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Sample records for tumor marker concentrations

  1. Analysis of the results of serum tumor markers in patients with multiple abnormal concentrations in bone imagines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xingyong; Jiang Min; Geng Jun; Hu Desheng; He Jian; Fan Xiandong

    2008-01-01

    To study the serum tumor markers in patients with multiple abnormal concentration of radiopharmaceuticals in whole body bone imagine, 73 patients with malignancy were under a whole body bone scan. The serum tumor markers levels of AFP, CEA, CA125, CA15-3 and CA19-9 were measured in 73 patients and 37 normal people. The results showed that there was significant difference only on serum CEA level (P<0.005), and no significant difference on CA125, CA15-3 and CA19-9 levels (P<0.05) between 36 patients with multiple abnormal concentration and the others with normal bone imagine. The serum levels of CEA, CA125 and CA19-9 in patients were significant higher than that of normal controls (P<0.005). Combined the whole body bone scan and detection of serum tumor markers might be regarded as clinical significance for the diagnosis of bone metastases. (authors)

  2. Tumor markers in clinical oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    The subtle differences between normal and tumor cells are exploited in the detection and treatment of cancer. These differences are designated as tumor markers and can be either qualitative or quantitative in their nature. That means that both the structures that are produced by tumor cells as well as the structures that are produced in excessive amounts by host tissues under the influence of tumor cells can function as tumor markers. Speaking in general, the tumor markers are the specific molecules appearing in the blood or tissues and the occurrence of which is associated with cancer. According to their application, tumor markers can be roughly divided as markers in clinical oncology and markers in pathology. In this review, only tumor markers in clinical oncology are going to be discussed. Current tumor markers in clinical oncology include (i) oncofetal antigens, (ii) placental proteins, (iii) hormones, (iv) enzymes, (v) tumor-associated antigens, (vi) special serum proteins, (vii) catecholamine metabolites, and (viii) miscellaneous markers. As to the literature, an ideal tumor marker should fulfil certain criteria - when using it as a test for detection of cancer disease: (1) positive results should occur in the early stages of the disease, (2) positive results should occur only in the patients with a specific type of malignancy, (3) positive results should occur in all patients with the same malignancy, (4) the measured values should correlate with the stage of the disease, (5) the measured values should correlate to the response to treatment, (6) the marker should be easy to measure. Most tumor markers available today meet several, but not all criteria. As a consequence of that, some criteria were chosen for the validation and proper selection of the most appropriate marker in a particular malignancy, and these are: (1) markers' sensitivity, (2) specificity, and (3) predictive values. Sensitivity expresses the mean probability of determining an elevated tumor

  3. Measurement of some tumor markers by IRMA in vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Xuan Truong

    2004-01-01

    As we known that a perfect tumor markers could be used in five different ways : for population screening, for diagnose, for monitoring therapy and for follow-up early evidence of cancer recurrence. In order to achieve perfect status a tumor markers would require total negativity in healthy subject, total positivity for single tumor type and close correlation between plasma tumor marker concentration and tumor size . The advance of monoclonal antibodies has had dramatic impact in oncology, where new tumor markers have been discovered and assay methods for all tumor markers have been improved commercially . Analytical performance of these new methods are potentially as good as that of the best Immunoradiometric assay for others analytes. In Vietnam, the first time we use immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the measurement of some tumor markers in normal subject and cancer diseases. These are Thyroglobulin (TG) of thyroid cancer, cancer-antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) of breast cancer and cancer-antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) of stomach cancer. We would like applying the CA72-4 in the indication of stomach cancer, CA15-3 in the differential diagnosis of breast cancer, and TG in the differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer. And all of these tumor markers were also used in the clinical follow-up and early detection of recurrence and metastatic Cancer of them. We could try researching on them much more. (authors)

  4. Utility of MRI versus tumor markers for post-treatment surveillance of marker-positive CNS germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Victoria; Segal, Devorah; Gardner, Sharon L; Zagzag, David; Wisoff, Jeffrey H; Allen, Jeffrey C; Karajannis, Matthias A

    2016-09-01

    Patients with marker-positive central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors are typically monitored for tumor recurrence with both tumor markers (AFP and b-hCG) and MRI. We hypothesize that the recurrence of these tumors will always be accompanied by an elevation in tumor markers, and that surveillance MRI may not be necessary. We retrospectively identified 28 patients with CNS germ cell tumors treated at our institution that presented with an elevated serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tumor marker at the time of diagnosis. We then identified those who had a tumor recurrence after having been in remission and whether each recurrence was detected via MRI changes, elevated tumor markers, or both. Four patients suffered a tumor recurrence. Only one patient had simultaneously elevated tumor markers and MRI evidence of recurrence. Two patients had evidence of recurrence on MRI without corresponding elevations in serum or CSF tumor markers. One patient had abnormal tumor markers with no evidence of recurrence on MRI until 6 months later. We conclude that in patients with marker-positive CNS germ cell tumors who achieve complete remission, continued surveillance imaging in addition to measurement of tumor markers is indicated to detect recurrences.

