WorldWideScience

Sample records for tumor oxygenation parameters

  1. Monitoring Tumor Response to Carbogen Breathing by Oxygen-Sensitive Magnetic Resonance Parameters to Predict the Outcome of Radiation Therapy: A Preclinical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao-Pham, Thanh-Trang; Tran, Ly-Binh-An; Colliez, Florence; Joudiou, Nicolas; El Bachiri, Sabrina; Grégoire, Vincent; Levêque, Philippe; Gallez, Bernard; Jordan, Bénédicte F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In an effort to develop noninvasive in vivo methods for mapping tumor oxygenation, magnetic resonance (MR)-derived parameters are being considered, including global R_1, water R_1, lipids R_1, and R_2*. R_1 is sensitive to dissolved molecular oxygen, whereas R_2* is sensitive to blood oxygenation, detecting changes in dHb. This work compares global R_1, water R_1, lipids R_1, and R_2* with pO_2 assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry, as potential markers of the outcome of radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: R_1, R_2*, and EPR were performed on rhabdomyosarcoma and 9L-glioma tumor models, under air and carbogen breathing conditions (95% O_2, 5% CO_2). Because the models demonstrated different radiosensitivity properties toward carbogen, a growth delay (GD) assay was performed on the rhabdomyosarcoma model and a tumor control dose 50% (TCD50) was performed on the 9L-glioma model. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging oxygen-sensitive parameters detected the positive changes in oxygenation induced by carbogen within tumors. No consistent correlation was seen throughout the study between MR parameters and pO_2. Global and lipids R_1 were found to be correlated to pO_2 in the rhabdomyosarcoma model, whereas R_2* was found to be inversely correlated to pO_2 in the 9L-glioma model (P=.05 and .03). Carbogen increased the TCD50 of 9L-glioma but did not increase the GD of rhabdomyosarcoma. Only R_2* was predictive (P<.05) for the curability of 9L-glioma at 40 Gy, a dose that showed a difference in response to RT between carbogen and air-breathing groups. "1"8F-FAZA positron emission tomography imaging has been shown to be a predictive marker under the same conditions. Conclusion: This work illustrates the sensitivity of oxygen-sensitive R_1 and R_2* parameters to changes in tumor oxygenation. However, R_1 parameters showed limitations in terms of predicting the outcome of RT in the tumor models studied, whereas R_2* was found to be

  2. Monitoring Tumor Response to Carbogen Breathing by Oxygen-Sensitive Magnetic Resonance Parameters to Predict the Outcome of Radiation Therapy: A Preclinical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao-Pham, Thanh-Trang; Tran, Ly-Binh-An; Colliez, Florence; Joudiou, Nicolas [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Brussels (Belgium); El Bachiri, Sabrina [Université Catholique de Louvain, IMMAQ Technological Platform, Methodology and Statistical Support, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Grégoire, Vincent [Université Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research, Center for Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Brussels (Belgium); Levêque, Philippe; Gallez, Bernard [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Brussels (Belgium); Jordan, Bénédicte F., E-mail: benedicte.jordan@uclouvain.be [Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: In an effort to develop noninvasive in vivo methods for mapping tumor oxygenation, magnetic resonance (MR)-derived parameters are being considered, including global R{sub 1}, water R{sub 1}, lipids R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}*. R{sub 1} is sensitive to dissolved molecular oxygen, whereas R{sub 2}* is sensitive to blood oxygenation, detecting changes in dHb. This work compares global R{sub 1}, water R{sub 1}, lipids R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}* with pO{sub 2} assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry, as potential markers of the outcome of radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}*, and EPR were performed on rhabdomyosarcoma and 9L-glioma tumor models, under air and carbogen breathing conditions (95% O{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}). Because the models demonstrated different radiosensitivity properties toward carbogen, a growth delay (GD) assay was performed on the rhabdomyosarcoma model and a tumor control dose 50% (TCD50) was performed on the 9L-glioma model. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging oxygen-sensitive parameters detected the positive changes in oxygenation induced by carbogen within tumors. No consistent correlation was seen throughout the study between MR parameters and pO{sub 2}. Global and lipids R{sub 1} were found to be correlated to pO{sub 2} in the rhabdomyosarcoma model, whereas R{sub 2}* was found to be inversely correlated to pO{sub 2} in the 9L-glioma model (P=.05 and .03). Carbogen increased the TCD50 of 9L-glioma but did not increase the GD of rhabdomyosarcoma. Only R{sub 2}* was predictive (P<.05) for the curability of 9L-glioma at 40 Gy, a dose that showed a difference in response to RT between carbogen and air-breathing groups. {sup 18}F-FAZA positron emission tomography imaging has been shown to be a predictive marker under the same conditions. Conclusion: This work illustrates the sensitivity of oxygen-sensitive R{sub 1} and R{sub 2}* parameters to changes in tumor oxygenation. However, R{sub 1

  3. Oxygen diffusion and oxygen effect in tumor tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, H.M.; Hehn, G.

    1979-06-01

    The diffusion of oxygen in tumor cords of bronchus carcinoma of the lung have been studied with refined computer methods for solving the diffusion equation in axis symmetric tumor structures. In this tumor configuration we may find three different regions consisting of euoxic cells, hypoxic tumor cells and necrotic parts. In the case of oxygen supply from a capillary inside a cylinder of tumor tissue with radius 200 μm or in a tumor cord of radius 300 μm with oxygen supply by capillaries outside, we get a relation of well oxygenated cells to hypoxic cells approximately as 1:8 or as 1:1.1 respectively. Of course most of the tumor cords observed in histological slices have smaller diameters, so that an average of approximately 20% hypoxic cells can be assumed. Based on the work of Ardenne, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose in a tumor of type DS-carcinosarcom has been investigated in both intact tumor and tumor treated with ionizing radiation. We can show that a strong reoxygenation effect takes place in that the well supplied regions may increase in some tumor configurations up to a factor of four by volume. The biological consequences of the oxygen pressure determined in tumor cells are discussed in detail. The investigation of oxygen diffusion in the intercapillary tumor region should give a quantitative physical basis for considering the oxygen effect with the aim to explain the advantages of neutron therapy against conventional radiotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  4. The relationship between tumor oxygenation and cell proliferation in human soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordsmark, Marianne; Hoeyer, Morten; Keller, Johnny; Nielsen, Ole Steen; Jensen, Oluf Myhre; Overgaard, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: In malignant tumors the oxygenation status and tumor cell proliferation are known to influence local tumor control after radiotherapy. However, the relationship between oxygenation status and tumor cell kinetics in human tumors has not yet been described. Newly developed clinically applicable techniques such as oxygen electrode measurements and assessment of tumor cell proliferation rates have been suggested as promising predictive assays. The purpose of the present study was to characterize tumor oxygenation status in soft tissue sarcomas and to compare this with tumor cell kinetics and clinical parameters. Methods and Materials: Pretreatment tumor oxygenation status was measured by polarographic oxygen needle electrodes and evaluated as the median pO 2 and the percentage of pO 2 values ≤ 5 mmHg and ≤ 2.5 mmHg in 22 patients with primary soft tissue sarcomas. All tumors were characterized by histology, grade of malignancy, the level of microscopic necrosis, the level of effective hemoglobin, and magnetic resonance imaging estimation of tumor volume. The tumor cell potential doubling time and labeling index were measured by flow cytometric and immunohistochemical analysis of tumor biopsy specimens after in vivo incorporation of iododeoxyuridine. Results: There was a significant correlation between the median pO 2 and the tumor cell potential doubling time (p = 0.041), whereas no correlation was found between the level of hypoxia expressed by the percentage of pO 2 values ≤ 2.5 and ≤ 5 mmHg, respectively, and tumor cell potential doubling time. Furthermore, no correlation was found between either of the three tumor oxygenation parameters and labeling index. The material represented large intertumor heterogeneity in oxygenation status, cell kinetics, and tumor volume, and no correlation was found between oxygenation status and either volume, histopathology, grade of malignancy, or effective hemoglobin. Conclusion: This report is the first to suggest

  5. Clinical oxygen enhancement ratio of tumors in carbon ion radiotherapy: the influence of local oxygenation changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonovic, Laura; Lindblom, Emely; Dasu, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    , using the repairable–conditionally repairable (RCR) damage model with parameters for human salivary gland tumor cells. The clinical oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was defined as the ratio of doses required for a tumor control probability of 50% for hypoxic and well-oxygenated tumors. The resulting OER...... was well above unity for all fractionations. For the hypoxic tumor, the tumor control probability was considerably higher if LOCs were assumed, rather than static oxygenation. The beneficial effect of LOCs increased with the number of fractions. However, for very low fraction doses, the improvement related...... to LOCs did not compensate for the increase in total dose required for tumor control. In conclusion, our results suggest that hypoxia can influence the outcome of carbon ion radiotherapy because of the non-negligible oxygen effect at the low LETs in the SOBP. However, if LOCs occur, a relatively high...

  6. Oxygen tension measurements of tumors growing in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Markus F.; Dorie, Mary Jo; Brown, J. Martin

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical studies using the Eppendorf histograph have shown that patients whose tumors have a low pO 2 have worse local control after radiotherapy, and have higher metastatic rates. Because preclinical studies of methods of overcoming, or exploiting, hypoxia generally use transplanted tumors in mice, we have compared the oxygenation of mouse tumors with human tumors to determine the appropriateness of the transplanted mouse model for such preclinical studies. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the oxygenation status of subcutaneous (s.c.) tissue and of 12 intradermally (i.d.)- and 7 s.c.-growing mouse or human transplanted tumors in mice using the Eppendorf histograph, and compared the values obtained with measurements of human head and neck nodes. Results: The normal tissue pO 2 profile of air-breathing mice showed a nearly Gaussian distribution (38.2 ± 14.9 mmHg). Breathing 10% O 2 or carbogen resulted in dramatic changes in normal tissue oxygenation. Tumors growing intradermally in the back of air-breathing mice were extremely hypoxic and resistant to expected changes in oxygenation (carbogen breathing, size, and use of anesthetics). Tumors growing s.c. in the foot showed higher oxygen profiles with marked changes in oxygenation when exposing the animals to different levels of oxygen. However, the oxygenation of the mouse tumors transplanted in either site was only a fraction of that of the majority of human tumors. Conclusion: Experimental mouse tumors are markedly hypoxic, with median values of 10-20% of those of human tumors. Hence, mouse tumors are probably good models for the most hypoxic human tumors that respond poorly to radiotherapy; however, caution has to be exercised in extrapolating data from mouse to man

  7. Oxygenation level and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor estimated by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Volovetsky, A. B.; Shilyagina, N. Yu.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using diffuse optical spectroscopy the level of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor in comparison with normal muscle tissue of mice have been studied. Subcutaneously growing SKBR-3 was used as a tumor model. Continuous wave fiber probe diffuse optical spectroscopy system was employed. Optical properties extraction approach was based on diffusion approximation. Decreased blood oxygen saturation level and increased total hemoglobin content were demonstrated in the neoplasm. The main reason of such differences between tumor and norm was significant elevation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration in SKBR-3. The method can be useful for diagnosis of tumors as well as for study of blood flow parameters of tumor models with different angiogenic properties.

  8. A theoretical model for the effects of reduced hemoglobin-oxygen affinity on tumor oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, Brian D.; Secomb, Timothy W.; Hsu, Richard; Lin, P.-S.; Venitz, Jurgen; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a theoretical model for oxygen delivery to tumors, and to use the model to simulate the effects of changing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen on tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Hemoglobin affinity is expressed in terms of P 50 , the partial pressure of oxygen (Po 2 ) at half saturation. Effects of changing P 50 on arterial Po 2 are predicted using an effective vessel approach to describe diffusive oxygen transport in the lungs, assuming fixed systemic oxygen demand and fixed blood flow rate. The decline in oxygen content of blood as it flows through normal tissue before entering the tumor region is assumed fixed. The hypoxic fraction of the tumor region is predicted using a three-dimensional simulation of diffusion from a network of vessels whose geometry is derived from observations of tumor microvasculature in the rat. Results: In air-breathing rats, predicted hypoxic fraction decreases with moderate increases in P 50 , but increases with further increases of P 50 , in agreement with previous experimental results. In rats breathing hyperoxic gases, and in humans breathing either normoxic or hyperoxic gases, increased P 50 is predicted to improve tumor oxygenation. Conclusions: The results support the administration of synthetic agents to increase P 50 during radiation treatment of tumors

  9. Should direct measurements of tumor oxygenation relate to the radiobiological hypoxic fraction of a tumor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, Bruce M.; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Siemann, Dietmar W.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Numerous previous studies have attempted to relate the radiobiological hypoxic fraction (HF) to direct measures of tumor oxygenation such as HbO 2 saturations, tumor pO 2 levels, or hypoxic cell labeling. Although correlations have been found within tumor lines, no overall relationships were seen across tumor lines. The current objective was to examine the effect on HF of changes in the fractions of the oxygenated and anoxic tumor cells that remain clonogenic. Methods and Materials: A mathematical model was developed that relates the HF to direct measures of tumor oxygenation. The primary assumptions were that: (a) the tumor is divided into distinct compartments of either fully oxygenated or fully anoxic cells, and (b) the survival of the oxygenated cells is negligible compared to that of the anoxic cells. Based on these assumptions, the HF is plotted as a function of the fractions of clonogenic or nonclonogenic, and oxygenated or anoxic cells. Results: If all cells are clonogenic, then the HF equals the fraction of anoxic cells. If a higher fraction of anoxic than oxygenated cells are nonclonogenic, then the HF will be overestimated by the fraction of the tumor measured to be anoxic using direct measuring techniques. If a higher fraction of the oxygenated than anoxic cells are nonclonogenic, the HF will be underestimated by the fraction of anoxic cells. Conclusion: Correlations between the HF and direct measures of tumor oxygenation have been described within tumor lines evaluated under different physiological condition. However, such relationships can be totally unpredictable between different tumors if the fraction of the anoxic cells that is clonogenic varies substantially. Clearly, if tumor anoxia cannot be detected using direct measures, this is an accurate indication that the tumor is well oxygenated. When tumor anoxia is present, however, the conclusions are ambiguous. Even when a small fraction of the tumor is measured as anoxic, direct measures

  10. Oxygen distribution in tumors: A qualitative analysis and modeling study providing a novel Monte Carlo approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerlöf, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To construct a Monte Carlo (MC)-based simulation model for analyzing the dependence of tumor oxygen distribution on different variables related to tumor vasculature [blood velocity, vessel-to-vessel proximity (vessel proximity), and inflowing oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 )]. Methods: A voxel-based tissue model containing parallel capillaries with square cross-sections (sides of 10 μm) was constructed. Green's function was used for diffusion calculations and Michaelis-Menten's kinetics to manage oxygen consumption. The model was tuned to approximately reproduce the oxygenational status of a renal carcinoma; the depth oxygenation curves (DOC) were fitted with an analytical expression to facilitate rapid MC simulations of tumor oxygen distribution. DOCs were simulated with three variables at three settings each (blood velocity, vessel proximity, and inflowing pO 2 ), which resulted in 27 combinations of conditions. To create a model that simulated variable oxygen distributions, the oxygen tension at a specific point was randomly sampled with trilinear interpolation in the dataset from the first simulation. Six correlations between blood velocity, vessel proximity, and inflowing pO 2 were hypothesized. Variable models with correlated parameters were compared to each other and to a nonvariable, DOC-based model to evaluate the differences in simulated oxygen distributions and tumor radiosensitivities for different tumor sizes. Results: For tumors with radii ranging from 5 to 30 mm, the nonvariable DOC model tended to generate normal or log-normal oxygen distributions, with a cut-off at zero. The pO 2 distributions simulated with the six-variable DOC models were quite different from the distributions generated with the nonvariable DOC model; in the former case the variable models simulated oxygen distributions that were more similar to in vivo results found in the literature. For larger tumors, the oxygen distributions became truncated in the lower

  11. Correlation of radiation response with tumor oxygenation in the Dunning prostate R3327-AT1 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, Vincent A.; Zhao Dawen; Gilio, Joseph; Chang, C.-H.; Jiang Lan; Hahn, Eric W.; Mason, Ralph P.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the application of pretreatment oxygenation to the AT1 subline of the Dunning R3327 prostate tumor, which is more hypoxic and faster growing than the H1 subline previously studied. Methods and Materials: Dunning prostate R3327-AT1 tumors growing on Copenhagen rats were administered 30 Gy of X-ray radiation either with or without oxygen inhalation. Tumor oxygenation was sampled by 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance echo planar imaging relaxometry of the reporter molecule hexafluorobenzene, no more than 24 h before irradiation. Results: Large tumors (>3.0 cm 3 ) exhibited significantly greater hypoxic fractions and lower mean partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 ) than their smaller counterparts ( 3 ). However, unlike the R3327-HI subline, large AT1 tumors generally did not respond to oxygen inhalation in terms of altered hypoxic fraction or response to irradiation. Although the tumors did not respond to oxygen inhalation, each tumor had a different pO 2 , and there was a clear trend between level of oxygenation at time of irradiation and tumor growth delay, with considerably better outcome when mean pO 2 > 10 mm Hg. The comparatively small baseline hypoxic fraction in the group of small tumors was virtually eliminated by breathing oxygen, and the growth rate was significantly reduced for tumors on rats breathing oxygen during irradiation. Conclusions: These results further validate the usefulness of nuclear magnetic resonance oximetry as a predictor of response to radiation therapy

  12. Nuclear medicine markers of tumor oxygenation and radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J. Donald; Schneider, R.H.; Stobbe, C.C.; Kim, E.; Engelhardt, E.L.; Coia, L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The objective of this research project was to synthesize, purify, radiolabel and characterize second-generation nuclear medicine markers of tissue oxygenation with properties superior to iodoazomycin arabinoside (IAZA) and to validate the hypoxia-marking activity of optimal compounds by independent measurements of tumor oxygenation and tumor radioresistance. Materials and Methods: Six hypoxic markers of the iodoazomycin nucleoside class with water solubilities greater than IAZA were synthesized by published procedures. The markers were purified, chemically characterized and labeled with Iodine-125 or Iodine-131. Absolute rates of marker ligation to the macromolecules of hypoxic EMT-6 tumor cells in vitro were determined as a function of marker concentration and used to establish relative marker effectiveness. Hypoxic marking activity in tumors was determined from tumor/blood (T/B) and tumor/muscle (T/M) ratios of radiolabelled marker in EMT-6 tumor-bearing C.B17/Icr scid mice. The optimal marker was administered to R3327-H and R3327-AT tumor-bearing Fischer X Copenhagen rats for estimates of tumor oxygenation by T/B and T/M ratios. Oxygen distributions in the same tumors were obtained with the Eppendorf pO 2 Histograph. The radioresistance of individual tumors was determined from in vitro plating efficiencies of cells released from tumors which had been irradiated in vivo with 20 Gy Cs-137 γ-rays. Results: Of the six iodinated azomycin nucleosides investigated, five were novel markers and all had water solubilities higher than IAZA. Iodinated azomycin xylopyranoside (β-D-IAZXP) was selected as the optimal marker of this class since it 1) exhibited the highest absolute rate of ligation to hypoxic tumor cells in vitro, 2) had the fastest plasma clearance rate in tumor-bearing mice and 3) yielded high T/B ratios in both the mouse and rat tumor models employed in this study. Planar nuclear medicine images of (I-131) β-D-IAZXP in tumor-bearing rats

  13. Correlation of radiation response with tumor oxygenation in the Dunning prostate R3327-AT1 tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourke, Vincent A [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Dawen, Zhao [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Gilio, Joseph [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Chang, C -H [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Lan, Jiang [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Hahn, Eric W [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Mason, Ralph P [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the application of pretreatment oxygenation to the AT1 subline of the Dunning R3327 prostate tumor, which is more hypoxic and faster growing than the H1 subline previously studied. Methods and Materials: Dunning prostate R3327-AT1 tumors growing on Copenhagen rats were administered 30 Gy of X-ray radiation either with or without oxygen inhalation. Tumor oxygenation was sampled by {sup 19}F nuclear magnetic resonance echo planar imaging relaxometry of the reporter molecule hexafluorobenzene, no more than 24 h before irradiation. Results: Large tumors (>3.0 cm{sup 3}) exhibited significantly greater hypoxic fractions and lower mean partial pressure of oxygen (pO{sub 2}) than their smaller counterparts (<1.5 cm{sup 3}). However, unlike the R3327-HI subline, large AT1 tumors generally did not respond to oxygen inhalation in terms of altered hypoxic fraction or response to irradiation. Although the tumors did not respond to oxygen inhalation, each tumor had a different pO{sub 2}, and there was a clear trend between level of oxygenation at time of irradiation and tumor growth delay, with considerably better outcome when mean pO{sub 2} > 10 mm Hg. The comparatively small baseline hypoxic fraction in the group of small tumors was virtually eliminated by breathing oxygen, and the growth rate was significantly reduced for tumors on rats breathing oxygen during irradiation. Conclusions: These results further validate the usefulness of nuclear magnetic resonance oximetry as a predictor of response to radiation therapy.

  14. Concurrent Longitudinal EPR Monitoring of Tissue Oxygenation, Acidosis, and Reducing Capacity in Mouse Xenograft Tumor Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobko, Andrey A; Evans, Jason; Denko, Nicholas C; Khramtsov, Valery V

    2017-06-01

    Tissue oxygenation, extracellular acidity, and tissue reducing capacity are among crucial parameters of tumor microenvironment (TME) of significant importance for tumor pathophysiology. In this paper, we demonstrate the complementary application of particulate lithium octa-n-butoxy-naphthalocyanine and soluble nitroxide paramagnetic probes for monitoring of these TME parameters using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Two different types of therapeutic interventions were studied: hypothermia and systemic administration of metabolically active drug. In summary, the results demonstrate the utility of EPR technique for non-invasive concurrent longitudinal monitoring of physiologically relevant chemical parameters of TME in mouse xenograft tumor models, including that under therapeutic intervention.

  15. Modeling the oxygen microheterogeneity of tumors for photodynamic therapy dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Swartz, Harold

    2000-03-01

    Photodynamic theory of tumors uses optical excitation of a sensitizing drug within tissue to produce large deposits of singlet oxygen, which are thought to ultimately cause the tumor destruction. Predicting dose deposition of singlet oxygen in vivo is challenging because measurement of this species in vivo is not easily achieved. But it is possible to follow the concentration of oxygen in vivo, and so measuring the oxygen concentration transients during PDT may provide a viable method of estimating the delivered dose of singlet oxygen. However modeling the microscopic heterogeneity of the oxygen distribution within a tumor is non-trivial, and predicting the microscopic dose deposition requires further study, but this study present the framework and initial calibration needed or modeling oxygen transport in complex geometries. Computational modeling with finite elements provides a versatile structure within which oxygen diffusion and consumption can be modeled within realistic tissue geometries. This study develops the basic tools required to simulate a tumor region, and examines the role of (i) oxygen supply and consumption rates, (ii) inter- capillary spacing, (iii) photosensitizer distribution, and (iv) differences between simulated tumors and those derived directly from histology. The result of these calculations indicate that realistic tumor tissue capillary networks can be simulated using the finite element method, without excessive computational burden for 2D regions near 1 mm2, and 3D regions near 0.1mm3. These simulations can provide fundamental information about tissue and ways to implement appropriate oxygen measurements. These calculations suggest that photodynamic therapy produces the majority of singlet oxygen in and near the blood vessels, because these are the sites of highest oxygen tension. These calculations support the concept that tumor vascular regions are the major targets for PDT dose deposition.

  16. Tumor Oxygen Dynamics: Correlation of In Vivo MRI with Histological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawen Zhao

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumor oxygenation has long been recognized as a significant factor influencing cancer therapy. We recently established a novel magnetic resonance in vivo approach to measuring regional tumor oxygen tension, FREDOM (Fluorocarbon Relaxometry Using Echo Planar Imaging for Dynamic Oxygen Mapping, using hexafluorobenzene (HFB as the reporter molecule. We have now investigated oxygen dynamics in the two Dunning prostate R3327 rat tumor sublines, AT1 and H. FREDOM revealed considerable intratumoral heterogeneity in the distribution of pO2 values in both sublines. The anaplastic fastergrowing AT1 tumors were more hypoxic compared with the size-matched, well-differentiated, and slower-growing H tumors. Respiratory challenge with oxygen produced significant increases in mean and median pO2 in all the H tumors (P3 cm3. Immunohistochemical studies using the hypoxia marker, pimonidazole, and the vascular endothelial cell marker, CD31, confirmed that the H tumors had more extensive vasculature and less hypoxia than the AT1 tumors. These results further validate the utilization of FREDOM to monitor tumor oxygenation and concur with the hypothesis that the level of hypoxia is related to tumor growth rate and poor vascularity.

  17. Comparison between model-predicted tumor oxygenation dynamics and vascular-/flow-related Doppler indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfatto, Antonella; Vidal Urbinati, Ailyn M; Ciardo, Delia; Franchi, Dorella; Cattani, Federica; Lazzari, Roberta; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; Orecchia, Roberto; Baroni, Guido; Cerveri, Pietro

    2017-05-01

    Mathematical modeling is a powerful and flexible method to investigate complex phenomena. It discloses the possibility of reproducing expensive as well as invasive experiments in a safe environment with limited costs. This makes it suitable to mimic tumor evolution and response to radiotherapy although the reliability of the results remains an issue. Complexity reduction is therefore a critical aspect in order to be able to compare model outcomes to clinical data. Among the factors affecting treatment efficacy, tumor oxygenation is known to play a key role in radiotherapy response. In this work, we aim at relating the oxygenation dynamics, predicted by a macroscale model trained on tumor volumetric data of uterine cervical cancer patients, to vascularization and blood flux indices assessed on Ultrasound Doppler images. We propose a macroscale model of tumor evolution based on three dynamics, namely active portion, necrotic portion, and oxygenation. The model parameters were assessed on the volume size of seven cervical cancer patients administered with 28 fractions of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) (1.8 Gy/fraction). For each patient, five Doppler ultrasound tests were acquired before, during, and after the treatment. The lesion was manually contoured by an expert physician using 4D View ® (General Electric Company - Fairfield, Connecticut, United States), which automatically provided the overall tumor volume size along with three vascularization and/or blood flow indices. Volume data only were fed to the model for training purpose, while the predicted oxygenation was compared a posteriori to the measured Doppler indices. The model was able to fit the tumor volume evolution within 8% error (range: 3-8%). A strong correlation between the intrapatient longitudinal indices from Doppler measurements and oxygen predicted by the model (about 90% or above) was found in three cases. Two patients showed an average correlation value (50-70%) and the remaining

  18. Effects of motexafin gadolinium on tumor oxygenation and cellular oxygen consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, E.T.; Liu, Y.; Rockwell, S.; Magda, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Recent work in our laboratory showed that motexafin gadolinium (MGd, Xcytrin), a drug currently in Phase III clinical trials as an adjuvant to radiation therapy, modulates the oxygen tensions in EMT6 tumors. The median pO 2 increased from the control value of 1.5±0.4 mmHg to 7.4 ± 3.8 mmHg six hours after treatment with 40 μmol/kg MGd and the percentage of severely hypoxic readings in the tumors ( 7 plateau phase EMT6 cells in 3 mL Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium supplemented with 10% dialyzed fetal bovine serum, which contains no ascorbic acid. In the absence of ascorbic acid, 100 μM MGd did not alter the cellular oxygen consumption rate for EMT6 cells significantly. Marked inhibition of cellular oxygen consumption was observed when cells were incubated with 100 μM MGd in medium supplemented with equimolar ascorbic acid (a 31.5% decrease in consumption was observed after 6 hours of treatment). The 5% mannitol vehicle solution with equimolar ascorbic acid had no discernible effect on cellular oxygen consumption. Ascorbic acid may facilitate cellular uptake of MGd via the intermediate formation of a MGd-oxalate complex. These studies suggest that changes in cellular oxygen consumption could contribute to the changes in tumor oxygenation seen after administration of MGd. These experiments were supported by Pharmacyclics and training grant T32CA09085 from the NIH (E.T.D.). We thank Dr. Raymond Russell for allowing us to use his oxygen electrode apparatus

  19. Preliminary Study of Oxygen-Enhanced Longitudinal Relaxation in MRI: A Potential Novel Biomarker of Oxygenation Changes in Solid Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, James P.B.; Naish, Josephine H.; Parker, Geoff J.M.; Waterton, John C.; Watson, Yvonne; Jayson, Gordon C.; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; Cheung, Sue; Buckley, David L.; McGrath, Deirdre M.; West, Catharine M.L.; Davidson, Susan E.; Roberts, Caleb; Mills, Samantha J.; Mitchell, Claire L.; Hope, Lynn; Ton, N. Chan; Jackson, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: There is considerable interest in developing non-invasive methods of mapping tumor hypoxia. Changes in tissue oxygen concentration produce proportional changes in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation rate (R 1 ). This technique has been used previously to evaluate oxygen delivery to healthy tissues and is distinct from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. Here we report application of this method to detect alteration in tumor oxygenation status. Methods and materials: Ten patients with advanced cancer of the abdomen and pelvis underwent serial measurement of tumor R 1 while breathing medical air (21% oxygen) followed by 100% oxygen (oxygen-enhanced MRI). Gadolinium-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was then performed to compare the spatial distribution of perfusion with that of oxygen-induced ΔR 1 . Results: ΔR 1 showed significant increases of 0.021 to 0.058 s -1 in eight patients with either locally recurrent tumor from cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas or metastases from ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. In general, there was congruency between perfusion and oxygen concentration. However, regional mismatch was observed in some tumor cores. Here, moderate gadolinium uptake (consistent with moderate perfusion) was associated with low area under the ΔR 1 curve (consistent with minimal increase in oxygen concentration). Conclusions: These results provide evidence that oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation can monitor changes in tumor oxygen concentration. The technique shows promise in identifying hypoxic regions within tumors and may enable spatial mapping of change in tumor oxygen concentration.

  20. Oxygenation of spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achermann, R.E.; Ohlerth, S.M.; Bley, C.R.; Inteeworn, N.; Schaerz, M.; Wergin, M.C.; Kaser-Hotz, B.; Gassmann, M.; Roos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: tumor oxygenation predicts treatment outcome, and reoxygenation is considered important in the efficacy of fractionated radiation therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to document the changes of the oxygenation status in spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy using polarographic needle electrodes. Material and methods: tumor oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) measurements were performed with the eppendorf-pO 2 -Histograph. The measurements were done under general anesthesia, and probe tracks were guided with ultrasound. pO 2 was measured before radiation therapy in all dogs. In patients treated with curative intent, measurements were done sequentially up to eight times (total dose: 45-59.5 Gy). Oxygenation status of the palliative patient group was examined before each fraction of radiation therapy up to five times (total dose: 24-30 Gy). Results: 15/26 tumors had a pretreatment median pO 2 ≤ 10 mmHg. The pO 2 values appeared to be quite variable in individual tumors during fractionated radiation therapy. The pO 2 of initially hypoxic tumors (pretreatment median pO 2 ≤ 10 mmHg) remained unchanged during fractionated radiotherapy, whereas in initially normoxic tumors the pO 2 decreased. Conclusion: hypoxia is common in spontaneous canine tumors, as 57.7% of the recorded values were ≥ 10 mmHg. The data of this study showed that initially hypoxic tumors remained hypoxic, whereas normoxic tumors became more hypoxic. (orig.)

  1. Tumor radiation responses and tumor oxygenation in aging mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.

    1989-01-01

    EMT6 mouse mammary tumors transplanted into aging mice are less sensitive to radiation than tumors growing in young adult animals. The experiments reported here compare the radiation dose-response curves defining the survivals of tumor cells in aging mice and in young adult mice. Cell survival curves were assessed in normal air-breathing mice and in mice asphyxiated with N 2 to produce uniform hypoxia throughout the tumors. Analyses of survival curves revealed that 41% of viable malignant cells were severely hypoxic in tumors in aging mice, while only 19% of the tumor cells in young adult animals were radiobiologically hypoxic. This did not appear to reflect anaemia in the old animals. Treatment of aging animals with a perfluorochemical emulsion plus carbogen (95% O 2 /5% CO 2 ) increased radiation response of the tumors, apparently by improving tumor oxygenation and decreasing the number of severely hypoxic, radiation resistant cells in the tumors. (author)

  2. Effects of carbogen plus fractionated irradiation on KHT tumor oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, Bruce M.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: Numerous studies have demonstrated improvements in the oxygenation of tumor cells following both irradiation and carbogen breathing. The current studies were initiated to measure the combined effects of carbogen inhalation plus single and multi-dose irradiation on tumor oxygen availability, to better define the underlying physiological relationships. Materials and methods: Using KHT murine sarcomas, radiation was delivered to the tumor-bearing legs of non-anesthetized mice. Tumors were quick-frozen prior to or following single or multifraction irradiation and carbogen breathing, and intravascular HbO 2 saturation profiles were determined cryospectrophotometrically. Results: HbO 2 levels for blood vessels located near the tumor surface initially decreased following 10 Gy irradiation, then increased and remained elevated. Interior HbO 2 levels remained unchanged. Following 2.5 Gy, HbO 2 changes were minimal. At 24 h following 10 Gy, HbO 2 levels were significantly increased compared to non-irradiated controls, and carbogen breathing produced no additional benefit. At 24 h following five fractions of 2 Gy, HbO 2 levels throughout the tumor volume were significantly higher in carbogen breathing animals than in air breathing controls. Conclusions: Although peripheral blood vessels demonstrated substantial improvements in oxygenation following irradiation, oxygen availability nearer the tumor center remained at very low levels. The utility of carbogen in enhancing tumor oxygen availability was maintained following five clinically relevant fractions. At higher doses, radiation-induced enhancements in HbO 2 levels overshadowed the carbogen effect. For either air or carbogen breathing, a decrease in the percentage of vessels with very low oxygen content did not appear to be a major factor in the reoxygenation of the KHT tumor

  3. Tumor oxygenation in a transplanted rat rhabdomyosarcoma during fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zywietz, Friedrich; Reeker, Wolfram; Kochs, Eberhard

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the changes in tumor oxygenation in the course of a fractionated radiation treatment extending over 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: Rhabdomyosarcomas R1H of the rat were irradiated with 60 Co-γ-rays with a total dose of 60 Gy, given in 20 fractions over 4 weeks. Oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) in tumors was measured at weekly intervals using polarographic needle probes in combination with a microprocessor-controlled device (pO 2 -Histograph/KIMOC). The pO 2 measurements were carried out in anesthetized animals under mechanical ventilation and in respiratory and hemodynamic steady state. Tumor pO 2 values were correlated to the arterial oxygen pressure p a O 2 , arterial pCO 2 , and pH determined with a blood gas analyzer. Results: Tumor oxygenation did not change significantly during the 3 weeks of irradiation (up to 45 Gy), from a median pO 2 of 23 ± 2 mmHg in untreated controls to 19 ± 4 mmHg after the third week. The decrease of the number of pO 2 values between 0 and 5 mmHg indicated that an improved oxygenation in the tumors occurred. However, with increasing radiation dose (fourth week, 60 Gy) a significant decrease in tumor oxygenation to a median pO 2 of 8 ± 2 mmHg and a rapid increase in the frequency of pO 2 values (35 ± 4%) between 0 and 5 mmHg was found. Conclusion: Improved oxygenation in rhabdomyosarcomas R1H was only present in the early phase of the fractionated irradiation. Radiation doses above 45 Gy led to a considerable decrease of tumor oxygenation in the later phase of irradiation

  4. Simultaneous Monitoring of Vascular Oxygenation and Tissue Oxygen Tension of Breast Tumors Under Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    28. Alagoz, T., R. Buller, B. Anderson, K. Terrell , R...and oxygenation Ann . New Acad. Sci. 838 29–45 Chapman J D, Stobbe C C, Arnfield M R, Santus R, Lee J and McPhee M S 1991 Oxygen dependency of tumor

  5. Interplay of tumor vascular oxygenation and tumor pO2 observed using near-infrared spectroscopy, an oxygen needle electrode, and 19F MR pO2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae G; Zhao, Dawen; Song, Yulin; Constantinescu, Anca; Mason, Ralph P; Liu, Hanli

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the correlation of tumor blood oxygenation and tumor pO(2) with respect to carbogen inhalation. After having refined and validated the algorithms for calculating hemoglobin concentrations, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure changes of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (delta[HbO(2)]) and used an oxygen needle electrode and (19)F MRI for pO(2) measurements in tumors. The measurements were taken from Dunning prostate R3327 tumors implanted in rats, while the anesthetized rats breathed air or carbogen. The NIRS results from tumor measurements showed significant changes in tumor vascular oxygenation in response to carbogen inhalation, while the pO(2) electrode results showed an apparent heterogeneity for tumor pO(2) response to carbogen inhalation, which was also confirmed by (19)F MR pO(2) mapping. Furthermore, we developed algorithms to estimate hemoglobin oxygen saturation, sO(2), during gas intervention based on the measured values of delta[HbO(2)] and pO(2). The algorithms have been validated through a tissue-simulating phantom and used to estimate the values of sO(2) in the animal tumor measurement based on the NIRS and global mean pO(2) values. This study demonstrates that the NIRS technology can provide an efficient, real-time, noninvasive approach to monitoring tumor physiology and is complementary to other techniques, while it also demonstrates the need for an NIR imaging technique to study spatial heterogeneity of tumor vasculature under therapeutic interventions. Copyright 2003 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  6. Mapping In Vivo Tumor Oxygenation within Viable Tumor by 19F-MRI and Multispectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Shi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying oxygenation in viable tumor remains a major obstacle toward a better understanding of the tumor microenvironment and improving treatment strategies. Current techniques are often complicated by tumor heterogeneity. Herein, a novel in vivo approach that combines 19F magnetic resonance imaging (19F-MRIR1 mapping with diffusionbased multispectral (MS analysis is introduced. This approach restricts the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 measurements to viable tumor, the tissue of therapeutic interest. The technique exhibited sufficient sensitivity to detect a breathing gas challenge in a xenograft tumor model, and the hypoxic region measured by MS 19F-MRI was strongly correlated with histologic estimates of hypoxia. This approach was then applied to address the effects of antivascular agents on tumor oxygenation, which is a research question that is still under debate. The technique was used to monitor longitudinal pO2 changes in response to an antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (B20.4.1.1 and a selective dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (GDC-0980. GDC-0980 reduced viable tumor pO2 during a 3-day treatment period, and a significant reduction was also produced by B20.4.1.1. Overall, this method provides an unprecedented view of viable tumor pO2 and contributes to a greater understanding of the effects of antivascular therapies on the tumor's microenvironment.

  7. Thioredoxin and Cancer: A Role for Thioredoxin in all States of Tumor Oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlenius, Therese Christina; Tonissen, Kathryn Fay

    2010-01-01

    Thioredoxin is a small redox-regulating protein, which plays crucial roles in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and cell survival and is highly expressed in many cancers. The tumor environment is usually under either oxidative or hypoxic stress and both stresses are known up-regulators of thioredoxin expression. These environments exist in tumors because their abnormal vascular networks result in an unstable oxygen delivery. Therefore, the oxygenation patterns in human tumors are complex, leading to hypoxia/re-oxygenation cycling. During carcinogenesis, tumor cells often become more resistant to hypoxia or oxidative stress-induced cell death and most studies on tumor oxygenation have focused on these two tumor environments. However, recent investigations suggest that the hypoxic cycling occurring within tumors plays a larger role in the contribution to tumor cell survival than either oxidative stress or hypoxia alone. Thioredoxin is known to have important roles in both these cellular responses and several studies implicate thioredoxin as a contributor to cancer progression. However, only a few studies exist that investigate the regulation of thioredoxin in the hypoxic and cycling hypoxic response in cancers. This review focuses on the role of thioredoxin in the various states of tumor oxygenation

  8. Singlet oxygen treatment of tumor cells triggers extracellular singlet oxygen generation, catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Michaela; Burger, Nils; Bauer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular singlet oxygen generation in photofrin-loaded cells caused cell death without discrimination between nonmalignant and malignant cells. In contrast, extracellular singlet oxygen generation caused apoptosis induction selectively in tumor cells through singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase and subsequent reactivation of intercellular ROS-mediated apoptosis signaling through the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathway. Singlet oxygen generation by extracellular photofrin alone was, however, not sufficient for optimal direct inactivation of catalase, but needed to trigger the generation of cell-derived extracellular singlet oxygen through the interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Thereby, formation of peroxynitrous acid, generation of hydroxyl radicals and formation of perhydroxyl radicals (HO2.) through hydroxyl radical/H2O2 interaction seemed to be required as intermediate steps. This amplificatory mechanism led to the formation of singlet oxygen at a sufficiently high concentration for optimal inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. At low initial concentrations of singlet oxygen, an additional amplification step needed to be activated. It depended on singlet oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8, followed by caspase-8-mediated enhancement of NOX activity. The biochemical mechanisms described here might be considered as promising principle for the development of novel approaches in tumor therapy that specifically direct membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells and thus utilize tumor cell-specific apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. PMID:26225731

  9. The impact of including spatially longitudinal heterogeneities of vessel oxygen content and vascular fraction in 3D tumor oxygenation models on predicted radiation sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerlöf, Jakob H; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Oxygen distribution models have been used to analyze the influences of oxygen tensions on tissue response after radiotherapy. These distributions are often generated assuming constant oxygen tension in the blood vessels. However, as red blood cells progress through the vessels, oxygen is continuously released into the plasma and the surrounding tissue, resulting in longitudinally varying oxygen levels in the blood vessels. In the present study, the authors investigated whether a tumor oxygenation model that incorporated longitudinally varying oxygen levels would provide different predictions of necrotic fractions and radiosensitivity compared to commonly used models with a constant oxygen pressure. Our models simulated oxygen diffusion based on a Green's function approach and oxygen consumption according to the Michaelis-Menten equation. The authors constructed tumor models with different vascular fractions (VFs), from which they generated depth oxygenation curves and a look-up table of oxygen pressure gradients. The authors evaluated models of spherical tumors of various sizes, from 1 to 10(4) mg. The authors compared the results from a model with constant vessel oxygen (CVO) pressure to those from models with longitudinal variations in oxygen saturation and either a constant VF (CVF) or variable VF (VVF) within the tumor tissue. The authors monitored the necrotic fractions, defined as tumor regions with an oxygen pressure below 1 mmHg. Tumor radiation sensitivity was expressed as D99, the homogeneous radiation dose required for a tumor control probability of 0.99. In the CVO saturation model, no necrosis was observed, and decreasing the VF could only decrease the D99 by up to 10%. Furthermore, the D99 vs VF dependence was similar for different tumor masses. Compared to the CVO model, the extended CVF and VVF models provided clearly different results, including pronounced effects of VF and tumor size on the necrotic fraction and D99, necrotic fractions ranging

  10. Singlet oxygen treatment of tumor cells triggers extracellular singlet oxygen generation, catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Michaela; Burger, Nils; Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Intracellular singlet oxygen generation in photofrin-loaded cells caused cell death without discrimination between nonmalignant and malignant cells. In contrast, extracellular singlet oxygen generation caused apoptosis induction selectively in tumor cells through singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase and subsequent reactivation of intercellular ROS-mediated apoptosis signaling through the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathway. Singlet oxygen generation by extracellular photofrin alone was, however, not sufficient for optimal direct inactivation of catalase, but needed to trigger the generation of cell-derived extracellular singlet oxygen through the interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Thereby, formation of peroxynitrous acid, generation of hydroxyl radicals and formation of perhydroxyl radicals (HO2(.)) through hydroxyl radical/H2O2 interaction seemed to be required as intermediate steps. This amplificatory mechanism led to the formation of singlet oxygen at a sufficiently high concentration for optimal inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. At low initial concentrations of singlet oxygen, an additional amplification step needed to be activated. It depended on singlet oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8, followed by caspase-8-mediated enhancement of NOX activity. The biochemical mechanisms described here might be considered as promising principle for the development of novel approaches in tumor therapy that specifically direct membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells and thus utilize tumor cell-specific apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pyruvate induces transient tumor hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption and potentiates the anti-tumor effect of a hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Takakusagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug (HAP of bromo isophosphoramide mustard that is selectively activated within hypoxic regions in solid tumors. Our recent study showed that intravenously administered bolus pyruvate can transiently induce hypoxia in tumors. We investigated the mechanism underlying the induction of transient hypoxia and the combination use of pyruvate to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of TH-302. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: The hypoxia-dependent cytotoxicity of TH-302 was evaluated by a viability assay in murine SCCVII and human HT29 cells. Modulation in cellular oxygen consumption and in vivo tumor oxygenation by the pyruvate treatment was monitored by extracellular flux analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR oxygen imaging, respectively. The enhancement of the anti-tumor effect of TH-302 by pyruvate treatment was evaluated by monitoring the growth suppression of the tumor xenografts inoculated subcutaneously in mice. TH-302 preferentially inhibited the growth of both SCCVII and HT29 cells under hypoxic conditions (0.1% O2, with minimal effect under aerobic conditions (21% O2. Basal oxygen consumption rates increased after the pyruvate treatment in SCCVII cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that pyruvate enhances the mitochondrial respiration to consume excess cellular oxygen. In vivo EPR oxygen imaging showed that the intravenous administration of pyruvate globally induced the transient hypoxia 30 min after the injection in SCCVII and HT29 tumors at the size of 500-1500 mm(3. Pretreatment of SCCVII tumor bearing mice with pyruvate 30 min prior to TH-302 administration, initiated with small tumors (∼ 550 mm(3, significantly delayed tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our in vitro and in vivo studies showed that pyruvate induces transient hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption in tumor cells. TH-302 therapy can be potentiated by pyruvate pretreatment if started at the

  12. Pyruvate induces transient tumor hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption and potentiates the anti-tumor effect of a hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakusagi, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Matsuo, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Shun; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; DeGraff, William; Kesarwala, Aparna H; Choudhuri, Rajani; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Subramanian, Sankaran; Munasinghe, Jeeva P; Gillies, Robert J; Mitchell, James B; Hart, Charles P; Krishna, Murali C

    2014-01-01

    TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug (HAP) of bromo isophosphoramide mustard that is selectively activated within hypoxic regions in solid tumors. Our recent study showed that intravenously administered bolus pyruvate can transiently induce hypoxia in tumors. We investigated the mechanism underlying the induction of transient hypoxia and the combination use of pyruvate to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of TH-302. The hypoxia-dependent cytotoxicity of TH-302 was evaluated by a viability assay in murine SCCVII and human HT29 cells. Modulation in cellular oxygen consumption and in vivo tumor oxygenation by the pyruvate treatment was monitored by extracellular flux analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging, respectively. The enhancement of the anti-tumor effect of TH-302 by pyruvate treatment was evaluated by monitoring the growth suppression of the tumor xenografts inoculated subcutaneously in mice. TH-302 preferentially inhibited the growth of both SCCVII and HT29 cells under hypoxic conditions (0.1% O2), with minimal effect under aerobic conditions (21% O2). Basal oxygen consumption rates increased after the pyruvate treatment in SCCVII cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that pyruvate enhances the mitochondrial respiration to consume excess cellular oxygen. In vivo EPR oxygen imaging showed that the intravenous administration of pyruvate globally induced the transient hypoxia 30 min after the injection in SCCVII and HT29 tumors at the size of 500-1500 mm(3). Pretreatment of SCCVII tumor bearing mice with pyruvate 30 min prior to TH-302 administration, initiated with small tumors (∼ 550 mm(3)), significantly delayed tumor growth. Our in vitro and in vivo studies showed that pyruvate induces transient hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption in tumor cells. TH-302 therapy can be potentiated by pyruvate pretreatment if started at the appropriate tumor size and oxygen concentration.

  13. Simultaneous Monitoring of Vascular Oxygenation and Tissue Oxygen Tension of Breast Tumors Under Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Mengna

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the study in the first stage are 1) to develop a mathematic model by which we can derive tumor blood flow and metabolic rate of oxygen from hemoglobin concentration during interventions, 2...

  14. Modifiers of hemoglobin/oxygen affinity as sensitizers of tumors to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, D.G.; Wood, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A powerful mechanism in the control of oxygen delivery to tissues is the allosteric modification of hemoglobin. Increased or decreased release of oxygen can be achieved by altering the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. Several studies have shown that tumor radiosensitivity is dependent on this relationship. The authors studied affinity changes produced in two distinctly different ways. Tumor bearing mice were given isovolemic exchange blood transfusions with the blood from donor mice which had been exposed to abnormal oxygen tensions, leading to increased or slightly decreased levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) in their blood. When the recipient mice were irradiated, those receiving the blood with higher 2,3 DPG levels showed greater tumor sensitivity to radiation. An alternative strategy is the use of drugs which directly alter hemoglobin/oxygen affinity. The authors studied three antihyperlipoproteinemia drugs, all of which have produced markedly reduced affinities in vivo. Preliminary data indicate that the radiosensitization produced by at least one of these compounds is less than would have been expected from the 2,3 DPG experiments

  15. Is oxygen important in the radiocurability of human tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, H.R.; Suit, H.D.

    1974-01-01

    It is quite likely that untreated human tumors contain hypoxic cells. Frequently, perhaps usually, the presence of these hypoxic cells does not influence radiocurability. If hypoxia limits radiocurability, it is more likely to do so in the treatment of large tumors and maybe with greater likelihood in tumors in certain sites. Hypoxia would also be more likely to affect response to a small number of fractions, since reoxygenation would need to be more complete in order that cell killing by the larger dose fractions used would not be prejudiced by the hypoxia of a small proportion of cells. Hyperbaric oxygen is disappointing as an adjuvant to radiotherapy. Results obtained are not better than those obtained using the best conventional fractionation regimes in air. This does not prove, however, that hypoxia is not a cause of failure to control tumors locally, since physiological adaptive mechanisms against HPO such as vasoconstriction may prevent better oxygenation of the tumor. If other methods such as high LET beams are to be used to reduce any effect hypoxia may have on radiocurability, their greatest benefit would be expected in the local control of late-stage disease and this benefit may be greater in some tumor sites than others. (U.S.)

  16. Endoscopic Resection of Tracheal Tumor in an Elderly Woman Under Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ying Chiang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic management of patients with difficult airway is challenging, especially in patients who present with near total occlusion of the airway. Tracheal tumors occur more frequently in elderly patients who are more prone to hypoxic injury. Reliable ventilation and oxygenation are mandatory for a safe and sound intervention. Herein, we report on a 71-year-old woman with a large tracheal tumor occluding approximately 90% of the tracheal lumen. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation under local anesthesia was used during electrocautery resection of the tumor because of the possibility of fatal airway collapse due to the degree of occlusion and location of the tumor. After the tumor had been successfully resected by means of bronchoscopy, an endotracheal tube was inserted, and the patient was weaned from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  17. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance pO2 Image Tumor Oxygen-Guided Radiation Therapy Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Boris; Maggio, Matt; Pelizzari, Charles; Halpern, Howard J

    2017-01-01

    Modern standards for radiation treatment do not take into account tumor oxygenation for radiation treatment planning. Strong correlation between tumor oxygenation and radiation treatment success suggests that oxygen-guided radiation therapy (OGRT) may be a promising enhancement of cancer radiation treatment. We have developed an OGRT protocol for rodents. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging is used for recording oxygen maps with high spatial resolution and excellent accuracy better than 1 torr. Radiation is delivered with an animal intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) XRAD225Cx micro-CT/ therapy system. The radiation plan is delivered in two steps. First, a uniform 15% tumor control dose (TCD 15 ) is delivered to the whole tumor. In the second step, an additional booster dose amounting to the difference between TCD 98 and TCD 15 is delivered to radio-resistant, hypoxic tumor regions. Delivery of the booster dose is performed using a multiport conformal beam protocol. For radiation beam shaping we used individual radiation blocks 3D-printed from tungsten infused ABS polymer. Calculation of beam geometry and the production of blocks is performed next to the EPR imager, immediately after oxygen imaging. Preliminary results demonstrate the sub-millimeter precision of the radiation delivery and high dose accuracy. The efficacy of the radiation treatment is currently being tested on syngeneic FSa fibrosarcoma tumors grown in the legs of C3H mice.

  18. Regional perfusion and oxygenation of tumors upon methylxanthine derivative administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, Debra K.; Thews, Oliver; Vaupel, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The use of methylxanthine derivatives has been postulated as a means of increasing tumor perfusion and thus ameliorating tumor hypoxia. The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the effects of three methylxanthine derivatives: pentoxifylline (PX), torbafylline (TB), and HWA 138 (HW) on tumor perfusion and oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats with DS-sarcomas implanted subcutaneously onto the hind foot dorsum were used in this study. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was measured throughout experiments. Regional red blood cell (RBC) flux was monitored using a multichannel laser Doppler device and tumor oxygenation on a more global level was assessed polarographically using an O 2 -sensitive catheter electrode. The methylxanthine derivatives were administered as a single dose intraperitoneally (for PX 50 mg/kg; for TB and HW 75 mg/kg). Results: Following drug administration, initial decreases in MABP down to 75% of baseline values were observed for all three substances. PX, HW, and TB caused initial transient reductions in mean RBC flux followed by gradual increases to values of 137 ± 27 %, 139 ± 14 %, and 122 ± 14 % respectively at t = 60 min. Following a small initial decrease upon drug administration, O 2 partial pressure (pO 2 ) rose to 160 ± 31 %, 153 ± 34 %, and 121 ± 11 % for PX, HW, and TB, respectively at t = 60 min. At the end of the observation period (t = 90 min), increases in RBC flux and pO 2 were still evident. When individual tumors were considered, a variety of patterns (including opposing effects) for changes in RBC flux were seen, not necessarily reflected in the mean values. Thus, while the methylxanthine derivatives caused an increased average tumor perfusion, there is evidence suggesting that a redistribution of tumor blood flow occurs which may amplify preexisting heterogeneity. Conclusions: Substantial improvements in tumor oxygenation and perfusion were observed after administration of

  19. Effects of oxygen on intrinsic radiation sensitivity: A test of the relationship between aerobic and hypoxic linear-quadratic (LQ) model parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, David J.; Stewart, Robert D.; Semenenko, Vladimir A.

    2006-01-01

    The poor treatment prognosis for tumors with high levels of hypoxia is usually attributed to the decreased sensitivity of hypoxic cells to ionizing radiation. Mechanistic considerations suggest that linear quadratic (LQ) survival model radiosensitivity parameters for hypoxic (H) and aerobic (A) cells are related by α H =α A /oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and (α/β) H =OER(α/β) A . The OER parameter may be interpreted as the ratio of the dose to the hypoxic cells to the dose to the aerobic cells required to produce the same number of DSBs per cell. The validity of these expressions is tested against survival data for mammalian cells irradiated in vitro with low- and high-LET radiation. Estimates of hypoxic and aerobic radiosensitivity parameters are derived from independent and simultaneous least-squares fits to the survival data. An external bootstrap procedure is used to test whether independent fits to the survival data give significantly better predictions than simultaneous fits to the aerobic and hypoxic data. For low-LET radiation, estimates of the OER derived from the in vitro data are between 2.3 and 3.3 for extreme levels of hypoxia. The estimated range for the OER is similar to the oxygen enhancement ratios reported in the literature for the initial yield of DSBs. The half-time for sublethal damage repair was found to be independent of oxygen concentration. Analysis of patient survival data for cervix cancer suggests an average OER less than or equal to 1.5, which corresponds to a pO 2 of 5 mm Hg (0.66%) in the in vitro experiments. Because the OER derived from the cervix cancer data is averaged over cells at all oxygen levels, cells irradiated in vivo under extreme levels of hypoxia (<0.5 mm Hg) may have an OER substantially higher than 1.5. The reported analyses of in vitro data, as well as mechanistic considerations, provide strong support for the expressions relating hypoxic and aerobic radiosensitivity parameters. The formulas are also useful

  20. First experience with a novel luminescence-based optical sensor for measurement of oxygenation in tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarm, T.; Miklavcic, D.; Lesnicar, H.; Sersa, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate a novel luminescence-based fiber-optic sensor (OxyLite system) for the measurement of partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 ) in tumors and for the detection of changes in pO 2 as a function of time. The new method was used simultaneously with the laser Doppler flowmetry method for the measurement of relative tissue perfusion. Materials and methods. Blood perfusion and pO 2 were measured continuously via fiber-optic sensors inserted into SA-1 tumors in anesthetized A/J mice. The changes in blood flow and oxygenation of tumors were induced by transient changes of the parameters of anesthesia and by injection of a vasoactive drug hydralazine. Results. Both optical methods used in the study successfully detected the induced changes in blood flow and pO 2 . The measurements of pO 2 were well correlated with measurements of microcirculatory blood perfusion. In the majority of pO 2 measurements, we observed an unexpected behavior of the signal during the stabilization process immediately after the insertion of the probe into tumor. This behaviour of the pO 2 signal was most probably caused by local tissue damage induced by the insertion of the probe. Conclusion. The novel luminescence-based optical oximetry can reliably detect local pO 2 changes in tumors as a function of time but some aspects of prolonged pO 2 measurement by this method require further investigation. (author)

  1. Temporal variation in the response of tumors to hyperoxia with breathing carbogen and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hua-gang; Khan, Nadeem; Du, Gai-xin; Hodge, Sassan; Swartz, Harold M.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of hyperoxygenation with carbogen (95% O2 + 5% CO2) and 100% oxygen inhalation on partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) of radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumor was investigated. RIF-1 tumors were innoculated in C3H mice, and aggregates of oximetry probe, lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc), was implanted in each tumor. A baseline tumor pO2 was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry for 20 minutes in anesthetized mice breathing 30% O2 and then the gas was switched to carbogen or 100 % oxygen for 60 minutes. These experiments were repeated for 10 days. RIF-1 tumors were hypoxic with a baseline tissue pO2 of 6.2–8.3 mmHg in mice breathing 30% O2. Carbogen and 100% oxygen significantly increased tumor pO2 on days 1 to 5, with a maximal increase at approximately 32–45 minutes on each day. However, the extent of increase in pO2 from the baseline declined significantly on day 5 and day 10. The results provide quantitative information on the effect of hyperoxic gas inhalation on tumor pO2 over the course of 10 days. EPR oximetry can be effectively used to repeatedly monitor tumor pO2 and test hyperoxic methods for potential clinical applications. PMID:27867481

  2. Temporal variation in the response of tumors to hyperoxia with breathing carbogen and oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-gang Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hyperoxygenation with carbogen (95% O 2 + 5% CO 2 and 100% oxygen inhalation on partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 of radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1 tumor was investigated. RIF-1 tumors were innoculated in C3H mice, and aggregates of oximetry probe, lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc, was implanted in each tumor. A baseline tumor pO 2 was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR oximetry for 20 minutes in anesthetized mice breathing 30% O 2 and then the gas was switched to carbogen or 100 % oxygen for 60 minutes. These experiments were repeated for 10 days. RIF-1 tumors were hypoxic with a baseline tissue pO 2 of 6.2-8.3 mmHg in mice breathing 30% O 2 . Carbogen and 100% oxygen significantly increased tumor pO 2 on days 1 to 5, with a maximal increase at approximately 32-45 minutes on each day. However, the extent of increase in pO 2 from the baseline declined significantly on day 5 and day 10. The results provide quantitative information on the effect of hyperoxic gas inhalation on tumor pO 2 over the course of 10 days. EPR oximetry can be effectively used to repeatedly monitor tumor pO 2 and test hyperoxic methods for potential clinical applications.

  3. Oxygen-boosted immunogenic photodynamic therapy with gold nanocages@manganese dioxide to inhibit tumor growth and metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ruijing; Liu, Lanlan; He, Huamei; Chen, Zhikuan; Han, Zhiqun; Luo, Zhenyu; Wu, Zhihao; Zheng, Mingbin; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2018-09-01

    Metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC) is an aggressive disease among women worldwide, characterized by high mortality and poor prognosis despite systemic therapy with radiation and chemotherapies. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an important strategy to eliminate the primary tumor, however its therapeutic efficacy against metastases and recurrence is still limited. Here, we employed a template method to develop the core-shell gold nanocage@manganese dioxide (AuNC@MnO 2 , AM) nanoparticles as tumor microenvironment responsive oxygen producers and near-infrared (NIR)-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generators for oxygen-boosted immunogenic PDT against mTNBC. In this platform, MnO 2 shell degrades in acidic tumor microenvironment pH/H 2 O 2 conditions and generates massive oxygen to boost PDT effect of AM nanoparticles under laser irradiation. Fluorescence (FL)/photoacoustic (PA)/magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal imaging confirms the effective accumulation of AM nanoparticles with sufficient oxygenation in tumor site to ameliorate local hypoxia. Moreover, the oxygen-boosted PDT effect of AM not only destroys primary tumor effectively but also elicits immunogenic cell death (ICD) with damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) release, which subsequently induces DC maturation and effector cells activation, thereby robustly evoking systematic antitumor immune responses against mTNBC. Hence, this oxygen-boosted immunogenic PDT nanosystem offers a promising approach to ablate primary tumor and simultaneously prevent tumor metastases via immunogenic abscopal effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The quaternary state of polymerized human hemoglobin regulates oxygenation of breast cancer solid tumors: A theoretical and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Julia A.; Baek, Jin Hyen; Yalamanoglu, Ayla; Buehler, Paul W.; Gilkes, Daniele M.; Palmer, Andre F.

    2018-01-01

    A major constraint in the treatment of cancer is inadequate oxygenation of the tumor mass, which can reduce chemotherapeutic efficacy. We hypothesize that polymerized human hemoglobin (PolyhHb) can be transfused into the systemic circulation to increase solid tumor oxygenation, and improve chemotherapeutic outcomes. By locking PolyhHb in the relaxed (R) quaternary state, oxygen (O2) offloading at low O2 tensions (20 mm Hg) is facilitated with tense (T) state PolyhHb. Therefore, R-state PolyhHb may deliver significantly more O2 to hypoxic tissues. Biophysical parameters of T and R-state PolyhHb were used to populate a modified Krogh tissue cylinder model to assess O2 transport in a tumor. In general, we found that increasing the volume of transfused PolyhHb decreased the apparent viscosity of blood in the arteriole. In addition, we found that PolyhHb transfusion decreased the wall shear stress at large arteriole diameters (>20 μm), but increased wall shear stress for small arteriole diameters (state PolyhHb may be more effective than T-state PolyhHb for O2 delivery at similar transfusion volumes. Reduction in the apparent viscosity resulting from PolyhHb transfusion may result in significant changes in flow distributions throughout the tumor microcirculatory network. The difference in wall shear stress implies that PolyhHb may have a more significant effect in capillary beds through mechano-transduction. Periodic top-load transfusions of PolyhHb into mice bearing breast tumors confirmed the oxygenation potential of both PolyhHbs via reduced hypoxic volume, vascular density, tumor growth, and increased expression of hypoxia inducible genes. Tissue section analysis demonstrated primary PolyhHb clearance occurred in the liver and spleen indicating a minimal risk for renal damage. PMID:29414985

  5. Oxygen Partial Pressure Is a Rate-Limiting Parameter for Cell Proliferation in 3D Spheroids Grown in Physioxic Culture Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Aurélie; Guillaume, Ludivine; Grimes, David Robert; Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The in situ oxygen partial pressure in normal and tumor tissues is in the range of a few percent. Therefore, when studying cell growth in 3D culture systems, it is essential to consider how the physiological oxygen concentration, rather than the one in the ambient air, influences the proliferation parameters. Here, we investigated the effect of reducing oxygen partial pressure from 21% to 5% on cell proliferation rate and regionalization in a 3D tumor spheroid model. We found that 5% oxygen concentration strongly inhibited spheroid growth, changed the proliferation gradient and reduced the 50% In Depth Proliferation index (IDP50), compared with culture at 21% oxygen. We then modeled the oxygen partial pressure profiles using the experimental data generated by culturing spheroids in physioxic and normoxic conditions. Although hypoxia occurred at similar depth in spheroids grown in the two conditions, oxygen partial pressure was a major rate-limiting factor with a critical effect on cell proliferation rate and regionalization only in spheroids grown in physioxic condition and not in spheroids grown at atmospheric normoxia. Our findings strengthen the need to consider conducting experiment in physioxic conditions (i.e., tissue normoxia) for proper understanding of cancer cell biology and the evaluation of anticancer drugs in 3D culture systems.

