribute to the immunosuppression seen in cancer patients. MDSCs are one of the most important factors that limit the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy (e.g. cancer vaccines and MDSC levels are increased in cancer in multiple species. Identifying and targeting MDSCs is actively being investigated in the field of human oncology and is increasingly being investigated in veterinary oncology. The treatment of canine cancer not only benefits dogs, but is being used for translational studies evaluating and modifcying candidate therapies for use in humans. Thus, it is necessary to understand the immune alterations seen in canine cancer patients which, to date, have been relatively limited. This study investigates the use of commercially available canine antibodies to detect an immunosuppressive (CD11blow/CADO48low cell population that is increased in the peripheral blood of tumor-bearing dogs. Results Commercially available canine antibodies CD11b and CADO48A were used to evaluate white blood cells from the peripheral blood cells of forty healthy control dogs and forty untreated, tumor-bearing dogs. Tumor-bearing dogs had a statistically significant increase in CD11blow/CADO48Alow cells (7.9% as compared to the control dogs (3.6%. Additionally, sorted CD11blow/CADO48Alow generated in vitro suppressed the proliferation of canine lymphocytes. Conclusions The purpose of this study was aimed at identifying potential canine specific markers for identifying MDSCs in the peripheral blood circulation of dogs. This study demonstrates an increase in a unique CD11blow/CADO48Alow cell population in tumor-bearing dogs. This immunophenotype is consistent with described phenotypes of MDSCs in other species (i.e. mice and utilizes commercially available canine-specific antibodies. Importantly, CD11blow/CADO48Alow from a tumor environment

  4. MiR-564 functions as a tumor suppressor in human lung cancer by targeting ZIC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [Department of Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Jia, Lin [Department of Nephrology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Guo, Qiaojuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Provincial Clinical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350000 (China); Ren, Hui; Hu, Desheng; Zhou, Xiaoyi; Ren, Qingrong [Department of Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Hu, Yanping, E-mail: huyp1989@163.com [Department of Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Xie, Tao, E-mail: xietao930@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)

    2015-11-27

    Although miR-564 was reported to be dysregulated in human malignancy, the function and mechanism of miR-564 in tumorigenesis remains unknown. In the present study, we found that miR-564 frequently downregulated in lung cancer cells and significantly inhibited cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, motility, and the tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells. Moreover, we identified zic family member 3 (ZIC3) as a direct target of miR-564. ZIC3 overexpression impaired the suppressive effects of miR-564 on the capacity of lung cancer cells for proliferation and motility. Finally, we detected the expression level of miR-564 and ZIC3 protein in tissue specimens, and found a significant negative correlation between them. Patients with low levels of miR-564 showed a poorer overall survival. Taken together, our present study revealed the tumor suppressor role of miR-564, indicating restoration of miR-564 as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. - Highlights: • MiR-564 inhibits cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, and invasion. • miR-564 suppresses the tumorigenicity of lung cancer cell in vivo. • ZIC3 is a direct and functional target of miR-564. • The expression of miR-564 was negatively correlated with ZIC3 protein in tumors. • Both low miR-564 and high ZIC3 was associated with tumor stage and prognosis.

  5. MiR-564 functions as a tumor suppressor in human lung cancer by targeting ZIC3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Bin; Jia, Lin; Guo, Qiaojuan; Ren, Hui; Hu, Desheng; Zhou, Xiaoyi; Ren, Qingrong; Hu, Yanping; Xie, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Although miR-564 was reported to be dysregulated in human malignancy, the function and mechanism of miR-564 in tumorigenesis remains unknown. In the present study, we found that miR-564 frequently downregulated in lung cancer cells and significantly inhibited cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, motility, and the tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells. Moreover, we identified zic family member 3 (ZIC3) as a direct target of miR-564. ZIC3 overexpression impaired the suppressive effects of miR-564 on the capacity of lung cancer cells for proliferation and motility. Finally, we detected the expression level of miR-564 and ZIC3 protein in tissue specimens, and found a significant negative correlation between them. Patients with low levels of miR-564 showed a poorer overall survival. Taken together, our present study revealed the tumor suppressor role of miR-564, indicating restoration of miR-564 as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. - Highlights: • MiR-564 inhibits cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, and invasion. • miR-564 suppresses the tumorigenicity of lung cancer cell in vivo. • ZIC3 is a direct and functional target of miR-564. • The expression of miR-564 was negatively correlated with ZIC3 protein in tumors. • Both low miR-564 and high ZIC3 was associated with tumor stage and prognosis.

  6. Tumor Suppression and Promotion by Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenniffer Ávalos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic process that involves lysosomal degradation of proteins and organelles, mostly mitochondria, for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and reduction of metabolic stress. Problems in the execution of this process are linked to different pathological conditions, such as neurodegeneration, aging, and cancer. Many of the proteins that regulate autophagy are either oncogenes or tumor suppressor proteins. Specifically, tumor suppressor genes that negatively regulate mTOR, such as PTEN, AMPK, LKB1, and TSC1/2 stimulate autophagy while, conversely, oncogenes that activate mTOR, such as class I PI3K, Ras, Rheb, and AKT, inhibit autophagy, suggesting that autophagy is a tumor suppressor mechanism. Consistent with this hypothesis, the inhibition of autophagy promotes oxidative stress, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, autophagy also functions as a cytoprotective mechanism under stress conditions, including hypoxia and nutrient starvation, that promotes tumor growth and resistance to chemotherapy in established tumors. Here, in this brief review, we will focus the discussion on this ambiguous role of autophagy in the development and progression of cancer.

  7. Tumor suppression and promotion by autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávalos, Yenniffer; Canales, Jimena; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Criollo, Alfredo; Lavandero, Sergio; Quest, Andrew F G

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic process that involves lysosomal degradation of proteins and organelles, mostly mitochondria, for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and reduction of metabolic stress. Problems in the execution of this process are linked to different pathological conditions, such as neurodegeneration, aging, and cancer. Many of the proteins that regulate autophagy are either oncogenes or tumor suppressor proteins. Specifically, tumor suppressor genes that negatively regulate mTOR, such as PTEN, AMPK, LKB1, and TSC1/2 stimulate autophagy while, conversely, oncogenes that activate mTOR, such as class I PI3K, Ras, Rheb, and AKT, inhibit autophagy, suggesting that autophagy is a tumor suppressor mechanism. Consistent with this hypothesis, the inhibition of autophagy promotes oxidative stress, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, autophagy also functions as a cytoprotective mechanism under stress conditions, including hypoxia and nutrient starvation, that promotes tumor growth and resistance to chemotherapy in established tumors. Here, in this brief review, we will focus the discussion on this ambiguous role of autophagy in the development and progression of cancer.

  8. Resistance to EGF receptor inhibitors in glioblastoma mediated by phosphorylation of the PTEN tumor suppressor at tyrosine 240.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Tim R; Nathanson, David; Ponte de Albuquerque, Claudio; Kuga, Daisuke; Iwanami, Akio; Dang, Julie; Yang, Huijun; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Uno, Miyuki; Inda, Maria del Mar; Wykosky, Jill; Bachoo, Robert M; James, C David; DePinho, Ronald A; Vandenberg, Scott R; Zhou, Huilin; Marie, Suely K N; Mischel, Paul S; Cavenee, Webster K; Furnari, Frank B

    2012-08-28

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive of the astrocytic malignancies and the most common intracranial tumor in adults. Although the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed and/or mutated in at least 50% of GBM cases and is required for tumor maintenance in animal models, EGFR inhibitors have thus far failed to deliver significant responses in GBM patients. One inherent resistance mechanism in GBM is the coactivation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, which generates redundancy in activation of phosphoinositide-3'-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Here we demonstrate that the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor suppressor is frequently phosphorylated at a conserved tyrosine residue, Y240, in GBM clinical samples. Phosphorylation of Y240 is associated with shortened overall survival and resistance to EGFR inhibitor therapy in GBM patients and plays an active role in mediating resistance to EGFR inhibition in vitro. Y240 phosphorylation can be mediated by both fibroblast growth factor receptors and SRC family kinases (SFKs) but does not affect the ability of PTEN to antagonize PI3K signaling. These findings show that, in addition to genetic loss and mutation of PTEN, its modulation by tyrosine phosphorylation has important implications for the development and treatment of GBM.

  9. Loss of heterozygosity of CDKN2A (p16INK4a) and RB1 tumor suppressor genes in testicular germ cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladusic, Tomislav; Hrascan, Reno; Pecina-Slaus, Nives; Vrhovac, Ivana; Gamulin, Marija; Franekic, Jasna; Kruslin, Bozo

    2010-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most frequent malignances in young adult men. The two main histological forms, seminomas and nonseminomas, differ biologically and clinically. pRB protein and its immediate upstream regulator p16INK4a are involved in the RB pathway which is deregulated in most TGCTs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the CDKN2A (p16INK4a) and RB1 tumor suppressor genes in TGCTs. Forty TGCTs (18 seminomas and 22 nonseminomas) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using the restriction fragment length polymorphism or the nucleotide repeat polymorphism method. LOH of the CDKN2A was found in two (6%) out of 34 (85%) informative cases of our total TGCT sample. The observed changes were assigned to two (11%) nonseminomas out of 18 (82%) informative samples. Furthermore, LOH of the RB1 was detected in two (6%) out of 34 (85%) informative cases of our total TGCT sample. Once again, the observed changes were assigned to two (10.5%) nonseminomas out of 19 (86%) informative samples. Both LOHs of the CDKN2A were found in nonseminomas with a yolk sac tumor component, and both LOHs of the RB1 were found in nonseminomas with an embryonal carcinoma component. The higher incidence of observed LOH in nonseminomas may provide a clue to their invasive behavior

  10. Link of the unique oncogenic properties of adenovirus type 9 E4-ORF1 to a select interaction with the candidate tumor suppressor protein ZO-2

    OpenAIRE

    Glaunsinger, Britt A.; Weiss, Robert S.; Lee, Siu Sylvia; Javier, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Adenovirus type 9 (Ad9) is distinct among human adenoviruses because it elicits solely mammary tumors in animals and its primary oncogenic determinant is the E4 region-encoded ORF1 (E4-ORF1) protein. We report here that the PDZ domain-containing protein ZO-2, which is a candidate tumor suppressor protein, is a cellular target for tumorigenic Ad9 E4-ORF1 but not for non-tumorigenic wild-type E4-ORF1 proteins encoded by adenovirus types 5 and 12. Complex formation was mediated by the C-terminal...

  11. Tumor-suppressor activity of RRIG1 in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guihong; Brewster, Abenaa; Guan, Baoxiang; Fan, Zhen; Brown, Powel H; Xu, Xiao-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Retinoid receptor-induced gene-1 (RRIG1) is a novel gene that has been lost in several types of human cancers. The aim of this study was to determine whether RRIG1 plays a role in breast cancer, such as in the suppression of breast cancer cell growth and invasion. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect RRIG1 expression in breast tissue specimens. Gene transfection was used to restore or knock down RRIG1 expression in breast cancer cell lines for analysis of cell viability, colony formation, and migration/invasion potential. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays were used to detect the changes in gene expression. The RhoA activation assay was used to assess RRIG1-induced inhibition of RhoA activity. The immunohistochemical data showed that RRIG1 expression was reduced in breast cancer tissues compared with normal and atypical hyperplastic breast tissues. RRIG1 expression was inversely correlated with lymph node metastasis of breast cancer but was not associated with the status of hormone receptors, such as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or HER2. Furthermore, restoration of RRIG1 expression inhibited proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells. Expression of RRIG1 also reduced phosphorylated Erk1/2 and Akt levels; c-Jun, MMP9, and Akt expressions; and RhoA activity. In contrast, knockdown of RRIG1 expression promoted breast cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion potential. The data from the current study indicated that RRIG1 expression was reduced or lost in breast cancer and that restoration of RRIG1 expression suppressed breast cancer cell growth and invasion capacity. Future studies will determine the underlying molecular mechanisms and define RRIG1 as a tumor-suppressor gene in breast cancer

  12. APC sets the Wnt tone necessary for cerebral cortical progenitor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Naoki; Li, Jingjun; Yabuno-Nakagawa, Keiko; Eom, Tae-Yeon; Cowles, Martis; Mapp, Tavien; Taylor, Robin; Anton, E S

    2017-08-15

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) regulates the activity of β-catenin, an integral component of Wnt signaling. However, the selective role of the APC-β-catenin pathway in cerebral cortical development is unknown. Here we genetically dissected the relative contributions of APC-regulated β-catenin signaling in cortical progenitor development, a necessary early step in cerebral cortical formation. Radial progenitor-specific inactivation of the APC-β-catenin pathway indicates that the maintenance of appropriate β-catenin-mediated Wnt tone is necessary for the orderly differentiation of cortical progenitors and the resultant formation of the cerebral cortex. APC deletion deregulates β-catenin, leads to high Wnt tone, and disrupts Notch1 signaling and primary cilium maintenance necessary for radial progenitor functions. β-Catenin deregulation directly disrupts cilium maintenance and signaling via Tulp3, essential for intraflagellar transport of ciliary signaling receptors. Surprisingly, deletion of β-catenin or inhibition of β-catenin activity in APC-null progenitors rescues the APC-null phenotype. These results reveal that APC-regulated β-catenin activity in cortical progenitors sets the appropriate Wnt tone necessary for normal cerebral cortical development. © 2017 Nakagawa et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Stat6 Promotes Intestinal Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model of Adenomatous Polyposis by Expansion of MDSCs and Inhibition of Cytotoxic CD8 Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Jayakumar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ model is initiated by aberrant activation of Wnt pathway. Increased IL-4 expression in human colorectal cancer tissue and growth of colon cancer cell lines implied that IL-4–induced Stat6-mediated tumorigenic signaling likely contributes to intestinal tumor progression in ApcMin/+ mice. Stat6 also appears to promote expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs cells. MDSCs promote polyp formation in the ApcMin/+ model. Hence, Stat6 could have a broad role in coordinating both polyp cell proliferation and MDSC expansion. We found that IL-4–induced Stat6-mediated proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells is augmented by platelet-derived growth factor–BB, a tumor-promoting growth factor. To determine whether polyp progression in ApcMin/+ mice is dependent on Stat6 signaling, we disrupted Stat6 in this model. Total polyps in the small intestine were fewer in ApcMin/+ mice lacking Stat6. Furthermore, proliferation of polyp epithelial cells was reduced, indicating that Stat6 in part controlled polyp formation. Stat6 also promoted expansion of MDSCs in the spleen and lamina propria of ApcMin/+ mice, implying regulation of antitumor T-cell response. More CD8 cells and reduced PD-1 expression on CD4 cells correlated with reduced polyps. In addition, a strong CD8-mediated cytotoxic response led to killing of tumor cells in Stat6-deficient ApcMin/+ mice. Therefore, these findings show that Stat6 has an oncogenic role in intestinal tumorigenesis by promoting polyp cell proliferation and immunosuppressive mediators, and preventing an active cytotoxic process.

  14. Stat6 Promotes Intestinal Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model of Adenomatous Polyposis by Expansion of MDSCs and Inhibition of Cytotoxic CD8 Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Asha; Bothwell, Alfred L M

    2017-08-01

    Intestinal tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ model is initiated by aberrant activation of Wnt pathway. Increased IL-4 expression in human colorectal cancer tissue and growth of colon cancer cell lines implied that IL-4-induced Stat6-mediated tumorigenic signaling likely contributes to intestinal tumor progression in ApcMin/+ mice. Stat6 also appears to promote expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) cells. MDSCs promote polyp formation in the ApcMin/+ model. Hence, Stat6 could have a broad role in coordinating both polyp cell proliferation and MDSC expansion. We found that IL-4-induced Stat6-mediated proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells is augmented by platelet-derived growth factor-BB, a tumor-promoting growth factor. To determine whether polyp progression in ApcMin/+ mice is dependent on Stat6 signaling, we disrupted Stat6 in this model. Total polyps in the small intestine were fewer in ApcMin/+ mice lacking Stat6. Furthermore, proliferation of polyp epithelial cells was reduced, indicating that Stat6 in part controlled polyp formation. Stat6 also promoted expansion of MDSCs in the spleen and lamina propria of ApcMin/+ mice, implying regulation of antitumor T-cell response. More CD8 cells and reduced PD-1 expression on CD4 cells correlated with reduced polyps. In addition, a strong CD8-mediated cytotoxic response led to killing of tumor cells in Stat6-deficient ApcMin/+ mice. Therefore, these findings show that Stat6 has an oncogenic role in intestinal tumorigenesis by promoting polyp cell proliferation and immunosuppressive mediators, and preventing an active cytotoxic process. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Loss of PACS-2 delays regeneration in DSS-induced colitis but does not affect the ApcMin model of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Sarah L.; Schwarz, Jeanette; Samsøe-Petersen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    in these processes. Specifically, we analyzed the role of Pacs2- deficiency in a DSS-induced colitis model as well as in the genetic ApcMin colon cancer model. We now report that loss of PACS-2 delays tissue regeneration after colonic injury with little effect on key inflammatory parameters. We did however...... not observe any apparent effects on tumor formation driven by excessive proliferative signaling downstream from APC-deficiency. Our findings reveal that the role of PACS- 2 in regulating ADAM17-mediated shedding is not an obligate requirement for the epithelium to respond to the strong inflammatory...

  16. Structures of the APC–ARM domain in complexes with discrete Amer1/WTX fragments reveal that it uses a consensus mode to recognize its binding partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyi; Akyildiz, Senem; Xiao, Yafei; Gai, Zhongchao; An, Ying; Behrens, Jürgen; Wu, Geng

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor APC employs its conserved armadillo repeat (ARM) domain to recognize many of its binding partners, including Amer1/WTX, which is mutated in Wilms' tumor and bone overgrowth syndrome. The APC–Amer1 complex has important roles in regulating Wnt signaling and cell adhesion. Three sites A1, A2, and A3 of Amer1 have been reported to mediate its interaction with APC-ARM. In this study, crystal structures of APC–ARM in complexes with Amer1-A1, -A2, and -A4, which is newly identified in this work, were determined. Combined with our GST pull-down, yeast two-hybrid, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assay results using mutants of APC and Amer1 interface residues, our structures demonstrate that Amer1-A1, -A2, and -A4, as well as other APC-binding proteins such as Asef and Sam68, all employ a common recognition pattern to associate with APC–ARM. In contrast, Amer1-A3 binds to the C-terminal side of APC–ARM through a bipartite interaction mode. Composite mutations on either APC or Amer1 disrupting all four interfaces abrogated their association in cultured cells and impaired the membrane recruitment of APC by Amer1. Our study thus comprehensively elucidated the recognition mechanism between APC and Amer1, and revealed a consensus recognition sequence employed by various APC–ARM binding partners. PMID:27462415

  17. Downregulation of tumor suppressor QKI in gastric cancer and its implication in cancer prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, Yongqian; Wang, Li; Lu, Huanyu; Yang, Guodong; Zhang, Zhang; Fu, Haiyan; Lu, Xiaozhao; Wei, Mengying; Sun, Jianyong; Zhao, Qingchuan; Dong, Guanglong; Lu, Zifan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► QKI expression is decreased in gastric cancer samples. ► Promoter hyper methylation contributes to the downregulation of QKI. ► QKI inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells. ► Decreased QKI expression predicts poor survival. -- Abstract: Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. RNA-binding protein Quaking (QKI) is a newly identified tumor suppressor in multiple cancers, while its role in GC is largely unknown. Our study here aimed to clarify the relationship between QKI expression with the clinicopathologic characteristics and the prognosis of GC. In the 222 GC patients’ specimens, QKI expression was found to be significantly decreased in most of the GC tissues, which was largely due to promoter hypermethylation. QKI overexpression reduced the proliferation ability of GC cell line in vitro study. In addition, the reduced QKI expression correlated well with poor differentiation status, depth of invasion, gastric lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, advanced TNM stage, and poor survival. Multivariate analysis showed QKI expression was an independent prognostic factor for patient survival.