  5. Nuclear medicine markers of tumor oxygenation and radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J. Donald; Schneider, R.H.; Stobbe, C.C.; Kim, E.; Engelhardt, E.L.; Coia, L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The objective of this research project was to synthesize, purify, radiolabel and characterize second-generation nuclear medicine markers of tissue oxygenation with properties superior to iodoazomycin arabinoside (IAZA) and to validate the hypoxia-marking activity of optimal compounds by independent measurements of tumor oxygenation and tumor radioresistance. Materials and Methods: Six hypoxic markers of the iodoazomycin nucleoside class with water solubilities greater than IAZA were synthesized by published procedures. The markers were purified, chemically characterized and labeled with Iodine-125 or Iodine-131. Absolute rates of marker ligation to the macromolecules of hypoxic EMT-6 tumor cells in vitro were determined as a function of marker concentration and used to establish relative marker effectiveness. Hypoxic marking activity in tumors was determined from tumor/blood (T/B) and tumor/muscle (T/M) ratios of radiolabelled marker in EMT-6 tumor-bearing C.B17/Icr scid mice. The optimal marker was administered to R3327-H and R3327-AT tumor-bearing Fischer X Copenhagen rats for estimates of tumor oxygenation by T/B and T/M ratios. Oxygen distributions in the same tumors were obtained with the Eppendorf pO 2 Histograph. The radioresistance of individual tumors was determined from in vitro plating efficiencies of cells released from tumors which had been irradiated in vivo with 20 Gy Cs-137 γ-rays. Results: Of the six iodinated azomycin nucleosides investigated, five were novel markers and all had water solubilities higher than IAZA. Iodinated azomycin xylopyranoside (β-D-IAZXP) was selected as the optimal marker of this class since it 1) exhibited the highest absolute rate of ligation to hypoxic tumor cells in vitro, 2) had the fastest plasma clearance rate in tumor-bearing mice and 3) yielded high T/B ratios in both the mouse and rat tumor models employed in this study. Planar nuclear medicine images of (I-131) β-D-IAZXP in tumor-bearing rats

  6. Bladder tumor markers beyond cytology: International Consensus Panel on bladder tumor markers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokeshwar, V.B.; Habuchi, T.; Grossman, H.B.; Murphy, W.M.; Hautmann, S.H.; Hemstreet, G.P.; Bono, A.V.; Getzenberg, R.H.; Goebell, P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schalken, J.A.; Fradet, Y.; Marberger, M.; Messing, E.; Droller, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This is the first of 2 articles that summarize the findings of the International Consensus Panel on cytology and bladder tumor markers. The objectives of our panel were to reach a consensus on the areas where markers are needed, to define the attributes of an ideal tumor marker, and to identify

  7. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  8. INHIBIN AS A MARKER FOR GRANULOSA-CELL TUMOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAPPOHN, RE; BURGER, HG; BOUMA, J; BANGAH, M; KRANS, M

    1992-01-01

    In order to determine whether serum-immunoreactive inhibin could constitute a biochemical marker for the presence and progression of ovarian granulosa cell tumors and their metastases, we measured immunoreactive inhibin concentrations in series of serum samples obtained from 8 patients with

  9. Diagnostic value of different tumor markers, our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Anwar, S.

    2000-01-01

    Variety of tumor markers with varying sensitivity and specificity are used for diagnosis of different malignancies. This study was done to determine the diagnostic value of different tumor markers in our patients with various malignancies. Out of 235 patients studied, 162 were suffering from malignant and 73 from benign diseases. Among these 84 were positive for tumor markers. Out of these positive tumor markers, 75 were suffering from malignancy. Tumor marker analyzed were ca-15-3, ca-125, BETA-HCG, CEA, PSA and alpha-FP depending upon the type of the disease these cases presented. Analysis of the results revealed that different tumor markers had sensitivity varying from 76.9-95.8% and specificity varying form 75-90.9%. CA-125 was observed to be the most specific and sensitive tumor marker for ovarian tumors followed by alpha-FP for hepatocellular tumors and CEA for gastrointestinal tumors. Similarly, PSA for prostate cancers, beta-HCG for choriocarcinoma and CA-15-3 for breast cancer. It is concluded that all the tumor markers have a variable diagnostic value, which cannot be relied upon independently, without other tests added to increase diagnostic value. (author)

  10. Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís César [UNIFESP; Matos, Delcio [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers...