  6. Effect of carbogen on tumor oxygenation: combined fluorine-19 and proton MRI measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiaobing; River, Jonathan N.; Zamora, Marta; Al-Hallaq, Hania A.; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used for noninvasive evaluation of the effects of tumor-oxygenating agents. However, there have been few tests of the validity of this method. The goal of the present work was to use the T 1 of fluorine-19 in perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions as a 'gold standard' for comparison with BOLD MRI. Methods and Materials: Rats bearing R3230AC tumors implanted in the hind limb were injected with an emulsion of perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether for 2-3 days before experiments, which ensured that the PFC emulsion concentrated in the tumors. We correlated changes in tumor oxygenation caused by carbogen inhalation measured by 1 H BOLD MRI with quantitative 19 F measurements. The 19 F spin-lattice relaxation rate R 1 (= 1/T 1 ) was measured to determine initial oxygen tension (pO 2 ) in each image pixel containing the PFC, and changes in pO 2 during carbogen (95% O 2 , 5% CO 2 ) breathing. In a second carbogen breathing period, changes in water signal linewidth were measured using high spectral and spatial resolution imaging. 19 F and 1 H measurements were used to classify pixels as responders to carbogen (pixels where oxygen increased significantly) or nonresponders (no significant change in tumor oxygenation). Results: The 19 F and 1 H measurements agreed in 65% ± 11% of pixels (n = 14). Agreement was even stronger among pixels where 1 H showed increased oxygenation; 19 F measurements agreed with 1 H measurements in over 79% ± 11% of these pixels. Similarly, there was strong agreement between the two modalities in pixels where 19 F reported no change in pO 2 ; 1 H also showed no changes in 76% ± 18% of these pixels. Quantitative correlation of changes T 2 * (ΔT 2 *) in 1 H and changes R 1 (ΔR 1 ) in 19 F was weak during carbogen breathing, and averaged over the whole tumor was ∼0.40 for 14 experiments. However, the spatial patterns of 1 H and 19 F changes were qualitatively

  7. Real-Time Monitoring of Singlet Oxygen and Oxygen Partial Pressure During the Deep Photodynamic Therapy In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weitao; Huang, Dong; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yangyang; Gu, Yueqing; Qian, Zhiyu

    2016-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective noninvasive method for the tumor treatment. The major challenge in current PDT research is how to quantitatively evaluate therapy effects. To our best knowledge, this is the first time to combine multi-parameter detection methods in PDT. More specifically, we have developed a set of system, including the high-sensitivity measurement of singlet oxygen, oxygen partial pressure and fluorescence image. In this paper, the detection ability of the system was validated by the different concentrations of carbon quantum dots. Moreover, the correlation between singlet oxygen and oxygen partial pressure with laser irradiation was observed. Then, the system could detect the signal up to 0.5 cm tissue depth with 660 nm irradiation and 1 cm tissue depth with 980 nm irradiation by using up-conversion nanoparticles during PDT in vitro. Furthermore, we obtained the relationship among concentration of singlet oxygen, oxygen partial pressure and tumor cell viability under certain conditions. The results indicate that the multi-parameter detection system is a promising asset to evaluate the deep tumor therapy during PDT. Moreover, the system might be potentially used for the further study in biology and molecular imaging.

  8. Interrogation of metabolic and oxygen states of tumors with fiber-based luminescence lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, Maria; Orlova, Anna; Shirmanova, Marina; Shirokov, Daniil; Pavlikov, Anton; Neubauer, Antje; Studier, Hauke; Becker, Wolfgang; Zagaynova, Elena; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji; Shcheslavskiy, Vladislav

    2017-02-15

    The study of metabolic and oxygen states of cells in a tumor in vivo is crucial for understanding of the mechanisms responsible for tumor development and provides background for the relevant tumor's treatment. Here, we show that a specially designed implantable fiber-optic probe provides a promising tool for optical interrogation of metabolic and oxygen states of a tumor in vivo. In our experiments, the excitation light from a ps diode laser source is delivered to the sample through an exchangeable tip via a multimode fiber, and the emission light is transferred to the detector by another multimode fiber. Fluorescence lifetime of a nicotinamid adenine dinucleotide (NAD(P)H) and phosphorescence lifetime of an oxygen sensor based on an iridium (III) complex of enzothienylpyridine (BTPDM1) are explored both in model experiment in solutions and in living mice.

  9. Fluctuations in pO2 in poorly and well-oxygenated spontaneous canine tumors before and during fractionated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brurberg, Kjetil G; Skogmo, Hege K; Graff, Bjørn A; Olsen, Dag R; Rofstad, Einar K

    2005-11-01

    The spatial heterogeneity in oxygen tension (pO2) in tumor tissue has been studied extensively, whereas, the information about the temporal heterogeneity is sparse. The purpose of the present study was to search for pO2 fluctuations in untreated and irradiated spontaneous canine tumors, and to investigate whether there is a relationship between overall tumor oxygenation status and pO2 fluctuation pattern. Six dogs scheduled for radiation therapy of head and neck cancer were included in the study. The primary tumors were irradiated with 18 fractions of 3 Gy. Eppendorf polarographic electrodes and OxyLite fluorescence probes were used to measure overall oxygenation status and pO2 fluctuation pattern, respectively. Tissue pO2 was recorded at three subsequent days prior to treatment, and immediately before radiation fraction 4, 7, and 10. Overall oxygenation status differed substantially among the tumors. Radiation therapy had no consistent effect on overall oxygenation status. Fluctuations in pO2 were detected in untreated as well as irradiated tumors, and independent of whether the tumors were poorly or well oxygenated. Fluctuations in pO2 can occur in untreated and irradiated spontaneous canine tumors. There is no correlation between pO2 fluctuation pattern and overall tumor oxygenation status.

  10. Modulation of the tumor vasculature and oxygenation to improve therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemann, Dietmar W; Horsman, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is increasingly recognized as a major factor influencing the success of therapeutic treatments and has become a key focus for cancer research. The progressive growth of a tumor results in an inability of normal tissue blood vessels to oxygenate and provide sufficient...... important are the functional consequences experienced by the tumor cells residing in such environments: adaptation to hypoxia, cell quiescence, modulation of transporters and critical signaling molecules, immune escape, and enhanced metastatic potential. Together these factors lead to therapeutic barriers...

  11. Oxygen microenvironment affects the uptake of nanoparticles in head and neck tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eunice Y.; Hodge, Sasson; Tai, Katherine; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Hoopes, P. Jack; Samkoe, Kimberley S.

    2013-02-01

    Survival of head and neck cancer patients has not improved in several decades despite advances in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancers is a critical factor that leads to poor prognosis, resistance to radiation and chemotherapies, and increased metastatic potential. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (mNPHT) is a promising therapy for hypoxic tumors because nanoparticles (NP) can be directly injected into, or targeted to, hypoxic tumor cells and exposed to alternating magnetic fields (AMF) to induce hyperthermia. Magnetic NPHT can improve therapeutic effectiveness by two modes of action: 1) direct killing of hypoxic tumor cells; and 2) increase in tumor oxygenation, which has the potential to make the tumor more susceptible to adjuvant therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy. Prior studies in breast cancer cells demonstrated that a hypoxic microenvironment diminished NP uptake in vitro; however, mNPHT with intratumoral NP injection in hypoxic tumors increased tumor oxygenation and delayed tumor growth. In this study, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines were incubated in normoxic, hypoxic, and hyperoxic conditions with iron oxide NP for 4-72 hours. After incubation, the cells were analyzed for iron uptake by mass spectrometry, Prussian blue staining, and electron microscopy. In contrast to breast cancer cells, uptake of NPs was increased in hypoxic microenvironments as compared to normoxic conditions in HNSCC cells. In future studies, we will confirm the effect of the oxygen microenvironment on NP uptake and efficacy of mNPHT both in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Severe anemia is associated with poor tumor oxygenation in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Axel; Stadler, Peter; Lavey, Robert S.; Haensgen, Gabriele; Kuhnt, Thomas; Lautenschlaeger, Christine; Feldmann, Horst Juergen; Molls, Michael; Dunst, Juergen

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between tumor oxygenation and the blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Methods and Materials: A total of 133 patients with SCCHN underwent pretreatment polarographic pO 2 measurements of their tumors. In 66 patients measurements were also made in sternocleidomastoid muscles. The patients were divided into three groups according to their Hb concentration--severe anemia (Hb 2 . Conclusion: Our data suggest that a low Hb concentration and cigarette smoking contribute to inadequate oxygenation of SCCHN and thus for increased radioresistance. Consequently, Hb correction and abstinence from smoking may significantly improve tumor oxygenation

  13. 3D modeling of effects of increased oxygenation and activity concentration in tumors treated with radionuclides and antiangiogenic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg 41345 (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg 41345 (Sweden); Department of Radiation Physics, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg, Sweden and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg 41345 (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) in response to hypoxia is a fundamental event in the process of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. However, abnormalities in tumor neovasculature often induce increased interstitial pressure (IP) and further reduce oxygenation (pO{sub 2}) of tumor cells. In radiotherapy, well-oxygenated tumors favor treatment. Antiangiogenic drugs may lower IP in the tumor, improving perfusion, pO{sub 2} and drug uptake, by reducing the number of malfunctioning vessels in the tissue. This study aims to create a model for quantifying the effects of altered pO{sub 2}-distribution due to antiangiogenic treatment in combination with radionuclide therapy. Methods: Based on experimental data, describing the effects of antiangiogenic agents on oxygenation of GlioblastomaMultiforme (GBM), a single cell based 3D model, including 10{sup 10} tumor cells, was developed, showing how radionuclide therapy response improves as tumor oxygenation approaches normal tissue levels. The nuclides studied were {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 211}At. The absorbed dose levels required for a tumor control probability (TCP) of 0.990 are compared for three different log-normal pO{sub 2}-distributions: {mu}{sub 1} = 2.483, {sigma}{sub 1} = 0.711; {mu}{sub 2} = 2.946, {sigma}{sub 2} = 0.689; {mu}{sub 3} = 3.689, and {sigma}{sub 3} = 0.330. The normal tissue absorbed doses will, in turn, depend on this. These distributions were chosen to represent the expected oxygen levels in an untreated hypoxic tumor, a hypoxic tumor treated with an anti-VEGF agent, and in normal, fully-oxygenated tissue, respectively. The former two are fitted to experimental data. The geometric oxygen distributions are simulated using two different patterns: one Monte Carlo based and one radially increasing, while keeping the log-normal volumetric distributions intact. Oxygen and activity are distributed, according to the same pattern. Results: As tumor pO{sub 2

  14. Comparing CT perfusion with oxygen partial pressure in a rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Changjin; Li Chao; Lv Haibo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxygen partial pressure of the rabbit model of the VX2 tumor using a 64-slice perfusion CT and to compare the results with that obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. Perfusion CT was performed for 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest, the blood volume (BV), the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were measured. The results were compared with the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of that region of interest obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest in 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor ranged from 1.3–127.0 (average, 21.1 ± 26.7 ml/min/ml); BV ranged from 1.2–53.5 ml/100g (average, 22.2 ± 13.7 ml/100g); PEI ranged from 8.7–124.6 HU (average, 43.5 ± 28.7 HU); and TTP ranged from 8.2–62.3 s (average, 38.8 ± 14.8 s). The PO2 in the corresponding region ranged from 0.14–47 mmHg (average, 16 ± 14.8 mmHg). The perfusion CT positively correlated with the tumor PO2, which can be used for evaluating the tumor hypoxia in clinical practice. (author)

  15. Comparing CT perfusion with oxygen partial pressure in a rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chang-Jin; Li, Chao; Lv, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Cong; Yu, Jin-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hui; Luo, Yun-Xiu; Li, Yan; Xiao, Mingyong; Yin, Jun; Lang, Jin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxygen partial pressure of the rabbit model of the VX2 tumor using a 64-slice perfusion CT and to compare the results with that obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. Perfusion CT was performed for 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest, the blood volume (BV), the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were measured. The results were compared with the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of that region of interest obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest in 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor ranged from 1.3-127.0 (average, 21.1 ± 26.7 ml/min/ml); BV ranged from 1.2-53.5 ml/100g (average, 22.2 ± 13.7 ml/100g); PEI ranged from 8.7-124.6 HU (average, 43.5 ± 28.7 HU); and TTP ranged from 8.2-62.3 s (average, 38.8 ± 14.8 s). The PO2 in the corresponding region ranged from 0.14-47 mmHg (average, 16 ± 14.8 mmHg). The perfusion CT positively correlated with the tumor PO2, which can be used for evaluating the tumor hypoxia in clinical practice.

  16. Changes in tumor oxygenation during a combined treatment with fractionated irradiation and hyperthermia: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywietz, F; Reeker, W; Kochs, E

    1997-01-01

    To determine the influence of adjuvant hyperthermia on the oxygenation status of fractionated irradiated tumors. Oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in rat rhabdomyosarcomas (R1H) was measured sequentially at weekly intervals during a fractionated irradiation with 60Co-gamma-rays (60 Gy/20f/4 weeks) in combination with local hyperthermia (8 f(HT) at 43 degrees C, 1 h/4 weeks). Tumors were heated twice weekly with a 2450 MHz microwave device at 43 degrees C, 1 h starting 10 min after irradiation. The pO2 measurements (pO2-histograph, Eppendorf, Germany) were performed in anesthetized animals during mechanical ventilation and in hemodynamic steady state. All tumor pO2 measurements were correlated to measurements of the arterial oxygen partial pressure (paO2) determined by a blood gas analyzer. The oxygenation status of R1H tumors decreased continuously from the start of the combined treatment, with increasing radiation dose and number of heat fractions. In untreated controls a median tumor pO2 of 23 +/- 2 mmHg (mean +/- SEM) was measured. Tumor pO2 decreased to 11 +/- 2 mmHg after 30 Gy + 4 HT (2 weeks), and to 6 +/- 2 mmHg after 60 Gy + 8HT (4 weeks). The increase in the frequency of pO2-values below 5 mmHg and the decrease in the range of the pO2 histograms [delta p(10/90)] further indicated that tumor hypoxia increased relatively rapidly from the start of combined treatment. After 60 Gy + 8HT 48 +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM) of the pO2-values recorded were below 5 mmHg. These findings suggest that adjuvant hyperthermia to radiotherapy induces greater changes in tumor oxygenation than radiation alone [cf. (39)]. This might be of importance for the temporary application of hyperthermia in the course of a conventional radiation treatment.

  17. Relationship Between Cerebral Oxygenation and Hemodynamic and Oxygen Transport Parameters in Surgery for Acquired Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lenkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamic and oxygen transport parameters in surgical correction of concomitant acquired heart diseases. Subjects and methods. Informed consent was received from 40 patients who required surgery because of concomitant (two or more acquired heart defects. During procedure, perioperative monitoring of oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation was performed with the aid of PiCCO2 monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany and a Fore-Sight cerebral oximeter (CASMED, USA. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and fen-tanyl, by monitoring the depth of anesthesia. Early postoperative intensive therapy was based on the protocol for early targeted correction of hemodynamic disorders. Oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation parameters were estimated intraopera-tively and within 24 postoperative hours. A statistical analysis including evaluation of Spearman correlations was performed with the aid of SPSS 15.0. Results. During perfusion, there was a relationship between cerebral oximetry values and hemat-ocrit levels, and oxygen partial pressure in the venous blood. Furthermore, a negative correlation between cerebral oximetry values and blood lactate levels was found 30 minutes after initiation of extracorporeal circulation (EC. During the study, there was a positive correlation between cerebral oxygenation and values of cardiac index, central venous saturation, and oxygen delivery index. There was a negative relationship between cerebral oxygenation and extravascular lung water at the beginning of surgery and a correlation between cerebral oximetry values and oxygenation index by the end of the first 24 postoperative hours. Conclusion. The cerebral oxygenation values correlate -with the main determinants of oxygen transport during EC and after cardiac surgical procedures. Cerebral oximetry may be used in early targeted therapy for the surgical correction of acquired combined

  18. Manipulation of tumor oxygenation and radiosensitivity through modification of cell respiration. A critical review of approaches and imaging biomarkers for therapeutic guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallez, Bernard; Neveu, Marie-Aline; Danhier, Pierre; Jordan, Bénédicte F

    2017-08-01

    Tumor hypoxia has long been considered as a detrimental factor for the response to irradiation. In order to improve the sensitivity of tumors cells to radiation therapy, tumor hypoxia may theoretically be alleviated by increasing the oxygen delivery or by decreasing the oxygen consumption by tumor cells. Mathematical modelling suggested that decreasing the oxygen consumption should be more efficient than increasing oxygen delivery in order to alleviate tumor hypoxia. In this paper, we review several promising strategies targeting the mitochondrial respiration for which alleviation of tumor hypoxia and increase in sensitivity to irradiation have been demonstrated. Because the translation of these approaches into the clinical arena requires the use of pharmacodynamics biomarkers able to identify shift in oxygen consumption and tumor oxygenation, we also discuss the relative merits of imaging biomarkers (Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance) that may be used for therapeutic guidance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Mitochondria in Cancer, edited by Giuseppe Gasparre, Rodrigue Rossignol and Pierre Sonveaux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Noninvasive diffuse optical monitoring of head and neck tumor blood flow and oxygenation during radiation delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lixin; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Cheng, Ran; Shang, Yu; Johnson, Ellis L.; Stevens, Scott D.; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2012-01-01

    This study explored using a novel diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter to noninvasively monitor blood flow and oxygenation changes in head and neck tumors during radiation delivery. A fiber-optic probe connected to the DCS flow-oximeter was placed on the surface of the radiologically/clinically involved cervical lymph node. The DCS flow-oximeter in the treatment room was remotely operated by a computer in the control room. From the early measurements, abnormal signals were observed when the optical device was placed in close proximity to the radiation beams. Through phantom tests, the artifacts were shown to be caused by scattered x rays and consequentially avoided by moving the optical device away from the x-ray beams. Eleven patients with head and neck tumors were continually measured once a week over a treatment period of seven weeks, although there were some missing data due to the patient related events. Large inter-patient variations in tumor hemodynamic responses were observed during radiation delivery. A significant increase in tumor blood flow was observed at the first week of treatment, which may be a physiologic response to hypoxia created by radiation oxygen consumption. Only small and insignificant changes were found in tumor blood oxygenation, suggesting that oxygen utilizations in tumors during the short period of fractional radiation deliveries were either minimal or balanced by other effects such as blood flow regulation. Further investigations in a large patient population are needed to correlate the individual hemodynamic responses with the clinical outcomes for determining the prognostic value of optical measurements. PMID:22312579

  20. Simultaneous administration of glucose and hyperoxic gas achieves greater improvement in tumor oxygenation than hyperoxic gas alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Stacey A.; Lanzen, Jennifer L.; Braun, Rod D.; Rosner, Gary; Secomb, Timothy W.; Biaglow, John; Brizel, David M.; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of hyperglycemic reduction of oxygen consumption combined with oxygen breathing (O 2 ), to improve tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Fischer-344 rats bearing 1 cm R3230Ac flank tumors were anesthetized with Nembutal. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, tumor blood flow ([TBF], laser Doppler flowmetry), pH, and pO 2 were measured before, during, and after glucose (1 or 4 g/kg) and/or O 2 . Results: Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were unaffected by treatment. Glucose at 1 g/kg yielded maximum blood glucose of 400 mg/dL, no change in TBF, reduced tumor pH (0.17 unit), and 3 mm Hg pO 2 rise. Glucose at 4 g/kg yielded maximum blood glucose of 900 mg/dL, pH drop of 0.6 unit, no pO 2 change, and reduced TBF (31%). Oxygen tension increased by 5 mm Hg with O 2 . Glucose (1 g/Kg) + O 2 yielded the largest change in pO 2 (27 mm Hg); this is highly significant relative to baseline or either treatment alone. The effect was positively correlated with baseline pO 2 , but 6 of 7 experiments with baseline pO 2 2 to improve tumor oxygenation. However, some cell lines are not susceptible to the Crabtree effect, and the magnitude is dependent on baseline pO 2 . Additional or alternative manipulations may be necessary to achieve more uniform improvement in pO 2

  1. Hemoglobin as a factor in the control of tumor oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of hemoglobin in the blood has been shown to have a market effect on the radiosensitivity of human and animal tumors. Experimental studies in mice indicate that radiosensitivity is influenced by a change in the hemoglobin level rather than by the absolute concentration. This dependence may be exploited to therapeutic advantage. Recent studies of hemoglobin/oxygen affinity have shown that the concentration of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) affects tumor sensitivity to X-rays. Increased 2,3 DPG levels increase radiosensitivity in several mouse tumors. The time dependence of this effect remains to be established. The effective application of these effects in man may depend on the development of drugs which produce changes in hemoglobin affinity without the need for blood transfusions. Several drugs are currently being investigated

  2. Measurements of partial oxygen pressure pO2 using the OxyLite system in R3327-AT tumors under isoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bixiu; Urano, Muneyasu; O'Donoghue, Joseph A; Ling, C Clifton

    2006-09-01

    The presence of oxygen-deficient tumor cells is a critical issue in cancer therapy. To identify tumor hypoxia, tissue partial oxygen pressure (pO2) can be measured directly. The OxyLite system allows determination of pO2 in tumors and permits continuous measurements of pO2 at a fixed point. In this study, this system was used to continuously measure pO2 in R3327-AT tumors in animals anesthetized with isoflurane. In addition, continuous pO2 measurement was performed in the muscle in non-tumor-bearing animals. In animals breathing isoflurane balanced by air, tumor pO2 at fixed positions decreased rapidly within 1-2 min of probe positioning but remained stable thereafter. In animals breathing isoflurane balanced by pure oxygen, tumor pO2 was higher and remained high. We also measured pO2 values at multiple positions in R3327-AT tumors of various sizes, with anesthetized animals breathing either air or pure oxygen. Our data showed that the frequency of pO2 measurements below 2.5 or 5.0 mmHg was significantly higher in animals breathing air than in animals breathing pure oxygen. Measurements in different-sized tumors showed that the mean pO2 value decreased as tumor volume increased, with the largest change occurring between tumor volumes of 100 and 200 mm3. Our data demonstrate that the OxyLite system, when used with isoflurane anesthesia, is a valuable tool in the study of tumor hypoxia.

  3. Tumor reoxygenation by aqueous oxygen solutions and its role in cancer treatment with chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderwood, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Many tumors contain significant areas of hypoxia which cause resistance to tumor radiation therapy and chemotherapy. We have used perfusion into afferent arteries with super saturated aqueous oxygen solutions (AO) to re-oxygenate the hypoxic areas of experimental tumors with the aim of restoring sensitivity to treatment and enhancing cancer therapy. We first concentrated on examining the ability of AO infusion to reoxygenate the MAT B III 13762 rat carcinoma growing in the thighs of rats. In experiments on 33 AO infused tumors using Eppendorf microelectrode monitoring, we consistently observed a significant decrease in the fraction of tumor domains with O 2 less than 5mmHg before and after AO infusion. Significant tumor reoxygenation was observed in most tumors with a volume less than 2.5 cm 3 . We next examined 15 New Zealand white rabbits transplanted with the VX2 carcinoma. Tissue oxygen studies indicated that intramuscular rabbit VX-2 tumor has a consistently lower hypoxic fraction (O 2 2 <5mm Hg). Significant reoxygenation did occur in these infused tumors although the degree of reoxygenation was slightly less than in the rat MAT B III 13762 perhaps reflecting the lower hypoxic fraction. Further studies showed that AO could also be infused directly into tumors with a reduction of hypoxic fraction of between 60-90% Overall, the experiments show that AO infusion into either arterial or intratumor sites is a viable approach to tumor reoxygenation and preliminary studies indicate increase effectiveness in treatment with cyclophosphamide / AO combination

  4. Oxygenation measurements in head and neck cancers during hyperbaric oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A.; Kuhnt, T.; Dunst, J.; Liedtke, H.; Krivokuca, A.; Bloching, M.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Tumor hypoxia has proven prognostic impact in head and neck cancers and is associated with poor response to radiotherapy. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) offers an approach to overcome hypoxia. We have performed pO 2 measurements in selected patients with head and neck cancers under HBO to determine in how far changes in the oxygenation occur and whether a possible improvement of oxygenation parameters is maintained after HBO. Patients and Methods: Seven patients (five male, two female, age 51-63 years) with squamous cell cancers of the head and neck were investigated (six primaries, one local recurrence). The median pO 2 prior to HBO was determined with the Eppendorf histograph. Sites of measurement were enlarged cervical lymph nodes (n = 5), the primary tumor (n = 1) and local recurrence (n = 1). Patients then underwent HBO (100% O 2 at 240 kPa for 30 minutes) and the continuous changes in the oxygenation during HBO were determined with a Licox probe. Patients had HBO for 30 minutes (n = 6) to 40 minutes (n = 1). HBO was continued because the pO 2 had not reached a steady state after 30 minutes. After decompression, patients ventilated pure oxygen under normobaric conditions and the course of the pO 2 was further measured over about 15 minutes. Results: Prior to HBO, the median tumor pO 2 in the Eppendorf histography was 8.6 ± 5.4 mm Hg (range 3-19 mm Hg) and the pO 2 measured with the Licox probe was 17.3 ± 25.5 mm Hg (range 0-73 mm Hg). The pO 2 increased significantly during HBO to 550 ± 333 mm Hg (range 85-984 mm Hg, p = 0.018). All patients showed a marked increase irrespective of the oxygenation prior to HBO. The maximum pO 2 in the tumor was reached after 10-33 minutes (mean 17 minutes). After leaving the hyperbaric chamber, the pO 2 was 282 ± 196 mm Hg. All patients maintained an elevated pO 2 for further 5-25 minutes (138 ± 128 mm Hg, range 42-334 mm Hg, p = 0.028 vs the pO 2 prior to HBO). Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygenation resulted in a

  5. Effects of breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture on blood oxygenation and vascularity of head-and-neck tumors as measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijpkema, Mark; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Joosten, Frank; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Heerschap, Arend

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: For head-and-neck tumors, breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture and administration of nicotinamide has been shown to result in a significantly improved tumor response to accelerated radiotherapy (ARCON, Accelerated Radiotherapy with CarbOgen and Nicotinamide). This may be caused by improved tumor oxygenation, possibly mediated by vascular effects. In this study, both blood oxygenation and vascular effects of breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture (98% O 2 +2% CO 2 ) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with head-and-neck tumors. Methods and Materials: Tumor vascularity and oxygenation were investigated by dynamic gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI, respectively. Eleven patients with primary head-and-neck tumors were each measured twice; with and without breathing the hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture. Results: BOLD MR imaging revealed a significant increase of the MRI time constant of transverse magnetization decay (T 2 *) in the tumor during hypercapnic hyperoxygenation, which correlates to a decrease of the deoxyhemoglobin concentration. No changes in overall tumor vascularity were observed, as measured by the gadolinium contrast uptake rate in the tumor. Conclusion: Breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture improves tumor blood oxygenation in patients with head-and-neck tumors, which may contribute to the success of the ARCON therapy

  6. Diltiazem enhances tumor blood flow: MRI study in a murine tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muruganandham, M.; Kasiviswanathan, A.; Jagannathan, N.R.; Raghunathan, P.; Jain, P.C.; Jain, V.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Diltiazem, a calcium-channel blocker, is known to differentially influence the radiation responses of normal and murine tumor tissues. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, the effects of diltiazem on the radiation response of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in mice have been investigated, and the hemodynamic changes induced by diltiazem in tumor and normal muscle have been studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Methods and Materials: Ehrlich ascites tumors were grown subcutaneously in Swiss albino strain A mice. Dynamic gadodiamide and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast enhanced 1 H MR imaging studies of EAT and normal muscle were performed after administration of diltiazem in mice using a 4.7 Tesla MR scanner. Tumor radiotherapy experiments (total dose = 10 Gy, 0.4-0.5 Gy/min, single fraction) were carried out with 30 min preadministration of diltiazem (27.5 or 55 mg/kg i.p.) to EAT-bearing mice using a teletherapy machine. Results: The diltiazem+ radiation treated group showed significant tumor regression (in congruent with 65% of the animals) and enhanced animal survival. MR-gadodiamide contrast kinetics revealed a higher magnitude of signal enhancement in diltiazem treated groups as compared to the controls. The observed changes in the magnitude of kinetic parameters were the same for both tumor and normal muscle. BOLD-MR images at 30 min after diltiazem administration showed a 25% and 8% (average) intensity enhancement from their basal values in tumor and normal muscle regions, respectively. The control group showed no significant changes. Conclusion: The present studies demonstrate the radiosensitization potential of diltiazem in the mice EAT model. The enhanced radiation response observed with diltiazem correlates with the diltiazem-induced increase in tumor blood flow (TBF) and tumor oxygenation. The present results also demonstrate the applications of BOLD-MR measurements in investigating the alterations in tumor

  7. Singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry to predict long-term local tumor control for Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Kim, Michele M.; Ong, Yi Hong; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established modality for the treatment of cancer, current dosimetric quantities do not account for the variations in PDT oxygen consumption for different fluence rates (φ). In this study we examine the efficacy of reacted singlet oxygen concentration ([1O2]rx) to predict long-term local control rate (LCR) for Photofrin-mediated PDT. Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors in the right shoulders of female C3H mice are treated with different in-air fluences of 225-540 J/cm2 and in-air fluence rate (φair) of 50 and 75 mW/cm2 at 5 mg/kg Photofrin and a drug-light interval of 24 hours using a 1 cm diameter collimated laser beam at 630 nm wavelength. [1O2]rx is calculated by using a macroscopic model based on explicit dosimetry of Photofrin concentration, tissue optical properties, tissue oxygenation and blood flow changes during PDT. The tumor volume of each mouse is tracked for 90 days after PDT and Kaplan-Meier analyses for LCR are performed based on a tumor volume defined as a temporal integral of photosensitizer concentration and Φ at a 3 mm tumor depth. φ is calculated throughout the treatment volume based on Monte-Carlo simulation and measured tissue optical properties. Our preliminary studies show that [1O2]rx is the best dosimetric quantity that can predict tumor response and correlate with LCR. Moreover, [1O2]rx calculated using the blood flow changes was in agreement with [1O2]rx calculated based on the actual tissue oxygenation.

  8. Injectable LiNc-BuO loaded microspheres as in vivo EPR oxygen sensors after co-implantation with tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Juliane; Gündel, Daniel; Drescher, Simon; Thews, Oliver; Mäder, Karsten

    2015-12-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry is a technique which allows accurate and repeatable oxygen measurements. We encapsulated a highly oxygen sensitive particulate EPR spin probe into microparticles to improve its dispersibility and, hence, facilitate the administration. These biocompatible, non-toxic microspheres contained 5-10 % (w/w) spin probe and had an oxygen sensitivity of 0.60 ± 0.01 µT/mmHg. To evaluate the performance of the microparticles as oxygen sensors, they were co-implanted with syngeneic tumor cells in 2 different rat strains. Thus, tissue injury was avoided and the microparticles were distributed all over the tumor tissue. Dynamic changes of the intratumoral oxygen partial pressure during inhalation of 8 %, 21 %, or 100 % oxygen were monitored in vivo by EPR spectroscopy and quantified. Values were verified in vivo by invasive fluorometric measurements using Oxylite probes and ex vivo by pimonidazole adduct accumulation. There were no hints that the tumor physiology or tissue oxygenation had been altered by the microparticles. Hence, these microprobes offer great potential as oxygen sensors in preclinical research, not only for EPR spectroscopy but also for EPR imaging. For instance, the assessment of tissue oxygenation during therapeutic interventions might help understanding pathophysiological processes and lead to an individualized treatment planning or the use of formulations with hypoxia triggered release of active agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence on muscle oxygenation to EMG parameters at different skeletal muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Song, Gaoqing

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of muscle oxygenation on EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises and to observe the relationship between EMG parameters and muscle oxygenation. Twelve rowers took part in the tests. Near infrared spectrometer was utilized for measurements of muscle oxygenation on lateral quadriceps. sEMG measurement is performed for EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises. Results indicated that Oxy-Hb decrease significantly correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal during 1/3 MVC and 2/3 MVC isometric exercise, and it is also correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal. Increase of IEMG occurred at the time after Oxy-Hb decrease during incremental exercise and highly correlated with BLa. It is concluded that no matter how heavy the intensity is, Oxy-Hb dissociation may play an important role in affecting EMG parameters of muscle fatigue during isometric exercise. 2) EMG parameters may be influenced by Oxy-Hb dissociation and blood lactate concentration during dynamic exercise.

  10. Radiobiological studies on the importance of tumor oxygenation for anti-neoplastic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, C.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the twelve studies included in the present thesis was to determine the importance of hypoxia for various anti-neoplastic treatment modalities, and to evaluate possible ways of overcoming the hypoxia problem by combined modality therapy. The murine tumor systems were the C3H mammary carcinoma with 5-12% hypoxic cells, and the SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma with 2% hypoxic cells. The radiation response was significantly improved by the use of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers such as nimorazole or misonidazole, or by allowing the mice to breathe oxygen or carbogen during irradiation. In contrast, the radiation response was significantly impaired by carbon monoxide breathing at a level comparable to what has been observed in heavy smokers. The clamped TCD 50 assay was used to classify cancer chemotherapeutic drugs according to their preferential cytotoxicity towards the different tumor subpopulations. Methotrexate had no effect on hypoxic cells and was only borderline toxic towards aerobic cells. Three drugs had significant effect against oxic cells only (5-fluorouracil, bleomycin and cisplatin). Similarly, three drugs were toxic towards hypoxic cells only (etoposide, carmustine, and mitomycin c). Three drugs were effective towards both cell types (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide). Hypoxic cells in areas with insufficient blood supply, poor nutrition and increased acidity is known to be highly sensitive to hyperthermia. In a study where cisplatin, heat and x-rays were given together, the local tumor control was not improved when compared to radiation + heat, apparently due to a lack of enhancement in the killing of hypoxic cells. These studies have demonstrated the influence of tumor oxygenation on tumor response to treatment with drugs, hyperthermia and irradiation. New strategies targeted also against perfusion-limited hypoxia is needed. One of the most important conclusions from the present thesis can be implemented without expensive trials or

  11. Paradox between angiogenesis and oxygen effect in the treatment of tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masanobu

    2008-01-01

    The paradox in the title is described on recent findings concerning the effects of anti-angiogenetic drugs on possible radiation resistance and sensitivity of tumor tissue. Suppression of angiogenesis leads to inhibition of tumor growth, based on which anti-tumor drugs like anti- vascular endotherial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab to suppress the genesis have been developed and clinically used, but they conceivably increase the population of hypoxic tumor cells. Those drugs are essentially used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiation. Hypoxic tumor cells present in the tissue are generally radioresistant. There are reported findings, however, that the drugs sometimes elevate the efficacy of radiotherapy, which hypothesizes that the drugs induces a proangiogenetic state, where increased level of growth factors in the tissue is reduced to normalize the vasculature and thereby reoxygenation occurs, the oxygen effect. Because copper is a cofactor of growth factors like VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and essential for angiogenesis, authors have studied the effect of a Cu-chelator, trientine, on transplanted mouse tumors which has been shown to induce apoptosis of the target cells. Combination of the chelator with X-ray irradiation is found effective in tumor growth inhibition and in survival increase. For more effective combination therapy, the interaction occurring in combinations of regimen should be elucidated. (R.T.)

  12. Activated Macrophages as a Novel Determinant of Tumor Cell Radioresponse: The Role of Nitric Oxide-Mediated Inhibition of Cellular Respiration and Oxygen Sparing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Heng; De Ridder, Mark; Verovski, Valeri N.; Sonveaux, Pierre; Jordan, Benedicte F.; Law, Kalun; Monsaert, Christinne; Van den Berge, Dirk L.; Verellen, Dirk; Feron, Olivier; Gallez, Bernard; Storme, Guy A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), is known to inhibit metabolic oxygen consumption because of interference with mitochondrial respiratory activity. This study examined whether activation of iNOS (a) directly in tumor cells or (b) in bystander macrophages may improve radioresponse through sparing of oxygen. Methods and Materials: EMT-6 tumor cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ, and examined for iNOS expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and enzymatic activity. Tumor cells alone, or combined with macrophages were subjected to metabolic hypoxia and analyzed for radiosensitivity by clonogenic assay, and for oxygen consumption by electron paramagnetic resonance and a Clark-type electrode. Results: Both tumor cells and macrophages displayed a coherent picture of iNOS induction at transcriptional/translational levels and NO/nitrite production, whereas macrophages showed also co-induction of the inducible heme oxygenase-1, which is associated with carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin production. Activation of iNOS in tumor cells resulted in a profound oxygen sparing and a 2.3-fold radiosensitization. Bystander NO-producing, but not CO-producing, macrophages were able to block oxygen consumption by 1.9-fold and to radiosensitize tumor cells by 2.2-fold. Both effects could be neutralized by aminoguanidine, a metabolic iNOS inhibitor. An improved radioresponse was clearly observed at macrophages to tumor cells ratios ranging between 1:16 to 1:1. Conclusions: Our study is the first, as far as we are aware, to provide evidence that iNOS may induce radiosensitization through oxygen sparing, and illuminates NO-producing macrophages as a novel determinant of tumor cell radioresponse within the hypoxic tumor microenvironment.

  13. Therapeutic Implications from Sensitivity Analysis of Tumor Angiogenesis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleszczuk, Jan; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Enderling, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic cancer treatments induce tumor starvation and regression by targeting the tumor vasculature that delivers oxygen and nutrients. Mathematical models prove valuable tools to study the proof-of-concept, efficacy and underlying mechanisms of such treatment approaches. The effects of parameter value uncertainties for two models of tumor development under angiogenic signaling and anti-angiogenic treatment are studied. Data fitting is performed to compare predictions of both models and to obtain nominal parameter values for sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the success of different cancer treatments depends on tumor size and tumor intrinsic parameters. In particular, we show that tumors with ample vascular support can be successfully targeted with conventional cytotoxic treatments. On the other hand, tumors with curtailed vascular support are not limited by their growth rate and therefore interruption of neovascularization emerges as the most promising treatment target. PMID:25785600

  14. Singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry to predict local tumor control for HPPH-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Kim, Michele M.; Ong, Yi Hong; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    This preclinical study examines four dosimetric quantities (light fluence, photosensitizer photobleaching ratio, PDT dose, and reacted singlet oxygen ([1O2]rx)) to predict local control rate (LCR) for 2-(1-Hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide (HPPH)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT). Mice bearing radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different in-air fluences (135, 250 and 350 J/cm2) and in-air fluence rates (50, 75 and 150 mW/cm2) at 0.25 mg/kg HPPH and a drug-light interval of 24 hours using a 1 cm diameter collimated laser beam at 665 nm wavelength. A macroscopic model was used to calculate ([1O2]rx)) based on in vivo explicit dosimetry of the initial tissue oxygenation, photosensitizer concentration, and tissue optical properties. PDT dose was defined as a temporal integral of drug concentration and fluence rate (φ) at a 3 mm tumor depth. Light fluence rate was calculated throughout the treatment volume based on Monte-Carlo simulation and measured tissue optical properties. The tumor volume of each mouse was tracked for 30 days after PDT and Kaplan-Meier analyses for LCR were performed based on a tumor volume <=100 mm3, for four dose metrics: fluence, HPPH photobleaching rate, PDT dose, and ([1O2]rx)). The results of this study showed that ([1O2]rx)) is the best dosimetric quantity that can predict tumor response and correlate with LCR.

  15. A voxel-based multiscale model to simulate the radiation response of hypoxic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, I; Peschke, P; Karger, C P

    2015-01-01

    In radiotherapy, it is important to predict the response of tumors to irradiation prior to the treatment. This is especially important for hypoxic tumors, which are known to be highly radioresistant. Mathematical modeling based on the dose distribution, biological parameters, and medical images may help to improve this prediction and to optimize the treatment plan. A voxel-based multiscale tumor response model for simulating the radiation response of hypoxic tumors was developed. It considers viable and dead tumor cells, capillary and normal cells, as well as the most relevant biological processes such as (i) proliferation of tumor cells, (ii) hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, (iii) spatial exchange of cells leading to tumor growth, (iv) oxygen-dependent cell survival after irradiation, (v) resorption of dead cells, and (vi) spatial exchange of cells leading to tumor shrinkage. Oxygenation is described on a microscopic scale using a previously published tumor oxygenation model, which calculates the oxygen distribution for each voxel using the vascular fraction as the most important input parameter. To demonstrate the capabilities of the model, the dependence of the oxygen distribution on tumor growth and radiation-induced shrinkage is investigated. In addition, the impact of three different reoxygenation processes is compared and tumor control probability (TCP) curves for a squamous cells carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSSC) are simulated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The model describes the spatiotemporal behavior of the tumor on three different scales: (i) on the macroscopic scale, it describes tumor growth and shrinkage during radiation treatment, (ii) on a mesoscopic scale, it provides the cell density and vascular fraction for each voxel, and (iii) on the microscopic scale, the oxygen distribution may be obtained in terms of oxygen histograms. With increasing tumor size, the simulated tumors develop a hypoxic core. Within the model, tumor shrinkage was

  16. A voxel-based multiscale model to simulate the radiation response of hypoxic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, I.; Peschke, P.; Karger, C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, it is important to predict the response of tumors to irradiation prior to the treatment. This is especially important for hypoxic tumors, which are known to be highly radioresistant. Mathematical modeling based on the dose distribution, biological parameters, and medical images may help to improve this prediction and to optimize the treatment plan. Methods: A voxel-based multiscale tumor response model for simulating the radiation response of hypoxic tumors was developed. It considers viable and dead tumor cells, capillary and normal cells, as well as the most relevant biological processes such as (i) proliferation of tumor cells, (ii) hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, (iii) spatial exchange of cells leading to tumor growth, (iv) oxygen-dependent cell survival after irradiation, (v) resorption of dead cells, and (vi) spatial exchange of cells leading to tumor shrinkage. Oxygenation is described on a microscopic scale using a previously published tumor oxygenation model, which calculates the oxygen distribution for each voxel using the vascular fraction as the most important input parameter. To demonstrate the capabilities of the model, the dependence of the oxygen distribution on tumor growth and radiation-induced shrinkage is investigated. In addition, the impact of three different reoxygenation processes is compared and tumor control probability (TCP) curves for a squamous cells carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSSC) are simulated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Results: The model describes the spatiotemporal behavior of the tumor on three different scales: (i) on the macroscopic scale, it describes tumor growth and shrinkage during radiation treatment, (ii) on a mesoscopic scale, it provides the cell density and vascular fraction for each voxel, and (iii) on the microscopic scale, the oxygen distribution may be obtained in terms of oxygen histograms. With increasing tumor size, the simulated tumors develop a hypoxic core. Within the

  17. Hemodynamic parameters change earlier than tissue oxygen tension in hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Gunther J; Fukui, Kimiko; Kimberger, Oliver; Hager, Helmut; Kurz, Andrea; Hiltebrand, Luzius B

    2010-05-15

    Untreated hypovolemia results in impaired outcome. This study tests our hypothesis whether general hemodynamic parameters detect acute blood loss earlier than monitoring parameters of regional tissue beds. Eight pigs (23-25 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. A pulmonary artery catheter and an arterial catheter were inserted. Tissue oxygen tension was measured with Clark-type electrodes in the jejunal and colonic wall, in the liver, and subcutaneously. Jejunal microcirculation was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Intravascular volume was optimized using difference in pulse pressure (dPP) to keep dPP below 13%. Sixty minutes after preparation, baseline measurements were taken. At first, 5% of total blood volume was withdrawn, followed by another 5% increment, and then in 10% increments until death. After withdrawal of 5% of estimated blood volume, dPP increased from 6.1% +/- 3.0% to 20.8% +/- 2.7% (P < 0.01). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) decreased with a blood loss of 10% (P < 0.01). Cardiac output (CO) changed after a blood loss of 20% (P < 0.05). Tissue oxygen tension in central organs, and blood flow in the jejunal muscularis decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 20%. Tissue oxygen tension in the skin, and jejunal mucosa blood flow decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 40% and 50%, respectively. In this hemorrhagic pig model systemic hemodynamic parameters were more sensitive to detect acute hypovolemia than tissue oxygen tension measurements or jejunal LDF measurements. Acute blood loss was detected first by dPP. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tumor Hypoxia is Independent of Hemoglobin and Prognostic for Loco-regional Tumor Control after Primary Radiotherapy in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordsmark, Marianne; Overgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that tumor hypoxia adversely affects loco-regional tumor control and survival in head and neck cancer. The aim of the current study was to compare pretreatment tumor oxygenation measured by Eppendorf pO2 electrodes with known prognostic factors in advanced head and neck tumors after definitive radiotherapy, and to evaluate the prognostic significance of these parameters on loco-regional tumor control. Sixty-seven patients, median age 56 years (22-82), all with primary stage III-IV squamous cell carcinoma were available for survival analysis. Tumor oxygenation was described as the fraction of pO2 values=2.5 mmHg (HP2.5) and the median tumor pO2. By regression analysis HP2.5 was independent of known prognostic factors including stage, pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) and the largest tumor diameter at the site of pO2 measurement. By Kaplan-Meier analysis loco-regional tumor control at 5 years was in favor of less hypoxic tumors using either HP2.5 or median tumor pO2 as descriptors and stratifying by the median values. Also, Hb was prognostic of loco-regional tumor control at 5 years using the median value as cut off. HP2.5 as continuous parameter was highly significant for loco-regional tumor control in a multivariate analysis. In conclusion both HP2.5 and total Hb were prognostic for loco-regional tumor control, but HP2.5 as continuous variable was independently the strongest prognostic indicator for loco-regional tumor control after definitive primary radiotherapy in advanced head and neck tumors

  19. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of tumor energy metabolism and its relationship to intracapillary oxyhemoglobin saturation status and tumor hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofstad, E K; DeMuth, P; Fenton, B M; Sutherland, R M

    1988-10-01

    Relationships between tumor bioenergetic status on the one hand and intracapillary oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) saturation status and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells on the other were studied using two murine sarcoma lines (KHT, RIF-1) and two human ovarian carcinoma xenograft lines (MLS, OWI). Tumor energy metabolism was studied in vivo by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and the resonance area ratio (PCr + NTP beta)/Pi was used as parameter for bioenergetic status. Intracapillary HbO2 saturation status reflects the oxygen supply conditions in tumors and was measured in vitro using a cryospectrophotometric method. The KHT, RIF-1, and MLS lines showed decreasing bioenergetic status, i.e., decreasing PCr and NTP beta resonances and an increasing Pi resonance, with increasing tumor volume, whereas the OWI line showed no changes in these resonances during tumor growth. The volume-dependence of the HbO2 saturation status differed similarly among the tumor lines; HbO2 saturation status decreased with increasing tumor volume for the KHT, RIF-1, and MLS lines and was independent of tumor volume for the OWI line. Moreover, linear correlations were found between bioenergetic status and HbO2 saturation status for individual tumors of the KHT, RIF-1, and MLS lines. These observations together indicated a direct relationship between 31P-NMR spectral parameters and tumor oxygen supply conditions. However, this relationship was not identical for the different tumor lines, suggesting that it was influenced by intrinsic properties of the tumor cells such as rate of respiration and ability to survive under hypoxia. Similarly, there was no correlation between bioenergetic status and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells across the four tumor lines. This indicates that 31P-NMR spectroscopy data have to be supplemented with other data, e.g., rate of oxygen consumption, cell survival time under hypoxic stress, and/or fraction of metabolically active

  20. Sensitivity of tumor motion simulation accuracy to lung biomechanical modeling approaches and parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-21

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney-Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney-Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation.

  1. Fractionation parameters for human tissues and tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.; Turesson, I.; Bogaert, W. van den

    1989-01-01

    Time-dose factors such as fractionation sensitivity (α/β) can sometimes be estimated from clinical data, when there is a wide variation in dose, fraction size, treatment time, etc. This report summarizes estimates of fractionation parameters derived from clinical results. Consistent with the animal data, α/β is higher for acutely responding than for late-responding normal tissues. While many human tumors seem to be characterized by high α/β values, there are exceptions (e.g. melanomas). Repair kinetics may be slower in human than in rodent skin and mucosa, but there are no hard and fast estimates of the repair halftime. Regeneration in head and neck tumors is equivalent to a daily dose of 1 Gy or less, while in the mucosa it is equivalent to approximately 1.8 Gy/day. (author)

  2. Differential oxygen dynamics in two diverse Dunning prostate R3327 rat tumor sublines (MAT-Lu and HI) with respect to growth and respiratory challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Dawen; Constantinescu, Anca; Hahn, Eric W.; Mason, Ralph P.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Since hypoxia may influence tumor response to therapy and prognosis, we have compared oxygenation of tumors known to exhibit differential growth rate and tissue differentiation. Methods and Materials: Regional tumor oxygen tension was measured using 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance echo planar imaging relaxometry of hexafluorobenzene, which provided dynamic maps with respect to respiratory intervention. Investigations used two Dunning prostate R3327 rat tumor sublines: the fast growing, highly metastatic MAT-Lu and the moderately well-differentiated, slower growing HI. Results: Both sublines showed significantly higher oxygen tension in smaller tumors ( 3 ) than in larger tumors (>3.5 cm 3 ). Pooled data showed that MAT-Lu tumors exhibited greater hypoxia compared with the size-matched HI tumors (p 2 for tumors of both sublines (p 2 , while those in the MAT-Lu tumors showed little response to respiratory intervention. Conclusions: These results concur with hypotheses that hypoxia is related to tumor growth rate and degree of differentiation. Under baseline conditions, the differences were subtle. However, response to respiratory intervention revealed highly significant differences, which, if held valid in the clinic, could have prognostic value

  3. A note on modeling of tumor regression for estimation of radiobiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Hualiang; Chetty, Indrin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate calculation of radiobiological parameters is crucial to predicting radiation treatment response. Modeling differences may have a significant impact on derived parameters. In this study, the authors have integrated two existing models with kinetic differential equations to formulate a new tumor regression model for estimation of radiobiological parameters for individual patients. Methods: A system of differential equations that characterizes the birth-and-death process of tumor cells in radiation treatment was analytically solved. The solution of this system was used to construct an iterative model (Z-model). The model consists of three parameters: tumor doubling time T d , half-life of dead cells T r , and cell survival fraction SF D under dose D. The Jacobian determinant of this model was proposed as a constraint to optimize the three parameters for six head and neck cancer patients. The derived parameters were compared with those generated from the two existing models: Chvetsov's model (C-model) and Lim's model (L-model). The C-model and L-model were optimized with the parameter T d fixed. Results: With the Jacobian-constrained Z-model, the mean of the optimized cell survival fractions is 0.43 ± 0.08, and the half-life of dead cells averaged over the six patients is 17.5 ± 3.2 days. The parameters T r and SF D optimized with the Z-model differ by 1.2% and 20.3% from those optimized with the T d -fixed C-model, and by 32.1% and 112.3% from those optimized with the T d -fixed L-model, respectively. Conclusions: The Z-model was analytically constructed from the differential equations of cell populations that describe changes in the number of different tumor cells during the course of radiation treatment. The Jacobian constraints were proposed to optimize the three radiobiological parameters. The generated model and its optimization method may help develop high-quality treatment regimens for individual patients

  4. Reactive oxygen species explicit dosimetry (ROSED) of a type 1 photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yi Hong; Kim, Michele M.; Huang, Zheng; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2018-02-01

    Type I photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the use of photochemical reactions mediated through an interaction between a tumor-selective photosensitizer, photoexcitation with a specific wavelength of light, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The goal of this study is to develop a model to calculate reactive oxygen species concentration ([ROS]rx) after Tookad®-mediated vascular PDT. Mice with radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different light fluence and fluence rate conditions. Explicit measurements of photosensitizer drug concentration were made via diffuse reflective absorption spectrum using a contact probe before and after PDT. Blood flow and tissue oxygen concentration over time were measured during PDT as a mean to validate the photochemical parameters for the ROSED calculation. Cure index was computed from the rate of tumor regrowth after treatment and was compared against three calculated dose metrics: total light fluence, PDT dose, reacted [ROS]rx. The tumor growth study demonstrates that [ROS]rx serves as a better dosimetric quantity for predicting treatment outcome, as a clinically relevant tumor growth endpoint.

  5. Singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry to predict long-term local tumor control for BPD-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Ong, Yi Hong; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a well-established treatment modality for cancer and other malignant diseases; however, quantities such as light fluence, photosensitizer photobleaching rate, and PDT dose do not fully account for all of the dynamic interactions between the key components involved. In particular, fluence rate (Φ) effects are not accounted for, which has a large effect on the oxygen consumption rate. In this preclinical study, reacted singlet oxygen [1O2]rx was investigated as a dosimetric quantity for PDT outcome. The ability of [1O2]rx to predict the long-term local tumor control rate (LCR) for BPD-mediated PDT was examined. Mice bearing radioactivelyinduced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different in-air fluences (250, 300, and 350 J/cm2) and in-air ϕ (75, 100, and150 mW/cm2) with a BPD dose of 1 mg/kg and a drug-light interval of 3 hours. Treatment was delivered with a collimated laser beam of 1 cm diameter at 690 nm. Explicit dosimetry of initial tissue oxygen concentration, tissue optical properties, and BPD concentration was used to calculate [1O2]rx. Φ was calculated for the treatment volume based on Monte-Carlo simulations and measured tissue optical properties. Kaplan-Meier analyses for LCR were done for an endpoint of tumor volume defined as the product of the timeintegral of photosensitizer concentration and Φ at a 3 mm tumor depth. Preliminary studies show that [1O2]rx better correlates with LCR and is an effective dosimetric quantity that can predict treatment outcome.

  6. Sensitivity of tumor motion simulation accuracy to lung biomechanical modeling approaches and parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Wang, Jing; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). A Quasi-Newton FEA was performed to simulate lung and related tumor displacements between end-expiration (phase 50%) and other respiration phases (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%). Both linear isotropic and non-linear hyperelastic materials, including the neo-Hookean compressible and uncoupled Mooney–Rivlin models, were used to create a finite element model (FEM) of lung and tumors. Lung surface displacement vector fields (SDVFs) were obtained by registering the 50% phase CT to other respiration phases, using the non-rigid demons registration algorithm. The obtained SDVFs were used as lung surface displacement boundary conditions in FEM. The sensitivity of TCM displacement to lung and tumor biomechanical parameters was assessed in eight patients for all three models. Patient-specific optimal parameters were estimated by minimizing the TCM motion simulation errors between phase 50% and phase 0%. The uncoupled Mooney–Rivlin material model showed the highest TCM motion simulation accuracy. The average TCM motion simulation absolute errors for the Mooney–Rivlin material model along left-right, anterior–posterior, and superior–inferior directions were 0.80 mm, 0.86 mm, and 1.51 mm, respectively. The proposed strategy provides a reliable method to estimate patient-specific biomechanical parameters in FEM for lung tumor motion simulation. (paper)

  7. Quantitative imaging of tumor vasculature using multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Michal R.; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Joseph, James; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2017-03-01

    The ability to evaluate tumor oxygenation in the clinic could indicate prognosis and enable treatment monitoring, since oxygen deficient cancer cells are often more resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. MultiSpectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) is a hybrid technique combining the high contrast of optical imaging with spatial resolution and penetration depth similar to ultrasound. We hypothesized that MSOT could reveal both tumor vascular density and function based on modulation of blood oxygenation. We performed MSOT on nude mice (n=8) bearing subcutaneous xenograft PC3 tumors using an inVision 256 (iThera Medical). The mice were maintained under inhalation anesthesia during imaging and respired oxygen content was modified from 21% to 100% and back. After imaging, Hoechst 33348 was injected to indicate vascular perfusion and permeability. Tumors were then extracted for histopathological analysis and fluorescence microscopy. The acquired data was analyzed to extract a bulk measurement of blood oxygenation (SO2MSOT) from the whole tumor using different approaches. The tumors were also automatically segmented into 5 regions to investigate the effect of depth on SO2MSOT. Baseline SO2MSOT values at 21% and 100% oxygen breathing showed no relationship with ex vivo measures of vascular density or function, while the change in SO2MSOT showed a strong negative correlation to Hoechst intensity (r=- 0.92, p=0.0016). Tumor voxels responding to oxygen challenge were spatially heterogeneous. We observed a significant drop in SO2 MSOT value with tumor depth following a switch of respiratory gas from air to oxygen (0.323+/-0.017 vs. 0.11+/-0.05, p=0.009 between 0 and 1.5mm depth), but no such effect for air breathing (0.265+/-0.013 vs. 0.19+/-0.04, p=0.14 between 0 and 1.5mm depth). Our results indicate that in subcutaneous prostate tumors, baseline SO2MSOT levels do not correlate to tumor vascular density or function while the magnitude of the response to oxygen

  8. WE-E-17A-01: Characterization of An Imaging-Based Model of Tumor Angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikarla, V; Jeraj, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Understanding the transient dynamics of tumor oxygenation is important when evaluating tumor-vasculature response to anti-angiogenic therapies. An imaging-based tumor-vasculature model was used to elucidate factors that affect these dynamics. Methods: Tumor growth depends on its doubling time (Td). Hypoxia increases pro-angiogenic factor (VEGF) concentration which is modeled to reduce vessel perfusion, attributing to its effect of increasing vascular permeability. Perfused vessel recruitment depends on the existing perfused vasculature, VEGF concentration and maximum VEGF concentration (VEGFmax) for vessel dysfunction. A convolution-based algorithm couples the tumor to the normal tissue vessel density (VD-nt). The parameters are benchmarked to published pre-clinical data and a sensitivity study evaluating the changes in the peak and time to peak tumor oxygenation characterizes them. The model is used to simulate changes in hypoxia and proliferation PET imaging data obtained using [Cu- 61]Cu-ATSM and [F-18]FLT respectively. Results: Td and VD-nt were found to be the most influential on peak tumor pO2 while VEGFmax was marginally influential. A +20 % change in Td, VD-nt and VEGFmax resulted in +50%, +25% and +5% increase in peak pO2. In contrast, Td was the most influential on the time to peak oxygenation with VD-nt and VEGFmax playing marginal roles. A +20% change in Td, VD-nt and VEGFmax increased the time to peak pO2 by +50%, +5% and +0%. A −20% change in the above parameters resulted in comparable decreases in the peak and time to peak pO2. Model application to the PET data was able to demonstrate the voxel-specific changes in hypoxia of the imaged tumor. Conclusion: Tumor-specific doubling time and vessel density are important parameters to be considered when evaluating hypoxia transients. While the current model simulates the oxygen dynamics of an untreated tumor, incorporation of therapeutic effects can make the model a potent tool for analyzing

  9. Hypoxyradiotherapy: lack of experimental evidence for a preferential radioprotective effect on normal versus tumor tissue as shown by direct oxygenation measurements in experimental sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, Debra K.; Thews, Oliver; Vaupel, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Aim: In order to investigate possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the postulated preferential protective effect of hypoxia on normal tissue during radiotherapy, the impact of acute respiratory hypoxia (8.2% O 2 + 91.8% N 2 ) on tissue oxygenation was assessed. Methods: Tumor and normal tissue oxygenation was directly determined using O 2 -sensitive electrodes in two experimental rat tumors (DS and Yoshida sarcomas) and in the normal subcutis of the hind foot dorsum. Results: During respiratory hypoxia, arterial blood O 2 tension (pO 2 ), oxyhemoglobin saturation and mean arterial blood pressure decreased. Changes in the arterial blood gas status were accompanied by a reflex hyperventilation leading to hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis. In the subcutis, tissue oxygenation worsened during acute hypoxia, with decreases in the mean and median pO 2 . Significant increases in the hypoxic fractions were, however, not seen. In tumor tissues, oxygenation also worsened upon hypoxic hypoxia with significant decreases in the mean and median pO 2 and increases in the size of the hypoxic fractions for both sarcomas. Conclusion: These results suggest that during respiratory hypoxia, radiobiologically relevant reductions in the oxygenation (and a subsequent selective radioprotection) of normal tissue may not be achieved. In addition, in the tumor models studied, a worsening of tumor oxygenation was seen which could result in an increased radioresistance

  10. Correlation of FMISO simulations with pimonidazole-stained tumor xenografts: A question of O{sub 2} consumption?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wack, L. J., E-mail: linda-jacqueline.wack@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Thorwarth, D. [Section for Biomedical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Mönnich, D. [Section for Biomedical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Tübingen 72076 (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69121 (Germany); Yaromina, A. [OncoRay—National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden 01309, Germany and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW—School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht 6229 ET (Netherlands); Zips, D. [German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Tübingen 72076 (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69121 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen 72076 (Germany); and others

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To compare a dedicated simulation model for hypoxia PET against tumor microsections stained for different parameters of the tumor microenvironment. The model can readily be adapted to a variety of conditions, such as different human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) xenograft tumors. Methods: Nine different HNSCC tumor models were transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice. Tumors were excised and immunoflourescently labeled with pimonidazole, Hoechst 33342, and CD31, providing information on hypoxia, perfusion, and vessel distribution, respectively. Hoechst and CD31 images were used to generate maps of perfused blood vessels on which tissue oxygenation and the accumulation of the hypoxia tracer FMISO were mathematically simulated. The model includes a Michaelis–Menten relation to describe the oxygen consumption inside tissue. The maximum oxygen consumption rate M{sub 0} was chosen as the parameter for a tumor-specific optimization as it strongly influences tracer distribution. M{sub 0} was optimized on each tumor slice to reach optimum correlations between FMISO concentration 4 h postinjection and pimonidazole staining intensity. Results: After optimization, high pixel-based correlations up to R{sup 2} = 0.85 were found for individual tissue sections. Experimental pimonidazole images and FMISO simulations showed good visual agreement, confirming the validity of the approach. Median correlations per tumor model varied significantly (p < 0.05), with R{sup 2} ranging from 0.20 to 0.54. The optimum maximum oxygen consumption rate M{sub 0} differed significantly (p < 0.05) between tumor models, ranging from 2.4 to 5.2 mm Hg/s. Conclusions: It is feasible to simulate FMISO distributions that match the pimonidazole retention patterns observed in vivo. Good agreement was obtained for multiple tumor models by optimizing the oxygen consumption rate, M{sub 0}, whose optimum value differed significantly between tumor models.

  11. The treatment of tumors by the induction of anemia and irradiation in hyperbaric oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealy, R.; Jacobs, P.; Wood, L.; Levin, W.; Barry, L.; Boniaszczuk, J.; Blekkenhorst, G.

    1989-01-01

    Because increased effects have been achieved when murine tumors are irradiated after a period of hypoxia and because of anecdotal clinical experiences of an improved result after irradiation of previously anemic patients in hyperbaric oxygen, the relationship between irradiation and increased survival was investigated in seventy-two patients with advanced head and neck or cervical cancer. Anemia was achieved by means of a two-stage isovolemic venesection maintained for seventy-two hours, hemoglobin was returned to a normal level, and treatment in hyperbaric oxygen was started. Marked tumor shrinkage after the induction of anemia and before radiotherapy was seen and was probably disease, site, and hemoglobin level related. As a result, a possible new approach to cancer therapy is suggested. After completion of therapy, the 1-year disease-free survival for patients with head and neck and cervical cancer was not improved, but the 21-month survival for cervical cancer was improved. Further studies are strongly urged

  12. Sensitivity of Tumor Motion Simulation Accuracy to Lung Biomechanical Modeling Approaches and Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi; Yang, Yin; Werner, Rene; Lu, Wei; Low, Daniel; Guo, Xiaohu; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA)-based biomechanical modeling can be used to predict lung respiratory motion. In this technique, elastic models and biomechanical parameters are two important factors that determine modeling accuracy. We systematically evaluated the effects of lung and lung tumor biomechanical modeling approaches and related parameters to improve the accuracy of motion simulation of lung tumor center of mass (TCM) displacements. Experiments were conducted with four-dimensional com...

  13. Assessment of tumor energy and oxygenation status by bioluminescence, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and cryospectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Klieser, W; Schaefer, C; Walenta, S; Rofstad, E K; Fenton, B M; Sutherland, R M

    1990-03-15

    The energy and oxygenation status of tumors from two murine sarcoma lines (KHT, RIF-1) and two human ovarian carcinoma xenograft lines (MLS, OWI) were assessed using three independent techniques. Tumor energy metabolism was investigated in vivo by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, tumors were frozen in liquid nitrogen to determine the tissue ATP concentration by imaging bioluminescence and to register the intracapillary oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) saturation using the cryospectrophotometric method. There was a positive correlation between the nucleoside triphosphate beta/total resonance ratio or a negative correlation between the Pi/total resonance ratio and the model ATP concentration obtained by bioluminescence, respectively. This was true for small tumors with no extended necrosis irrespective of tumor type. Moreover, a positive correlation was obtained between the HbO2 saturations and the ATP concentration measured with bioluminescence. The results demonstrate the potential of combined studies using noninvasive, integrating methods and high-resolution imaging techniques for characterizing the metabolic milieu in tumors.

  14. Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha associates with Myocardial Oxygen Demand and Exercise Tolerance in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephen J; Bryan, David R; Neumeier, William H; Glasser, Stephen P; Hunter, Gary R

    2018-01-01

    The functional implications of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a marker of oxidative stress, on hemodynamic parameters at rest and during physical exertion are unclear. The aims of this investigation were to examine the independent associations of TNF-α on myocardial oxygen demand at rest and during submaximal exercise, while also evaluating the association of TNF-α on exercise tolerance. Forty, postmenopausal women, provided blood samples and completed a modified-Balke protocol to measure maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ). Large artery compliance was measured by pulse contour analyses while rate-pressure product (RPP), an index of myocardial oxygen demand, was measured at rest and during two submaximal workloads (i.e., ≈55% and ≈75% VO 2max ). RPP was calculated by dividing the product of heart rate and systolic blood pressure (via auscultation) by 100. Exercise tolerance corresponded with the cessation of the graded exercise test. During higher-intensity exertion, ≈75% VO 2max , multiple linear regression revealed a positive association ( r = 0.43; p = 0.015) between TNF-α and RPP while adjusting for maximal heart rate, VO 2max , large artery compliance, and percent body fat. Path analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of large artery compliance on exercise tolerance through TNF-α, β = 0.13, CI [0.03, 0.35], indicating greater levels of TNF-α associated with poorer exercise tolerance. These data suggest TNF-α independently associates with myocardial oxygen demand during physical exertion, thus highlighting the utility of higher-intensity efforts to expose important phenomena not apparent at rest. TNF-α also appears to be indirectly associated with the link between large artery compliance and exercise tolerance.