  18. The mouse small eye mutant, Del(2)Sey3H, which deletes the putative tumor suppressor region of the radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia is susceptible to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Yoshida, Kazuko; Tanaka, Kimio; Peters, Jo; Cattanach, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation-induced murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the chromosome 2 deletions. Standing on the hypothesis that an AML suppressor gene would locate on the chromosome 2, a deletion-wide screen was performed on radiation-induced AMLs by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. The hemizugous deletion of the D2Mit15, a marker DNA at the 49.0cM region from the centromere, associated with the AMLs in 97 out of the 105 cases (92.4%). As the deletion region was close to the region of human WAGR syndrome (MIM194072), the mouse small eye mutants could be the animal model for radiation-induced AMLs. The mutant, Del(2)Sey3H (Sey3H) was found to delete around the 49.0cM region by the allelic loss mapping. The Sey3H showed high susceptibility to radiation to develop tumors including the myeloid leukemia with shorter latency. These finding support the existence of a putative tumor suppressor gene responsible for the radiation-leukemogenesis near the D2Mit15 region. (author)

  19. ONCOLYTIC VIRUS-MEDIATED REVERSAL OF IMPAIRED TUMOR ANTIGEN PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Ashok Gujar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor immunity can eliminate existing cancer cells and also maintain a constant surveillance against possible relapse. Such an antigen-specific adaptive response begins when tumor-specific T cells become activated. T cell activation requires two signals on antigen presenting cells (APCs: antigen presentation through MHC molecules and co-stimulation. In the absence of one or both of these signals, T cells remain inactivated or can even become tolerized. Cancer cells and their associated microenvironment strategically hinder the processing and presentation of tumor antigens and consequently prevent the development of anti-tumor immunity. Many studies, however, demonstrate that interventions that overturn tumor-associated immune evasion mechanisms can establish anti-tumor immune responses of therapeutic potential. One such intervention is oncolytic virus (OV-based anti-cancer therapy. Here we discuss how OV-induced immunological events override tumor-associated antigen presentation impairment and promote appropriate T cell:APC interaction. Detailed understanding of this phenomenon is pivotal for devising the strategies that will enhance the efficacy of OV-based anti-cancer therapy by complementing its inherent oncolytic

  20. Is the gene encoding Chibby implicated as a tumour suppressor in colorectal cancer ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, Sophie; Teboul, David; Lièvre, Astrid; Goasguen, Nicolas; Berger, Anne; Beaune, Philippe; Laurent-Puig, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    A novel member of the Wnt signalling pathway, Chibby, was recently identified. This protein inhibits Wnt/β-catenin mediated transcriptional activation by competing with Lef-1 (the transcription factor and target of β-catenin) to bind to β-catenin. This suggests that Chibby could be a tumour suppressor protein. The C22orf2 gene coding Chibby is located on chromosome 22, a region recurrently lost in colorectal cancer. Activation of the Wnt pathway is a major feature of colorectal cancer and occurs through inactivation of APC or activation of β-catenin. All of this led us to analyse the possible implication of Chibby in colorectal carcinogenesis. First, 36 tumour and matched normal colonic mucosa DNA were genotyped with five microsatellite markers located on chromosome 22 to search for loss of heterozygosity. Then, mutation screening of the C22orf2 coding sequence and splice sites was performed in the 36 tumour DNA. Finally, expression of Chibby was analysed by quantitative RT-PCR on 10 patients, 4 with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 22. Loss of heterozygosity involving the C22orf2 region was detected in 11 out of 36 patients (30%). Sequencing analysis revealed a known variant, rs3747174, in exon 5: T321C leading to a silent amino acid polymorphism A107A. Allelic frequencies were 0.69 and 0.31 for T and C variants respectively. No other mutation was detected. Among the 10 patients studied, expression analysis revealed that Chibby is overexpressed in 2 tumours and underexpressed in 1. No correlations were found with 22q LOH status. As no somatic mutation was detected in C22orf2 in 36 colorectal tumour DNA, our results do not support the implication of Chibby as a tumour suppressor in colorectal carcinogenesis. This was supported by the absence of underexpression of Chibby among the tumour samples with 22q LOH. The implication of other Wnt pathway members remains to be identified to explain the part of colorectal tumours without mutation in APC and β-catenin

  1. Qualitative analysis of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli promoter: Hypermethylation, engagement and effects on survival of patients with esophageal cancer in a high risk region of the world, a potential molecular marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseri Negin

    2009-01-01

    to promoter hypermethylation showed a lower rate of survival for patients with methylated APC promoter following their treatment. Further investigation into the association between promoter hypermethylation and tumor differentiation status indicated that patients with well differentiated tumors were more likely to develop promoter hypermethylation. Conclusion Observing similar level of APC promoter hypermethylation in patients with SCCE in this high risk region and comparing it with other parts of the world could support the hypothesis that a common molecular mechanism might be involved in tumorigenesis of SCCE. In addition, the higher rate of two-year survival for patients with unmethylated APC promoter as well as its relationship with tumor differentiation would suggest that this tumor suppressor could be an appropriate candidate molecular marker for evaluating tumor malignancy and predicting survival of patients subsequent to treatment.

  2. Qualitative analysis of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli promoter: Hypermethylation, engagement and effects on survival of patients with esophageal cancer in a high risk region of the world, a potential molecular marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Maryam; Jazii, Ferdous Rastgar; Alivand, Mohammad Reza; Nasseri, Negin Karimi; Malekzadeh, Reza; Yazdanbod, Mansour

    2009-01-01

    survival for patients with methylated APC promoter following their treatment. Further investigation into the association between promoter hypermethylation and tumor differentiation status indicated that patients with well differentiated tumors were more likely to develop promoter hypermethylation. Observing similar level of APC promoter hypermethylation in patients with SCCE in this high risk region and comparing it with other parts of the world could support the hypothesis that a common molecular mechanism might be involved in tumorigenesis of SCCE. In addition, the higher rate of two-year survival for patients with unmethylated APC promoter as well as its relationship with tumor differentiation would suggest that this tumor suppressor could be an appropriate candidate molecular marker for evaluating tumor malignancy and predicting survival of patients subsequent to treatment

  3. 42 CFR 419.31 - Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and payment weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and... Outpatient Services § 419.31 Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and payment weights. (a) APC... of resource use into APC groups. Except as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, items and...

  4. MicroRNA-466 (miR-466) functions as a tumor suppressor and prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Feng; Ying, Youhua; Pan, Haihua; Zhao, Wei; Li, Hongchen; Zhan, Xiaoli

    2018-01-17

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have an important role in the regulation of tumor development and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the clinical and prognostic value as well as biological function of miR-466 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Tumor and adjacent healthy tissues were obtained from 100 patients diagnosed with CRC. miR-466 expression was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). mRNA and protein levels of cyclin D1, apoptosis regulator BAX (BAX), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively, in SW-620 CRC cells transfected with miR-466 mimics or negative control miRNA. Effects of miR-466 on SW-620 cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis, and invasion were investigated using CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry and Transwell assay, respectively. miR-466 expression was significantly downregulated in tumor tissues compared to matched adjacent non-tumor tissues. Low expression of miR-466 was significantly correlated with the tumor size, Tumor Node Metastasis stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis. The overall survival of CRC patients with low miR-466 expression was significantly shorter compared to high-miR-466 expression group (log-rank test: p = 0.0103). Multivariate analysis revealed that low miR-466 expression was associated with poor prognosis in CRC patients. The ectopic expression of miR-466 suppressed cell proliferation and migration/invasion, as well as induced G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in SW-620 cells. Moreover, the ectopic expression of miR-466 decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and MMP-2, but increased BAX expression in SW-620 cells. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that miR-466 functions as a suppressor miRNA in CRC and may be used as a prognostic factor in these patients.

  5. Electrodialytically treated MSWI APC residue as substitute for cement in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Geiker, Mette Rica; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and/or elect......Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and....../or electrodialytic remediation, were used in Portland cement mortar. Mortar bars with 15 % weight replacement of cement by APC residues showed compressive strengths up to 40 MPa after 28/32 days. Heavy metal and salt leaching from both crushed and monolithic mortars with APC residues was generally similar...

  6. Caffeine mediates sustained inactivation of breast cancer-associated myofibroblasts via up-regulation of tumor suppressor genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysoon M Al-Ansari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs or myofibroblasts play important roles not only in the development and progression of breast carcinomas, but also in their prognosis and treatment. Therefore, targeting these cells through suppressing their supportive procarcinogenic paracrine effects is mandatory for improving the current therapies that are mainly targeting tumor cells. To this end, we investigated the effect of the natural and pharmacologically safe molecule, caffeine, on CAF cells and their various procarcinogenic effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have shown here that caffeine up-regulates the tumor suppressor proteins p16, p21, p53 and Cav-1, and reduces the expression/secretion of various cytokines (IL-6, TGF-β, SDF-1 and MMP-2, and down-regulates α-SMA. Furthermore, caffeine suppressed the migratory/invasiveness abilities of CAF cells through PTEN-dependent Akt/Erk1/2 inactivation. Moreover, caffeine reduced the paracrine pro-invasion/-migration effects of CAF cells on breast cancer cells. These results indicate that caffeine can inactivate breast stromal myofibroblasts. This has been confirmed by showing that caffeine also suppresses the paracrine pro-angiogenic effect of CAF cells through down-regulating HIF-1αand its downstream effector VEGF-A. Interestingly, these effects were sustained in absence of caffeine. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings provide a proof of principle that breast cancer myofibroblasts can be inactivated, and thereby caffeine may provide a safe and effective prevention against breast tumor growth/recurrence through inhibition of the procarcinogenic effects of active stromal fibroblasts.

  7. Tumor Suppressor p53 Stimulates the Expression of Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianli; Lingel, Amy; Geiser, Vicki; Kwapnoski, Zachary; Zhang, Luwen

    2017-10-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple human malignancies. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is required for the efficient transformation of primary B lymphocytes in vitro and possibly in vivo The tumor suppressor p53 plays a seminal role in cancer development. In some EBV-associated cancers, p53 tends to be wild type and overly expressed; however, the effects of p53 on LMP1 expression is not clear. We find LMP1 expression to be associated with p53 expression in EBV-transformed cells under physiological and DNA damaging conditions. DNA damage stimulates LMP1 expression, and p53 is required for the stimulation. Ectopic p53 stimulates endogenous LMP1 expression. Moreover, endogenous LMP1 blocks DNA damage-mediated apoptosis. Regarding the mechanism of p53-mediated LMP1 expression, we find that interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), a direct target of p53, is associated with both p53 and LMP1. IRF5 binds to and activates a LMP1 promoter reporter construct. Ectopic IRF5 increases the expression of LMP1, while knockdown of IRF5 leads to reduction of LMP1. Furthermore, LMP1 blocks IRF5-mediated apoptosis in EBV-infected cells. All of the data suggest that cellular p53 stimulates viral LMP1 expression, and IRF5 may be one of the factors for p53-mediated LMP1 stimulation. LMP1 may subsequently block DNA damage- and IRF5-mediated apoptosis for the benefits of EBV. The mutual regulation between p53 and LMP1 may play an important role in EBV infection and latency and its related cancers. IMPORTANCE The tumor suppressor p53 is a critical cellular protein in response to various stresses and dictates cells for various responses, including apoptosis. This work suggests that an Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) principal viral oncogene is activated by cellular p53. The viral oncogene blocks p53-mediated adverse effects during viral infection and transformation. Therefore, the induction of the viral oncogene by p53 provides a means for the virus to cope with infection and

  8. Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous Functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copp& #233; , Jean-Philippe; Patil, Christopher; Rodier, Francis; Sun, Yu; Munoz, Denise; Goldstein, Joshua; Nelson, Peter; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2008-10-24

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cell proliferation, essentially permanently, in response to oncogenic stimuli, including genotoxic stress. We modified the use of antibody arrays to provide a quantitative assessment of factors secreted by senescent cells. We show that human cells induced to senesce by genotoxic stress secrete myriad factors associated with inflammation and malignancy. This senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) developed slowly over several days and only after DNA damage of sufficient magnitude to induce senescence. Remarkably similar SASPs developed in normal fibroblasts, normal epithelial cells, and epithelial tumor cells after genotoxic stress in culture, and in epithelial tumor cells in vivo after treatment of prostate cancer patients with DNA-damaging chemotherapy. In cultured premalignant epithelial cells, SASPs induced an epithelial-mesenchyme transition and invasiveness, hallmarks of malignancy, by a paracrine mechanism that depended largely on the SASP factors interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Strikingly, two manipulations markedly amplified, and accelerated development of, the SASPs: oncogenic RAS expression, which causes genotoxic stress and senescence in normal cells, and functional loss of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Both loss of p53 and gain of oncogenic RAS also exacerbated the promalignant paracrine activities of the SASPs. Our findings define a central feature of genotoxic stress-induced senescence. Moreover, they suggest a cell-nonautonomous mechanism by which p53 can restrain, and oncogenic RAS can promote, the development of age-related cancer by altering the tissue microenvironment.

  9. The role of APC in WNT pathway activation in serrated neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Jennifer; Dumenil, Troy; Bettington, Mark; Pearson, Sally-Ann; Bond, Catherine; Fennell, Lochlan; Liu, Cheng; McKeone, Diane; Rosty, Christophe; Brown, Ian; Walker, Neal; Leggett, Barbara; Whitehall, Vicki

    2018-03-01

    Conventional adenomas are initiated by APC gene mutation that activates the WNT signal. Serrated neoplasia is commonly initiated by BRAF or KRAS mutation. WNT pathway activation may also occur, however, to what extent this is owing to APC mutation is unknown. We examined aberrant nuclear β-catenin immunolocalization as a surrogate for WNT pathway activation and analyzed the entire APC gene coding sequence in serrated and conventional pathway polyps and cancers. WNT pathway activation was a common event in conventional pathway lesions with aberrant nuclear immunolocalization of β-catenin and truncating APC mutations in 90% and 89% of conventional adenomas and 82% and 70% of BRAF wild-type cancers, respectively. WNT pathway activation was seen to a lesser extent in serrated pathway lesions. It occurred at the transition to dysplasia in serrated polyps with a significant increase in nuclear β-catenin labeling from sessile serrated adenomas (10%) to sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia (55%) and traditional serrated adenomas (9%) to traditional serrated adenomas with dysplasia (39%) (P=0.0001). However, unlike the conventional pathway, truncating APC mutations were rare in the serrated pathway lesions especially sessile serrated adenomas even when dysplastic (15%) and in the BRAF mutant cancers with microsatellite instability that arise from them (8%). In contrast, APC missense mutations that were rare in conventional pathway adenomas and cancers (3% in BRAF wild-type cancers) were more frequent in BRAF mutant cancers with microsatellite instability (32%). We conclude that increased WNT signaling is important in the transition to malignancy in the serrated pathway but that APC mutation is less common and the spectrum of mutations is different than in conventional colorectal carcinogenesis. Moderate impact APC mutations and non-APC-related causes of increased WNT signaling may have a more important role in serrated neoplasia than the truncating APC mutations

  10. Article Processing Charges and OpenAPC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The publication landscape is about to change. While being largely operated by subscription based journals in the past, recent political decisions force the publishing industry towards OpenAccess. Especially, the publication of the Finch report in 2012 put APC based Gold OpenAccess models almost everywhere on the agenda. These models also require quite some adoptions for library work flows to handle payments, bills and centralized funds for publication fees. Sometimes handled in specialized systems (e.g. first setups in Jülich) pretty early on discussions started to handle APCs in local repositories which would also hold the OpenAccess content resulting from these fees, e.g. the University of Regenburg uses ePrints for this purpose. Backed up by the OpenData movmement, libraries also saw opportunity to exchange data about fees payed. Thus, OpenAPC.de was born in 2014 on github to facilitate this exchange and aggregate large amounts of data for evaluation and comparison. Using the repository to hold payment d...

  11. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) ubiquitin ligase affects chemosensory behavior in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julia; Jennings, Alexandra K; Kowalski, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of fundamental aspects of neurobiological function has been linked to the ubiquitin signaling system (USS), which regulates the degradation and activity of proteins and is catalyzed by E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC) is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls diverse developmental and signaling processes in post-mitotic neurons; however, potential roles for the APC in sensory function have yet to be explored. In this study, we examined the effect of the APC ubiquitin ligase on chemosensation in Caenorhabditis elegans by testing chemotaxis to the volatile odorants, diacetyl, pyrazine, and isoamyl alcohol, to which wild-type worms are attracted. Animals with loss of function mutations in either of two alleles (g48 and ye143) of the gene encoding the APC subunit EMB-27 APC6 showed increased chemotaxis towards diacetyl and pyrazine, odorants sensed by AWA neurons, but exhibited normal chemotaxis to isoamyl alcohol, which is sensed by AWC neurons. The statistically significant increase in chemotaxis in the emb-27 APC6 mutants suggests that the APC inhibits AWA-mediated chemosensation in C. elegans. Increased chemotaxis to pyrazine was also seen with mutants lacking another essential APC subunit, MAT-2 APC1; however, mat-2 APC1 mutants exhibited wild type responses to diacetyl. The difference in responsiveness of these two APC subunit mutants may be due to differential strength of these hypomorphic alleles or may indicate the presence of functional sub-complexes of the APC at work in this process. These findings are the first evidence for APC-mediated regulation of chemosensation and lay the groundwork for further studies aimed at identifying the expression levels, function, and targets of the APC in specific sensory neurons. Because of the similarity between human and C. elegans nervous systems, the role of the APC in sensory neurons may also advance our understanding of human sensory function and disease.

  12. Tumor suppressor BLU inhibits proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by regulation of cell cycle, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the cyclin D1 promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiangning; Liu, Hui; Li, Binbin; Huang, Peichun; Shao, Jianyong; He, Zhiwei

    2012-01-01

    Tumor suppressor genes function to regulate and block tumor cell proliferation. To explore the mechanisms underlying the tumor suppression of BLU/ZMYND10 gene on a frequently lost human chromosomal region, an adenoviral vector with BLU cDNA insert was constructed. BLU was re-expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by transfection or viral infection. Clonogenic growth was assayed; cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry-based DNA content detection; c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and cyclin D1 promoter activities were measured by reporter gene assay, and phosphorylation was measured by immunoblotting. The data for each pair of groups were compared with Student t tests. BLU inhibits clonogenic growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, arrests cell cycle at G1 phase, downregulates JNK and cyclin D1 promoter activities, and inhibits phosphorylation of c-Jun. BLU inhibits growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells by regulation of the JNK-cyclin D1 axis to exert tumor suppression

  13. Candidate Tumor-Suppressor Gene DLEC1 Is Frequently Downregulated by Promoter Hypermethylation and Histone Hypoacetylation in Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kwong

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Suppression of ovarian tumor growth by chromosome 3p was demonstrated in a previous study. Deleted in Lung and Esophageal Cancer 1 (DLEC1 on 3p22.3 is a candidate tumor suppressor in lung, esophageal, and renal cancers. The potential involvement of DLEC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer remains unknown. In the present study, DLEC1 downregulation was found in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors. Focus-expressed DLEC1 in two ovarian cancer cell lines resulted in 41% to 52% inhibition of colony formation. No chromosomal loss of chromosome 3p22.3 in any ovarian cancer cell line or tissue was found. Promoter hypermethylation of DLEC1 was detected in ovarian cancer cell lines with reduced DLEC1 transcripts, whereas methylation was not detected in normal ovarian epithelium and DLEC1-expressing ovarian cancer cell lines. Treatment with demethylating agent enhanced DLEC1 expression in 90% (9 of 10 of ovarian cancer cell lines. DLEC1 promoter methylation was examined in 13 high-grade ovarian tumor tissues with DLEC1 downregulation, in which 54% of the tumors showed DLEC1 methylation. In addition, 80% of ovarian cancer cell lines significantly upregulated DLEC1 transcripts after histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment. Therefore, our results suggested that DLEC1 suppressed the growth of ovarian cancer cells and that its downregulation was closely associated with promoter hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation.