  11. Tumor markers: applications and recommendations. New IZOTOPE products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenes, Ana Rosa

    2016-01-01

    At work aspects are discussed: Tumor markers; New products IZOTOP; Measuring principle of IRMA kits for tumor markers; Guidelines and Recommendations for the use of tumor markers. pre-analytical, post-analytical and Quality control recommendations are given

  12. Clinical evaluation of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) as a marker of liver tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terui, S

    1984-03-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate thyroxine-binding globulin (TGB) as a marker of liver tumors, in conjection with the liver scintigram. Of 30 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC), 22 (73.3%) showed significantly higher TBG concentrations. Eight patients (26.7%) showed normal TBG concentrations. In the case of 27 our of 30 patients with definite liver tumors, defects were apparent on the scintigrams. But seven of them had normal TBG concentrations in spite of the defects on the scintigrams. Out of 33 postoperative patients with liver metastasis, 28 (84%) had a raised TBG concentration. Only five (15.2%) had a normal TBG level. In 31 patients (93.9%) out of 33 with liver metastasis, a definite diagnosis was made on the basis of the liver scintigram. In 28 (90.3%) of these 31 people, the TBG concentration was higher than normal. Among 63 patients with liver tumors, both primary and metastatic, the test sensitivity for liver tumors was 92.1% (58/63) based on the accuracy of the liver scintigram. It was 79.4% (50/63) based on the TBG measurement. Why TBG increases to such an extent in spite of the euthyroid state remains unexplained. But it may be concluded that elevated TBG with positive liver scintigram furnishes a sensitive, fairly reliable, nonspecific tumor marker to determine liver tumors, especially in the case of liver metastasis.

  13. Clinical evaluation of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) as a marker of liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terui, S.

    1984-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate thyroxine-binding globulin (TGB) as a marker of liver tumors, in conjection with the liver scintigram. Of 30 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC), 22 (73.3%) showed significantly higher TBG concentrations. Eight patients (26.7%) showed normal TBG concentrations. In the case of 27 our of 30 patients with definite liver tumors, defects were apparent on the scintigrams. But seven of them had normal TBG concentrations in spite of the defects on the scintigrams. Out of 33 postoperative patients with liver metastasis, 28 (84%) had a raised TBG concentration. Only five (15.2%) had a normal TBG level. In 31 patients (93.9%) out of 33 with liver metastasis, a definite diagnosis was made on the basis of the liver scintigram. In 28 (90.3%) of these 31 people, the TBG concentration was higher than normal. Among 63 patients with liver tumors, both primary and metastatic, the test sensitivity for liver tumors was 92.1% (58/63) based on the accuracy of the liver scintigram. It was 79.4% (50/63) based on the TBG measurement. Why TBG increases to such an extent in spite of the euthyroid state remains unexplained. But it may be concluded that elevated TBG with positive liver scintigram furnishes a sensitive, fairly reliable, nonspecific tumor marker to determine liver tumors, especially in the case of liver metastasis. (orig.)

  14. Radioimmunoassay of tumor markers in serum of patients with renal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoni-Voutsas, M.; Glaubitt, D.; Wagner, W.; Lichtenberg, T.

    1984-01-01

    Having noted an increased serum level of TPA and CEA in patients with renal carcinoma the authors extended these studies by using a larger number of tumor markers. In 15 patients (11 men and 4 women after menopause) aged 33 to 74 years who had renal carcinoma, among them 3 with tumor metastases, the serum concentration of TPA, CA 12-5, CEA, AFP, ferritin, prolactin, β-HCG, and β/sub 2/-microglobulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Monoclonal antibodies were used in the determination of serum CA 12-5 and CEA. In all patients surgical treatment, irradiation, or cytostatic therapy had not been performed. In serum the normal range was exceeded by TPA in 7 patients, CA 12-5 in 3, CEA and AFP in one each, ferritin in 12, prolactin in 2, and β/sub 2/-microglobulin in 10 patients. In one man serum prolactin was reduced. Serum β-HCG was normal in all patients. According to these results serum ferritin, TPA, and β/sub 2/-microglobulin are of great value as tumor markers in patients with renal carcinoma. In several patients the increase of serum β/sub 2/-microglobulin may be ascribed partly to deterioration of renal function. As no consistent patterns of tumor markers in serum were observed it is recommended to determine several tumor markers and not only one of them during the follow-up of patients. Radioimmunoassays for measuring the serum level of tumor markers, especially ferritin, TPA, and β/sub 2/-microglobulin, may considerably assist in the management of patients with renal carcinoma by providing early information about tumor recurrence or metastases