  15. Increased Tumor Oxygenation and Drug Uptake During Anti-Angiogenic Weekly Low Dose Cyclophosphamide Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of Weekly Tirapazamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doloff, J.C.; Khan, N.; Ma, J.; Demidenko, E.; Swartz, H.M.; Jounaidi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment is associated with anti-angiogenic activity and is anticipated to generate exploitable hypoxia using hypoxia-activated prodrugs. Weekly administration of tirapazamine (TPZ; 5 mg/kg body weight i.p.) failed to inhibit the growth of 9L gliosarcoma tumors grown s.c. in scid mice. However, the anti-tumor effect of weekly cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment (140 mg/kg BW i.p.) was substantially enhanced by weekly TPZ administration. An extended tumor free period and increased frequency of tumor eradication without overt toxicity were observed when TPZ was given 3, 4 or 5 days after each weekly CPA treatment. Following the 2nd CPA injection, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Oximetry indicated significant increases in tumor pO2, starting at 48 hr, which further increased after the 3rd CPA injection. pO2 levels were, however, stable in growing untreated tumors. A strong negative correlation (−0.81) between tumor pO2 and tumor volume during 21 days of weekly CPA chemotherapy was observed, indicating increasing tumor pO2 with decreasing tumor volume. Furthermore, CPA treatment resulted in increased tumor uptake of activated CPA. CPA induced increases in VEGF RNA, which reached a maximum on day 1, and in PLGF RNA which was sustained throughout the treatment, while anti-angiogenic host thrombospondin-1 increased dramatically through day 7 post-CPA treatment. Weekly cyclophosphamide treatment was anticipated to generate exploitable hypoxia. However, our findings suggest that weekly CPA treatment induces a functional improvement of tumor vasculature, which is characterized by increased tumor oxygenation and drug uptake in tumors, thus counter-intuitively, benefiting intratumoral activation of TPZ and perhaps other bioreductive drugs. PMID:19754361

  16. Doranidazole (PR-350), a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, radiosensitizes human lung tumors (RERF-LC- AI) and causes changes in tumor oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, N.; Griffin, R.J.; Williams, B.W.; Song, C.W.; Yahiro, T.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We previously have reported the radiosensitizing capability of Doranidazole (PR-350) on SCCVII cells and tumors (Puerto Rico, 2001). In the present study, we have investigated the efficacy of PR-350 as a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer using human lung cancer cells (RERF-LC-AI) in vitro and also RERF-LC-AI tumors grown s.c. in Balb/c nude mice. Using the micronucleus assay method, we determined the effect of PR-350 on the response of RERF-LC-AI cells to radiation under hypoxic conditions and enhancement ratios (ER) of 1.45∼2.26 were obtained. The in vivo radiosensitizing effect was studied by irradiating RERF-LC-AI tumors with 15 Gy at 20 min. after i.v. injection of PR-350 (200mg/kg) and measuring the tumor growth delay. Significant growth delay occurred after i.v. injection of PR-350 before irradiation compared to radiation alone. We measured tumor pO 2 at 3, 7 and 14 days after treatment using an Eppendorf pO 2 histograph. The frequency of pO 2 values 2 in tumors treated with radiation plus PR-350 were higher than that in tumors treated with radiation plus saline. These data suggest that the O 2 consumption in tumors treated with radiation plus PR-350 was less than that in tumors treated with radiation plus saline due to greater drug and radiation-induced cell death. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that the tumor size in the combined treatment group was smaller than in radiation alone. These results suggest that PR-350 may improve the response of tumors to radiotherapy not only by increasing the radiosensitivity of hypoxic cells but also by improving tumor oxygenation over many days during fractionated radiotherapy

  17. Radiation-induced DNA damage in tumors and normal tissues. II. Influence of dose, residual DNA damage and physiological factors in oxygenated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Wheeler, K.T.

    1994-01-01

    Detection and quantification of hypoxic cells in solid tumors is important for many experimental and clinical situations. Several laboratories, including ours, have suggested that assays which measure radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) might be used to detect or quantify hypoxic cells in tumors and normal tissues. Recently, we demonstrated the feasibility of using an alkaline elution assay that measures strand breaks and DPCs to detect and/or quantify hypoxic cells in tissues. For this approach to be valid, DPCs must not be formed to any great extent in irradiated oxygenated cells, and the formation and repair of strand breaks and DPCs in oxygenated cells must not be modified appreciably by physiological factors (e.g., temperature, pH and nutrient depletion) that are often found in solid tumors. To address these issues, two sets of experiments were performed. In one set of experiments, oxygenated 9L cells in tissue culture, subcutaneous 9L tumors and rat cerebella were irradiated with doses of 15 or 50 Gy and allowed to repair until the residual strand break damage was low enough to detect DPCs. In another set of experiments, oxygenated exponentially growing or plateau-phase 9L cells in tissue culture were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy at 37 or 20 degrees C, while the cells were maintained at a pH of either 6.6 or 7.3. DNA-protein crosslinks were formed in oxygenated cells about 100 times less efficiently than in hypoxic cells. In addition, temperature, pH, nutrient depletion and growth phase did not appreciably alter the formation and repair of strand breaks or the formation of DPCs in oxygenated 9L cells. These results support the use of this DNA damage assay for the detection and quantification of hypoxic cells in solid tumors. 27 refs., 5 tabs

  18. Radiobiological parameters of a human tumor parent line and four tumor clones of a human epidermoid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Beckett, M.; Dahlberg, W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined the radiobiological parameters of a parent tumor line and four tumor clones of a human squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The parent line and clones have a tumor morphology, aneuploid karyotype, and the ability to passage continuously in vitro. With the exception of clone F2A, all cell lines form tumors in nude mice. The parent line, SCC-12 has a D/sub o/ of 154 and an n 7.5 In four tumor clones, D/sub o/ ranges from 131 (clone V) to 266 (clone B2); n ranges from 22.8 in clone V to 2.1 in clone B2. PLDR following 1100 rad ranges from 1.7 in clone B2 to 13.1 in clone V. However, PLDR following equitoxic doses of radiation is similar in the parent and all sub-clones. Radiobiological heterogeneity may complicate predictive assays for clinical radiotherapy

  19. TH-AB-209-05: Validating Hemoglobin Saturation and Dissolved Oxygen in Tumors Using Photoacoustic Computed Tomographic Spectroscopic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J; Sick, J; Liu, B [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cao, N [University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Nakshatri, H; Mendonca, M [Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Stantz, K [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Photoacoustic computed tomographic spectroscopy (PCT-S) provides intra-tumor measurements of oxygenation with high spatial resolution (0.2mm) and temporal fidelity (1–2 minutes) without the need for exogenous agents or ionizing radiation, thus providing a unique in vivo assay to measure SaO{sub 2} and investigate acute and chronic forms of hypoxia. The goal of this study is to validate in vivo SaO{sub 2} levels within tail artery of mice and the relationship between SaO{sub 2} and pO{sub 2} within subcutaneous breast tumors using PCT-S imaging, pulse oximetry and an OxyLite probe. Methods: A closed circuit phantom was fabricated to control blood oxygenation levels, where SaO{sub 2} was measured using a co-oximeter and pO{sub 2} using an Oxylite probe. Next, SaO{sub 2} levels within the tail arteries of mice (n=3) were measured using PCT-S and pulse oximetry while breathing high-to-low oxygen levels (6-cycles). Finally, PCT-S was used to measure SaO{sub 2} levels in MCF-7, MCF-7-VEGF165, and MDA-MB-231 xenograft breast tumors and compared to Oxylite pO{sub 2} levels values. Results: SaO{sub 2} and pO{sub 2} data obtained from the calibration phantom was fit to Hill’s equation: aO{sub 2} levels between 88 and 52% demonstrated a linear relationship (r2=0.96) and a 3.2% uncertainty between PCT-S values relative to pulse oximetry. Scatter plots of localized PCT-S measured SaO2 and Oxylite pO{sub 2} levels in MCF-7/MCF-7-VEGF165 and MDA-MD-231 breast tumors were fit to Hill’s equation: P50=17.2 and 20.7mmHg, and n=1.76 and 1.63. These results are consistent with sigmoidal form of Hill’s equation, where the lower P{sub 50} value is indicative of an acidic tumor microenvironment. Conclusion: The results demonstrate photoacoustic imaging can be used to measure SaO{sub 2} cycling and intra-tumor oxygenation, and provides a powerful in vivo assay to investigate the role of hypoxia in radiation, anti-angiogenic, and immunotherapies.

  20. EPR oxygen imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRI of pyruvate metabolism as noninvasive biomarkers of tumor treatment response to a glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Yasui, Hironobu; Morris, H Douglas; Munasinghe, Jeeva P; Lizak, Martin; Merkle, Hellmut; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Choudhuri, Rajani; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Subramanian, Sankaran; Koretsky, Alan P; Mitchell, James B; Krishna, Murali C

    2013-05-01

    The hypoxic nature of tumors results in treatment resistance and poor prognosis. To spare limited oxygen for more crucial pathways, hypoxic cancerous cells suppress mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and promote glycolysis for energy production. Thereby, inhibition of glycolysis has the potential to overcome treatment resistance of hypoxic tumors. Here, EPR imaging was used to evaluate oxygen dependent efficacy on hypoxia-sensitive drug. The small molecule 3-bromopyruvate blocks glycolysis pathway by inhibiting hypoxia inducible enzymes and enhanced cytotoxicity of 3-bromopyruvate under hypoxic conditions has been reported in vitro. However, the efficacy of 3-bromopyruvate was substantially attenuated in hypoxic tumor regions (pO23-bromopyruvate in SCCVII tumor. The discrepant results between in vitro and in vivo data were attributed to biphasic oxygen dependent expression of monocarboxylate transporter-1 in vivo. Expression of monocarboxylate transporter-1 was enhanced in moderately hypoxic (8-15 mmHg) tumor regions but down regulated in severely hypoxic (<5 mmHg) tumor regions. These results emphasize the importance of noninvasive imaging biomarkers to confirm the action of hypoxia-activated drugs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A DTI study to probe tumor microstructure and its connection with hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Shreyan; Kotecha, Mrignayani; Triplett, William; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Solid tumors have chaotic organization of blood vessels, disruptive nerve paths and muscle fibers that result in a hostile and heterogeneous microenvironment. These tumor regions are often hypoxic and resistant to radiation therapy. The knowledge of partial pressure of oxygen concentration (pO2), in conjunction with the information about tissue organization, can predict tissue health and may eventually be used in combination with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for targeted destruction of radiation-resistant areas, while sparing healthy tissues. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based parameter fractional anisotropy (FA) can be used to assess organization of tissue microstructure, whereas the pO2 can be measured using electron paramagnetic resonance oxygen imaging (EPROI). This study is our first step to connect these two important physiological parameters. We calculated FA in fixed fibrosarcoma (FSa) grown in hind leg of nude mice (n = 6) using preclinical 9.4 T MRI. The FA in tumor region (0.34 ± 0.014) was found to be lower when compared to normal surrounding region (0.36 ± 0.013). We hypothesized that the change in FA is directly correlated with the change in oxygen concentration in tumor. We present preliminary in vivo results showing a positive correlation (R = 0.85, p = 0.017) between the FA and pO2 values acquired for MCa4 tumor (n = 1) using DTI and EPROI.

  2. Dynamic changes in oxygenation of intracranial tumor and contralateral brain during tumor growth and carbogen breathing: A multisite EPR oximetry with implantable resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huagang; Dong, Ruhong; Li, Hongbin; Williams, Benjamin; Lariviere, Jean P.; Hekmatyar, S.K.; Kauppinen, Risto A.; Khan, Nadeem; Swartz, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Several techniques currently exist for measuring tissue oxygen; however technical difficulties have limited their usefulness and general application. We report a recently developed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry approach with multiple probe implantable resonators (IRs) that allow repeated measurements of oxygen in tissue at depths of greater than 10 mm. Methods The EPR signal to noise (S/N) ratio of two probe IRs was compared with that of LiPc deposits. The feasibility of intracranial tissue pO2 measurements by EPR oximetry using IRs was tested in normal rats and rats bearing intracerebral F98 tumors. The dynamic changes in the tissue pO2 were assessed during repeated hyperoxia with carbogen breathing. Results A 6–10 times increase in the S/N ratio was observed with IRs as compared to LiPc deposits. The mean brain pO2 of normal rats was stable and increased significantly during carbogen inhalation in experiments repeated for 3 months. The pO2 of F98 glioma declined gradually, while the pO2 of contralateral brain essentially remained the same. Although a significant increase in the glioma pO2 was observed during carbogen inhalation, this effect declined in experiments repeated over days. Conclusion EPR oximetry with IRs provides a significant increase in S/N ratio. The ability to repeatedly assess orthotopic glioma pO2 is likely to play a vital role in understanding the dynamics of tissue pO2 during tumor growth and therapies designed to modulate tumor hypoxia. This information could then be used to optimize chemoradiation by scheduling treatments at times of increased glioma oxygenation. PMID:22033225

  3. pO polarography, contrast enhanced color duplex sonography (CDS), [18F] fluoromisonidazole and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: validated methods for the evaluation of therapy-relevant tumor oxygenation or only bricks in the puzzle of tumor hypoxia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagel, Bernd; Hamacher, Kurt; Coenen, Heinz H; Scholbach, Thomas; Maneschi, Payam; DiMartino, Ercole; Eble, Michael J; Piroth, Marc; Pinkawa, Michael; Reinartz, Patrick; Zimny, Michael; Kaiser, Hans J; Stanzel, Sven; Asadpour, Branka; Demirel, Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to analyze the value of ([ 18 F] fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and [ 18 F]-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET as well as color pixel density (CPD) and tumor perfusion (TP) assessed by color duplex sonography (CDS) for determination of therapeutic relevant hypoxia. As a standard for measuring tissue oxygenation in human tumors, the invasive, computerized polarographic needle electrode system (pO 2 histography) was used for comparing the different non invasive measurements. Until now a total of 38 Patients with malignancies of the head and neck were examined. Tumor tissue pO 2 was measured using a pO 2 -histograph. The needle electrode was placed CT-controlled in the tumor without general or local anesthesia. To assess the biological and clinical relevance of oxygenation measurement, the relative frequency of pO 2 readings, with values ≤ 2.5, ≤ 5.0 and ≤ 10.0 mmHg, as well as mean and median pO 2 were stated. FMISO PET consisted of one static scan of the relevant region, performed 120 min after intravenous administration. FMISO tumor to muscle ratios (FMISO T/M ) and tumor to blood ratios (FMISO T/B ) were calculated. FDG PET of the lymph node metastases was performed 71 ± 17 min after intravenous administration. To visualize as many vessels as possible by CDS, a contrast enhancer (Levovist ® , Schering Corp., Germany) was administered. Color pixel density (CPD) was defined as the ratio of colored to grey pixels in a region of interest. From CDS signals two parameters were extracted: color hue – defining velocity (v) and color area – defining perfused area (A). Signal intensity as a measure of tissue perfusion (TP) was quantified as follows: TP = v mean × A mean . In order to investigate the degree of linear association, we calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient. Slight (|r| > 0.4) to moderate (|r| > 0.6) correlation was found between the parameters of pO 2 polarography (pO 2 readings with values ≤ 2.5, ≤ 5

  4. Induction of Tca8113 tumor cell apoptosis by icotinib is associated with reactive oxygen species mediated p38-MAPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cailing; Yan, Jianguo; Yuan, Guoyan; Zhang, Yinghua; Lu, Derong; Ren, Mingxin; Cui, Weigang

    2014-08-01

    Icotinib, a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), has been shown to exhibit anti-tumor activity against several tumor cell lines. However, the exact molecular mechanism of icotinib's anti-tumor effect remains unknown. This study aims to examine the zytotoxic effect of icotinib on Tca8113 cells and its potential molecular mechanism. Icotinib significantly resulted in dose-dependent cell death as determined by MTT assay, accompanied by increased levels of Bax and DNA fragmentation. Icotinib could also induce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation. Further studies confirmed that scavenging of reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and pharmacological inhibition of MAPK reversed icotinib-induced apoptosis in Tca8113 cells. Our data provide evidence that icotinib induces apoptosis, possibly via ROS-mediated MAPK pathway in Tca8113 cells.

  5. Temporal changes in tumor oxygenation and perfusion upon normo- and hyperbaric inspiratory hyperoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thews, Oliver [University of Halle, Institute of Physiology, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Vaupel, Peter [University Medical Center Mainz, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Tumor Pathophysiology Section, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Inspiratory hyperoxia under hyperbaric conditions has been shown to effectively reduce tumor hypoxia and to improve radiosensitivity. However, applying irradiation (RT) under hyperbaric conditions is technically difficult in the clinical setting since RT after decompression may be effective only if tumor pO{sub 2} remains elevated for a certain period of time. The aim of the present study was to analyze the time course of tumor oxygenation and perfusion during and after hyperbaric hyperoxia. Tumor oxygenation, red blood cell (RBC) flux for perfusion monitoring, and vascular resistance were assessed continuously in experimental rat DS-sarcomas by polarographic catheter electrodes and laser Doppler flowmetry at 1 and 2 atm (bar) of environmental pressure during breathing of pure O{sub 2} or carbogen (95 % O{sub 2} + 5 % CO{sub 2}). During room air breathing, the tumor pO{sub 2} followed very rapidly within a few minutes the change of the ambient pressure during compression or decompression. With O{sub 2} breathing under hyperbaric conditions, the tumor pO{sub 2} increased more than expected based on the rise of the environmental pressure, although the time course was comparably rapid. Breathing carbogen, the tumor pO{sub 2} followed with a slight delay of the pressure change, and within 10 min after decompression the baseline values were reached again. RBC flux increased during carbogen breathing but remained almost constant with pure O{sub 2}, indicating a vasodilation (decrease in vascular resistance) with carbogen but a vasoconstriction (increase in vascular resistance) with O{sub 2} during hyperbaric conditions. Since the tumor pO{sub 2} directly followed the environmental pressure, teletherapy after hyperbaric conditions does not seem to be promising as the pO{sub 2} reaches baseline values again within 5-10 min after decompression. (orig.) [German] Inspiratorische Hyperoxie unter hyperbaren Bedingungen reduziert sehr effektiv die Tumorhypoxie und erhoeht die

  6. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) of radiation-induced re-oxygenation in sensitive and resistant head and neck tumor xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgar, Sina; Rodríguez Troncoso, Joel; Rajaram, Narasimhan

    2018-02-01

    Currently, anatomical assessment of tumor volume performed several weeks after completion of treatment is the clinical standard to determine whether a cancer patient has responded to a treatment. However, functional changes within the tumor could potentially provide information regarding treatment resistance or response much earlier than anatomical changes. We have used diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to assess the short and long-term re-oxygenation kinetics of a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in response to radiation therapy. First, we injected UM-SCC-22B cell line into the flank of 50 mice to grow xenografts. Once the tumor volume reached 200 mm3 (designated as Day 1), the mice were distributed into radiation and control groups. Members of radiation group underwent a clinical dose of radiation of 2 Gy/day on Days 1, 4, 7, and 10 for a cumulative dose of 8 Gy. DRS spectra of these tumors were collected for 14 days during and after therapy, and the collected spectra of each tumor were converted to its optical properties using a lookup table-base inverse model. We found statistically significant differences in tumor growth rate between two groups which is in indication of the sensitivity of this cell line to radiation. We further acquired significantly different contents of hemoglobin and scattering magnitude and size in two groups. The scattering has previously been associated with necrosis. We furthermore found significantly different time-dependent changes in vascular oxygenation and tumor hemoglobin concentration in post-radiation days.

  7. Towards an integrative computational model for simulating tumor growth and response to radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Carlos Sosa; Aubert, Vivien; Ciferri, Nicolas; Hernández, Alfredo; de Crevoisier, Renaud; Acosta, Oscar

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the response to irradiation in cancer radiotherapy (RT) may help devising new strategies with improved tumor local control. Computational models may allow to unravel the underlying radiosensitive mechanisms intervening in the dose-response relationship. By using extensive simulations a wide range of parameters may be evaluated providing insights on tumor response thus generating useful data to plan modified treatments. We propose in this paper a computational model of tumor growth and radiation response which allows to simulate a whole RT protocol. Proliferation of tumor cells, cell life-cycle, oxygen diffusion, radiosensitivity, RT response and resorption of killed cells were implemented in a multiscale framework. The model was developed in C++, using the Multi-formalism Modeling and Simulation Library (M2SL). Radiosensitivity parameters extracted from literature enabled us to simulate in a regular grid (voxel-wise) a prostate cell tissue. Histopathological specimens with different aggressiveness levels extracted from patients after prostatectomy were used to initialize in silico simulations. Results on tumor growth exhibit a good agreement with data from in vitro studies. Moreover, standard fractionation of 2 Gy/fraction, with a total dose of 80 Gy as a real RT treatment was applied with varying radiosensitivity and oxygen diffusion parameters. As expected, the high influence of these parameters was observed by measuring the percentage of survival tumor cell after RT. This work paves the way to further models allowing to simulate increased doses in modified hypofractionated schemes and to develop new patient-specific combined therapies.

  8. ANESTHETIC INDUCTION AND RECOVERY PARAMETERS IN BEARDED DRAGONS (POGONA VITTICEPS): COMPARISON OF ISOFLURANE DELIVERED IN 100% OXYGEN VERSUS 21% OXYGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O, Odette; Churgin, Sarah M; Sladky, Kurt K; Smith, Lesley J

    2015-09-01

    Inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps, n=6) were anesthetized for 1 hr using isoflurane in either 100% oxygen or 21% oxygen (FI 21; medical-grade room air). Parameters of anesthetic depth were recorded throughout both induction and recovery by an observer blinded to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), including the loss and return of withdrawal and righting reflexes, muscle tone, ability to intubate or extubate, and return to spontaneous respiration. Physiologic data were recorded every 5 min throughout the anesthetic procedures, including heart rate, body temperature, end-tidal CO2, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2), and percent expired isoflurane. Lizards were subjected to application of a noxious stimulus (needle stick) at 0, 30, and 60 min, and responses recorded. Following a minimum 7-day washout period, the experiment was repeated with each lizard subjected to the other protocol in a randomized, complete crossover design. The only statistically significant difference was a lower mean SpO2 in the group inspiring 21% oxygen (P<0.0020). No statistically significant differences were detected in any parameters during induction or recovery; however, all values were uniformly shorter for the FI 21 group, indicating a possible clinically significant difference. A larger sample size may have detected statistically significant differences. Further studies are needed to evaluate these effects in other reptile species and with the concurrent use of injectable anesthetic and analgesic drugs.

  9. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure

  10. Quantitative ultrasound assessment of breast tumor response to chemotherapy using a multi-parameter approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayyon, Hadi; Sannachi, Lakshmanan; Gangeh, Mehrdad; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Tran, William; Trudeau, Maureen E; Pritchard, Kathleen; Ghandi, Sonal; Verma, Sunil; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2016-07-19

    This study demonstrated the ability of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters in providing an early prediction of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Using a 6-MHz array transducer, ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data were collected from 58 LABC patients prior to NAC treatment and at weeks 1, 4, and 8 of their treatment, and prior to surgery. QUS parameters including midband fit (MBF), spectral slope (SS), spectral intercept (SI), spacing among scatterers (SAS), attenuation coefficient estimate (ACE), average scatterer diameter (ASD), and average acoustic concentration (AAC) were determined from the tumor region of interest. Ultrasound data were compared with the ultimate clinical and pathological response of the patient's tumor to treatment and patient recurrence-free survival. Multi-parameter discriminant analysis using the κ-nearest-neighbor classifier demonstrated that the best response classification could be achieved using the combination of MBF, SS, and SAS, with an accuracy of 60 ± 10% at week 1, 77 ± 8% at week 4 and 75 ± 6% at week 8. Furthermore, when the QUS measurements at each time (week) were combined with pre-treatment (week 0) QUS values, the classification accuracies improved (70 ± 9% at week 1, 80 ± 5% at week 4, and 81 ± 6% at week 8). Finally, the multi-parameter QUS model demonstrated a significant difference in survival rates of responding and non-responding patients at weeks 1 and 4 (p=0.035, and 0.027, respectively). This study demonstrated for the first time, using new parameters tested on relatively large patient cohort and leave-one-out classifier evaluation, that a hybrid QUS biomarker including MBF, SS, and SAS could, with relatively high sensitivity and specificity, detect the response of LABC tumors to NAC as early as after 4 weeks of therapy. The findings of this study also suggested that incorporating pre-treatment QUS parameters of a tumor improved the

  11. In-vivo singlet oxygen threshold doses for PDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C; Kim, Michele M; Liang, Xing; Finlay, Jarod C; Busch, Theresa M

    2015-02-01

    Dosimetry of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) is of particular interest because it is the major cytotoxic agent causing biological effects for type-II photosensitizers during photodynamic therapy (PDT). An in-vivo model to determine the singlet oxygen threshold dose, [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh , for PDT was developed. An in-vivo radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumor mouse model was used to correlate the radius of necrosis to the calculation based on explicit PDT dosimetry of light fluence distribution, tissue optical properties, and photosensitizer concentrations. Inputs to the model include five photosensitizer-specific photochemical parameters along with [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh . Photosensitizer-specific model parameters were determined for benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) and compared with two other type-II photosensitizers, Photofrin ® and m-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC) from the literature. The mean values (standard deviation) of the in-vivo [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh are approximately 0.56 (0.26) and 0.72 (0.21) mM (or 3.6×10 7 and 4.6×10 7 singlet oxygen per cell to reduce the cell survival to 1/e) for Photofrin ® and BPD, respectively, assuming that the fraction of generated singlet oxygen that interacts with the cell is 1. While the values for the photochemical parameters (ξ, σ, g , β) used for BPD were preliminary and may need further refinement, there is reasonable confidence for the values of the singlet oxygen threshold doses. In comparison, the [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh value derived from in-vivo mouse study was reported to be 0.4 mM for mTHPC-PDT. However, the singlet oxygen required per cell is reported to be 9×10 8 per cell per 1/ e fractional kill in an in-vitro mTHPC-PDT study on a rat prostate cancer cell line (MLL cells) and is reported to be 7.9 mM for a multicell in-vitro EMT6/Ro spheroid model for mTHPC-PDT. A theoretical analysis is provided to relate the number of in-vitro singlet oxygen required per cell to reach cell killing of 1/ e to in-vivo singlet

  12. HIGD1A Regulates Oxygen Consumption, ROS Production, and AMPK Activity during Glucose Deprivation to Modulate Cell Survival and Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurosh Ameri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible gene domain family member 1A (HIGD1A is a survival factor induced by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1. HIF-1 regulates many responses to oxygen deprivation, but viable cells within hypoxic perinecrotic solid tumor regions frequently lack HIF-1α. HIGD1A is induced in these HIF-deficient extreme environments and interacts with the mitochondrial electron transport chain to repress oxygen consumption, enhance AMPK activity, and lower cellular ROS levels. Importantly, HIGD1A decreases tumor growth but promotes tumor cell survival in vivo. The human Higd1a gene is located on chromosome 3p22.1, where many tumor suppressor genes reside. Consistent with this, the Higd1a gene promoter is differentially methylated in human cancers, preventing its hypoxic induction. However, when hypoxic tumor cells are confronted with glucose deprivation, DNA methyltransferase activity is inhibited, enabling HIGD1A expression, metabolic adaptation, and possible dormancy induction. Our findings therefore reveal important new roles for this family of mitochondrial proteins in cancer biology.

  13. Relationship of preoperative gastric cancer CT enhancement ratio and perfusion parameters with serum tumor marker levels and proliferation molecule expression in tumor lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hong Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of preoperative gastric cancer CT enhancement ratio and perfusion parameters with serum tumor marker levels and proliferation molecule expression in tumor lesions. Methods: A total of 68 patients with gastric cancer treated in the Second Hospital of Yulin City between May 2012 and May 2016 were chosen as observation group and sub-divided into early and middle gastric cancer group (n=41 and advanced gastric cancer group (n=27 according to the tumor stage; 50 patients diagnosed with benign gastric diseases in our hospital during the same period were selected as benign gastric lesion group. CT enhancement rate and perfusion parameters of three groups of patients were detected by CT scan, serum tumor marker levels were evacuated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and the proliferation gene mRNA expression levels were detected by RTPCR method. Results: CER, AF, BV and CL levels of advanced gastric cancer group were higher than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group; serum CA72-4, CA19-9, CA125 and CEA contents of advanced gastric cancer group were higher than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group; CADM1, miRNA-34a and Cystatin M mRNA expression in tissue of advanced gastric cancer group were lower than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group while Survivin and I2PP2A mRNA expression were higher than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group. The Pearson test showed that the CT enhancement rate and perfusion parameters in patients with gastric cancer are directly correlated with the serum tumor marker levels and the proliferation gene expression in tumor lesions. Conclusion: Preoperative gastric cancer CT enhancement rate and perfusion parameters are directly related to the tumor malignancy, and can be used as a reliable method for the long-term tumor

  14. Inverse correlation between reactive oxygen species in unwashed semen and sperm motion parameters as measured by a computer-assisted semen analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Teppei; Yumura, Yasushi; Yasuda, Kengo; Sanjo, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Shinnosuke; Yamanaka, Hiroyuki; Iwasaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between sperm motion parameters obtained by a computer-assisted semen analyzer and levels of reactive oxygen species in unwashed semen. In total, 847 patients, except for azoospermic patients were investigated. At the time of each patient's first consultation, semen parameters were measured using SMAS™ or CellSoft 3000™, and production of reactive oxygen species was measured using a computer-driven LKB Wallac Luminometer 1251 Analyzer. The patients were divided into two groups: reactive oxygen species - positive and negative. The semen parameters within each group were measured using one of the two computer-assisted semen analyzer systems and then compared. Correlations between reactive oxygen species levels and sperm motion parameters in semen from the reactive oxygen species - positive group were also investigated. Reactive oxygen species were detected in semen samples of 282 cases (33.3%). Sperm concentration (P semen damage sperm concentration, motility, and other sperm motion parameters.

  15. Measurement of pO2 in a Pre-clinical Model of Rabbit Tumor Using OxyChip, a Paramagnetic Oxygen Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H; Khan, N; Kuppusamy, P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to establish a novel and robust technology, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry, as a practical tool for measurement of tumor oxygen. Previously, we have reported on the development of oxygen-sensing paramagnetic crystals (LiNc-BuO) encapsulated in a biocompatible polymer, called OxyChip. In this report we present our recent data on the use of OxyChip for pO 2 measurements in the tumor of a pre-clinical, large-animal rabbit model. The results establish that OxyChip is capable of noninvasive and repeated measurement of pO 2 in a large animal model.

  16. Increase of tumor oxygen tension and potentiation of radiation effects using pentoxifylline, vinpocetine and ticlopidine hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Morikazu; Monzen, Hajime; Suzuki, Takatoshi; Hasegawa, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    The effects of pentoxifylline (PTX), vinpocetine (VPT) and ticlopidine hydrochloride (TCD), each drug commonly used for vascular disorders in humans, on the pO 2 in SCC-7 (squamous cell carcinoma) tumors of C3H/HeJ mice on the radioresponse of SCC-7 tumors were investigated. When the SCC-7 implanted in the leg of C3H/HeJ mice grew about 100 mm 3 , the effects of PTX, VPT and TCD on the increase oxygen tension in the tumor was determined with polarography. The mice were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with 5 ml/kg PTX, 5 ml/kg VPT, or 10 ml/kg TCD, the tumor pO 2 increased slowly, peaked about 20-50 min postinjection, and returned to its original level in 60-80 min. When the C3H/HeJ mice bearing SCC-7 tumors in the legs were injected ip with 5 ml/kg PTX, 5 ml/kg VPT or 10 ml/kg TCD and tumors were X-irradiated 30 min later, the radiation induced growth delay of the tumor was greater than that caused by X-irradiation alone. The results in the present study, PTX, VPT and TCD increase the tumor pO 2 in rodent tumors strongly suggest that each drug may be useful for increasing the radiosensitivity of human tumor. (author)

  17. Tumor response parameters for head and neck cancer derived from tumor-volume variation during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V.

    2013-01-01

    -and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is equal to 3.8 mean potential doubling times, which agrees with 4.0 mean potential doubling times obtained previously for lung SCC. Conclusions: The distribution of cell survival fractions obtained in this study support the hypothesis that the tumor-volume variation during radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer can be described by the two-level cell population tumor-volume model. This model can be used for in vivo evaluation of patient-specific radiobiological parameters that are needed for tumor-control probability evaluation.

  18. In-111-oxine-labeled negative liposomes in tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatal, J.F.; Guihard, D.; Bardy, A.; Pasqualini, R.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of In-111-oxine-labelled liposomes in C 57 Bl 6 mice bearing a Lewis lung tumor and the variations contingent on modification of certain parameters have been studied. The distribution has been compared with that of Ga-67 citrate which is known for its affinity for lung tumors. In conclusion, it may be said that In-111-labeled negatively charged liposomes handled in oxygen-free conditions and having a size smaller than 80 nm make it possible to visualize a murine tumor as well, and even better, than does Ga-67 citrate

  19. Using carbon emissions and oxygen consumption to estimate energetics parameters of cattle consuming forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate newer indirect calorimetry system to quantify energetic parameters, 8 cross-bred beef steers (initial BW = 241 ± 4.10 kg) were used in a 77-d experiment to examine energetics parameters calculated from carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and oxygen (O2) fluxes. Steers were individually ...

  20. Perfluorocarbon-Loaded Lipid Nanocapsules to Assess the Dependence of U87-Human Glioblastoma Tumor pO2 on In Vitro Expansion Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Laurent; Nel, Janske; Franconi, Florence; Bastiat, Guillaume; Saulnier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Growing tumor cell lines, such as U87-MG glioma cells, under mild hypoxia (3% O2) leads to a ca. 40% reduction in growth rate once implanted in the brain of nude mice, as compared to normoxia (21% O2) grown cells, wherein the former over-express HIF-1 and VEGF-A. Despite developing differently, the tumors have similar: blood perfusion, oxygen consumption, and vascular surface area parameters, whereas the number of blood vessels is nearly doubled in the tumor arising from normoxia cultured cells. Interestingly, tumor oxygen tension, measured using 19F-oximetry, showed that the normoxia grown cells led to tumors characterized by mild hypoxic environment (approximately 4%) conditions, whilst the hypoxia grown cells led to tumors characterized by physioxic environment (approximately 6%) conditions. This reversal in oxygen concentration may be responsible for the apparent paradoxical growth profiles.

  1. Tumor-Volume Simulation During Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer Using a Four-Level Cell Population Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, Alexei V.; Dong Lei; Palta, Jantinder R.; Amdur, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a fast computational radiobiologic model for quantitative analysis of tumor volume during fractionated radiotherapy. The tumor-volume model can be useful for optimizing image-guidance protocols and four-dimensional treatment simulations in proton therapy that is highly sensitive to physiologic changes. Methods: The analysis is performed using two approximations: (1) tumor volume is a linear function of total cell number and (2) tumor-cell population is separated into four subpopulations: oxygenated viable cells, oxygenated lethally damaged cells, hypoxic viable cells, and hypoxic lethally damaged cells. An exponential decay model is used for disintegration and removal of oxygenated lethally damaged cells from the tumor. Results: We tested our model on daily volumetric imaging data available for 14 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with an integrated computed tomography/linear accelerator system. A simulation based on the averaged values of radiobiologic parameters was able to describe eight cases during the entire treatment and four cases partially (50% of treatment time) with a maximum 20% error. The largest discrepancies between the model and clinical data were obtained for small tumors, which may be explained by larger errors in the manual tumor volume delineation procedure. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the change in gross tumor volume for head-and-neck cancer can be adequately described by a relatively simple radiobiologic model. In future research, we propose to study the variation of model parameters by fitting to clinical data for a cohort of patients with head-and-neck cancer and other tumors. The potential impact of other processes, like concurrent chemotherapy, on tumor volume should be evaluated.

  2. Onconase-induced changes in radiation response and physiological parameters in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.; Shui, C.; Shogen, K.; Mikulski, S.M.; Nunno, M.; Wallner, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Onconase (ONC), previously known as P-30 protein, is a novel basic amphibian protein isolated from eggs of the leopard frog. The original study conducted by Darzynkiewicz et al. (Cell Tissue Kinetics, 1988) demonstrated that ONC shows anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activities against several tumor cell lines in vitro. Since then, to our knowledge, no studies regarding the inhibitory effect of ONC in solid tumor models were performed. ONC is also known to inhibit cell-cycle progression from the radiation-sensitive G 1 phase to the radiation-resistant S phase. Thus, we examined the effect of ONC as a potential radiation sensitizer. The radiation response and physiological parameters were evaluated in C3H mice and/or nude mice bearing various (murine and/or human) tumor models. Materials and Method: First, we examined the effect of ONC on the cellular proliferative, as well as the clonogenic, response of various cell lines (i.e., H4IIE rat hepatoma, AsPC-1 human pancreas adenocarcinoma, DU145 human prostate carcinoma, LS174T human colon adenocarcinoma, A549 human lung carcinoma, MCaIV murine adenocarcinoma, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma, and CCL-209 bovine artery pulmonary endothelial cells) by using the MTT and clonogenic cell survival assays. Second, we determined the enhancement of radiation response before, during, and after treatment with ONC in several cell lines. Third, we determined whether ONC can inhibit the growth of solid tumors in vivo (i.e., FSaII and MCaIV in C3H mice, LS174T in nude mice). Fourth, we examined whether minocycline, an antiangiogenic agent, could amplify the tumoricidal efficacy of ONC in solid tumors. To test our hypothesis: if ONC could eradicate the outgrowth of tumor cells in confined spaces, it could lower the elevated pressure in solid tumors, we measured tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) using the wick-in-needle method, and systemic pressure using the right carotid artery cannulation method after treatment with ONC

  3. EPR oxygen imaging and hyperpolarized (13) C MRI of pyruvate metabolism as noninvasive biomarkers of tumor treatment response to a glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Yasui, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    The hypoxic nature of tumors results in treatment resistance and poor prognosis. To spare limited oxygen for more crucial pathways, hypoxic cancerous cells suppress mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and promote glycolysis for energy production. Thereby, inhibition of glycolysis has...... the potential to overcome treatment resistance of hypoxic tumors. Here, EPR imaging was used to evaluate oxygen dependent efficacy on hypoxia-sensitive drug. The small molecule 3-bromopyruvate blocks glycolysis pathway by inhibiting hypoxia inducible enzymes and enhanced cytotoxicity of 3-bromopyruvate under...

  4. Relationship of body weight parameters with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Madhav G; Denton, Melissa D; Vidmar, Tom J; Elbekai, Reem H

    2014-10-01

    The mechanistic relationship between increased food consumption, increased body weights, and increased incidence of tumors has been well established in 2-year rodent models. Body weight parameters such as initial body weights, terminal body weights, food consumption, and the body weight gains in grams and percentages were analyzed to determine whether such relationship exists between these parameters with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 mice. None of these body weight parameters had any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of common spontaneous tumors in Tg.rasH2 males, namely lung tumors, splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas, and Harderian gland tumors. These parameters also did not have any statistically significant relationship with the incidence of lung and Harderian gland tumors in females. However, in females, increased initial body weights did have a statistically significant relationship with the nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and increased terminal body weights did have a statistically significant relationship with the incidence of splenic hemangiosarcomas, nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas, and the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas. In addition, increased body weight gains in grams and percentages had a statistically significant relationship with the combined incidence of all hemangiosarcomas in females, but not separately with splenic and nonsplenic hemangiosarcomas. © 2013 by The Author(s).

  5. EPR oxygen imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRI of pyruvate metabolism as non-invasive biomarkers of tumor treatment response to a glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Yasui, Hironobu; Morris, H. Douglas; Munasinghe, Jeeva P.; Lizak, Martin; Merkle, Hellmut; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Choudhuri, Rajani; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Subramanian, Sankaran; Koretsky, Alan P.; Mitchell, James B.; Krishna, Murali C.

    2012-01-01

    The hypoxic nature of tumors results in treatment resistance and poor prognosis. To spare limited oxygen for more crucial pathways, hypoxic cancerous cells suppress mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and promote glycolysis for energy production. Thereby, inhibition of glycolysis has the potential to overcome treatment resistance of hypoxic tumors. Here, EPR imaging was used to evaluate oxygen dependent efficacy on hypoxia-sensitive drug. The small molecule 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) blocks glycolysis pathway by inhibiting hypoxia inducible enzymes, and enhanced cytotoxicity of 3-BP under hypoxic conditions has been reported in vitro. However, the efficacy of 3-BP was substantially attenuated in hypoxic tumor regions (pO2 < 10 mmHg) in vivo using squamous cell carcinoma (SCCVII)-bearing mouse model. Metabolic MRI studies using hyperpolarized 13C-labeled pyruvate showed that monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) is the major transporter for pyruvate and the analog 3-BP in SCCVII tumor. The discrepant results between in vitro and in vivo data were attributed to biphasic oxygen dependent expression of MCT1 in vivo. Expression of MCT1 was enhanced in moderately hypoxic (8–15 mmHg) tumor regions, but down regulated in severely hypoxic (< 5 mmHg) tumor regions. These results emphasize the importance of non-invasive imaging biomarkers to confirm the action of hypoxia-activated drugs. PMID:22692861

  6. Optical Imaging of Tumor Response to Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment and Irradiation in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M. Braks (Joanna); L. Spiegelberg (Linda); S. Koljenović (Senada); Y. Ridwan (Yanto); S. Keereweer (Stijn); R. Kanaar (Roland); E.B. Wolvius (Eppo); J. Essers (Jeroen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is used in the treatment of radiation-induced tissue injury but its effect on (residual) tumor tissue is indistinct and therefore investigated in this study. Procedures: Orthotopic FaDu tumors were established in mice, and the response of the

  7. Assessment of intratumor hypoxia by integrated 18F-FDG PET / perfusion CT in a liver tumor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available Hypoxia in solid tumors occurs when metabolic demands in tumor cells surpass the delivery of oxygenated blood. We hypothesize that the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG metabolism and tumor blood flow mismatch would correlate with tumor hypoxia.Liver perfusion computed tomography (CT and 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET imaging were performed in twelve rabbit livers implanted with VX2 carcinoma. Under CT guidance, a fiber optic probe was inserted into the tumor to measure the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2. Tumor blood flow (BF and standardized uptake value (SUV were measured to calculate flow-metabolism ratio (FMR. Tumor hypoxia was further identified using pimonidazole immunohistochemical staining. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the correlation between the imaging parameters and pO2 and pimonidazole staining.Weak correlations were found between blood volume (BV and pO2 level (r = 0.425, P = 0.004, SUV and pO2 (r = -0.394, P = 0.007, FMR and pimonidazole staining score (r = -0.388, P = 0.031. However, there was stronger correlation between tumor FMR and pO2 level (r = 0.557, P < 0.001.FMR correlated with tumor oxygenation and pimonidazole staining suggesting it may be a potential hypoxic imaging marker in liver tumor.

  8. Histogram analysis parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient reflect tumor cellularity and proliferation activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Winter, Karsten; Richter, Cindy; Hoehn, Anna-Kathrin

    2018-05-04

    Our purpose was to analyze associations between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis parameters and histopathologicalfeatures in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The study involved 32 patients with primary HNSCC. For every tumor, the following histogram analysis parameters were calculated: ADCmean, ADCmax, ADC min , ADC median , ADC mode , P10, P25, P75, P90, kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. Furthermore, proliferation index KI 67, cell count, total and average nucleic areas were estimated. Spearman's correlation coefficient (p) was used to analyze associations between investigated parameters. In overall sample, all ADC values showed moderate inverse correlations with KI 67. All ADC values except ADCmax correlated inversely with tumor cellularity. Slightly correlations were identified between total/average nucleic area and ADC mean , ADC min , ADC median , and P25. In G1/2 tumors, only ADCmode correlated well with Ki67. No statistically significant correlations between ADC parameters and cellularity were found. In G3 tumors, Ki 67 correlated with all ADC parameters except ADCmode. Cell count correlated well with all ADC parameters except ADCmax. Total nucleic area correlated inversely with ADC mean , ADC min , ADC median , P25, and P90. ADC histogram parameters reflect proliferation potential and cellularity in HNSCC. The associations between histopathology and imaging depend on tumor grading.

  9. Evaluation and Immunohistochemical Qualification of Carbogen-Induced ΔR{sub 2}* as a Noninvasive Imaging Biomarker of Improved Tumor Oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lauren C.J., E-mail: lauren.baker@icr.ac.uk [Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom); Boult, Jessica K.R.; Jamin, Yann; Gilmour, Lesley D.; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Burrell, Jake S. [Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom); Ashcroft, Margaret [Division of Medicine, Centre for Cell Signalling and Molecular Genetics, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Howe, Franklyn A. [St. George' s, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Griffiths, John R. [Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Raleigh, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Kogel, Albert J. van der [University of Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Robinson, Simon P. [Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and histologically qualify carbogen-induced ΔR{sub 2}* as a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging biomarker of improved tumor oxygenation using a double 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker approach. Methods and Materials: Multigradient echo images were acquired from mice bearing GH3 prolactinomas, preadministered with the hypoxia marker CCI-103F, to quantify tumor R{sub 2}* during air breathing. With the mouse remaining positioned within the magnet bore, the gas supply was switched to carbogen (95% O{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2}), during which a second hypoxia marker, pimonidazole, was administered via an intraperitoneal line, and an additional set of identical multigradient echo images acquired to quantify any changes in tumor R{sub 2}*. Hypoxic fraction was quantified histologically using immunofluorescence detection of CCI-103F and pimonidazole adduct formation from the same whole tumor section. Carbogen-induced changes in tumor pO{sub 2} were further validated using the Oxylite fiberoptic probe. Results: Carbogen challenge significantly reduced mean tumor R{sub 2}* from 116 ± 13 s{sup −1} to 97 ± 9 s{sup −1} (P<.05). This was associated with a significantly lower pimonidazole adduct area (2.3 ± 1%), compared with CCI-103F (6.3 ± 2%) (P<.05). A significant correlation was observed between ΔR{sub 2}* and Δhypoxic fraction (r=0.55, P<.01). Mean tumor pO{sub 2} during carbogen breathing significantly increased from 6.3 ± 2.2 mm Hg to 36.0 ± 7.5 mm Hg (P<.01). Conclusions: The combined use of intrinsic susceptibility magnetic resonance imaging with a double hypoxia marker approach corroborates carbogen-induced ΔR{sub 2}* as a noninvasive imaging biomarker of increased tumor oxygenation.

  10. Photoirradiation system for solid tumors in photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, L.; Stolik, S.; Rosa, J.M. de la

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical procedure which induces cell death for destroying cancerous tissues mostly. This is accomplished by photochemical reaction produced by the combined action of three elements: photo sensitizer, light and oxygen. One aspect of the development of PDT is focused on the treatment of solid and deep tumors, where a set of delivering-light probes are placed into the tumor mass. However, this technique still has several challenges, for although certain parameters involved in the procedure may be adjusted, the complex geometry and non-homogeneity of a tumor difficult to establish the appropriate treatment planning. This paper addresses an overview of interstitial PDT and presents our proposal of photo irradiation system. (Author)

  11. Subtype differentiation of renal tumors using voxel-based histogram analysis of intravoxel incoherent motion parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaing, Byron; Sigmund, Eric E; Huang, William C; Babb, James S; Parikh, Nainesh S; Stoffel, David; Chandarana, Hersh

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if voxel-based histogram analysis of intravoxel incoherent motion imaging (IVIM) parameters can differentiate various subtypes of renal tumors, including benign and malignant lesions. A total of 44 patients with renal tumors who underwent surgery and had histopathology available were included in this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, institutional review board-approved, single-institution prospective study. In addition to routine renal magnetic resonance imaging examination performed on a 1.5-T system, all patients were imaged with axial diffusion-weighted imaging using 8 b values (range, 0-800 s/mm). A biexponential model was fitted to the diffusion signal data using a segmented algorithm to extract the IVIM parameters perfusion fraction (fp), tissue diffusivity (Dt), and pseudodiffusivity (Dp) for each voxel. Mean and histogram measures of heterogeneity (standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis) of IVIM parameters were correlated with pathology results of tumor subtype using unequal variance t tests to compare subtypes in terms of each measure. Correction for multiple comparisons was accomplished using the Tukey honestly significant difference procedure. A total of 44 renal tumors including 23 clear cell (ccRCC), 4 papillary (pRCC), 5 chromophobe, and 5 cystic renal cell carcinomas, as well as benign lesions, 4 oncocytomas (Onc) and 3 angiomyolipomas (AMLs), were included in our analysis. Mean IVIM parameters fp and Dt differentiated 8 of 15 pairs of renal tumors. Histogram analysis of IVIM parameters differentiated 9 of 15 subtype pairs. One subtype pair (ccRCC vs pRCC) was differentiated by mean analysis but not by histogram analysis. However, 2 other subtype pairs (AML vs Onc and ccRCC vs Onc) were differentiated by histogram distribution parameters exclusively. The standard deviation of Dt [σ(Dt)] differentiated ccRCC (0.362 ± 0.136 × 10 mm/s) from AML (0.199 ± 0.043 × 10 mm/s) (P = 0

  12. Optimal CT scanning parameters for commonly used tumor ablation applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltorai, Adam E.M.; Baird, Grayson L.; Monu, Nicholas; Wolf, Farrah; Seidler, Michael; Collins, Scott; Kim, Jeomsoon; Dupuy, Damian E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This study aimed to determine optimal scanning parameters for commonly-used tumor ablation applicators. • The findings illustrate the overall interaction of the effects of kVp, ASiR, and reconstruction algorithm within and between probes, so that radiologists may easily reference optimal imaging performance. • Optimum combinations for each probe are provided. - Abstract: Purpose: CT-beam hardening artifact can make tumor margin visualization and its relationship to the ablation applicator tip challenging. To determine optimal scanning parameters for commonly-used applicators. Materials and methods: Applicators were placed in ex-vivo cow livers with implanted mock tumors, surrounded by bolus gel. Various CT scans were performed at 440 mA with 5 mm thickness changing kVp, scan time, ASiR, scan type, pitch, and reconstruction algorithm. Four radiologists blindly scored the images for image quality and artifact quantitatively. Results: A significant relationship between probe, kVp level, ASiR level, and reconstruction algorithm was observed concerning both image artifact and image quality (both p = <0.0001). Specifically, there are certain combinations of kVp, ASiR, and reconstruction algorithm that yield better images than other combinations. In particular, one probe performed equivalently or better than any competing probe considered here, regardless of kVp, ASiR, and reconstruction algorithm combination. Conclusion: The findings illustrate the overall interaction of the effects of kVp, ASiR, and reconstruction algorithm within and between probes, so that radiologists may easily reference optimal imaging performance for a certain combinations of kVp, ASiR, reconstruction algorithm and probes at their disposal. Optimum combinations for each probe are provided.

  13. Optimal CT scanning parameters for commonly used tumor ablation applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltorai, Adam E.M. [Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (United States); Baird, Grayson L. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging (United States); Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (United States); Lifespan Biostatistics Core (United States); Rhode Island Hospital (United States); Monu, Nicholas; Wolf, Farrah; Seidler, Michael [Department of Diagnostic Imaging (United States); Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (United States); Rhode Island Hospital (United States); Collins, Scott [Department of Diagnostic Imaging (United States); Rhode Island Hospital (United States); Kim, Jeomsoon [Department of Medical Physics (United States); Rhode Island Hospital (United States); Dupuy, Damian E., E-mail: ddupuy@comcast.net [Department of Diagnostic Imaging (United States); Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (United States); Rhode Island Hospital (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • This study aimed to determine optimal scanning parameters for commonly-used tumor ablation applicators. • The findings illustrate the overall interaction of the effects of kVp, ASiR, and reconstruction algorithm within and between probes, so that radiologists may easily reference optimal imaging performance. • Optimum combinations for each probe are provided. - Abstract: Purpose: CT-beam hardening artifact can make tumor margin visualization and its relationship to the ablation applicator tip challenging. To determine optimal scanning parameters for commonly-used applicators. Materials and methods: Applicators were placed in ex-vivo cow livers with implanted mock tumors, surrounded by bolus gel. Various CT scans were performed at 440 mA with 5 mm thickness changing kVp, scan time, ASiR, scan type, pitch, and reconstruction algorithm. Four radiologists blindly scored the images for image quality and artifact quantitatively. Results: A significant relationship between probe, kVp level, ASiR level, and reconstruction algorithm was observed concerning both image artifact and image quality (both p = <0.0001). Specifically, there are certain combinations of kVp, ASiR, and reconstruction algorithm that yield better images than other combinations. In particular, one probe performed equivalently or better than any competing probe considered here, regardless of kVp, ASiR, and reconstruction algorithm combination. Conclusion: The findings illustrate the overall interaction of the effects of kVp, ASiR, and reconstruction algorithm within and between probes, so that radiologists may easily reference optimal imaging performance for a certain combinations of kVp, ASiR, reconstruction algorithm and probes at their disposal. Optimum combinations for each probe are provided.

  14. Optical imaging of tumor hypoxia dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Gregory M.; Fontanella, Andrew N.; Zhang, Guoqing; Hanna, Gabi; Fraser, Cassandra L.; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2010-11-01

    The influence of the tumor microenvironment and hypoxia plays a significant role in determining cancer progression, treatment response, and treatment resistance. That the tumor microenvironment is highly heterogeneous with significant intratumor and intertumor variability presents a significant challenge in developing effective cancer therapies. Critical to understanding the role of the tumor microenvironment is the ability to dynamically quantify oxygen levels in the vasculature and tissue in order to elucidate the roles of oxygen supply and consumption, spatially and temporally. To this end, we describe the use of hyperspectral imaging to characterize hemoglobin absorption to quantify hemoglobin content and oxygen saturation, as well as dual emissive fluorescent/phosphorescent boron nanoparticles, which serve as ratiometric indicators of tissue oxygen tension. Applying these techniques to a window-chamber tumor model illustrates the role of fluctuations in hemoglobin saturation in driving changes in tissue oxygenation, the two being significantly correlated (r = 0.77). Finally, a green-fluorescence-protein reporter for hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) provides an endpoint for hypoxic stress in the tumor, which is used to demonstrate a significant association between tumor hypoxia dynamics and HIF-1 activity in an in vivo demonstration of the technique.

  15. Oxygen vacancy and Moessbauer parameters of Fe doped tin oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, K.; Mudarra Navarro, A.M.; Errico, L.; Rodriguez Torres, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    It is not clear what the local environment of Fe ions included in rutile structure is. In order to clarify this point, Moessbauer parameters of 57 Fe doped SnO 2 are compared with the results of ab initio calculation taking into account different configurations of iron and oxygen vacancy in the rutile structure of SnO 2 . Calculations were performed using the LAPW+lo method (Wien2k); RMT x Kmax = 7, A mesh of 50 k-points at IBZ, 2x2x2 super cell of SnO 2 . (J.P.N.)

  16. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  17. Galectin-1 Inhibitor OTX008 Induces Tumor Vessel Normalization and Tumor Growth Inhibition in Human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonce, Nathan A; Griffin, Robert J; Dings, Ruud P M

    2017-12-09

    Galectin-1 is a hypoxia-regulated protein and a prognostic marker in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Here we assessed the ability of non-peptidic galectin-1 inhibitor OTX008 to improve tumor oxygenation levels via tumor vessel normalization as well as tumor growth inhibition in two human HNSCC tumor models, the human laryngeal squamous carcinoma SQ20B and the human epithelial type 2 HEp-2. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with OTX008, Anginex, or Avastin and oxygen levels were determined by fiber-optics and molecular marker pimonidazole binding. Immuno-fluorescence was used to determine vessel normalization status. Continued OTX008 treatment caused a transient reoxygenation in SQ20B tumors peaking on day 14, while a steady increase in tumor oxygenation was observed over 21 days in the HEp-2 model. A >50% decrease in immunohistochemical staining for tumor hypoxia verified the oxygenation data measured using a partial pressure of oxygen (pO₂) probe. Additionally, OTX008 induced tumor vessel normalization as tumor pericyte coverage increased by approximately 40% without inducing any toxicity. Moreover, OTX008 inhibited tumor growth as effectively as Anginex and Avastin, except in the HEp-2 model where Avastin was found to suspend tumor growth. Galectin-1 inhibitor OTX008 transiently increased overall tumor oxygenation via vessel normalization to various degrees in both HNSCC models. These findings suggest that targeting galectin-1-e.g., by OTX008-may be an effective approach to treat cancer patients as stand-alone therapy or in combination with other standards of care.

  18. Interstitial administration of perfluorochemical emulsions for reoxygenation of hypoxic tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, D.V.; Seegenschmiedt, H.; Schweighardt, F.K.; Emrich, J.; McGarvey, K.; Caridi, M.; Brady, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Microparticulate perfluorochemical (PFC) emulsions have the capacity to solubilize significant quantities of oxygen compared to water. Although systemic administration of such emulsions may enhance oxygen delivery to some tissues, hypoxic tumor cells have marginal vascular supplies. The authors report studies which directly attempt to oxygenate hypoxic tumor cells by interstitial administration of oxygenated PFC emulsions followed by radiation therapy. Fortner MMI malignant melanomas (21 day old) grown in Syrian Golden hamsters were injected directly with either oxygenated PFC emulsions or Ringers solution. The volume of test substance administered was equal to 50% of the tumor volume. The tumors were immediately irradiated with 25 Gy of 10 MeV photons (Clinac 18). The tumor dimensions were measured daily post irradiation and the tumor doubling time determined. The results suggest that interstitial administration of oxygenated PFC emulsions directly into tumors followed by radiation therapy may increase the likelihood of killing hypoxic tumor cells

  19. Dynamics of tumor oxygenation, CD31 staining and transforming growth factor-β levels after treatment with radiation or cyclophosphamide in the rat 13762 mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ikebe, Masahiko; Teicher, Beverly A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Tumors are dynamic tissues that undergo marked molecular, biochemical, and physiologic changes in response to cytotoxic anticancer therapies. Understanding the changes in tumor oxygenation and transforming growth factor-β expression may allow improved treatment regimens to be developed. Methods and Materials: The effects of a single dose of radiation therapy (20 Gy) or a single dose of chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, 250 mg/kg) on several molecular and physiologic parameters of the rat 13762 mammary carcinoma growing subcutaneously in female Fischer 344 rats were explored. Results: Treatment of the tumor-bearing animals with 20 Gy of radiation killed about two logs (99%) of the 13762 tumor cells, and treatment with cyclophosphamide (250 mg/kg) killed about 1.5 logs (95%) of the 13762 tumor cells. Hypoxia, as determined by a pO 2 electrode, initially decreased in the tumors of treated animals until 6 h. posttreatment and then increased, so that 24 h. after administration of the radiation therapy or the chemotherapy the number of intratumoral vessels as determined by CD31 staining increased until about 24 h after cytotoxic therapy. Transforming growth factor-β1, measured by radioimmunoassay, peaked in the serum between 6 h and 18 h and again between 72 h and 96 h after radiation therapy and peaked in the tumor at 24 h and again at 72 h after radiation therapy. The first serum peak after cyclophosphamide was 3 h after drug injection, with second peaks at 36 h and 48 h after drug administration. In the tumor, transforming growth factor-β1 peaked between 6 h and 8 h after drug administration and again 36 h and 72 h after drug. Apoptosis was maximal 6 h after 20 Gy and 24 h after cyclophosphamide. Vascular endothelial growth factor was also increased in tumors after cytotoxic therapy. Conclusions: These changes in the tumor physiologic status are sufficient to protect the tumor from a second cytotoxic insult administered days afterwards and to result in a

  20. A preliminary study of murine walker-256 tumor hypoxia detected by blood oxygen level dependent-MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengjian; Mao Jian; Wu Bin; Peng Weijun

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish Walker-256 transplantation tumor model in SD Rats. To study of R_2"* signal changes on murine Walker-256 tumor after inhaling Carbogen by blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD)-MR, and to explore the feasibility of BOLD-MRI on detecting tumor hypoxia. Methods: Walker-256 tumor cell implanted subcutaneously in right lower abdomen of 95 female SD rats. MR was performed on the tumor-forming rats when the maximum diameter of tumor reached 1-3 cm, using a 3.0 T MR scanner equipped with a 3 inch animal surface coil. BOLD-MRI was done by using a multiecho SPGR sequence during inhaling air and at 10 minute after inhaling Carbogen, respectively. All images were transferred to GE ADW 4.3 workstation, then a baseline R_2"* (R_2"* a) and R_2"* (R_2"* b) after inhaling Carbogen of tumor was calculated using R_2 Star analysis software and ΔR_2"* was calculated through ΔR_2"* = R_2"* b -R_2"* a", meanwhile the volume of tumor were calculated as well. The difference of R_2"* signal pre and post-inhaling of Carbogen was compared with a paired t test, Pearson correlation was calculated between R_2"* a, ΔR_2"* and the volume of tumor, respectively. The correlation between ΔR_2"* and R_2"* a was also assessed by Pearson correlation. Results: Sixty-eight of ninety-five female SD rats formed the tumor (71.6%). The volume of tumor was from 352 to 13 173 mm"3. Mean ΔR_2"* decreased significantly (-2.26 ± 3.90) s"-"1 from (41.18 ± 22.29) s"-"1 during breathing air to (38.91 ± 21.35) s"-"1 10 min after inhaling Carbogen (t = 4.01, P 0.05). Conclusions: BOLD-MRI can detect the R_2"* signal change of murine Walker-256 tumor pre-and post-inhaling of Carbogen. The R_2"* signal showed significant decrease after inhaling Carbogen, however, the individual variation was remarkable. (authors)

  1. Correlation of in vivo tumor response and singlet oxygen luminescence detection in mTHPC-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excited-state singlet oxygen (1O2, generated during photodynamic therapy (PDT, is believed to be the primary cytotoxic agent with a number of clinically approved photosensitizers. Its relative concentration in cells or tissues can be measured directly through its near-infrared (NIR luminescence emission, which has correlated well with in vitro cell and in vivo normal skin treatment responses. Here, its correlation with the response of tumor tissue in vivo is examined, using the photosensitizer meso-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC in an animal model comprising luciferase- and green fluorescent protein (GFP-transduced gliosarcoma grown in a dorsal window chamber. The change in the bioluminescence signal, imaged pretreatment and at 2, 5 and 9 d post treatment, was used as a quantitative measure of the tumor response, which was classified in individual tumors as "non", "moderate" and "strong" in order to reduce the variance in the data. Plotting the bioluminescence-based response vs the 1O2 counts demonstrated clear correlation, indicating that 1O2 luminescence provides a valid dosimetric technique for PDT in tumor tissue.

  2. Determining tumor blood flow parameters from dynamic image measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertini, Jessica M.

    2008-11-01

    Many recent cancer treatments focus on preventing angiogenesis, the process by which a tumor promotes the growth of large and efficient capillary beds for the increased nourishment required to support the tumor's rapid growth[l]. To measure the efficacy of these treatments in a timely fashion, there is an interest in using data from dynamic sequences of contrast-enhanced medical imaging, such as MRI and CT, to measure blood flow parameters such as perfusion, permeability-surface-area product, and the relative volumes of the plasma and extracellular-extravascular space. Starting with a two compartment model presented by the radiology community[2], this work challenges the application of a simplification to this problem, which was originally developed to model capillary reuptake[3]. While the primary result of this work is the demonstration of the inaccuracy of this simplification, the remainder of the paper is dedicated to presenting alternative methods for calculating the perfusion and plasma volume coefficients. These methods are applied to model data sets based on real patient data, and preliminary results are presented.

  3. Relationship between macular ganglion cell complex parameters and visual field parameters after tumor resection in chiasmal compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Shinji; Higashide, Tomomi; Takeda, Hisashi; Murotani, Eiji; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) parameters and visual field (VF) parameters in chiasmal compression and the potential for GCC parameters in order to predict the short-term postsurgical VF. Twenty-three eyes of 12 patients with chiasmal compression and 33 control eyes were studied. All patients underwent transsphenoidal tumor resection. Before surgery a 3D scan of the macula was taken using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. All patients underwent Humphrey 24-2 VF testing after surgery. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationship between the GCC parameters and VF parameters [mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation]. Coefficients of determination (R2) were calculated using linear regression. Average thickness in the patients was significantly thinner than that of controls. Average thickness, global loss volume and focal loss volume (FLV) significantly correlated with the MD. We observed the greatest R2 between FLV and MD. Examining the macular GCC was useful for evaluating structural damage in patients with chiasmal compression. Preoperative GCC parameters, especially FLV, may be useful in predicting visual function following surgical decompression of chiasmal compression.