  14. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert; Farin, Henner; van Es, Johan H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-10-18

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic anhydrase I (Car1) is a gene expressed uniquely in colonic epithelial cells. We generated a colon-specific inducible Car1 CreER knock-in (KI) mouse with broad Cre activity in epithelial cells of the proximal colon and cecum. Deletion of the tumor suppressor gene Apc using the Car1 CreER KI caused tumor formation in the cecum but did not yield adenomas in the proximal colon. Mutation of both Apc and Kras yielded microadenomas in both the cecum and the proximal colon, which progressed to macroadenomas with significant morbidity. Aggressive carcinomas with some invasion into lymph nodes developed upon combined induction of oncogenic mutations of Apc, Kras, p53, and Smad4 Importantly, no adenomas were observed in the small intestine. Additionally, we observed tumors from differentiated Car1-expressing cells with Apc/Kras mutations, suggesting that a top-down model of intestinal tumorigenesis can occur with multiple mutations. Our results establish the Car1 CreER KI as a valuable mouse model to study colon-specific tumorigenesis and metastasis as well as cancer-cell-of-origin questions.

  15. The APC/C Ubiquitin Ligase: From Cell Biology to Tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penas, Clara; Ramachandran, Vimal [John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Ayad, Nagi George, E-mail: nayad@med.miami.edu [John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)

    2012-01-09

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is required for normal cell proliferation, vertebrate development, and cancer cell transformation. The UPS consists of multiple proteins that work in concert to target a protein for degradation via the 26S proteasome. Chains of an 8.5-kDa protein called ubiquitin are attached to substrates, thus allowing recognition by the 26S proteasome. Enzymes called ubiquitin ligases or E3s mediate specific attachment to substrates. Although there are over 600 different ubiquitin ligases, the Skp1–Cullin–F-box (SCF) complexes and the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) are the most studied. SCF involvement in cancer has been known for some time while APC/C’s cancer role has recently emerged. In this review we will discuss the importance of APC/C to normal cell proliferation and development, underscoring its possible contribution to transformation. We will also examine the hypothesis that modulating a specific interaction of the APC/C may be therapeutically attractive in specific cancer subtypes. Finally, given that the APC/C pathway is relatively new as a cancer target, therapeutic interventions affecting APC/C activity may be beneficial in cancers that are resistant to classical chemotherapy.

  16. The APC/C Ubiquitin Ligase: From Cell Biology to Tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penas, Clara; Ramachandran, Vimal; Ayad, Nagi George

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is required for normal cell proliferation, vertebrate development, and cancer cell transformation. The UPS consists of multiple proteins that work in concert to target a protein for degradation via the 26S proteasome. Chains of an 8.5-kDa protein called ubiquitin are attached to substrates, thus allowing recognition by the 26S proteasome. Enzymes called ubiquitin ligases or E3s mediate specific attachment to substrates. Although there are over 600 different ubiquitin ligases, the Skp1–Cullin–F-box (SCF) complexes and the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) are the most studied. SCF involvement in cancer has been known for some time while APC/C’s cancer role has recently emerged. In this review we will discuss the importance of APC/C to normal cell proliferation and development, underscoring its possible contribution to transformation. We will also examine the hypothesis that modulating a specific interaction of the APC/C may be therapeutically attractive in specific cancer subtypes. Finally, given that the APC/C pathway is relatively new as a cancer target, therapeutic interventions affecting APC/C activity may be beneficial in cancers that are resistant to classical chemotherapy.

  17. Requirement of the ATM/p53 tumor suppressor pathway for glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armata, Heather L; Golebiowski, Diane; Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Kim, Jason K; Sluss, Hayla K

    2010-12-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) patients can develop multiple clinical pathologies, including neuronal degeneration, an elevated risk of cancer, telangiectasias, and growth retardation. Patients with A-T can also exhibit an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The ATM protein kinase, the product of the gene mutated in A-T patients (Atm), has been implicated in metabolic disease, which is characterized by insulin resistance and increased cholesterol and lipid levels, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis. ATM phosphorylates the p53 tumor suppressor on a site (Ser15) that regulates transcription activity. To test whether the ATM pathway that regulates insulin resistance is mediated by p53 phosphorylation, we examined insulin sensitivity in mice with a germ line mutation that replaces the p53 phosphorylation site with alanine. The loss of p53 Ser18 (murine Ser15) led to increased metabolic stress, including severe defects in glucose homeostasis. The mice developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The insulin resistance correlated with the loss of antioxidant gene expression and decreased insulin signaling. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment restored insulin signaling in late-passage primary fibroblasts. The addition of an antioxidant in the diet rendered the p53 Ser18-deficient mice glucose tolerant. This analysis demonstrates that p53 phosphorylation on an ATM site is an important mechanism in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis.

  18. miR-132 and miR-212 are increased in pancreatic cancer and target the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-Kook [College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Henry, Jon C. [Department of Surgery, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Jiang, Jinmai [College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Esau, Christine [Regulus Therapeutics, Carlsbad, CA (United States); Gusev, Yuriy [Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States); Lerner, Megan R. [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Postier, Russell G. [Department of Surgery, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Brackett, Daniel J. [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Schmittgen, Thomas D., E-mail: Schmittgen.2@osu.edu [College of Pharmacy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} The expression of miR-132 and miR-212 are significantly increased in pancreatic cancer. {yields} miR-132 and miR-212 target the tumor suppressor pRb, resulting in enhanced proliferation. {yields} miR-132 and miR-212 expression is increased by a {beta}2 adrenergic receptor agonist, suggesting a novel mechanism for pancreatic cancer progression. -- Abstract: Numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) are reported as differentially expressed in cancer, however the consequence of miRNA deregulation in cancer is unknown for many miRNAs. We report that two miRNAs located on chromosome 17p13, miR-132 and miR-212, are over-expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues. Both miRNAs are predicted to target the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor, Rb1. Validation of this interaction was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay and western blot in a pancreatic cancer cell line transfected with pre-miR-212 and pre-miR-132 oligos. Cell proliferation was enhanced in Panc-1 cells transfected with pre-miR-132/-212 oligos. Conversely, antisense oligos to miR-132/-212 reduced cell proliferation and caused a G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest. The mRNA of a number of E2F transcriptional targets were increased in cells over expressing miR-132/-212. Exposing Panc-1 cells to the {beta}2 adrenergic receptor agonist, terbutaline, increased the miR-132 and miR-212 expression by 2- to 4-fold. We report that over-expression of miR-132 and miR-212 result in reduced pRb protein in pancreatic cancer cells and that the increase in cell proliferation from over-expression of these miRNAs is likely due to increased expression of several E2F target genes. The {beta}2 adrenergic pathway may play an important role in this novel mechanism.

  19. The long non-coding RNA H19-derived miR-675 modulates human gastric cancer cell proliferation by targeting tumor suppressor RUNX1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Ming; Gao, Wen; Xu, Jing; Wang, Ping; Shu, Yongqian

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • H19 regulates gastric cancer cell proliferation phenotype via miR-675. • MiR-675 modulates cell proliferation of gastric cancer cells by targeting tumor suppressor RUNX1. • The H19/miR-675/RUNX1 axis plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. - Abstract: The lncRNA H19 has been recently shown to be upregulated and play important roles in gastric cancer tumorigenesis. However, the precise molecular mechanism of H19 and its mature product miR-675 in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, we found that miR-675 was positively expressed with H19 and was a pivotal mediator in H19-induced gastric cancer cell growth promotion. Subsequently, the tumor suppressor Runt Domain Transcription Factor1 (RUNX1) was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-675 using a luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting analyses. A series of rescue assays indicated that RUNX1 mediated H19/miR-67-induced gastric cancer cell phenotypic changes. Moreover, the inverse relationship between the expression of RUNX1 and H19/miR-675 was also revealed in gastric cancer tissues and gastric cancer cell lines. Taken together, our study demonstrated that the novel pathway H19/miR-675/RUNX1 regulates gastric cancer development and may serve as a potential target for gastric cancer therapy

  20. Controlling the response to DNA damage by the APC/C-Cdh1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, H Rudolf; Guerrero Llobet, S; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2016-03-01

    Proper cell cycle progression is safeguarded by the oscillating activities of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. An important player in the regulation of mitotic cyclins is the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase. Prior to entry into mitosis, the APC/C remains inactive, which allows the accumulation of mitotic regulators. APC/C activation requires binding to either the Cdc20 or Cdh1 adaptor protein, which sequentially bind the APC/C and facilitate targeting of multiple mitotic regulators for proteasomal destruction, including Securin and Cyclin B, to ensure proper chromosome segregation and mitotic exit. Emerging data have indicated that the APC/C, particularly in association with Cdh1, also functions prior to mitotic entry. Specifically, the APC/C-Cdh1 is activated in response to DNA damage in G2 phase cells. These observations are in line with in vitro and in vivo genetic studies, in which cells lacking Cdh1 expression display various defects, including impaired DNA repair and aberrant cell cycle checkpoints. In this review, we summarize the current literature on APC/C regulation in response to DNA damage, the functions of APC/C-Cdh1 activation upon DNA damage, and speculate how APC/C-Cdh1 can control cell fate in the context of persistent DNA damage.

  1. Ubiquitin-specific protease 11 (USP11) functions as a tumor suppressor through deubiquitinating and stabilizing VGLL4 protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Encheng; Shen, Bing; Mu, Xingyu; Qin, Yan; Zhang, Fang; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Jiantao; Zhang, Pingzhao; Wang, Chenji; Tan, Mingyue; Fan, Yu

    2016-01-01

    VGLL4 is a transcriptional repressor that interacts with transcription factors TEADs and inhibits YAP-induced overgrowth and tumorigenesis. VGLL4 protein was dramatically reduced in various types of human cancers. But how VGLL4 protein is post-transcriptional regulated is poorly understood. In this study, we identify deubiquitinating enzyme USP11 as a novel VGLL4 interactor. We reveal that the USP domain of USP11 and the N-terminal region of VGLL4 are required for mutual binding. USP11 controls VGLL4 protein stability by promoting its deubiquitination. Furthermore, our results show that knockdown of USP11 promotes cell growth, migration, and invasion in a YAP-dependent manner. Together, our results suggest that USP11 may exert its tumor suppressor role by modulating VGLL4/YAP-TEADs regulatory loop. PMID:28042509

  2. A Trichostatin A (TSA)/Sp1-mediated mechanism for the regulation of SALL2 tumor suppressor in Jurkat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Matías I; Escobar, David; Farkas, Carlos; Hermosilla, Viviana; Álvarez, Claudia; Amigo, Roberto; Gutiérrez, José L; Castro, Ariel F; Pincheira, Roxana

    2018-05-17

    SALL2 is a transcription factor involved in development and disease. Deregulation of SALL2 has been associated with cancer, suggesting that it plays a role in the disease. However, how SALL2 is regulated and why is deregulated in cancer remain poorly understood. We previously showed that the p53 tumor suppressor represses SALL2 under acute genotoxic stress. Here, we investigated the effect of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor (HDACi) Trichostatin A (TSA), and involvement of Sp1 on expression and function of SALL2 in Jurkat T cells. We show that SALL2 mRNA and protein levels were enhanced under TSA treatment. Both, TSA and ectopic expression of Sp1 transactivated the SALL2 P2 promoter. This transactivation effect was blocked by the Sp1-binding inhibitor mithramycin A. Sp1 bound in vitro and in vivo to the proximal region of the P2 promoter. TSA induced Sp1 binding to the P2 promoter, which correlated with dynamic changes on H4 acetylation and concomitant recruitment of p300 or HDAC1 in a mutually exclusive manner. Our results suggest that TSA-induced Sp1-Lys703 acetylation contributes to the transcriptional activation of the P2 promoter. Finally, using a CRISPR/Cas9 SALL2-KO Jurkat-T cell model and gain of function experiments, we demonstrated that SALL2 upregulation is required for TSA-mediated cell death. Thus, our study identified Sp1 as a novel transcriptional regulator of SALL2, and proposes a novel epigenetic mechanism for SALL2 regulation in Jurkat-T cells. Altogether, our data support SALL2 function as a tumor suppressor, and SALL2 involvement in cell death response to HDACi. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Are there tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 4p in sporadic colorectal carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai-Tao; Jiang, Li-Xin; Lv, Zhong-Chuan; Li, Da-Peng; Zhou, Chong-Zhi; Gao, Jian-Jun; He, Lin; Peng, Zhi-Hai

    2008-01-07

    To study the candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSG) on chromosome 4p by detecting the high frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in sporadic colorectal carcinoma in Chinese patients. Seven fluorescent labeled polymorphic microsatellite markers were analyzed in 83 cases of colorectal carcinoma and matched normal tissue DNA by PCR. PCR products were electrophoresed on an ABI 377 DNA sequencer. Genescan 3.7 and Genotype 3.7 software were used for LOH scanning and analysis. The same procedure was performed by the other six microsatellite markers spanning D4S3013 locus to make further detailed deletion mapping. Comparison between LOH frequency and clinicopathological factors was performed by c2 test. Data were collected from all informative loci. The average LOH frequency on 4p was 24.25%, and 42.3% and 35.62% on D4S405 and D4S3013 locus, respectively. Adjacent markers of D4S3013 displayed a low LOH frequency (4p15.2) and D4S405 (4p14) locus are detected. Candidate TSG, which is involved in carcinogenesis and progression of sporadic colorectal carcinoma on chromosome 4p, may be located between D4S3017 and D4S2933 (about 1.7 cm).

  4. Frequent silencing of the candidate tumor suppressor TRIM58 by promoter methylation in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiura, Koichiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Naruto, Takuya; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Watabnabe, Miki; Tsuboi, Mitsuhiro; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Kazuya; Tangoku, Akira; Imoto, Issei

    2017-01-10

    In this study, we aimed to identify novel drivers that would be epigenetically altered through aberrant methylation in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), regardless of the presence or absence of tobacco smoking-induced epigenetic field defects. Through genome-wide screening for aberrantly methylated CpG islands (CGIs) in 12 clinically uniform, stage-I LADC cases affecting six non-smokers and six smokers, we identified candidate tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) inactivated by hypermethylation. Through systematic expression analyses of those candidates in panels of additional tumor samples and cell lines treated or not treated with 5-aza-deoxycitidine followed by validation analyses of cancer-specific silencing by CGI hypermethylation using a public database, we identified TRIM58 as the most prominent candidate for TSG. TRIM58 was robustly silenced by hypermethylation even in early-stage primary LADC, and the restoration of TRIM58 expression in LADC cell lines inhibited cell growth in vitro and in vivo in anchorage-dependent and -independent manners. Our findings suggest that aberrant inactivation of TRIM58 consequent to CGI hypermethylation might stimulate the early carcinogenesis of LADC regardless of smoking status; furthermore, TRIM58 methylation might be a possible early diagnostic and epigenetic therapeutic target in LADC.

  5. The APC/C Ubiquitin Ligase: From Cell Biology to Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penas, Clara; Ramachandran, Vimal; Ayad, Nagi George

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is required for normal cell proliferation, vertebrate development, and cancer cell transformation. The UPS consists of multiple proteins that work in concert to target a protein for degradation via the 26S proteasome. Chains of an 8.5-kDa protein called ubiquitin are attached to substrates, thus allowing recognition by the 26S proteasome. Enzymes called ubiquitin ligases or E3s mediate specific attachment to substrates. Although there are over 600 different ubiquitin ligases, the Skp1–Cullin–F-box (SCF) complexes and the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) are the most studied. SCF involvement in cancer has been known for some time while APC/C’s cancer role has recently emerged. In this review we will discuss the importance of APC/C to normal cell proliferation and development, underscoring its possible contribution to transformation. We will also examine the hypothesis that modulating a specific interaction of the APC/C may be therapeutically attractive in specific cancer subtypes. Finally, given that the APC/C pathway is relatively new as a cancer target, therapeutic interventions affecting APC/C activity may be beneficial in cancers that are resistant to classical chemotherapy. PMID:22655255

  6. Effect of recombinant adenovirus encoding human p53 tumor suppressor gene combined with radiation therapy on human lymphoma cells lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zeyang; Fan Wo; Li Dongqing; Zhu Ran; Wan Jianmei; Wang Yongqing; Wu Jinchang

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the inhibitory effect and radiation sensitization of recombinant adenovirus encoding human p53 tumor suppressor gene (rAd-p53) on human lymphoma cell lines. Human lymphoma cell lines were treated with rAd-p53, radiation therapy and combined treatment, respectively. The cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTF. The cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry, and the p53 protein expression was detected by Western blotting. The results showed that extrinsic p53 gene have expressed to some degree, but not at high level. The role of inhibition and radiation sensitivity of rAd-p53 was not significant to human lymphoma cell lines. (authors)

  7. Mechanism of inhibition of the tumor suppressor Patched by Sonic Hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukachinsky, Hanna; Petrov, Kostadin; Watanabe, Miyako; Salic, Adrian

    2016-10-04

    The Hedgehog cell-cell signaling pathway is crucial for animal development, and its misregulation is implicated in numerous birth defects and cancers. In unstimulated cells, pathway activity is inhibited by the tumor suppressor membrane protein, Patched. Hedgehog signaling is triggered by the secreted Hedgehog ligand, which binds and inhibits Patched, thus setting in motion the downstream events in signal transduction. Despite its critical importance, the mechanism by which Hedgehog antagonizes Patched has remained unknown. Here, we show that vertebrate Patched1 inhibition is caused by direct, palmitate-dependent interaction with the Sonic Hedgehog ligand. We find that a short palmitoylated N-terminal fragment of Sonic Hedgehog binds Patched1 and, strikingly, is sufficient to inhibit it and to activate signaling. The rest of Sonic Hedgehog confers high-affinity Patched1 binding and internalization through a distinct binding site, but, surprisingly, it is not absolutely required for signaling. The palmitate-dependent interaction with Patched1 is specifically impaired in a Sonic Hedgehog mutant causing human holoprosencephaly, the most frequent congenital brain malformation, explaining its drastically reduced potency. The palmitate-dependent interaction is also abolished in constitutively inhibited Patched1 point mutants causing the Gorlin cancer syndrome, suggesting that they might adopt a conformation distinct from the wild type. Our data demonstrate that Sonic Hedgehog signals via the palmitate-dependent arm of a two-pronged contact with Patched1. Furthermore, our results suggest that, during Hedgehog signaling, ligand binding inhibits Patched by trapping it in an inactive conformation, a mechanism that explains the dramatically reduced activity of oncogenic Patched1 mutants.