  15. The relationship between tumor markers and pulmonary embolism in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Xu, Mei; Guo, Jian; Pudasaini, Bigyan; Wu, Xueling; Liu, Jinming

    2017-06-20

    Tumor markers (TMs) and D-Dimer are both hallmarks of severity and prognosis of lung cancer. Tumor markers could be related to pulmonary embolism (PE) in lung cancer. The number of abnormal tumor markers of lung cancer patients with pulmonary embolism (3.9 ± 1.1vs1.6 ± 0.6,P 0.005) was more than that in patients without pulmonary embolism. TMs panel (P trend tumor markers, TMs panel (OR5.98, P Tumor markers were compared between lung cancer patients complicated with pulmonary embolism and those without pulmonary embolism Then the correlation between each tumor marker as well as panel of combined TMs and D-Dimer as well as pulmonary embolism were analyzed for patients with pulmonary embolism. There is a relationship between tumor markers and pulmonary embolism in patients with lung cancer. The panel of combined tumor markers is a valuable diagnostic marker for pulmonary embolism in lung cancer.

  16. Application of bio-marker to study on tumor radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanfeng; Ding Guirong; Han Liangfu

    2001-01-01

    To definite tumor radiosensitivity is important for applying the schedules of individualization of patient radiotherapy. Many laboratories were carrying on the research which predict the tumor radiosensitivity with one bio-marker or/and multi-bio-marker in various levels. At present has not witnessed the specific bio-marker, but it provides an excellent model for predicting tumor radiosensitivity

  17. Changes in Tumor Marker Values with Patients with Beginning Disease Git. Detection of Secondary Liver Tumors in Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma by using Tumor Markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubec jr., L.; Topolčan, O.; Pašková, H.; Holubec sen., L.; Pecen, Ladislav; Třeška, L.; Finek, J.; Pikner, R.; Visokai, V.; Lipská, V.; Svobodová, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2002), s. 133-134 ISSN 0886-3849. [International Conference on Human Tumor Markers /19./. 25.08.2002-29.08.2002, Velje] Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : tumor markers * GIT cancers Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. Assessing the clinical significance of tumor markers in common neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketic-Oreskovic, Lidija; Maric, Petra; Ozretic, Petar; Oreskovic, Darko; Ajdukovic, Mia; Levanat, Sonja

    2012-06-01

    The term tumor markers include a spectrum of molecules and substances with widely divergent characteristics whose presence in the significant amount can be related to the malignant disease. An ideal tumor marker should have high specificity and sensitivity, which would allow its use in early diagnosis and prognosis of malignant disease, as well as in prediction of therapeutic response and follow-up of the patients. Numerous biochemical entities have emerged as potentially valuable tumor markers so far, but only few markers showed to be of considerable clinical reliability and have been accepted into standard clinical practice. Recent development of genomics and proteomics has enabled the examination of many new potential tumor markers. Scientific studies on discovery, development, and application of tumor markers have been proceeding quite rapidly providing great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients. This review is focusing on the clinical usefulness of various tumor markers already in clinical practice as well as certain potential markers, giving a brief description of their prognostic and predictive significance in most common malignancies.

  19. Part of tumor markers in the evaluation of tumor response to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckers, C.; Desmedt, M.

    1994-01-01

    When present, the tumor markers reflect the clinical evolution of the malignant lesions. We present here their variations in relation to the antitumor treatment and demonstrate that the marker reflects quite well the tumor response and constitutes an additional monitoring for the clinician. (authors). 11 refs., 2 figs

  20. Research advances in tumor markers for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Guimin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a malignant tumor with a high fatality rate in the world, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP is the most commonly used tumor marker for HCC diagnosis. However, AFP does not have a satisfactory sensitivity or specificity and may lead to missed diagnosis when the tumor is small in the early stage of HCC. This article summarizes the clinical value of new tumor markers in the diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and prognosis judgment of HCC and analyzes the future prospects of the measurement of tumor markers for HCC. It is pointed out that combined determination of several tumor markers helps to improve the sensitivity and specificity of HCC diagnosis, and the screening and optimization of combined determination of tumor markers, noninvasive and efficient tumor markers, and individualized treatment are research hotspots in future.