  4. A Comparative pO2 Probe and [18F]-Fluoro-Azomycinarabino-Furanoside ([18F]FAZA) PET Study Reveals Anesthesia-Induced Impairment of Oxygenation and Perfusion in Tumor and Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahling, Moritz; Fuchs, Kerstin; Thaiss, Wolfgang M; Maier, Florian C; Feger, Martina; Bukala, Daniel; Harant, Maren; Eichner, Martin; Reutershan, Jörg; Lang, Florian; Reischl, Gerald; Pichler, Bernd J; Kneilling, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    CT26 colon carcinoma-bearing mice were anesthetized with isoflurane (IF) or ketamine/xylazine (KX) while breathing air or oxygen (O2). We performed 10 min static PET scans 1 h, 2 h and 3 h after [18F]FAZA injection and calculated the [18F]FAZA-uptake and tumor-to-muscle ratios (T/M). In another experimental group, we placed a pO2 probe in the tumor as well as in the gastrocnemius muscle to measure the pO2 and perfusion. Ketamine/xylazine-anesthetized mice yielded up to 3.5-fold higher T/M-ratios compared to their isoflurane-anesthetized littermates 1 h, 2 h and 3 h after [18F]FAZA injection regardless of whether the mice breathed air or oxygen (3 h, KX-air: 7.1 vs. IF-air: 1.8, p = 0.0001, KX-O2: 4.4 vs. IF-O2: 1.4, p pO2 probe measurements yielded enhanced intra-tumoral pO2 values in air- and oxygen-breathing ketamine/xylazine-anesthetized mice compared to isoflurane-anesthetized mice (KX-air: 1.01 mmHg, IF-air: 0.45 mmHg; KX-O2 9.73 mmHg, IF-O2: 6.25 mmHg). Muscle oxygenation was significantly higher in air-breathing isoflurane-anesthetized (56.9 mmHg) than in ketamine/xylazine-anesthetized mice (33.8 mmHg, p = 0.0003). [18F]FAZA tumor uptake was highest in ketamine/xylazine-anesthetized mice regardless of whether the mice breathed air or oxygen. The generally lower [18F]FAZA whole-body uptake in isoflurane-anesthetized mice could be due to the higher muscle pO2-values in these mice compared to ketamine/xylazine-anesthetized mice. When performing preclinical in vivo hypoxia PET studies, oxygen should be avoided, and ketamine/xylazine-anesthesia might alleviate the identification of tumor hypoxia areals.

  5. Tumor hypoxia and the positron data paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Schryver, A.; De Vis, K.; Schelstraete, K.

    1991-01-01

    It is possible using positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to obtain a fair estimate of both oxygen uptake and blood flow in human tumors. Oxygen uptake is measured by making use of tomographic recording during inhalation of oxygen 15, while blood flow can be determined either after injection of 13 N-ammonia or inhalation of 15 O-carbon dioxyde. A tomographic view is shown of a large sarcoma of right thigh, with ample oxygen concentration in its peripheral parts. Their oxygen concentration is higher than in surrounding normal tissues. The central core of the tumor, however, is clearly much less well provided with oxygen -this is what was expected. A similar picture emerges when blood flow is studied, f.ex, as in this case, using C 15 O 2 inhalation. Again, not surprising. There is, however, one more thing we can do: let the computer calculate the amount of oxygen extracted by the tumor as a function of blood flow (oxygen extraction ratio or OE x R) - pixel by pixel. If done so, it appears that those tumor parts where blood flow is low do not -as expected- extract more oxygen from whatever reduced flow is reaching them, than parts with normal flow do. Indeed, the resulting picture of the OE x R distribution denotes a remarkable homogeneity whether in the central or in the peripheral parts of the tumor. (author). 3 refs.; 1 tab

  6. Study of cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization in the edematous area and ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter using positron emission tomography in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yusuke

    1990-01-01

    We measured the cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization of the peritumoral white matter and ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter in 50 patients with brain tumors using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The intraaxial tumors consisted of 34 cases (25 of gliomas, 6 of metastatic tumors, and 3 others), white the extraaxial tumors (all of meningiomas) were 16 cases. The cases were divided into 2 groups on the basis of the Xray CT scan findings. The cases of Edema (+) group showed moderate or large peritumoral edema in the white matter on the Xray CT scan, while Edema (-) group showed no or small edema. The method of PET study was the 15 O steady state inhalation technique by Frackoviak's method. ROIs (region of interest) were set on the peritumoral white matter and the ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter, and the mean CBF, OEF and CMRO2 values of the white and gray matter were calculated. In the Edema (+) group, the mean values of blood flow and oxygen utilization were low in the peritumoral white matter, and there were no obvious differences of values between intra and extraaxial tumors. But, the values in the ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter of intraaxial tumors were lower than those of extraaxial tumor. In the Edema (-) group, the mean values were almost normal in the white and gray matter, and there were no differences between intra and extraaxial tumors. The consideration about significance of the above stated results was discussed added with literature. (author)

  7. Spin Lattice Relaxation EPR pO2 Images May Direct the Location of Radiation Tumor Boosts to Enhance Tumor Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Boris; Krzykawska-Serda, Martyna; Tormyshev, Victor; Maggio, Matthew C; Barth, Eugene D; Pelizzari, Charles A; Halpern, Howard J

    2017-12-01

    Radiation treatment success and high tumor oxygenation and success have been known to be highly correlated. This suggests that radiation therapy guided by images of tumor regions with low oxygenation, oxygen-guided radiation therapy (OGRT) may be a promising enhancement of cancer radiation treatment. Before applying the technique to human subjects, OGRT needs to be tested in animals, most easily in rodents. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging provides quantitative maps of tissue and tumor oxygen in rodents with 1 mm spatial resolution and 1 torr pO 2 resolution at low oxygen levels. The difficulty of using mouse models is their small size and that of their tumors. To overcome this we used XRAD225Cx micro-CT/ therapy system and 3D printed conformal blocks. Radiation is delivered first to a uniform 15% tumor control dose for the whole tumor and then a boost dose to either hypoxic tumor regions or equal volumes of well oxygenated tumor. Delivery of the booster dose used a multiple beam angles to deliver radiation beams whose shape conforms to that of all hypoxic regions or fully avoids those regions. To treat/avoid all hypoxic regions we used individual radiation blocks 3D-printed from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer infused with tungsten particles fabricated immediately after imaging to determine regions with pO 2 less than 10 torr. Preliminary results demonstrate the efficacy of the radiation treatment with hypoxic boosts with syngeneic FSa fibrosarcoma tumors in the legs of C3H mice.

  8. Differentiation of low- and high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma: Tumor size versus CT perfusion parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Kang, Qinqin; Xu, Bing; Guo, Hairuo; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Tiegong; Ye, Hui; Wu, Xinhuai

    To compare the utility of tumor size and CT perfusion parameters for differentiation of low- and high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Tumor size, Equivalent blood volume (Equiv BV), permeability surface-area product (PS), blood flow (BF), and Fuhrman pathological grading of clear cell RCC were retrospectively analyzed. High-grade clear cell RCC had significantly higher tumor size and lower PS than low grade. Tumor size positively correlated with Fuhrman grade, but PS negatively did. Tumor size and PS were significantly independent indexes for differentiating high-grade from low-grade clear cell RCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation-induced DNA damage in tumors and normal tissues. III. Oxygen dependence of the formation of strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Wallen, C.A.; Wheeler, K.T.; Joch, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Results from several laboratories, including ours, have suggested that measurements of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) may be used to estimate the hypoxic fraction or fractional hypoxic volume of tumors and normal tissues. This suggestion has been predicated on both published and nonpublished information that (1) the oxygen dependence of the formation of strand breaks in irradiated mammalian cells is similar to the oxygen dependence of radiation-produced cell killing, and (2) the oxygen dependence of the formation of DPCs in irradiated mammalian cells is the mirror image of the oxygen dependence of radiation-induced cell killing. However, the published studies that attempted to determine the relationship between the oxygen dependence of the formation of strand breaks and the radiation sensitivity of mammalian cells were not performed at 37 degrees C, the exact oxygen concentrations were not always known, and the results were conflicting. In addition, most of the data on the oxygen dependence of the formation of DPCs are unpublished. Consequently, we have undertaken a comprehensive investigation of one cell line, 9L/Ro rat brain tumor cells, to determine if the shape of the oxygen dependence curve and the K m value for radiation-induced strand breaks and DPCs were similar when 9L cells were irradiated under both ideal gas-liquid equilibrium conditions at 4 degrees C and nonideal gas-liquid equilibrium conditions at 37 degrees C. At 4 degrees C under ideal gas-liquid equilibrium conditions, the K m for the formation of strand breaks was approximately 0.0045 mM, and Km for radiation sensitivity was approximately 0.005mM. A similar comparison for the formation of DPCs at 4 degrees C could not be made, because the efficiency of the formation of DPC was much lower at 4 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. 30 refs., 3 figs

  10. A new ODE tumor growth modeling based on tumor population dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oroji, Amin; Omar, Mohd bin [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia amin.oroji@siswa.um.edu.my, mohd@um.edu.my (Malaysia); Yarahmadian, Shantia [Mathematics Department Mississippi State University, USA Syarahmadian@math.msstate.edu (United States)

    2015-10-22

    In this paper a new mathematical model for the population of tumor growth treated by radiation is proposed. The cells dynamics population in each state and the dynamics of whole tumor population are studied. Furthermore, a new definition of tumor lifespan is presented. Finally, the effects of two main parameters, treatment parameter (q), and repair mechanism parameter (r) on tumor lifespan are probed, and it is showed that the change in treatment parameter (q) highly affects the tumor lifespan.

  11. A new ODE tumor growth modeling based on tumor population dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oroji, Amin; Omar, Mohd bin; Yarahmadian, Shantia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new mathematical model for the population of tumor growth treated by radiation is proposed. The cells dynamics population in each state and the dynamics of whole tumor population are studied. Furthermore, a new definition of tumor lifespan is presented. Finally, the effects of two main parameters, treatment parameter (q), and repair mechanism parameter (r) on tumor lifespan are probed, and it is showed that the change in treatment parameter (q) highly affects the tumor lifespan

  12. Experimental studies on radiation effects under high pressure oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, E [Osaka Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1974-06-01

    The effect of oxygen tension on the radiosensitivity of tumor cells is well known, but its clinical application for radiotherapy is not yet established. Rabbits with V x 2 carcinoma in the maxilla were irradiated by /sup 60/Co under high pressure oxygen (experimental group), and compared with those treated in air (control group). For the purpose of examining the clinical effects of high pressure oxygen, an experiment was made in vivo. The following items were compared respectively: a) Tumor regression effect b) Tumor clearance rate c) Survival days d) Half size reduction time e) Inhibition of DNA synthesis in the tumor tissue. Results obtained were as follows: a) 56 per cent of animals showed tumor regression in the experimental group, whereas it occured 26 per cent in the control group. b) 53 per cent of animals showed tumor disappearance in the experimental group, while it was observed only in 13 per cent in the control group. c) Only 2 of 30 rabbits irradiated in air survived over 180 days, whereas 11 of 30 rabbits survived meanwhile in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen. d) About 11 days were necessary to reduce the tumor size by half after irradiation in the group under high pressure oxygen, while it took 17 days in the group treated in normal air. e) DNA synthesis was inhibited more prominently in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen in normal air.

  13. Application effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the patients with optic atrophy and influence for the hemodynamic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the application effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the patients with optic atrophy and influence degree for the hemodynamic parameters.METHODS: Fifty patients with optic atrophy in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were objected, they were randomly divided into control group(conventional optic atrophy treatment groupand observation group(conventional treatment and hyperbaric oxygen treatment group, each group was 25 cases. Statistical analysis of two group before and after treatment eyesight, vision acuity, visual field defect and ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery blood flow parameters were undergone.RESULTS: The sight, visual field sensitivity and field vision defect of observation group were all better than those of control group at first, second and third course after the treatment, arteriae ophthalmica and arteriae centralis retinae EDV and PSV were all higher than those of control group, PI and RI were all lower than those of control group were all significant differences(PCONCLUSION: The application effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the patients with optic atrophy is better, and the influence of treatment method for the ocular hemodynamic parameters are more active.

  14. A semi-automated volumetric software for segmentation and perfusion parameter quantification of brain tumors using 320-row multidetector computed tomography: a validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Soo Young; Suh, Sangil; Ryoo, Inseon; Park, Arim; Seol, Hae Young [Korea University Guro Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Kyoung Jin [Soonchunhyang University, Department of Electronic Engineering, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hackjoon [Toshiba Medical Systems Korea Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    We developed a semi-automated volumetric software, NPerfusion, to segment brain tumors and quantify perfusion parameters on whole-brain CT perfusion (WBCTP) images. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of the software and to validate its performance compared with manual segmentation. Twenty-nine patients with pathologically proven brain tumors who underwent preoperative WBCTP between August 2012 and February 2015 were included. Three perfusion parameters, arterial flow (AF), equivalent blood volume (EBV), and Patlak flow (PF, which is a measure of permeability of capillaries), of brain tumors were generated by a commercial software and then quantified volumetrically by NPerfusion, which also semi-automatically segmented tumor boundaries. The quantification was validated by comparison with that of manual segmentation in terms of the concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. With NPerfusion, we successfully performed segmentation and quantified whole volumetric perfusion parameters of all 29 brain tumors that showed consistent perfusion trends with previous studies. The validation of the perfusion parameter quantification exhibited almost perfect agreement with manual segmentation, with Lin concordance correlation coefficients (ρ {sub c}) for AF, EBV, and PF of 0.9988, 0.9994, and 0.9976, respectively. On Bland-Altman analysis, most differences between this software and manual segmentation on the commercial software were within the limit of agreement. NPerfusion successfully performs segmentation of brain tumors and calculates perfusion parameters of brain tumors. We validated this semi-automated segmentation software by comparing it with manual segmentation. NPerfusion can be used to calculate volumetric perfusion parameters of brain tumors from WBCTP. (orig.)

  15. A semi-automated volumetric software for segmentation and perfusion parameter quantification of brain tumors using 320-row multidetector computed tomography: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Soo Young; Suh, Sangil; Ryoo, Inseon; Park, Arim; Noh, Kyoung Jin; Shim, Hackjoon; Seol, Hae Young

    2017-05-01

    We developed a semi-automated volumetric software, NPerfusion, to segment brain tumors and quantify perfusion parameters on whole-brain CT perfusion (WBCTP) images. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of the software and to validate its performance compared with manual segmentation. Twenty-nine patients with pathologically proven brain tumors who underwent preoperative WBCTP between August 2012 and February 2015 were included. Three perfusion parameters, arterial flow (AF), equivalent blood volume (EBV), and Patlak flow (PF, which is a measure of permeability of capillaries), of brain tumors were generated by a commercial software and then quantified volumetrically by NPerfusion, which also semi-automatically segmented tumor boundaries. The quantification was validated by comparison with that of manual segmentation in terms of the concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. With NPerfusion, we successfully performed segmentation and quantified whole volumetric perfusion parameters of all 29 brain tumors that showed consistent perfusion trends with previous studies. The validation of the perfusion parameter quantification exhibited almost perfect agreement with manual segmentation, with Lin concordance correlation coefficients (ρ c ) for AF, EBV, and PF of 0.9988, 0.9994, and 0.9976, respectively. On Bland-Altman analysis, most differences between this software and manual segmentation on the commercial software were within the limit of agreement. NPerfusion successfully performs segmentation of brain tumors and calculates perfusion parameters of brain tumors. We validated this semi-automated segmentation software by comparing it with manual segmentation. NPerfusion can be used to calculate volumetric perfusion parameters of brain tumors from WBCTP.

  16. Computed Tomography Demonstration of the Production and Distribution of Oxygen Gas Following Intratumoral Injection of a New Radiosensitizer (KORTUC) for Patients with Breast Cancer-Is Intratumoral Injection Not an Ideal Approach to Solve the Major Problem of Tumor Hypoxia in Radiotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Naoya; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Kei; Okino, Kazuhiro; Akima, Ryo; Morita-Tokuhiro, Shiho; Tsuzuki, Akira; Yaogawa, Shin; Nishioka, Akihito; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-04-01

    We previously developed a new enzyme-targeting radiosensitization treatment named Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II), which contains hydrogen peroxide and sodium hyaluronate for injection into various types of tumors. For breast cancer treatment, the radiosensitization agent was injected into the tumor tissue twice a week under ultrasonographic guidance, immediately prior to each administration of radiation therapy. At approximately three hours after the second or third injection, computed tomography (CT) was performed to confirm the production and distribution of oxygen gas generated from the KORTUC radiosensitization agent by catalysis of peroxidases contained mainly in tumor tissue. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that tumor hypoxia could be overcome by such a procedure and to evaluate the method of intratumoral injection in terms of confirming oxygen distribution in the target tumor tissue and around the tumor to be visualized on dedicated CT imaging. Three-dimensional reconstructed maximum intensity projection imaging of contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare the position of the tumor and that of the generated oxygen. Distributed oxygen gas was confirmed in the tumor tissue and around it in all 10 patients examined in the study. A region of oxygen gas was measured as an average value of -457.2 Hounsfield units (HU) as a region of interest. A slightly increased HU value compared to the density of air or oxygen was considered due to the presence of tumor tissue in the low-density area on 5-mm-thick reconstructed CT imaging. The results of this study showed that intratumoral oxygen was successfully produced by intratumoral KORTUC injection under ultrasonographic guidance, and that tumor hypoxia, which is considered a main cause of radioresistance in currently used Linac (linear accelerator) radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms, could be resolved by this method.

  17. Hypoxia alters the physical properties of the tumor microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkes, Daniele

    Of all the deaths attributed to cancer, 90% are due to metastasis, or the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant organs, and treatments that prevent or cure metastasis remain elusive. Emerging data indicate that low oxygen states within a tumor, termed hypoxia, can alter the chemical and physical parameters of the extracellular matrix (ECM), or scaffold of the tumor tissue. These changes generate a microenvironment that may be more conducive for promoting metastasis. During tumor evolution, changes in the composition and the overall content of the ECM reflect both its biophysical and biological properties and these strongly influence the cells properties, such as cellular proliferation and cell motility. The talk will cover how hypoxia arises within normal tissue and also in tumors. We will cover the role of hypoxia in collagen biogenesis which influences compositional changes to the tumor microenvironment and discuss how these changes lead to a stiffer tumor stroma. The challenges in determining the influence of chemical versus physical cues on cancer progression will also be considered.

  18. Immunohistochemical detection of osteopontin in advanced head-and-neck cancer: Prognostic role and correlation with oxygen electrode measurements, hypoxia-inducible-factor-1α-related markers, and hemoglobin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bache, Matthias; Reddemann, Rolf; Said, Harun M.; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen; Taubert, Helge; Becker, Axel; Kuhnt, Thomas; Haensgen, Gabriele; Dunst, Juergen; Vordermark, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The tumor-associated glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is discussed as a plasma marker of tumor hypoxia. However, the association of immunohistochemical OPN expression in tumor sections with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO 2 ), the hypoxia-related markers hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), or hemoglobin and systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels has not been investigated. Methods and Materials: Tumor tissue sections of 34 patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy were assessed by immunochemistry for the expression of OPN, HIF-1α, and CA IX. Relationship of OPN expression with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO 2 ), HIF-1α and CA IX expression, hemoglobin and serum VEGF level, and clinical parameters was studied. Results: Bivariate analysis showed a significant correlation of positive OPN staining with low hemoglobin level (p = 0.02), high HIF-1α expression (p = 0.02), and high serum vascular endothelial growth factor level (p = 0.02) for advanced head-and-neck cancer. Furthermore, considering the 31 Stage IV patients, the median pO 2 correlated significantly with the OPN expression (p = 0.02). OPN expression alone had only a small impact on prognosis. However, in a univariate Cox proportional hazard regression model, the expression of either OPN or HIF-1α or CA IX was associated with a 4.1-fold increased risk of death (p = 0.02) compared with negativity of all three markers. Conclusion: Osteopontin expression detected immunohistochemically is associated with oxygenation parameters in advanced head-and-neck cancer. When the results of OPN, HIF-1α, and CA IX immunohistochemistry are combined into a hypoxic profile, a strong and statistically significant impact on overall survival is found

  19. Incorporating Oxygen-Enhanced MRI into Multi-Parametric Assessment of Human Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heling Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is associated with prostate tumor aggressiveness, local recurrence, and biochemical failure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI offers insight into tumor pathophysiology and recent reports have related transverse relaxation rate (R2* and longitudinal relaxation rate (R1 measurements to tumor hypoxia. We have investigated the inclusion of oxygen-enhanced MRI for multi-parametric evaluation of tumor malignancy. Multi-parametric MRI sequences at 3 Tesla were evaluated in 10 patients to investigate hypoxia in prostate cancer prior to radical prostatectomy. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD, tissue oxygen level dependent (TOLD, dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE, and diffusion weighted imaging MRI were intercorrelated and compared with the Gleason score. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC was significantly lower in tumor than normal prostate. Baseline R2* (BOLD-contrast was significantly higher in tumor than normal prostate. Upon the oxygen breathing challenge, R2* decreased significantly in the tumor tissue, suggesting improved vascular oxygenation, however changes in R1 were minimal. R2* of contralateral normal prostate decreased in most cases upon oxygen challenge, although the differences were not significant. Moderate correlation was found between ADC and Gleason score. ADC and R2* were correlated and trends were found between Gleason score and R2*, as well as maximum-intensity-projection and area-under-the-curve calculated from DCE. Tumor ADC and R2* have been associated with tumor hypoxia, and thus the correlations are of particular interest. A multi-parametric approach including oxygen-enhanced MRI is feasible and promises further insights into the pathophysiological information of tumor microenvironment.

  20. Time variations of oxygen emission lines and solar wind dynamic parameters in low latitude region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamlongkul, P.; Wannawichian, S.; Mkrtichian, D.; Sawangwit, U.; A-thano, N.

    2017-09-01

    Aurora phenomenon is an effect of collision between precipitating particles with gyromotion along Earth’s magnetic field and Earth’s ionospheric atoms or molecules. The particles’ precipitation occurs normally around polar regions. However, some auroral particles can reach lower latitude regions when they are highly energetic. A clear emission from Earth’s aurora is mostly from atomic oxygen. Moreover, the sun’s activities can influence the occurrence of the aurora as well. This work studies time variations of oxygen emission lines and solar wind parameters, simultaneously. The emission’s spectral lines were observed by Medium Resolution Echelle Spectrograph (MRES) along with 2.4 meters diameter telescope at Thai National Observatory, Intanon Mountain, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Oxygen (OI) emission lines were calibrated by Dech-Fits spectra processing program and Dech95 2D image processing program. The correlations between oxygen emission lines and solar wind dynamics will be analyzed. This result could be an evidence of the aurora in low latitude region.

  1. Uptake rate of cationic mitochondrial inhibitor MKT-077 determines cellular oxygen consumption change in carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Chunta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Since tumor radiation response is oxygen-dependent, radiosensitivity can be enhanced by increasing tumor oxygenation. Theoretically, inhibiting cellular oxygen consumption is the most efficient way to increase oxygen levels. The cationic, rhodacyanine dye-analog MKT-077 inhibits mitochondrial respiration and could be an effective metabolic inhibitor. However, the relationship between cellular MKT-077 uptake and metabolic inhibition is unknown. We hypothesized that rat and human mammary carcinoma cells would take up MKT-077, causing a decrease in oxygen metabolism related to drug uptake. METHODS: R3230Ac rat breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to MKT-077. Cellular MKT-077 concentration was quantified using spectroscopy, and oxygen consumption was measured using polarographic electrodes. MKT-077 uptake kinetics were modeled by accounting for uptake due to both the concentration and potential gradients across the plasma and mitochondrial membranes. These kinetic parameters were used to model the relationship between MKT-077 uptake and metabolic inhibition. MKT-077-induced changes in oxygen consumption were also characterized in MDA-MB231 human breast carcinoma cells. RESULTS: Cells took up MKT-077 with a time constant of ∼1 hr, and modeling showed that over 90% of intracellular MKT-077 was bound or sequestered, likely by the mitochondria. The uptake resulted in a rapid decrease in oxygen consumption, with a time constant of ∼30 minutes. Surprisingly the change in oxygen consumption was proportional to uptake rate, not cellular concentration. MKT-077 proved a potent metabolic inhibitor, with dose-dependent decreases of 45-73% (p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: MKT-077 caused an uptake rate-dependent decrease in cellular metabolism, suggesting potential efficacy for increasing tumor oxygen levels and radiosensitivity in vivo.

  2. Cryospectrophotometric determination of tumor intravascular oxyhemoglobin saturations: dependence on vascular geometry and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, B M; Rofstad, E K; Degner, F L; Sutherland, R M

    1988-12-21

    To delineate the complex relationships between overall tumor oxygenation and vascular configuration, intravascular oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) saturation distributions were measured with cryospectrophotometric techniques. Four factors related to vascular morphometry and tumor growth were evaluated: a) vessel diameter, b) distance of vessel from the tumor surface, c) tumor volume, and d) vascular density. To measure intertumor heterogeneity, two murine sarcomas (RIF-1 and KHT) and two human ovarian carcinoma xenografts (OWI and MLS) were utilized. In contrast to skeletal muscle, a preponderance of very low HbO2 saturations was observed for both large and small tumors of all lines. Saturations up to about 90% were also generally present, however, even in very large tumors. Variations in vascular configuration were predominantly tumor-line dependent rather than due to inherent characteristics of the host vasculature, and widely disparate HbO2 distributions were found for alternate lines implanted in identical host mice. Although peripheral saturations remained fairly constant with tumor growth, HbO2 values were markedly lower for vessels nearer the tumor center and further decreased with increasing tumor volume. HbO2 saturations did not change substantially with increasing vascular density (except for KHT tumors), although density did decrease with increasing distance from tumor surface. Combined effects of vessel diameter, tumor volume, and vessel location on HbO2 saturations were complex and varied markedly with both tumor line and vessel class. For specific classes, HbO2 distributions correlated closely with radiobiological hypoxic fractions, i.e., for tumor lines in which hypoxic fraction increased substantially with tumor volume, corresponding HbO2 values decreased, while for lines in which hypoxic fraction remained constant, HbO2 values also were unchanged. Although these trends may also be a function of differing oxygen consumption rates between tumor lines

  3. Correlation of oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI with invasive micro probe measurements in healthy mice brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacik, Jan; Reitz, Matthias; Bolar, Divya S; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Schmidt, Nils O; Fiehler, Jens

    2015-03-01

    The non-invasive assessment of (patho-)physiological parameters such as, perfusion and oxygenation, is of great importance for the characterization of pathologies e.g., tumors, which may be helpful to better predict treatment response and potential outcome. To better understand the influence of physiological parameters on the investigated oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI methods, MRI measurements were correlated with subsequent invasive micro probe measurements during free breathing conditions of air, air+10% CO2 and 100% O2 in healthy mice brain. MRI parameters were the irreversible (R2), reversible (R2') and effective (R2*) transverse relaxation rates, venous blood oxygenation level assessed by quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (qBOLD) method and cerebral blood flow (CBF) assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) using a 7 T small animal MRI scanner. One to two days after MRI, tissue perfusion and pO2 were measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry and fluorescence quenching micro probes, respectively. The tissue pO2 values were converted to blood oxygen saturation by using the Hill equation. The animals were anesthetized by intra peritoneal injection of ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (10-2-0.3 mg/ml · kg). Results for normal/hypercapnia/hyperoxia conditions were: R2[s(∧)-1] = 20.7/20.4/20.1, R2*[s(∧)-1] = 31.6/29.6/25.9, R2'[s-(∧)1] = 10.9/9.2/5.7, qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level = 0.43/0.51/0.56, CBF[ml · min(∧)-1 · 100 g(∧)-1] = 70.6/105.5/81.8, Laser-Doppler flowmetry[a.u.] = 89.2/120.2/90.6 and pO2[mmHg] = 6.3/32.3/46.7. All parameters were statistically significantly different with P effects of anesthesia and trauma due to micro probe insertion are strong confounding factors and need close attention for study planning and conduction of experiments. Investigation of the correlation of perfusion and oxygenation sensitive MRI methods with micro probe measurements in pathologic tissue such as tumors is now of compelling interest

  4. Discrepancies between measured changes of radiobiological hypoxic fraction and oxygen tension monitoring using two assay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasai, K.; Brown, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the ability of computerized pO 2 histography to measure changes in tumor oxygenation produced by low oxygen breathing. Female syngeneic C3H/Km mice bearing SCC VII/St carcinomas were used in these experiments. Changes in tumor oxygenation produced by the mice breathing 10% oxygen were assessed with computerized pO2 histography, 3 H-misonidazole binding, and the paired survival curve assay of radiosensitivity. The hypoxic cell fraction of the tumors in mice breathing 10% oxygen was 3.1 times higher than that of tumors in mice breathing normal air determined by an in vivo-in vitro clonogenic assay. Binding of radiolabeled misonidazole to the tumors in mice breathing 10% oxygen was also significantly higher than that to tumors in mice breathing normal air (p 2 value for the tumor. The number of pO 2 readings lower than 5 mmHg in the tumor was not affected by the 10% oxygen breathing. These findings indicate that increases in radiobiological hypoxic fraction produced by lower blood oxygen levels may not correlate well with the results of polarographic measurements of tumor pO 2 levels. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Non-Invasive Monitoring of Breast Tumor Oxygenation: A Key to Tumor Therapy Planning and Tumor Prognosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Hanli

    2004-01-01

    .... The aims have included (1) to evaluate a single-channel, dual wavelength, NIR, frequency-domain oximeter and the algorithms for obtaining tumor HbO2 against tumor PO2 measured by 19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (2...

  6. Can ratio of the biggest tumor diameter to total tumor diameter be a new parameter in the differential diagnosis of agressive and favorable multifocal papillary thyroid microcarcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Abbas Ali; Özdemir, Didem; Çuhacı, Neslihan; Başer, Hüsniye; Dirikoç, Ahmet; Aydın, Cevdet; Yazgan, Aylin Kılıç; Ersoy, Reyhan; Çakır, Bekir

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the usefulness of a new parameter -ratio of the biggest tumor diameter to total tumor diameter- for the differentiation of agressive and favorable papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC). The diameter of the biggest tumor focus was taken as the primary tumor diameter. Total tumor diameter was calculated as the sum of the maximal diameter of each lesion. Ratio of primary tumor diameter to total tumor diameter was defined as tumor diameter ratio (TDR). Positive and negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of TDR to predict capsular invasion, extrathyroidal extension (ETE) and lymph node metastasis (LNM) were determined. Mean TDR was significantly lower in multifocal PTMC patients with capsular invasion, ETE, lymphovascular invasion and LNM compared to patients without these features. The sensitivities of TDR for the detection of LNM, ETE and capsular invasion were 100%, 100% and 94.2%, respectively. Specificity of TDR was 86.2% for LNM, 88% for ETE and 94.7% for capsular invasion. Best cut off values of TDR that can predict capsular invasion, ETE and LNM in multifocal PTMC were 0.62, 0.57 and 0.56, respectively. Multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with capsular invasion, ETE and LNM had significantly lower mean TDR when compared to ones without these features. Decreased TDR was associated with capsular invasion, ETE and LNM in patients with multifocal PTMC and PTC. This new parameter might be particularly helpful for the detection of aggressive behavior in multifocal PTMCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tumor hypoxia at the micro-regional level: clinical relevance and predictive value of exogenous and endogenous hypoxic cell markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tumor oxygenation is recognized as an important determinant of the outcome of radiotherapy and possibly also of other treatment modalities in a number of tumor types and in particular in squamous cell carcinomas. The hypoxic status of various solid tumors has been related to a poor prognosis due to tumor progression towards a more malignant phenotype, with increased metastatic potential, and an increased resistance to treatment. It has been demonstrated in head and neck cancer that hypoxic radioresistance can be successfully counteracted by hypoxia modifying approaches. The microregional distribution and the level of tumor hypoxia depend on oxygen consumption and temporal and spatial variations in blood supply. It is unclear if severely hypoxic cells can resume clonogenicity when O 2 and nutrients become available again as a result of (treatment related) changes in the tumor microenvironment. Non-terminally differentiated hypoxic cells that are capable of proliferation are important for outcome because of their resistance to radiotherapy and possibly other cytotoxic treatments. Various exogenous and endogenous markers for hypoxia are currently available and can be studied in relation to each other, the tumor architecture and the tumor microenvironment. Use of nitroimidazole markers with immunohistochemical detection allows studying tumor cell hypoxia at the microscopic level. Co-registration with other microenvironmental parameters, such as vascular architecture (vascular density), blood perfusion, tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, offers the possibility to obtain a comprehensive functional image of tumor patho-physiology and to study the effects of different modalities of cancer treatment. Conclusion: A number of functional microregional parameters have emerged that are good candidates for future use as indicators of tumor aggressiveness and treatment response. The key question is whether these parameters can be used as tools for

  8. Effects of the differentiating agents sodium butyrate and N-methylformamide on the oxygen enhancement ratio of human colon tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallows, K.R.; Bliven, S.F.; Leith, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously shown that chronic adaptation of human tumor cells to the differentiation-inducing agents N-methylformamide (NMF) and sodium butyrate (NAB) increases the sensitivity of oxic cells to graded single doses of X rays. These studies were carried out to define the sensitivity of hypoxic cells after adaptation. Clone A colon tumor cells were grown for three passages in medium containing 170 mM NMF or 2 mM NAB and irradiated in suspension culture, after gassing with either oxygen (60 min) or ultrapure nitrogen (90 min), and complete survival curves were generated. Using the linear-quadratic equation to describe the data, it was found that NMF and NAB produced increased X-ray killing of hypoxic cells. At the 10% level of survival, the dose-modifying factors were about 1.20 and 1.25 for NMF- and NAB-adapted hypoxic cells, respectively, as compared to hypoxic control cells. However, since both oxic and hypoxic cells exhibited increased sensitivity after NMF and NAB adaptation, there was no major change in the oxygen enhancement ratio

  9. Correlation of oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI with invasive micro probe measurements in healthy mice brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacik, Jan; Fiehler, Jens; Reitz, Matthias; Schmidt, Nils O.; Bolar, Divya S.; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2015-01-01

    The non-invasive assessment of (patho-)physiological parameters such as, perfusion and oxygenation, is of great importance for the characterization of pathologies e.g., tumors, which may be helpful to better predict treatment response and potential outcome. To better understand the influence of physiological parameters on the investigated oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI methods, MRI measurements were correlated with subsequent invasive micro probe measurements during free breathing conditions of air, air+10% CO2 and 100% O2 in healthy mice brain. MRI parameters were the irreversible (R2), reversible (R2') and effective (R2*) transverse relaxation rates, venous blood oxygenation level assessed by quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (qBOLD) method and cerebral blood flow (CBF) assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) using a 7T small animal MRI scanner. One to two days after MRI, tissue perfusion and pO2 were measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry and fluorescence quenching micro probes, respectively. The tissue pO2 values were converted to blood oxygen saturation by using the Hill equation. The animals were anesthetized by intra peritoneal injection of ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (10-2-0.3 mg/ml.kg). Results for normal/hypercapnia/hyperoxia conditions were: R2[s and -1] = 20.7/20.4/20.1, R2*[s and -1] = 31.6/29.6/25.9, R2'[s and 1] = 10.9/9.2/5.7, qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level = 0.43/0.51/0.56, CBF[ml.min and -1.100g and -1] = 70.6/105.5/81.8, Laser-Doppler flowmetry[a.u.] = 89.2/120.2/90.6 and pO2[mmHg] = 6.3/32.3/46.7. All parameters were statistically significantly different with P < 0.001 between all breathing conditions. All MRI and the corresponding micro probe measurements were also statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.03) correlated with each other. However, converting the tissue pO2 to blood oxygen saturation = 0.02/0.34/0.63, showed only very limited agreement with the qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level. We found good

  10. Correlation of oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI with invasive micro probe measurements in healthy mice brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacik, Jan; Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Neuroradiology; Reitz, Matthias; Schmidt, Nils O. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Neurosurgery; Bolar, Divya S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA (United States). Radiology; Adalsteinsson, Elfar [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    2015-05-01

    The non-invasive assessment of (patho-)physiological parameters such as, perfusion and oxygenation, is of great importance for the characterization of pathologies e.g., tumors, which may be helpful to better predict treatment response and potential outcome. To better understand the influence of physiological parameters on the investigated oxygenation and perfusion sensitive MRI methods, MRI measurements were correlated with subsequent invasive micro probe measurements during free breathing conditions of air, air+10% CO2 and 100% O2 in healthy mice brain. MRI parameters were the irreversible (R2), reversible (R2') and effective (R2*) transverse relaxation rates, venous blood oxygenation level assessed by quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (qBOLD) method and cerebral blood flow (CBF) assessed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) using a 7T small animal MRI scanner. One to two days after MRI, tissue perfusion and pO2 were measured by Laser-Doppler flowmetry and fluorescence quenching micro probes, respectively. The tissue pO2 values were converted to blood oxygen saturation by using the Hill equation. The animals were anesthetized by intra peritoneal injection of ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (10-2-0.3 mg/ml.kg). Results for normal/hypercapnia/hyperoxia conditions were: R2[s {sup and} -1] = 20.7/20.4/20.1, R2*[s {sup and} -1] = 31.6/29.6/25.9, R2'[s {sup and} 1] = 10.9/9.2/5.7, qBOLD venous blood oxygenation level = 0.43/0.51/0.56, CBF[ml.min {sup and} -1.100g {sup and} -1] = 70.6/105.5/81.8, Laser-Doppler flowmetry[a.u.] = 89.2/120.2/90.6 and pO2[mmHg] = 6.3/32.3/46.7. All parameters were statistically significantly different with P < 0.001 between all breathing conditions. All MRI and the corresponding micro probe measurements were also statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.03) correlated with each other. However, converting the tissue pO2 to blood oxygen saturation = 0.02/0.34/0.63, showed only very limited agreement with the qBOLD venous blood

  11. Reassessment of FDG uptake in tumor cells: High FDG uptake as a reflection of oxygen-independent glycolysis dominant energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waki, A.; Fujibayashi, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Sadato, N.; Ishii, Y.; Yokoyama, A

    1997-10-01

    To determine appropriate use of 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) in the diagnosis of malignant tumors, the mechanism of enhanced FDG uptake in tumor cells was reassessed using in vitro cultured cell lines and {sup 3}H-deoxyglucose (DG), in combination with possible parameters of aerobic and anaerobic energy production. The high DG uptake in the tumor cells reflected the dependency of energy production on anaerobic glycolysis, and paradoxically on low levels of aerobic oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. We discuss here factors underlying anaerobic glycolysis in tumor cells.

  12. Development of an oxygen-sensitive degradable peptide probe for the imaging of hypoxia-inducible factor-1-active regions in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Masashi; Ogawa, Kei; Miyano, Azusa; Ono, Masahiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Saji, Hideo

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to develop a radiolabeled peptide probe for the imaging of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-active tumors. We synthesized the peptide probes that contain or lack an essential sequence of the oxygen-dependent degradation of HIF-1α in proteasomes ((123/125)I-DKOP30 or (125)I-mDKOP, respectively). The degradation of probes was evaluated in vitro using cell lysates containing proteasomes. In vivo biodistribution study, planar imaging, autoradiography, and comparison between probe accumulation and HIF-1 transcriptional activity were also performed. The (125)I-DKOP30 underwent degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner, while (125)I-mDKOP was not degraded. Biodistribution analysis showed (125)I-DKOP30 accumulation in tumors. The tumors were clearly visualized by in vivo imaging, and intratumoral distribution of (125)I-DKOP30 coincided with the HIF-1α-positive hypoxic regions. Tumoral accumulation of (125)I-DKOP30 was significantly correlated with HIF-1-dependent luciferase bioluminescence, while that of (125)I-mDKOP was not. (123)I-DKOP30 is a useful peptide probe for the imaging of HIF-1-active tumors.

  13. [Correlation between the inspired fraction of oxygen, maternal partial oxygen pressure, and fetal partial oxygen pressure during cesarean section of normal pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carlos Henrique Viana de; Cruvinel, Marcos Guilherme Cunha; Carneiro, Fabiano Soares; Silva, Yerkes Pereira; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira; Bessa, Roberto Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Despite changes in pulmonary function, maternal oxygenation is maintained during obstetric regional blocks. But in those situations, the administration of supplementary oxygen to parturients is a common practice. Good fetal oxygenation is the main justification; however, this has not been proven. The objective of this randomized, prospective study was to test the hypothesis of whether maternal hyperoxia is correlated with an increase in fetal gasometric parameters in elective cesarean sections. Arterial blood gases of 20 parturients undergoing spinal block with different inspired fractions of oxygen were evaluated and correlated with fetal arterial blood gases. An increase in maternal inspired fraction of oxygen did not show any correlation with an increase of fetal partial oxygen pressure. Induction of maternal hyperoxia by the administration of supplementary oxygen did not increase fetal partial oxygen pressure. Fetal gasometric parameters did not change even when maternal parameters changed, induced by hyperoxia, during cesarean section under spinal block.

  14. Inhibitory effects of various oxygenated sterols on the differentiation and function of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangrude, G.J.; Sherris, D.; Daynes, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation of skin with ultraviolet light (UVL) is capable of causing many biological and biochemical changes in this complex organ. One early consequence is the oxidation of epidermal plasma membrane cholesterol, causing the induction of a wide variety of photoproducts. It is well recognized that some oxygenated sterols possess potent biological activity on mammalian cells by their ability to inhibit endogeneous mevalonate and cholesterol biosynthesis. In the few immunological systems that have been studied, there is general agreement that lymphocyte function is lacking, as both afferent and efferent blockades have been suggested. These studies were undertaken to determine the effect of various oxygenated sterols (representing a number of known cholesterol-derived photoproducts) on the generation (afferent) and function (efferent) of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Cell-mediated immune responses which result in the generation of both alloantigen-specific and syngeneic tumor-specific CTLs were evaluated

  15. Hyperoxia increases the uptake of 5-fluorouracil in mammary tumors independently of changes in interstitial fluid pressure and tumor stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvesen Gerd S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia is associated with increased resistance to chemo- and radiation-therapy. Hyperoxic treatment (hyperbaric oxygen has previously been shown to potentiate the effect of some forms of chemotherapy, and this has been ascribed to enhanced cytotoxicity or neovascularisation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether hyperoxia also enhances any actual uptake of 5FU (5-fluorouracil into the tumor tissue and if this can be explained by changes in the interstitium and extracellular matrix. Methods One group of tumor bearing rats was exposed to repeated hyperbaric oxygen (HBO treatment (2 bar, pO2 = 2 bar, 4 exposures à 90 min, whereas one group was exposed to one single identical HBO treatment. Animals housed under normal atmosphere (1 bar, pO2 = 0.2 bar served as controls. Three doses of 5FU were tested for dose response. Uptake of [3H]-5FU in the tumor was assessed, with special reference to factors that might have contributed, such as interstitial fluid pressure (Pif, collagen content, oxygen stress (measured as malondialdehyd levels, lymphatics and transcapillary transport in the tumors. Results The uptake of the cytostatic agent increases immediately after a single HBO treatment (more than 50%, but not 24 hours after the last repeated HBO treatment. Thus, the uptake is most likely related to the transient increase in oxygenation in the tumor tissue. Factors like tumor Pif and collagen content, which decreased significantly in the tumor interstitium after repeated HBO treatment, was without effect on the drug uptake. Conclusion We showed that hyperoxia increases the uptake of [3H]-5FU in DMBA-induced mammary tumors per se, independently of changes in Pif, oxygen stress, collagen fibril density, or transendothelial transport alone. The mechanism by which such an uptake occur is still not elucidated, but it is clearly stimulated by elevated pO2.

  16. TU-C-12A-11: Comparisons Between Cu-ATSM PET and DCE-CT Kinetic Parameters in Canine Sinonasal Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Fontaine, M; Bradshaw, T [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Kubicek, L [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Forrest, L [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Jeraj, R [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Regions of poor perfusion within tumors may be associated with higher hypoxic levels. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by comparing measurements of hypoxia from Cu-ATSM PET to vasculature kinetic parameters from DCE-CT kinetic analysis. Methods: Ten canine patients with sinonasal tumors received one Cu-ATSM PET/CT scan and three DCE-CT scans prior to treatment. Cu-ATSM PET/CT and DCE-CT scans were registered and resampled to matching voxel dimensions. Kinetic analysis was performed on DCE-CT scans and for each patient, the resulting kinetic parameter values from the three DCE-CT scans were averaged together. Cu-ATSM SUVs were spatially correlated (r{sub spatial}) on a voxel-to-voxel basis against the following DCE-CT kinetic parameters: transit time (t{sub 1}), blood flow (F), vasculature fraction (v{sub 1}), and permeability (PS). In addition, whole-tumor comparisons were performed by correlating (r{sub ROI}) the mean Cu-ATSM SUV (SUV{sub mean}) with median kinetic parameter values. Results: The spatial correlations (r{sub spatial}) were poor and ranged from -0.04 to 0.21 for all kinetic parameters. These low spatial correlations may be due to high variability in the DCE-CT kinetic parameter voxel values between scans. In our hypothesis, t{sub 1} was expected to have a positive correlation, while F was expected to have a negative correlation to hypoxia. However, in wholetumor analysis the opposite was found for both t{sub 1} (r{sub ROI} = -0.25) and F (r{sub ROI} = 0.56). PS and v{sub 1} may depict angiogenic responses to hypoxia and found positive correlations to Cu-ATSM SUV for PS (r{sub ROI} = 0.41), and v{sub 1} (r{sub ROI} = 0.57). Conclusion: Low spatial correlations were found between Cu-ATSM uptake and DCE-CT vasculature parameters, implying that poor perfusion is not associated with higher hypoxic regions. Across patients, the most hypoxic tumors tended to have higher blood flow values, which is contrary to our initial hypothesis. Funding

  17. Oxygenation status of cervical carcinomas before and during spinal anesthesia for application of brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitmann, H.D.; Knocke, T.H.; Poetter, R.; Gustorff, B.; Vaupel, P.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Purpose: To date, no information is available concerning the impact of spinal anesthesia on the oxygenation status of carcinomas of the uterine cervix. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the influence of spinal anesthesia on the oxygenation status of cervical carcinomas. Patients and Methods: In ten patients with cervical carcinoma who received spinal anesthesia for a first application of brachytherapy, intratumoral pO 2 measurements (pO 2 histography system, Eppendorf-Netheler-Hinz, Hamburg, Germany) were performed. Systemic parameters were documented prior to and during spinal anesthesia. Patients breathed room air spontaneously. For further evaluation, all intratumoral pO 2 values were pooled, and overall median pO 2 values and fractions of hypoxic pO 2 values ≤ 5 mm Hg were calculated. Overall median pO 2 values in the subcutis were also calculated. Results: There were no significant changes of systemic parameters, median subcutaneous pO 2 values, median intratumoral pO 2 values, and the fractions of hypoxic pO 2 values ≤ 5 mm Hg in the tumor upon administration of spinal anesthesia. The variability of measured pO 2 values increased during spinal anesthesia, although substantial changes in the oxygenation status were only seen in individual cases (n = 2). Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that the oxygenation status of cervical carcinomas, in general, is not influenced by spinal anesthesia prior to application of brachytherapy. To conclude, the data presented suggest that reliable pO 2 measurements can be performed under spinal anesthesia. At the same time, since no substantial changes in tumor oxygenation were observed, spinal anesthesia should not affect the O 2 -related efficacy of high-dose-rate brachytherapy. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of animal experiments of radiation dependent tumor regression in relation to different parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, F.; Mueller-Duysing, W.; Blattman, H.; Bacesa, L.; Rao, K.R.; Mindek, G.

    In order to be able to test the therapeutic value of the pions in comparison with conventional X-rays, analyses of animal experiments with induced tumors, transplantation tumors, and comparative cellular kinetic studies of tissue cultures will be performed. So that differences in radiation effect and a possible superiority of the pion therapy be objectively acknowledged, the reaction systems to be tested must be as homogenous as possible. For this purpose, the dependence of the radiation related regression on various parameters such as sex, age of hosts, environmental factors radiation conditions (intensity, fractionation, and so on), tumor size, and so on, must be investigated on sterile animals in a sterile environment. The experiments should be conducted under conditions as close as possible to clinical ones. For comparison, the reaction of normal tissue (in vitro and in vivo) and of malignant cells in short-time tissue cultures will be analysed. Cellular kinetics, alteration of chromosomes and metabolic activity of the cells will be studied

  19. Spectral imaging based in vivo model system for characterization of tumor microvessel response to vascular targeting agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhede, Mamta

    Functional vasculature is vital for tumor growth, proliferation, and metastasis. Many tumor-specific vascular targeting agents (VTAs) aim to destroy this essential tumor vasculature to induce indirect tumor cell death via oxygen and nutrition deprivation. The tumor angiogenesis-inhibiting anti-angiogenics (AIs) and the established tumor vessel targeting vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) are the two major players in the vascular targeting field. Combination of VTAs with conventional therapies or with each other, have been shown to have additive or supra-additive effects on tumor control and treatment. Pathophysiological changes post-VTA treatment in terms of structural and vessel function changes are important parameters to characterize the treatment efficacy. Despite the abundance of information regarding these parameters acquired using various techniques, there remains a need for a quantitative, real-time, and direct observation of these phenomenon in live animals. Through this research we aspired to develop a spectral imaging based mouse tumor system for real-time in vivo microvessel structure and functional measurements for VTA characterization. A model tumor system for window chamber studies was identified, and then combinatorial effects of VDA and AI were characterized in model tumor system. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  20. A noninvasive multimodal technique to monitor brain tumor vascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vishal; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Laug, Walter E.

    2007-09-01

    Determination of tumor oxygenation at the microvascular level will provide important insight into tumor growth, angiogenesis, necrosis and therapeutic response and will facilitate to develop protocols for studying tumor behavior. The non-ionizing near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique has the potential to differentiate lesion and hemoglobin dynamics; however, it has a limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has achieved high spatial resolution with excellent tissue discrimination but is more susceptible to limited ability to monitor the hemoglobin dynamics. In the present work, the vascular status and the pathophysiological changes that occur during tumor vascularization are studied in an orthotopic brain tumor model. A noninvasive multimodal approach based on the NIRS technique, namely steady state diffuse optical spectroscopy (SSDOS) along with MRI, is applied for monitoring the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor region. The concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor vasculature are extracted at 15 discrete wavelengths in a spectral window of 675-780 nm. We found a direct correlation between tumor size, intratumoral microvessel density and tumor oxygenation. The relative decrease in tumor oxygenation with growth indicates that though blood vessels infiltrate and proliferate the tumor region, a hypoxic trend is clearly present.

  1. A noninvasive multimodal technique to monitor brain tumor vascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Vishal; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Laug, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    Determination of tumor oxygenation at the microvascular level will provide important insight into tumor growth, angiogenesis, necrosis and therapeutic response and will facilitate to develop protocols for studying tumor behavior. The non-ionizing near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique has the potential to differentiate lesion and hemoglobin dynamics; however, it has a limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has achieved high spatial resolution with excellent tissue discrimination but is more susceptible to limited ability to monitor the hemoglobin dynamics. In the present work, the vascular status and the pathophysiological changes that occur during tumor vascularization are studied in an orthotopic brain tumor model. A noninvasive multimodal approach based on the NIRS technique, namely steady state diffuse optical spectroscopy (SSDOS) along with MRI, is applied for monitoring the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor region. The concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor vasculature are extracted at 15 discrete wavelengths in a spectral window of 675-780 nm. We found a direct correlation between tumor size, intratumoral microvessel density and tumor oxygenation. The relative decrease in tumor oxygenation with growth indicates that though blood vessels infiltrate and proliferate the tumor region, a hypoxic trend is clearly present

  2. Metabolic changes in tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages: A mutual relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea-Maier, Romana T; Smit, Johannes W A; Netea, Mihai G

    2018-01-28

    In order to adapt to the reduced availability of nutrients and oxygen in the tumor microenvironment and the increased requirements of energy and building blocks necessary for maintaining their high proliferation rate, malignant cells undergo metabolic changes that result in an increased production of lactate, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, prostaglandins and other byproducts of arachidonic acid metabolism that influence both the composition of the inflammatory microenvironment and the function of the tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). In response to cues present in the TME, among which products of altered tumor cell metabolism, TAMs are also required to reprogram their metabolism, with activation of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and altered nitrogen cycle metabolism. These changes result in functional reprogramming of TAMs which includes changes in the production of cytokines and angiogenetic factors, and contribute to the tumor progression and metastasis. Understanding the metabolic changes governing the intricate relationship between the tumor cells and the TAMs represents an essential step towards developing novel therapeutic approaches targeting the metabolic reprogramming of the immune cells to potentiate their tumoricidal potential and to circumvent therapy resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin

    2013-01-01

    . Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...

  4. Tumor-Derived Microvesicles Modulate Antigen Cross-Processing via Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Alkalinization of Phagosomal Compartment in Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Battisti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are the only antigen-presenting cells able to prime naïve T cells and cross-prime antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Their functionality is a requirement for the induction and maintenance of long-lasting cancer immunity. Albeit intensively investigated, the in vivo mechanisms underlying efficient antigen cross-processing and presentation are not fully understood. Several pieces of evidence indicate that antigen transfer to DCs mediated by microvesicles (MVs enhances antigen immunogenicity. This mechanism is also relevant for cross-presentation of those tumor-associated glycoproteins such as MUC1 that are blocked in HLA class II compartment when internalized by DCs as soluble molecules. Here, we present pieces of evidence that the internalization of tumor-derived MVs modulates antigen-processing machinery of DCs. Employing MVs derived from ovarian cancer ascites fluid and established tumor cell lines, we show that MV uptake modifies DC phagosomal microenvironment, triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation and early alkalinization. Indeed, tumor MVs carry radical species and the MV uptake by DCs counteracts the chemically mediated acidification of the phagosomal compartment. Further pieces of evidence suggest that efficacious antigen cross-priming of the MUC1 antigen carried by the tumor MVs results from the early signaling induced by MV internalization and the function of the antigen-processing machinery of DCs. These results strongly support the hypothesis that tumor-derived MVs impact antigen immunogenicity by tuning the antigen-processing machinery of DCs, besides being carrier of tumor antigens. Furthermore, these findings have important implications for the exploitation of MVs as antigenic cell-free immunogen for DC-based therapeutic strategies.

  5. Force-field parameters of the Psi and Phi around glycosidic bonds to oxygen and sulfur atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Minoru; Okazaki, Isao

    2009-12-01

    The Psi and Phi torsion angles around glycosidic bonds in a glycoside chain are the most important determinants of the conformation of a glycoside chain. We determined force-field parameters for Psi and Phi torsion angles around a glycosidic bond bridged by a sulfur atom, as well as a bond bridged by an oxygen atom as a preparation for the next study, i.e., molecular dynamics free energy calculations for protein-sugar and protein-inhibitor complexes. First, we extracted the Psi or Phi torsion energy component from a quantum mechanics (QM) total energy by subtracting all the molecular mechanics (MM) force-field components except for the Psi or Phi torsion angle. The Psi and Phi energy components extracted (hereafter called "the remaining energy components") were calculated for simple sugar models and plotted as functions of the Psi and Phi angles. The remaining energy component curves of Psi and Phi were well represented by the torsion force-field functions consisting of four and three cosine functions, respectively. To confirm the reliability of the force-field parameters and to confirm its compatibility with other force-fields, we calculated adiabatic potential curves as functions of Psi and Phi for the model glycosides by adopting the Psi and Phi force-field parameters obtained and by energetically optimizing other degrees of freedom. The MM potential energy curves obtained for Psi and Phi well represented the QM adiabatic curves and also these curves' differences with regard to the glycosidic oxygen and sulfur atoms. Our Psi and Phi force-fields of glycosidic oxygen gave MM potential energy curves that more closely represented the respective QM curves than did those of the recently developed GLYCAM force-field. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Measuring interstitial pH and pO2 in mouse tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakesh K; Munn, Lance L; Fukumura, Dai

    2013-07-01

    This protocol outlines methods to measure two extravascular parameters, interstitial pH and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), in mouse tumors. The method for measuring interstitial pH uses fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) of the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). The method for measuring interstitial pO2 is based on the oxygen-dependent quenching of the phosphorescence of albumin-bound palladium meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin, and can be used to measure microvascular as well as interstitial pO2. In addition, the two methods can be used sequentially to measure both pH and pO2 in the same tissues.

  7. Prostate tumor-induced angiogenesis is blocked by exosomes derived from menstrual stem cells through the inhibition of reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcayaga-Miranda, Francisca; González, Paz L.; Lopez-Verrilli, Alejandra; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Aguila-Díaz, Carolina; Contreras, Luis; Khoury, Maroun

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete exosomes that are capable of modifying the tumor environment through different mechanisms including changes in the cancer-cell secretome. This activity depends on their cargo content that is largely defined by their cellular origin. Endometrial cells are fine regulators of the angiogenic process during the menstrual cycle that includes an angiostatic condition that is associated with the end of the cycle. Hence, we studied the angiogenic activity of menstrual stem cells (MenSCs)-secreted exosomes on prostate PC3 tumor cells. Our results showed that exosomes induce a reduction in VEGF secretion and NF-κB activity. Lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in exosomes-treated cells was detected by the DCF method, suggesting that the inhibition of the intracellular ROS impacts both NF-κB and VEGF pathways. We confirmed using tubule formation and plug transplantation assays that MenSCs-exosomes suppress the secretion of pro-angiogenic factors by the PC3 cells in a ROS-dependent manner. The inhibition of the tumor angiogenesis and, consequently, the tumor growth was also confirmed using a xenograft mouse model. Additionally, the anti-tumoral effect was associated with a reduction of tumor hemoglobin content, vascular density and inhibition of VEGF and HIF-1α expression. Importantly, we demonstrate that the exosomes anti-angiogenic effect is specific to the menstrual cell source, as bone marrow MSCs-derived exosomes showed an opposite effect on the VEGF and bFGF expression in tumor cells. Altogether, our results indicate that MenSCs-derived exosomes acts as blockers of the tumor-induced angiogenesis and therefore could be suitable for anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27286448

  8. Non-invasive pre-clinical MR imaging of prostate tumor hypoxia for radiation therapy prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek White

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the usefulness of Oxygen-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (OE-MRI changes in signal intensity related to oxygen challenge for predicting tumor response to radiation therapy.Methods: Dynamic MR signal changes were acquired using Varian 4.7T small animal MR scanner prior to image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT of small (n = 6 and large subcutaneous (n = 5 prostate tumors in adult male rats. An interleaved blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD and tissue-oxygen level dependent (TOLD data acquisition or (IBT was performed using a baseline of medical air as positive control and using medical oxygen as a breathing challenge. BOLD used a 2-D multi-slice spoiled gradient-echo with multi-echo sequence. TOLD used a 2-D multi-slice spoiled gradient-echo sequence. Voxel changes in signal intensity were determined by a correlation coefficient mapping technique. Irradiation technique planned consisted of 1F × 15 Gy AP/PA or 2F × 7.5 Gy AP/PA to the gross tumor volume (GTV. Tumor growth measurements were recorded over time to assess the response to IGRT.Results: BOLD and TOLD signals variously illustrated positive or negative impulse responses in the tumor ROI due to inhaling medical oxygen. Correlation coefficient mapping demonstrated heterogeneity in tumors after inhaling medical oxygen. BOLD and TOLD signals exhibited increased changes in signal intensities after the first fraction of dose. Multi-fractionation had minimum effect until the second fraction of dose was applied. Tumor growth delays were observed when inhaling medical oxygen during IGRT.Conclusion: OE-MRI is a non-invasive imaging modality that can provide insight to the oxygen status of tumors. Observed increase percent changes in BOLD and TOLD signal intensities after the first fraction of dose suggest tumors experienced reoxygenation. OE-MRI could be used for predicting tumor response to IGRT when using medical oxygen for increasing GTV radiosensitivity, suggesting

  9. Interobserver and Intraobserver Variability among Measurements of FDG PET/CT Parameters in Pulmonary Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülgün Büyükdereli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT provides information about metabolic and morphologic status of malignancies. Tumor size and standardized uptake value (SUV measurements are crucial for cancer treatment monitoring.: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT provides information about metabolic and morphologic status of malignancies. Tumor size and standardized uptake value (SUV measurements are crucial for cancer treatment monitoring. Aims: The purpose of our study was to assess the variability of these measurements performed by observers evaluating lung tumors. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: FDG PET/CT images of 97 patients with pulmonary tumors were independently evaluated by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Primary tumor size (UDCT, maximum SUV (SUVmax, mean SUV (SUVmean and maximum SUV normalized to liver mean SUV (SUVnliv max were measured by each observer at two different times with an interval of at least 2 weeks. Interobserver and intraobserver variabilities of measurements were evaluated through statistical methods. Results: Size of the lesions varied from 0.81 to 13.6 cm (mean 4.29±2.24 cm. Very good agreement was shown with correlation, Bland-Altman and regression analysis for all measured PET/CT parameters. In the interobserver and intraobserver variability analysis, the Pearson correlation coefficients were greater than 0.96 and 0.98, respectively. Conclusion: Semi-quantitative measurements of pulmonary tumors were highly reproducible when determined by experienced physicians with clinically available software for routine FDG PET/CT evaluation. Consistency may be improved if the same observer performs serial measurements for any one patient.

  10. Transcriptional response to hypoxia in human tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lal, A.; Peters, H.; Croix, B. St.; Haroon, Z.A.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Strausberg, R.L.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Riggins, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence of hypoxic regions within solid tumors is associated with a more malignant tumor phenotype and worse prognosis. To obtain a blood supply and protect against cellular damage and death, oxygen-deprived cells in tumors alter gene expression, resulting in resistance to therapy.

  11. Reactive oxygen species responsive drug releasing nanoparticle based on chondroitin sulfate-anthocyanin nanocomplex for efficient tumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dooyong; Bae, Byoung-Chan; Park, Sin-Jung; Na, Kun

    2016-01-28

    To develop a reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensitive drug carrier, a chondroitin sulfate (CS)-anthocyanin (ATC) based nanocomplex was developed. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was loaded in the CS-ATC nanocomplex (CS-ATC-DOX) via intermolecular stacking interaction. The nanocomplex was fabricated by a simple mixing method in the aqueous phase. The morphology and size of CS-ATC-DOX were determined by ATC content. In the group with 1.5mg/ml of ATC loaded CS-ATC-DOX (CS-ATC2-DOX), the drug content and loading efficiency were 8.5% and 99.1%, respectively. The ROS sensitive drug release of CS-ATC2-DOX was confirmed under in vitro physiological conditions. The results demonstrated that 1.67 times higher DOX release occurred in CS-ATC2-DOX for 48h compared to CS-DOX (ATC absent sample). Drug release and nanocomplex destruction were induced by ROS mediated ATC degradation. We determined that 66.7% of ROS was scavenged by CS-ATC2-DOX. Additionally, an HCT-116 tumor bearing animal model was used to confirm ROS sensitive therapeutic effects of CS-ATC2-DOX. The results indicate that DOX was released from the intravenously injected CS-ATC2-DOX in the tumor tissue. Thus, nuclei shrinkage and dead cells were observed in H&E staining and TUNEL assay, respectively. These data suggest that the tumor growth was effectively inhibited. This study means that CS-ATC2-DOX has potential in improving tumor therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. ROLE OF THE MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF INTRATUMORAL MICROVESSELS AND THE PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF TUMOR CELLS IN RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gorban

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis are essential factors for tumor growth, progression, and metastasis.Objective: to assess the relationship between the values of proliferative activity and the morphometric parameters of intratumoral microvessels in metastatic and localized carcinomas of the kidney.Materials and methods. Surgical specimens taken from 54 patients (32 men and 22 women aged 26 to 69 years (mean age 55 ± 1.5 years with the verified diagnosis of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC were studied.Conclusion. Proliferative activity and angioarchitectonics are an important biological characteristic of a tumor of unequal clinical value in RCC. Metastatic carcinoma has a higher proliferative activity and a low tumor vascularization than those of localized carcinoma.

  13. Aerobic Glycolysis as a Marker of Tumor Aggressiveness: Preliminary Data in High Grade Human Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei G. Vlassenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Glucose metabolism outside of oxidative phosphorylation, or aerobic glycolysis (AG, is a hallmark of active cancer cells that is not directly measured with standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, we characterized tumor regions with elevated AG defined based on PET measurements of glucose and oxygen metabolism. Methods. Fourteen individuals with high-grade brain tumors underwent structural MR scans and PET measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF, oxygen (CMRO2 and glucose (CMRGlu metabolism, and AG, using 15O-labeled CO, O2 and H2O, and FDG, and were compared to a normative cohort of 20 age-matched individuals. Results. Elevated AG was observed in most high-grade brain tumors and it was associated with decreased CMRO2 and CBF, but not with significant changes in CMRGlu. Elevated AG was a dramatic and early sign of tumor growth associated with decreased survival. AG changes associated with tumor growth were differentiated from the effects of nonneoplastic processes such as epileptic seizures. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that high-grade brain tumors exhibit elevated AG as a marker of tumor growth and aggressiveness. AG may detect areas of active tumor growth that are not evident on conventional FDG PET.

  14. Oxygen and Perfusion Kinetics in Response to Fractionated Radiation Therapy in FaDu Head and Neck Cancer Xenografts Are Related to Treatment Outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Fangyao [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Vishwanath, Karthik [Department of Physics, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio (United States); Salama, Joseph K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Erkanli, Alaattin; Peterson, Bercedis [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Oleson, James R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Lee, Walter T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Division of Head and Neck Surgery and Communicative Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Section of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Brizel, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Division of Head and Neck Surgery and Communicative Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Ramanujam, Nimmi [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Dewhirst, Mark W., E-mail: mark.dewhirst@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To test whether oxygenation kinetics correlate with the likelihood for local tumor control after fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We used diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to noninvasively measure tumor vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin concentration associated with radiation therapy of 5 daily fractions (7.5, 9, or 13.5 Gy/d) in FaDu xenografts. Spectroscopy measurements were obtained immediately before each daily radiation fraction and during the week after radiation therapy. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentration were computed using an inverse Monte Carlo model. Results: First, oxygenation kinetics during and after radiation therapy, but before tumor volumes changed, were associated with local tumor control. Locally controlled tumors exhibited significantly faster increases in oxygenation after radiation therapy (days 12-15) compared with tumors that recurred locally. Second, within the group of tumors that recurred, faster increases in oxygenation during radiation therapy (day 3-5 interval) were correlated with earlier recurrence times. An area of 0.74 under the receiver operating characteristic curve was achieved when classifying the local control tumors from all irradiated tumors using the oxygen kinetics with a logistic regression model. Third, the rate of increase in oxygenation was radiation dose dependent. Radiation doses ≤9.5 Gy/d did not initiate an increase in oxygenation, whereas 13.5 Gy/d triggered significant increases in oxygenation during and after radiation therapy. Conclusions: Additional confirmation is required in other tumor models, but these results suggest that monitoring tumor oxygenation kinetics could aid in the prediction of local tumor control after radiation therapy.