  8. Down-regulation of SFRP1 as a putative tumor suppressor gene can contribute to human hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Yun-Li; Teng, Xiao-Mei; Lin, Yun; Zheng, Da-Li; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Han, Ze-Guang

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. SFRP1 (the secreted frizzled-related protein 1), a putative tumor suppressor gene mapped onto chromosome 8p12-p11.1, the frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) region in human HCC, encodes a Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling antagonist and is frequently inactivated by promoter methylation in many human cancers. However, whether the down-regulation of SFRP1 can contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis still remains unclear. We investigated the expression of SFRP1 through real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry staining. The cell growth and colony formation were observed as the overexpression and knockdown of SFRP1. The DNA methylation status within SFRP1 promoter was analyzed through methylation-specific PCR or bisulphate-treated DNA sequencing assays. Loss of heterozygosity was here detected with microsatellite markers. SFRP1 was significantly down-regulated in 76.1% (35/46) HCC specimens at mRNA level and in 30% (30/100) HCCs indicated by immunohistochemistry staining, as compared to adjacent non-cancerous livers. The overexpression of SFRP1 can significantly inhibit the cell growth and colony formation of YY-8103, SMMC7721, and Hep3B cells. The RNA interference against the constitutional SFRP1 in the offspring SMMC7721 cells, which were stably transfected by ectopic SFRP1, can markedly promote cell growth of these cells. LOH of both microsatellite markers D8S532 and D8SAC016868 flanking the gene locus was found in 13% (6 of 46 HCCs) and 6.5% (3 of 46 HCCs) of the informative cases, respectively, where 5 of 8 HCC specimens with LOH showed the down-regulation of SFRP1. DNA hypermethylation within SFRP1 promoter was identified in two of three HCC specimens without SFRP1 expression. Moreover, the DNA methylation of SFRP1 promoter was significantly reduced, along with the re-expression of the gene, in those HCC cell lines, Bel7404, QGY7701, and MHCC-H, as treated by DAC. Our data suggested that the

  9. Short-term pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate administration attenuates cachexia-induced alterations to muscle and liver in ApcMin/+ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsale, Aditi A; Puppa, Melissa J; Hardee, Justin P; VanderVeen, Brandon N; Enos, Reilly T; Murphy, E Angela; Carson, James A

    2016-09-13

    Cancer cachexia is a complex wasting condition characterized by chronic inflammation, disrupted energy metabolism, and severe muscle wasting. While evidence in pre-clinical cancer cachexia models have determined that different systemic inflammatory inhibitors can attenuate several characteristics of cachexia, there is a limited understanding of their effects after cachexia has developed, and whether short-term administration is sufficient to reverse cachexia-induced signaling in distinctive target tissues. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a thiol compound having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties which can inhibit STAT3 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling in mice. This study examined the effect of short-term PDTC administration to ApcMin/+ mice on cachexia-induced disruption of skeletal muscle protein turnover and liver metabolic function. At 16 weeks of age ApcMin/+ mice initiating cachexia (7% BW loss) were administered PDTC (10mg/kg bw/d) for 2 weeks. Control ApcMin/+ mice continued to lose body weight during the treatment period, while mice receiving PDTC had no further body weight decrease. PDTC had no effect on either intestinal tumor burden or circulating IL-6. In muscle, PDTC rescued signaling disrupting protein turnover regulation. PDTC suppressed the cachexia induction of STAT3, increased mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis, and suppressed the induction of Atrogin-1 protein expression. Related to cachectic liver metabolic function, PDTC treatment attenuated glycogen and lipid content depletion independent to the activation of STAT3 and mTORC1 signaling. Overall, these results demonstrate short-term PDTC treatment to cachectic mice attenuated cancer-induced disruptions to muscle and liver signaling, and these changes were independent to altered tumor burden and circulating IL-6.

  10. Short-term pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate administration attenuates cachexia-induced alterations to muscle and liver in ApcMin/+ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderVeen, Brandon N.; Enos, Reilly T.; Murphy, E. Angela; Carson, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a complex wasting condition characterized by chronic inflammation, disrupted energy metabolism, and severe muscle wasting. While evidence in pre-clinical cancer cachexia models have determined that different systemic inflammatory inhibitors can attenuate several characteristics of cachexia, there is a limited understanding of their effects after cachexia has developed, and whether short-term administration is sufficient to reverse cachexia-induced signaling in distinctive target tissues. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a thiol compound having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties which can inhibit STAT3 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling in mice. This study examined the effect of short-term PDTC administration to ApcMin/+ mice on cachexia-induced disruption of skeletal muscle protein turnover and liver metabolic function. At 16 weeks of age ApcMin/+ mice initiating cachexia (7% BW loss) were administered PDTC (10mg/kg bw/d) for 2 weeks. Control ApcMin/+ mice continued to lose body weight during the treatment period, while mice receiving PDTC had no further body weight decrease. PDTC had no effect on either intestinal tumor burden or circulating IL-6. In muscle, PDTC rescued signaling disrupting protein turnover regulation. PDTC suppressed the cachexia induction of STAT3, increased mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis, and suppressed the induction of Atrogin-1 protein expression. Related to cachectic liver metabolic function, PDTC treatment attenuated glycogen and lipid content depletion independent to the activation of STAT3 and mTORC1 signaling. Overall, these results demonstrate short-term PDTC treatment to cachectic mice attenuated cancer-induced disruptions to muscle and liver signaling, and these changes were independent to altered tumor burden and circulating IL-6. PMID:27449092

  11. Delineating an Epigenetic Continuum for Initiation, Transformation and Progression to Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K. [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, 1 Ford Place, 1D, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Raju, Usha [Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, 1 Ford Place, 1D, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Worsham, Maria J., E-mail: mworsha1@hfhs.org [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, 1 Ford Place, 1D, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2011-03-29

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is a hallmark of human cancers and is an early event in carcinogenesis. We examined whether promoter hypermethylation contributes to the pathogenesis of benign breast lesions along a progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. The exploratory study cohort comprised 17 breast cancer patients with multiple benign and/or in situ lesions concurrently present with invasive carcinoma within a tumor biopsy. DNA from tumor tissue, normal breast epithelium when present, benign lesions (fibroadenoma, hyperplasia, papilloma, sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia or atypical ductal hyperplasia), and in situ lesions of lobular carcinoma and ductal carcinoma were interrogated for promoter methylation status in 22 tumor suppressor genes using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MS-MLPA). Methylation specific PCR was performed to confirm hypermethylation detected by MS-MLPA. Promoter methylation was detected in 11/22 tumor suppressor genes in 16/17 cases. Hypermethylation of RASSF1 was most frequent, present in 14/17 cases, followed by APC in 12/17, and GSTP1 in 9/17 cases with establishment of an epigenetic monocloncal progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. Hypermethylated promoter regions in normal breast epithelium, benign, and premalignant lesions within the same tumor biopsy implicate RASSF1, APC, GSTP1, TIMP3, CDKN2B, CDKN2A, ESR1, CDH13, RARB, CASP8, and TP73 as early events. DNA hypermethylation underlies the pathogenesis of step-wise transformation along a monoclonal continuum from normal to preneoplasia to invasive breast cancer.

  12. Delineating an Epigenetic Continuum for Initiation, Transformation and Progression to Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K.; Raju, Usha; Worsham, Maria J.

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is a hallmark of human cancers and is an early event in carcinogenesis. We examined whether promoter hypermethylation contributes to the pathogenesis of benign breast lesions along a progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. The exploratory study cohort comprised 17 breast cancer patients with multiple benign and/or in situ lesions concurrently present with invasive carcinoma within a tumor biopsy. DNA from tumor tissue, normal breast epithelium when present, benign lesions (fibroadenoma, hyperplasia, papilloma, sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia or atypical ductal hyperplasia), and in situ lesions of lobular carcinoma and ductal carcinoma were interrogated for promoter methylation status in 22 tumor suppressor genes using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MS-MLPA). Methylation specific PCR was performed to confirm hypermethylation detected by MS-MLPA. Promoter methylation was detected in 11/22 tumor suppressor genes in 16/17 cases. Hypermethylation of RASSF1 was most frequent, present in 14/17 cases, followed by APC in 12/17, and GSTP1 in 9/17 cases with establishment of an epigenetic monocloncal progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. Hypermethylated promoter regions in normal breast epithelium, benign, and premalignant lesions within the same tumor biopsy implicate RASSF1, APC, GSTP1, TIMP3, CDKN2B, CDKN2A, ESR1, CDH13, RARB, CASP8, and TP73 as early events. DNA hypermethylation underlies the pathogenesis of step-wise transformation along a monoclonal continuum from normal to preneoplasia to invasive breast cancer

  13. OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tullney, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Präsentationsfolien zum Vortrag „OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data“ in der Session „Ausgestaltung eines wissenschaftsadäquaten APC-Marktes: Grundsätze, Finanzierungsansätze und Management“ der Open-Access-Tage 2015 in Zürich (https://www.open-access.net/community/open-access-tage/open-access-tage-2015-zuerich/programm/#c1974)

  14. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Express Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase and Can Be Depleted in Tumor-Bearing Hosts by Ibrutinib Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiff, Andrew; Trikha, Prashant; Wesolowski, Robert; Kendra, Kari; Hsu, Vincent; Uppati, Sarvani; McMichael, Elizabeth; Duggan, Megan; Campbell, Amanda; Keller, Karen; Landi, Ian; Zhong, Yiming; Dubovsky, Jason; Howard, John Harrison; Yu, Lianbo; Harrington, Bonnie; Old, Matthew; Reiff, Sean; Mace, Thomas; Tridandapani, Susheela; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Caligiuri, Michael A; Byrd, John C; Carson, William E

    2016-04-15

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous group of immature myeloid cells that expand in tumor-bearing hosts in response to soluble factors produced by tumor and stromal cells. MDSC expansion has been linked to loss of immune effector cell function and reduced efficacy of immune-based cancer therapies, highlighting the MDSC population as an attractive therapeutic target. Ibrutinib, an irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and IL2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK), is in clinical use for the treatment of B-cell malignancies. Here, we report that BTK is expressed by murine and human MDSCs, and that ibrutinib is able to inhibit BTK phosphorylation in these cells. Treatment of MDSCs with ibrutinib significantly impaired nitric oxide production and cell migration. In addition, ibrutinib inhibited in vitro generation of human MDSCs and reduced mRNA expression of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase, an immunosuppressive factor. Treatment of mice bearing EMT6 mammary tumors with ibrutinib resulted in reduced frequency of MDSCs in both the spleen and tumor. Ibrutinib treatment also resulted in a significant reduction of MDSCs in wild-type mice bearing B16F10 melanoma tumors, but not in X-linked immunodeficiency mice (XID) harboring a BTK mutation, suggesting that BTK inhibition plays an important role in the observed reduction of MDSCs in vivo Finally, ibrutinib significantly enhanced the efficacy of anti-PD-L1 (CD274) therapy in a murine breast cancer model. Together, these results demonstrate that ibrutinib modulates MDSC function and generation, revealing a potential strategy for enhancing immune-based therapies in solid malignancies. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2125-36. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Chir99021 and Valproic acid reduce the proliferative advantage of Apc mutant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlands, Alistair J; Carroll, Thomas D; Chen, Yu; Näthke, Inke

    2018-02-15

    More than 90% of colorectal cancers carry mutations in Apc that drive tumourigenesis. A 'just-right' signalling model proposes that Apc mutations stimulate optimal, but not excessive Wnt signalling, resulting in a growth advantage of Apc mutant over wild-type cells. Reversal of this growth advantage constitutes a potential therapeutic approach. We utilised intestinal organoids to compare the growth of Apc mutant and wild-type cells. Organoids derived from Apc Min/+ mice recapitulate stages of intestinal polyposis in culture. They eventually form spherical cysts that reflect the competitive growth advantage of cells that have undergone loss of heterozygosity (LOH). We discovered that this emergence of cysts was inhibited by Chiron99021 and Valproic acid, which potentiates Wnt signalling. Chiron99021 and Valproic acid restrict the growth advantage of Apc mutant cells while stimulating that of wild-type cells, suggesting that excessive Wnt signalling reduces the relative fitness of Apc mutant cells. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated that Chiron99021-treated Apc mutant organoids were rendered susceptible to TSA-induced apoptosis, while wild-type cells were protected.

  16. The PCNA-associated factor KIAA0101/p15PAF binds the potential tumor suppressor product p33ING1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Fiona; Lammerts van Bueren, Kelly; Butterfield, Natalie; Bennetts, Jennifer S.; Bowles, Josephine; Adolphe, Christelle; Simms, Lisa A.; Young, Joanne; Walsh, Michael D.; Leggett, Barbara; Fowles, Lindsay F.; Wicking, Carol

    2006-01-01

    The KIAA0101/p15 PAF /OEATC-1 protein was initially isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) binding partners, and was shown to bind PCNA competitively with the cell cycle regulator p21 WAF . PCNA is involved in DNA replication and damage repair. Using polyclonal antisera raised against a p15 PAF fusion protein, we have shown that in a range of mammalian tumor and non-tumor cell lines the endogenous p15 PAF protein localises to the nucleus and the mitochondria. Under normal conditions no co-localisation with PCNA could be detected, however following exposure to UV it was possible to co-immunoprecipitate p15 PAF and PCNA from a number of cell lines, suggesting a UV-enhanced association of the two proteins. Overexpression of p15 PAF in mammalian cells was also found to protect cells from UV-induced cell death. Based on similarities between the behaviour of p15 PAF and the potential tumor suppressor product p33ING1b, we have further shown that these two proteins interact in the same complex in cell cultures. This suggests that p15 PAF forms part of a larger protein complex potentially involved in the regulation of DNA repair, apoptosis and cell cycle progression

  17. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells express Bruton’s tyrosine kinase and can be depleted in tumor bearing hosts by ibrutinib treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiff, Andrew; Trikha, Prashant; Wesolowski, Robert; Kendra, Kari; Hsu, Vincent; Uppati, Sarvani; McMichael, Elizabeth; Duggan, Megan; Campbell, Amanda; Keller, Karen; Landi, Ian; Zhong, Yiming; Dubovsky, Jason; Howard, John Harrison; Yu, Lianbo; Harrington, Bonnie; Old, Matthew; Reiff, Sean; Mace, Thomas; Tridandapani, Susheela; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Byrd, John C.; Carson, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous group of immature myeloid cells that expand in tumor bearing hosts in response to soluble factors produced by tumor and stromal cells. MDSC expansion has been linked to loss of immune effector cell function and reduced efficacy of immune-based cancer therapies, highlighting the MDSC population as an attractive therapeutic target. Ibrutinib, an irreversible inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) and IL2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK), is in clinical use for the treatment of B cell malignancies. Here, we report that BTK is expressed by murine and human MDSCs, and that ibrutinib is able to inhibit BTK phosphorylation in these cells. Treatment of MDSCs with ibrutinib significantly impaired nitric oxide production and cell migration. In addition, ibrutinib inhibited in vitro generation of human MDSCs and reduced mRNA expression of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase, an immunosuppressive factor. Treatment of mice bearing EMT6 mammary tumors with ibrutinib resulted in reduced frequency of MDSCs in both the spleen and tumor. Ibrutinib treatment also resulted in a significant reduction of MDSCs in wildtype mice bearing B16F10 melanoma tumors, but not in X-linked immunodeficiency mice (XID) harboring a BTK mutation, suggesting that BTK inhibition plays an important role in the observed reduction of MDSCs in vivo. Finally, ibrutinib significantly enhanced the efficacy of anti-PD-L1 (CD274) therapy in a murine breast cancer model. Together, these results demonstrate that ibrutinib modulates MDSC function and generation, revealing a potential strategy for enhancing immune-based therapies in solid malignancies. PMID:26880800

  18. Germline Missense Changes in the APC Gene and Their Relationship to Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rodney J; Crooks, Renee; Rose, Lindy; Attia, John; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Thomas, Lesley; Spigelman, Allan D; Meldrum, Cliff J

    2004-05-15

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the presence of hundreds to thousands of adenomas that carpet the entire colon and rectum. Nonsense and frameshift mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene account for the majority of mutations identified to date and predispose primarily to the typical disease phenotype. Some APC mutations are associated with a milder form of the disease known as attenuated FAP. Virtually all mutations that have been described in the APC gene result in the formation of a premature stop codon and very little is known about missense mutations apart from a common Ashkenazi Jewish mutation (1307 K) and a British E1317Q missense change. The incidence of missense mutations in the APC gene has been underreported since the APC gene lends itself to analysis using an artificial transcription and translation assay known as the Protein Truncation Test (PTT) or the In Vitro Synthetic Protein assay (IVSP).In this report we have used denaturing high performance liquid chromatography to analyse the entire coding sequence of the APC gene to determine if a cohort of patients adhering to the diagnostic criteria of FAP to assess the frequency of missense mutations in the APC gene. Altogether 112 patients were studied and 22 missense mutations were identified. From the total of 22 missense changes, 13 were silent changes and the remaining 9 resulted in amino acid substitutions. One or more of these changes were identified multiple times in 62.5% of the population under study.The results reveal that missense mutations in the APC gene appear not to radically alter protein function but may be associated with more subtle processing of RNA transcripts which in turn could result in the expression of differentially spliced forms of the APC gene which may interfere with the functional activity of the APC protein.

  19. Germline Missense Changes in the APC Gene and Their Relationship to Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Rodney J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is characterized by the presence of hundreds to thousands of adenomas that carpet the entire colon and rectum. Nonsense and frameshift mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene account for the majority of mutations identified to date and predispose primarily to the typical disease phenotype. Some APC mutations are associated with a milder form of the disease known as attenuated FAP. Virtually all mutations that have been described in the APC gene result in the formation of a premature stop codon and very little is known about missense mutations apart from a common Ashkenazi Jewish mutation (1307 K and a British E1317Q missense change. The incidence of missense mutations in the APC gene has been underreported since the APC gene lends itself to analysis using an artificial transcription and translation assay known as the Protein Truncation Test (PTT or the In Vitro Synthetic Protein assay (IVSP. In this report we have used denaturing high performance liquid chromatography to analyse the entire coding sequence of the APC gene to determine if a cohort of patients adhering to the diagnostic criteria of FAP to assess the frequency of missense mutations in the APC gene. Altogether 112 patients were studied and 22 missense mutations were identified. From the total of 22 missense changes, 13 were silent changes and the remaining 9 resulted in amino acid substitutions. One or more of these changes were identified multiple times in 62.5% of the population under study. The results reveal that missense mutations in the APC gene appear not to radically alter protein function but may be associated with more subtle processing of RNA transcripts which in turn could result in the expression of differentially spliced forms of the APC gene which may interfere with the functional activity of the APC protein.

  20. Timing of APC/C substrate degradation is determined by fzy/fzr specificity of destruction boxes

    OpenAIRE

    Zur, Amit; Brandeis, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), activated by fzy and fzr, degrades cell cycle proteins that carry RXXL or KEN destruction boxes (d-boxes). APC/C substrates regulate sequential events and must be degraded in the correct order during mitosis and G1. We studied how d-boxes determine APC/Cfzy/APC/Cfzr specificity and degradation timing. Cyclin B1 has an RXXL box and is degraded by both APC/Cfzy and APC/Cfzr; fzy has a KEN box and is degraded by APC/Cfzr only. We characterized th...