  1. Radioimmunoassay of CA 19-9 tumor marker in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, V.V.; Slavnov, V.N.; Komissarenko, I.V.; Kovpak, N.A.; Kovalenko, A.E.; Guda, B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Applicability of determining carbohydrate antigen CA 19-9 content in blood serum, tissue extracts, and thyroid tumor aspiration biopsy samples to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors of thyroid is studied. Radioimmunoassay was used for measurements. It is shown that determination of marker CA 19-9 in blood serum is not informationally capable for the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors. Considerable increase in CA 19-9 concentration was found in tumor aspiration biopsy samples from patients with malignant tumors this fact can be used for preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer [ru

  2. Clinical application and research of tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. There are many tumor markers for detecting colorectal cancer, some of which have been widely used in clinical area. However, still lack an ideal tumor marker of colorectal cancer. In this review, we simply characterized some common tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA50, CA242 etc and their dignostic value. And here we discussed some combined detecting procedures which improve diagnostic accuracy of colorectal cancer. In addition, with the development of the biomoleculer technique, some newly discovered tumor markers and genetic marekers have gained great progress in the research of colorectal cancer, and will become a promissing technique in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. (authors)

  3. Application of tumor markers in the immunodiagnosis of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelder, F.B.; Barr, L.H.; Goldman, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, research directed toward the detection of both tumor-specific and tumor-related products has intensified for several reasons. 1. The growing knowledge of tumor metabolism has lead some investigators to hypothesize that most, if not all, malignant tumors produce these substances. 2. The use of multiple tumor markers appears more valuable than application of single markers. 3. The availability of highly sensitive and specific immunological methods provides the tools to measure substances which previously could not be assayed. 4. As additional information evolves, the events associated with malignant transformation and tumor behaviour may become clear. Tumor-related products include immune markers, altered cell surface membranes, as well as fetal and/or ectopic proteins, to name but a few. The synthesis of fetal and/or ectopic proteins occurs in several cancers. These have served as the basis for most immunodiagnostic tests and comprise the major thrust of this review

  4. Detection of Secondary Liver Tumors in Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma by Using Tumor Markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubec jr., L.; Topolčan, O.; Třeška, V.; Holubec sen., L.; Pecen, Ladislav; Pikner, R.; Finek, J.; Visokai, V.; Lipská, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2002), s. 134-135 ISSN 0886-3849. [International Conference on Human Tumor Markers /19./. 25.08.2002-29.08.2002, Velje] Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : tumor markers * colorectal CA Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. Glycan Markers as Potential Immunological Targets in Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Denong; Wu, Lisa; Liu, Xiaohe

    2017-01-01

    We present here an experimental approach for exploring a new class of tumor biomarkers that are overexpressed by circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and are likely targetable in immunotherapy against tumor metastasis. Using carbohydrate microarrays, anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were scanned against a large panel of carbohydrate antigens to identify potential tumor glycan markers. Subsequently, flow cytometry and fiber-optic array scanning technology (FAST) were applied to determine whether the identified targets are tumor-specific cell-surface markers and are, therefore, likely suitable for targeted immunotherapy. Finally, the tumor glycan-specific antibodies identified were validated using cancer patients' blood samples for their performance in CTC-detection and immunotyping analysis. In this article, identifying breast CTC-specific glycan markers and targeting mAbs serve as examples to illustrate this tumor biomarker discovery strategy.

  6. A system for tumor heterogeneity evaluation and diagnosis based on tumor markers measured routinely in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Liu; Rixv, Liu; Xiuying, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    To develop an efficient and reliable approach to estimate tumor heterogeneity and improve tumor diagnosis using multiple tumor markers measured routinely in the clinical laboratory. A total of 161 patients with different cancers were recruited as the cancer group, and 91 patients with non-oncological conditions were required as the non-oncological disease group. The control group comprised 90 randomly selected healthy subjects. AFP, CEA, CYFRA, CA125, CA153, CA199, CA724, and NSE levels were measured in all these subjects with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The tumor marker with the maximum S/CO value (sample test value:cutoff value for discriminating individuals with and without tumors) was considered as a specific tumor marker (STM) for an individual. Tumor heterogeneity index (THI)=N/P (N: number of STMs; P: percentage of individuals with STMs in a certain tumor population) was used to quantify tumor heterogeneity: high THI indicated high tumor heterogeneity. The tumor marker index (TMI), TMI = STM×(number of positive tumor markers+1), was used for diagnosis. The THIs of lung, gastric, and liver cancers were 8.33, 9.63, and 5.2, respectively, while the ROC-areas under the curve for TMI were 0.862, 0.809, and 0.966. In this study, we developed a novel index for tumor heterogeneity based on the expression of various routinely evaluated serum tumor markers. Development of an evaluation system for tumor heterogeneity on the basis of this index could provide an effective diagnostic tool for some cancers. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of tumor markers for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Kong, Xinjuan; Dou, Qian; Ye, Jin; Xu, Dong; Shang, Haitao; Xu, Keshu; Song, Yuhu