  15. Oxygen and Perfusion Kinetics in Response to Fractionated Radiation Therapy in FaDu Head and Neck Cancer Xenografts Are Related to Treatment Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Fangyao; Vishwanath, Karthik; Salama, Joseph K.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Peterson, Bercedis; Oleson, James R.; Lee, Walter T.; Brizel, David M.; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether oxygenation kinetics correlate with the likelihood for local tumor control after fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We used diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to noninvasively measure tumor vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin concentration associated with radiation therapy of 5 daily fractions (7.5, 9, or 13.5 Gy/d) in FaDu xenografts. Spectroscopy measurements were obtained immediately before each daily radiation fraction and during the week after radiation therapy. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentration were computed using an inverse Monte Carlo model. Results: First, oxygenation kinetics during and after radiation therapy, but before tumor volumes changed, were associated with local tumor control. Locally controlled tumors exhibited significantly faster increases in oxygenation after radiation therapy (days 12-15) compared with tumors that recurred locally. Second, within the group of tumors that recurred, faster increases in oxygenation during radiation therapy (day 3-5 interval) were correlated with earlier recurrence times. An area of 0.74 under the receiver operating characteristic curve was achieved when classifying the local control tumors from all irradiated tumors using the oxygen kinetics with a logistic regression model. Third, the rate of increase in oxygenation was radiation dose dependent. Radiation doses ≤9.5 Gy/d did not initiate an increase in oxygenation, whereas 13.5 Gy/d triggered significant increases in oxygenation during and after radiation therapy. Conclusions: Additional confirmation is required in other tumor models, but these results suggest that monitoring tumor oxygenation kinetics could aid in the prediction of local tumor control after radiation therapy.

  16. Matching the reaction-diffusion simulation to dynamic [18F]FMISO PET measurements in tumors: extension to a flow-limited oxygen-dependent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kuangyu; Bayer, Christine; Gaertner, Florian C; Astner, Sabrina T; Wilkens, Jan J; Nüsslin, Fridtjof; Vaupel, Peter; Ziegler, Sibylle I

    2017-02-01

    Positron-emission tomography (PET) with hypoxia specific tracers provides a noninvasive method to assess the tumor oxygenation status. Reaction-diffusion models have advantages in revealing the quantitative relation between in vivo imaging and the tumor microenvironment. However, there is no quantitative comparison of the simulation results with the real PET measurements yet. The lack of experimental support hampers further applications of computational simulation models. This study aims to compare the simulation results with a preclinical [ 18 F]FMISO PET study and to optimize the reaction-diffusion model accordingly. Nude mice with xenografted human squamous cell carcinomas (CAL33) were investigated with a 2 h dynamic [ 18 F]FMISO PET followed by immunofluorescence staining using the hypoxia marker pimonidazole and the endothelium marker CD 31. A large data pool of tumor time-activity curves (TAC) was simulated for each mouse by feeding the arterial input function (AIF) extracted from experiments into the model with different configurations of the tumor microenvironment. A measured TAC was considered to match a simulated TAC when the difference metric was below a certain, noise-dependent threshold. As an extension to the well-established Kelly model, a flow-limited oxygen-dependent (FLOD) model was developed to improve the matching between measurements and simulations. The matching rate between the simulated TACs of the Kelly model and the mouse PET data ranged from 0 to 28.1% (on average 9.8%). By modifying the Kelly model to an FLOD model, the matching rate between the simulation and the PET measurements could be improved to 41.2-84.8% (on average 64.4%). Using a simulation data pool and a matching strategy, we were able to compare the simulated temporal course of dynamic PET with in vivo measurements. By modifying the Kelly model to a FLOD model, the computational simulation was able to approach the dynamic [ 18 F]FMISO measurements in the investigated

  17. Lipid nanocarriers based on natural oils with high activity against oxygen free radicals and tumor cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacatusu, I.; Badea, N.; Badea, G.; Oprea, O.; Mihaila, M.A.; Kaya, D.A.; Stan, R.; Meghea, A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of nano-dosage forms of phytochemicals represents a significant progress of the scientific approach in the biomedical research. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of lipid nanocarriers based on natural oils (grape seed oil, fish oil and laurel leaf oil) in counteracting free radicals and combating certain tumor cells. No drug was encapsulated in the nanocarriers. The cytotoxic effect exerted by bioactive nanocarriers against two tumor cells, MDA-MB 231 and HeLa cell lines, and two normal cells, L929 and B16 cell lines, was measured using the MTT assay, while oxidative damage was assessed by measuring the total antioxidant activity using chemiluminescence analysis. The best performance was obtained for nanocarriers based on an association of grape seed and laurel leaf oils, with a capacity to scavenge about 98% oxygen free radicals. A dose of nanocarriers of 5 mg·mL −1 has led to a drastic decrease in tumor cell proliferation even in the absence of an antitumor drug (e.g. about 50% viability for MDA-MB 231 cell line and 60% viability for HeLa cell line). A comparative survival profile of normal and tumor cells, which were exposed to an effective dose of 2.5 mg·mL −1 lipid nanocarriers, has revealed a death rate of 20% for normal B16 cells and of 40% death rate for MDA-MB 231 and HeLa tumor cells. The results in this study imply that lipid nanocarriers based on grape seed oil in association with laurel leaf oil could be a candidate to reduce the delivery system toxicity and may significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of antitumor drugs in clinical applications. - Highlights: • Functional lipid nanocarriers with unique features and broad spectrum effectiveness • Lipid nanocarriers based on laureal leaf oil (LLO) and grape seed oil (GSO) • Antioxidant activity has reached 98% for nanocarriers containing 25% GSO and 2% LLO. • LLO exerts a significant cytotoxic effect against HeLa and MDA-MB 231 tumor cells. • 50

  18. Lipid nanocarriers based on natural oils with high activity against oxygen free radicals and tumor cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacatusu, I.; Badea, N.; Badea, G.; Oprea, O. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Mihaila, M.A. [Institute of Virusology “Stefan S. Nicolau”, Center of Immunology, Bravu Road, No. 285, 030304 Bucharest (Romania); Kaya, D.A. [Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Mustafa Kemal University, 31030 Antakya, Hatay (Turkey); Stan, R., E-mail: rl_stan2000@yahoo.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Meghea, A. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-11-01

    The development of nano-dosage forms of phytochemicals represents a significant progress of the scientific approach in the biomedical research. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of lipid nanocarriers based on natural oils (grape seed oil, fish oil and laurel leaf oil) in counteracting free radicals and combating certain tumor cells. No drug was encapsulated in the nanocarriers. The cytotoxic effect exerted by bioactive nanocarriers against two tumor cells, MDA-MB 231 and HeLa cell lines, and two normal cells, L929 and B16 cell lines, was measured using the MTT assay, while oxidative damage was assessed by measuring the total antioxidant activity using chemiluminescence analysis. The best performance was obtained for nanocarriers based on an association of grape seed and laurel leaf oils, with a capacity to scavenge about 98% oxygen free radicals. A dose of nanocarriers of 5 mg·mL{sup −1} has led to a drastic decrease in tumor cell proliferation even in the absence of an antitumor drug (e.g. about 50% viability for MDA-MB 231 cell line and 60% viability for HeLa cell line). A comparative survival profile of normal and tumor cells, which were exposed to an effective dose of 2.5 mg·mL{sup −1} lipid nanocarriers, has revealed a death rate of 20% for normal B16 cells and of 40% death rate for MDA-MB 231 and HeLa tumor cells. The results in this study imply that lipid nanocarriers based on grape seed oil in association with laurel leaf oil could be a candidate to reduce the delivery system toxicity and may significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of antitumor drugs in clinical applications. - Highlights: • Functional lipid nanocarriers with unique features and broad spectrum effectiveness • Lipid nanocarriers based on laureal leaf oil (LLO) and grape seed oil (GSO) • Antioxidant activity has reached 98% for nanocarriers containing 25% GSO and 2% LLO. • LLO exerts a significant cytotoxic effect against HeLa and MDA-MB 231 tumor

  19. Effect of different concentrations of oxygen on expression of sigma 1 receptor and superoxide dismutases in human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzycki, Michał; Czeczot, Hanna; Mielczarek-Puta, Magdalena; Otto-Ślusarczyk, Dagmara; Graboń, Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Tumor cells due to distance from capillary vessels exist in different oxygenation conditions (anoxia, hypoxia, normoxia). Changes in cell oxygenation lead to reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress. Sigma 1 receptor (Sig1R) is postulated to be stress responding agent and superoxide dismutases (SOD1 and SOD2) are key antioxidant enzymes. It is possible that they participate in tumor cells adaptation to different concentrations of oxygen. Evaluation of Sig1R, SOD1, and SOD2 expression in different concentrations of oxygen (1%, 10%, 21%) in colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. SW480 (primary adenocarcinoma) and SW620 (metastatic) cell lines were cultured in standard conditions in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium for 5 days, and next cultured in Hypoxic Chamber in 1% O 2 , 10% O 2 , 21% O 2 . Number of living cells was determined by trypan blue assay. Level of mRNA for Sig1R, SOD1, and SOD2 was determined by standard PCR method. Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistica 10.1 software. We observed significant changes in expression of Sig1R, SOD1, SOD2 due to different oxygen concentrations. ANOVA analysis revealed significant interactions between studied parameters mainly in hypoxia conditions in SW480 cells and between Sig1R and SOD2 in SW620 cells. It also showed that changes in expression of studied proteins depend significantly on type of the cell line. Changes of Sig1R and SOD2 expression point to mitochondria as main organelle responsible for survival of tumor cells exposed to hypoxia or oxidative stress. Studied proteins are involved in intracellular response to stress related with different concentrations of oxygen.

  20. Optimization of input parameters of supra-threshold stochastic resonance image processing algorithm for the detection of abdomino-pelvic tumors on PET/CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Anil Kumar; Saroha, Kartik; Patel, C.D.; Bal, C.S.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Administration of diuretics increases the urine output to clear radioactive urine from kidneys and bladder. Hence post-diuretic pelvic PET/CT scan enhances the probability of detection of abdomino-pelvic tumor. However, it causes discomfort in patients and has some side effects also. Application of supra threshold stochastic resonance (SSR) image processing algorithm on Pre-diuretic PET/CT scan may also increase the probability of detection of these tumors. Amount of noise and threshold are two variable parameters that effect the final image quality. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of these two variable parameters on the detection of abdomen-pelvic tumor

  1. Increase in tumor oxygen tension and radiosensitivity after administration of pentoxifylline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takeo; Gu, Yeun Hwa; Nagao, Takashi; Miyata, Katsuyuki; Song, Chang W.; Tanake, Yoshimasa; Hasegawa, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    The effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) on the pO2 and radioresponse in SCK tumors of A/J mice were investigated. When the mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5 mg/kg of PTX, the tumor pO2 increased slowly, peaked 20-50 min postinjection, and returned to its original level in 70-90 min. The magnitude of the changes in tumor pO2 after on ip injection of 25 or 50 mg/kg PTX was similar to that caused by 5 mg/kg PTX. When the A/J mice bearing SCK tumors in the legs were injected ip with 50 mg/kg PTX and the tumors were X ray irradiated 20 min later, the tumor growth delay was greater than that of radiation alone

  2. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and normobaric carbogen on the radiation response of the rat rhabdomyosarcoma R1H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K. Axel; Kleij, Ad J. van der; Carl, Ulrich M.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Willers, Reinhart; Sminia, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Hypoxic tumor cells are an important factor of radioresistance. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and normobaric carbogen (95% oxygen, 5% carbon dioxide) increase the oxygen delivery to tumors. This study was performed to explore changes of tumor oxygenation during a course of fractionated irradiation and to determine the effectiveness of normobaric carbogen and HBO during the final phase of the radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed on the rhabdomyosarcoma R1H growing on WAG/Rij rats. After 20 X-ray fractions of 2 Gy within 4 weeks, oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) was measured using the Eppendorf oxygen electrode under ambient conditions, with normobaric carbogen or HBO at a pressure of 240 kPa. Following the 4-week radiation course, a top-up dose of 10-50 Gy was applied in 2-10 fractions of 5 Gy with or without hyperoxygenation. Results: HBO but not carbogen significantly increased the median pO 2 in irradiated tumors. The radiation doses to control 50% of tumors were 38.0 Gy, 29.5 Gy, and 25.0 Gy for air, carbogen, and HBO, respectively. Both high oxygen content gas inspirations led to significantly improved tumor responses with oxygen enhancement ratios (OERs) of 1.3 for normobaric carbogen and 1.5 for HBO (air vs. carbogen: p=0.044; air vs. HBO: p=0.02; carbogen vs. HBO: p=0.048). Conclusion: Both normobaric carbogen and HBO significantly improved the radiation response of R1H tumors. HBO appeared to be more effective than normobaric carbogen, both with regard to tumor oxygenation and response to irradiation

  3. Proton pump inhibitors induce apoptosis of human B-cell tumors through a caspase-independent mechanism involving reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Milito, Angelo; Iessi, Elisabetta; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Lozupone, Francesco; Spada, Massimo; Marino, Maria Lucia; Federici, Cristina; Perdicchio, Maurizio; Matarrese, Paola; Lugini, Luana; Nilsson, Anna; Fais, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    Proton pumps like the vacuolar-type H+ ATPase (V-ATPase) are involved in the control of cellular pH in normal and tumor cells. Treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) induces sensitization of cancer cells to chemotherapeutics via modifications of cellular pH gradients. It is also known that low pH is the most suitable condition for a full PPI activation. Here, we tested whether PPI treatment in unbuffered culture conditions could affect survival and proliferation of human B-cell tumors. First, we showed that PPI treatment increased the sensitivity to vinblastine of a pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line. PPI, per se, induced a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation of tumor B cells, which was associated with a dose- and time-dependent apoptotic-like cytotoxicity in B-cell lines and leukemic cells from patients with pre-B ALL. The effect of PPI was mediated by a very early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that preceded alkalinization of lysosomal pH, lysosomal membrane permeabilization, and cytosol acidification, suggesting an early destabilization of the acidic vesicular compartment. Lysosomal alterations were followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization, release of cytochrome c, chromatin condensation, and caspase activation. However, inhibition of caspase activity did not affect PPI-induced cell death, whereas specific inhibition of ROS by an antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine) significantly delayed cell death and protected both lysosomal and mitochondrial membranes. The proapoptotic activity of PPI was consistent with a clear inhibition of tumor growth following PPI treatment of B-cell lymphoma in severe combined immunodeficient mice. This study further supports the importance of acidity and pH gradients in tumor cell homeostasis and suggests new therapeutic approaches for human B-cell tumors based on PPI.

  4. A determination of the variation in the lattice parameters of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) as a function of temperature and oxygen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei pour, M.; Ross, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    The variation of the lattice parameters of Bi-2212 has been measured using a high-temperature neutron diffraction technique. The samples have been doped with oxygen at different pressures from 2 to 400 mbar and at different temperatures from room temperature to 750 deg. C. It was found that the lattice parameters of Bi-2212 were dependent on temperature and oxygen content, increasing with temperature but decreasing with oxygen content. The values derived for the thermal expansion coefficient in an oxygen partial pressure of 400 mbar were compared with previous data from powder diffraction measurements at comparable oxygen pressure

  5. Improved Intratumoral Oxygenation Through Vascular Normalization Increases Glioma Sensitivity to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, Mackenzie C.; Hamner, J. Blair; Williams, Regan F.; Rosati, Shannon F.; Sims, Thomas L.; Ng, Catherine Y.; Gaber, M. Waleed; Calabrese, Christopher; Wu Jianrong; Nathwani, Amit C.; Duntsch, Christopher; Merchant, Thomas E.; Davidoff, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation, an important component of glioma therapy, is critically dependent on tumor oxygenation. However, gliomas are notable for areas of necrosis and hypoxia, which foster radioresistance. We hypothesized that pharmacologic manipulation of the typically dysfunctional tumor vasculature would improve intratumoral oxygenation and, thus, the antiglioma efficacy of ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: Orthotopic U87 xenografts were treated with either continuous interferon-β (IFN-β) or bevacizumab, alone, or combined with cranial irradiation (RT). Tumor growth was assessed by quantitative bioluminescence imaging; the tumor vasculature using immunohistochemical staining, and tumor oxygenation using hypoxyprobe staining. Results: Both IFN-β and bevaziumab profoundly affected the tumor vasculature, albeit with different cellular phenotypes. IFN-β caused a doubling in the percentage of area of perivascular cell staining, and bevacizumab caused a rapid decrease in the percentage of area of endothelial cell staining. However, both agents increased intratumoral oxygenation, although with bevacizumab, the effect was transient, being lost by 5 days. Administration of IFN-β or bevacizumab before RT was significantly more effective than any of the three modalities as monotherapy or when RT was administered concomitantly with IFN-β or bevacizumab or 5 days after bevacizumab. Conclusion: Bevacizumab and continuous delivery of IFN-β each induced significant changes in glioma vascular physiology, improving intratumoral oxygenation and enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation. Additional investigation into the use and timing of these and other agents that modify the vascular phenotype, combined with RT, is warranted to optimize cytotoxic activity.

  6. DCE-MRI of patient-derived xenograft models of uterine cervix carcinoma: associations with parameters of the tumor microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Hauge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in the tumor microenvironment are associated with resistance to treatment, aggressive growth, and poor clinical outcome in patients with advanced cervical cancer. The potential of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular density (MVD, interstitial fluid pressure (IFP, and hypoxic fraction of patient-derived cervical cancer xenografts was investigated in the present study. Methods Four patient-derived xenograft (PDX models of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (BK-12, ED-15, HL-16, and LA-19 were subjected to Gd-DOTA-based DCE-MRI using a 7.05 T preclinical scanner. Parametric images of the volume transfer constant (K trans and the fractional distribution volume (v e of the contrast agent were produced by pharmacokinetic analyses utilizing the standard Tofts model. Whole tumor median values of the DCE-MRI parameters were compared with MVD and the fraction of hypoxic tumor tissue, as determined histologically, and IFP, as measured with a Millar catheter. Results Both on the PDX model level and the single tumor level, a significant inverse correlation was found between K trans and hypoxic fraction. The extent of hypoxia was also associated with the fraction of voxels with unphysiological v e values (v e > 1.0. None of the DCE-MRI parameters were related to MVD or IFP. Conclusions DCE-MRI may provide valuable information on the hypoxic fraction of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, and thereby facilitate individualized patient management.

  7. Hypofractionation results in reduced tumor cell kill compared to conventional fractionation for tumors with regions of hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, David J; Keall, Paul J; Loo, Billy W; Chen, Zhe J; Brown, J Martin

    2011-03-15

    Tumor hypoxia has been observed in many human cancers and is associated with treatment failure in radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of different radiation fractionation schemes on tumor cell killing, assuming a realistic distribution of tumor oxygenation. A probability density function for the partial pressure of oxygen in a tumor cell population is quantified as a function of radial distance from the capillary wall. Corresponding hypoxia reduction factors for cell killing are determined. The surviving fraction of a tumor consisting of maximally resistant cells, cells at intermediate levels of hypoxia, and normoxic cells is calculated as a function of dose per fraction for an equivalent tumor biological effective dose under normoxic conditions. Increasing hypoxia as a function of distance from blood vessels results in a decrease in tumor cell killing for a typical radiotherapy fractionation scheme by a factor of 10(5) over a distance of 130 μm. For head-and-neck cancer and prostate cancer, the fraction of tumor clonogens killed over a full treatment course decreases by up to a factor of ∼10(3) as the dose per fraction is increased from 2 to 24 Gy and from 2 to 18 Gy, respectively. Hypofractionation of a radiotherapy regimen can result in a significant decrease in tumor cell killing compared to standard fractionation as a result of tumor hypoxia. There is a potential for large errors when calculating alternate fractionations using formalisms that do not account for tumor hypoxia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of reactive oxygen species on metabolism monitored by longitudinal 1H single voxel MRS follow-up in patients with mitochondrial disease or cerebral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constans, J M; Collet, S; Hossu, G; Courtheoux, P; Guillamo, J S; Lechapt-Zalcman, E; Valable, S; Lacombe, S; Houee Levin, C; Gauduel, Y A; Dou, W; Ruan, S; Barre, L; Rioult, F; Derlon, J M; Chapon, F; Fong, V; Kauffmann, F

    2011-01-01

    Free radicals, or Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), have an effect on energy and glycolytic metabolism, mitochondrial function, lipid metabolism, necrosis and apoptosis, cell proliferation, and infiltration. These changes could be monitored longitudinally (every 4 months over 6 years) in humans with glial brain tumors (low and high grade) after therapy, using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) and MR perfusion. Some examples of early clinical data from longitudinal follow-up monitoring in humans of energy and glycolytic metabolism, lipid metabolism, necrosis, proliferation, and infiltration measured by conventional MRI, MRS and perfusion, and positron emission tomography (PET) are shown in glial brain tumors after therapy. Despite the difficulty, the variability and unknown factors, these repeated measurements give us a better insight into the nature of the different processes, tumor progression and therapeutic response.

  9. Influence of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon on the lattice parameter of uranium mono-carbide; Influence de l'oxygene, de l'azote et du carbone sur le parametre reticulaire du monocarbure d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-04-15

    The author studies the influence of oxygen and nitrogen contents on the lattice parameter of U(C,O,N) solid solutions around UC composition. The whole data conducts to a determination of the solubility of oxygen in UC: a U(C(1-x)O(x)) solid solution exist if x if smaller than 0.37. The author studies also the influence of carbon content on the lattice parameter of U-UC solid solutions around UC. This study conducts to the determination of the solubility of U in UC at the different temperatures. Consequences upon uranium-carbon diagram are envisaged. (author) [French] L'auteur etudie quantitativement l'influence de l'oxygene et de l'azote sur le parametre reticulaire des solutions solides U(C,O,N) proches de UC. Cette etude permet la determination de la solubilite de l'oxygene dans UC: on montre l'existence d'une solution solide U(C(1-x)O(x)) lorsque x est compris entre 0 et 0,37. Par ailleurs l'auteur etudie l'influence de la teneur en carbone sur le parametre des solutions solides U-UC proches de UC. Cette etude permet la determination de la solubilite de l'uranium dans UC aux differentes temperatures. On envisage enfin les modifications apportees par cette etude au diagramme uranium-carbone. (auteur)

  10. In Vivo pO2 Imaging of Tumors: Oxymetry with Very Low-Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J

    2015-01-01

    For over a century, it has been known that tumor hypoxia, regions of a tumor with low levels of oxygenation, are important contributors to tumor resistance to radiation therapy and failure of radiation treatment of cancer. Recently, using novel pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging, near absolute images of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in tumors of living animals have been obtained. We discuss here the means by which EPR signals can be obtained in living tissues and tumors. We review development of EPR methods to image the pO2 in tumors and the potential for the pO2 image acquisition in human subjects. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In vivo pO2 imaging of tumors: Oxymetry with very low frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J.

    2016-01-01

    For over a century it has been known that tumor hypoxia, regions of a tumor with low levels of oxygenation, are important contributors to tumor resistance to radiation therapy and failure of radiation treatment of cancer. Recently, using novel pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging, near absolute images of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in tumors of living animals have been obtained. We discuss here the means by which EPR signals can be obtained in living tissues and tumors. We review development of EPR methods to image the pO2 in tumors and the potential for the pO2 image acquisition in human subjects. PMID:26477263

  12. Kinetics of oxygen uncoupling of a copper based oxygen carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenting; Donat, Felix; Scott, S.A.; Dennis, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The kinetics of a Cu-based oxygen carrier was determined using a TGA. • A diffusion model was applied to remove mass transfer effects from rate parameters. • Thermodynamics are separated from kinetics, usually difficult for the CLOU reaction. • The rate parameters correctly described the behaviour in a fluidised bed. • The rate parameters can be used to predict performance of large CLOU systems. - Abstract: Here, an oxygen carrier consisting of 60 wt% CuO supported on a mixture of Al_2O_3 and CaO (23 wt% and 17 wt% respectively) was synthesised by wet-mixing powdered CuO, Al(OH)_3 and Ca(OH)_2, followed by calcination at 1000 °C. Its suitability for chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) was investigated. After 25 repeated redox cycles in either a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) or a laboratory-scale fluidised bed, (with 5 vol% H_2 in N_2 as the fuel, and air as the oxidant) no significant change in either the oxygen uncoupling capacity or the overall oxygen availability of the carrier was found. In the TGA, it was found that the rate of oxygen release from the material was controlled by intrinsic chemical kinetics and external transfer of mass from the surface of the particles to the bulk gas. By modelling the various resistances, values of the rate constant for the decomposition were obtained. The activation energy of the reaction was found to be 59.7 kJ/mol (with a standard error of 5.6 kJ/mol) and the corresponding pre-exponential factor was 632 m"3/mol/s. The local rate of conversion within a particle was assumed to occur either (i) by homogeneous chemical reaction, or (ii) in uniform, non-porous grains, each reacting as a kinetically-controlled shrinking core. Upon cross validation against a batch fluidised bed experiment, the homogeneous reaction model was found to be more plausible. By accurately accounting for the various artefacts (e.g. mass transfer resistances) present in both TGA and fluidised bed experiments, it was

  13. Regional tumor oximetry: 19F NMR spectroscopy of hexafluorobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunjan, Sandeep; Mason, Ralph P.; Constantinescu, Anca; Peschke, Peter; Hahn, Eric W.; Antich, Peter P.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: An accurate method for monitoring oxygen tension (pO 2 ) of individual tumors could be valuable for optimizing treatment plans. We have recently shown that 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-lattice relaxometry of hexafluorobenzene (HFB) provides a highly sensitive indicator of tumor oxygenation. We have now refined the methodology to provide enhanced precision, and applied the method to investigate dynamic changes in tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Dunning prostate adenocarcinoma R3327-AT1 was grown in the form of pedicles on the foreback of male Copenhagen rats. When the tumors reached ≅1 cm diameter, HFB (20 μl) was administered, either centrally or peripherally, by direct intratumoral (IT) injection. Local pO 2 was determined using pulse-burst saturation recovery (PBSR) 19 F NMR spectroscopy on the basis of the spin-lattice relaxation rate, R1. Results: Interrogation of the central region of tumors provided typical values in the range pO 2 = 1.4-6.4 mmHg, with a typical stability of ±2 mmHg over a period of 20 min, when rats breathed 33% O 2 . Altering the inhaled gas to oxygen or carbogen (95% O 2 /5% CO 2 ) produced no significant change. In contrast, interrogation of tumor periphery indicated baseline pO 2 in the range 7.9-78.9 mmHg. Altering inspired gas produced significant changes (p 2 or carbogen, although the change was generally greater with carbogen. In each case, pO 2 returned to baseline within 16 min of returning the inhaled gas to baseline. Conclusion: We believe this method provides a valuable new approach with the requisite precision and accuracy to investigate tumor pO 2

  14. Pyruvate sensitizes pancreatic tumors to hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Cornnell, Heather C; Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Takakusagi, Yoichi; Dutta, Prasanta; Kim, Munju; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Leos, Rafael; Bailey, Kate M; Martinez, Gary; Lloyd, Mark C; Weber, Craig; Mitchell, James B; Lynch, Ronald M; Baker, Amanda F; Gatenby, Robert A; Rejniak, Katarzyna A; Hart, Charles; Krishna, Murali C; Gillies, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic niches in solid tumors harbor therapy-resistant cells. Hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) have been designed to overcome this resistance and, to date, have begun to show clinical efficacy. However, clinical HAPs activity could be improved. In this study, we sought to identify non-pharmacological methods to acutely exacerbate tumor hypoxia to increase TH-302 activity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumor models. Three human PDAC cell lines with varying sensitivity to TH-302 (Hs766t > MiaPaCa-2 > SU.86.86) were used to establish PDAC xenograft models. PDAC cells were metabolically profiled in vitro and in vivo using the Seahorse XF system and hyperpolarized (13)C pyruvate MRI, respectively, in addition to quantitative immunohistochemistry. The effect of exogenous pyruvate on tumor oxygenation was determined using electroparamagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging. Hs766t and MiaPaCa-2 cells exhibited a glycolytic phenotype in comparison to TH-302 resistant line SU.86.86. Supporting this observation is a higher lactate/pyruvate ratio in Hs766t and MiaPaCa xenografts as observed during hyperpolarized pyruvate MRI studies in vivo. Coincidentally, response to exogenous pyruvate both in vitro (Seahorse oxygen consumption) and in vivo (EPR oxygen imaging) was greatest in Hs766t and MiaPaCa models, possibly due to a higher mitochondrial reserve capacity. Changes in oxygen consumption and in vivo hypoxic status to pyruvate were limited in the SU.86.86 model. Combination therapy of pyruvate plus TH-302 in vivo significantly decreased tumor growth and increased survival in the MiaPaCa model and improved survival in Hs766t tumors. Using metabolic profiling, functional imaging, and computational modeling, we show improved TH-302 activity by transiently increasing tumor hypoxia metabolically with exogenous pyruvate. Additionally, this work identified a set of biomarkers that may be used clinically to predict which tumors will be most responsive to

  15. Integrated intravital microscopy and mathematical modeling to optimize nanotherapeutics delivery to tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L. van de Ven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient vascularization hinders the optimal transport of cell nutrients, oxygen, and drugs to cancer cells in solid tumors. Gradients of these substances maintain a heterogeneous cell-scale microenvironment through which drugs and their carriers must travel, significantly limiting optimal drug exposure. In this study, we integrate intravital microscopy with a mathematical model of cancer to evaluate the behavior of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems designed to circumvent biophysical barriers. We simulate the effect of doxorubicin delivered via porous 1000 x 400 nm plateloid silicon particles to a solid tumor characterized by a realistic vasculature, and vary the parameters to determine how much drug per particle and how many particles need to be released within the vasculature in order to achieve remission of the tumor. We envision that this work will contribute to the development of quantitative measures of nanoparticle design and drug loading in order to optimize cancer treatment via nanotherapeutics.

  16. A reason for intermittent fasting to suppress the awakening of dormant breast tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankelma, J.; Kooi, B.W.; Krab, K.; Dorsman, J.C.; Joenje, H.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2015-01-01

    For their growth, dormant tumors, which lack angiogenesis may critically depend on gradients of nutrients and oxygen from the nearest blood vessel. Because for oxygen depletion the distance from the nearest blood vessel to depletion will generally be shorter than for glucose depletion, such tumors

  17. A reason for intermittent fasting to suppress the awakening of dormant breast tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankelma, J.; Kooi, B.; Krab, K.; Dorsman, J.C.; Joenje, H.; Westerhoff, H.V.

    2015-01-01

    For their growth, dormant tumors, which lack angiogenesis may critically depend on gradients of nutrients and oxygen from the nearest blood vessel. Because for oxygen depletion the distance from the nearest blood vessel to depletion will generally be shorter than for glucose depletion, such tumors

  18. Cancer Metabolism and Tumor Heterogeneity: Imaging Perspectives Using MR Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigin Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to maintain viability via genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations, expressing overall dynamic heterogeneity. The complex relaxation mechanisms of nuclear spins provide unique and convertible tissue contrasts, making magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS pertinent imaging tools in both clinics and research. In this review, we summarized MR methods that visualize tumor characteristics and its metabolic phenotypes on an anatomical, microvascular, microstructural, microenvironmental, and metabolomics scale. The review will progress from the utilities of basic spin-relaxation contrasts in cancer imaging to more advanced imaging methods that measure tumor-distinctive parameters such as perfusion, water diffusion, magnetic susceptibility, oxygenation, acidosis, redox state, and cell death. Analytical methods to assess tumor heterogeneity are also reviewed in brief. Although the clinical utility of tumor heterogeneity from imaging is debatable, the quantification of tumor heterogeneity using functional and metabolic MR images with development of robust analytical methods and improved MR methods may offer more critical roles of tumor heterogeneity data in clinics. MRI/MRS can also provide insightful information on pharmacometabolomics, biomarker discovery, disease diagnosis and prognosis, and treatment response. With these future directions in mind, we anticipate the widespread utilization of these MR-based techniques in studying in vivo cancer biology to better address significant clinical needs.

  19. Effects of reactive oxygen species on metabolism monitored by longitudinal {sup 1}H single voxel MRS follow-up in patients with mitochondrial disease or cerebral tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constans, J M; Collet, S; Hossu, G; Courtheoux, P [MRI Unit, Caen University Hospital, Caen, Normandy (France); Guillamo, J S; Lechapt-Zalcman, E; Valable, S [CERVOxy Group, CI-NAPS, UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Cyceron, Caen, Normandy (France); Lacombe, S; Houee Levin, C [Paris-Sud 11 University-CNRS, Orsay (France); Gauduel, Y A [LOA, Ecole Polytechnique - ENSTA ParisTech, Palaiseau (France); Dou, W [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Ruan, S [CReSTIC EA 3804, IUT Troyes, Troyes (France); Barre, L [GDMTEP, Group CI-NAPS, UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Cyceron, Caen (France); Rioult, F [CNRS UMR 6072, GREYC, Caen, Normandy (France); Derlon, J M [Neurosurgery and Neurology, Caen University Hospital, Caen, Normandy (France); Chapon, F [Pathology, Caen University Hospital, Caen, Normandy (France); Fong, V [Caen University (France); Kauffmann, F, E-mail: constans-jm@chu-caen.fr [Mathematics LMNO CNRS UMR 6139, Caen University, Caen, Normandy (France)

    2011-01-01

    Free radicals, or Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), have an effect on energy and glycolytic metabolism, mitochondrial function, lipid metabolism, necrosis and apoptosis, cell proliferation, and infiltration. These changes could be monitored longitudinally (every 4 months over 6 years) in humans with glial brain tumors (low and high grade) after therapy, using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) and MR perfusion. Some examples of early clinical data from longitudinal follow-up monitoring in humans of energy and glycolytic metabolism, lipid metabolism, necrosis, proliferation, and infiltration measured by conventional MRI, MRS and perfusion, and positron emission tomography (PET) are shown in glial brain tumors after therapy. Despite the difficulty, the variability and unknown factors, these repeated measurements give us a better insight into the nature of the different processes, tumor progression and therapeutic response.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of tumor oxygenation and metabolic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishna, Murali C.; Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita

    2013-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is distinct from normal tissue as a result of abnormal vascular network characterized by hypoxia, low pH, high interstitial fluid pressure and elevated glycolytic activity. This poses a barrier to treatments including radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Imaging methods...... spectroscopic imaging. Imaging pO2 in tumors is now a robust pre-clinical imaging modality with potential for implementation clinically. Pre-clinical studies and an initial clinical study with hyperpolarized metabolic MR have been successful and suggest that the method may be part of image-guided radiotherapy...

  1. Photoacoustic imaging to assess pixel-based sO2 distributions in experimental prostate tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendinger, Alina L.; Glowa, Christin; Peter, Jörg; Karger, Christian P.

    2018-03-01

    A protocol for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has been developed to assess pixel-based oxygen saturation (sO2) distributions of experimental tumor models. The protocol was applied to evaluate the dependence of PAI results on measurement settings, reproducibility of PAI, and for the characterization of the oxygenation status of experimental prostate tumor sublines (Dunning R3327-H, -HI, -AT1) implanted subcutaneously in male Copenhagen rats. The three-dimensional (3-D) PA data employing two wavelengths were used to estimate sO2 distributions. If the PA signal was sufficiently strong, the distributions were independent from signal gain, threshold, and positioning of animals. Reproducibility of sO2 distributions with respect to shape and median values was demonstrated over several days. The three tumor sublines were characterized by the shapes of their sO2 distributions and their temporal response after external changes of the oxygen supply (100% O2 or air breathing and clamping of tumor-supplying artery). The established protocol showed to be suitable for detecting temporal changes in tumor oxygenation as well as differences in oxygenation between tumor sublines. PA results were in accordance with histology for hypoxia, perfusion, and vasculature. The presented protocol for the assessment of pixel-based sO2 distributions provides more detailed information as compared to conventional region-of-interest-based analysis of PAI, especially with respect to the detection of temporal changes and tumor heterogeneity.

  2. Photoacoustic imaging to assess pixel-based sO2 distributions in experimental prostate tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendinger, Alina L; Glowa, Christin; Peter, Jörg; Karger, Christian P

    2018-03-01

    A protocol for photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has been developed to assess pixel-based oxygen saturation (sO2) distributions of experimental tumor models. The protocol was applied to evaluate the dependence of PAI results on measurement settings, reproducibility of PAI, and for the characterization of the oxygenation status of experimental prostate tumor sublines (Dunning R3327-H, -HI, -AT1) implanted subcutaneously in male Copenhagen rats. The three-dimensional (3-D) PA data employing two wavelengths were used to estimate sO2 distributions. If the PA signal was sufficiently strong, the distributions were independent from signal gain, threshold, and positioning of animals. Reproducibility of sO2 distributions with respect to shape and median values was demonstrated over several days. The three tumor sublines were characterized by the shapes of their sO2 distributions and their temporal response after external changes of the oxygen supply (100% O2 or air breathing and clamping of tumor-supplying artery). The established protocol showed to be suitable for detecting temporal changes in tumor oxygenation as well as differences in oxygenation between tumor sublines. PA results were in accordance with histology for hypoxia, perfusion, and vasculature. The presented protocol for the assessment of pixel-based sO2 distributions provides more detailed information as compared to conventional region-of-interest-based analysis of PAI, especially with respect to the detection of temporal changes and tumor heterogeneity. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  3. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Tumor Metabolic Markers for Cancer Diagnosis, Metabolic Phenotyping, and Characterization of Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong He

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells display heterogeneous genetic characteristics, depending on the tumor dynamic microenvironment. Abnormal tumor vasculature and poor tissue oxygenation generate a fraction of hypoxic tumor cells that have selective advantages in metastasis and invasion and often resist chemo- and radiation therapies. The genetic alterations acquired by tumors modify their biochemical pathways, which results in abnormal tumor metabolism. An elevation in glycolysis known as the “Warburg effect” and changes in lipid synthesis and oxidation occur. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has been used to study tumor metabolism in preclinical animal models and in clinical research on human breast, brain, and prostate cancers. This technique can identify specific genetic and metabolic changes that occur in malignant tumors. Therefore, the metabolic markers, detectable by MRS, not only provide information on biochemical changes but also define different metabolic tumor phenotypes. When combined with the contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, which has a high sensitivity for cancer diagnosis, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI improves the diagnostic specificity of malignant human cancers and is becoming an important clinical tool for cancer management and care. This article reviews the MRSI techniques as molecular imaging methods to detect and quantify metabolic changes in various tumor tissue types, especially in extracranial tumor tissues that contain high concentrations of fat. MRI/MRSI methods have been used to characterize tumor microenvironments in terms of blood volume and vessel permeability. Measurements of tissue oxygenation and glycolytic rates by MRS also are described to illustrate the capability of the MR technology in probing molecular information non-invasively in tumor tissues and its important potential for studying molecular mechanisms of human cancers in physiological conditions.

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance highlights that the oxygen effect contributes to the radiosensitizing effect of paclitaxel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Danhier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel (PTX is a potent anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent and is widely used in the treatments of solid tumors, particularly of the breast and ovaries. An effective and safe micellar formulation of PTX was used to administer higher doses of PTX than Taxol® (the current commercialized drug. We hypothesize that PTX-loaded micelles (M-PTX may enhance tumor radiosensitivity by increasing the tumor oxygenation (pO(2. Our goals were (i to evaluate the contribution of the "oxygen effect" to the radiosensitizing effect of PTX; (ii to demonstrate the therapeutic relevance of the combination of M-PTX and irradiation and (iii to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the observed oxygen effect. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used (PEG-p-(CL-co-TMC polymeric micelles to solubilize PTX. pO(2 was measured on TLT tumor-bearing mice treated with M-PTX (80 mg/kg using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR oximetry. The regrowth delay following 10 Gy irradiation 24 h after M-PTX treatment was measured. The tumor perfusion was assessed by the patent blue staining. The oxygen consumption rate and the apoptosis were evaluated by EPR oximetry and the TUNEL assay, respectively. EPR oximetry experiments showed that M-PTX dramatically increases the pO(2 24 h post treatment. Regrowth delay assays demonstrated a synergy between M-PTX and irradiation. M-PTX increased the tumor blood flow while cells treated with M-PTX consumed less oxygen and presented more apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: M-PTX improved the tumor oxygenation which leads to synergy between this treatment and irradiation. This increased pO(2 can be explained both by an increased blood flow and an inhibition of O(2 consumption.

  5. Correlations of noninvasive BOLD and TOLD MRI with pO2 and relevance to tumor radiation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallac, Rami R; Zhou, Heling; Pidikiti, Rajesh; Song, Kwang; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Zhao, Dawen; Solberg, Timothy; Peschke, Peter; Mason, Ralph P

    2014-05-01

    To examine the potential use of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and tissue oxygenation level dependent (TOLD) contrast MRI to assess tumor oxygenation and predict radiation response. BOLD and TOLD MRI were performed on Dunning R3327-AT1 rat prostate tumors during hyperoxic gas breathing challenge at 4.7 T. Animals were divided into two groups. In Group 1 (n = 9), subsequent (19) F MRI based on spin lattice relaxation of hexafluorobenzene reporter molecule provided quantitative oximetry for comparison. For Group 2 rats (n = 13) growth delay following a single dose of 30 Gy was compared with preirradiation BOLD and TOLD assessments. Oxygen (100%O2 ) and carbogen (95%O2 /5%CO2 ) challenge elicited similar BOLD, TOLD and pO2 responses. Strong correlations were observed between BOLD or R2* response and quantitative (19) F pO2 measurements. TOLD response showed a general trend with weaker correlation. Irradiation caused a significant tumor growth delay and tumors with larger changes in TOLD and R1 values upon oxygen breathing exhibited significantly increased tumor growth delay. These results provide further insight into the relationships between oxygen sensitive (BOLD/TOLD) MRI and tumor pO2 . Moreover, a larger increase in R1 response to hyperoxic gas challenge coincided with greater tumor growth delay following irradiation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Metabolic changes in tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages: A mutual relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea-Maier, R.T.; Smit, J.W.A.; Netea, M.G.

    2018-01-01

    In order to adapt to the reduced availability of nutrients and oxygen in the tumor microenvironment and the increased requirements of energy and building blocks necessary for maintaining their high proliferation rate, malignant cells undergo metabolic changes that result in an increased production

  7. A Discussion of Oxygen Recovery Definitions and Key Performance Parameters for Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization Life Support Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 55 years, NASA has evolved life support for crewed space exploration vehicles from simple resupply during Project Mercury to the complex and highly integrated system of systems aboard the International Space Station. As NASA targets exploration destinations farther from low Earth orbit and mission durations of 500 to 1000 days, life support systems must evolve to meet new requirements. In addition to having more robust, reliable, and maintainable hardware, limiting resupply becomes critical for managing mission logistics and cost. Supplying a crew with the basics of food, water, and oxygen become more challenging as the destination ventures further from Earth. Aboard ISS the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) supplies the crew's oxygen demand by electrolyzing water. This approach makes water a primary logistics commodity that must be managed carefully. Chemical reduction of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a method of recycling oxygen thereby reducing the net ARS water demand and therefore minimizing logistics needs. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this recovery and have been reported in the literature. However, depending on the architecture and the technology approach, "oxygen recovery" can be defined in various ways. This discontinuity makes it difficult to compare technologies directly. In an effort to clarify community discussions of Oxygen Recovery, we propose specific definitions and describe the methodology used to arrive at those definitions. Additionally, we discuss key performance parameters for Oxygen Recovery technology development including challenges with comparisons to state-of-the-art.

  8. Perfusion MRI derived indices of microvascular shunting and flow control correlate with tumor grade and outcome in patients with cerebral glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietze, Anna; Mouridsen, Kim; Lassen-Ramshad, Yasmin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Deficient microvascular blood flow control is thought to cause tumor hypoxia and increase resistance to therapy. In glioma patients, we tested whether perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) based indices of microvascular flow control provide more information on tumor grade and patient outcome...... than does the established PWI angiogenesis marker, cerebral blood volume (CBV). Material and Methods: Seventy-two glioma patients (sixty high-grade, twelve low-grade gliomas) were included. Capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH) and COV, its ratio to blood mean transit time, provide indices...... of microvascular flow control and the extent to which oxygen can be extracted by tumor tissue. The ability of these parameters and CBV to differentiate tumor grade were assessed by receiver operating characteristic curves and logistic regression. Their ability to predict time to progression and overall survival...

  9. Hyperspectral signature analysis of skin parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Garza, Luis; Kang, Sewon; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The temporal analysis of changes in biological skin parameters, including melanosome concentration, collagen concentration and blood oxygenation, may serve as a valuable tool in diagnosing the progression of malignant skin cancers and in understanding the pathophysiology of cancerous tumors. Quantitative knowledge of these parameters can also be useful in applications such as wound assessment, and point-of-care diagnostics, amongst others. We propose an approach to estimate in vivo skin parameters using a forward computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel Equations. We use this model to map the skin parameters to their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We then use machine learning based regression to develop an inverse map from hyperspectral signatures to skin parameters. In particular, we employ support vector machine based regression to estimate the in vivo skin parameters given their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We build on our work from SPIE 2012, and validate our methodology on an in vivo dataset. This dataset consists of 241 signatures collected from in vivo hyperspectral imaging of patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian and African American ethnicities. In addition, we also extend our methodology past the visible region and through the short-wave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find promising results when comparing the estimated skin parameters to the ground truth, demonstrating good agreement with well-established physiological precepts. This methodology can have potential use in non-invasive skin anomaly detection and for developing minimally invasive pre-screening tools.

  10. Longitudinal imaging studies of tumor microenvironment in mice treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Saito

    Full Text Available Rapamycin is an allosteric inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, and inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. Recent studies suggested a possibility that rapamycin renormalizes aberrant tumor vasculature and improves tumor oxygenation. The longitudinal effects of rapamycin on angiogenesis and tumor oxygenation were evaluated in murine squamous cell carcinoma (SCCVII by electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to identify an optimal time after rapamycin treatment for enhanced tumor radioresponse. Rapamycin treatment was initiated on SCCVII solid tumors 8 days after implantation (500-750 mm(3 and measurements of tumor pO(2 and blood volume were conducted from day 8 to 14 by EPRI/MRI. Microvessel density was evaluated over the same time period by immunohistochemical analysis. Tumor blood volume as measured by MRI significantly decreased 2 days after rapamycin treatment. Tumor pO(2 levels modestly but significantly increased 2 days after rapamycin treatment; whereas, it decreased in non-treated control tumors. Furthermore, the fraction of hypoxic area (pixels with pO(2<10 mm Hg in the tumor region decreased 2 days after rapamycin treatments. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor microvessel density and pericyte coverage revealed that microvessel density decreased 2 days after rapamycin treatment, but pericyte coverage did not change, similar to what was seen with anti-angiogenic agents such as sunitinib which cause vascular renormalization. Collectively, EPRI/MRI co-imaging can provide non-invasive evidence of rapamycin-induced vascular renormalization and resultant transient increase in tumor oxygenation. Improved oxygenation by rapamycin treatment provides a temporal window for anti-cancer therapies to realize enhanced response to radiotherapy.

  11. An Automatic Occlusion Device for Remote Control of Tumor Tissue Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dahdah, Hamid; Wang, Bei; He, Guanglong; Xu, Ronald X.

    2015-01-01

    We developed an automatic occlusion device for remote control of tumor tissue ischemia. The device consists of a flexible cannula encasing a shape memory alloy wire with its distal end connected to surgical suture. Regional tissue occlusion was tested on both the benchtop and the animal models. In the benchtop test, the occlusion device introduced quantitative and reproducible changes of blood flow in a tissue simulating phantom embedding a vessel simulator. In the animal test, the device generated a cyclic pattern of reversible ischemia in the right hinder leg tissue of a black male C57BL/6 mouse. We also developed a multimodal detector that integrates near infrared spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy for continuous monitoring of tumor tissue oxygenation, blood content, and oxygen tension changes. The multimodal detector was tested on a cancer xenograft nude mouse undergoing reversible tumor ischemia. The automatic occlusion device and the multi-modal detector can be potentially integrated for closed-loop feedback control of tumor tissue ischemia. Such an integrated occlusion device may be used in multiple clinical applications such as regional hypoperfusion control in tumor resection surgeries and thermal ablation processes. In addition, the proposed occlusion device can also be used as a research tool to understand tumor oxygen transport and hemodynamic characteristics. PMID:20082532

  12. Oxygen tension and prediction of the radiation response. Polarographic study in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappova, N.; Siracka, E.

    1982-01-01

    Serial polarographic measurement of the tissue oxygen tension (pO 2 ) was made in the course of fractionated irradiation (preoperative or sole treatment) of advanced breast cancer in 24 patients. In responsive tumors an increase in pO 2 appeared sooner before expressive tumor size reduction became noticeable. Repeated recording of unchanged pO 2 values proved to be a good prognostic indicator of local failure. The study made on this tumor model showed that serial polarographic pO 2 determinations with suitable electrodes causing minimal trauma and providing consistent and reproductive data about changes in tumor microcirculation and oxygenation may enlarge the scale of indicators of radiation response. (author)

  13. The relation of CT-determined tumor parameters and local and regional outcome of tonsillar cancer after definitive radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, Robert; Op de beeck, Katya; Bogaert, Walter van den; Rijnders, Alexis; Staelens, Lorenzo; Feron, Michel; Bellon, Erwin

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the value of CT-derived tumor parameters as predictor of local and regional outcome of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma treated by definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The pretreatment CT studies of 112 patients with tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma were reviewed. After redigitizing the films, primary and nodal tumor volume was calculated with the summation-of-areas technique. The nodal CT aspect was graded using a 3-point scale (homogenous, inhomogeneous, and necrotic). Mean follow-up time was 33 months. Actuarial statistical analysis of local and regional outcome was done for each of the covariates; multivariate analysis was performed using Cox's proportional hazards model. Results: In the actuarial analysis, CT-determined primary tumor volume was significantly correlated with local recurrence rate (p<0.05) when all patients were considered, but primary tumor volume did not predict local control within the T2, T3, and T4 category. CT-determined nodal volume was significantly related to regional outcome (p<0.01), but nodal density was not. Total tumor volume was not significantly related to locoregional outcome (p=0.1). In the multivariate analysis, the T and N categories were the independent predictors of local and regional outcomes, respectively. Conclusion: Compared to other head-and-neck sites, primary and nodal tumor volume have only marginal predictive value regarding local and regional outcome after radiation therapy in tonsillar cancer

  14. Verteporfin heterogeneity in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and the relationship to tumor vasculature and collagen distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Phuong; Xie, Rui; Nieskoski, Michael; Marra, Kayla; Gunn, Jason; Pogue, Brian W.

    2018-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as one promising treatment regimen for several cancer types, with a clinical trial ongoing in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PDT treatment efficacy mainly depends on the combination of light delivery, oxygen availability and photosensitizer uptake, each of which can be limited in pancreas cancer. Therefore, increasing drug uptake in the tumor would make an important impact on treatment outcome. This study was conducted to focus on the issue with drug resistance by examining the relationship between photosensitizer verteporfin and tissue parameters such as collagen and vascular patency. Verteporfin uptake in the tumors was assessed by fluorescence imaging while collagen content and patent vessel area fraction were quantified by evaluating Masson's Trichrome and Lectin pathology staining images. Two tumor cell lines - AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 - were modeled in nude mice to investigate the impact of different tumor microenvironments. Experimental results highlighted the correlation between vascular patency and verteporfin uptake. Collagen content was found to be an independent factor within each tumor line, but a comparison across two tumor types suggested that collagen area of greater than 10% of tumor cross section reflected a lower verteporfin uptake. It was observed that whole-slice tumor quantifications have showcased some interesting trends which could be greatly enhanced and further supported by regional analysis.

  15. Oxygen status of cervical cancers prior and during definitive radiotherapy: possible impact of pretreatment with INF-α-2a/retinol acid on oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensgen, Gabriele; Haensgen, Klaus; Dunst, Juergen

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Modern techniques have raised the possibility to measure intratumoral pO 2 with needle electrodes. We have investigated the oxygenation status of cervical cancers in patients undergoing definitive radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: From July 1995 through February 1996, 28 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix uteri FIGO II/III underwent polarographic measurement of tumor oxygenation prior to and during definitive radiotherapy. All received combined external irradiation and HDR-brachytherapy. 14 patients were enrolled in a phase II-protocol and received additional treatment with interferon-alpha-2a (INF-α-2a, daily dose 6x10 6 IU s.c. over 12 days) and cis-retinol acid (cRA, daily dose 1 mg/kg orally) starting 12 days before radiotherapy. During radiotherapy, INF-α-2a was given three times weekly in a dosage of 3x10 6 IU s.c. and cRA in daily doses of 0.5 mg/kg. Tumor oxygenation was measured with an Eppendorf-pO 2 -histograph prior to radiotherapy, after 20Gy and after completion of radiotherapy. Results: We found a broad range of pO 2 -values in the 28 patients. Significant hypoxic areas were detectable in about one third of the patients. The mean and median pO 2 -values did not correlate with tumor stage or tumor volume. At the beginning of radiotherapy, the patients with INF-α-2a/cRA-pretreatment had significant higher mean pO 2 -values as compared to patients without INF-α-2a/cRA-pretreatment: mean pO 2 34.7 ± 25.9 mmHg versus 18.0 ± 9.9 mmHg, p=0.03, median pO 2 28.6 versus 17.3 mmHg). Only two patients had pO 2 -measurements before and after INF-α-2a/cRA-pretreatment; in both the mean pO 2 increased threefold during INF-α-2a/cRA. During radiotherapy, the median pO 2 -value increased in both groups of patients. In patients with primary hypoxia, different patterns of oxygenation were detectable after 20Gy showing persistent hypoxia or an increase in the mean pO 2 . Persistent hypoxia without 'reoxygenation' was associated with

  16. Radiotherapy plus cis-retinoic acid/interferon-α in cervical cancers: response and impact of cRA/IFN on tumor tissue oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensgen, Gabriele; Koehler, Uwe; Dunst, Juergen

    1997-01-01

    Background: We have evaluated the impact of 13-cis-retinoic acid plus interferon in combination with radiotherapy on response and on tumor oxygenation in a phase II-study. Materials and methods: From June 1995 through April 1996, thirty-four patients with squamous cell carcinoma FIGO IIB (N=8) and IIIB (N=26) of the cervix who were scheduled for definitive radiotherapy with curative intent received additional treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA, isotretinoin) plus interferon-α-2a (IFN-α-2a) as part of a phase-II-protocol at the Universities of Halle-Wittenberg (N=25), Leipzig (N=7) and Dresden (N=2). cRA/IFN-α-2a started 14 days prior to radiotherapy (1 mg per kilogramm body weight cRA orally daily plus 6x10 6 I.U. IFN-α-2a subcutaneously daily). After this induction period, standard radiotherapy was administered (external irradiation with 45Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8Gy plus HDR-brachytherapy with 5x7Gy). During radiotherapy, cRA/IFN-α-2a-treatment was continued with 50% of the daily doses. In 14 patients treated at the University of Halle-Wittenberg, tumor tissue pO 2 -measurements were performed prior to radiotherapy, at 20Gy, and at the end of radiotherapy with an Eppendorf-pO 2 -histograph. The oxygenation data of these patients were compared to 14 patients who had also pO 2 -measurements but had refused to participate in the cRA/IFN-α-2a-protocol and received radiotherapy alone during the same period. Results: All 8 patients with FIGO IIB tumors had a complete clinical remission 3 months after radiotherapy. In FIGO IIIB cancers, (19(26)) (73%) achieved a cCR, 5 (19%) had a PR and 2 died within six months after treatment due to intercurrent disease. The toxicity of cRA/IFN-α-2a was only mild to moderate (fever 43%, skin toxicity 36%, diarrhea 20%, elevation of liver enzymes 20%) with no grade (3(4)) toxicity. The 14 patients with cRA/IFN-α-2a-pretreatment prior to radiotherapy had significant higher median pO 2 -values in their tumors at the

  17. Electronic and Structural Parameters of Phosphorus-Oxygen Bonds in Inorganic Phosphate Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuchin, V. V.; Kesler, V. G.; Pervukhina, N. V.

    Wide set of experimental results on binding energy of photoelectrons emitted from P 2p, P 2s, and O 1s core levels has been observed for inorganic phosphate crystals and the parameters were compared using energy differences Δ(O 1s - P 2p) and Δ (O 1s - P 2s) as most robust characteristics. Linear dependence of the binding energy difference on mean chemical bond length L(P-O) between phosphorus and oxygen atoms has been found. The functions are of the forms: Δ (O 1s - P 2p) (eV) = 375.54 + 0.146 · L(P-O) (pm) and Δ (O 1s - P 2s) (eV) = 320.77 + 0.129 · L(P-O) (pm). The dependencies are general for inorganic phosphates and may be used in quantitative component analysis of X-ray photoemission spectra of complex oxide compounds including functional groups with different coordination of P and O atoms.

  18. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagan, Jonathan, E-mail: jdpagan@uams.edu; Przybyla, Beata; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Gupta, Kalpna [Vascular Biology Center and Division of Hematology-Oncology Transplantation, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MN 72223 (United States); Griffin, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm{sup 3}) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the

  19. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagan, Jonathan; Przybyla, Beata; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Gupta, Kalpna; Griffin, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm 3 ) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the

  20. Correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenshi ZHANG

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective The solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs is one of the most common findings on chest radiographs. It becomes possible to provide more accurately quantitative information about blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs with multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size. Methods 68 patients with maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs (diameter <=4 cmunderwent multi-location dynamic contrast material-enhanced (nonionic contrast material was administrated via the antecubital vein at a rate of 4mL/s by an autoinjector, 4*5mm or 4*2.5mm scanning mode with stable table were performed. serial CT. Precontrast and postcontrast attenuation on every scan was recorded. Perfusion (PSPN, peak height (PHSPNratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratioand mean transit time(MTT were calculated. The correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size were assessed by means of linear regression analysis. Results No significant correlations were found between the tumor size and each of the peak height (PHSPN ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratio perfusion(PSPNand mean transit time (r=0.18, P=0.14; r=0.20,P=0.09; r=0.01, P=0.95; r=0.01, P=0.93. Conclusion No significant correlation is found between the tumor size and each of the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules.

  1. Theory of oxygen isotope exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Otter, M.W.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Transients for oxygen molecular mass numbers 32, 34 and 36 are derived which can be used for the interpretation of oxygen isotope exchange data based on measurement of concentrations of 16O2, 16O18O and 18O2 in the gas phase. Key parameters in the theory are the rate at which oxygen molecules are

  2. Potential role of the glycolytic oscillator in acute hypoxia in tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fru, Leonard Che; Adamson, Erin B; Campos, David D; Fain, Sean B; Song, Chihwa; Kissick, Michael W; Jacques, Steven L; Van der Kogel, Albert J; Nickel, Kwang P; Kimple, Randall J

    2015-01-01

    Tumor acute hypoxia has a dynamic component that is also, at least partially, coherent. Using blood oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging, we observed coherent oscillations in hemoglobin saturation dynamics in cell line xenograft models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We posit a well-established biochemical nonlinear oscillatory mechanism called the glycolytic oscillator as a potential cause of the coherent oscillations in tumors. These data suggest that metabolic changes within individual tumor cells may affect the local tumor microenvironment including oxygen availability and therefore radiosensitivity. These individual cells can synchronize the oscillations in patches of similar intermediate glucose levels. These alterations have potentially important implications for radiation therapy and are a potential target for optimizing the cancer response to radiation. (paper)

  3. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2017-12-01

    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O 2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The oxygen effect and adaptive response of cells. Report 3. Simulation of respiratory oxygenation and oxygen permeability of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehpshtejn, I.M.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the oxygen concentration in extracellural [O 2 ] 0 and intracellular [Osub(2)]sub(i) media of cells small in size (d = 2 ] 0 - t-curves). It is shown that the Value of [Osub(2)]sub(i) may be expressed by four variants of its functional dependence: (a) on enzymic reaction of oxygen consumption, (b) on the order of reaction with respect to oxygen, (c) on physiological parameters of cells, and (d) on characteristic oxygen concentrations in the system. Items (c) and (d) are based on the postulated diffusion-kinetic model of oxygen consumption by an idealized cell of small size that consists of a drop of homogenous solution of the respiratory enzyme which is characterized by an equivalent Michaelis constant. The drop is enveloped in a uniform membrane that possesses a definite diffuse resistance to oxygen

  5. Automated Processing of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: Correlation of Advanced Pharmacokinetic Metrics with Tumor Grade in Pediatric Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajapeyam, S; Stamoulis, C; Ricci, K; Kieran, M; Poussaint, T Young

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging have proved useful for differentiating brain tumor grades in adults. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion data from children with newly diagnosed brain tumors and analyzed the pharmacokinetic parameters correlating with tumor grade. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging data from 38 patients were analyzed by using commercially available software. Subjects were categorized into 2 groups based on pathologic analyses consisting of low-grade (World Health Organization I and II) and high-grade (World Health Organization III and IV) tumors. Pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between the 2 groups by using linear regression models. For parameters that were statistically distinct between the 2 groups, sensitivity and specificity were also estimated. Eighteen tumors were classified as low-grade, and 20, as high-grade. Transfer constant from the blood plasma into the extracellular extravascular space (K trans ), rate constant from extracellular extravascular space back into blood plasma (K ep ), and extracellular extravascular volume fraction (V e ) were all significantly correlated with tumor grade; high-grade tumors showed higher K trans , higher K ep , and lower V e . Although all 3 parameters had high specificity (range, 82%-100%), K ep had the highest specificity for both grades. Optimal sensitivity was achieved for V e , with a combined sensitivity of 76% (compared with 71% for K trans and K ep ). Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging can effectively discriminate low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumors. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  6. Radiosensitivity of Hela cells in various O2 concentrations and consideration of oxygen effect in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Yoshikazu; Nyunoya, Koichiro

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the study of the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells in vitro in various oxygen concentrations and the consideration of the utilization of oxygen effect in radiation therapy, based on the data of HeLa cells and tumor oxygen tension. Survival curves of HeLa cells are found to be exponential as a function of radiation dose and the radiosensitivity is dependent on oxygen tension of culture medium. Relative radiosensitivity decreases remarkably at low level of oxygen, especially under 9 mmHg pO 2 . The utilization of oxygen effect in radiation may be useful in hyperbaric oxygen inhalation and not useful under local tissue hypoxia induced by tourniquet application. Reoxygenation occurs with shrinkage of tumor after irradiation and this phenomenon will diminish the value of hyperbaric oxygen in radiation therapy. (author)

  7. Photodynamic therapy of solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, Giulio

    Some porphyrin compounds, which are characterized by a relatively large degree of hydrophobicity (n-octanol/water partition coefficient above 8), are accumulated in greater amounts and retained for longer periods of time by neoplastic as compared with normal tissues. The affinity of these dyes for tumors is partially a consequence of their in vivo transport by low-density lipoproteins, which are preferentially endocytosized by hyperproliferating tissues in a receptor-mediated process. In general, at 24-48 h after the systematic administration of porphyrin doses in the range of 2.5 mg/kg body weight, the ratio of drug concentration between the neoplastic and the surrounding tissues is sufficiently large to guarantee a selective photoexcitation of the porphyrin. Toward this aim, the porphyrin-containing tumor tissues are irradiated with light wavelengths longer than 600 nm, since the transmittance of biological tissues is maximal in this spectral region. The electronically excited porphyrin transfers its excitation energy to oxygen, thus generating activated oxygen species (mainly, singlet oxygen): as a consequence, the photooxidative modification of subcellular targets (e.g. the plasma membrane and mitochondria) is readily obtained leading to an irreversible necrosis of the cell. With the most frequently used porphyrins for clinical phototherapy (including hematoporphyrin and its derivatives HpD and Photofrin II), one observes the preferential photosensitized destruction of endothelial cells, hence the vascular damage is a major process involved in the necrosis of tumors. The optimization of the phototherapy of tumors is presently pursued by the definition of clinical protocols tailored to the optical properties of specific neoplastic tissues as well as by the use of porphyrin analogs, such as chlorins and phthalocyanines, having an extinction coefficient in the red spectral region larger than that typical of hematoporphyrin and HpD.