  1. Absence of mutations in the coding sequence of the potential tumor suppressor 3pK in metastatic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houben Roland

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of Ras or Raf contributes to tumorigenesis of melanoma. However, constitutive Raf activation is also a characteristic of the majority of benign melanocytic nevi and high intensity signaling of either Ras or Raf was found to induce growth inhibition and senescence rather than transformation. Since the chromosome 3p kinase (3pK is a target of the Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk signaling pathway which antagonizes the function of the oncogene and anti-differentiation factor Bmi-1, 3pK may function as a tumor suppressor in tumors with constitutive Ras/Raf activation. Consequently, we tested whether inactivating 3pK mutations are present in melanoma. Methods 30 metastatic melanoma samples, which were positive for activating mutations of either BRaf or NRas, were analyzed for possible mutations in the 3pk gene. The 10 coding exons and their flanking intron sequences were amplified by PCR and direct sequencing of the PCR products was performed. Results This analysis revealed that besides the presence of some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3pk gene, we could not detect any possible loss of function mutation in any of these 30 metastatic melanoma samples selected for the presence of activating mutations within the Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk signaling pathway. Conclusion Hence, in melanoma with constitutively active Ras/Raf inactivating mutations within the 3pk gene do not contribute to the oncogenic phenotype of this highly malignant tumor.

  2. Tumor suppressor KAI1 affects integrin αvβ3-mediated ovarian cancer cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruseva, Zlatna; Geiger, Pamina Xenia Charlotte; Hutzler, Peter; Kotzsch, Matthias; Luber, Birgit; Schmitt, Manfred; Gross, Eva; Reuning, Ute

    2009-01-01

    The tetraspanin KAI1 had been described as a metastasis suppressor in many different cancer types, a function for which associations of KAI1 with adhesion and signaling receptors of the integrin superfamily likely play a role. In ovarian cancer, integrin αvβ3 correlates with tumor progression and its elevation in vitro provoked enhanced cell adhesion accompanied by significant increases in cell motility and proliferation in the presence of its major ligand vitronectin. In the present study, we characterized integrin αvβ3-mediated tumor biological effects as a function of cellular KAI1 restoration and proved for the first time that KAI1, besides its already known physical crosstalk with β1-integrins, also colocalizes with integrin αvβ3. Functionally, elevated KAI1 levels drastically increased integrin αvβ3/vitronectin-dependent ovarian cancer cell adhesion. Since an intermediate level of cell adhesive strength is required for optimal cell migration, we next studied ovarian cancer cell motility as a function of KAI1 restoration. By time lapse video microscopy, we found impaired integrin αvβ3/vitronectin-mediated cell migration most probably due to strongly enhanced cellular immobilization onto the adhesion-supporting matrix. Moreover, KAI1 reexpression significantly diminished cell proliferation. These data strongly indicate that KAI1 may suppress ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting integrin αvβ3/vitronectin-provoked tumor cell motility and proliferation as important hallmarks of the oncogenic process.

  3. Radiation of different human melanoma cell lines increased expression of RHOB. Level of this tumor suppressor gene in different cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notcovich, C.; Molinari, B.; Duran, H.; Delgado González, D.; Sánchez Crespo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous results of our group show that a correlation exists between intrinsic radiosensitivity of human melanoma cells and cell death by apoptosis. RhoB is a small GTPase that regulates cytoskeletal organization. Besides, is related to the process of apoptosis in cells exposed to DNA damage as radiation. Also, RhoB levels decrease in a wide variety of tumors with the tumor stage, being considered a tumor suppressor gene due to its antiproliferative and proapoptotic effect. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of RhoB in different human melanoma cell lines in relation to melanocytes, and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on the expression of RhoB. We used the A375, SB2 and Meljcell lines, and the derived from melanocytes Pig1. It was found for all three tumor lines RhoB expression levels significantly lower than those of Pig1 (p <0.05), as assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR . When tumor cells were irradiated to a dose of 2Gyinduction was observed at 3 hours RhoB irradiation. RhoB expression increased in all lines relative to non-irradiated control, showing a greater induction ( p< 0.05) for the more radiosensitive line SB2, consistent with apoptosis in response to radiation. The results allow for the first time in melanoma demonstrate that RhoB, as well as in other tumor types, has a lower expression in tumor cells than their normal counterparts. Moreover, induction in the expression of RhoB in irradiated cells may be associated with the process of radiation-induced apoptosis. The modulation of RhoB could be a new tool to sensitize radioresistant melanoma. (author)

  4. Complexes between the LKB1 tumor suppressor, STRADα/β and MO25α/β are upstream kinases in the AMP-activated protein kinase cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessi Dario R

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK cascade is a sensor of cellular energy charge that acts as a 'metabolic master switch' and inhibits cell proliferation. Activation requires phosphorylation of Thr172 of AMPK within the activation loop by upstream kinases (AMPKKs that have not been identified. Recently, we identified three related protein kinases acting upstream of the yeast homolog of AMPK. Although they do not have obvious mammalian homologs, they are related to LKB1, a tumor suppressor that is mutated in the human Peutz-Jeghers cancer syndrome. We recently showed that LKB1 exists as a complex with two accessory subunits, STRADα/β and MO25α/β. Results We report the following observations. First, two AMPKK activities purified from rat liver contain LKB1, STRADα and MO25α, and can be immunoprecipitated using anti-LKB1 antibodies. Second, both endogenous and recombinant complexes of LKB1, STRADα/β and MO25α/β activate AMPK via phosphorylation of Thr172. Third, catalytically active LKB1, STRADα or STRADβ and MO25α or MO25β are required for full activity. Fourth, the AMPK-activating drugs AICA riboside and phenformin do not activate AMPK in HeLa cells (which lack LKB1, but activation can be restored by stably expressing wild-type, but not catalytically inactive, LKB1. Fifth, AICA riboside and phenformin fail to activate AMPK in immortalized fibroblasts from LKB1-knockout mouse embryos. Conclusions These results provide the first description of a physiological substrate for the LKB1 tumor suppressor and suggest that it functions as an upstream regulator of AMPK. Our findings indicate that the tumors in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome could result from deficient activation of AMPK as a consequence of LKB1 inactivation.

  5. MicroRNA-34a is a potent tumor suppressor molecule in vivo in neuroblastoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tivnan, Amanda

    2011-01-25

    ABSTRACT Background Neuroblastoma is a paediatric cancer which originates from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system and accounts for 15% of childhood cancer mortalities. With regards to the role of miRNAs in neuroblastoma, miR-34a, mapping to a chromosome 1p36 region that is commonly deleted, has been found to act as a tumor suppressor through targeting of numerous genes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. Methods A synthetic miR-34a (or negative control) precursor molecule was transfected into NB1691luc and SK-N-ASluc neuroblastoma cells. Quantitative PCR was used to verify increased miR-34a levels in NB1691luc and SK-N-ASluc cell lines prior to in vitro and in vivo analysis. In vitro analysis of the effects of miR-34a over expression on cell growth, cell cycle and phosphoprotein activation in signal transduction pathways was performed. Neuroblastoma cells over expressing miR-34a were injected retroperitoneally into immunocompromised CB17-SCID mice and tumor burden was assessed over a 21 day period by measuring bioluminescence (photons\\/sec\\/cm2). Results Over expression of miR-34a in both NB1691luc and SK-N-ASluc neuroblastoma cell lines led to a significant decrease in cell number relative to premiR-negative control treated cells over a 72 hour period. Flow cytometry results indicated that miR-34a induced cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis activation. Phosphoprotein analysis highlighted key elements involved in signal transduction, whose activation was dysregulated as a result of miR-34a introduction into cells. As a potential mechanism of miR-34a action on phosphoprotein levels, we demonstrate that miR-34a over-expression results in a significant reduction of MAP3K9 mRNA and protein levels. Although MAP3K9 is a predicted target of miR-34a, direct targeting could not be validated with luciferase reporter assays. Despite this fact, any functional effects of reduced MAP3K9 expression as a result of miR-34a would be expected to

  6. End-Binding Protein 1 (EB1) Up-regulation is an Early Event in Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypula-Cyrus, Yolanda; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Cruz, Mart Angelo Dela; Kunte, Dhananjay P.; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Wali, Ramesh; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    End-binding protein (EB1) is a microtubule protein that binds to the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). While EB1 is implicated as a potential oncogene, its role in cancer progression is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed EB1/APC expression at the earliest stages of colorectal carcinogenesis and in the uninvolved mucosa ("field effect") of human and animal tissue. We also performed siRNA-knockdown in colon cancer cell lines. EB1 is up-regulated in early and field carcinogenesis in the colon, and the cellular/nano-architectural effect of EB1 knockdown depended on the genetic context. Thus, dysregulation of EB1 is an important early event in colon carcinogenesis. PMID:24492008

  7. Tumor suppressor p53 biology, its role in radioresponse and the analysis of p53 mutation/expression among Filipino breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deocaris, Custer C.

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiation remains one of the most effective tools for the treatment of breast cancer. It combines properties of a potent DNA-damaging agent and high degree of spatial specificity to the target tissue. Nonetheless, there remain considerable differences in the outcome for treatment of tumors of differing histological type treated by radiotherapy. The identification of predictive indicators of radiosensitivity is crucial for selecting patients suited for preoperative radiotherapy as well as those unwarranted for postoperative treatments. To improve prognostication, numerous genes involved in the breast carcinogenesis have been studied and thus far over the last decade several multi-center researches converge on the role of tumor suppressor p53 in tumor biology. The p53 gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 17 and encodes a 53-kd nuclear protein, p-53, also referred to as 'the guardian of the genome', it orchestrates multiple cellular processes such as cell growth control, DNA repair and programmed cell death. During radiotherapy, genotoxic damage induces p53 overexpression in order to control the rate of proliferating damaged cells, repair damage or induce the apoptotic pathway. Its molecular inactivation in a tumor cell, typically by a point mutation, leads to chemo/radio resistance due to the inability of the molecule to trigger p53-dependent programmed cell death

  8. Atomic structure of the APC/C and its mechanism of protein ubiquitination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; McLaughlin, Stephen H.; Barford, David

    2015-01-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is a multimeric RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls chromosome segregation and mitotic exit. Its regulation by coactivator subunits, phosphorylation, the mitotic checkpoint complex, and interphase inhibitor Emi1 ensures the correct order and timing of distinct cell cycle transitions. Here, we used cryo-electron microscopy to determine atomic structures of APC/C-coactivator complexes with either Emi1 or a UbcH10-ubiquitin conjugate. These structures define the architecture of all APC/C subunits, the position of the catalytic module, and explain how Emi1 mediates inhibition of the two E2s UbcH10 and Ube2S. Definition of Cdh1 interactions with the APC/C indicates how they are antagonized by Cdh1 phosphorylation. The structure of the APC/C with UbcH10-ubiquitin reveals insights into the initiating ubiquitination reaction. Our results provide a quantitative framework for the design of experiments to further investigate APC/C functions in vivo. PMID:26083744

  9. Mutational myriad of tumor suppressor p53 in Filipino breast cancer: results and perspectives in molecular pathology and epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deocaris, Custer C

    2000-04-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is by far the most widely mutated gene in human cancers. p53 encodes a 53-kDa phosphoprotein, transcription-activator whose targets include genes and gene products that orchestrate genomic stability, cellular response to DNA damage, cell cycle progression apoptosis and aging (senescence). Analysis of the p53 gene profile has previously resulted in identifying several cancer-causative factors in the human setting, as well as, in creating a unique molecular profile of a tumor useful in the design of tailored-therapies for individual cancer patients. Our results in screening for p53 abnormalities in 140 Filipino patients with primary breast lesions confined from 1997-1998 in 5 major hospitals in Manila reveal that p53 plays an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer in at least 48% of all cases. Two methods of p53 analysis are employed, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction-temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE). Inter-comparisons of method exhibit 63.3% concordance in 21 fresh breast carcinoma samples, with ELISA demonstrating 14% false-positives and 10% false-negatives. Only mutations in exon 7 (p=0.063) in the tumor samples how significant correlation with abnormal cellular elevation of p53. PCR-TTGE screening in a large series of 140 patients show that most genetic lesions are localized in exons 5 (41% of the total cases) and 6 (27% of the total cases). No mutations are, however, detected in the transactivation (exons 2-4) and oligomerization (exons 10-11) domains. Invasive carcinomas (stages II and III) are characterized with more frequent and diverse genetic alterations compared with benign tumors, most significantly at exon 5B (p=0.066) and at independently multiple sites (p=0.066). Earlier-onset cases (age of diagnosis < 50 yrs), known to be more clinico-pathologically aggressive, are diagnosed harboring more frequent p53 mutations centered at exon 7 (p=0

  10. Mutational myriad of tumor suppressor p53 in Filipino breast cancer: results and perspectives in molecular pathology and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deocaris, Custer C.

    2000-04-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is by far the most widely mutated gene in human cancers. p53 encodes a 53-kDa phosphoprotein, transcription-activator whose targets include genes and gene products that orchestrate genomic stability, cellular response to DNA damage, cell cycle progression apoptosis and aging (senescence). Analysis of the p53 gene profile has previously resulted in identifying several cancer-causative factors in the human setting, as well as, in creating a unique molecular profile of a tumor useful in the design of tailored-therapies for individual cancer patients. Our results in screening for p53 abnormalities in 140 Filipino patients with primary breast lesions confined from 1997-1998 in 5 major hospitals in Manila reveal that p53 plays an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer in at least 48% of all cases. Two methods of p53 analysis are employed, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction-temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (PCR-TTGE). Inter-comparisons of method exhibit 63.3% concordance in 21 fresh breast carcinoma samples, with ELISA demonstrating 14% false-positives and 10% false-negatives. Only mutations in exon 7 (p=0.063) in the tumor samples how significant correlation with abnormal cellular elevation of p53. PCR-TTGE screening in a large series of 140 patients show that most genetic lesions are localized in exons 5 (41% of the total cases) and 6 (27% of the total cases). No mutations are, however, detected in the transactivation (exons 2-4) and oligomerization (exons 10-11) domains. Invasive carcinomas (stages II and III) are characterized with more frequent and diverse genetic alterations compared with benign tumors, most significantly at exon 5B (p=0.066) and at independently multiple sites (p=0.066). Earlier-onset cases (age of diagnosis < 50 yrs), known to be more clinico-pathologically aggressive, are diagnosed harboring more frequent p53 mutations centered at exon 7 (p=0

  11. LncRNA TUG1 acts as a tumor suppressor in human glioma by promoting cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Meng; An, Gang; Ma, Qingfang

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have revealed multiple functional roles of long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 in different types of malignant tumors, except for human glioma. Here, it was designed to study the potential function of taurine upregulated gene 1 in glioma pathogenesis focusing on its regulation on cell apoptosis. The expression of taurine upregulated gene 1 in glioma tissues was detected by quantitative RT-PCR and compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. Further correlation analysis was conducted to show the relationship between taurine upregulated gene 1 expression and different clinicopathologic parameters. Functional studies were performed to investigate the influence of taurine upregulated gene 1 on apoptosis and cell proliferation by using Annexin V/PI staining and cell counting kit-8 assays, respectively. And, caspase activation and Bcl-2 expression were analyzed to explore taurine upregulated gene 1-induced mechanism. taurine upregulated gene 1 expression was significantly inhibited in glioma and showed significant correlation with WHO Grade, tumor size and overall survival. Further experiments revealed that the dysregulation of taurine upregulated gene 1 affected the apoptosis and cell proliferation of glioma cells. Moreover, taurine upregulated gene 1 could induce the activation of caspase-3 and-9, with inhibited expression of Bcl-2, implying the mechanism in taurine upregulated gene 1-induced apoptosis. taurine upregulated gene 1 promoted cell apoptosis of glioma cells by activating caspase-3 and -9-mediated intrinsic pathways and inhibiting Bcl-2-mediated anti-apoptotic pathways, acting as a tumor suppressor in human glioma. This study provided new insights for the function of taurine upregulated gene 1 in cancer biology, and suggested a potent application of taurine upregulated gene 1 overexpression for glioma therapy. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  12. Regulated degradation of the APC coactivator Cdc20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins Jonathan A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cdc20 is a highly conserved activator of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC, promoting cell-cycle-regulated ubiquitination and proteolysis of a number of critical cell-cycle-regulatory targets including securin and mitotic cyclins. APC-Cdc20 activity is tightly regulated, and this regulation is likely important for accurate cell cycle control. One significant component of Cdc20 regulation is thought to be Cdc20 proteolysis. However, published literature suggests different mechanisms and requirements for Cdc20 proteolysis. The degree to which Cdc20 proteolysis is cell-cycle regulated, the dependence of Cdc20 proteolysis on Cdc20 destruction boxes (recognition sequences for APC-mediated ubiqutination, either by Cdc20 or by the related Cdh1 APC activator, and the need for APC itself for Cdc20 proteolysis all have been disputed to varying extents. In animals, Cdc20 proteolysis is thought to be mediated by Cdh1, contributing an intrinsic order of APC activation by Cdc20 and then by Cdh1. One report suggests a Cdh1 requirement for Cdc20 proteolysis in budding yeast; this idea has not been tested further. Results We characterized Cdc20 proteolysis using Cdc20 expressed from its endogenous locus; previous studies generally employed strongly overexpressed Cdc20, which can cause significant artifacts. We analyzed Cdc20 proteolysis with or without mutations in previously identified destruction box sequences, using varying methods of cell cycle synchronization, and in the presence or absence of Cdh1. Cdc20 instability is only partially dependent on destruction boxes. A much stronger dependence on Cdh1 for Cdc20 proteolysis was observed, but Cdh1-independent proteolysis was also clearly observed. Cdc20 proteolysis independent of both destruction boxes and Cdh1 was especially detectable around the G1/S transition; Cdh1-dependent proteolysis was most notable in late mitosis and G1. Conclusions Cdc20 proteolysis is under complex control

  13. Transcriptional Inhibition of the Human Papilloma Virus Reactivates Tumor Suppressor p53 in Cervical Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkov, D. V.; Ilyinskaya, G. V.; Komarov, P. G.; Strom, E.; Agapova, L. S.; Ivanov, A. V.; Budanov, A. V.; Frolova, E. I.; Chumakov, P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Inactivation of tumor suppressor p53 accompanies the majority of human malignancies. Restoration of p53 function causes death of tumor cells and is potentially suitable for gene therapy of cancer. In cervical carcinoma, human papilloma virus (HPV) E6 facilitates proteasomal degradation of p53. Hence, a possible approach to p53 reactivation is the use of small molecules suppressing the function of viral proteins. HeLa cervical carcinoma cells (HPV-18) with a reporter construct containing the b-galactosidase gene under the control of a p53-responsive promoter were used as a test system to screen a library of small molecules for restoration of the transcriptional activity of p53. The effect of the two most active compounds was studied with cell lines differing in the state of p53-dependent signaling pathways. The compounds each specifically activated p53 in cells expressing HPV-18 and, to a lesser extent, HPV-16 and exerted no effect on control p53-negative cells or cells with the intact p53-dependent pathways. Activation of p53 in cervical carcinoma cells was accompanied by induction of p53-dependent CDKN1 (p21), inhibition of cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. In addition, the two compounds dramatically decreased transcription of the HPV genome, which was assumed to cause p53 reactivation. The compounds were low-toxic for normal cells and can be considered as prototypes of new anticancer drugs. PMID:17685229

  14. ING Genes Work as Tumor Suppressor Genes in the Carcinogenesis of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is the sixth most common cancer in the world. The evolution and progression of HNSCC are considered to result from multiple stepwise alterations of cellular and molecular pathways in squamous epithelium. Recently, inhibitor of growth gene (ING family consisting of five genes, ING1 to ING5, was identified as a new tumor suppressor gene family that was implicated in the downregulation of cell cycle and chromatin remodeling. In contrast, it has been shown that ING1 and ING2 play an oncogenic role in some cancers, this situation being similar to TGF-β. In HNSCC, the ING family has been reported to be downregulated, and ING translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm may be a critical event for carcinogenesis. In this paper, we describe our recent results and briefly summarize current knowledge regarding the biologic functions of ING in HNSCC.