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of malignant ascites is a challenging problem in clinical practice, non-invasive techniques should be developed to improve diagnostic accuracy. The diagnostic performances of tumor markers in malignant ascites remained unsettled. Our aim was to evaluate diagnostic performance of tumor markers in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ascites. A total of 437 patients were enrolled, and the relevant parameters of the patients were analyzed for the differentiation of benign ascites from malignant ascites. At the predetermined cutoff values of tumor makers, tumor markers in ascitic fluid showed better diagnostic performance than those in serum. Combined use of tumor markers and the cytology increased the diagnostic yield of the latter by 37%. In cytologically negative malignant ascites, tumor markers provided assistance in differentiating malignant ascites from benign ascites, and the combination of ascitic tumor markers yielded 86% sensitivity, 97% specificity. Use of a panel of tumor markers exhibited excellent diagnostic performance in diagnosing malignant ascites, which indicated the detection of tumor markers may represent a beneficial adjunct to cytology, thus guiding the selection of patients who might benefit from further invasive procedures.

  8. Comparison of bone scintigraphy with serum tumor markers of CA 15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedik, G. K.; Kiratli, P.O.; Aras, T.; Tascioglu, B.

    2006-01-01

    To compare the bone scintigraphy findings with a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) levels in breast carcinoma patients. We also investigated the relationship between anatomical bone type and its effect on tumor marker levels. The study was consisted of retrospective evaluation of 120 bone scans of patients with breast carcinoma admitted to the Nuclear Medicine Department, Medical Faculty, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey between January 2003 and December 2004. The mean age of the patients was 54.7 years. We grouped the results of the bone scans into 3 as normal, equivocal and metastatic. Carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 15-3 levels were recorded from the files of the patients. Upper cut levels of 4.8 U/ml for CEA and 38 U/ml for CA 15-3 was accepted. Metastatic bone areas were distributed according to their anatomical location as long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid and effect of bone type on tumor marker was investigated. In 16 of the patients, bone scintigraphy revealed metastases. Sixty-one patients had normal scans and in 47 patients metastases could not be ruled out. In patients with metastases, CA 15-3 was elevated in 8 and CEA was higher than the upper limit in 6. For CEA and CA 15-3, the anatomical type of bone has no any effect on serum tumor marker concentration between patients with normal and elevated levels of tumor markers in metastatic patients. Tumor markers are not solely enough in predicting bone metastases. Bone scintigraphy and tumor markers should be both used in management of patients with breast carcinoma. The anatomical type of bone has no any effect on elevation of serum tumor marker concentration. (author)

  9. The presence of tumor associated macrophages in tumor stroma as a prognostic marker for breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrek, Catharina; Pontén, Fredrik; Jirström, Karin; Leandersson, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are alternatively activated macrophages that enhance tumor progression by promoting tumor cell invasion, migration and angiogenesis. TAMs have an anti-inflammatory function resembling M2 macrophages. CD163 is regarded as a highly specific monocyte/macrophage marker for M2 macrophages. In this study we evaluated the specificity of using the M2 macrophage marker CD163 as a TAM marker and compared its prognostic value with the more frequently used pan-macrophage marker CD68. We also analyzed the prognostic value of the localization of CD163 + and CD68 + myeloid cells in human breast cancer. The extent of infiltrating CD163 + or CD68 + myeloid cells in tumor nest versus tumor stroma was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays with tumors from 144 breast cancer cases. Spearman’s Rho and χ 2 tests were used to examine the correlations between CD163 + or CD68 + myeloid cells and clinicopathological parameters. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess the impact of CD163 + and CD68 + myeloid cells in tumor stroma and tumor nest, respectively, on recurrence free survival, breast cancer specific and overall survival. We found that infiltration of CD163 + and CD68 + macrophages into tumor stroma, but not into tumor nest, were of clinical relevance. CD163 + macrophages in tumor stroma positively correlated with higher grade, larger tumor size, Ki67 positivity, estrogen receptor negativity, progesterone receptor negativity, triple-negative/basal-like breast cancer and inversely correlated with luminal A breast cancer. Some CD163 + areas lacked CD68 expression, suggesting that CD163 could be used as a general anti-inflammatory myeloid marker with prognostic impact. CD68 + macrophages in tumor stroma positively correlated to tumor size and inversely correlated to luminal A breast cancer. More importantly, CD68 in tumor stroma was an independent prognostic factor for reduced breast cancer

  10. Analysis of relationship between tumor markers and quantification of free DNA in serum of lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shunfang; Zhang Peiling; Cao Jie; Zeng Jun; Dong Qianggang