  8. Experimental studies on the effect of perfluorochemicals in tumor irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Jun; Iwai, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tatsuaki; Kondo, Hiroaki; Sakai, Noboru; Yamada, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    The effects of radiation therapy with Fluosol-DA on rat mammary tumors were studied. The tissue oxygen tension values of tumors in breathing mixed gas (5% carbon dioxide and 95% oxygen) with Fluosol-DA (25 ml/kg, i.v.) were significantly higher than those in room air without Fluosol-DA. The rats were divided into three groups: Group I received Fluosol-DA but no irradiation, Group II was treated with 1000 rads of irradiation using 60 Co without Fluosol-DA in room air and Group III received the same irradiation and Fluosol-DA in breathig mixed gas. In the latter group we observed a prolongation of the survival time and suppression of the tumor growth. (author)

  9. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT-derived metabolic parameters for determination of whole-body tumor burden and treatment response in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidkonz, Christian; Cordes, Michael; Schmidt, Daniela; Bäuerle, Tobias; Goetz, Theresa Ida; Beck, Michael; Prante, Olaf; Cavallaro, Alexander; Uder, Michael; Wullich, Bernd; Goebell, Peter; Kuwert, Torsten; Ritt, Philipp

    2018-05-03

    We aimed at evaluating the role of 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT-derived metabolic parameters for assessment of whole-body tumor burden and its capability to determine therapeutic response in patients with prostate cancer. A total of 142 patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer underwent PET/CT with [ 68 Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC ( 68 Ga-PSMA-11). Quantitative assessment of all 641 68 Ga-PSMA-11-positive lesions in the field of view was performed to calculate PSMA-derived parameters, including whole-body PSMA tumor volume (PSMA-TV) and whole-body total lesion PSMA (TL-PSMA), as well as the established SUVmax and SUVmean values. All PET-derived parameters were tested for correlation with serum PSA levels and for association with Gleason scores. In 23 patients who underwent 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT before and after therapy with either external beam radiation, androgen deprivation, or docetaxel chemotherapy, SUVmax and TL-PSMA were compared to radiographic response assessment of CT images based on RECIST 1.1 criteria and to biochemical response determined by changes of serum PSA levels. PSMA-TV and TL-PSMA demonstrated a significant correlation with serum PSA levels (P PET and biochemical response was 87% (95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.97; Cohen's κ = 0.78; P PET and CT were most likely due to limitations of CT and RECIST in rating small lymph nodes as metastases, as well as bone involvement, which was sometimes not detectable in CT. 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT-derived metabolic tumor parameters showed promising results for evaluation of treatment response. Especially, TL-PSMA demonstrated higher agreement rates with biochemical response compared to SUVmax. Larger, ideally prospective trials are needed to help to reveal the full potential of metabolic parameters derived from PET imaging with 68 Ga-PSMA-11.

  10. Risk Factors for Neovascular Glaucoma After Proton Beam Therapy of Uveal Melanoma: A Detailed Analysis of Tumor and Dose–Volume Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Daftari, Inder K.; Weinberg, Vivian; Cole, Tia; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Castro, Joseph R.; Phillips, Theodore L.; Char, Devron H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine neovascular glaucoma (NVG) incidence and identify contributing tumor and dosing factors in uveal melanoma patients treated with proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 704 PBRT patients treated by a single surgeon (DHC) for uveal melanoma (1996-2010) were reviewed for NVG in our prospectively maintained database. All patients received 56 GyE in 4 fractions. Median follow-up was 58.3 months. Analyses included the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate NVG distributions, univariate log–rank tests, and Cox's proportional hazards multivariate analysis using likelihood ratio tests to identify independent risk factors of NVG among patient, tumor, and dose–volume histogram parameters. Results: The 5-year PBRT NVG rate was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.2%-15.9%). The 5-year rate of enucleation due to NVG was 4.9% (95% CI 3.4%-7.2%). Univariately, the NVG rate increased significantly with larger tumor diameter (P 30% of the lens or ciliary body received ≥50% dose (≥28 GyE), there was a higher probability of NVG (P 0%-30% vs >30%) (P=.01), and optic nerve length treated to ≥90% Dose (≤1 mm vs >1 mm) (P=.02). Conclusions: Our current PBRT patients experience a low rate of NVG and resultant enucleation compared with historical data. The present analysis shows that tumor height, diameter, and anterior as well as posterior critical structure dose–volume parameters may be used to predict NVG risk

  11. Differential diagnosis between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors utilizing ultrasound parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morii, Takeshi; Kishino, Tomonori; Shimamori, Naoko; Motohashi, Mitsue; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Honya, Keita; Aoyagi, Takayuki; Tajima, Takashi; Ichimura, Shoichi

    2018-01-01

    Preoperative discrimination between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors is critical for the prevention of excess application of magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy as well as unplanned resection. Although ultrasound, including power Doppler imaging, is an easy, noninvasive, and cost-effective modality for screening soft tissue tumors, few studies have investigated reliable discrimination between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors. To establish a modality for discrimination between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors using ultrasound, we extracted the significant risk factors for malignancy based on ultrasound information from 40 malignant and 56 benign pathologically diagnosed soft tissue tumors and established a scoring system based on these risk factors. The maximum size, tumor margin, and vascularity evaluated using ultrasound were extracted as significant risk factors. Using the odds ratio from a multivariate regression model, a scoring system was established. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed a high area under the curve value (0.85), confirming the accuracy of the scoring system. Ultrasound is a useful modality for establishing the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors.

  12. Contributions of Cell Metabolism and H+ Diffusion to the Acidic pH of Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Schornack

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment is hypoxic and acidic. These conditions have a significant impact on tumor progression and response to therapies. There is strong evidence that tumor hypoxia results from inefficient perfusion due to a chaotic vasculature. Consequently, some tumor regions are well oxygenated and others are hypoxic. It is commonly believed that hypoxic regions are acidic due to a stimulation of glycolysis through hypoxia, yet this is not yet demonstrated. The current study investigates the causes of tumor acidity by determining acid production rates and the mechanism of diffusion for H+ equivalents through model systems. Two breast cancer cell lines were investigated with divergent metabolic profiles: nonmetastatic MCF-7/s and highly metastatic MDA-mb-435 cells. Glycolysis and acid production are inhibited by oxygen in MCF-7/s cells, but not in MDA-mb-435 cells. Tumors of MDAmb-435 cells are significantly more acidic than are tumors of MCF-7/s cells, suggesting that tumor acidity is primarily caused by endogenous metabolism, not the lack of oxygen. Metabolically produced protons are shown to diffuse in association with mobile buffers, in concordance with previous studies. The metabolic and diffusion data were analyzed using a reaction-diffusion model to demonstrate that the consequent pH profiles conform well to measured pH values for tumors of these two cell lines.

  13. Gold namoprtices enhance anti-tumor effect of radiotherapy to hypoxic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Jae Won; Keum, Ki Chang; Koom, Woong Sub [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Ui Seok; Koh, Won Gun [Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Hypoxia can impair the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). Therefore, a new strategy is necessary for enhancing the response to RT. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of nanoparticles and RT is effective in eliminating the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) consisting of a silica core with a gold shell were used. CT26 colon cancer mouse model was developed to study whether the combination of RT and GNPs reduced hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was used as a hypoxia marker. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were conducted to evaluate cell death. Hypoxic tumor cells had an impaired response to RT. GNPs combined with RT enhanced anti-tumor effect in hypoxic tumor compared with RT alone. The combination of GNPs and RT decreased tumor cell viability compare to RT alone in vitro. Under hypoxia, tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed a higher response than that shown by tumors treated with RT alone. When a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger was added, the enhanced antitumor effect of GNPs + RT was diminished. In the present study, hypoxic tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed favorable responses, which might be attributable to the ROS production induced by GNPs + RT. Taken together, GNPs combined with RT seems to be potential modality for enhancing the response to RT in hypoxic tumors.

  14. Gold namoprtices enhance anti-tumor effect of radiotherapy to hypoxic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Jae Won; Keum, Ki Chang; Koom, Woong Sub; Chung, Ui Seok; Koh, Won Gun

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia can impair the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). Therefore, a new strategy is necessary for enhancing the response to RT. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of nanoparticles and RT is effective in eliminating the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) consisting of a silica core with a gold shell were used. CT26 colon cancer mouse model was developed to study whether the combination of RT and GNPs reduced hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was used as a hypoxia marker. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were conducted to evaluate cell death. Hypoxic tumor cells had an impaired response to RT. GNPs combined with RT enhanced anti-tumor effect in hypoxic tumor compared with RT alone. The combination of GNPs and RT decreased tumor cell viability compare to RT alone in vitro. Under hypoxia, tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed a higher response than that shown by tumors treated with RT alone. When a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger was added, the enhanced antitumor effect of GNPs + RT was diminished. In the present study, hypoxic tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed favorable responses, which might be attributable to the ROS production induced by GNPs + RT. Taken together, GNPs combined with RT seems to be potential modality for enhancing the response to RT in hypoxic tumors

  15. [Regional cerebral oxygen saturation as a marker of hemodynamic state following cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, J A; Aldemira-Liz, A; Martínez-López, A I; Cayuela, A; Charlo-Molina, M T; Cano-Franco, J; Loscertales-Abril, M

    2013-10-01

    Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO₂) is a measure of the general state of perfusion and oxygenation. We aim to analyze the relationship between this and various hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. Forty-three patients, operated on between October 2011 and July 2012, were included in this prospective observational descriptive study. The following parameters were measured: mean arterial pressure, both arterial and central venous oxygen saturation and partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and lactate levels. From these parameters, the oxygenation index and the oxygen extraction ratio were calculated. These measurements were studied to evaluate whether rSO₂ correlated significantly with the other parameters. The average age and weight of the patients were 27.3 months and 9.2 kg, respectively. The rSO₂ correlated positively with both central venous oxygen saturation (r=0.73, P 0.4) between the rSO₂ and central venous oxygen saturation, and between the rSO₂ and oxygen extraction ratio. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation correlates well with hemodynamic parameters - mean arterial pressure, venous saturation, and the tissue oxygen extraction. However, it does not correlate with respiratory parameters. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Advanced MR diagnostic imaging in pediatric glial cell tumors: from morphological to pathophysiological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balev, B.; Georgiev, R.; Novakova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The conventional MR imaging is important, and in most cases necessary imaging tool for studying the macroscopic structure, for localization and distribution of a glial brain tumor. It is an integral part of the optimal MR protocol, which further comprises a diffusion, perfusion techniques, techniques for the permeability and oxygenation assessment, as well as MR spectroscopy to the metabolism assessment. What you will learn: Glial brain tumors in children - incidence, histology, classification, diagnosis; Nature and principles of MR diffusion, perfusion, techniques for permeability and oxygenation assessment, MR spectroscopy; Contemporary techniques allowing to obtain not only MR morphological information but also to evaluate the tumor the pathophysiology: the cellular atypia, cellularity, tumor neovascularization, oxygen consumption, metabolism, status of the blood-brain barrier. This assessment determines the biological potential of the tumor, treatment options and prognosis. Discussion: The findings from conventional MR examinations, incl. administration of gadolinium contrast agents are associated with the degree of glioma and can be useful for their classification. Taking into account that from 20% to 45 % of the unenhanced supratentorial gliomas are malignant, some low-grade gliomas enhance (ganglioglioma, pilocytic astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma), 9% of malignant gliomas have no contrast enhancement, and in general, the contrast enhancement is not seen as a reliable indicator for the infiltration extent. The contemporary MR techniques improve the assessment of the pathophysiology of the tumor which is relevant to its histology and biological potential. Conclusion: Modern MR techniques besides purely diagnostic advantages (determine the extent and distribution of glioma), enable: differentiation of tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis; identification of optimal locations for biopsy or operative resection; prognosis, planning and

  17. Implantable oxygen microelectrode suitable for medium-term investigations of post-surgical tissue hypoxia and changes in tumor tissue oxygenation produced by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, T.R.; Johnson, R.J.; Krishnamsetty, C.B.; Sako, K.; Karakousis, C.; Wojtas, F.

    1980-01-01

    Teflon-covered platinum oxygen probes were used to monitor tissue oxygen levels in post-surgical cancer patients and those treated with radiotherapy. Progressive wound healing was usually accompanied by a decrease in tissue pO2. Radiotherapy produced a slight increase in pO2 while hyperthermia effected a significant increase in the oxygen level during 100% oxygen breathing

  18. 'Multi-associations': predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Gerhard; Pocivalnik, Mirjam; Riedl, Regina; Pichler-Stachl, Elisabeth; Morris, Nicholas; Zotter, Heinz; Müller, Wilhelm; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2011-08-01

    Interpretation of peripheral circulation in ill neonates is crucial but difficult. The aim was to analyse parameters potentially influencing peripheral oxygenation and circulation. In a prospective observational cohort study in 116 cardio-circulatory stable neonates, peripheral muscle near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with venous occlusion was performed. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI), mixed venous oxygenation (SvO(2)), fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE), haemoglobin flow (Hbflow), oxygen delivery (DO(2)), oxygen consumption (VO(2)), and vascular resistance (VR) were assessed. Correlation coefficients between NIRS parameters and demographic parameters (gestational age, birth weight, age, actual weight, diameter of calf, subcutaneous adipose tissue), monitoring parameters (heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), mean blood pressure (MAP), core/peripheral temperature, central/peripheral capillary refill time) and laboratory parameters (haemoglobin concentration (Hb-blood), pCO(2)) were calculated. All demographic parameters except for Hbflow and DO(2) correlated with NIRS parameters. Heart rate correlated with TOI, SvO(2), VO(2) and VR. SaO(2) correlated with FOE/FTOE. MAP correlated with Hbflow, DO(2), VO(2) and VR. Core temperature correlated with FTOE. Peripheral temperature correlated with all NIRS parameters except VO(2). Hb-blood correlated with FOE and VR. pCO(2) levels correlated with TOI and SvO(2). The presence of multiple interdependent factors associated with peripheral oxygenation and circulation highlights the difficulty in interpreting NIRS data. Nevertheless, these findings have to be taken into account when analysing peripheral oxygenation and circulation data.

  19. Direct tissue oxygen monitoring by in vivo photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qi; Morgounova, Ekaterina; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2014-03-01

    Tissue oxygen plays a critical role in maintaining tissue viability and in various diseases, including response to therapy. Images of oxygen distribution provide the history of tissue hypoxia and evidence of oxygen availability in the circulatory system. Currently available methods of direct measuring or imaging tissue oxygen all have significant limitations. Previously, we have reported a non-invasive in vivo imaging modality based on photoacoustic lifetime. The technique maps the excited triplet state of oxygen-sensitive dye, thus reflects the spatial and temporal distribution of tissue oxygen. We have applied PALI on tumor hypoxia in small animals, and the hypoxic region imaged by PALI is consistent with the site of the tumor imaged by ultrasound. Here, we present two studies of applying PALI to monitor changes of tissue oxygen by modulations. The first study involves an acute ischemia model using a thin thread tied around the hind limb of a normal mouse to reduce the blood flow. PALI images were acquired before, during, and after the restriction. The drop of muscle pO2 and recovery from hypoxia due to reperfusion were observed by PALI tracking the same region. The second study modulates tissue oxygen by controlling the percentage of oxygen the mouse inhales. We demonstrate that PALI is able to reflect the change of oxygen level with respect to both hyperbaric and hypobaric conditions. We expect this technique to be very attractive for a range of clinical applications in which tissue oxygen mapping would improve therapy decision making and treatment planning.

  20. Localization of the experimental tumor regrowth after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, H; Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer

    1978-08-01

    The process of the structural changes in the irradiated AH109A tumor and its regrowth was studied, using histologic and transparent-chamber techniques. The tumor tissue was divided into four successive layers, according to vascular morphology and measures. The vascularity was the greatest in the outermost region and decreased towards the inner part of the tumor until necrosis. The tumor was irradiated with various doses of x and gamma-rays. The inside hypoxic region was destroyed completely after 3,000 rad and regrowths started from the outermost area of the tumor where oxygen enhancing effect to irradiation was supposed to be the greatest.

  1. Liposome accumulation in irradiated tumors display important tumor and dose dependent differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Elias; Fliedner, Frederikke Petrine; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager

    2018-01-01

    Radiation therapy may affect several important parameters in the tumor microenvironment and thereby influence the accumulation of liposomes by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR)-effect. Here we investigate the effect of single dose radiation therapy on liposome tumor accumulation by PET...

  2. Non-Invasive In Vivo Characterization of Breast Tumors Using Photon Migration Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J. Tromberg

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM is a noninvasive optical technique that utilizes intensity-modulated, near-infrared (NIR light to quantitatively measure optical properties in thick tissues. Optical properties (absorption, μa, and scattering, μs′, parameters derived from FDPM measurements can be used to construct low-resolution (0.5 to 1 cm functional images of tissue hemoglobin (total, oxy-, and deoxyforms, oxygen saturation, blood volume fraction, water content, fat content and cellular structure. Unlike conventional NIR transillumination, FDPM enables quantitative analysis of tissue absorption and scattering parameters in a single non-invasive measurement. The unique functional information provided by FDPM makes it well-suited to characterizing tumors in thick tissues. In order to test the sensitivity of FDPM for cancer diagnosis, we have initiated clinical studies to quantitatively determine normal and malignant breast tissue optical and physiological properties in human subjects. Measurements are performed using a non-invasive, multi-wavelength, diode-laser FDPM device optimized for clinical studies. Results show that ductal carcinomas (invasive and in situ and benign fibroadenomas exhibit 1.25 to 3-fold higher absorption than normal breast tissue. Within this group, absorption is greatest for measurements obtained from sites of invasive cancer. Optical scattering is approximately 20% greater in pre-menopausal versus post-menopausal subjects due to differences in gland/cell proliferation and collagen/fat content. Spatial variations in tissue scattering reveal the loss of differentiation associated with breast disease progression. Overall, the metabolic demands of hormonal stimulation and tumor growth are detectable using photon migration techniques. Measurements provide quantitative optical property values that reflect changes in tissue perfusion, oxygen consumption, and cell/matrix development.

  3. Overexpression of Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase Enhances Tumor Hypoxia: An Insight into the Relationship of Hypoxia and Angiogenesis In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Kostourou

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The oxygenation status of tumors derived from wild-type C6 glioma cells and clone D27 cells overexpressing dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH was assessed in vivo using a variety of direct and indirect assays of hypoxia. Clone D27 tumors exhibit a more aggressive and better-vascularized phenotype compared to wild-type C6 gliomas. Immunohistochemical analyses using the 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker pimonidazole, fiber optic OxyLite measurements of tumor pO2, and localized 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of tumor bioenergetic status and pH clearly demonstrated that the D27 tumors were more hypoxic compared to C6 wild type. In the tumor extracts, only glucose concentrations were significantly lower in the D27 tumors. Elevated Glut-1 expression, a reliable functional marker for hypoxia-inducible factor-1-mediated metabolic adaptation, was observed in the D27 tumors. Together, the data show that overexpression of DDAH results in C6 gliomas that are more hypoxic compared to wild-type tumors, and point strongly to an inverse relationship of tumor oxygenation and angiogenesis in vivo-a concept now being supported by the enhanced understanding of oxygen sensing at the molecular level.

  4. Photoacoustic Imaging in Oxygen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen level, including blood oxygen saturation (sO2 and tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO2, are crucial physiological parameters in life science. This paper reviews the importance of these two parameters and the detection methods for them, focusing on the application of photoacoustic imaging in this scenario. sO2 is traditionally detected with optical spectra-based methods, and has recently been proven uniquely efficient by using photoacoustic methods. pO2, on the other hand, is typically detected by PET, MRI, or pure optical approaches, yet with limited spatial resolution, imaging frame rate, or penetration depth. Great potential has also been demonstrated by employing photoacoustic imaging to overcome the existing limitations of the aforementioned techniques.

  5. Evaluation of Effective Parameters on Quality of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-computed Tomography Image Fusion in Head and Neck Tumors for Application in Treatment Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Shirvani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In radiation therapy, computed tomography (CT simulation is used for treatment planning to define the location of tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-CT image fusion leads to more efficient tumor contouring. This work tried to identify the practical issues for the combination of CT and MRI images in real clinical cases. The effect of various factors is evaluated on image fusion quality. Materials and Methods: In this study, the data of thirty patients with brain tumors were used for image fusion. The effect of several parameters on possibility and quality of image fusion was evaluated. These parameters include angles of the patient's head on the bed, slices thickness, slice gap, and height of the patient's head. Results: According to the results, the first dominating factor on quality of image fusion was the difference slice gap between CT and MRI images (cor = 0.86, P 4 cm and image fusion quality was <25%. Conclusion: The most important problem in image fusion is that MRI images are taken without regard to their use in treatment planning. In general, parameters related to the patient position during MRI imaging should be chosen to be consistent with CT images of the patient in terms of location and angle.

  6. Hypoxic Response of Tumor Tissues in a Microfluidic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Adnan; Dutta, Prashanta

    2017-11-01

    Inside a tumor tissue, cells growing further away from the blood vessel often suffer from low oxygen levels known as hypoxia. Cancer cells have shown prolonged survival in hostile hypoxic conditions by sharply changing the cellular metabolism. In this work, different stages of growth of the tumor tissue and the oxygen transport across the tissue are investigated. The tissue was modeled as a contiguous block of cells inside a microfluidic environment with nutrient transport through advection and diffusion. While oxygen uptake inside the tissue is through diffusion, ascorbate transport from the extracellular medium is addressed by a concentration dependent uptake model. By varying the experimentally observed oxygen consumption rate, different types of cancer cells and their normoxic and hypoxic stages were studied. Even when the oxygen supply in the channel is maintained at normoxic levels, our results show the onset of hypoxia within minutes inside the cellblock. Interestingly, modeled cell blocks with and without a structured basal layer showed less than 5% variation in hypoxic response in chronic hypoxia. Results also indicate that the balance of cell survival and growth are affected by the flow rate of nutrients and the oxygen consumption rate. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMS 1317671.

  7. Front instabilities and invasiveness of simulated 3D avascular tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodem J Poplawski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We use the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model to simulate three-dimensional (3D, single-phenotype, avascular tumors growing in an homogeneous tissue matrix (TM supplying a single limiting nutrient. We study the effects of two parameters on tumor morphology: a diffusion-limitation parameter defined as the ratio of the tumor-substrate consumption rate to the substrate-transport rate, and the tumor-TM surface tension. This initial model omits necrosis and oxidative/hypoxic metabolism effects, which can further influence tumor morphology, but our simplified model still shows significant parameter dependencies. The diffusion-limitation parameter determines whether the growing solid tumor develops a smooth (noninvasive or fingered (invasive interface, as in our earlier two-dimensional (2D simulations. The sensitivity of 3D tumor morphology to tumor-TM surface tension increases with the size of the diffusion-limitation parameter, as in 2D. The 3D results are unexpectedly close to those in 2D. Our results therefore may justify using simpler 2D simulations of tumor growth, instead of more realistic but more computationally expensive 3D simulations. While geometrical artifacts mean that 2D sections of connected 3D tumors may be disconnected, the morphologies of 3D simulated tumors nevertheless correlate with the morphologies of their 2D sections, especially for low-surface-tension tumors, allowing the use of 2D sections to partially reconstruct medically-important 3D-tumor structures.

  8. Effects of radiotherapy on non-specific immunological parameters in patients with malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Junkoh; Iwaki, Kazuo; Ohtsuka, Shin-ichi; Yamasaki, Toshiki; Gi, Hidefuku

    1983-01-01

    The non-specific immunological parameters of 37 patients with malignant brain tumors were analysed by means of 1) purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test, 2) lymphocyte counts, and 3) phytohemagglutinin (PHA) blastogenesis. The PPD skin reaction and PHA blastogenesis were already depressed preoperatively in patients with malignant brain tumors as compared to those in normal controls. When radiotherapy was confined to the head, lymphocyte counts and PHA blastogenesis were further depressed, but gradually recovered to preoperative levels within 6 months after the completion of radiotherapy. In the cases with medulloblastoma and germinoma who received whole cerebrospinal axis irradiation, lymphocyte counts and PHA blastogenesis were more markedly depressed and took more than 6 months after completion of the radiotherapy to recover to their preoperative levels. The result of the PPD skin test, on the other hand, was not affected and was rather enhanced by radiotherapy, showing a marked dissociation from the changes in lymphocyte counts and PHA blastogenesis. The results of PPD skin test on discharge from hospital were relatively well correlated with the prognosis of the patients. The profound immunosuppressive influence of radiotherapy and the natural course of recovery should be taken into consideration if any immunological treatments are to be undertaken with or after the course of radiotherapy. (author)

  9. Tumor hypoxia, p53, and prognosis in cervical cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensgen, Gabriele; Krause, Ulf; Becker, Axel; Stadler, Peter; Lautenschlaeger, Christine; Wohlrab, Wolfgang; Rath, Friedrich W.; Molls, Michael; Dunst, Juergen

    2001-01-01

    Background: The p53 protein is involved in the regulation of initiation of apoptosis. In vitro, p53-deficient cells do not respond to hypoxia with apoptosis as do p53-normal cells, and this may lead to a relative growth advantage of cells without a functioning p53 under hypoxia. On the basis of this hypothesis, a selection of cells with a functionally inactive p53 may occur in hypoxic tumors. The development of uterine cervical carcinomas is closely associated with infections of human papilloma viruses, which may cause a degradation of the tumor suppressor gene p53, resulting in a restriction of apoptosis. Thus, cervical cancers have often a functionally inactive p53. The purpose of our clinical study was therefore to investigate the association between p53, hypoxia, and prognosis in cervical cancers in which the oxygenation status can be determined by clinical methods. Material and Methods: Seventy patients with locally advanced squamous cell cervical cancer Stages IIB (n=14), IIIB (n=49), and IVA (n=7) were investigated in the period from 1996 through 1999. All were treated with definitive radiotherapy with curative intent by a combination of external radiotherapy plus high-dose-rate afterloading. Before therapy, tumor oxygenation was measured with a needle probe polarographically using the Eppendorf histograph. Hypoxic tumors were defined as those with pO 2 measurements below 5 mm Hg (HF5). Pretreatment biopsies were taken and analyzed immunohistologically for p53 protein expression with the DO-7 antibody. The DNA index was measured by flow cytometry. The statistical data analysis was done with SPSS 9.0 for Windows. Results: The 3-year overall survival was 55% for the whole group of patients. Clinical prognostic factors in a multivariate analysis were pretreatment hemoglobin level (3-year survival 62% for patients with a pretreatment hemoglobin ≥11 g/dl vs. 27% for hemoglobin <11 g/dl, p=0.006) and FIGO stage (Stage IIB: 65%; Stage IIIB: 60%; Stage IVA: 29%, p

  10. Immune Consequences of Decreasing Tumor Vasculature with Antiangiogenic Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Combination with Therapeutic Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsaci, Benedetto; Donahue, Renee N.; Coplin, Michael A.; Grenga, Italia; Lepone, Lauren M.; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Hodge, James W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects on the tumor microenvironment of combining antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) with therapeutic vaccines, and in particular, how vascular changes affect tumor-infiltrating immune cells. We conducted studies using a TKI (sunitinib or sorafenib) in combination with recombinant vaccines in 2 murine tumor models: colon carcinoma (MC38-CEA) and breast cancer (4T1). Tumor vasculature was measured by immunohistochemistry using 3 endothelial cell markers: CD31 (mature), CD105 (immature/proliferating), and CD11b (monocytic). We assessed oxygenation, tight junctions, compactness, and pressure within tumors, along with the frequency and phenotype of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) following treatment with antiangiogenic TKIs alone, vaccine alone, or the combination of a TKI with vaccine. The combined regimen decreased tumor vasculature, compactness, tight junctions, and pressure, leading to vascular normalization and increased tumor oxygenation. This combination therapy also increased TILs, including tumor antigen-specific CD8 T cells, and elevated the expression of activation markers FAS-L, CXCL-9, CD31, and CD105 in MDSCs and TAMs, leading to reduced tumor volumes and an increase in the number of tumor-free animals. The improved antitumor activity induced by combining antiangiogenic TKIs with vaccine may be the result of activated lymphoid and myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment, resulting from vascular normalization, decreased tumor-cell density, and the consequent improvement in vascular perfusion and oxygenation. Therapies that alter tumor architecture can thus have a dramatic impact on the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25092771

  11. Anemia, tumor hypoxemia, and the cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlotto, John; Stevenson, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To review the impact of anemia/tumor hypoxemia on the quality of life and survival in cancer patients, and to assess the problems associated with the correction of this difficulty. Methods: MEDLINE searches were performed to find relevant literature regarding anemia and/or tumor hypoxia in cancer patients. Articles were evaluated in order to assess the epidemiology, adverse patient effects, anemia correction guidelines, and mechanisms of hypoxia-induced cancer cell growth and/or therapeutic resistance. Past and current clinical studies of radiosensitization via tumor oxygenation/hypoxic cell sensitization were reviewed. All clinical studies using multi-variate analysis were analyzed to show whether or not anemia and/or tumor hypoxemia affected tumor control and patient survival. Articles dealing with the correction of anemia via transfusion and/or erythropoietin were reviewed in order to show the impact of the rectification on the quality of life and survival of cancer patients. Results: Approximately 40-64% of patients presenting for cancer therapy are anemic. The rate of anemia rises with the use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy for prostate cancer. Anemia is associated with reductions both in quality of life and survival. Tumor hypoxemia has been hypothesized to lead to tumor growth and resistance to therapy because it leads to angiogenesis, genetic mutations, resistance to apoptosis, and a resistance to free radicals from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Nineteen clinical studies of anemia and eight clinical studies of tumor hypoxemia were found that used multi-variate analysis to determine the effect of these conditions on the local control and/or survival of cancer patients. Despite differing definitions of anemia and hypoxemia, all studies have shown a correlation between low hemoglobin levels and/or higher amounts of tumor hypoxia with poorer prognosis. Radiosensitization through improvements in tumor oxygenation/hypoxic cell

  12. A reason for intermittent fasting to suppress the awakening of dormant breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankelma, Jan; Kooi, Bob; Krab, Klaas; Dorsman, Josephine C; Joenje, Hans; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2015-01-01

    For their growth, dormant tumors, which lack angiogenesis may critically depend on gradients of nutrients and oxygen from the nearest blood vessel. Because for oxygen depletion the distance from the nearest blood vessel to depletion will generally be shorter than for glucose depletion, such tumors will contain anoxic living tumor cells. These cells are dangerous, because they are capable of inducing angiogenesis, which will "wake up" the tumor. Anoxic cells are dependent on anaerobic glucose breakdown for ATP generation. The local extracellular glucose concentration gradient is determined by the blood glucose concentration and by consumption by cells closer to the nearest blood vessel. The blood glucose concentration can be lowered by 20-40% during fasting. We calculated that glucose supply to the potentially hazardous anoxic cells can thereby be reduced significantly, resulting in cell death specifically of the anoxic tumor cells. We hypothesize that intermittent fasting will help to reduce the incidence of tumor relapse via reducing the number of anoxic tumor cells and tumor awakening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrba, H.

    1990-01-01

    This comprehensive survey of current methods and achievements first takes a look at the two basic therapies, devoting a chapter each to the surgery and radiotherapy of tumors. The principal subjects of the book, however, are the systemic, adjuvant therapy, biological therapies, hyperthermia and various other therapies (as e.g. treatment with ozone, oxygen, or homeopathic means), and psychotherapy. (MG) With 54 figs., 86 tabs [de

  14. Effect of SPG (Sonifilan) immunotherapy and PDT on murine tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbelik, M.; Krosl, G.; Dougherty, G.J.; Chaplin, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    PhotoDynamic Therapy of solid tumors is unique in eliciting a strong host immune response unparalleled in other cancer therapies. This immune response is manifested as an acute inflammatory reaction, and can be readily seen as redness and edema around the treated area. Destruction of typical solid tumor cannot be accomplished solely by direct phototoxic action. This was shown to be the case even with drugs more potent in this direct killing effect than Photofrin, the photosensitizer presently used in clinical PDT. Limiting factors seem to be regional insufficiencies in supply of molecular oxygen, needed for generation of phototoxic species. They can be ascribed to the existence of chronically and acute hypoxic tumor regions, oxygen consumption by the photodynamic process, and vascular shutdown induced during PDT. The remaining tumor mass is eradicated by an indirect effect, necrosis induced by destruction of tumor vasculature. Since most events in PDT treated tumor that lead to vascular collapse are, in fact, typical inflammatory manifestations, it was suggested that PDT-induced acute inflammatory reaction actually leads to vascular damage. In a related report characteristics are shown of cellular inflammatory infiltrate in PDT-treated murine tumor. This work examines the effect of combining PDT with immunotherapy, in an attempt to investigate a possibility of amplification of immune reaction to PDT and its direction towards more pervasive destruction of treated tumors. (authors). 6 refs

  15. MRI of cystic pituitary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Hitoshi; Hoshi, Seiichiro; Sunada, Souichi; Sunami, Kenro [Kawatetsu Chiba Hospital (Japan); Saeki, Naokatsu; Yamaura, Akira

    1998-11-01

    We retrospectively reviewed MRI findings of 17 patients with 3 histologically proven cystic pituitary tumors. They consisted of 10 cystic pituitary adenomas, 4 craniopharyngiomas and 3 Rathke`s cleft cysts. We analyzed the following MRI parameters such as cyst wall appearance, enhancement pattern of cyst wall, location of residual pituitary gland and location of tumor. They were clinically significant parameters for histological differentiation. Even though combinations of such MRI parameters helped for more accurate preoperative diagnosis, the differentiation between craniopharyngioma and Rathke`s cleft cyst was difficult in some cases. (author)

  16. MRI of cystic pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Hitoshi; Hoshi, Seiichiro; Sunada, Souichi; Sunami, Kenro; Saeki, Naokatsu; Yamaura, Akira

    1998-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed MRI findings of 17 patients with 3 histologically proven cystic pituitary tumors. They consisted of 10 cystic pituitary adenomas, 4 craniopharyngiomas and 3 Rathke's cleft cysts. We analyzed the following MRI parameters such as cyst wall appearance, enhancement pattern of cyst wall, location of residual pituitary gland and location of tumor. They were clinically significant parameters for histological differentiation. Even though combinations of such MRI parameters helped for more accurate preoperative diagnosis, the differentiation between craniopharyngioma and Rathke's cleft cyst was difficult in some cases. (author)

  17. Quantification of tumor extension in prostate biopsies: importance in the identification of confined tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Kátia R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the importance of quantifying the adenocarcinoma in prostate biopsies when determining the tumor's final stage in patients who undergo radical prostatectomy. To identify the best methodology for obtaining such data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prostate biopsies from 132 patients were examined, with determination of Gleason histological grade and tumor volume in number of involved fragments, tumor extent of the fragment mostly affected by the tumor and the total percentage of tumor in the specimen. Theses parameters were statistically correlated with the neoplasia's final stage following the evaluation of radical prostatectomy specimens. RESULTS: An average of 12 and a median of 14 biopsy fragments were evaluated per patient. In the univariate analysis the Gleason histological grade, the largest tumor extent in one fragment and the total percentage of tumor in the specimen were correlated with tumor stage of the surgical specimen. In the multivariate analysis, the Gleason histological grade and the total percentage of tumor were strongly correlated with the neoplasia's final stage. The risk of the tumor not being confined was 3 for Gleason 7 tumors and 10.6 for Gleason 8 tumors or above. In cases where the tumor involved more than 60% of the specimen, the risk of non-confined disease was 4.4 times. Among 19 patients with unfavorable histological parameters, Gleason > 7 and extension greater than 60% the tumor final stage was pT3 in 95%. CONCLUSION: When associated to the Gleason histological grade, tumor quantification in prostate biopsies is an important factor for determining organ-confined disease, and among the methods, total percentage of tumor is the most informative one. Such data should be included in the pathological report and must be incorporated in future nomograms.

  18. NADPH promotes the rapid growth of the tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidase is the main source of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS plays an important role in a variety of tumor types. The ROS mediated by NADPH oxidase increases the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-α through multiple signaling pathways in tumor, and HIF-α could be regulated and controlled by downstream multiple targeted genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor, glucose transporter to promote tumor angiogenesis, cell energy metabolism reprogram and tumor metastasis. Meanwhile, HIF-α can also regulate the expression of NADPH oxidase by ROS, thus further promoting development of tumor. In this review, we summarized the functions of NADPH in tumorigenesis and discussed their potential implications in cancer therapy.

  19. Cilengitide-induced temporal variations in transvascular transfer parameters of tumor vasculature in a rat glioma model: identifying potential MRI biomarkers of acute effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavarekere N Nagaraja

    Full Text Available Increased efficacy of radiotherapy (RT 4-8 h after Cilengitide treatment has been reported. We hypothesized that the effects of Cilengitide on tumor transvascular transfer parameters might underlie, and thus predict, this potentiation. Athymic rats with orthotopic U251 glioma were studied at ~21 days after implantation using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-MRI. Vascular parameters, viz: plasma volume fraction (v(p, forward volume transfer constant (K(trans and interstitial volume fraction (v(e of a contrast agent, were determined in tumor vasculature once before, and again in cohorts 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h after Cilengitide administration (4 mg/kg; N = 31; 6-7 per cohort. Perfusion-fixed brain sections were stained for von Willebrand factor to visualize vascular segments. A comparison of pre- and post-treatment parameters showed that the differences between MR indices before and after Cilengitide treatment pivoted around the 8 h time point, with 2 and 4 h groups showing increases, 12 and 24 h groups showing decreases, and values at the 8 h time point close to the baseline. The vascular parameter differences between group of 2 and 4 h and group of 12 and 24 h were significant for K(trans (p = 0.0001 and v(e (p = 0,0271. Vascular staining showed little variation with time after Cilengitide. The vascular normalization occurring 8 h after Cilengitide treatment coincided with similar previous reports of increased treatment efficacy when RT followed Cilengitide by 8 h. Pharmacological normalization of vasculature has the potential to increase sensitivity to RT. Evaluating acute temporal responses of tumor vasculature to putative anti-angiogenic drugs may help in optimizing their combination with other treatment modalities.

  20. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbo Shao

    Full Text Available The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3 levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients.Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed.Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9% and 60(13.9% patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer.Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  1. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed. Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9%) and 60(13.9%) patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer. Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  2. Oxygen-carbon nanotubes as a chemotherapy sensitizer for paclitaxel in breast cancer treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkun Wang

    Full Text Available To study the in vivo and in vitro effects of adding oxygen carbon nanotubes (CNTs to chemotherapy for breast cancer.MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells were co-cultured with paclitaxel and then exposed to oxygen-CNTs under hypoxic conditions. Cell proliferation, viability, and apoptosis rate were analyzed. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α expression was measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot. Nude mice were used as a human breast cancer model to explore the impact of oxygen-CNTs on the in vivo chemotherapeutic effect of paclitaxel.Oxygen-CNTs had no significant effects on the growth of breast cancer cells under normoxia and hypoxia. However, in the hypoxic environment, oxygen-CNTs significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of paclitaxel on cell proliferation, as well as the apoptosis rate. Under hypoxia, downregulation of HIF-1α and upregulation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, LC3 and Beclin-1 were observed when paclitaxel was combined with oxygen-CNT. Furthermore, addition of oxygen-CNTs to chemotherapy was found to significantly reduce tumor weight in the tumor-bearing mice model.Oxygen-CNTs can significantly increase the chemotherapeutic effect of paclitaxel on breast cancer cells. Oxygen-CNTs may be a potential chemosensitizer in breast cancer therapy.

  3. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Ansari, Nariman [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, High-Throughput Technology Development Studio (TDS), Dresden (Germany); Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H. [Physical Biology Group, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Steigemann, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Steigemann@bayer.com [Bayer Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. - Highlights: • Establishment of a novel method for 3D cell culture based high-content screening. • First reported high

  4. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian; Ansari, Nariman; Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc; Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H.; Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan; Steigemann, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. - Highlights: • Establishment of a novel method for 3D cell culture based high-content screening. • First reported high

  5. SU-E-T-429: Uncertainties of Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate uncertainties of cell surviving fraction reconstructed from tumor-volume variation curves during radiation therapy using sensitivity analysis based on linear perturbation theory. Methods: The time dependent tumor-volume functions V(t) have been calculated using a twolevel cell population model which is based on the separation of entire tumor cell population in two subpopulations: oxygenated viable and lethally damaged cells. The sensitivity function is defined as S(t)=[δV(t)/V(t)]/[δx/x] where δV(t)/V(t) is the time dependent relative variation of the volume V(t) and δx/x is the relative variation of the radiobiological parameter x. The sensitivity analysis was performed using direct perturbation method where the radiobiological parameter x was changed by a certain error and the tumor-volume was recalculated to evaluate the corresponding tumor-volume variation. Tumor volume variation curves and sensitivity functions have been computed for different values of cell surviving fractions from the practically important interval S 2 =0.1-0.7 using the two-level cell population model. Results: The sensitivity functions of tumor-volume to cell surviving fractions achieved a relatively large value of 2.7 for S 2 =0.7 and then approached zero as S 2 is approaching zero Assuming a systematic error of 3-4% we obtain that the relative error in S 2 is less that 20% in the range S2=0.4-0.7. This Resultis important because the large values of S 2 are associated with poor treatment outcome should be measured with relatively small uncertainties. For the very small values of S2<0.3, the relative error can be larger than 20%; however, the absolute error does not increase significantly. Conclusion: Tumor-volume curves measured during radiotherapy can be used for evaluation of cell surviving fractions usually observed in radiation therapy with conventional fractionation

  6. Early reoxygenation in tumors after irradiation: Determining factors and consequences for radiotherapy regimens using daily multiple fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crokart, Nathalie; Jordan, Benedicte F.; Baudelet, Christine; Ansiaux, Reginald; Sonveaux, Pierre; Gregoire, Vincent; Beghein, Nelson; Wever, Julie de; Bouzin, Caroline; Feron, Olivier; Gallez, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize changes in the tumor microenvironment early after irradiation and determine the factors responsible for early reoxygenation. Methods and Materials: Fibrosarcoma type II (FSaII) and hepatocarcinoma transplantable liver tumor tumor oxygenation were determined using electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry and a fiberoptic device. Perfusion was assessed by laser Doppler, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and dye penetration. Oxygen consumption was determined by electron paramagnetic resonance. The interstitial fluid pressure was evaluated by the wick-in-needle technique. Results: An increase in oxygen partial pressure was observed 3-4 h after irradiation. This increase resulted from a decrease in global oxygen consumption and an increase in oxygen delivery. The increase in oxygen delivery was due to radiation-induced acute inflammation (that was partially inhibited by the antiinflammatory agent diclofenac) and to a decrease in interstitial fluid pressure. The endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway, identified as a contributing factor at 24 h after irradiation, did not play a role in the early stage after irradiation. We also observed that splitting a treatment of 18 Gy into two fractions separated by 4 h (time of maximal reoxygenation) had a greater effect on tumor regrowth delay than when applied as a single dose. Conclusion: Although the cell cycle redistribution effect is important for treatment protocols using multiple daily radiation fractions, the results of this work emphasize that the oxygen effect must be also considered to optimize the treatment strategy

  7. Risk Factors for Neovascular Glaucoma After Proton Beam Therapy of Uveal Melanoma: A Detailed Analysis of Tumor and Dose–Volume Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Kavita K., E-mail: kmishra@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Daftari, Inder K.; Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Cole, Tia [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States); Quivey, Jeanne M.; Castro, Joseph R.; Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Char, Devron H. [The Tumori Foundation, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To determine neovascular glaucoma (NVG) incidence and identify contributing tumor and dosing factors in uveal melanoma patients treated with proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 704 PBRT patients treated by a single surgeon (DHC) for uveal melanoma (1996-2010) were reviewed for NVG in our prospectively maintained database. All patients received 56 GyE in 4 fractions. Median follow-up was 58.3 months. Analyses included the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate NVG distributions, univariate log–rank tests, and Cox's proportional hazards multivariate analysis using likelihood ratio tests to identify independent risk factors of NVG among patient, tumor, and dose–volume histogram parameters. Results: The 5-year PBRT NVG rate was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.2%-15.9%). The 5-year rate of enucleation due to NVG was 4.9% (95% CI 3.4%-7.2%). Univariately, the NVG rate increased significantly with larger tumor diameter (P<.0001), greater height (P<.0001), higher T stage (P<.0001), and closer proximity to the disc (P=.002). Dose–volume histogram analysis revealed that if >30% of the lens or ciliary body received ≥50% dose (≥28 GyE), there was a higher probability of NVG (P<.0001 for both). Furthermore, if 100% of the disc or macula received ≥28 GyE, the NVG rate was higher (P<.0001 and P=.03, respectively). If both anterior and posterior doses were above specified cut points, NVG risk was highest (P<.0001). Multivariate analysis confirmed significant independent risk factors to include tumor height (P<.0001), age (P<.0001), %disc treated to ≥50% Dose (<100% vs 100%) (P=.0007), larger tumor diameter (P=.01), %lens treated to ≥90% Dose (0 vs >0%-30% vs >30%) (P=.01), and optic nerve length treated to ≥90% Dose (≤1 mm vs >1 mm) (P=.02). Conclusions: Our current PBRT patients experience a low rate of NVG and resultant enucleation compared with historical data. The present analysis shows that tumor height

  8. The influence of selected parameters on the efficiency and economic charactersistics of the oxy-type coal unit with a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a 600 MW oxy-type coal unit with a pulverized bed boiler and a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator and carbon capture installation was analyzed. A membrane-cryogenic oxygen separation installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. In this system oxygen is produced with the purity equal to 95%. Installation of carbon capture was based on the physical separation method and allows to reduce the CO2 emission by 90%. In this work the influence of the main parameter of the membrane process – the selectivity coefficient, on the efficiency of the coal unit was presented. The economic analysis with the use of the break-even point method was carried out. The economic calculations were realized in view of the break-even price of electricity depending on a coal unit availability.

  9. Effect of oxygen levels on the physiology of dendritic cells: implications for adoptive cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futalan, Diahnn; Huang, Chien-Tze; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H; Larsson, Marie; Messmer, Davorka

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based adoptive tumor immunotherapy approaches have shown promising results, but the incidence of tumor regression is low and there is an evident call for identifying culture conditions that produce DCs with a more potent Th1 potential. Routinely, DCs are differentiated in CO(2) incubators under atmospheric oxygen conditions (21% O(2)), which differ from physiological oxygen levels of only 3-5% in tissue, where most DCs reside. We investigated whether differentiation and maturation of DCs under physiological oxygen levels could produce more potent T-cell stimulatory DCs for use in adoptive immunotherapy. We found that immature DCs differentiated under physiological oxygen levels showed a small but significant reduction in their endocytic capacity. The different oxygen levels did not influence their stimuli-induced upregulation of cluster of differentiation 54 (CD54), CD40, CD83, CD86, C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR or the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or a cytokine cocktail. However, DCs differentiated under physiological oxygen level secreted higher levels of IL-12(p70) after exposure to LPS or CD40 ligand. Immature DCs differentiated at physiological oxygen levels caused increased T-cell proliferation, but no differences were observed for mature DCs with regard to T-cell activation. In conclusion, we show that although DCs generated under atmospheric or physiological oxygen conditions are mostly similar in function and phenotype, DCs differentiated under physiological oxygen secrete larger amounts of IL-12(p70). This result could have implications for the use of ex vivo-generated DCs for clinical studies, since DCs differentiated at physiological oxygen could induce increased Th1 responses in vivo.

  10. Diffuse optical measurements of head and neck tumor hemodynamics for early prediction of radiation therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lixin; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Irwin, Daniel; Chen, Li; Shang, Yu; Li, Xingzhe; Stevens, Scott D.; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2016-03-01

    Radiation therapy is a principal modality for head and neck cancers and its efficacy depends on tumor hemodynamics. Our laboratory developed a hybrid diffuse optical instrument allowing for simultaneous measurements of tumor blood flow and oxygenation. In this study, the clinically involved cervical lymph node was monitored by the hybrid instrument once a week over the treatment period of seven weeks. Based on treatment outcomes within one year, patients were classified into a complete response group (CR) and an incomplete response group (IR) with remote metastasis and/or local recurrence. A linear mixed models was used to compare tumor hemodynamic responses to the treatment between the two groups. Interestingly, we found that human papilloma virus (HPV-16) status largely affected tumor hemodynamic responses. For HPV-16 negative tumors, significant differences in blood flow index (BFI, p = 0.007) and reduced scattering coefficient (μs', p = 0.0005) were observed between the two groups; IR tumors exhibited higher μs' values and a continuous increase in BFI over the treatment period. For HPV-16 positive tumors, oxygenated hemoglobin concentration ([HbO2]) and blood oxygen saturation (StO2) were significant different (p = 0.003 and 0.01, respectively); IR group showed lower [HbO2] and StO2. Our results imply HPV-16 negative tumors with higher density of vasculature (μs') and higher blood flow show poor responses to radiotherapy and HPV-16 positive tumors with lower tissue oxygenation level (lower StO2 and [HbO2]) exhibit poor treatment outcomes. Our diffuse optical measurements show the great potential for early prediction of radiotherapy in head and neck cancers.

  11. Effect of operating parameters of a burner of oxygen conversion on flame characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glike, A P

    1980-01-01

    Combustion of high-calorie gases under pressure makes it possible to create compact fuel-burning devices. As applied to open-hearth furnaces, several types of these devices have been developed. The oxidizer used is oxygen, blowing, enriched with oxygen or compressed air. Reformation of natural gas in the chamber of the burner of oxygen conversion operating under pressure up to 2 kg-f/cm/sup 2/ makes it possible to obtain a high-temperature flame with satisfactory illumination without using mazut.

  12. Glow discharge in singlet oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsyn, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Currently, there is no experimental data on the plasma balance in gas mixtures with a high content of singlet delta oxygen O 2 ( 1 Δ g ). These data can be obtained by studying the parameters of an electric discharge in singlet oxygen produced by a chemical generator. The O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) molecules significantly change the kinetics of electrons and negative ions in plasma. Hence, the discharge conditions at low and high O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentrations are very different. Here, the parameters of the positive column of a glow discharge in a gas flow from a chemical singlet-oxygen generator are studied. It is experimentally shown that, at an O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentration of 50% and at pressures of 1.5 and 2 torr, the electric field required to sustain the discharge is considerably lower than in the case when all of the oxygen molecules are in the ground state. A theoretical model of the glow discharge is proposed whose predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data

  13. Theoretical analysis of the dose dependence of the oxygen enhancement ratio and its relevance for clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzl, Tatiana; Wilkens, Jan J

    2011-01-01

    The increased resistance of hypoxic cells to ionizing radiation is usually believed to be the primary reason for treatment failure in tumors with oxygen-deficient areas. This oxygen effect can be expressed quantitatively by the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). Here we investigate theoretically the dependence of the OER on the applied local dose for different types of ionizing irradiation and discuss its importance for clinical applications in radiotherapy for two scenarios: small dose variations during hypoxia-based dose painting and larger dose changes introduced by altered fractionation schemes. Using the widespread Alper-Howard-Flanders and standard linear-quadratic (LQ) models, OER calculations are performed for T1 human kidney and V79 Chinese hamster cells for various dose levels and various hypoxic oxygen partial pressures (pO2) between 0.01 and 20 mmHg as present in clinical situations in vivo. Our work comprises the analysis for both low linear energy transfer (LET) treatment with photons or protons and high-LET treatment with heavy ions. A detailed analysis of experimental data from the literature with respect to the dose dependence of the oxygen effect is performed, revealing controversial opinions whether the OER increases, decreases or stays constant with dose. The behavior of the OER with dose per fraction depends primarily on the ratios of the LQ parameters alpha and beta under hypoxic and aerobic conditions, which themselves depend on LET, pO2 and the cell or tissue type. According to our calculations, the OER variations with dose in vivo for low-LET treatments are moderate, with changes in the OER up to 11% for dose painting (1 or 3 Gy per fraction compared to 2 Gy) and up to 22% in hyper-/hypofractionation (0.5 or 20 Gy per fraction compared to 2 Gy) for oxygen tensions between 0.2 and 20 mmHg typically measured clinically in hypoxic tumors. For extremely hypoxic cells (0.01 mmHg), the dose dependence of the OER becomes more pronounced (up to 36

  14. 'Multi-associations': predisposed to misinterpretation of peripheral tissue oxygenation and circulation in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, Gerhard; Pocivalnik, Mirjam; Pichler-Stachl, Elisabeth; Morris, Nicholas; Zotter, Heinz; Müller, Wilhelm; Urlesberger, Berndt; Riedl, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Interpretation of peripheral circulation in ill neonates is crucial but difficult. The aim was to analyse parameters potentially influencing peripheral oxygenation and circulation. In a prospective observational cohort study in 116 cardio-circulatory stable neonates, peripheral muscle near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with venous occlusion was performed. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI), mixed venous oxygenation (SvO 2 ), fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE), haemoglobin flow (Hbflow), oxygen delivery (DO 2 ), oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), and vascular resistance (VR) were assessed. Correlation coefficients between NIRS parameters and demographic parameters (gestational age, birth weight, age, actual weight, diameter of calf, subcutaneous adipose tissue), monitoring parameters (heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ), mean blood pressure (MAP), core/peripheral temperature, central/peripheral capillary refill time) and laboratory parameters (haemoglobin concentration (Hb-blood), pCO 2 ) were calculated. All demographic parameters except for Hbflow and DO 2 correlated with NIRS parameters. Heart rate correlated with TOI, SvO 2 , VO 2 and VR. SaO 2 correlated with FOE/FTOE. MAP correlated with Hbflow, DO 2 , VO 2 and VR. Core temperature correlated with FTOE. Peripheral temperature correlated with all NIRS parameters except VO 2 . Hb-blood correlated with FOE and VR. pCO 2 levels correlated with TOI and SvO 2 . The presence of multiple interdependent factors associated with peripheral oxygenation and circulation highlights the difficulty in interpreting NIRS data. Nevertheless, these findings have to be taken into account when analysing peripheral oxygenation and circulation data

  15. A theoretical model for oxygen transport in skeletal muscle under conditions of high oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, B J; Secomb, T W

    2001-11-01

    Oxygen transport from capillaries to exercising skeletal muscle is studied by use of a Krogh-type cylinder model. The goal is to predict oxygen consumption under conditions of high demand, on the basis of a consideration of transport processes occurring at the microvascular level. Effects of the decline in oxygen content of blood flowing along capillaries, intravascular resistance to oxygen diffusion, and myoglobin-facilitated diffusion are included. Parameter values are based on human skeletal muscle. The dependence of oxygen consumption on oxygen demand, perfusion, and capillary density are examined. When demand is moderate, the tissue is well oxygenated and consumption is slightly less than demand. When demand is high, capillary oxygen content declines rapidly with axial distance and radial oxygen transport is limited by diffusion resistance within the capillary and the tissue. Under these conditions, much of the tissue is hypoxic, consumption is substantially less than demand, and consumption is strongly dependent on capillary density. Predicted consumption rates are comparable with experimentally observed maximal rates of oxygen consumption.

  16. Thermodynamic Calculations of Hydrogen-Oxygen Detonation Parameters for Various Initial Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Loren E.; Edse, Rudolph

    1961-01-01

    Composition, temperature, pressure and density behind a stable detonation wave and its propagation rate have been calculated for seven hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 1, 5, 25 and 100 atm initial pressure, and at an initial temperature of 40C. For stoichiometric mixtures that calculations also include an initial temperature of 200C. According to these calculations the detonation velocities of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures increase with increasing initial pressure, but decrease slightly when the initial temperature is raised from 40 to 200 C. The calculated detonation velocities agree satisfactorily with values determined experimentally. These values will be published in the near future.

  17. The effect of interstitial pressure on tumor growth: coupling with the blood and lymphatic vascular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B.; McDougall, Steven R.; Chaplain, Mark A.J.; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2013-01-01

    The flow of interstitial fluid and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in solid tumors and surrounding host tissues have been identified as critical elements in cancer growth and vascularization. Both experimental and theoretical studies have shown that tumors may present elevated IFP, which can be a formidable physical barrier for delivery of cell nutrients and small molecules into the tumor. Elevated IFP may also exacerbate gradients of biochemical signals such as angiogenic factors released by tumors into the surrounding tissues. These studies have helped to understand both biochemical signaling and treatment prognosis. Building upon previous work, here we develop a vascular tumor growth model by coupling a continuous growth model with a discrete angiogenesis model. We include fluid/oxygen extravasation as well as a continuous lymphatic field, and study the micro-environmental fluid dynamics and their effect on tumor growth by accounting for blood flow, transcapillary fluid flux, interstitial fluid flow, and lymphatic drainage. We thus elucidate further the non-trivial relationship between the key elements contributing to the effects of interstitial pressure in solid tumors. In particular, we study the effect of IFP on oxygen extravasation and show that small blood/lymphatic vessel resistance and collapse may contribute to lower transcapillary fluid/oxygen flux, thus decreasing the rate of tumor growth. We also investigate the effect of tumor vascular pathologies, including elevated vascular and interstitial hydraulic conductivities inside the tumor as well as diminished osmotic pressure differences, on the fluid flow across the tumor capillary bed, the lymphatic drainage, and the IFP. Our results reveal that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity together with poor lymphatic function is the root cause of the development of plateau profiles of the IFP in the tumor, which have been observed in experiments, and contributes to a more uniform

  18. The Clinical Importance of Assessing Tumor Hypoxia: Relationship of Tumor Hypoxia to Prognosis and Therapeutic Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joseph C.; Lebedev, Artem; Aten, Edward; Madsen, Kathleen; Marciano, Liane

    2014-01-01

    I. Introduction II. The Clinical Importance of Tumor Hypoxia A. Pathophysiology of hypoxia B. Hypoxia's negative impact on the effectiveness of curative treatment 1. Hypoxic tumors accumulate and propagate cancer stem cells 2. Hypoxia reduces the effectiveness of radiotherapy 3. Hypoxia increases metastasis risk and reduces the effectiveness of surgery 4. Hypoxic tumors are resistant to the effects of chemotherapy and chemoradiation C. Hypoxia is prognostic for poor patient outcomes III. Diagnosis of Tumor Hypoxia A. Direct methods 1. Oxygen electrode—direct pO2 measurement most used in cancer research 2. Phosphorescence quenching—alternative direct pO2 measurement 3. Electron paramagnetic resonance 4. 19F-magnetic resonance spectroscopy 5. Overhauser-enhanced MRI B. Endogenous markers of hypoxia 1. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α 2. Carbonic anhydrase IX 3. Glucose transporter 1 4. Osteopontin 5. A combined IHC panel of protein markers for hypoxia 6. Comet assay C. Physiologic methods 1. Near-infrared spectroscopy/tomography—widely used for pulse oximetry 2. Photoacoustic tomography 3. Contrast-enhanced color duplex sonography 4. MRI-based measurements 5. Blood oxygen level-dependent MRI 6. Pimonidazole 7. EF5 (pentafluorinated etanidazole) 8. Hypoxia PET imaging—physiologic hypoxia measurement providing tomographic information a. 18F-fluoromisonidazole b. 18F-fluoroazomycinarabinofuranoside c. 18F-EF5 (pentafluorinated etanidazole) d. 18F-flortanidazole e. Copper (II) (diacetyl-bis (N4-methylthiosemicarbazone)) f. 18F-FDG imaging of hypoxia IV. Modifying Hypoxia to Improve Therapeutic Outcomes A. Use of hypoxia information in radiation therapy planning B. Use of hypoxia assessment for selection of patients responsive to nimorazole C. Use of hypoxia assessment for selection of patients responsive to tirapazamine D. Use of hypoxia assessment for selection of patients

  19. Tumor cell proliferation kinetics and tumor growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    1989-01-01

    The present knowledge on the growth rate and the proliferation kinetics of human tumor is based on the measurement of the tumor doubling times (DT) in several hundred patients and on the determination of the proportion of proliferating cells with radioactive thymidine or by flow cytometry in large numbers of patients. The results show that the DT of human tumor varies widely, from less than one week to over one year with a median value of approximately 2 months. The DTs are significantly correlated with the histological type. They depend upon (1) the duration of the cell cycle whose mean duration is 2 days with small variations from tumor to tumor, (2) the proportion of proliferating cells and consequently the cell birth rate which varies widely among tumors and which is significantly correlated to the DT, (3) the cell loss factors which also vary widely and which are the greatest when proliferation is most intensive. These studies have several clinical implications: (a) they have further increased our understanding of the natural history of human tumor, (b) they have therapeutic implications since tumor responsiveness and curability by radiation and drugs are strongly influenced by the cell kinetic parameters of the tumor, (c) the proportion of proliferating cells is of great prognostic value in several types of human cancers. The investigation of the molecular defects, which are correlated with the perturbation of control of cell proliferation, should lead to significant fundamental and therapeutic advances. (orig.).

  20. TH-C-17A-05: Cherenkov Excited Phosphorescence Oxygen (CEPhOx) Imaging During Multi-Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R; Pogue, B [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Holt, R [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH - New Hampshire (United States); Esipova, T; Vinogradov, S [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gladstone, D [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Hanover, City of Lebanon (Lebanon)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cherenkov radiation is created during external beam radiation therapy that can excite phosphorescence in tissue from oxygen-sensitive, bio-compatible probes. Utilizing the known spatial information of the treatment plan with directed multiple beam angles, Cherenkov Excited Phosphorescence Oxygen (CEPhOx) imaging was realized from the reconstructions of Cherenkov excited phosphorescence lifetime. Methods: Platinum(II)-G4 (PtG4) was used as the oxygen-sensitive phosphorescent probe and added to a oxygenated cylindrical liquid phantom with a oxygenated/deoxygenated cylindrical anomaly. Cherenkov excited phosphorescence was imaged using a time-gated ICCD camera temporallysynchronized to the LINAC pulse output. Lifetime reconstruction was carried out in NIRFAST software. Multiple angles of the incident radiation beam was combined with the location of the prescribed treatment volume (PTV) to improve the tomographic recovery as a function of location. The tissue partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the background and PTV was calculated based on the recovered lifetime distribution and Stern-Volmer equation. Additionally a simulation study was performed to examine the accuracy of this technique in the setting of a human brain tumor. Results: Region-based pO2 values in the oxygenated background and oxygenated/deoxygenated PTV were correctly recovered, with the deoxygenated anomaly (15.4 mmHg) easily distinguished from the oxygenated background (143 mmHg). The data acquisition time could be achieved within the normal irradiation time for a human fractionated plan. The simulations indicated that CEPhOx would be a sufficient to sample tumor pO2 sensing from tumors which are larger than 2cm in diameter or within 23mm depth from the surface. Conclusion: CEPhOx could be a novel imaging tool for pO2 assessment during external radiation beam therapy. It is minimally invasive and should work within the established treatment plan of radiation therapy with multiple beams in

  1. CR108, a novel vitamin K3 derivative induces apoptosis and breast tumor inhibition by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Ru; Liao, Wei-Siang; Wu, Ya-Hui; Murugan, Kaliyappan; Chen, Chinpiao; Chao, Jui-I

    2013-12-15

    Vitamin K3 derivatives have been shown to exert anticancer activities. Here we show a novel vitamin K3 derivative (S)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutylthio)naphthalene-1,4-dione, which is named as CR108 that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer. CR108 is more effective on the breast cancer cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. Moreover, CR108 induced apoptosis in both the non-HER-2-overexpressed MCF-7 and HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 breast cancer cells. CR108 caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol, and cleaved PARP proteins for apoptosis induction. CR108 markedly increased ROS levels in breast cancer cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general ROS scavenger, completely blocked the CR108-induced ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Interestingly, CR108 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but conversely inhibited the survivin protein expression. NAC treatment prevented the activation of p38 MAP kinase and rescued the survivin protein levels. SB202190, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, recovered the survivin protein levels and attenuated the cytotoxicity of CR108-treated cells. Furthermore, CR108 inhibited the xenografted human breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, we demonstrate that CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer. © 2013.

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.; Hamilton-Farrell, M.R.; Kleij, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at a pressure of at least 1.5 atmospheres absolute (150 kPa). It uses oxygen as a drug by dissolving it in the plasma and delivering it to the tissues independent of hemoglobin. For a variety of organ systems, HBO is known to promote new vessel growth into areas with reduced oxygen tension due to poor vascularity, and therewith promotes wound healing and recovery of radiation-injured tissue. Furthermore, tumors may be sensitized to irradiation by raising intratumoral oxygen tensions. Methods: A network of hyperbaric facilities exists in Europe, and a number of clinical studies are ongoing. The intergovernmental framework COST B14 action 'Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy' started in 1999. The main goal of the Working Group Oncology is preparation and actual implementation of prospective study protocols in the field of HBO and radiation oncology in Europe. Results: In this paper a short overview on HBO is given and the following randomized clinical studies are presented: (a) reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after HBO sensitization; (b) role of HBO in enhancing radiosensitivity on glioblastoma multiforme; (c) osseointegration in irradiated patients; adjunctive HBO to prevent implant failures; (d) the role of HBO in the treatment of late irradiation sequelae in the pelvic region. The two radiosensitization protocols (a, b) allow a time interval between HBO and subsequent irradiation of 10-20 min. Conclusion: Recruitment of centers and patients is being strongly encouraged, detailed information is given on www.oxynet.org. (orig.)

  3. A Case of Pulmonary Tumor Thrombotic Microangiopathy Diagnosed by Transbronchial Lung Biopsy and Treated with Chemotherapy and Long-Term Oxygen and Anticoagulation Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kitamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old woman, who underwent breast resection for cancer of the right breast and adjuvant chemotherapy 2 years ago, was admitted to our hospital due to shortness of breath upon exertion. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest showed small nodular opacities in the peribronchiolar area in both lungs, as well as mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. A transbronchial lung biopsy revealed breast cancer metastasis and pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM. Treatment of PTTM is rarely reported due to the difficulty of antemortem diagnosis; however, the patient was effectively treated with chemotherapy and oxygen and anticoagulation therapies for 3 months.