  15. Structural Studies of the SET Domain from RIZ1 Tumor Suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briknarova, Klara; Zhou, Xinliang; Satterthwait, Arnold C.; Hoyt, David W.; Ely, Kathryn R.; Huang, Shi

    2008-02-15

    Histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs) are involved in regulation of chromatin structure, and, as such, are important for longterm gene activation and repression that is associated with cell memory and establishment of cell-type specific transcriptional programs. Most HKMTs contain a SET domain, which is responsible for their catalytic activity. RIZ1 is a transcription regulator and tumor suppressor that catalyzes methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 and contains a rather distinct SET domain. Similar SET domains, sometimes refererred to as PR (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ1 homology) domains, are also found in other proteins including Blimp-1/PRDI-BF1, MDS1-EVI1 and Meisetz. We determined the solution structure of the PR domain from RIZ1 and characterized its interaction with S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) and a peptide from histone H3. Despite low sequence identity with canonical SET domains, the PR domain displays a typical SET fold including a pseudo-knot at the C-terminus. The N-flanking sequence of RIZ1 PR domain adopts a novel conformation and interacts closely with the SET fold. The C-flanking sequence contains an α-helix that exhibits higher mobility than the SET fold and points away from the protein face that harbors active site in other SET domains. Residues that interact with the methylation cofactor in SET domains are not conserved in RIZ1 or other PR domains, and the SET fold of RIZ1 does not bind SAH. However, the PR domain of RIZ1 interacts specifically with a synthetic peptide comprising residues 1-20 of histone H3.

  16. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and cancer therapy: An evolutionary game theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Heydar; Kebriaei, Hamed; Veisi, Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Inactivation of alleles in tumor suppressor genes (TSG) is one of the important issues resulting in evolution of cancerous cells. In this paper, the evolution of healthy, one and two missed allele cells is modeled using the concept of evolutionary game theory and replicator dynamics. The proposed model also takes into account the interaction rates of the cells as designing parameters of the system. Different combinations of the equilibrium points of the parameterized nonlinear system is studied and categorized into some cases. In each case, the interaction rates' values are suggested in a way that the equilibrium points of the replicator dynamics are located on an appropriate region of the state space. Based on the suggested interaction rates, it is proved that the system doesn't have any undesirable interior equilibrium point as well. Therefore, the system will converge to the desirable region, where there is a scanty level of cancerous cells. In addition, the proposed conditions for interaction rates guarantee that, when a trajectory of the system reaches the boundaries, then it will stay there forever which is a desirable property since the equilibrium points have been already located on the boundaries, appropriately. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the suggestions in the elimination of the cancerous cells in different scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. MicroRNA-218 functions as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer by targeting IL-6/STAT3 and negatively correlates with poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Ding, Lili; Hu, Qun; Xia, Jia; Sun, Junjie; Wang, Xudong; Xiong, Hua; Gurbani, Deepak; Li, Lianbo; Liu, Yan; Liu, Aiguo

    2017-08-22

    Aberrant expression of microRNAs in different human cancer types has been widely reported. MiR-218 acts as a tumor suppressor in diverse human cancer types impacting regulation of multiple genes in oncogenic pathways. Here, we evaluated the expression and function of miR-218 in human lung cancer and ALDH positive lung cancer cells to understand the potential mechanisms responsible for disease pathology. Also, the association between its host genes and the target genes could be useful towards the better understanding of prognosis in clinical settings. Publicly-available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was mined to compare the levels of miR-218 and its host gene SLIT2/3 between lung cancer tissues and normal lung tissues. Transfection of miR-218 to investigate its function in lung cancer cells was done and in vivo effects were determined using miR-218 expressing lentiviruses. Aldefluor assay and Flow cytometry was used to quantify and enrich ALDH positive lung cancer cells. Levels of miR-218, IL-6R, JAK3 and phosphorylated STAT3 were compared in ALDH1A1 positive and ALDH1A1 negative cells. Overexpression of miR-218 in ALDH positive cells was carried to test the survival by tumorsphere culture. Finally, utilizing TCGA data we studied the association of target genes of miR-218 with the prognosis of lung cancer. We observed that the expression of miR-218 was significantly down-regulated in lung cancer tissues compared to normal lung tissues. Overexpression of miR-218 decreased cell proliferation, invasion, colony formation, and tumor sphere formation in vitro and repressed tumor growth in vivo. We further found that miR-218 negatively regulated IL-6 receptor and JAK3 gene expression by directly targeting the 3'-UTR of their mRNAs. In addition, the levels of both miR-218 host genes and the components of IL-6/STAT3 pathway correlated with prognosis of lung cancer patients. MiR-218 acts as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer via IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway

  18. The Neurofibromatosis 2 Tumor Suppressor Gene Product, Merlin, Regulates Human Meningioma Cell Growth by Signaling through YAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Striedinger

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the occurrence of schwannomas and meningiomas. Several studies have examined the ability of the NF2 gene product, merlin, to function as a tumor suppressor in diverse cell types; however, little is known about merlin growth regulation in meningiomas. In Drosophila, merlin controls cell proliferation and apoptosis by signaling through the Hippo pathway to inhibit the function of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie. The Hippo pathway is conserved in mammals. On the basis of these observations, we developed human meningioma cell lines matched for merlin expression to evaluate merlin growth regulation and investigate the relationship between NF2 status and Yes-associated protein (YAP, the mammalian homolog of Yorkie. NF2 loss in meningioma cells was associated with loss of contact-dependent growth inhibition, enhanced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell proliferation due to increased S-phase entry. In addition, merlin loss in both meningioma cell lines and primary tumors resulted in increased YAP expression and nuclear localization. Finally, siRNA-mediated reduction of YAP in NF2-deficient meningioma cells rescued the effects of merlin loss on cell proliferation and S-phase entry. Collectively, these results represent the first demonstration that merlin regulates cell growth in human cancer cells by suppressing YAP.

  19. miR-7 and miR-218 epigenetically control tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A and Claudin-6 by targeting HoxB3 in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiaoyan; Zhu, Fufan; Chen, Puxiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Both miR-7 and miR-218 down-regulates HoxB3 expression by targeting the 3′-UTR of HoxB3 mRNA. ► A reverse correlation between the levels of endogenous miR-7, miR218 and HoxB3 expression. ► Epigenetic changes involve in the reactivation of HoxB3. ► Both miRNAs inhibits the cell cycle and clone formation of breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Many microRNAs have been implicated as key regulators of cellular growth and differentiation and have been found to dysregulate proliferation in human tumors, including breast cancer. Cancer-linked microRNAs also alter the epigenetic landscape by way of DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones. Aberrations in Hox gene expression are important for oncogene or tumor suppressor during abnormal development and malignancy. Although recent studies suggest that HoxB3 is critical in breast cancer, the putative role(s) of microRNAs impinging on HoxB3 is not yet fully understood. In this study, we found that the expression levels of miR-7 and miR-218 were strongly and reversely associated with HoxB3 expression. Stable overexpression of miR-7 and miR-218 was accompanied by reactivation of tumor suppressor genes including RASSF1A and Claudin-6 by means of epigenetic switches in DNA methylation and histone modification, giving rise to inhibition of the cell cycle and clone formation of breast cancer cells. The current study provides a novel link between overexpression of collinear Hox genes and multiple microRNAs in human breast malignancy.

  20. Retrotransposon Targeting of Tumor Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Dongdong; DeVaux, George

    2005-01-01

    .... Cancer gene therapy techniques include oncogene inactivation, tumor suppressor gene replacement, inhibition of angiogenesis, immunopotentiation, molecular chemotherapy, and transfer of drug resistance genes...

  1. Maslinic acid-enriched diet decreases intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice through transcriptomic and metabolomic reprogramming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sánchez-Tena

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention is a pragmatic approach to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in western countries. In this regard, maslinic acid (MA, a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from wax-like coatings of olives, is known to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines without affecting normal intestinal cells. The present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy and associated mechanisms of maslinic acid treatment on spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice. Twenty-two mice were randomized into 2 groups: control group and MA group, fed with a maslinic acid-supplemented diet for six weeks. MA treatment reduced total intestinal polyp formation by 45% (P<0.01. Putative molecular mechanisms associated with suppressing intestinal polyposis in Apc(Min/+ mice were investigated by comparing microarray expression profiles of MA-treated and control mice and by analyzing the serum metabolic profile using NMR techniques. The different expression phenotype induced by MA suggested that it exerts its chemopreventive action mainly by inhibiting cell-survival signaling and inflammation. These changes eventually induce G1-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, the metabolic changes induced by MA treatment were associated with a protective profile against intestinal tumorigenesis. These results show the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of MA against intestinal tumor development in the Apc(Min/+ mice model, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against colorectal cancer.

  2. High performance APCS conceptual design and evaluation scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.; Liekhus, K.; Chambers, A.; Anderson, G.

    1998-02-01

    This Air Pollution Control System (APCS) Conceptual Design and Evaluation study was conducted to evaluate a high-performance (APC) system for minimizing air emissions from mixed waste thermal treatment systems. Seven variations of high-performance APCS designs were conceptualized using several design objectives. One of the system designs was selected for detailed process simulation using ASPEN PLUS to determine material and energy balances and evaluate performance. Installed system capital costs were also estimated. Sensitivity studies were conducted to evaluate the incremental cost and benefit of added carbon adsorber beds for mercury control, specific catalytic reduction for NO x control, and offgas retention tanks for holding the offgas until sample analysis is conducted to verify that the offgas meets emission limits. Results show that the high-performance dry-wet APCS can easily meet all expected emission limits except for possibly mercury. The capability to achieve high levels of mercury control (potentially necessary for thermally treating some DOE mixed streams) could not be validated using current performance data for mercury control technologies. The engineering approach and ASPEN PLUS modeling tool developed and used in this study identified APC equipment and system performance, size, cost, and other issues that are not yet resolved. These issues need to be addressed in feasibility studies and conceptual designs for new facilities or for determining how to modify existing facilities to meet expected emission limits. The ASPEN PLUS process simulation with current and refined input assumptions and calculations can be used to provide system performance information for decision-making, identifying best options, estimating costs, reducing the potential for emission violations, providing information needed for waste flow analysis, incorporating new APCS technologies in existing designs, or performing facility design and permitting activities

  3. The interrelationship between APC/C and Plk1 activities in centriole disengagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hatano

    2012-09-01

    Mother–daughter centriole disengagement, the necessary first step in centriole duplication, involves Plk1 activity in early mitosis and separase activity after APC/C activity mediates securin degradation. Plk1 activity is thought to be essential and sufficient for centriole disengagement with separase activity playing a supporting but non-essential role. In separase null cells, however, centriole disengagement is substantially delayed. The ability of APC/C activity alone to mediate centriole disengagement has not been directly tested. We investigate the interrelationship between Plk1 and APC/C activities in disengaging centrioles in S or G2 HeLa and RPE1 cells, cell types that do not reduplicate centrioles when arrested in S phase. Knockdown of the interphase APC/C inhibitor Emi1 leads to centriole disengagement and reduplication of the mother centrioles, though this is slow. Strong inhibition of Plk1 activity, if any, during S does not block centriole disengagement and mother centriole reduplication in Emi1 depleted cells. Centriole disengagement depends on APC/C–Cdh1 activity, not APC/C–Cdc20 activity. Also, Plk1 and APC/C–Cdh1 activities can independently promote centriole disengagement in G2 arrested cells. Thus, Plk1 and APC/C–Cdh1 activities are independent but slow pathways for centriole disengagement. By having two slow mechanisms for disengagement working together, the cell ensures that centrioles will not prematurely separate in late G2 or early mitosis, thereby risking multipolar spindle assembly, but rather disengage in a timely fashion only late in mitosis.

  4. Genomic loss of tumor suppressor miRNA-204 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion by activating AKT/mTOR/Rac1 signaling and actin reorganization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Saadi Imam

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that chromosomal regions containing microRNAs are functionally important in cancers. Here, we show that genomic loci encoding miR-204 are frequently lost in multiple cancers, including ovarian cancers, pediatric renal tumors, and breast cancers. MiR-204 shows drastically reduced expression in several cancers and acts as a potent tumor suppressor, inhibiting tumor metastasis in vivo when systemically delivered. We demonstrated that miR-204 exerts its function by targeting genes involved in tumorigenesis including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin family member which is known to promote tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness. Analysis of primary tumors shows that increased expression of BDNF or its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB parallel a markedly reduced expression of miR-204. Our results reveal that loss of miR-204 results in BDNF overexpression and subsequent activation of the small GTPase Rac1 and actin reorganization through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway leading to cancer cell migration and invasion. These results suggest that microdeletion of genomic loci containing miR-204 is directly linked with the deregulation of key oncogenic pathways that provide crucial stimulus for tumor growth and metastasis. Our findings provide a strong rationale for manipulating miR-204 levels therapeutically to suppress tumor metastasis.

  5. A Restricted Spectrum of Mutations in the SMAD4 Tumor-Suppressor Gene Underlies Myhre Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Viviana; Cianetti, Luciano; Niceta, Marcello; Carta, Claudio; Ciolfi, Andrea; Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Carrani, Eugenio; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Biamino, Elisa; Belligni, Elga; Garavelli, Livia; Boccone, Loredana; Melis, Daniela; Andria, Generoso; Gelb, Bruce D.; Stella, Lorenzo; Silengo, Margherita; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Tartaglia, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Myhre syndrome is a developmental disorder characterized by reduced growth, generalized muscular hypertrophy, facial dysmorphism, deafness, cognitive deficits, joint stiffness, and skeletal anomalies. Here, by performing exome sequencing of a single affected individual and coupling the results to a hypothesis-driven filtering strategy, we establish that heterozygous mutations in SMAD4, which encodes for a transducer mediating transforming growth factor β and bone morphogenetic protein signaling branches, underlie this rare Mendelian trait. Two recurrent de novo SMAD4 mutations were identified in eight unrelated subjects. Both mutations were missense changes altering Ile500 within the evolutionary conserved MAD homology 2 domain, a well known mutational hot spot in malignancies. Structural analyses suggest that the substituted residues are likely to perturb the binding properties of the mutant protein to signaling partners. Although SMAD4 has been established as a tumor suppressor gene somatically mutated in pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and skin cancers, and germline loss-of-function lesions and deletions of this gene have been documented to cause disorders that predispose individuals to gastrointestinal cancer and vascular dysplasias, the present report identifies a previously unrecognized class of mutations in the gene with profound impact on development and growth. PMID:22243968

  6. Long Non-coding RNA, PANDA, Contributes to the Stabilization of p53 Tumor Suppressor Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Yojiro; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Ohhata, Tatsuya; Sakai, Satoshi; Uchida, Chiharu; Niida, Hiroyuki; Naemura, Madoka; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    P21-associated noncoding RNA DNA damage-activated (PANDA) is induced in response to DNA damage and represses apoptosis by inhibiting the function of nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha (NF-YA) transcription factor. Herein, we report that PANDA affects regulation of p53 tumor-suppressor protein. U2OS cells were transfected with PANDA siRNAs. At 72 h post-transfection, cells were subjected to immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Depletion of PANDA was associated with decreased levels of p53 protein, but not p53 mRNA. The stability of p53 protein was markedly reduced by PANDA silencing. Degradation of p53 protein by silencing PANDA was prevented by treatment of MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. Moreover, depletion of PANDA prevented accumulation of p53 protein, as a result of DNA damage, induced by the genotoxic agent etoposide. These results suggest that PANDA stabilizes p53 protein in response to DNA damage, and provide new insight into the regulatory mechanisms of p53. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. APC gene mutations and extraintestinal phenotype of familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardiello, F. M.; Petersen, G. M.; Piantadosi, S.; Gruber, S. B.; Traboulsi, E. I.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Muro, K.; Krush, A. J.; Booker, S. V.; Luce, M. C.; Laken, S. J.; Kinzler, K. W.; Vogelstein, B.; Hamilton, S. R.

    1997-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene on chromosome 5q. This study assessed genotype-phenotype correlations for extraintestinal lesions in FAP. Mutations of the APC gene were compared with the occurrence of seven

  8. Dietary factors and Truncating APC Mutations in Sporadic Colorectal Adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Braam, H.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Inactivating mutations in APC are thought to be early, initiating events in colorectal carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the relationship between diet and inactivating APC mutations, we evaluated associations between dietary factors and the occurrence of these mutations in a Dutch case-control

  9. Dietary factors and truncating APC mutations in sporadic colorectal adenomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Braam, H.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2005-01-01

    Inactivating mutations in APC are thought to be early, initiating events in colorectal carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the relationship between diet and inactivating APC mutations, we evaluated associations between dietary factors and the occurrence of these mutations in a Dutch case-control

  10. Somatic APC mosaicism and oligogenic inheritance in genetically unsolved colorectal adenomatous polyposis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, Michele; Miccoli, Sara; Prossomariti, Anna; Pippucci, Tommaso; Bonora, Elena; Buscherini, Francesco; Palombo, Flavia; Zuntini, Roberta; Balbi, Tiziana; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi; Turchetti, Daniela; Piazzi, Giulia

    2018-03-01

    Germline variants in the APC gene cause familial adenomatous polyposis. Inherited variants in MutYH, POLE, POLD1, NTHL1, and MSH3 genes and somatic APC mosaicism have been reported as alternative causes of polyposis. However, ~30-50% of cases of polyposis remain genetically unsolved. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic causes of unexplained adenomatous polyposis. Eight sporadic cases with >20 adenomatous polyps by 35 years of age or >50 adenomatous polyps by 55 years of age, and no causative germline variants in APC and/or MutYH, were enrolled from a cohort of 56 subjects with adenomatous colorectal polyposis. APC gene mosaicism was investigated on DNA from colonic adenomas by Sanger sequencing or Whole Exome Sequencing (WES). Mosaicism extension to other tissues (peripheral blood, saliva, hair follicles) was evaluated using Sanger sequencing and/or digital PCR. APC second hit was investigated in adenomas from mosaic patients. WES was performed on DNA from peripheral blood to identify additional polyposis candidate variants. We identified APC mosaicism in 50% of patients. In three cases mosaicism was restricted to the colon, while in one it also extended to the duodenum and saliva. One patient without APC mosaicism, carrying an APC in-frame deletion of uncertain significance, was found to harbor rare germline variants in OGG1, POLQ, and EXO1 genes. In conclusion, our restrictive selection criteria improved the detection of mosaic APC patients. In addition, we showed for the first time that an oligogenic inheritance of rare variants might have a cooperative role in sporadic colorectal polyposis onset.