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value and relationship between five tumor markers (CA19- 9,CA125,CYFRA21-1 ,CEA,NSE) and free DNA in serum for lung cancer detection and try to find a new and more efficient tumor marker, the amounts of CA19-9, CA125, CYFRA21-1, CEA, NSE were determined by RIA and free DNA was determined by the use of quantitative real time PCR amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in 52 lung cancer patients and 8 cases of benign pulmonary disease and 10 healthy controls. The resulls showed that average concentration of free DNA in serum of lung cancer patients, benign pulmo- nary disease and healthy controls was 107.6ng/mL, 76.86ng/mL and 18.8ng/mL, respective- ly. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of free DNA for lung cancer were 71. 2%, 50% and 68.3%, same as the diagnostic value of combined detection of five tumor markers. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the five tumor markers and free DNA combinend detection for lung cancer were 94.2%, 25% and 85%, respectively. The free DNA in the serum of lung cancer patients may be a new and better tumor marker. (authors)

  11. Correlation of bone scintigraphy findings and tumor markers during follow-up prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Taku

    1996-01-01

    In the last 9 years, 217 patients with prostate cancer were treated at our department. Of these patients 153 cases treated by estrogen therapy were followed up by bone scintigraphy and tumor marker examinations (prostate specific antigen [PSA], prostate acid phosphatase [PAP], gamma-seminoprotein [γ-SM) . The correlation between changes on bone scintigrams and synchronous changes in tumor markers was evaluated retrospectively. In cases in which bone metastasis was not recognized on bone scintigrams before treatment, changes of tumor markers corresponded with subsequent changes on bone scintigrams in more than 90%. However, in cases with bone metastasis on bone scintigrams before treatment, changes of bone scintigrams and changes of tumor markers corresponded in only 55% of cases. Changes of bone scintigrams do not always correspond with changes of tumor markers. However, by taking into consideration physical examination parameters such as bone pain, in addition to changes of tumor markers, most changes on bone scintigrams can be anticipated. The reasons for lack of correspondence between changes of bone scintigrams and changes of tumor markers may be, changes of tumor markers are more rapid than the changes on bone scintigram, some poorly differentiated cancers do not have increased tumor marker levels and bone scintigrams do not demonstrate soft tissue involvement. In the follow-up of patients with prostate cancer, it is not necessary to perform bone scintigraphy regularly at 3-month intervals. Bone scintigraphy should only be performed when serum levels of tumor markers increase or bone pain appears. (author)

  12. Endogenous markers of tumor hypoxia. Predictors of clinical radiation resistance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vordermark, D.; Brown, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Eppendorf electrode measurements of tumor oxygenation have defined an adverse effect of tumor hypoxia on prognosis after radiotherapy and other treatment modalities, in particular in head and neck and cervix carcinomas as well as soft tissue sarcomas. Recently, the immunohistochemical detection of proteins involved in the ''hypoxic response'' of tumor cells has been discussed as a method to estimate hypoxia in clinical tumor specimens. Material and Methods: This review focuses on clinical and experimental data, regarding prognostic impact and comparability with other methods of hypoxia detection, for three proteins suggested as endogenous markers of tumor hypoxia: hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA 9), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Results: None of the three potential hypoxia markers is exclusively hypoxia-specific, and in each case protein can be detected under normoxic conditions in vitro. HIF-1α responds rapidly to hypoxia but also to reoxygenation, making this marker quite unstable in the context of clinical sample collection. The perinecrotic labeling pattern typical of chronic hypoxia and a reasonable agreement with injectable hypoxia markers such as pimonidazole have most consistently been described for CA 9. All three markers showed correlation with Eppendorf electrode measurements of tumor oxygenation in carcinoma of the cervix. In nine of 13 reports, among them all three that refer to curative radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, HIF-1α overexpression was associated with poor outcome. CA 9 was an adverse prognostic factor in cervix, head and neck and lung cancer, but not in two other head and neck cancer reports. GLUT1 predicted for poor survival in colorectal, cervix and lung cancer. Conclusion: Endogenous markers have the potential to indicate therapeutically relevant levels of hypoxia within tumors. Clinical trials assessing a marker's ability to predict a benefit from specific hypoxia