  4. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  5. Impact of hypoxia and the metabolic microenvironment on radiotherapy of solid tumors. Introduction of a multiinstitutional research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zips, D.; Petersen, C.; Adam, M.; Molls, M.; Philbrook, C.; Flentje, M.; Haase, A.; Schmitt, P.; Mueller-Klieser, W.; Thews, O.; Walenta, S.; Baumann, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: recent developments in imaging technology and tumor biology have led to new techniques to detect hypoxia and related alterations of the metabolic microenvironment in tumors. However, whether these new methods can predict radiobiological hypoxia and outcome after fractionated radiotherapy still awaits experimental evaluation. Material and methods: the present article will introduce a multiinstitutional research project addressing the impact of hypoxia and the metabolic microenvironment on radiotherapy of solid tumors. The four laboratories involved are situated at the universities of Dresden, Mainz, Munich and Wuerzburg, Germany. Results: the joint scientific project started to collect data obtained on a set of ten different human tumor xenografts growing in nude mice by applying various imaging techniques to detect tumor hypoxia and related parameters of the metabolic microenvironment. These techniques include magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, metabolic mapping with quantitative bioluminescence and single-photon imaging, histological multiparameter analysis of biochemical hypoxia, perfusion and vasculature, and immunohistochemistry of factors related to angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. To evaluate the different methods, baseline functional radiobiological data including radiobiological hypoxic fraction and outcome after fractionated irradiation will be determined. Conclusion: besides increasing our understanding of tumor biology, the project will focus on new, clinically applicable strategies for microenvironment profiling and will help to identify those patients that might benefit from targeted interventions to improve tumor oxygenation. (orig.)

  6. Histogram Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters in Pediatric Cerebellar Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias W; Narayan, Anand K; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values have been shown to assist in differentiating cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. Previous studies have applied only ADC measurements and calculated the mean/median values. Here we investigated the value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) histogram characteristics of the entire tumor for differentiation of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. Presurgical DTI data were analyzed with a region of interest (ROI) approach to include the entire tumor. For each tumor, histogram-derived metrics including the 25th percentile, 75th percentile, and skewness were calculated for fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivity. The histogram metrics were used as primary predictors of interest in a logistic regression model. Statistical significance levels were set at p histogram skewness showed statistically significant differences for MD between low- and high-grade tumors (P = .008). The 25th percentile for MD yields the best results for the presurgical differentiation between pediatric cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. The analysis of other DTI metrics does not provide additional diagnostic value. Our study confirms the diagnostic value of the quantitative histogram analysis of DTI data in pediatric neuro-oncology. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  7. Combined Scintigraphy and Tumor Marker Analysis Predicts Unfavorable Histopathology of Neuroblastic Tumors with High Accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Peter Fendler

    Full Text Available Our aim was to improve the prediction of unfavorable histopathology (UH in neuroblastic tumors through combined imaging and biochemical parameters.123I-MIBG SPECT and MRI was performed before surgical resection or biopsy in 47 consecutive pediatric patients with neuroblastic tumor. Semi-quantitative tumor-to-liver count-rate ratio (TLCRR, MRI tumor size and margins, urine catecholamine and NSE blood levels of neuron specific enolase (NSE were recorded. Accuracy of single and combined variables for prediction of UH was tested by ROC analysis with Bonferroni correction.34 of 47 patients had UH based on the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC. TLCRR and serum NSE both predicted UH with moderate accuracy. Optimal cut-off for TLCRR was 2.0, resulting in 68% sensitivity and 100% specificity (AUC-ROC 0.86, p < 0.001. Optimal cut-off for NSE was 25.8 ng/ml, resulting in 74% sensitivity and 85% specificity (AUC-ROC 0.81, p = 0.001. Combination of TLCRR/NSE criteria reduced false negative findings from 11/9 to only five, with improved sensitivity and specificity of 85% (AUC-ROC 0.85, p < 0.001.Strong 123I-MIBG uptake and high serum level of NSE were each predictive of UH. Combined analysis of both parameters improved the prediction of UH in patients with neuroblastic tumor. MRI parameters and urine catecholamine levels did not predict UH.

  8. Oxygen delivery in irradiated normal tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, M.F.; Ansari, R. [Univ. of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN (United States). School of Biomedical Engineering; Gaber, M.W. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure significantly alters the structure and function of microvascular networks, which regulate delivery of oxygen to tissue. In this study we use a hamster cremaster muscle model to study changes in microvascular network parameters and use a mathematical model to study the effects of these observed structural and microhemodynamic changes in microvascular networks on oxygen delivery to the tissue. Our experimental observations indicate that in microvascular networks while some parameters are significantly affected by irradiation (e.g. red blood cell (RBC) transit time), others remain at the control level (e.g. RBC path length) up to 180 days post-irradiation. The results from our mathematical model indicate that tissue oxygenation patterns are significantly different in irradiated normal tissue as compared to age-matched controls and the differences are apparent as early as 3 days post irradiation. However, oxygen delivery to irradiated tissue was not found to be significantly different from age matched controls at any time between 7 days to 6 months post-irradiation. These findings indicate that microvascular late effects in irradiated normal tissue may be due to factors other than compromised tissue oxygenation. (author)

  9. Relationship of binding specificity and structural property of the technetium-99m complexes for tumor hypoxia and tumor angiogenesis imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Z.F.

    2005-01-01

    The growth of tumor requires nutrition and oxygen. Tumor cells will become hypoxic when the supply of oxygen is insufficient. Hypoxic tumor cells will not only resist radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but also induce angiogenesis for oxygen supply and for metastasis. Therefore, detection of tumor hypoxia and tumor angiogenesis with high sensitive radio labeled imaging agents is important. Hypoxic tumor cells may display some molecules as tumor markers for the specific binding with radiopharmaceuticals. Radiopharmaceuticals, unlike the non-radioactive drugs, are trace compounds in a given dosage. Due to the extreme low concentration, the non-specific accumulation of the radiotracers by blood cells and proteins, tissues, and organs can be even more serious compared to the non-radioactive drugs. The non-specific accumulation of the radiotracers can make the ratios of tumor/tissue (in terms of i.d.%/g) falling to the range of 2∼7 [1-2]. Non-specific binding of radiopharmaceuticals is common, but detailed studies on it are poor documented. This presentation reports the study of the relationship of non-specific accumulation and the structural property of two type of 99m TC labeled compounds: (a) 99m Tc-(amine o xime) containing either 2-nitroimidazole (2-NI, as hypoxia tumor cells specific agents), or 4-nitro- imidazole (4-NI, as control), or aniline (as reference) groups; (b) 99m Tc-(arginine-glycine- aspartic acid, RGD, as tumor angiogenesis specific agents) and 99m Tc-(arginine-glycine- glutarmic acid, RGE, as control). The 99m Tc-(amine-oxime) complexes, in addition to the 2-NI, 4-NI, and aniline groups, contain methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, iso-butyl-, t-butyl-, phenyl-, and Benzyl- groups as well to make the radiotracers differing in structure and in lipophilicity , while the lipophilicity of a radiotracer plays an important role in non-specific cellular accumulation and protein binding, The results demonstrated that (1) the complex containing 2-NI showed specific

  10. Oxygenation of cervical cancers during radiotherapy and radiotherapy + cis-retinoic acid/interferon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, Jeurgen; Heansgen, Gabriele; Lautenschleager, Christine; Feuchsel, Glenn; Becker, Axel

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: We have evaluated the tumor tissue pO 2 in cervical cancers during radiotherapy with special emphasis on the course of the pO 2 in primarily hypoxic tumors and in patients treated with radiotherapy plus 13-cis-retinoic acid/interferon-α-2a. Methods and Materials: From June 1995 through April 1997, 49 patients with squamous cell carcinoma FIGO IIB-IVA of the cervix who were treated with definitve radiotherapy with curative intent underwent polarographic measurement of tumor tissue pO 2 with an Eppendorf pO 2 -histograph prior to and during radiation treatment. Radiotherapy consisted of external irradiation with 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions of 1.8 Gy plus high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Twenty-two patients had additional treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA, isotretinoin) and interferon-α-2a (IFN-α-2a). Therapy with cRA/IFN in these patients started 2 weeks before radiotherapy; during this induction period, cRA was administered in a dosage of 1 mg per kilogram body weight orally daily and IFN-α-2a in a dosage of 6 x 10 6 I.U. subcutaneously daily. After start of external radiotherapy (XRT), cRA/IFN was continued concomitantly with radiotherapy in reduced doses (0.5 mg cRA per kg body weight orally daily plus 3 x 10 6 I.U. IFN-α-2a subcutaneously three times weekly until the end of the radiation treatment). pO 2 measurements were performed prior to radiotherapy, at 20 Gy, and at the end of radiotherapy. Results: A poor oxygenation defined as a median pO 2 of 10 mm Hg or less was present in 15/38 tumors (39%) in which measurements prior to any treatment were done. Low pO 2 readings below 5 mm Hg were present in 70% of all tumors prior to treatment. In 13 of 15 hypoxic tumors, pO 2 measurements at 19.8 Gy were performed. In these tumors, a significant increase of the median pO 2 from 6.0 ± 3.1 mm Hg to 20.7 ± 21.2 mm Hg was found, p 2 was more pronounced in patients with radiotherapy plus additional cRA/IFN treatment as compared to patients treated

  11. Smoking: the influence of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) on tumor oxygenation and response to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, D.W.; Hill, R.P.; Bush, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of localized x radiation on the transplantable KHT sarcoma was studied in nonanesthetized C3H mice possessing blood carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) levels similar to those observed in heavy smokers. HbCO values of 10 percent were induced in tumor-bearing animals, either acutely just prior to irradiation or chronically during tumor growth and irradiation, by allowing the mice to breathe gas mixtures containing carbon monoxide (CO) in air. Tumors were irradiated either with single doses of 1500, 2000, or 2500 rad or with seven 500 rad fractions given at 24 hr intervals. Tumor cell survival was determined using an in vivo lung colony or an in vitro agar colony assay. The results with single doses of radiation indicate that under conditions of both acute and chronic exposure, the presence of 10 percent HbCO in the blood of the mice at the time of irradiation increases the survival of tumor cells in the hypoxic region of the survival curve by a factor of 2. During the fractionated irradiation, tumor cell survival in the presence of a 10 percent blood HbCO level (induced either acutely or chronically) was found to be significantly higher than that observed in air breathing mice. The results indicate that HbCO levels, such as are observed in heavy smokers, result in a larger fraction of hypoxic tumor cells. These findings suggest that heavy smoking prior to treatment may worsen the prognosis of patients undergoing radiotherapy

  12. Gene expression in tumor cells and stroma in dsRed 4T1 tumors in eGFP-expressing mice with and without enhanced oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moen, Ingrid; Øyan, Anne M; Stuhr, Linda EB; Jevne, Charlotte; Wang, Jian; Kalland, Karl-Henning; Chekenya, Martha; Akslen, Lars A; Sleire, Linda; Enger, Per Ø; Reed, Rolf K

    2012-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is pivotal in tumor progression. Thus, we aimed to develop a mammary tumor model to elucidate molecular characteristics in the stroma versus the tumor cell compartment by global gene expression. Secondly, since tumor hypoxia influences several aspects of tumor pathophysiology, we hypothesized that hyperoxia might have an inhibitory effect on tumor growth per se. Finally, we aimed to identify differences in gene expression and key molecular mechanisms, both in the native state and following treatment. 4T1 dsRed breast cancer cells were injected into eGFP expressing NOD/SCID mice. Group 1 was exposed to 3 intermittent HBO treatments (Day 1, 4 and 7), Group 2 to 7 daily HBO treatments (both 2.5bar, 100% O 2 , à 90 min), whereas the controls were exposed to a normal atmosphere. Tumor growth, histology, vascularisation, cell proliferation, cell death and metastasis were assessed. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to separate tumor cells from stromal cells prior to gene expression analysis. The purity of sorted cells was verified by fluorescence microscopy. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that highly expressed genes in the untreated tumor stroma included constituents of the extracellular matrix and matrix metalloproteinases. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by HBO, and the MAPK pathway was found to be significantly reduced. Immunohistochemistry indicated a significantly reduced microvessel density after intermittent HBO, whereas daily HBO did not show a similar effect. The anti-angiogenic response was reflected in the expression trends of angiogenic factors. The present in vivo mammary tumor model enabled us to separate tumor and stromal cells, and demonstrated that the two compartments are characterized by distinct gene expressions, both in the native state and following HBO treatments. Furthermore, hyperoxia induced a significant tumor growth-inhibitory effect, with significant down-regulation of the MAPK pathway

  13. Theory and development of fluorescence-based optochemical oxygen sensors: oxygen optodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, N; Lübbers, D W

    1987-01-01

    range of PO2 values, resulting in a higher resolution. Use of suitable polymer alloys as indicator matrices can even enhance oxygen sensitivity; therefore, the application of optodes for trace analysis of oxygen might be possible, especially with regard to the application of highly oxygen-sensitive phosphorescent indicators. Finally, owing to the reversibility of fluorescence quenching, monitoring of oxygen by fluorescence optical sensors allows a continuous and remote control of biomedical parameters as well as regulation of biotechnological processes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  14. Gradually Increased Oxygen Administration Improved Oxygenation and Mitigated Oxidative Stress after Resuscitation from Severe Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Yin, Yujing; You, Guoxing; Chen, Gan; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Jingxiang; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The optimal oxygen administration strategy during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock (HS) is still controversial. Improving oxygenation and mitigating oxidative stress simultaneously seem to be contradictory goals. To maximize oxygen delivery while minimizing oxidative damage, the authors proposed the notion of gradually increased oxygen administration (GIOA), which entails making the arterial blood hypoxemic early in resuscitation and subsequently gradually increasing to hyperoxic, and compared its effects with normoxic resuscitation, hyperoxic resuscitation, and hypoxemic resuscitation in severe HS. Rats were subjected to HS, and on resuscitation, the rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8): the normoxic, the hyperoxic, the hypoxemic, and the GIOA groups. Rats were observed for an additional 1 h. Hemodynamics, acid-base status, oxygenation, and oxidative injury were observed and evaluated. Central venous oxygen saturation promptly recovered only in the hyperoxic and the GIOA groups, and the liver tissue partial pressure of oxygen was highest in the GIOA group after resuscitation. Oxidative stress in GIOA group was significantly reduced compared with the hyperoxic group as indicated by the reduced malondialdehyde content, increased catalase activity, and the lower histologic injury scores in the liver. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 expressions in the liver were markedly decreased in the GIOA group than in the hyperoxic and normoxic groups as shown by the immunohistochemical staining. GIOA improved systemic/tissue oxygenation and mitigated oxidative stress simultaneously after resuscitation from severe HS. GIOA may be a promising strategy to improve resuscitation from HS and deserves further investigation.

  15. Peri-implant parameters, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1 beta levels in vaping individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aali, Khulud A; Alrabiah, Mohammed; ArRejaie, Aws S; Abduljabbar, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Akram, Zohaib

    2018-03-25

    To the author's knowledge, there has been no study that has assessed clinical, radiographic, and immunological peri-implant parameters among individuals vaping e-cigarette (e-cig). This pilot study aimed to compare clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β levels among individuals vaping e-cigs and never smoker (NS). Forty-seven individuals vaping e-cigs (group-1) and 45 NS (group-2) were included. Demographic and implant-related data were collected using a structured baseline questionnaire. Peri-implant plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and probing depth (PD) were recorded and peri-implant bone loss (PIBL) were assessed using standardized digital radiographs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to assess the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in peri-implant sulcular fluid. Bleeding on probing showed statistically significantly higher values in group-2 patients as compared to group-1 patients (P vaping individuals. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in peri-implant sulcular fluid may suggest greater local inflammatory response in vaping individuals for peri-implant inflammation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Systemic depletion of L-cyst(e)ine with cyst(e)inase increases reactive oxygen species and suppresses tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Shira L; Saha, Achinto; Liu, Jinyun; Tadi, Surendar; Tiziani, Stefano; Yan, Wupeng; Triplett, Kendra; Lamb, Candice; Alters, Susan E; Rowlinson, Scott; Zhang, Yan Jessie; Keating, Michael J; Huang, Peng; DiGiovanni, John; Georgiou, George; Stone, Everett

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells experience higher oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS) than do non-malignant cells because of genetic alterations and abnormal growth; as a result, maintenance of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is essential for their survival and proliferation. Under conditions of elevated ROS, endogenous L-cysteine (L-Cys) production is insufficient for GSH synthesis. This necessitates uptake of L-Cys that is predominantly in its disulfide form, L-cystine (CSSC), via the xCT(-) transporter. We show that administration of an engineered and pharmacologically optimized human cyst(e)inase enzyme mediates sustained depletion of the extracellular L-Cys and CSSC pool in mice and non-human primates. Treatment with this enzyme selectively causes cell cycle arrest and death in cancer cells due to depletion of intracellular GSH and ensuing elevated ROS; yet this treatment results in no apparent toxicities in mice even after months of continuous treatment. Cyst(e)inase suppressed the growth of prostate carcinoma allografts, reduced tumor growth in both prostate and breast cancer xenografts and doubled the median survival time of TCL1-Tg:p53 -/- mice, which develop disease resembling human chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It was observed that enzyme-mediated depletion of the serum L-Cys and CSSC pool suppresses the growth of multiple tumors, yet is very well tolerated for prolonged periods, suggesting that cyst(e)inase represents a safe and effective therapeutic modality for inactivating antioxidant cellular responses in a wide range of malignancies.

  17. Weakening of the radioprotective action of gas hypoxia with growth of ascitic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytmagambetova, B Z; Shmakova, N L; Fadeyeva, T A

    1975-06-27

    It was shown previously that moderate hypoxia induced by breathing oxygen-poor air (5 percent O/sub 2/) reduces the lethal effect of the total irradiation of mice, while with local irradiation of tumors reduction of tumor growth rate is even more marked in hypoxia-protected animals than with irradiation of mice in normal air. This suggests the possible therapeutic application of hypoxia. It was found that acute gas hypoxia strongly retards radiation damage to bone marrow, both qualitatively (type of cells affected) and quantitatively. In addition, a definite weakening of the protective effect of hypoxia was observed, this being proportional to increase in tumor size. Planned future tests involving direct dynamic measurement of oxygen stress as a function of amount of ascites are expected to supply further information on reduction of radiosensitivity of normal tissues and on the selective intensification of tumor regression. Graphic data accompany the paper. (JPRS)

  18. Argon laser phototherapy of human malignancies using rhodamine-123 as a new laser dye: The intracellular role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, D.J.; Saxton, R.E.; Markley, J.; Foote, C.S.; Fetterman, H.R.; Castro, D.J.; Ward, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the cationic, mitochondrial-specific dye Rhodamine-123 (Rh-123), is an efficient tumor photosensitizer for Argon laser treatment of human cancer cells both in vitro and in tumors grown as xenografts in athymic mice. To demonstrate the photodynamic mechanism of action of this reaction, the intracellular role of oxygen and temperature changes in treated cells have to be defined. In the current study, a large panel of human tumor cell lines of diverse histologic origin were tested for in vitro sensitivity to Rh-123 and the Argon laser (514.5 nm) in oxygen, deuterium oxide (D2O), and nitrogen (N2) environment. Tumor cells in suspension were first sensitized to Rh-123 (1 or 20 micrograms/ml for 1 hour), cooled on ice to 4 degrees C, and then exposed to the Argon laser (delta T = 14 +/- 1 degree C). Cell proliferation measured by [3H]-thymidine uptake 24 hours after sensitization with Rh-123 and laser treatment was significantly decreased in tumor cells kept in oxygen and D2O atmospheres. No decrease in DNA synthesis was seen in Rh-123 and laser treated cells kept in an N2 environment. Control tumor cells treated with Rh-123 or the Argon laser separately did not show any decreased [3H]-thymidine uptake in oxygen, D2O or N2 environment. These results provide evidence of a photodynamic process since Rh-123 sensitization and Argon laser activation occur at nonthermal levels of energy and are oxygen dependent. The high effectiveness of this technique of photodynamic therapy with the Argon laser, and low toxicity of Rh-123 could make its clinical use very attractive for the treatment of superficial malignancies

  19. Neutrophils responsive to endogenous IFN-beta regulate tumor angiogenesis and growth in a mouse tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Jadwiga; Leschner, Sara; Westphal, Kathrin; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried

    2010-04-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant neoplasias, as the formation of new blood vessels is required for tumors to acquire oxygen and nutrients essential for their continued growth and metastasis. However, the signaling pathways leading to tumor vascularization are not fully understood. Here, using a transplantable mouse tumor model, we have demonstrated that endogenous IFN-beta inhibits tumor angiogenesis through repression of genes encoding proangiogenic and homing factors in tumor-infiltrating neutrophils. We determined that IFN-beta-deficient mice injected with B16F10 melanoma or MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells developed faster-growing tumors with better-developed blood vessels than did syngeneic control mice. These tumors displayed enhanced infiltration by CD11b+Gr1+ neutrophils expressing elevated levels of the genes encoding the proangiogenic factors VEGF and MMP9 and the homing receptor CXCR4. They also expressed higher levels of the transcription factors c-myc and STAT3, known regulators of VEGF, MMP9, and CXCR4. In vitro, treatment of these tumor-infiltrating neutrophils with low levels of IFN-beta restored expression of proangiogenic factors to control levels. Moreover, depletion of these neutrophils inhibited tumor growth in both control and IFN-beta-deficient mice. We therefore suggest that constitutively produced endogenous IFN-beta is an important mediator of innate tumor surveillance. Further, we believe our data help to explain the therapeutic effect of IFN treatment during the early stages of cancer development.

  20. Increase in tumor oxygenation and potentiation of radiation effects using pentoxifylline, vinpocetine and ticlopidine hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Morikazu; Monzen, Hajime; Suzuki, Minoru; Terai, Kaoru; Andoh, Satoshi; Tsumuraya, Akio; Hasegawa, Takeo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Pentoxifylline (PTX), Vinpocetine (VPT) and Ticlopidine Hydrochloride (TCD), used commonly for vascular disorders in humans, on the pO 2 in SCCVII tumors of C3H/HeJ mice and on the radioresponse of SCCVII tumors. The pO 2 in the SCCVII tumors, which were measured 30 min after intraperioneal (i.p.) injection of PTX (5 mg/kg), VPT (5 mg/kg), or TCD (10 mg/kg) using polarography, was compared to that in saline-treated control tumors. All the three drugs, PTX, VPT and TCD, yielded significant increase of the pO 2 in the SCCVII tumors from 25.6 to 26.9 mmHg, from 18.6 to 22.9 mmHg, and from 22.6 to 25.9 mmHg, respectively. Frequency histogram of the pO 2 distribution in the saline-treated SCCVII tumors did not show hypoxic fraction of less than 10 mmHg. The radioresponses of the drugs were investigated by tumor growth delay assay. In the drug-treated groups, the SCCVII tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy 30 min after injection of the drugs at the same doses as those used in the experiments for intratumoral pO 2 measurement. Compared with the irradiation alone group, significant tumor growth delays were observed in all the drug-treated groups. The time required to reach a four-fold increase in the initial tumor volume were 4 days in the saline-treated control group, 22 days in the irradiation (IR) alone group, 28 days in the PTX+IR group, 29 days in the VPT+IR group, and 32 days in TCD+IR group. In conclusion, VPT and TCD are potentially promising drugs for increasing the intratumoral pO 2 although the mechanism for radiopotentiation observed in the present study is unknown due to small hypoxic fraction in the SCCVII tumors. Further studies on other mechanisms for radiopotentiation of PTX, VPT or TCD, besides of increasing the pO 2 in the tumor, are needed. (author)

  1. Sterilization by pure oxygen plasma and by oxygen-hydrogen peroxide plasma: an efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscariol, M R; Moreira, A J; Mansano, R D; Kikuchi, I S; Pinto, T J A

    2008-04-02

    Plasma is an innovative sterilization method characterized by a low toxicity to operators and patients, and also by its operation at temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of different parameters for this method of sterilization and the corresponding results were analyzed in this study. A low-pressure inductive discharge was used to study the plasma sterilization processes. Oxygen and a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were used as plasma source gases. The efficacy of the processes using different combinations of parameters such as plasma-generation method, type of gas, pressure, gas flow rate, temperature, power, and exposure time was evaluated. Two phases were developed for the processes, one using pure oxygen and the other a mixture of gases. Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 9372 (Bacillus atrophaeus) spores inoculated on glass coverslips were used as biological indicators to evaluate the efficacy of the processes. All cycles were carried out in triplicate for different sublethal exposure times to calculate the D value by the enumeration method. The pour-plate technique was used to quantify the spores. D values of between 8 and 3 min were obtained. Best results were achieved at high power levels (350 and 400 W) using pure oxygen, showing that plasma sterilization is a promising alternative to other sterilization methods.

  2. Tumor mutational load and immune parameters across metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC) risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Velasco, Guillermo; Miao, Diana; Voss, Martin H.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Hsieh, James J.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Tamboli, Pheroze; Appleman, Leonard J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Choueiri, Toni K.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) have better overall survival when treated with nivolumab, a cancer immunotherapy that targets the immune checkpoint inhibitor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), rather than everolimus (a chemical inhibitor of mTOR and immunosuppressant). Poor-risk mRCC patients treated with nivolumab seemed to experience the greatest overall survival benefit, compared to patients with favorable or intermediate-risk, in an analysis of the CheckMate-025 trial subgroup of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) prognostic risk groups. Here we explore whether tumor mutational load and RNA expression of specific immune parameters could be segregated by prognostic MSKCC risk strata and explain the survival seen in the poor-risk group. We queried whole exome transcriptome data in RCC patients (n = 54) included in The Cancer Genome Atlas that ultimately developed metastatic disease or were diagnosed with metastatic disease at presentation and did not receive immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nonsynonymous mutational load did not differ significantly by MSKCC risk group, nor was the expression of cytolytic genes –granzyme A and perforin – or selected immune checkpoint molecules different across MSKCC risk groups. In conclusion, this analysis found that mutational load and expression of markers of an active tumor microenvironment did not correlate with MSKCC risk prognostic classification in mRCC. PMID:27538576

  3. CR108, a novel vitamin K3 derivative induces apoptosis and breast tumor inhibition by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chun-Ru [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Liao, Wei-Siang [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Bioengineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ya-Hui [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Murugan, Kaliyappan [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chinpiao, E-mail: chinpiao@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Chao, Jui-I, E-mail: jichao@faculty.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Institute of Molecular Medicine and Bioengineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Vitamin K3 derivatives have been shown to exert anticancer activities. Here we show a novel vitamin K3 derivative (S)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutylthio)naphthalene-1,4-dione, which is named as CR108 that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer. CR108 is more effective on the breast cancer cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. Moreover, CR108 induced apoptosis in both the non-HER-2-overexpressed MCF-7 and HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 breast cancer cells. CR108 caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol, and cleaved PARP proteins for apoptosis induction. CR108 markedly increased ROS levels in breast cancer cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general ROS scavenger, completely blocked the CR108-induced ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Interestingly, CR108 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but conversely inhibited the survivin protein expression. NAC treatment prevented the activation of p38 MAP kinase and rescued the survivin protein levels. SB202190, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, recovered the survivin protein levels and attenuated the cytotoxicity of CR108-treated cells. Furthermore, CR108 inhibited the xenografted human breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, we demonstrate that CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer. - Highlights: • CR108 is more effective on the cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. • CR108 induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. • CR108 induces apoptosis by p38 kinase activation and survivin inhibition. • CR108 is a potent vitamin K3 analog that can develop for breast cancer therapy.

  4. CR108, a novel vitamin K3 derivative induces apoptosis and breast tumor inhibition by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chun-Ru; Liao, Wei-Siang; Wu, Ya-Hui; Murugan, Kaliyappan; Chen, Chinpiao; Chao, Jui-I

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K3 derivatives have been shown to exert anticancer activities. Here we show a novel vitamin K3 derivative (S)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutylthio)naphthalene-1,4-dione, which is named as CR108 that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer. CR108 is more effective on the breast cancer cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. Moreover, CR108 induced apoptosis in both the non-HER-2-overexpressed MCF-7 and HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 breast cancer cells. CR108 caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol, and cleaved PARP proteins for apoptosis induction. CR108 markedly increased ROS levels in breast cancer cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general ROS scavenger, completely blocked the CR108-induced ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Interestingly, CR108 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but conversely inhibited the survivin protein expression. NAC treatment prevented the activation of p38 MAP kinase and rescued the survivin protein levels. SB202190, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, recovered the survivin protein levels and attenuated the cytotoxicity of CR108-treated cells. Furthermore, CR108 inhibited the xenografted human breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, we demonstrate that CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer. - Highlights: • CR108 is more effective on the cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. • CR108 induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. • CR108 induces apoptosis by p38 kinase activation and survivin inhibition. • CR108 is a potent vitamin K3 analog that can develop for breast cancer therapy

  5. Effect of anemia on tumor radiosensitivity under normo and hyperbaric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, A.; Stewart, F.A.; Smith, K.A.; Soranson, J.A.; Randhawa, V.S.; Stratford, M.R.; Denekamp, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of chronic anemia on tumor radiosensitivity in a murine tumor has been investigated. Anemia was induced by bilateral kidney irradiation given several months before tumor implantation. Anemic, anemic transfused, and normal non-anemic age-matched tumor bearing animals were irradiated with X rays (2 F/24 hr) either in air, air plus misonidazole, or under hyperbaric oxygen. The most resistant response was that of tumors grown in normal mice treated in air. Anemia produced an increase in radiosensitivity which was further enhanced by red blood cell replacement. The most sensitive overall response was seen in the anemic-transfused group treated with HBO

  6. WE-E-BRE-12: Tumor Microenvironment Dynamics Following Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, D; Niles, D; Adamson, E; Torres, A; Kissick, M; Eliceiri, K; Kimple, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This work aims to understand the radiation-induced interplay between tumor oxygenation and metabolic activity. These dynamics can potentially serve as biomarkers in assessing treatment response allowing for patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Using patient-derived xenografts of head and neck cancer we assessed tumor oxygenation via fiber-optic probe monitored hemoglobin saturation and Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI. Measurements were taken before and after a 10 Gy dose of radiation. Changes in metabolic activity were measured via Fluorescence Lifetime IMaging (FLIM) with the appropriate controls following a 10 Gy dose of radiation. FLIM can non-invasively monitor changes in fluorescence in response to the microenvironment including being able to detect free and bound states of the intrinsically fluorescent metabolite NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide). With this information FLIM can accurately quantify the metabolic state of cells that have been radiated. To model the observed changes, a two-compartment, source-sink simulation relating hemoglobin saturation and metabolic activity was performed using MATLAB. Results: Hemoglobin saturation as measured by interstitial probe and BOLD-MRI decreased by 30% within 15 minutes following radiation. FLIM demonstrated a decrease in the mean fluorescence lifetime of NADH by 100 ps following 10 Gy indicating a shift towards glycolytic pathways. Simulation of radiation-induced alterations in tumor oxygenation demonstrated that these changes can be the result of changes in either vasculature or metabolic activity. Conclusion: Radiation induces significant changes in hemoglobin saturation and metabolic activity. These alterations occur on time scales approximately the duration of common radiation treatments. Further understanding these dynamics has important implications with regard to improvement of therapy and biomarkers of treatment response

  7. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 with acriflavine sensitizes hypoxic tumor cells to photodynamic therapy with zinc phthalocyanine-encapsulating cationic liposomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekgaarden, Mans; Weijer, Ruud; Krekorian, Massis; van den IJssel, Bas; Kos, Milan; Alles, Lindy K.; van Wijk, Albert C.; Bikadi, Zsolt; Hazai, Eszter; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Heger, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a tumor treatment modality in which a tumorlocalized photosensitizer is excited with light, which results in local production of reactive oxygen species, destruction of tumor vasculature, tumor hypoxia, tumor cell death, and induction of an anti-tumor immune response.

  8. Effect of carbon monoxide breathing on hypoxia and radiation response in the SCCVII tumor in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, C.; Marianne, M.D.; Nordsmark, M.; Khalil, A.A.; Horsman, M.R.; Overgaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the influence of a clinically relevant concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) on tumor oxygenation and responses to irradiation. The murine tumor model was the SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma transplanted to the feet of C3H/Km mice. Sixty minutes of breathing CO at 200 ppm resulted in a carboxyhemoglobin level of 15%. This resulted in a reduction in p50 (the oxygen partial pressure at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated) to 78% of the control value, and a decrease in tumor blood perfusion to 73% of the control value. The combined effect of a decrease in effective hemoglobin and blood perfusion resulted in a reduction in tumor oxygen supply to 62% of the control value. In agreement with this, intratumoral pO 2 measurements showed a significant increase in tumor hypoxia, such that the percentage of measurements with low pO 2 (≤ 5 mmHg) increased from 33% to 62%. The fraction of clonogenic hypoxic cells, measured radiobiologically by paired cell survival curves, similarly increased from 0.2% to 3.8%. Radiation sensitivity, evaluated from in vivo-in vitro excision assay, was significantly decreased by CO in 1, 4, 8, and 12 fractions were 0.71, 0.77, 0.83, and 0.71, respectively. The present SCCVII tumor data confirm the general experimental observation that CO breathing significantly increases tumor hypoxia and reduces the effectiveness of ionizing irradiation. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Development of a novel fluorescent imaging probe for tumor hypoxia by use of a fusion protein with oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF-1α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Harada, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2007-02-01

    More malignant tumors contain more hypoxic regions. In hypoxic tumor cells, expression of a series of hypoxiaresponsive genes related to malignant phenotype such as angiogenesis and metastasis are induced. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master transcriptional activator of such genes, and thus imaging of hypoxic tumor cells where HIF-1 is active, is important in cancer therapy. We have been developing PTD-ODD fusion proteins, which contain protein transduction domain (PTD) and the VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of HIF-1 alpha subunit (HIF-1α). Thus PTD-ODD fusion proteins can be delivered to any tissue in vivo through PTD function and specifically stabilized in hypoxic cells through ODD function. To investigate if PTD-ODD fusion protein can be applied to construct hypoxia-specific imaging probes, we first constructed a fluorescent probe because optical imaging enable us to evaluate a probe easily, quickly and economically in a small animal. We first construct a model fusion porein PTD-ODD-EGFP-Cy5.5 named POEC, which is PTD-ODD protein fused with EGFP for in vitro imaging and stabilization of fusion protein, and conjugated with a near-infrared dye Cy5.5. This probe is designed to be degraded in normoxic cells through the function of ODD domain and followed by quick clearance of free fluorescent dye. On the other hand, this prove is stabilized in hypoxic tumor cells and thus the dye is stayed in the cells. Between normoxic and hypoxic conditions, the difference in the clearance rate of the dye will reveals suited contrast for tumor-hypoxia imaging. The optical imaging probe has not been optimized yet but the results presented here exhibit a potential of PTD-ODD fusion protein as a hypoxia-specific imaging probe.

  10. Role of nuclear factor kappa B and reactive oxygen species in the tumor necrosis factor-a-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of MCF-7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dong

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The microenvironment of the tumor plays an important role in facilitating cancer progression and activating dormant cancer cells. Most tumors are infiltrated with inflammatory cells which secrete cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a. To evaluate the role of TNF-a in the development of cancer we studied its effects on cell migration with a migration assay. The migrating cell number in TNF-a -treated group is about 2-fold of that of the control group. Accordingly, the expression of E-cadherin was decreased and the expression of vimentin was increased upon TNF-a treatment. These results showed that TNF-a can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of MCF-7 cells. Further, we found that the expression of Snail, an important transcription factor in EMT, was increased in this process, which is inhibited by the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB inhibitor aspirin while not affected by the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. Consistently, specific inhibition of NFkB by the mutant IkBa also blocked the TNF-a-induced upregulation of Snail promoter activity. Thus, the activation of NFkB, which causes an increase in the expression of the transcription factor Snail is essential in the TNF-a-induced EMT. ROS caused by TNF-a seemed to play a minor role in the TNF-a-induced EMT of MCF-7 cells, though ROS per se can promote EMT. These findings suggest that different mechanisms might be responsible for TNF-a - and ROS-induced EMT, indicating the need for different strategies for the prevention of tumor metastasis induced by different stimuli.

  11. Oxygenation of a rodent adenocarcinoma is improved by darbepoetin alfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.P.; Snyder, S.A.; Zhao, Y.; Peltz, C.; Brizel, D.M.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Blackwell, K.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Tumor hypoxia, particularly in anemia, increases the risk of distant metastases and decreases survival. However, the benefits of stimulating erythropoiesis to supraphysiological levels are unclear. This study examines the effect of darbepoetin alfa (DEPA) on tumor oxygenation and the response to therapeutic radiation (XRT) in rats with initially normal hematocrit. R3230 adenocarcinoma was transplanted into the flank of female Fisher 344 rats. Starting on Day 4 post transplant, the rats received DEPA 3 μg/kg or normal saline sc tiw. At 3 weeks post transplant, pO2 was measured and the tumor excised, or the tumor was irradiated. pO2 was determined using an optical microprobe. In histologic studies, rats were injected with pimonidazole prior to sacrifice, and the tumors excised and stained with an antibody to pimonidazole (PIMO). Extent/intensity of staining was assessed by 3 observers and averaged to yield an IHC score. Rats ± DEPA with tumors 7 -12mm diameter were randomised to receive 32 Gy in 4 bid doses or sham irradiation. Tumor diameters in the 4 groups (±DEPA x ±XRT, total n=41) were measured by calipers. Failure was defined by the tumor reaching 15mm in diameter and used to generate Kaplan-Meier curves. Hematocrit at transplant averaged 45% (n=104) versus 67% in the DEPA-treated rats (n=18, p<0.0001) and 44% in the control animals (n=21.) Median pO2 in the DEPA-treated rats vs. controls did not differ significantly (17 vs. 13 mm Hg, p=0.10.) However, the fraction of tumor pO2 measurements <10mm Hg in the DEPA-treated rats was lower (21% vs. 37%, p=0.046.) IHC score was also less in the DEPA group (p=0.03.) XRT significantly improved failure-free survival (p<0.0001.) While the addition of DEPA to either the XRT or control groups did not significantly increase survival, the trend in both cases favored the DEPA-treated groups. In this tumor, treatment with DEPA improves oxygenation. However, no significant enhancement in radioesponsiveness by DEPA

  12. Variability in blood flow and pO2 in tumors in response to carbogen breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzen, Jennifer L.; Braun, Rod D.; Ong, Aqui L.; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: There is speculation that the CO 2 in carbogen (95% O 2 , 5% CO 2 ) can block the vasoconstrictive effects of oxygen. However, it has recently been shown that blood flow in human tumors is variable while patients breathe carbogen. Furthermore, we have shown a consistent decrease in tumor blood flow (TBF) with carbogen breathing in the rat window chamber model. Also, we have previously shown that there is no significant difference in tumor growth time after radiation with air vs. carbogen breathing. This study was designed to investigate the effects of carbogen breathing on blood flow and oxygen levels in a solid tumor. Methods: Measurements were made in Fischer-344 rats with 8-10 mm diameter R3230Ac tumors transplanted either within the quadriceps muscle (n = 16) or subcutis (n = 14). Nontumor-bearing quadriceps muscle was studied in six other rats. After a 20-minute air-breathing baseline, rats breathed carbogen for an additional 40 minutes. Partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 ) was continuously monitored at one position for 60 minutes using 9-12 μm diameter oxygen microelectrodes. Blood flow was simultaneously monitored in all animals using laser Doppler flowmetry (1-2 probes/tumor). Results: Blood flow changes during carbogen breathing were variable in all tissues and intratumoral heterogeneity was observed. Despite variability in blood flow, pO 2 consistently increased in normal muscle but varied in both tumor sites. During carbogen breathing, the percent pO 2 measurements greater than the baseline average were 99.5% ± 0.4% (mean ± SEM), 42.7% ± 13.8%, and 79.8% ± 11.0% in normal muscle, subcutaneous tumor, and muscle tumor, respectively. To show the magnitude of change, average pO 2 values during air and carbogen breathing were calculated for each site. Normal muscle increased from 14.9 ± 2.3 to 39.0 ± 6.4 mm Hg (paired t-test; p = 0.009). Muscle tumors showed a rise from 14.6 ± 3.2 to 34.5 ± 8.2 mm Hg (p = 0.019). However, pO 2 in subcutaneous

  13. studies on the correlation of some aggregate parameters in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    simulations for problem solving and forecasting environmental conditions .... METHODS. Parameters: The water quality parameters examined were, Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS),. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), 5-day Biochemical. Oxygen Demand ..... Vogel's Textbook of Quantitative. Chemical Analysis 6th ed ...

  14. In vivo intracellular oxygen dynamics in murine brain glioma and immunotherapeutic response of cytotoxic T cells observed by fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhong

    Full Text Available Noninvasive biomarkers of anti-tumoral efficacy are of great importance to the development of therapeutic agents. Tumor oxygenation has been shown to be an important indicator of therapeutic response. We report the use of intracellular labeling of tumor cells with perfluorocarbon (PFC molecules, combined with quantitative ¹⁹F spin-lattice relaxation rate (R₁ measurements, to assay tumor cell oxygen dynamics in situ. In a murine central nervous system (CNS GL261 glioma model, we visualized the impact of Pmel-1 cytotoxic T cell immunotherapy, delivered intravenously, on intracellular tumor oxygen levels. GL261 glioma cells were labeled ex vivo with PFC and inoculated into the mouse striatum. The R₁ of ¹⁹F labeled cells was measured using localized single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the absolute intracellular partial pressure of oxygen (pO₂ was ascertained. Three days after tumor implantation, mice were treated with 2×10⁷ cytotoxic T cells intravenously. At day five, a transient spike in pO₂ was observed indicating an influx of T cells into the CNS and putative tumor cell apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the pO₂ was causally related to the T cells infiltration. Surprisingly, the pO₂ spike was detected even though few (∼4×10⁴ T cells actually ingress into the CNS and with minimal tumor shrinkage. These results indicate the high sensitivity of this approach and its utility as a non-invasive surrogate biomarker of anti-cancer immunotherapeutic response in preclinical models.

  15. Rapid and transient stimulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species by melatonin in normal and tumor leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radogna, Flavia; Paternoster, Laura; De Nicola, Milena; Cerella, Claudia; Ammendola, Sergio; Bedini, Annalida; Tarzia, Giorgio; Aquilano, Katia; Ciriolo, Maria; Ghibelli, Lina

    2009-01-01

    Melatonin is a modified tryptophan with potent biological activity, exerted by stimulation of specific plasma membrane (MT1/MT2) receptors, by lower affinity intracellular enzymatic targets (quinone reductase, calmodulin), or through its strong anti-oxidant ability. Scattered studies also report a perplexing pro-oxidant activity, showing that melatonin is able to stimulate production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we show that on U937 human monocytes melatonin promotes intracellular ROS in a fast (< 1 min) and transient (up to 5-6 h) way. Melatonin equally elicits its pro-radical effect on a set of normal or tumor leukocytes; intriguingly, ROS production does not lead to oxidative stress, as shown by absence of protein carbonylation, maintenance of free thiols, preservation of viability and regular proliferation rate. ROS production is independent from MT1/MT2 receptor interaction, since a) requires micromolar (as opposed to nanomolar) doses of melatonin; b) is not contrasted by the specific MT1/MT2 antagonist luzindole; c) is not mimicked by a set of MT1/MT2 high affinity melatonin analogues. Instead, chlorpromazine, the calmodulin inhibitor shown to prevent melatonin-calmodulin interaction, also prevents melatonin pro-radical effect, suggesting that the low affinity binding to calmodulin (in the micromolar range) may promote ROS production.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Mouse Skin Tumor Promotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Fischer, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation or resistance to apoptosis is necessary to allow clonal expansion of initiated cells with DNA mutations to form skin tumors. The mitotic pathways include activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Chronic inflammation results in inflammatory cell secretion of growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, all of which can stimulate proliferation. Persistent activation of these pathways leads to tumor promotion

  17. Whole-tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to differentiate benign peripheral neurogenic tumors from soft tissue sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Masanori; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Hakamada, Hiroto; Yoneyama, Tomohide; Kamimura, Kiyohisa; Nagano, Satoshi; Nakajo, Masayuki; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2018-02-22

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analyses have been used to differentiate tumor grades and predict therapeutic responses in various anatomic sites with moderate success. To determine the ability of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with a whole-tumor ADC histogram analysis to differentiate benign peripheral neurogenic tumors (BPNTs) from soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). Retrospective study, single institution. In all, 25 BPNTs and 31 STSs. Two-b value DWI (b-values = 0, 1000s/mm 2 ) was at 3.0T. The histogram parameters of whole-tumor for ADC were calculated by two radiologists and compared between BPNTs and STSs. Nonparametric tests were performed for comparisons between BPNTs and STSs. P histogram parameters except kurtosis and entropy differed significantly between BPNTs and STSs. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Manipulating multiple order parameters via oxygen vacancies: The case of E u0.5B a0.5Ti O3 -δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; He, Qian; Wang, Le; Zeng, Huizhong; Bowlan, John; Ling, Langsheng; Yarotski, Dmitry A.; Zhang, Wenrui; Zhao, Run; Dai, Jiahong; Gu, Junxing; Shen, Shipeng; Guo, Haizhong; Pi, Li; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Yongqiang; Velasco-Davalos, Ivan A.; Wu, Yangjiang; Hu, Zhijun; Chen, Bin; Li, Run-Wei; Sun, Young; Jin, Kuijuan; Zhang, Yuheng; Chen, Hou-Tong; Ju, Sheng; Ruediger, Andreas; Shi, Daning; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Yang, Hao

    2017-09-01

    Controlling functionalities, such as magnetism or ferroelectricity, by means of oxygen vacancies (VO) is a key issue for the future development of transition-metal oxides. Progress in this field is currently addressed through VO variations and their impact on mainly one order parameter. Here we reveal a mechanism for tuning both magnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously by using VO. Combining experimental and density-functional theory studies of E u0.5B a0.5Ti O3 -δ , we demonstrate that oxygen vacancies create T i3 +3 d1 defect states, mediating the ferromagnetic coupling between the localized Eu 4 f7 spins, and increase an off-center displacement of Ti ions, enhancing the ferroelectric Curie temperature. The dual function of Ti sites also promises a magnetoelectric coupling in the E u0.5B a0.5Ti O3 -δ .

  19. Why is the partial oxygen pressure of human tissues a crucial parameter? Small molecules and hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreau, Aude; Hafny-Rahbi, Bouchra El; Matejuk, Agata; Grillon, Catherine; Kieda, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Oxygen supply and diffusion into tissues are necessary for survival. The oxygen partial pressure (pO2), which is a key component of the physiological state of an organ, results from the balance between oxygen delivery and its consumption. In mammals, oxygen is transported by red blood cells circulating in a well-organized vasculature. Oxygen delivery is dependent on the metabolic requirements and functional status of each organ. Consequently, in a physiological condition, organ and tissue are characterized by their own unique ‘tissue normoxia’ or ‘physioxia’ status. Tissue oxygenation is severely disturbed during pathological conditions such as cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, etc., which are associated with decrease in pO2, i.e. ‘hypoxia’. In this review, we present an array of methods currently used for assessing tissue oxygenation. We show that hypoxia is marked during tumour development and has strong consequences for oxygenation and its influence upon chemotherapy efficiency. Then we compare this to physiological pO2 values of human organs. Finally we evaluate consequences of physioxia on cell activity and its molecular modulations. More importantly we emphasize the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro tissue and cells oxygen status which can have detrimental effects on experimental outcome. It appears that the values corresponding to the physioxia are ranging between 11% and 1% O2 whereas current in vitro experimentations are usually performed in 19.95% O2, an artificial context as far as oxygen balance is concerned. It is important to realize that most of the experiments performed in so-called normoxia might be dangerously misleading. PMID:21251211

  20. Tumorous interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Meyer, E.; Mundinger, A.; Helwig, A.; Blum, U.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiological findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis and in leukemic pulmonary infiltrates mirror the tumor-dependent monomorphic interstitial pathology of lung parenchyma. It is a proven fact that pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is caused by hematogenous tumor embolization to the lungs; pathogenesis by contiguous lymphangitic spread is the exception. High-resolution CT performed as a supplement to the radiological work-up improves the sensitivity for pulmonary infiltrates in general and thus makes the differential diagnosis decided easier. Radiological criteria cannot discriminate the different forms of leukemia. Plain chest X-ray allows the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in leukemia due to tumorous infiltrates and of tumor- or therapy-induced complications. It is essential that the radiological findings be interpreted with reference to the stage of tumor disease and the clinical parameters to make the radiological differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections more reliable. (orig.) [de

  1. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of breast tumors with MRI and PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinker, K.; Marino, M.A.; Meyer-Baese, A.; Helbich, T.H.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is an indispensable tool in breast imaging for many indications. Several functional parameters with MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) have been assessed for imaging of breast tumors and their combined application is defined as multiparametric imaging. Available data suggest that multiparametric imaging using different functional MRI and PET parameters can provide detailed information about the hallmarks of cancer and may provide additional specificity. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast comprises established MRI parameters, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MR proton spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRSI) as well as combinations of radiological and MRI techniques (e.g. PET/CT and PET/MRI) using radiotracers, such as fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast can be performed at different field-strengths (range 1.5-7 T). Emerging parameters comprise novel promising techniques, such as sodium imaging ( 23 Na MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRSI), chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as various specific radiotracers. Multiparametric and molecular imaging has multiple applications in breast imaging. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast is an evolving field that will enable improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring for personalized medicine in breast cancer. (orig.) [de

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER Chaperones and Oxidoreductases: Critical Regulators of Tumor Cell Survival and Immunorecognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSimmen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER chaperones and oxidoreductases are abundant enzymes that mediate the production of fully folded secretory and transmembrane proteins. Resisting the Golgi and plasma membrane-directed bulk flow, ER chaperones and oxidoreductases enter retrograde trafficking whenever they are pulled outside of the ER. However, solid tumors are characterized by the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, combined with reduced blood flow that leads to low oxygen supply and ER stress. Under these conditions, hypoxia and the unfolded protein response (UPR upregulate ER chaperones and oxidoreductases. When this occurs, ER oxidoreductases and chaperones become important regulators of tumor growth. However, under these conditions, these proteins not only promote the production of proteins, but also alter the properties of the plasma membrane and hence modulate tumor immune recognition. For instance, high levels of calreticulin serve as an eat-me signal on the surface of tumor cells. Conversely, both intracellular and surface BiP/GRP78 promotes tumor growth. Other ER folding assistants able to modulate the properties of tumor tissue include protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, Ero1α and GRP94. Understanding the roles and mechanisms of ER chaperones in regulating tumor cell functions and immunorecognition will lead to important insight for the development of novel cancer therapies.

  3. Why is the partial oxygen pressure of human tissues a crucial parameter? Small molecules and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreau, Aude; El Hafny-Rahbi, Bouchra; Matejuk, Agata; Grillon, Catherine; Kieda, Claudine

    2011-06-01

    Oxygen supply and diffusion into tissues are necessary for survival. The oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)), which is a key component of the physiological state of an organ, results from the balance between oxygen delivery and its consumption. In mammals, oxygen is transported by red blood cells circulating in a well-organized vasculature. Oxygen delivery is dependent on the metabolic requirements and functional status of each organ. Consequently, in a physiological condition, organ and tissue are characterized by their own unique 'tissue normoxia' or 'physioxia' status. Tissue oxygenation is severely disturbed during pathological conditions such as cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, etc., which are associated with decrease in pO(2), i.e. 'hypoxia'. In this review, we present an array of methods currently used for assessing tissue oxygenation. We show that hypoxia is marked during tumour development and has strong consequences for oxygenation and its influence upon chemotherapy efficiency. Then we compare this to physiological pO(2) values of human organs. Finally we evaluate consequences of physioxia on cell activity and its molecular modulations. More importantly we emphasize the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro tissue and cells oxygen status which can have detrimental effects on experimental outcome. It appears that the values corresponding to the physioxia are ranging between 11% and 1% O(2) whereas current in vitro experimentations are usually performed in 19.95% O(2), an artificial context as far as oxygen balance is concerned. It is important to realize that most of the experiments performed in so-called normoxia might be dangerously misleading. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Theoretical analysis and experimental study of oxygen transfer under regular and non-breaking waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹则高; 梁丙臣; 王乐

    2013-01-01

    The dissolved oxygen concentration is an important index of water quality, and the atmosphere is one of the important sources of the dissolved oxygen. In this paper, the mass conservation law and the dimensional analysis method are employed to study the oxygen transfer under regular and non-breaking waves, and a unified oxygen transfer coefficient equation is obtained with consi-deration of the effect of kinetic energy and wave period. An oxygen transfer experiment for the intermediate depth water wave is per-formed to measure the wave parameters and the dissolved oxygen concentration. The experimental data and the least squares method are used to determine the constant in the oxygen transfer coefficient equation. The experimental data and the previous reported data are also used to further validate the oxygen transfer coefficient, and the agreement is satisfactory. The unified equation shows that the oxygen transfer coefficient increases with the increase of a parameter coupled with the wave height and the wave length, but it de-creases with the increase of the wave period, which has a much greater influence on the oxygen transfer coefficient than the coupled parameter.

  5. Effects of perfluorochemical emulsion on the timing of administration and irradiation in tumor bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa-Itoh, Youko; Ayakawa, Yoshio; Miyata, Nobuki

    1988-01-01

    Perfluorochemical content was examined periodically, in blood, tumor and some organs using gas chromatography, after Fluosol-DA saline 20 % (FDAS) was injected into LLC bearing mice. The blood half-life of FDAS in LLC bearing mice was 3.76 hrs (5 ml/kg injection) or 6.15 hrs (20 ml/kg injection) respectively, and FDAS almost disapeared from the blood after about 2 days (5 ml/kg) and 3 days (20 ml/kg) of FDAS-injection. Most of FDAS was accumulated into spleen and the liver. FDAS accumulation into the tumor tissue was 1 ∼ 6 % of injected-FDAS dose and the peak of FDAS accumulation was 1 ∼ 3 days after injection. The timing of FDAS-injection and irradiation in tumor bearing mice determined according to the results above (half-life and accumulation of FDAS in tumor). FDAS (5, 10, 20 ml/kg) was injected to LLC-bearing mice on 3, 2, 1 and 0 day before irradiation and they were irradiated 15 Gray under oxygen-breathing, respectively. FDAS-injected groups before irradiation (3, 2, 1 day before, respectively) showed a tendency of tumor growth delay, but didn't show significant difference as compared with oxygen-breathing group without FDAS, because they had not enough effective FDAS content in the blood. Although the FDAS-injected groups just before irradiation significantly showed the delay of tumor growth. These results demonstrate that oxygen and FDAS existing in the blood injected just before irradiation effectively delay tumor growth in which the lowest effective dose is 5 ml/kg. In the case of clinical application of FDAS, FDAS may be most effective, when administrated just before irradiation in every fractionated irradiation. (author)

  6. Characterization and validation of noninvasive oxygen tension measurements in human glioma xenografts by 19F-MR relaxometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, Boudewijn P.J. van der; Heerschap, Arend; Simonetti, Arjan W.; Rijken, Paul F.J.W.; Peters, Hans P.W.; Stbeen, Georg; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize and to validate noninvasive 19 F-magnetic resonance relaxometry for the measurement of oxygen tensions in human glioma xenografts in nude mice. The following three questions were addressed: 1. When perfluorocarbon compounds (PFCs) are administrated intravenously, which tumor regions are assessed by 19 F-MR relaxometry? 2. Are oxygen tension as detected by 19 F-MR relaxometry (pO 2/relaxo ) comparable to Eppendorf O 2 -electrode measurements (pO 2/electrode )? 3. Can 19 F-MR relaxometry be used to detect oxygen tension changes in tumor tissue during carbogen breathing? Methods and Materials: Slice-selective 19 F-MR relaxometry was carried out with perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether as oxygen sensor. The PFC was injected i.v. 3 days before the 19 F-MR experiments. Two datasets were acquired before and two after the start of carbogen breathing. The distribution of PFCs and necrotic areas were analyzed in 19 F-Spin Echo (SE) density MR images and T 2 -weighted 1 H-SE MR images, respectively. One day after the MR investigations, oxygen tensions were measured by oxygen electrodes in the same slice along two perpendicular tracks. These measurements were followed by (immuno)histochemical analysis of the 2D distribution of perfused microvessels, hypoxic cells, necrotic areas, and macrophages. Results: The PFCs mainly became sequestered in perfused regions at the tumor periphery; thus, 19 F-MR relaxometry probed mean oxygen tensions in these regions throughout the selected MR slice. In perfused regions of the tumor, mean pO 2/relaxo values were comparable to mean pO 2/electrode values, and varied from 0.03 to 9 mmHg. Median pO 2/electrode values of both tracks were lower than mean pO 2/relaxo values, because low pO 2/electrode values that originate from hypoxic and necrotic areas were also included in calculations of median pO 2/electrode values. After 8-min carbogen breathing, the average pO 2/relaxo increase was 3.3 ± 0.8 (SEM

  7. X-ray sensitivity of human tumor cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Nove, J.; Little, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Clonally-derived cells from ten human malignant tumors considered radiocurable (breast, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma) or non-radiocurable (osteosarcoma, hypernephroma, glioblastoma, melanoma) were studied in cell culture and their in vitro x-ray survival curve parameters determined (anti n, D 0 ). There were no significant differences among the tumor cell lines suggesting that survival parameters in vitro do not explain differences in clinical radiocurability. Preliminary investigation with density inhibited human tumor cells indicate that such an approach may yield information regarding inherent cellular differences in radiocurability

  8. Salinity-dependent limitation of photosynthesis and oxygen exchange in microbial mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Pichel, F.; Kühl, Michael; Nübel, U.

    1999-01-01

    was specific for each community and in accordance with optimal performance at the respective salinity of origin. This pattern was lost after long-term exposure to varying salinities when responses to salinity were found to approach a general pattern of decreasing photosynthesis and oxygen exchange capacity...... with increasing salinity. Exhaustive measurements of oxygen export in the light, oxygen consumption in the dark and gross photosynthesis indicated that a salinity-dependent limitation of all three parameters occurred. Maximal values for all three parameters decreased exponentially with increasing salinity...

  9. Biological mechanisms of gallium-67 tumor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Takeda, Shumpei; Sato, Tachio; Takusagawa, Kimihiko; Awano, Takayuki.

    1979-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken in order to clarify the tumor deposition mechanisms of 67 Ga citrate, a ''universal tumor labeler''. An interspecies comparison of various tumors in the rat and mouse indicated that its highest deposition was in the undifferentiated cell type. Amongst the siblings of experimental tumors, cellular membrane negative charge is greater in the free-cell types than the island-formers: a short-term labeling study revealed a greater 67 Ga deposition in the free-cell types. A subcellar fractionation showed an initial association of 67 Ga with the nuclear and membrane fractions, and a later transition to the lysosomal. Hypotonic lysis revealed a paralleled release of 67 Ga and lysosomal key enzymes. Morphological abnormality of the cancer lysosomes was thought to agree with their Ga retention. This property was clinically confirmed by a scintiscoring technique. Treatment with cold gallium of tumors modified the biological parameters of tumor growth: in vitro it suppressed cell proliferation, reduced saturation density; and produced cellular pleomorphism. In vivo it increased tumor consistency by reducing central necrosis and increasing the viable cell layer thickness. Thus, 67 Ga deposition is closely related to various biological parameters of malignancy including the cellular membrane negative charge as cancer is a membrane disorder, and the lysosomal morphology and function. (author)

  10. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Methods Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and ...

  11. A model of tumor architecture and spatial interactions with tumor microenvironment in breast carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Bassem; Bor-Angelier, Catherine; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Breast carcinomas are cancers that arise from the epithelial cells of the breast, which are the cells that line the lobules and the lactiferous ducts. Breast carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer and can be divided into different subtypes based on architectural features and growth patterns, recognized during a histopathological examination. Tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which tumor cells develop. Being composed of various cell types having different biological roles, TME is recognized as playing an important role in the progression of the disease. The architectural heterogeneity in breast carcinomas and the spatial interactions with TME are, to date, not well understood. Developing a spatial model of tumor architecture and spatial interactions with TME can advance our understanding of tumor heterogeneity. Furthermore, generating histological synthetic datasets can contribute to validating, and comparing analytical methods that are used in digital pathology. In this work, we propose a modeling method that applies to different breast carcinoma subtypes and TME spatial distributions based on mathematical morphology. The model is based on a few morphological parameters that give access to a large spectrum of breast tumor architectures and are able to differentiate in-situ ductal carcinomas (DCIS) and histological subtypes of invasive carcinomas such as ductal (IDC) and lobular carcinoma (ILC). In addition, a part of the parameters of the model controls the spatial distribution of TME relative to the tumor. The validation of the model has been performed by comparing morphological features between real and simulated images.

  12. Novel "Elements" of Immune Suppression within the Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Devikala; Clever, David; Eil, Robert; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2017-06-01

    Adaptive evolution has prompted immune cells to use a wide variety of inhibitory signals, many of which are usurped by tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. Although tumor immunologists often focus on genes and proteins as mediators of immune function, here we highlight two elements from the periodic table-oxygen and potassium-that suppress the immune system in previously unappreciated ways. While both are key to the maintenance of T-cell function and tissue homeostasis, they are exploited by tumors to suppress immuno-surveillance and promote metastatic spread. We discuss the temporal and spatial roles of these elements within the tumor microenvironment and explore possible therapeutic interventions for effective and promising anticancer therapies. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(6); 426-33. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging of tumor hypoxia: enhanced spatial and temporal resolution for in vivo pO2 determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Subramanian, Sankaran; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Aravalluvan, Thirumaran; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Cook, John A; Mitchell, James B; Krishna, Murali C

    2006-05-01

    The time-domain (TD) mode of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data collection offers a means of estimating the concentration of a paramagnetic probe and the oxygen-dependent linewidth (LW) to generate pO2 maps with minimal errors. A methodology for noninvasive pO2 imaging based on the application of TD-EPR using oxygen-induced LW broadening of a triarylmethyl (TAM)-based radical is presented. The decay of pixel intensities in an image is used to estimate T2*, which is inversely proportional to pO2. Factors affecting T2* in each pixel are critically analyzed to extract the contribution of dissolved oxygen to EPR line-broadening. Suitable experimental and image-processing parameters were obtained to produce pO2 maps with minimal artifacts. Image artifacts were also minimized with the use of a novel data collection strategy using multiple gradients. Results from a phantom and in vivo imaging of tumor-bearing mice validated this novel method of noninvasive oximetry. The current imaging protocols achieve a spatial resolution of approximately 1.0 mm and a temporal resolution of approximately 9 s for 2D pO2 mapping, with a reliable oxygen resolution of approximately 1 mmHg (0.12% oxygen in gas phase). This work demonstrates that in vivo oximetry can be performed with good sensitivity, accuracy, and high spatial and temporal resolution.

  14. Oxygen consumption by hydrazine in long sample lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Lisheng; Turner, Carl-W.

    2012-09-01

    In nuclear power plants secondary side system dissolved oxygen concentration is a strictly controlled chemistry parameter intended to minimize corrosion and fouling of steam cycle components. Low dissolved oxygen concentration is maintained by a combination of mechanical de-aeration and chemical reaction. The dissolved oxygen concentration in feedwater is monitored by sampling systems to ensure it remains within station specification during operation. The sample lines in a nuclear power plant's sampling system can be from 5 to nearly 200 meters in length, resulting in sample residence times between the take-off point to the analyzer from a few seconds to several minutes, depending on the flow rate and the length of the sample line. For many chemical parameters the residence time is of no concern. For measurements of dissolved oxygen and hydrazine in the secondary coolant, however, for residence times longer than one minute, it is uncertain whether the sample is representative of conditions in the secondary coolant, especially for samples taken from locations where the temperature is well over 100 deg. C. To address this concern, a series of tests were conducted under both warm-up and power operation conditions, respectively, to investigate the effect of temperature, residence time, sample line length, surface area, hydrazine-to-oxygen ratio, and the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and hydrazine on the consumption of oxygen by hydrazine. The test results revealed that dissolved oxygen measurements in CANDU plants are underestimated to various degrees, depending on the sampling system operating conditions. Two distinct types of behaviours are observed for the oxygen removal rate: 1) the percentage removal of dissolved oxygen is invariant with time during the tests, and increases with increasing residence time in the test section, when the reaction between hydrazine and oxygen is better described by a homogenous reaction mechanism, and 2) the percentage oxygen

  15. Optimization of burners in oxygen-gas fired glass furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersbergen, M.J. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Sarmiento-Darkin, W.; Kobayashi, H.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency performance, production stability and emissions of oxygen-fired glass furnaces are influenced by the type of burner, burner nozzle sizes, burner positions, burner settings, oxygen-gas ratios and the fuel distribution among all the burners. These parameters have been optimized

  16. Predictive assays of tumor radiocurability: towards a custom-made radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosset, J.M; Girinsky, T.; Guichard, M.; Eschwege, F.; Malaise, E.P.; Peters, L.J.; Mornex, F.