  11. An APC:WNT counter-current-like mechanism regulates cell division along the colonic crypt axis: a mechanism that explains how APC mutations induce proliferative abnormalities that drive colon cancer development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce M Boman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available APC normally down-regulates WNT signaling in human colon, and APC mutations cause proliferative abnormalities in premalignant crypts leading to colon cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear at the level of spatial and functional organization of the crypt. Accordingly, we postulated a counter-current-like mechanism based on gradients of factors (APC;WNT that regulate colonocyte proliferation along the crypt axis. During crypt renewal, stem cells (SCs at the crypt bottom generate non-SC daughter cells that proliferate and differentiate while migrating upwards. The APC concentration is low at the crypt bottom and high at the top (where differentiated cells reside. WNT signaling, in contrast, is high at the bottom (where SCs reside and low at the top. Given that WNT and APC gradients are counter to one another, we hypothesized that a counter-current-like mechanism exists. Since both APC and WNT signaling components (e.g. survivin are required for mitosis, this mechanism establishes a zone in the lower crypt where conditions are optimal for maximal cell division and mitosis orientation (symmetric versus asymmetric. APC haploinsufficiency diminishes the APC gradient, shifts the proliferative zone upwards, and increases symmetric division, which causes SC overpopulation. In homozygote mutant crypts, these changes are exacerbated. Thus, APC-mutation-induced changes in the counter-current-like mechanism cause expansion of proliferative populations (SCs, rapidly-proliferating cells during tumorigenesis. We propose this mechanism also drives crypt fission, functions in the crypt cycle, and underlies adenoma development. Novel chemoprevention approaches designed to normalize the two gradients and readjust the proliferative zone downwards, might thwart progression of these premalignant changes.

  12. Analysis of the Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4) tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Sally J; Choong, David YH; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Ryland, Georgina L; Campbell, Ian G; Gorringe, Kylie L

    2011-01-01

    MAP2K4 is a putative tumor and metastasis suppressor gene frequently found to be deleted in various cancer types. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive analysis of this gene to assess its involvement in ovarian cancer. We screened for mutations in MAP2K4 using High Resolution Melt analysis of 149 primary ovarian tumors and methylation at the promoter using Methylation-Specific Single-Stranded Conformation Polymorphism analysis of 39 tumors. We also considered the clinical impact of changes in MAP2K4 using publicly available expression and copy number array data. Finally, we used siRNA to measure the effect of reducing MAP2K4 expression in cell lines. In addition to 4 previously detected homozygous deletions, we identified a homozygous 16 bp truncating deletion and a heterozygous 4 bp deletion, each in one ovarian tumor. No promoter methylation was detected. The frequency of MAP2K4 homozygous inactivation was 5.6% overall, and 9.8% in high-grade serous cases. Hemizygous deletion of MAP2K4 was observed in 38% of samples. There were significant correlations of copy number and expression in three microarray data sets. There was a significant correlation between MAP2K4 expression and overall survival in one expression array data set, but this was not confirmed in an independent set. Treatment of JAM and HOSE6.3 cell lines with MAP2K4 siRNA showed some reduction in proliferation. MAP2K4 is targeted by genetic inactivation in ovarian cancer and restricted to high grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas in our cohort

  13. Simultaneous down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes RBSP3/CTDSPL, NPRL2/G21 and RASSF1A in primary non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senchenko, Vera N; Zabarovsky, Eugene R; Anedchenko, Ekaterina A; Kondratieva, Tatiana T; Krasnov, George S; Dmitriev, Alexei A; Zabarovska, Veronika I; Pavlova, Tatiana V; Kashuba, Vladimir I; Lerman, Michael I

    2010-01-01

    The short arm of human chromosome 3 is involved in the development of many cancers including lung cancer. Three bona fide lung cancer tumor suppressor genes namely RBSP3 (AP20 region),NPRL2 and RASSF1A (LUCA region) were identified in the 3p21.3 region. We have shown previously that homozygous deletions in AP20 and LUCA sub-regions often occurred in the same tumor (P < 10 -6 ). We estimated the quantity of RBSP3, NPRL2, RASSF1A, GAPDH, RPN1 mRNA and RBSP3 DNA copy number in 59 primary non-small cell lung cancers, including 41 squamous cell and 18 adenocarcinomas by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction based on TaqMan technology and relative quantification. We evaluated the relationship between mRNA level and clinicopathologic characteristics in non-small cell lung cancer. A significant expression decrease (≥2) was found for all three genes early in tumor development: in 85% of cases for RBSP3; 73% for NPRL2 and 67% for RASSF1A (P < 0.001), more strongly pronounced in squamous cell than in adenocarcinomas. Strong suppression of both, NPRL2 and RBSP3 was seen in 100% of cases already at Stage I of squamous cell carcinomas. Deregulation of RASSF1A correlated with tumor progression of squamous cell (P = 0.196) and adenocarcinomas (P < 0.05). Most likely, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms might be responsible for transcriptional inactivation of RBSP3 in non-small cell lung cancers as promoter methylation of RBSP3 according to NotI microarrays data was detected in 80% of squamous cell and in 38% of adenocarcinomas. With NotI microarrays we tested how often LUCA (NPRL2, RASSF1A) and AP20 (RBSP3) regions were deleted or methylated in the same tumor sample and found that this occured in 39% of all studied samples (P < 0.05). Our data support the hypothesis that these TSG are involved in tumorigenesis of NSCLC. Both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to down-regulation of these three genes representing two tumor suppressor clusters in 3p21

  14. A multigene mutation classification of 468 colorectal cancers reveals a prognostic role for APC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Michael J.; Yang, Mingli; Teer, Jamie K.; Lo, Fang Yin; Madan, Anup; Coppola, Domenico; Monteiro, Alvaro N. A.; Nebozhyn, Michael V.; Yue, Binglin; Loboda, Andrey; Bien-Willner, Gabriel A.; Greenawalt, Danielle M.; Yeatman, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly heterogeneous disease, for which prognosis has been relegated to clinicopathologic staging for decades. There is a need to stratify subpopulations of CRC on a molecular basis to better predict outcome and assign therapies. Here we report targeted exome-sequencing of 1,321 cancer-related genes on 468 tumour specimens, which identified a subset of 17 genes that best classify CRC, with APC playing a central role in predicting overall survival. APC may assume 0, 1 or 2 truncating mutations, each with a striking differential impact on survival. Tumours lacking any APC mutation carry a worse prognosis than single APC mutation tumours; however, two APC mutation tumours with mutant KRAS and TP53 confer the poorest survival among all the subgroups examined. Our study demonstrates a prognostic role for APC and suggests that sequencing of APC may have clinical utility in the routine staging and potential therapeutic assignment for CRC. PMID:27302369

  15. Clinical impact of the immunome in lymphoid malignancies: the role of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero eVetro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The better definition of the mutual sustainment between neoplastic cells and immune system has been translated from the bench to the bedside acquiring value as prognostic factor. Additionally, it represents a promising tool for improving therapeutic strategies. In this context, myeloid-derived suppressor cells have gained a central role in tumor developing with consequent therapeutic implications. In this review, we will focus on the biological and clinical impact of the study of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the settings of lymphoid malignancies.

  16. Repression of estrogen receptor β function by putative tumor suppressor DBC1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Satoshi; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Tanikawa, Michihiro; Hiraike, Haruko; Miyamoto, Yuichiro; Sone, Kenbun; Oda, Katsutoshi; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    It has been well established that estrogen is involved in the pathophysiology of breast cancer. Estrogen receptor (ER) α appears to promote the proliferation of cancer tissues, while ERβ can protect against the mitogenic effect of estrogen in breast tissue. The expression status of ERα and ERβ may greatly influence on the development, treatment, and prognosis of breast cancer. Previous studies have indicated that the deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1/KIAA1967) gene product has roles in regulating functions of nuclear receptors. The gene encoding DBC1 is a candidate for tumor suppressor identified by genetic search for breast cancer. Caspase-dependent processing of DBC1 promotes apoptosis, and depletion of the endogenous DBC1 negatively regulates p53-dependent apoptosis through its specific inhibition of SIRT1. In addition, DBC1 modulates ERα expression and promotes breast cancer cell survival by binding to ERα. Here we report an ERβ-specific repressive function of DBC1. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies show that ERβ and DBC1 interact in a ligand-independent manner similar to ERα. In vitro pull-down assays revealed a direct interaction between DBC1 amino-terminus and activation function-1/2 domain of ERβ. Although DBC1 shows no influence on the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation function of ERα, the expression of DBC1 negatively regulates the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation function of ERβin vivo, and RNA interference-mediated depletion of DBC1 stimulates the transactivation function of ERβ. These results implicate the principal role of DBC1 in regulating ERβ-dependent gene expressions.

  17. Distinguishing between cancer driver and passenger gene alteration candidates via cross-species comparison: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xinglai; Tang, Jie; Halberg, Richard; Busam, Dana; Ferriera, Steve; Peña, Maria Marjorette O; Venkataramu, Chinnambally; Yeatman, Timothy J; Zhao, Shaying

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a cross-species comparison strategy to distinguish between cancer driver- and passenger gene alteration candidates, by utilizing the difference in genomic location of orthologous genes between the human and other mammals. As an initial test of this strategy, we conducted a pilot study with human colorectal cancer (CRC) and its mouse model C57BL/6J Apc Min/+ , focusing on human 5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2. We first performed bioinformatics analysis on the evolution of 5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2 regions. Then, we performed exon-targeted sequencing, real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and real time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses on a number of genes of both regions with both human and mouse colon tumors. These two regions (5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2) are frequently deleted in human CRCs and encode genuine colorectal tumor suppressors APC and SMAD4. They also encode genes such as MCC (mutated in colorectal cancer) with their role in CRC etiology unknown. We have discovered that both regions are evolutionarily unstable, resulting in genes that are clustered in each human region being found scattered at several distinct loci in the genome of many other species. For instance, APC and MCC are within 200 kb apart in human 5q22.2 but are 10 Mb apart in the mouse genome. Importantly, our analyses revealed that, while known CRC driver genes APC and SMAD4 were disrupted in both human colorectal tumors and tumors from Apc Min/+ mice, the questionable MCC gene was disrupted in human tumors but appeared to be intact in mouse tumors. These results indicate that MCC may not actually play any causative role in early colorectal tumorigenesis. We also hypothesize that its disruption in human CRCs is likely a mere result of its close proximity to APC in the human genome. Expanding this pilot study to the entire genome may identify more questionable genes like MCC, facilitating the discovery of new CRC driver gene candidates

  18. Distinguishing between cancer driver and passenger gene alteration candidates via cross-species comparison: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xinglai; Tang, Jie; Halberg, Richard; Busam, Dana; Ferriera, Steve; Peña, Maria Marjorette O; Venkataramu, Chinnambally; Yeatman, Timothy J; Zhao, Shaying

    2010-08-13

    We are developing a cross-species comparison strategy to distinguish between cancer driver- and passenger gene alteration candidates, by utilizing the difference in genomic location of orthologous genes between the human and other mammals. As an initial test of this strategy, we conducted a pilot study with human colorectal cancer (CRC) and its mouse model C57BL/6J ApcMin/+, focusing on human 5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2. We first performed bioinformatics analysis on the evolution of 5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2 regions. Then, we performed exon-targeted sequencing, real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and real time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses on a number of genes of both regions with both human and mouse colon tumors. These two regions (5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2) are frequently deleted in human CRCs and encode genuine colorectal tumor suppressors APC and SMAD4. They also encode genes such as MCC (mutated in colorectal cancer) with their role in CRC etiology unknown. We have discovered that both regions are evolutionarily unstable, resulting in genes that are clustered in each human region being found scattered at several distinct loci in the genome of many other species. For instance, APC and MCC are within 200 kb apart in human 5q22.2 but are 10 Mb apart in the mouse genome. Importantly, our analyses revealed that, while known CRC driver genes APC and SMAD4 were disrupted in both human colorectal tumors and tumors from ApcMin/+ mice, the questionable MCC gene was disrupted in human tumors but appeared to be intact in mouse tumors. These results indicate that MCC may not actually play any causative role in early colorectal tumorigenesis. We also hypothesize that its disruption in human CRCs is likely a mere result of its close proximity to APC in the human genome. Expanding this pilot study to the entire genome may identify more questionable genes like MCC, facilitating the discovery of new CRC driver gene candidates.

  19. Liver Inflammation and Metabolic Signaling in ApcMin/+ Mice: The Role of Cachexia Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsale, Aditi A.; Enos, Reilly T.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Murphy, E. Angela; Fayad, Raja; Pena, Majorette O’; Durstine, J. Larry; Carson, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The ApcMin/+ mouse exhibits an intestinal tumor associated loss of muscle and fat that is accompanied by chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Since the liver governs systemic energy demands through regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, it is likely that the liver is a pathological target of cachexia progression in the ApcMin/+ mouse. The purpose of this study was to determine if cancer and the progression of cachexia affected liver endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress, inflammation, metabolism, and protein synthesis signaling. The effect of cancer (without cachexia) was examined in wild-type and weight-stable ApcMin/+ mice. Cachexia progression was examined in weight-stable, pre-cachectic, and severely-cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. Livers were analyzed for morphology, glycogen content, ER-stress, inflammation, and metabolic changes. Cancer induced hepatic expression of ER-stress markers BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein), IRE-1α (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1), and inflammatory intermediate STAT-3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). While gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression was suppressed by cancer, glycogen content or protein synthesis signaling remained unaffected. Cachexia progression depleted liver glycogen content and increased mRNA expression of glycolytic enzyme PFK (phosphofrucktokinase) and gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK. Cachexia progression further increased pSTAT-3 but suppressed p-65 and JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase) activation. Interestingly, progression of cachexia suppressed upstream ER-stress markers BiP and IRE-1α, while inducing its downstream target CHOP (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3). Cachectic mice exhibited a dysregulation of protein synthesis signaling, with an induction of p-mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), despite a suppression of Akt (thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1) and S6 (ribosomal protein S6) phosphorylation. Thus, cancer

  20. Liver inflammation and metabolic signaling in ApcMin/+ mice: the role of cachexia progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi A Narsale

    Full Text Available The ApcMin/+ mouse exhibits an intestinal tumor associated loss of muscle and fat that is accompanied by chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Since the liver governs systemic energy demands through regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, it is likely that the liver is a pathological target of cachexia progression in the ApcMin/+ mouse. The purpose of this study was to determine if cancer and the progression of cachexia affected liver endoplasmic reticulum (ER-stress, inflammation, metabolism, and protein synthesis signaling. The effect of cancer (without cachexia was examined in wild-type and weight-stable ApcMin/+ mice. Cachexia progression was examined in weight-stable, pre-cachectic, and severely-cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. Livers were analyzed for morphology, glycogen content, ER-stress, inflammation, and metabolic changes. Cancer induced hepatic expression of ER-stress markers BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein, IRE-1α (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1, and inflammatory intermediate STAT-3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. While gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK mRNA expression was suppressed by cancer, glycogen content or protein synthesis signaling remained unaffected. Cachexia progression depleted liver glycogen content and increased mRNA expression of glycolytic enzyme PFK (phosphofrucktokinase and gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK. Cachexia progression further increased pSTAT-3 but suppressed p-65 and JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Interestingly, progression of cachexia suppressed upstream ER-stress markers BiP and IRE-1α, while inducing its downstream target CHOP (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3. Cachectic mice exhibited a dysregulation of protein synthesis signaling, with an induction of p-mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin, despite a suppression of Akt (thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 and S6 (ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation. Thus

  1. Critical Current Properties in Longitudinal Magnetic Field of YBCO Superconductor with APC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, R.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E. S.; Matsushita, T.; Jha, A. K.; Matsumoto, K.

    The critical current density (Jc) properties of the Artificial Pinning Center (APC) introduced YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) films in the longitudinal magnetic field were measured. Y2O3 or Y2BaCuO5 (Y211) was introduced as APCs to YBCO, and YBCO films with APC were fabricated on SrTiO3 single crystal substrate. The sizes of Y2O3 and Y211 were 5-10 nm and 10-20 nm, respectively. As a result, Jc enhancement in the longitudinal magnetic field was observed in Y2O3 introduced YBCO films. However, it was not observed in Y211 introduced YBCO films. Therefore, it was considered that Jc properties in the longitudinal magnetic field were affected by introducing of small size APC, and it was necessary that APC does not disturb the current pathway in the superconductor.

  2. Apc bridges Wnt/{beta}-catenin and BMP signaling during osteoblast differentiation of KS483 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miclea, Razvan L., E-mail: R.L.Miclea@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Horst, Geertje van der, E-mail: G.van_der_Horst@lumc.nl [Department of Urology, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Robanus-Maandag, Els C., E-mail: E.C.Robanus@lumc.nl [Department of Human Genetics, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Loewik, Clemens W.G.M., E-mail: C.W.G.M.Lowik@lumc.nl [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Oostdijk, Wilma, E-mail: W.Oostdijk@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Wit, Jan M., E-mail: J.M.Wit@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Karperien, Marcel, E-mail: H.B.J.Karperien@tnw.utwente.nl [MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Department of Tissue Regeneration, University of Twente, Zuidhorst Room ZH 144, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-06-10

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway influences the differentiation of mesenchymal cell lineages in a quantitative and qualitative fashion depending on the dose of {beta}-catenin signaling. Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) is the critical intracellular regulator of {beta}-catenin turnover. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Apc in regulating the differentiation capacity of skeletal progenitor cells, we have knocked down Apc in the murine mesenchymal stem cell-like KS483 cells by stable expression of Apc-specific small interfering RNA. In routine culture, KSFrt-Apc{sub si} cells displayed a mesenchymal-like spindle shape morphology, exhibited markedly decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Apc knockdown resulted in upregulation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin and the BMP/Smad signaling pathways, but osteogenic differentiation was completely inhibited. This effect could be rescued by adding high concentrations of BMP-7 to the differentiation medium. Furthermore, KSFrt-Apc{sub si} cells showed no potential to differentiate into chondrocytes or adipocytes. These results demonstrate that Apc is essential for the proliferation, survival and differentiation of KS483 cells. Apc knockdown blocks the osteogenic differentiation of skeletal progenitor cells, a process that can be overruled by high BMP signaling.

  3. Suppressor cells in transplantation tolerance II. Maturation of suppressor cells in the bone marrow chimera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutschka, P.J.; Ki, P.F.; Beschorner, W.E.; Hess, A.D.; Santos, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    Histoincompatible bone marrow allografts were established in lethally irradiated rats. At various times after transplantation, the spleen cells were harvested, subjected to mixed lymphocyte cultures, and assayed for suppressor cells in vitro and in vivo by adoptive transfer studies. Alloantigen-nonspecific suppressor cells appeared in the chimera at 40 days after grafting, coinciding with the resolution of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). At 250 days the nonspecific suppressor cells were replaced by suppressor cells specifically suppressing donor-versus-host alloantigen responses. At 720 days suppressor cells could no longer be identified by in vitro methods but were identified by in vivo adoptive transfer of transplantation tolerance. After injection of host-type antigen into chimeras, the suppressor cells could be again demonstrated by in vitro methods

  4. Suppressor cells in transplantation tolerance. II. maturation of suppressor cells in the bone marrow chimera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutschka, P.J.; Ki, P.F.; Beschorner, W.E.; Hess, A.D.; Santos, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    Histoincompatible bone marrow allografts were established in lethally irradiated rats. At various times after transplantation, the spleen cells were harvested, subjected to mixed lymphocyte cultures, and assayed for suppressor cells in vitro and in vivo by adoptive transfer studies. Alloantigen-nonspecific suppressor cells appeared in the chimera at 40 days after grafting, coinciding with the resolution of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). At 250 days the nonspecific suppressor cells were replaced by suppressor cells specifically suppressing donor-versus-host alloantigen responses. At 720 days suppressor cells could no longer be identified by in vitro methods but were identified by in vivo adoptive transfer of transplantation tolerance. After injection of host-type antigen into chimeras, the suppressor cells could be again demonstrated by in vitro methods

  5. Myeloid derived suppressor cells as therapeutic target in hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim eDe Veirman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that accumulate during pathological conditions such as cancer and are associated with a poor clinical outcome. MDSC expansion hampers the host anti-tumor immune response by inhibition of T cell proliferation, cytokine secretion and recruitment of regulatory T cells. In addition, MDSC exert non-immunological functions including the promotion of angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. Recent years, MDSC are considered as a potential target in solid tumors and hematological malignancies to enhance the effects of currently used immune modulating agents. This review focuses on the characteristics, distribution, functions, cell-cell interactions and targeting of MDSC in hematological malignancies including multiple myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia.