    1990-01-01

    Up to now, radiation oncologists had at their disposal only a number of well-known histological and clinical factors in order to define the optimal dose which should be delivered to a given tumor. Recently, radiobiological studies have suggested additional parameters which may play a major role in tumor radiocurability. These parameters are: the number of clonogenic cells, intrinsic radiosensitivity, hypoxia and proliferation kinetics. Predictive tests are being developed and evaluated for each of these parameters. The more advanced studies deal with intrinsic radiosensitivity; preliminary data show impressive variations in radiosensitivity within groups of clinically homogeneous tumors. Should these tests prove to be reliably predictive of radiocurability, it will be possible in the near future to propose to any given patient a custom-made radiotherapy adapted to the precise features of his or her tumor [fr

  17. Deriving mechanisms responsible for the lack of correlation between hypoxia and acidity in solid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Molavian

    Full Text Available Hypoxia and acidity are two main microenvironmental factors intimately associated with solid tumors and play critical roles in tumor growth and metastasis. The experimental results of Helmlinger and colleagues (Nature Medicine 3, 177, 1997 provide evidence of a lack of correlation between these factors on the micrometer scale in vivo and further show that the distribution of pH and pO(2 are heterogeneous. Here, using computational simulations, grounded in these experimental results, we show that the lack of correlation between pH and pO(2 and the heterogeneity in their shapes are related to the heterogeneous concentration of buffers and oxygen in the blood vessels, further amplified by the network of blood vessels and the cell metabolism. We also demonstrate that, although the judicious administration of anti-angiogenesis agents (normalization process in tumors may lead to recovery of the correlation between hypoxia and acidity, it may not normalize the pH throughout the whole tumor. However, an increase in the buffering capacity inside the blood vessels does appear to increase the extracellular pH throughout the whole tumor. Based on these results, we propose that the application of anti-angiogenic agents and at the same time increasing the buffering capacity of the tumor extracellular environment may be the most efficient way of normalizing the tumor microenvironment. As a by-product of our simulation we show that the recently observed lack of correlation between glucose consumption and hypoxia in cells which rely on respiration is related to the inhomogeneous consumption of glucose to oxygen concentration. We also demonstrate that this lack of correlation in cells which rely on glycolysis could be related to the heterogeneous concentration of oxygen inside the blood vessels.

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma: IVIM diffusion quantification for prediction of tumor necrosis compared to enhancement ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakite, Suguru; Dyvorne, Hadrien A.; Lee, Karen M.; Jajamovich, Guido H.; Knight-Greenfield, Ashley; Taouli, Bachir

    2015-01-01

    To correlate intra voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion parameters of liver parenchyma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with degree of liver/tumor enhancement and necrosis; and to assess the diagnostic performance of diffusion parameters vs. enhancement ratios (ER) for prediction of complete tumor necrosis. In this IRB approved HIPAA compliant study, we included 46 patients with HCC who underwent IVIM diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI in addition to routine sequences at 3.0 T. True diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (PF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were quantified in tumors and liver parenchyma. Tumor ER were calculated using contrast-enhanced imaging, and degree of tumor necrosis was assessed using post-contrast image subtraction. IVIM parameters and ER were compared between HCC and background liver and between necrotic and viable tumor components. ROC analysis for prediction of complete tumor necrosis was performed. 79 HCCs were assessed (mean size 2.5 cm). D, PF and ADC were significantly higher in HCC vs. liver (p < 0.0001). There were weak significant negative/positive correlations between D/PF and ER, and significant correlations between D/PF/ADC and tumor necrosis (for D, r 0.452, p < 0.001). Among diffusion parameters, D had the highest area under the curve (AUC 0.811) for predicting complete tumor necrosis. ER outperformed diffusion parameters for prediction of complete tumor necrosis (AUC > 0.95, p < 0.002). D has a reasonable diagnostic performance for predicting complete tumor necrosis, however lower than that of contrast-enhanced imaging

  19. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsion as an adjuvant to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teicher, B.A.; Rose, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a perfluorochemical emulsion which as an excellent carrying capacity for oxygen to enhance the ability of radiation therapy to delay the growth of Lewis lung tumor was examined. There was a highly significant effect produced by the addition of perfluorochemical emulsion and carbogen breathing in combination with irradiation. With single dose x-ray treatment the dose of perfluorochemical emulsion was varied from 0.05-0.6 ml addition to the blood volume of the animals. The dose response effect was very broad peaking at 0.3-0.4 ml which gave a dose modifying effect of 2.8 +- 0.6 with 1000 rad of x-rays. The addition of 0.3 ml of perfluorochemical free annex solution with carbogen breathing produced a small enhancement in tumor growth delay addition of the same volume of the complete emulsion increased the tumor growth delay time about 3-fold compared to the annex solution. When the perfluorochemical emulsion was added to a fractionated course of radiation therapy a dose modifying effect of 1.8 +- 0.3 was obtained. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsions may provide a nontoxic clinically useful means of increasing the effectiveness of radiation therapy and of certain chemotherapeutic agents

  20. Hyperpolarized 13C MR Markers of Renal Tumor Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    production in the presence of oxygen (11, 12). Increased glycolysis facilitates the uptake and incorporation of nutrients and biomass needed for cell... shell coil; (d) Hyperpolarized lactate images overlaid on T2 weighted anatomical images, clearly depicting the tumor voxels (Figure 5). As shown in

  1. Improved arterial blood oxygenation following intravenous infusion of cold supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Daniel J; Gentile, Michael A; Riggs, John H; Cheifetz, Ira M

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary goals of critical care medicine is to support adequate gas exchange without iatrogenic sequelae. An emerging method of delivering supplemental oxygen is intravenously rather than via the traditional inhalation route. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gas-exchange effects of infusing cold intravenous (IV) fluids containing very high partial pressures of dissolved oxygen (>760 mm Hg) in a porcine model. Juvenile swines were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Each animal received an infusion of cold (13 °C) Ringer's lactate solution (30 mL/kg/hour), which had been supersaturated with dissolved oxygen gas (39.7 mg/L dissolved oxygen, 992 mm Hg, 30.5 mL/L). Arterial blood gases and physiologic measurements were repeated at 15-minute intervals during a 60-minute IV infusion of the supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution. Each animal served as its own control. Five swines (12.9 ± 0.9 kg) were studied. Following the 60-minute infusion, there were significant increases in PaO2 and SaO2 (P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in PaCO2 (P < 0.05), with a corresponding normalization in arterial blood pH. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in core body temperature (P < 0.05) when compared to the baseline preinfusion state. A cold, supersaturated dissolved oxygen solution may be intravenously administered to improve arterial blood oxygenation and ventilation parameters and induce a mild therapeutic hypothermia in a porcine model.

  2. BPA and BSH accumulation in experimental tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, H.; Sedgwick, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    The accumulation of boronated compounds into tumors is a critical component to the success of BNCT. To date, great variability has been demonstrated in the tumor:blood ratio achieved in samples both from different patients and within samples taken from the same patient. The factors that probably influence the level of uptake include the vascular perfusion within the tumor, the permeability of these vessels and the viability of the tumor cells themselves. These experiments were designed to measure these various factors in different experimental tumor models and to relate these measurements to the uptake of both BPA (Boronophenylalanine) and BSH (Sodiumborocaptate). They demonstrate that within different tumors there can be wide variations in the vascular parameters. In addition, the viability of the tumor cells may also be an important determinant of tumor uptake. (author)

  3. An MRI Method To Map Tumor Hypoxia Using Red Blood Cells Loaded with a pO2-Responsive Gd-Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gregorio, Enza; Ferrauto, Giuseppe; Gianolio, Eliana; Lanzardo, Stefania; Carrera, Carla; Fedeli, Franco; Aime, Silvio

    2015-08-25

    Hypoxia is a typical hallmark of many solid tumors and often leads to therapy resistance and the development of a more aggressive cancer phenotype. Oxygen content in tissues has been evaluated using numerous different methods for several imaging modalities, but none has yet reached the required standard of spatial and temporal resolution. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) appears to be the technique of choice and several pO2-responsive probes have been designed for it over the years. In vivo translation is often hampered in Gd-relaxation agents as it is not possible to separate effects that arise from changes in local concentration from those associated with responsive properties. A novel procedure for the MRI based assessment of hypoxia is reported herein. The method relies on the combined use of Gd-DOTP- and Gd-HPDO3A-labeled red blood cells (RBCs) where the first probe acts as a vascular oxygenation-responsive agent, while the second reports the local labeled RBC concentration in a transplanted breast tumor mouse model. The MRI assessment of oxygenation state has been validated by photoacoustic imaging and ex vivo immunofluorescence. The method refines tumor staging in preclinical models and makes possible an accurate monitoring of the relationship between oxygenation and tumor growth.

  4. Reactive Oxygen Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchina, Davide G.; Dostert, Catherine; Brenner, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    T cells are a central component of defenses against pathogens and tumors. Their effector functions are sustained by specific metabolic changes that occur upon activation, and these have been the focus of renewed interest. Energy production inevitably generates unwanted products, namely reactive...... and transcription factors, influencing the outcome of the T cell response. We discuss here how ROS can directly fine-tune metabolism and effector functions of T cells....... oxygen species (ROS), which have long been known to trigger cell death. However, there is now evidence that ROS also act as intracellular signaling molecules both in steady-state and upon antigen recognition. The levels and localization of ROS contribute to the redox modeling of effector proteins...

  5. Evaluation of Tumor Angiogenesis Using Dynamic Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Comparison of Plasma Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Hemodynamic, and Pharmacokinetic Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, O.; Nishimura, R.; Miyayama, H.; Yasunaga, T.; Ozaki, Y.; Tuji, A.; Yamashita, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether tumor angiogenesis of breast cancers can be predicted on the basis of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: Seventy-one patients with 71 breast cancers underwent Gd-DTPA enhanced dynamic MRI. Two regions of interest measurements were obtained in the periphery and in the center of the breast cancers. Hemodynamic parameters obtained by dynamic MRI included peak time, contrast enhancement ratio (CE ratio), and washout ratio. The triexponential concentration curve of Gd-DTPA was fitted to a theoretical model based on compartmental analysis. The transfer constant (or permeability surface product per unit volume of compartment 'k') was obtained using this method. Tumor angiogenesis was assessed by plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (P-VEGF). Results: The P-VEGF was positive in 28 of 71 tumors (39%). The CE ratio, washout ratio, and k in the periphery in P-VEGF positive breast cancers (mean 178%, 18%, and 1.5x10 -2 (s-1)) were significantly greater (P -2 (s-1)). The peak time in the periphery in P-VEGF positive breast cancers was more marked than for P-VEGF negative breast cancers, but this difference was not significant. Conclusion: The hemodynamic and pharmacokinetic analysis of MRI provides valuable information about angiogenesis of breast cancers

  6. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of diseases most often originating in the major salivary glands. Only a minor proportion of mainly malignant tumors arise in the sublingual gland. Due to the rarity of sublingual gland tumors (SGTs), little is known about the clinicopathologic...... are malignant, most frequently ACC with a high rate of metastatic spread. The diagnostic value of FNAC in SGTs seems inferior to what is found for other major salivary glands. DSS is determined by stage and T-stage and not by histopathological parameters. International collaboration is warranted to confirm...

  7. Theoretical analysis of ozone generation by pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L. S.; Zhou, J. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Cen, K. F.

    2007-08-01

    The use of very short high-voltage pulses combined with a dielectric layer results in high-energy electrons that dissociate oxygen molecules into atoms, which are a prerequisite for the subsequent production of ozone by collisions with oxygen molecules and third particles. The production of ozone depends on both the electrical and the physical parameters. For ozone generation by pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen, a mathematical model, which describes the relation between ozone concentration and these parameters that are of importance in its design, is developed according to dimensional analysis theory. A formula considering the ozone destruction factor is derived for predicting the characteristics of the ozone generation, within the range of the corona inception voltage to the gap breakdown voltage. The trend showing the dependence of the concentration of ozone in oxygen on these parameters generally agrees with the experimental results, thus confirming the validity of the mathematical model.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood; Avaliacao textural por ressonancia magnetica dos tumores da fossa posterior em criancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joelson Alves dos; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lacerda, Maria Teresa Carvalho de; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: joelson_alves@ig.com.br; Matsushita, Hamilton [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia

    2004-08-01

    Objective: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. Materials And Methods: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis. (author)

  9. DSGOST inhibits tumor growth by blocking VEGF/VEGFR2-activated angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeong Sim; Lee, Kangwook; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Kang Min; Shin, Yong Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-04-19

    Tumor growth requires a process called angiogenesis, a new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels, as newly formed vessels provide tumor cells with oxygen and nutrition. Danggui-Sayuk-Ga-Osuyu-Saenggang-Tang (DSGOST), one of traditional Chinese medicines, has been widely used in treatment of vessel diseases including Raynaud's syndrome in Northeast Asian countries including China, Japan and Korea. Therefore, we hypothesized that DSGOST might inhibit tumor growth by targeting newly formed vessels on the basis of its historical prescription. Here, we demonstrate that DSGOST inhibits tumor growth by inhibiting VEGF-induced angiogenesis. DSGOST inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenic abilities of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, which resulted from its inhibition of VEGF/VEGFR2 interaction. Furthermore, DSGOST attenuated pancreatic tumor growth in vivo by reducing angiogenic vessel numbers, while not affecting pancreatic tumor cell viability. Thus, our data conclude that DSGOST inhibits VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis, suggesting a new indication for DSGOST in treatment of cancer.

  10. In vivo tumor radiobiology of heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.B.; Tenforde, T.S.

    1980-01-01

    The response of tumor cells systems to irradiation with carbon, neon and argon beams at various positions in the plateau and extended-peak regions of the Bragg ionization curve is being evaluated from experiments conducted both in vivo and in vitro. The radiobiological end points being studied include: tumor volume response, cellular survival after tumor irradiation in situ, and cell-kinetic parameters

  11. Batch culture of Azotobacter vinelandii under oxygen limitation conditionS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Rubio, F.; Martinez Nieto, L.; Fernandez Serrano, M.; Jimenez Moleon, M.C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    1996-12-01

    The batch culture of Azotobacter vinealandii on glucose under nitrogen-fixing conditions, seeking oxygen limitation conditions, has been studied in order to use it as a Biological Test System for the experimental study of oxygen transfer enhancement methods in aerobic fermenters. overall kinetic parameters for exponential growth and for linear growth (under oxygen limitation) have been determined. It was noted an appreciable influence of the oxygen transfer rate on glucose and oxygen uptake, which seems to be due to alginate production, excreted as a nitrogenase protection mechanisms. (Author) 12 refs.

  12. Radiation-induced strand-breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks depend predominantly on the dose, oxygen concentration and repair time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, K.T.; Miyagi, Y.; Zhang, H.

    1995-01-01

    It has been known for many years that the DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation depends upon the oxygen concentration around the DNA. For example, the number of DNA strand-breaks (SBs) formed per unit dose decreases at low oxygen concentrations, and the number of DNA-protein crosslinks formed per unit dose increases at low oxygen concentrations. If radiation-induced SBs and DPCs are to be useful for detecting and/or quantifying hypoxic cells in solid tumors, the formation of these lesions must depend predominantly on the oxygen concentration around the DNA. All other physical, biological, and physiological factors must either be controllable or have little influence on the assay used to measure these lesions. This paper is a summary of the authors' recent experiments to determine if the radiation-induced SBs and DPCs measured by alkaline elution may be used to estimate the hypoxic fraction or fractional hypoxic volume of solid tumors

  13. Design, fabrication, and analysis of miniature reflective oxygen monitoring system for use in PDT of esophageal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premasiri, Amaranath; Happawana, Gemunu

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective and minimally invasive treatment modality with relatively less side effects, which is approved by FDA for the treatment of esophageal cancer. Maximum therapeutic outcome of the PDT protocol for each individual patient requires optimization of the components of PDT operating at their highest efficacy. Tumor necrosis, the method of malignant tissue destruction by PDT, is carried out by the toxic singlet oxygen molecules that are being formed from the molecular oxygen in the tumor. The availability of molecular oxygen, hence being the rate limiting step for PDT plays a key role in the treatment protocol. Currently the PDT of esophageal carcinoma is rather a blind process since there is no method to monitor the tumor oxygen level during the treatment. In this paper we present an optical technique to monitor molecular oxygen level in the PDT milieu. The technique described herein is a reflection oximetry technique designed with small semiconductor lasers and a silicon photodiode. The light used for monitoring system comes from two semiconductor diode lasers of 650 nm and 940 nm wavelengths. The two lasers and the photodiode are mounted onto a small package which is to be imprinted onto a balloon catheter containing the PDT light delivery system. Lasers and the photodiode are powered and controlled by a control box that is connected via a cable. Light sources and the respective photodiode output are controlled by the LabVIEW virtual instrumentation. The sequential on and off light source and the respective reflective signal are processed with MATLAB. The latter code integrates with LabVIEW to make an automatic calculation of the corresponding light absorption by each chromophore and to calculate the change in oxygen level as well as the amount of blood and oxygen present in the treatment area. The designed system is capable of monitoring the change in oxygen level and the blood flow in any part of the human body where the

  14. Synergistic combination of hyperoxygenation and radiotherapy by repeated assessments of tumor pO2 with EPR oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOU, Huagang; DONG, Ruhong; LARIVIERE, Jean P.; MUPPARAJU, Sriram P.; SWARTZ, Harold M.; KHAN, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    The effect of hyperoxygenation with carbogen (95% O2 + 5% CO2) inhalation on RIF-1 tumor pO2 and its consequence on growth inhibition with fractionated radiotherapy is reported. The temporal changes in the tumor pO2 were assessed by in vivo Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) oximetry in mice breathing 30% O2 or carbogen and the tumors were irradiated with 4 Gy/day for 5 consecutive days; a protocol that emulates the clinical application of carbogen. The RIF-1 tumors were hypoxic with a tissue pO2 of 5 – 9 mm Hg. Carbogen (CB) breathing significantly increased tumor pO2, with a maximum increase at 22.9 – 31.2 min on days 1 – 5, however, the magnitude of increase in pO2 declined on day 5. Radiotherapy during carbogen inhalation (CB/RT) resulted in a significant tumor growth inhibition from day 3 to day 6 as compared to 30%O2/RT and carbogen (CB/Sham RT) groups. The results provide unambiguous quantitative information on the effect of carbogen inhalation on tumor pO2 over the course of 5 days. Tumor growth inhibition in the CB/RT group confirms that the tumor oxygenation with carbogen was radiobiologically significant. Repeated tumor pO2 measurements by EPR oximetry can provide temporal information that could be used to improve therapeutic outcomes by scheduling doses at times of improved tumor oxygenation. PMID:21799293

  15. Synergistic combination of hyperoxygenation and radiotherapy by repeated assessments of tumor pO2 with EPR oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, H.; Dong, R.; Lariviere, J.P.; Mupparaju, S.P.; Swartz, H.M.; Khan, N.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of hyperoxygenation with carbogen (95% O 2 +5% CO 2 ) inhalation on radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumor pO 2 and its consequence on growth inhibition with fractionated radiotherapy is reported. The temporal changes in the tumor pO 2 were assessed by in vivo Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) oximetry in mice breathing 30% O 2 or carbogen and the tumors were irradiated with 4 Gy/day for 5 consecutive days; a protocol that emulates the clinical application of carbogen. The RIF-1 tumors were hypoxic with a tissue pO 2 of 5-9 mmHg. Carbogen (CB) breathing significantly increased tumor pO 2 , with a maximum increase at 22.9-31.2 min on days 1-5, however, the magnitude of increase in pO 2 declined on day 5. Radiotherapy during carbogen inhalation (CB/RT) resulted in a significant tumor growth inhibition from day 3 to day 6 as compared to 30%O 2 /RT and carbogen (CB/Sham RT) groups. The results provide unambiguous quantitative information on the effect of carbogen inhalation on tumor pO 2 over the course of 5 days. Tumor growth inhibition in the CB/RT group confirms that the tumor oxygenation with carbogen was radiobiologically significant. Repeated tumor pO 2 measurements by EPR oximetry can provide temporal information that could be used to improve therapeutic outcomes by scheduling doses at times of improved tumor oxygenation. (author)

  16. Clinical implications of heterogeneity of tumor response to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suit, H.; Skates, S.; Taghian, A.; Okunieff, P.; Efird, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Heterogeneity of response of tumor tissue to radiation clearly exists. Major parameters include histopathologic type, size (number of tumor rescue units (TRUs)), hemoglobin concentration, cell proliferation kinetics and immune rejection reaction by host. Further, normal and presumably tumor tissue response is altered in certain genetic diseases, e.g. ataxia telangiectasia. Any assessment of response of tumor tissue to a new treatment method or the testing of a new clinical response predictor is optimally based upon a narrow strata, viz., uniform with respect to known parameters of response, e.g. size, histological type. Even among tumors of such a clinical defined narrow strata, there will be residual heterogeneity with respect to inherent cellular radiation sensitivity, distributions of pO 2 , (SH), cell proliferation, etc. (author). 39 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Interplay effects in proton scanning for lung: a 4D Monte Carlo study assessing the impact of tumor and beam delivery parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdell, S; Grassberger, C; Sharp, G C; Paganetti, H

    2013-01-01

    Relative motion between a tumor and a scanning proton beam results in a degradation of the dose distribution (interplay effect). This study investigates the relationship between beam scanning parameters and the interplay effect, with the goal of finding parameters that minimize interplay. 4D Monte Carlo simulations of pencil beam scanning proton therapy treatments were performed using the 4DCT geometry of five lung cancer patients of varying tumor size (50.4–167.1 cc) and motion amplitude (2.9–30.1 mm). Treatments were planned assuming delivery in 35 × 2.5 Gy(RBE) fractions. The spot size, time to change the beam energy (τ es ), time required for magnet settling (τ ss ), initial breathing phase, spot spacing, scanning direction, scanning speed, beam current and patient breathing period were varied for each of the five patients. Simulations were performed for a single fraction and an approximation of conventional fractionation. For the patients considered, the interplay effect could not be predicted using the superior–inferior motion amplitude alone. Larger spot sizes (σ ∼ 9–16 mm) were less susceptible to interplay, giving an equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of 99.0 ± 4.4% (1 standard deviation) in a single fraction compared to 86.1 ± 13.1% for smaller spots (σ ∼ 2–4 mm). The smaller spot sizes gave EUD values as low as 65.3% of the prescription dose in a single fraction. Reducing the spot spacing improved the target dose homogeneity. The initial breathing phase can have a significant effect on the interplay, particularly for shorter delivery times. No clear benefit was evident when scanning either parallel or perpendicular to the predominant axis of motion. Longer breathing periods decreased the EUD. In general, longer delivery times led to lower interplay effects. Conventional fractionation showed significant improvement in terms of interplay, giving a EUD of at least 84.7% and 100.0% of the prescription dose for the small and larger spot sizes

  18. Interplay effects in proton scanning for lung: a 4D Monte Carlo study assessing the impact of tumor and beam delivery parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdell, S; Grassberger, C; Sharp, G C; Paganetti, H

    2013-06-21

    Relative motion between a tumor and a scanning proton beam results in a degradation of the dose distribution (interplay effect). This study investigates the relationship between beam scanning parameters and the interplay effect, with the goal of finding parameters that minimize interplay. 4D Monte Carlo simulations of pencil beam scanning proton therapy treatments were performed using the 4DCT geometry of five lung cancer patients of varying tumor size (50.4-167.1 cc) and motion amplitude (2.9-30.1 mm). Treatments were planned assuming delivery in 35 × 2.5 Gy(RBE) fractions. The spot size, time to change the beam energy (τes), time required for magnet settling (τss), initial breathing phase, spot spacing, scanning direction, scanning speed, beam current and patient breathing period were varied for each of the five patients. Simulations were performed for a single fraction and an approximation of conventional fractionation. For the patients considered, the interplay effect could not be predicted using the superior-inferior motion amplitude alone. Larger spot sizes (σ ~ 9-16 mm) were less susceptible to interplay, giving an equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of 99.0 ± 4.4% (1 standard deviation) in a single fraction compared to 86.1 ± 13.1% for smaller spots (σ ~ 2-4 mm). The smaller spot sizes gave EUD values as low as 65.3% of the prescription dose in a single fraction. Reducing the spot spacing improved the target dose homogeneity. The initial breathing phase can have a significant effect on the interplay, particularly for shorter delivery times. No clear benefit was evident when scanning either parallel or perpendicular to the predominant axis of motion. Longer breathing periods decreased the EUD. In general, longer delivery times led to lower interplay effects. Conventional fractionation showed significant improvement in terms of interplay, giving a EUD of at least 84.7% and 100.0% of the prescription dose for the small and larger spot sizes respectively. The

  19. Numerical Study for Optimizing Parameters of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Induced Thermal Field during Liver Tumor Ablation: HIFU Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh gharloghi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is considered a noninvasive and effective technique for tumor ablation. Frequency and acoustic power are the most effective parameters for temperature distribution and the extent of tissue damage. The aim of this study was to optimize the operating transducer parameters such as frequency and input power in order to acquire suitable temperature and thermal dose distribution in the course of a numerical assessment. Materials and Methods To model the sound propagation, the Khokhlov-Zabolotskava-Kuznetsov (KZK nonlinear wave equation was used and simulation was carried out using MATLAB HIFU toolbox. Bioheat equation was applied to calculate the transient temperature in the liver tissue. Frequency ranges of 2, 3, 4, and 5 MHz and power levels of 50 and 100 W were applied using an extracorporeal transducer. Results Using a frequency of 2 MHz, the maximum temperatures reached 53°C and 90°C in the focal point for power levels of 50 W and 100 W, respectively. With the same powers and using a frequency of 3 MHz, the temperature reached to 71°C and 170°C, respectively. In addition, for these power levels at the frequency of 4 MHz, the temperature reached to 72°C and 145°C, respectively. However, at the 5 MHz frequency, the temperature in the focal spot was either 57°C or 79°C. Conclusion Use of frequency of 2 MHz and power of 100 W led to higher thermal dose distribution, and subsequently, reduction of the treatment duration and complications at the same exposure time in ablation of large tumors.

  20. Uptake of radiolabeled anti-CEA antibodies in human colorectal primary tumors as a function of tumor mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.E.; Bares, R.B.; Buell, U.; Fass, J.; Schumpelick, V.; Hauptmann, S.

    1993-01-01

    An inverse correlation has been demonstrated between tumor uptake (u, in units of % injected dose/kg) of monoclonal antibody (Mab) and tumor mass (m, in units of g) for colorectal carcinoma in a series of 19 consecutive patients. The correlation (ρ=-0.510), developed using surgical samples was of the form u=ab b and was significant at the 2% level of confidence. All tumors were positive for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and the radiopharmaceutical was in iodine-131 labeled anti-CEA Mab. Such correlations have been predicted earlier from murine and rat tumor uptake data. The slope parameter (b) was -0.362, a number consistent with the previous value (-0.382) found in anti-CEA experiments in mice bearing human xenograft LS174T tumors. (orig.)

  1. Risk-adaptive optimization: Selective boosting of high-risk tumor subvolumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yusung; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A tumor subvolume-based, risk-adaptive optimization strategy is presented. Methods and Materials: Risk-adaptive optimization employs a biologic objective function instead of an objective function based on physical dose constraints. Using this biologic objective function, tumor control probability (TCP) is maximized for different tumor risk regions while at the same time minimizing normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for organs at risk. The feasibility of risk-adaptive optimization was investigated for a variety of tumor subvolume geometries, risk-levels, and slopes of the TCP curve. Furthermore, the impact of a correlation parameter, δ, between TCP and NTCP on risk-adaptive optimization was investigated. Results: Employing risk-adaptive optimization, it is possible in a prostate cancer model to increase the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) by up to 35.4 Gy in tumor subvolumes having the highest risk classification without increasing predicted normal tissue complications in organs at risk. For all tumor subvolume geometries investigated, we found that the EUD to high-risk tumor subvolumes could be increased significantly without increasing normal tissue complications above those expected from a treatment plan aiming for uniform dose coverage of the planning target volume. We furthermore found that the tumor subvolume with the highest risk classification had the largest influence on the design of the risk-adaptive dose distribution. The parameter δ had little effect on risk-adaptive optimization. However, the clinical parameters D 5 and γ 5 that represent the risk classification of tumor subvolumes had the largest impact on risk-adaptive optimization. Conclusions: On the whole, risk-adaptive optimization yields heterogeneous dose distributions that match the risk level distribution of different subvolumes within the tumor volume

  2. An iterative hyperelastic parameters reconstruction for breast cancer assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Hatef; Samani, Abbas

    2008-03-01

    In breast elastography, breast tissues usually undergo large compressions resulting in significant geometric and structural changes, and consequently nonlinear mechanical behavior. In this study, an elastography technique is presented where parameters characterizing tissue nonlinear behavior is reconstructed. Such parameters can be used for tumor tissue classification. To model the nonlinear behavior, tissues are treated as hyperelastic materials. The proposed technique uses a constrained iterative inversion method to reconstruct the tissue hyperelastic parameters. The reconstruction technique uses a nonlinear finite element (FE) model for solving the forward problem. In this research, we applied Yeoh and Polynomial models to model the tissue hyperelasticity. To mimic the breast geometry, we used a computational phantom, which comprises of a hemisphere connected to a cylinder. This phantom consists of two types of soft tissue to mimic adipose and fibroglandular tissues and a tumor. Simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed method in reconstructing the hyperelastic parameters of the tumor tissue.

  3. Therapeutic effect of forearm low level light treatment on blood flow, oxygenation, and oxygen consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengbo; Sun, Jiajing; Meng, Lingkang; Li, Zebin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Low level light/laser therapy (LLLT) is considered as a novel, non-invasive, and potential therapy in a variety of psychological and physical conditions, due to its effective intricate photobiomodulation. The mechanism of LLLT is that when cells are stimulated by photons, mitochondria produce a large quantity of ATP, which accelerates biochemical responses in the cell. It is of great significance to gain a clear insight into the change or interplay of various physiological parameters. In this study, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and venous-occlusion plethysmography to measure the LLLT-induced changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and oxygen consumption in human forearms in vivo. Six healthy human participants (4 males and 2 females) were administered with 810-nm light emitted by LED array in ten minutes and blood flow, oxygenation and oxygen consumption were detected in the entire experiment. We found that LLLT induced an increase of blood flow and oxygen consumption on the treated site. Meanwhile, LLLT took a good role in promoting oxygenation of regional tissue, which was indicated by a significant increase of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO2]), a nearly invariable deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[Hb]) and a increase of differential hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbD] = Δ[HbO2] - Δ[Hb]). These results not only demonstrate enormous potential of LLLT, but help to figure out mechanisms of photobiomodulation.

  4. Additive influence of extracellular pH, oxygen tension, and pressure on invasiveness and survival of human osteosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao eMatsubara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/PURPOSE:The effects of chemical and physical interactions in the microenvironment of solid tumors have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that acidosis, hypoxia, and elevated interstitial fluid pressure (eIFP have additive effects on tumor cell biology and lead to more aggressive behavior during tumor progression. We investigated this phenomenon using 3 human osteosarcoma cell lines and a novel in vitro cell culture apparatus. MATERIALS AND METHODS:U2OS, SaOS, and MG63 cell lines were cultured in media adjusted to various pH levels, oxygen tension (hypoxia 2% O2, normoxia 20% O2, and hydrostatic gauge pressure (0 or 50 mm Hg. Growth rate, apoptosis, cell cycle parameters, and expression of mRNA for proteins associated with invasiveness and tumor microenvironment (CA IX, VEGF-A, HIF-1A, MMP-9, and TIMP-2 were analyzed. Levels of CA IX, HIF-1α, and MMP-9 were measured using immunofluorescence. The effect of pH on invasiveness was evaluated in a Matrigel chamber assay.RESULTS: Within the acidic–hypoxic–pressurized conditions that simulate the microenvironment at a tumor’s center, invasive genes were upregulated, but the cell cycle was downregulated. The combined influence of acidosis, hypoxia, and IFP promoted invasiveness and angiogenesis to a greater extent than did pH, pO2, or eIFP individually. Significant cell death after brief exposure to acidic conditions occurred in each cell line during acclimation to acidic media, while prolonged exposure to acidic media resulted in reduced cell death. Furthermore, 48-hour exposure to acidic conditions promoted tumor invasiveness in the Matrigel assay. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that tumor microenvironmental parameters—particularly pH, pO2, and eIFP—additively influence tumor proliferation, invasion, metabolism, and viability to enhance cell survival.

  5. Three-dimensional positron emission tomography image texture analysis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: relationship between tumor 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake heterogeneity, maximum standardized uptake value, and tumor stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinzhe; Xing, Ligang; Wu, Peipei; Fu, Zheng; Wan, Honglin; Li, Dengwang; Yin, Yong; Sun, Xiaorong; Yu, Jinming

    2013-01-01

    To explore the relationship of a new PET image parameter, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake heterogeneity assessed by texture analysis, with maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) and tumor TNM staging. Forty consecutive patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled. All patients underwent whole-body preoperative (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Heterogeneity of intratumoral (18)F-FDG uptake was assessed on the basis of the textural features (entropy and energy) of the three-dimensional images using MATLAB software. The correlations between the textural parameters and SUV(max), histological grade, tumor location, and TNM stage were analyzed. Tumors with higher SUV(max) were seen to be more heterogenous on (18)F-FDG uptake. Significant correlations were observed between T stage and SUV(max) (r(s)=0.390, P=0.013), entropy (rs=0.693, Pheterogeneity and the commonly used simplistic parameter of SUV and tumor stage. Our findings suggest a complementary role of these parameters in the staging and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Severe hypoxia induces chemo-resistance in clinical cervical tumors through MVP over-expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Pedro C; Lloret, Marta; Clavo, Bernardino; Apolinario, Rosa M; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Bordón, Elisa; Fontes, Fausto; Rey, Agustín

    2009-08-06

    Oxygen molecule modulates tumour response to radiotherapy. Higher radiation doses are required under hypoxic conditions to induce cell death. Hypoxia may inhibit the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair through down regulating Ku70/80 expression. Hypoxia induces drug resistance in clinical tumours, although the mechanism is not clearly elucidated. Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles with a hollow barrel-like structure composed of three proteins: major vault protein (MVP), vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and telomerase associated protein-1 and small untranslated RNA. Over-expression of MVP has been associated with chemotherapy resistance. Also, it has been related to poor outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. The aim of the present study was to assess the relation of Major Vault Protein expression and tumor hypoxia in clinical cervical tumors. MVP, p53 and angiogenesis, together with tumor oxygenation, were determined in forty-three consecutive patients suffering from localized cervix carcinoma. High MVP expression was related to severe hypoxia compared to low MVP expressing tumors (p = 0.022). Tumors over-expressing MVP also showed increased angiogenesis (p = 0.003). Besides it, in this study we show for the first time that severe tumor hypoxia is associated with high MVP expression in clinical cervical tumors. Up-regulation of MVP by hypoxia is of critical relevance as chemotherapy is currently a standard treatment for those patients. From our results it could be suggested that hypoxia not only induces increased genetic instability, oncogenic properties and metastatization, but through the correlation observed with MVP expression, another pathway of chemo and radiation resistance could be developed.

  7. Severe hypoxia induces chemo-resistance in clinical cervical tumors through MVP over-expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Pedro C; Lloret, Marta; Clavo, Bernardino; Apolinario, Rosa M; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Bordón, Elisa; Fontes, Fausto; Rey, Agustín

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen molecule modulates tumour response to radiotherapy. Higher radiation doses are required under hypoxic conditions to induce cell death. Hypoxia may inhibit the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair through down regulating Ku70/80 expression. Hypoxia induces drug resistance in clinical tumours, although the mechanism is not clearly elucidated. Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles with a hollow barrel-like structure composed of three proteins: major vault protein (MVP), vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and telomerase associated protein-1 and small untranslated RNA. Over-expression of MVP has been associated with chemotherapy resistance. Also, it has been related to poor outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. The aim of the present study was to assess the relation of Major Vault Protein expression and tumor hypoxia in clinical cervical tumors. MVP, p53 and angiogenesis, together with tumor oxygenation, were determined in forty-three consecutive patients suffering from localized cervix carcinoma. High MVP expression was related to severe hypoxia compared to low MVP expressing tumors (p = 0.022). Tumors over-expressing MVP also showed increased angiogenesis (p = 0.003). Besides it, in this study we show for the first time that severe tumor hypoxia is associated with high MVP expression in clinical cervical tumors. Up-regulation of MVP by hypoxia is of critical relevance as chemotherapy is currently a standard treatment for those patients. From our results it could be suggested that hypoxia not only induces increased genetic instability, oncogenic properties and metastatization, but through the correlation observed with MVP expression, another pathway of chemo and radiation resistance could be developed

  8. Macrophage biology plays a central role during ionizing radiation-elicited tumor response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuji Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is one of the major therapeutic modalities for most solid tumors. The anti-tumor effect of radiation therapy consists of the direct tumor cell killing, as well as the modulation of tumor microenvironment and the activation of immune response against tumors. Radiation therapy has been shown to promote immunogenic cells death, activate dendritic cells and enhance tumor antigen presentation and anti-tumor T cell activation. Radiation therapy also programs innate immune cells such as macrophages that leads to either radiosensitization or radioresistance, according to different tumors and different radiation regimen studied. The mechanisms underlying radiation-induced macrophage activation remain largely elusive. Various molecular players such as NF-κB, MAPKs, p53, reactive oxygen species, inflammasomes have been involved in these processes. The skewing to a pro-inflammatory phenotype thus results in the activation of anti-tumor immune response and enhanced radiotherapy effect. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of radiation-induced macrophage activation and its role in tumor response to radiation therapy is crucial for the development of new therapeutic strategies to enhance radiation therapy efficacy.

  9. Monitoring Prostate Tumor Growth in an Orthotopic Mouse Model Using Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (CaP is the most commonly diagnosed and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males in USA. Prostate orthotopic mouse model has been widely used to study human CaP in preclinical settings. Measurement of changes in tumor size obtained from noninvasive diagnostic images is a standard method for monitoring responses to anticancer modalities. This article reports for the first time the usage of a three-dimensional (3D ultrasound system equipped with photoacoustic (PA imaging in monitoring longitudinal prostate tumor growth in a PC-3 orthotopic NODSCID mouse model (n = 8. Two-dimensional and 3D modes of ultrasound show great ability in accurately depicting the size and shape of prostate tumors. PA function on two-dimensional and 3D images showed average oxygen saturation and average hemoglobin concentration of the tumor. Results showed a good fit in representative exponential tumor growth curves (n = 3; r2 = 0.948, 0.955, and 0.953, respectively and a good correlation of tumor volume measurements performed in vivo with autopsy (n = 8, r = 0.95, P < .001. The application of 3D ultrasound imaging proved to be a useful imaging modality in monitoring tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model, with advantages such as high contrast, uncomplicated protocols, economical equipment, and nonharmfulness to animals. PA mode also enabled display of blood oxygenation surrounding the tumor and tumor vasculature and angiogenesis, making 3D ultrasound imaging an ideal tool for preclinical cancer research.

  10. Phosphorescent light-emitting iridium complexes serve as a hypoxia-sensing probe for tumor imaging in living animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Toshiyuki; Zhang, Shaojuan; Negishi, Kazuya; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Hosaka, Masahiro; Tobita, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    Iridium complex, a promising organic light-emitting diode material for next generation television and computer displays, emits phosphorescence. Phosphorescence is quenched by oxygen. We used this oxygen-quenching feature for imaging tumor hypoxia. Red light-emitting iridium complex Ir(btp)2(acac) (BTP) presented hypoxia-dependent light emission in culture cell lines, whose intensity was in parallel with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 expression. BTP was further applied to imaging five nude mouse-transplanted tumors. All tumors presented a bright BTP-emitting image as early as 5 min after the injection. The BTP-dependent tumor image peaked at 1 to 2 h after the injection, and was then removed from tumors within 24 h. The minimal BTP image recognition size was at least 2 mm in diameter. By morphological examination and phosphorescence lifetime measurement, BTP is presumed to localize to the tumor cells, not to stay in the tumor microvessels by binding to albumin. The primary problem on suse of luminescent probe for tumor imaging is its weak penetrance to deep tissues from the skin surface. Since BTP is easily modifiable, we made BTP analogues with a longer excitation/emission wavelength to improve the tissue penetrance. One of them, BTPHSA, displayed 560/720 wavelength, and depicted its clear imaging from tumors transplanted over 6-7 mm deep from the skin surface. We suggest that BTP analogues have a vast potential for imaging hypoxic lesions such as tumor tissues.

  11. Generation of erythroid cells from polyploid giant cancer cells: re-thinking about tumor blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhigang; Yao, Hong; Fei, Fei; Li, Yuwei; Qu, Jie; Li, Chunyuan; Zhang, Shiwu

    2018-04-01

    During development and tumor progression, cells need a sufficient blood supply to maintain development and rapid growth. It is reported that there are three patterns of blood supply for tumor growth: endothelium-dependent vessels, mosaic vessels, and vasculogenic mimicry (VM). VM was first reported in highly aggressive uveal melanomas, with tumor cells mimicking the presence and function of endothelial cells forming the walls of VM vessels. The walls of mosaic vessels are randomly lined with both endothelial cells and tumor cells. We previously proposed a three-stage process, beginning with VM, progressing to mosaic vessels, and eventually leading to endothelium-dependent vessels. However, many phenomena unique to VM channel formation remain to be elucidated, such as the origin of erythrocytes before VM vessels connect with endothelium-dependent vessels. In adults, erythroid cells are generally believed to be generated from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. In contrast, embryonic tissue obtains oxygen through formation of blood islands, which are largely composed of embryonic hemoglobin with a higher affinity with oxygen, in the absence of mature erythrocytes. Recent data from our laboratory suggest that embryonic blood-forming mechanisms also exist in cancer tissue, particularly when these tissues are under environmental stress such as hypoxia. We review the evidence from induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro and in vivo to support this previously underappreciated cell functionality in normal and cancer cells, including the ability to generate erythroid cells. We will also summarize the current understanding of tumor angiogenesis, VM, and our recent work on polyploid giant cancer cells, with emphasis on their ability to generate erythroid cells and their association with tumor growth under hypoxia. An alternative embryonic pathway to obtain oxygen in cancer cells exists, particularly when they are under hypoxic conditions.

  12. Correlation of Tumor Immunohistochemistry with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and DSC-MRI Parameters in Patients with Gliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.B.; Cron, G.O.; Bezzina, K.; Perdrizet, K.; Torres, C.H.; Chakraborty, S.; Woulfe, J.; Jansen, G.H.; Thornhill, R.E.; Zanette, B.; Cameron, I.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tumor CBV is a prognostic and predictive marker for patients with gliomas. Tumor CBV can be measured noninvasively with different MR imaging techniques; however, it is not clear which of these techniques most closely reflects histologically-measured tumor CBV. Our aim was to

  13. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in oxygen-containing water solutions at high parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.; Samojlov, Yu.F.; Petrova, T.I.; Kharitonova, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    Technique for calculation of solubility of iron corrosion products in oxygen-containing aqueous solutions in the 298-573 K temperature range is presented. Solubility of corrosion products of plain steel in deeply-desalinizated water in the presence of oxygen for the such range of the temperatures is experimentally determined. Rather good convergence between calculated and experimental data is noted

  14. Determining and predictive factors for the tumor radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennequin, Ch.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, Ch.; Quero, L.; Favaudon, V.

    2008-01-01

    Many predictive factors of tumor radiosensitivity have been described. Number of clonogenic cells, proliferation rate, hypoxia and intrinsic radiosensitivity are usually considered as the main parameters of tumor control. Intrinsic radiosensitivity is correlated in a first approach to the ability of the cell to detect and repair DNA damages, and so integrity of the different pathways involved in this function: P.A.R.P.-1, X.R.C.C.1, A.T.M., p 53, M.R.N. complex or B.R.C.A.1. Genetic polymorphisms of some of these genes, found in normal lymphocytes, have been correlated to late toxicity of normal tissues. But, in tumors, because of the difficulty to obtain samplings and heterogeneity, accurate molecular analysis is not possible in many cases, and no valuable test of radiosensitivity exist at this moment. For example, T.P. 53 gene has been evaluated in many studies and results regarding its potential as a predictive factor of tumor sensitivity are conflicting. Surviving fraction at 2 Gy (S.F.2) allowed a global evaluation of sensitivity, but the obtention of this parameter often takes a long time and failed in 20 to 40%. Evaluation of double-strand break repair capacity by immuno chemistry quantification of phosphorylated forms of A.T.M., H.2 A.X. or M.R.E.11 is an interesting topic. However, discovery of tumor stem cells in a number of epithelial tumors could revolutionize the understanding of radiosensitivity. Combination of genomic and functional techniques are probably essential to better predict this parameter. (authors)

  15. The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy prolong survival in mice with systemic metastatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Poff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Abnormal cancer metabolism creates a glycolytic-dependency which can be exploited by lowering glucose availability to the tumor. The ketogenic diet (KD is a low carbohydrate, high fat diet which decreases blood glucose and elevates blood ketones and has been shown to slow cancer progression in animals and humans. Abnormal tumor vasculature creates hypoxic pockets which promote cancer progression and further increase the glycolytic-dependency of cancers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO₂T saturates tumors with oxygen, reversing the cancer promoting effects of tumor hypoxia. Since these non-toxic therapies exploit overlapping metabolic deficiencies of cancer, we tested their combined effects on cancer progression in a natural model of metastatic disease. METHODS: We used the firefly luciferase-tagged VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer to compare tumor progression and survival in mice fed standard or KD ad libitum with or without HBO₂T (2.5 ATM absolute, 90 min, 3x/week. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. RESULTS: KD alone significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. While HBO₂T alone did not influence cancer progression, combining the KD with HBO₂T elicited a significant decrease in blood glucose, tumor growth rate, and 77.9% increase in mean survival time compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: KD and HBO₂T produce significant anti-cancer effects when combined in a natural model of systemic metastatic cancer. Our evidence suggests that these therapies should be further investigated as potential non-toxic treatments or adjuvant therapies to standard care for patients with systemic metastatic disease.

  16. Correlation between radiosensitivity of transplanted solid tumor and nutritive condition of host animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, K [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Studies on radiosensitivity of the transplanted tumor were carried out and the following results were obtained: 1. Radiosensitivity of the tumor ran parallel to the growth rate. 2. Malnutrition of the host after irradiation made the tumor radiosensitive, probably because the sublethally damaged tumor cell did not recover. 3. Mitotic index correlated well with radiosensitivity, and the low mitotic index caused by starvation made the tumor cell recover poorly. 4. The DNA synthetic rate measured by means of iodine labeled IUdR did not successfully correlate with the mitotic rate, presumably because of the role of thymidine pool size in this experiment. 5. The serum protein level possibly with the tumor growth, which modified the radiosensitivity. 6. Serum oxygen was difficult to interpret, however, it might be compensated by erythrocytosis in a starved condition.

  17. Functional imaging to monitor vascular and metabolic response in canine head and neck tumors during fractionated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rødal, Jan; Rusten, Espen; Søvik, Åste; Skogmo, Hege Kippenes; Malinen, Eirik

    2013-10-01

    Radiotherapy causes alterations in tumor biology, and non-invasive early assessment of such alterations may become useful for identifying treatment resistant disease. The purpose of the current work is to assess changes in vascular and metabolic features derived from functional imaging of canine head and neck tumors during fractionated radiotherapy. Material and methods. Three dogs with spontaneous head and neck tumors received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Contrast-enhanced cone beam computed tomography (CE-CBCT) at the treatment unit was performed at five treatment fractions. Dynamic (18)FDG-PET (D-PET) was performed prior to the start of radiotherapy, at mid-treatment and at 3-12 weeks after the completion of treatment. Tumor contrast enhancement in the CE-CBCT images was used as a surrogate for tumor vasculature. Vascular and metabolic tumor parameters were further obtained from the D-PET images. Changes in these tumor parameters were assessed, with emphasis on intra-tumoral distributions. Results. For all three patients, metabolic imaging parameters obtained from D-PET decreased from the pre- to the inter-therapy session. Correspondingly, for two of three patients, vascular imaging parameters obtained from both CE-CBCT and D-PET increased. Only one of the tumors showed a clear metabolic response after therapy. No systematic changes in the intra-tumor heterogeneity in the imaging parameters were found. Conclusion. Changes in vascular and metabolic parameters could be detected by the current functional imaging methods. Vascular tumor features from CE-CBCT and D-PET corresponded well. CE-CBCT is a potential method for easy response assessment when the patient is at the treatment unit.

  18. Direct and indirect inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase by salicylic acid and anthocyanidins reactivates intercellular ROS signaling and allows for synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Salicylic acid and anthocyanidins are known as plant-derived antioxidants, but also can provoke paradoxically seeming prooxidant effects in vitro. These prooxidant effects are connected to the potential of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins to induce apoptosis selectively in tumor cells in vitro and to inhibit tumor growth in animal models. Several epidemiological studies have shown that salicylic acid and its prodrug acetylsalicylic acid are tumor-preventive for humans. The mechanism of salicylic acid- and anthocyanidin-dependent antitumor effects has remained enigmatic so far. Extracellular apoptosis-inducing reactive oxygen species signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite and the HOCl signaling pathway specifically induces apoptosis in transformed cells. Tumor cells have acquired resistance against intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling through expression of membrane-associated catalase. Here, we show that salicylic acid and anthocyanidins inactivate tumor cell protective catalase and thus reactive apoptosis-inducing intercellular reactive oxygen species signaling of tumor cells and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis Salicylic acid inhibits catalase directly through its potential to transform compound I of catalase into the inactive compound II. In contrast, anthocyanidins provoke a complex mechanism for catalase inactivation that is initiated by anthocyanidin-mediated inhibition of NO dioxygenase. This allows the formation of extracellular singlet oxygen through the reaction between H(2)O(2) and peroxynitrite, amplification through a caspase8-dependent step and subsequent singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of catalase. The combination of salicylic acid and anthocyanidins allows for a remarkable synergistic effect in apoptosis induction. This effect may be potentially useful to elaborate novel therapeutic approaches and crucial for the interpretation of epidemiological results related to the antitumor effects of secondary plant compounds. © The

  19. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides from rhizome of Curculigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-tumor effect of PDC on cervical cancer was investigated in vivo in mice injected with Hela cells. The parameters measured were tumor volume and weight. In vitro anti-tumor effects of PDC were assessed by measuring expressions of caspase-3, caspase-9 and P53 proteins in Hela cells via ELISA assay. Thymus ...

  20. Biological Oxygen Demand in Soils and Litters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagin, A. V.; Smagina, M. V.; Sadovnikova, N. B.

    2018-03-01

    Biological oxygen demand (BOD) in mineral and organic horizons of soddy-podzolic soils in the forest-park belt of Moscow as an indicator of their microbial respiration and potential biodestruction function has been studied. The BOD of soil samples has been estimated with a portable electrochemical analyzer after incubation in closed flasks under optimum hydrothermal conditions. A universal gradation scale of this parameter from very low (140 g O2/(m3 h)) has been proposed for mineral and organic horizons of soil. A physically substantiated model has been developed for the vertical distribution of BOD in the soil, which combines the diffusion transport of oxygen from the atmosphere and its biogenic uptake in the soil by the first-order reaction. An analytical solution of the model in the stationary state has been obtained; from it, the soil oxygen diffusivity and the kinetic constants of O2 uptake have been estimated, and the profile-integrated total BOD value has been calculated (0.4-1.8 g O2/(m2 h)), which is theoretically identical to the potential oxygen flux from the soil surface due to soil respiration. All model parameters reflect the recreation load on the soil cover by the decrease in their values against the control.

  1. WE-FG-BRA-08: Potential Role of the Glycolytic Oscillator in Acute Hypoxia in Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che Fru, L [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Adamson, E; Campos, D; Song, C; Kimple, R [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Fain, S; Kissick, M [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Jacques, S [Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA, Portland, OR (United States); Kogel, A van der [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Nickel, K [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Oscillatory dynamics in acute hypoxia have been observed, but poorly understood. They have mostly been attributed to vascular perturbations, but no link has yet been made to metabolic causes. We set out to determine the fundamental frequencies and test for coherence in tumor oxygen dynamics and spatial properties. Methods: Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were inoculated onto bilateral flanks with human derived head and neck carcinoma (UW-SCC22) cell line xenografts. Oxygen dynamics were monitored in the tumor every minute for an hour using three modalities: blood oxygen level dependent - magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI), hemoglobin oxygen saturation photoacoustic, and locally manufactured optical probes for spectral fitting. A statistical test was used to separate fluctuating from non-fluctuating voxels and pixels in BOLD-MRI and photoacoustic data respectively. The power spectrum density (PSD) and the autocorrelation functions were calculated for the time series of each voxel, pixel and region, of the BOLD-MRI, photoacoustic or fiber optic data respectively. Results: Using all three techniques, intermittent oxygen dynamics with both coherent and incoherent signatures was observed in the tumors. Upon averaging the PSDs of fluctuating voxels and pixels, it was found that these oscillations occurred with periods of minutes to tens of minutes from all three approaches. Observations from the BOLD-MRI and photoacoustic data showed that clusters of voxels oscillated in a synchronized manner. Conclusion: We were able to use three different modalities to show that fluctuation in tumor oxygen is both coherent and incoherent, with periods of minutes to tens of minutes. These periods are very similar to those from the well-established metabolic, non-linear biomechanical phenomenon called the glycolytic oscillator. This may provide an additional explanation to the cause of cyclic hypoxia. Such dynamics could have profound implications in

  2. WE-FG-BRA-08: Potential Role of the Glycolytic Oscillator in Acute Hypoxia in Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Fru, L; Adamson, E; Campos, D; Song, C; Kimple, R; Fain, S; Kissick, M; Jacques, S; Kogel, A van der; Nickel, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Oscillatory dynamics in acute hypoxia have been observed, but poorly understood. They have mostly been attributed to vascular perturbations, but no link has yet been made to metabolic causes. We set out to determine the fundamental frequencies and test for coherence in tumor oxygen dynamics and spatial properties. Methods: Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were inoculated onto bilateral flanks with human derived head and neck carcinoma (UW-SCC22) cell line xenografts. Oxygen dynamics were monitored in the tumor every minute for an hour using three modalities: blood oxygen level dependent - magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI), hemoglobin oxygen saturation photoacoustic, and locally manufactured optical probes for spectral fitting. A statistical test was used to separate fluctuating from non-fluctuating voxels and pixels in BOLD-MRI and photoacoustic data respectively. The power spectrum density (PSD) and the autocorrelation functions were calculated for the time series of each voxel, pixel and region, of the BOLD-MRI, photoacoustic or fiber optic data respectively. Results: Using all three techniques, intermittent oxygen dynamics with both coherent and incoherent signatures was observed in the tumors. Upon averaging the PSDs of fluctuating voxels and pixels, it was found that these oscillations occurred with periods of minutes to tens of minutes from all three approaches. Observations from the BOLD-MRI and photoacoustic data showed that clusters of voxels oscillated in a synchronized manner. Conclusion: We were able to use three different modalities to show that fluctuation in tumor oxygen is both coherent and incoherent, with periods of minutes to tens of minutes. These periods are very similar to those from the well-established metabolic, non-linear biomechanical phenomenon called the glycolytic oscillator. This may provide an additional explanation to the cause of cyclic hypoxia. Such dynamics could have profound implications in

  3. Computer-based image studies on tumor nests mathematical features of breast cancer and their clinical prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Wei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Chen, Chuang; Sun, Sheng-Rong; Hu, Ming-Bai; Liu, Juan; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The expending and invasive features of tumor nests could reflect the malignant biological behaviors of breast invasive ductal carcinoma. Useful information on cancer invasiveness hidden within tumor nests could be extracted and analyzed by computer image processing and big data analysis. Tissue microarrays from invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 202) were first stained with cytokeratin by immunohistochemical method to clearly demarcate the tumor nests. Then an expert-aided computer analysis system was developed to study the mathematical and geometrical features of the tumor nests. Computer recognition system and imaging analysis software extracted tumor nests information, and mathematical features of tumor nests were calculated. The relationship between tumor nests mathematical parameters and patients' 5-year disease free survival was studied. There were 8 mathematical parameters extracted by expert-aided computer analysis system. Three mathematical parameters (number, circularity and total perimeter) with area under curve >0.5 and 4 mathematical parameters (average area, average perimeter, total area/total perimeter, average (area/perimeter)) with area under curve nests could be a useful parameter to predict the prognosis of early stage breast invasive ductal carcinoma.

  4. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Control Reactive Oxygen Species Release, Mitochondrial Autophagy and C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase/P38 Phosphorylation During Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Baregamian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation may contribute to the disruption of the protective gut barrier through various mechanisms; mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from inflammatory and oxidative injury may potentially be a significant source of apoptosis during necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα is thought to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS and activate the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK/p38 pathway. Hence, the focus of our study was to examine the effects of TNFα/ROs on mitochondrial function, ASK1-JNK/p38 cascade activation in intestinal epithelial cells during NEC.

  5. A DTI Study to Probe Tumor Microstructure And Its Connection With Hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Shreyan; Kotecha, Mrignayani; Triplett, William; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Solid tumors have chaotic organization of blood vessels, disruptive nerve paths and muscle fibers that result in a hostile and heterogeneous microenvironment. These tumor regions are often hypoxic and resistant to radiation therapy. The knowledge of partial pressure of oxygen concentration (pO2), in conjunction with the information about tissue organization, can predict tissue health and may eventually be used in combination with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for targeted destr...

  6. Which FDG/PET parameters of the primary tumors in colon or sigmoid cancer provide the best correlation with the pathological findings?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang-Wen; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Wu, Yi-Chen; Yen, Kuo-Yang; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Lin, Tze-Yi; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Background To compare 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxdeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) related parameters of primary colon or sigmoid cancer (CSC) with pathological findings. Methods Seventy-seven CSC patients who have undergone preoperative PET computed tomograms (PET/CT) are included in this study. Maximum PET-based tumor length (TL) and tumor width (TW) are determined using several auto-segmentation methods, and various thresholds of metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) are measured. The PET-based TL and TW are compared with maximum pathological length and width on the pathological specimen. Results Using a 30% threshold level for maximum uptake of TL (TL30%) and TW (TW30%) yield results that provide an optimal match with maximum pathological length (R = 0.81, p < 0.001) and width (R = 0.70, p < 0.001). TW30% was an independent factor for predicting pathological T3 or T4 stages (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.07–1.47, p = 0.01). The receiver-operating characteristic curves show MTV at a fixed threshold of 40% maximum uptake (MTV40%), and TW30% achieved better correlation with the advanced pathological T stage. No associations with positive N stage were observed. Conclusion Pretreatment PET/CT is a useful tool for predicting the final pathological findings for CSC patients requiring surgical procedures

  7. Investigation of ferromagnetism in oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Alff, Lambert [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Suter, Andreas [PSI, Villingen (Switzerland); Wilhelm, Fabrice; Rogalev, Andrei [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    2008-07-01

    Oxygen deficient thin films of hafnium oxide were grown on single crystal r-cut and c-cut sapphire by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. RF-activated oxygen was used for the in situ oxidation of hafnium oxide thin films. Oxidation conditions were varied substantially in order to create oxygen deficiency in hafnium oxide films intentionally. The films were characterized by X-ray and magnetic measurements. X-ray diffraction studies show an increase in lattice parameter with increasing oxygen deficiency. Oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films also showed a decreasing bandgap with increase in oxygen deficiency. The magnetisation studies carried out with SQUID did not show any sign of ferromagnetism in the whole oxygen deficiency range. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements also confirmed the absence of ferromagnetism in oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films.

  8. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Yue; Ke-Li Chen; Fachuang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum coo...

  9. Sensitization of KHT tumors to x-rays by Fluosol-DA (20%)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlehurst, J.L.; Hirst, D.G.; Brown, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Perfluorocarbons have been used as blood substitutes in clinical situations where high oxygen carrying capacity is required, but whole blood transfusion is not possible. Recently, suitably buffered emulsion of perfluorocarbons such as Fluosol-DA have been used with success in the perfusion of isolated organs for transplant. Its low viscosity makes Fluosol-DA superior to whole blood as a perfusion medium, and it is logical to deduce that Fluosol-DA could be of benefit in the oxygenation of poorly perfused areas often found in malignant tumors and thought to contribute to hypoxia and radioresistance. A fraction (10-30%) of the blood of KHT tumor bearing mice was exchanged for an equal volume of Fluosol-DA (20%). This procedure gave ''Fluocrits'' ranging from 1.5-6.5%. Enhancement of cell killing by x-rays (20 Gy) was observed at the higher ''Fluocrits'', but only if the animals breathed 100 oxygen for 1 hr. prior to irradiation. Results are presented from studies in animals which had been anemic for various times before Fluosol-DA treatment, a model which simulates the anemia often encountered in the cancer patient

  10. In situ measurements of oxygen dynamics in unsaturated archaeological deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Hollesen, Jørgen; Dunlop, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is a key parameter in the degradation of archaeological material, but little is known of its dynamics in situ. In this study, 10 optical oxygen sensors placed in a 2 m deep test pit in the cultural deposits at Bryggen in Bergen have monitored oxygen concentrations every half hour for more ...... of the soil exceeds 10–15% vol, while oxygen dissolved in infiltrating rainwater is of less importance for the supply of oxygen in the unsaturated zone....... than a year. It is shown that there is a significant spatial and temporal variation in the oxygen concentration, which is correlated to measured soil characteristics, precipitation, soil water content and degradation of organic material. In these deposits oxygen typically occurs when the air content...

  11. Increasing the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen in enhancing tumor oxygenation: Effect of perfluorochemical emulsion and moderate anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photiou, A.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts were made to increase the effectiveness of HBO in overcoming tumor hypoxia. Tumor blood flow and O/sub 2/ content were modified by inducing moderate anaemia and giving a perfluorochemical emulsion (PFC-E). Mice were anaesthetized with Ketamine and Diazepam. The PFC-E, FC-43 (0.35 ml/25 g mouse), given iv 1-2 h before irradiation, produced a favourable effect on regrowth delay in those mice treated with HBO. A 25 Gy dose produced a significantly longer regrowth delay (p<0.01) of 44 days in PFC-treated mice compared with a delay of 29 days for mice treated with HBO alone. O/sub 2/ toxicity was observed in some anesthetized mice, with or without PFC-E. Attempts were made to increase the O/sub 2/ sensitization afforded by FC-43/HBO/anaesthesia. Blood viscosity was reduced by inducing a moderate level of acute anaemia by the administration of a single of acute anaemia by the administration of a single ip injection of Phenylhydrazine HCl (40 mg/kg). This reduced the haematocrit from 42% to 32%. Tumour regrowth delay after 25 Gy was significantly reduced (p<0.02) from 44 to 37.3 days be anaemia. PFC's may prove the be useful adjuncts to radiotherapy. However, it must be established that they have no adverse effects and that normal tissue radiosensitivity is not enhanced

  12. [The oxygen consumption of ostrich embryos during incubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, G; Dzapo, V

    1995-02-01

    This work deals with the oxygen consumption of ostrich chicks during incubation. Brood eggs were incubated in a hermetic isolated acrylic-glass cylinder. Reduction of oxygen content in the air surrounding the egg was measured using an oxygen-sensitive electrode. A sigmoid curve could be drawn during incubation, with the steepest phase being around day 26. Maximum oxygen consumption was reached on day 36. It was slightly decreased until day 39, when the embryo switches to lung circulation, followed again by an increase until hatching. Average oxygen consumptions for the whole brood interval were calculated to 63.6 liters. Oxygen volumes consumed on day 36 result in a demand about to 240 liters of fresh air per egg and day. Oxygen consumption of the embryos on day 36 was significantly positive correlated with their vitality. Numb or less vital embryos could be clearly differentiated from others. The higher a chick's oxygen consumption, the earlier and shorter its hatching. Possible applications of the method in regard to the evaluation of incubation parameters or chicken constitution are discussed.

  13. Comparative analysis of parameters of oxygenation, ventilation and acid-base status during intraoperative application of conventional and protective lung ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videnović N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis applied conventional (traditional and protective mechanical lung ventilation in clinical conditions with regard to intraoperative parameters changes of oxygenation, ventilation and acid-base status. This was a prospective study that included 240 patients. All patients underwent the same elective surgery (classic cholecystectomy. Patients were divided into two groups of 120 patients, A and B. In group A during the operation had received conventional lung ventilation with tidal volume of 10-15 ml/kg body weight, respiratory rate 12/min. and a PEEP zero. In group B was applied protective lung ventilation with a tidal volume of 6-8 ml/kg body weight, respiratory rate 12/min. and a PEEP of 7 mbar. Monitoring of oxygenation included the monitoring SaO2 and PaO2. Monitoring of ventilation included the determination of the value of tidal volume and minute volume ventilation, peak inspiratory pressure (Ppeak, medium pressure in the airway (Paw.mean, PEEP, PaCO2 and EtCO2. Monitoring of acid-base status was performed via determination of the pH values of arterial blood. Monitoring was carried out in four intervals: T1 - 5-10 minutes after the establishment of the airway, T2 - after opening peritoneum, T3 - after removal of the gallbladder, T4 - after the closure of the abdominal wall. All monitoring results are presented as mean. The statistical significance of differences in mean values was tested by t - test mean values in the case of two independent samples. As a statistical significance test taken as standard values p <0.01 and p <0.001. Comparative analysis of the value of SaO2, PaO2, Ppeak did not reach statistical significance. Statistical significance there is in the analysis of values of tidal volume and Paw.mean (p <0.001. Analysis of PaCO2 and pH of arterial blood showed no statistical significance in the first interval measurements but did interval T2-T4 (p <0.001. Based on th