  6. Epigenetic regulation of APC in the molecular pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh Tekcham

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings indicate epigenetic silencing of APC in advanced GBC. The methylation pattern, followed by expression analysis of APC may be suggested for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic purposes in GBC in future.

  7. An APC:WNT Counter-Current-Like Mechanism Regulates Cell Division Along the Human Colonic Crypt Axis: A Mechanism That Explains How APC Mutations Induce Proliferative Abnormalities That Drive Colon Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Bruce M.; Fields, Jeremy Z.

    2013-01-01

    APC normally down-regulates WNT signaling in human colon, and APC mutations cause proliferative abnormalities in premalignant crypts leading to colon cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear at the level of spatial and functional organization of the crypt. Accordingly, we postulated a counter-current-like mechanism based on gradients of factors (APC;WNT) that regulate colonocyte proliferation along the crypt axis. During crypt renewal, stem cells (SCs) at the crypt bottom generate non-SC daughter cells that proliferate and differentiate while migrating upwards. The APC concentration is low at the crypt bottom and high at the top (where differentiated cells reside). WNT signaling, in contrast, is high at the bottom (where SCs reside) and low at the top. Given that WNT and APC gradients are counter to one another, we hypothesized that a counter-current-like mechanism exists. Since both APC and WNT signaling components (e.g., survivin) are required for mitosis, this mechanism establishes a zone in the lower crypt where conditions are optimal for maximal cell division and mitosis orientation (symmetric versus asymmetric). APC haploinsufficiency diminishes the APC gradient, shifts the proliferative zone upwards, and increases symmetric division, which causes SC overpopulation. In homozygote mutant crypts, these changes are exacerbated. Thus, APC-mutation-induced changes in the counter-current-like mechanism cause expansion of proliferative populations (SCs, rapidly proliferating cells) during tumorigenesis. We propose this mechanism also drives crypt fission, functions in the crypt cycle, and underlies adenoma development. Novel chemoprevention approaches designed to normalize the two gradients and readjust the proliferative zone downwards, might thwart progression of these premalignant changes. PMID:24224156

  8. Tumor suppressor p16 INK4a: Downregulation of galectin-3, an endogenous competitor of the pro-anoikis effector galectin-1, in a pancreatic carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ruderisch, Hugo; Fischer, Christian; Detjen, Katharina M; Welzel, Martina; Wimmel, Anja; Manning, Joachim C; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2010-09-01

    The tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) has functions beyond cell-cycle control via cyclin-dependent kinases. A coordinated remodeling of N- and O-glycosylation, and an increase in the presentation of the endogenous lectin galectin-1 sensing these changes on the surface of p16(INK4a)-expressing pancreatic carcinoma cells (Capan-1), lead to potent pro-anoikis signals. We show that the p16(INK4a)-dependent impact on growth-regulatory lectins is not limited to galectin-1, but also concerns galectin-3. By monitoring its expression in relation to p16(INK4a) status, as well as running anoikis assays with galectin-3 and cell transfectants with up- or downregulated lectin expression, a negative correlation between anoikis and the presence of this lectin was established. Nuclear run-off and northern blotting experiments revealed an effect of the presence of p16(INK4a) on steady-state levels of galectin-3-specific mRNA that differed from decreasing the transcriptional rate. On the cell surface, galectin-3 interferes with galectin-1, which initiates signaling toward its pro-anoikis activity via caspase-8 activation. The detected opposite effects of p16(INK4a) at the levels of growth-regulatory galectins-1 and -3 shift the status markedly towards the galectin-1-dependent pro-anoikis activity. A previously undescribed orchestrated fine-tuning of this effector system by a tumor suppressor is discovered.

  9. Tumor suppressor function of Syk in human MCF10A in vitro and normal mouse mammary epithelium in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Me Sung

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The normal function of Syk in epithelium of the developing or adult breast is not known, however, Syk suppresses tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis in breast cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that in the mouse mammary gland, loss of one Syk allele profoundly increases proliferation and ductal branching and invasion of epithelial cells through the mammary fat pad during puberty. Mammary carcinomas develop by one year. Syk also suppresses proliferation and invasion in vitro. siRNA or shRNA knockdown of Syk in MCF10A breast epithelial cells dramatically increased proliferation, anchorage independent growth, cellular motility, and invasion, with formation of functional, extracellular matrix-degrading invadopodia. Morphological and gene microarray analysis following Syk knockdown revealed a loss of luminal and differentiated epithelial features with epithelial to mesenchymal transition and a gain in invadopodial cell surface markers CD44, CD49F, and MMP14. These results support the role of Syk in limiting proliferation and invasion of epithelial cells during normal morphogenesis, and emphasize the critical role of Syk as a tumor suppressor for breast cancer. The question of breast cancer risk following systemic anti-Syk therapy is raised since only partial loss of Syk was sufficient to induce mammary carcinomas.

  10. Expression level of novel tumor suppressor gene FATS is associated with the outcome of node positive breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; GU Lin; ZHAO Lu-jun; ZHANG Xi-feng; QIU Li; LI Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, we reported the identification of a previously uncharacterized and evolutionarily conserved gene, fragile-site associated tumor suppressor (FATS), at a frequently deleted region in irradiation (IR)-induced tumors.However, the role of FATS in breast cancer development and its clinical significance has not been defined. The aim of this study was to determine the role of FA7S in breast cancer development and to evaluate its clinical significance in breast cancer.Methods The expression level of FATS mRNA was determined in 106 breast carcinomas and 23 paired normal breast tissues using quantitative real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The relationship between FATS expression and clinicopathological parameters were also analyzed.Results The mRNA level of FATS was down-regulated in breast cancer compared with paired normal tissues. Low expression of FATS was correlated with high nuclear grade. There was a tendency to a favorable outcome for patients with high expression of FATS (P=0.346). However, low expression of FATS was associated with poor outcome of breast cancer patients with node positive (P=0.011). Furthermore, the mRNA level of FATS showed an independent value in predicting the outcome of breast cancer patients with positive lymph nodes.Conclusion FATS is involved in the carcinogenesis and development of breast cancer and could be a potential biomarker and prognostic factor for breast cancer therapy.

  11. Ubiquitination of Cdc20 by the APC occurs through an intramolecular mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foe, Ian T.; Foster, Scott A.; Cheung, Stephanie K.; DeLuca, Steven Z.; Morgan, David O.; Toczyski, David P.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Cells control progression through late mitosis by regulating Cdc20 and Cdh1, the two mitotic activators of the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC). The control of Cdc20 protein levels during the cell cycle is not well understood. Results Here, we demonstrate that Cdc20 is degraded in budding yeast by multiple APC-dependent mechanisms. We find that the majority of Cdc20 turnover does not involve a second activator molecule, but instead depends on in cis Cdc20 autoubiquitination while it is bound to its activator-binding site on the APC core. Unlike in trans ubiquitination of Cdc20 substrates, the APC ubiquitinates Cdc20 independent of APC activation by Cdc20’s C-box. Cdc20 turnover by this intramolecular mechanism is cell cycle-regulated, contributing to the decline in Cdc20 levels that occurs after anaphase. Interestingly, high substrate levels in vitro significantly reduce Cdc20 autoubiquitination. Conclusion We show here that Cdc20 fluctuates through the cell cycle via a distinct form of APC-mediated ubiquitination. This in cis autoubiquitination may preferentially occur in early anaphase, following depletion of Cdc20 substrates. This suggests that distinct mechanisms are able to target Cdc20 for ubiquitination at different points during the cell cycle. PMID:22079111

  12. Contribution of APC and MUTYH mutations to familial adenomatous polyposis susceptibility in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Janos; Kovacs, Marietta Eva; Matrai, Zoltan; Orosz, Enikő; Kásler, Miklós; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Olah, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome with considerable genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, defined by the development of multiple adenomas throughout the colorectum. FAP is caused either by monoallelic mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene APC, or by biallelic germline mutations of MUTYH, this latter usually presenting with milder phenotype. The aim of the present study was to characterize the genotype and phenotype of Hungarian FAP patients. Mutation screening of 87 unrelated probands from FAP families (21 of them presented as the attenuated variant of the disease, showing APC were identified in 65 patients (75 %), including nine cases (37.5 %) with large genomic alterations. Twelve of the point mutations were novel. In addition, APC-negative samples were also tested for MUTYH mutations and we were able to identify biallelic pathogenic mutations in 23 % of these cases (5/22). Correlations between the localization of APC mutations and the clinical manifestations of the disease were observed, cases with a mutation in the codon 1200-1400 region showing earlier age of disease onset (p APC- and MUTYH-associated FAP in our cohort: the age at onset of polyposis was significantly delayed for biallelic MUTYH mutation carriers as compared to patients with an APC mutation. Our data represent the first comprehensive study delineating the mutation spectra of both APC and MUTYH in Hungarian FAP families, and underscore the overlap between the clinical characteristics of APC- and MUTYH-associated phenotypes, necessitating a more appropriate clinical characterization of FAP families.

  13. miR-199a-3p displays tumor suppressor functions in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minna, Emanuela; Romeo, Paola; De Cecco, Loris; Dugo, Matteo; Cassinelli, Giuliana; Pilotti, Silvana; Degl'Innocenti, Debora; Lanzi, Cinzia; Casalini, Patrizia; Pierotti, Marco A; Greco, Angela; Borrello, Maria Grazia

    2014-05-15

    Thyroid cancer incidence is rapidly increasing. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC), the most frequent hystotype, usually displays good prognosis, but no effective therapeutic options are available for the fraction of progressive PTC patients. BRAF and RET/PTC are the most frequent driving genetic lesions identified in PTC. We developed two complementary in vitro models based on RET/PTC1 oncogene, starting from the hypothesis that miRNAs modulated by a driving PTC-oncogene are likely to have a role in thyroid neoplastic processes. Through this strategy, we identified a panel of deregulated miRNAs. Among these we focused on miR-199a-3p and showed its under-expression in PTC specimens and cell lines. We demonstrated that miR-199a-3p restoration in PTC cells reduces MET and mTOR protein levels, impairs migration and proliferation and, more interesting, induces lethality through an unusual form of cell death similar to methuosis, caused by macropinocytosis dysregulation. Silencing MET or mTOR, both involved in survival pathways, does not recapitulate miR-199a-3p-induced cell lethality, thus suggesting that the cooperative regulation of multiple gene targets is necessary. Integrated analysis of miR-199a-3p targets unveils interesting networks including HGF and macropinocytosis pathways. Overall our results indicate miR-199a-3p as a tumor suppressor miRNA in PTC.

  14. Regulation of the activity of the tumor suppressor PTEN by thioredoxin in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Zuohe; Saghafi, Negin; Gokhale, Vijay; Brabant, Marc; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J.

    2007-01-01

    Human Thioredoxin-1 (hTrx-1) is a small redox protein with a molecular weight of 12 kDa that contains two cysteine residues found in its catalytic site. HTrx-1 plays an important role in cell growth, apoptosis, and cancer patient prognosis. Recently, we have demonstrated that hTrx-1 binds to the C2 domain of the human tumor suppressor, PTEN, in a redox dependent manner. This binding leads to the inhibition of PTEN lipid phosphatase activity in mammalian tissue culture systems. In this study, we show that over-expression of hTrx-1 in Drosophila melanogaster promotes cell growth and proliferation during eye development as measured by eye size and ommatidia size. Furthermore, hTrx-1 rescues the small eye phenotype induced by the over-expression of PTEN. We demonstrate that this rescue of the PTEN-induced eye size phenotype requires cysteine-218 in the C2 domain of PTEN. We also show that hTrx-1 over-expression results in increased Akt phosphorylation in fly head extracts supporting our observations that the hTrx-1-induced eye size increase results from the inhibition of PTEN activity. Our study confirms the redox regulation of PTEN through disulfide bond formation with the hTrx-1 in Drosophila and suggests conserved mechanisms for thioredoxins and their interactions with the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling pathway in humans and fruit flies

  15. The Fbw7 tumor suppressor targets KLF5 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation and suppresses breast cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Zheng, Han-Qiu; Zhou, Zhongmei; Chen, Ceshi

    2010-06-01

    Fbw7 is a tumor suppressor frequently inactivated in cancers. The KLF5 transcription factor promotes breast cell proliferation and tumorigenesis through upregulating FGF-BP. The KLF5 protein degrades rapidly through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Here, we show that the Skp1-CUL1-Fbw7 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex (SCF(Fbw7)) targets KLF5 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation in a GSK3beta-mediated KLF5 phosphorylation-dependent manner. Mutation of the critical S303 residue in the KLF5 Cdc4 phospho-degrons motif ((303)SPPSS) abolishes the protein interaction, ubiquitination, and degradation by Fbw7. Inactivation of endogenous Fbw7 remarkably increases the endogenous KLF5 protein abundances. Endogenous Fbw7 suppresses the FGF-BP gene expression and breast cell proliferation through targeting KLF5 for degradation. These findings suggest that Fbw7 inhibits breast cell proliferation at least partially through targeting KLF5 for proteolysis. This new regulatory mechanism of KLF5 degradation may result in useful diagnostic and therapeutic targets for breast cancer and other cancers. Copyright 2010 AACR.

  16. CENP-R acts bilaterally as a tumor suppressor and as an oncogene in the two-stage skin carcinogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Kazuhiro; Kagawa, Naoko; Saito, Megumi; Yoshizawa, Yasuhiro; Munakata, Haruka; Isogai, Eriko; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Wakabayashi, Yuichi

    2017-11-01

    CENP-R is a component of the CENP-O complex, including CENP-O, CENP-P, CENP-Q, CENP-R, and CENP-U and is constitutively localized to kinetochores throughout the cell cycle in vertebrates. CENP-R-deficient chicken DT40 cells are viable and show a very minor effect on mitosis. To investigate the functional roles of CENP-R in vivo, we generated CENP-R-deficient mice (Cenp-r -/- ). Mice heterozygous or homozygous for Cenp-r null mutation are viable and healthy, with no apparent defect in growth and morphology, indicating Cenp-r is not essential for normal development. Accordingly, to investigate the role of the Cenp-r gene in skin carcinogenesis, we subjected Cenp-r -/- mice to the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/TPA chemical carcinogenesis protocol and monitored tumor development. As a result, Cenp-r -/- mice initially developed significantly more papillomas than control wild-type mice. However, papillomas in Cenp-r -/- mice showed a decrease of proliferative cells and an increase of apoptotic cells. As a result, they did not grow bigger and some papillomas showed substantial regression. Furthermore, papillomas in Cenp-r -/- mice showed lower frequency of malignant conversion to squamous cell carcinomas. These results indicate Cenp-r functions bilaterally in cancer development: during early developmental stages, Cenp-r functions as a tumor suppressor, but during the expansion and progression of papillomas it functions as a tumor-promoting factor. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  17. The tumor suppressor PTEN inhibits EGF-induced TSP-1 and TIMP-1 expression in FTC-133 thyroid carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soula-Rothhut, Mahdhia; Coissard, Cyrille; Sartelet, Herve; Boudot, Cedric; Bellon, Georges; Martiny, Laurent; Rothhut, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a multidomain extracellular macromolecule that was first identified as natural modulator of angiogenesis and tumor growth. In the present study, we found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) up-regulated TSP-1 expression in FTC-133 (primary tumor) but not in FTC-238 (lung metastasis) thyroid cancer cells. Both EGF and TSP-1 induced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in a mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. In FTC-133 cells, EGF induced proliferation in a TSP-1- and TIMP-1-dependent manner. In addition, we determined that re-expression of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN induced cell death, an effect that correlated with a block of Akt kinase phosphorylation. EGF-induced TSP-1 and TIMP-1 promoter activity and protein expression were inhibited in FTC-133 cells stably expressing wtPTEN but not in cells expressing mutant PTEN. Furthermore, we found that wtPTEN inhibited EGF-but not TSP-1-stimulated FTC-133 cell migration and also inhibited invasion induced by EGF and by TSP-1. Finally, an antibody against TSP-1 reversed EGF-stimulated FTC-133 cell invasion as well as the constitutive invasive potential of FTC-238 cells. Overall, our results suggest that PTEN can function as an important modulator of extracellular matrix proteins in thyroid cancer. Therefore, analyzing differential regulation of TSP-1 by growth factors such as EGF can be helpful in understanding thyroid cancer development

  18. Chorionic gonadotropin regulates the transcript level of VHL, p53, and HIF-2alpha in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, D; Keck, C; Tempfer, C; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2004-12-01

    The ovarian corpus luteum plays a critical role in reproduction being the primary source of circulating progesterone. After ovulation the corpus luteum is build by avascular granulosa lutein cells through rapid vascularization regulated by gonadotropic hormones. The present study was performed to investigate whether this process might be influenced by the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-dependent expression of different tumor suppressor genes and hypoxia dependent transcription factors. RNA was isolated from cultured granulosa lutein cells, transcribed into cDNA, and the transcript level of following genes were determined: RB-1, VHL, NF-1, NF-2, Wt-1, p53, APC, and hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), -2, and -3alpha. Additionally, the influence of hCG on the expression of VHL, p53, and HIf2alpha were investigated. We demonstrate that in human granulosa lutein cells the tumor suppressor genes RB-1, VHL, NF-1, NF-2, Wt-1, p53, and APC and the hypoxia dependent transcription factors HIF-1alpha, -2alpha, and -3alpha are expressed. In addition, we showed that hCG regulates the expression of p53, VHL, and HIF-2alpha. Our results indicate that hCG may determine the growth and development of the corpus luteum by mediating hypoxic and apoptotic pathways in human granulosa lutein cells. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Application examples of APC-03-2 and APC-03-2A airborne particle counters under various contamination conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czitrovszky, A.; Jani, P.

    1997-01-01

    Several application examples of the airborne particle counters APC-03-2 and APC-03-2A for monitoring particle size distribution and concentration in air and other gases are described. The computer controlled fast data evaluation and storage provide efficient presentation of the measured data in a variety of table- and histogram-forms, presenting of alarm levels for each size range, observation of alarm history, etc. The device can be applied not only for clean room monitoring and laminar box testing, but also for measuring contamination in health care facilities in workshops using hazardous airborne compounds (e.g. in pharmacology), and in toxicology where the concentration of the contamination may be very high. (author)

  20. Functional characterization of Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ubiquitin ligases in tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfang; Wan, Lixin; Dai, Xiangpeng; Sun, Yi; Wei, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that primarily governs cell cycle progression. APC/C is composed of at least 14 core subunits and recruits its substrates for ubiquitination via one of the two adaptor proteins, Cdc20 or Cdh1, in M or M/early G1 phase, respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have shed light on crucial functions for APC/C in maintaining genomic integrity, neuronal differentiation, cellular metabolism and tumorig