  13. Endogenous markers of tumor hypoxia. Predictors of clinical radiation resistance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vordermark, D. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Brown, J.M. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Background: Eppendorf electrode measurements of tumor oxygenation have defined an adverse effect of tumor hypoxia on prognosis after radiotherapy and other treatment modalities, in particular in head and neck and cervix carcinomas as well as soft tissue sarcomas. Recently, the immunohistochemical detection of proteins involved in the ''hypoxic response'' of tumor cells has been discussed as a method to estimate hypoxia in clinical tumor specimens. Material and Methods: This review focuses on clinical and experimental data, regarding prognostic impact and comparability with other methods of hypoxia detection, for three proteins suggested as endogenous markers of tumor hypoxia: hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA 9), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Results: None of the three potential hypoxia markers is exclusively hypoxia-specific, and in each case protein can be detected under normoxic conditions in vitro. HIF-1{alpha} responds rapidly to hypoxia but also to reoxygenation, making this marker quite unstable in the context of clinical sample collection. The perinecrotic labeling pattern typical of chronic hypoxia and a reasonable agreement with injectable hypoxia markers such as pimonidazole have most consistently been described for CA 9. All three markers showed correlation with Eppendorf electrode measurements of tumor oxygenation in carcinoma of the cervix. In nine of 13 reports, among them all three that refer to curative radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, HIF-1{alpha} overexpression was associated with poor outcome. CA 9 was an adverse prognostic factor in cervix, head and neck and lung cancer, but not in two other head and neck cancer reports. GLUT1 predicted for poor survival in colorectal, cervix and lung cancer. Conclusion: Endogenous markers have the potential to indicate therapeutically relevant levels of hypoxia within tumors. Clinical trials assessing a marker's ability to predict a

  14. The correlation between internal and external markers for abdominal tumors: Implications for respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierga, David P.; Brewer, Johanna; Sharp, Gregory C.; Betke, Margrit; Willett, Christopher G.; Chen, George T.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The correlation of the respiratory motion of external patient markers and abdominal tumors was examined. Data of this type are important for image-guided therapy techniques, such as respiratory gating, that monitor the movement of external fiducials. Methods and Materials: Fluoroscopy sessions for 4 patients with internal, radiopaque tumor fiducial clips were analyzed by computer vision techniques. The motion of the internal clips and the external markers placed on the patient's abdominal skin surface were quantified and correlated. Results: In general, the motion of the tumor and external markers were well correlated. The maximum amount of peak-to-peak craniocaudal tumor motion was 2.5 cm. The ratio of tumor motion to external-marker motion ranged from 0.85 to 7.1. The variation in tumor position for a given external-marker position ranged from 2 to 9 mm. The period of the breathing cycle ranged from 2.7 to 4.5 seconds, and the frequency patterns for both the tumor and the external markers were similar. Conclusions: Although tumor motion generally correlated well with external fiducial marker motion, relatively large underlying tumor motion can occur compared with external-marker motion and variations in the tumor position for a given marker position. Treatment margins should be determined on the basis of a detailed understanding of tumor motion, as opposed to relying only on external-marker information

  15. meta-analysis of Serum Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

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    Xianfeng LU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The detection of serum tumor markers is of great value for early diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinic significance characteristics of serum markers contributing to the detection of lung cancer. Methods References about serum markers of lung cancer were estimated using meta-analysis method. 712 references which included more than 20 cases, 20 controls, the serum markers of 52 832 patients with malignancies and 32 037 patients as controls were evaluated. Results Overall the detection of 13 markers play a significant part in lung cancer diagnosis. The sensitivity of CEA, CA125, CYFRA21-1, TPA, SCCAg, DKK1, NSE, ProGRP in the patients’ serum with lung cancer were 47.50%, 50.11%, 57.00%, 50.93%, 49.00%, 69.50%, 39.73%, 51.48% and the specificity were 92.34%, 80.19%, 90.16%, 88.41%, 91.07%, 92.20%, 89.11%, 94.89%. In the combined analysis of tumor markers: the sensitivity, specificity of NSE+ProGRP were 88.90% and 72.82% in diagnosis of small cell lung cancer, respectively. In diagnosis of squamous corcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity of TSGF+SCCAg+CYFRA21-1 were 95.30% and 74.20%. The the sensitivity and specificity of CA153+Ferrtin+CEA were 91.90% and 44.00% in diagnosis of lung cancer. Conclusion Although the assay of tumor markers in serum is useful for diagnosis of early lung cancer, the sensitivity and specificity are low. Combined detection of these tumor markers could increase sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Prognostic impact of cytological fluid tumor markers in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Arthur; Hur, Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Sae Rom; Suh, Young Joo; Im, Dong Jin; Kim, Yun Jung; Lee, Jae Seok; Shim, Hyo Sup; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2016-03-01

    The serum tumor markers CYFRA 21-1, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are useful in diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cytologic tumor markers obtained during needle aspiration biopsies (NAB) of lung lesions are useful for NSCLC diagnosis. This study investigated the incremental prognostic value of cytologic tumor markers compared to serum tumor markers. This prospective study included 253 patients diagnosed with NSCLC by NAB with cytologic tumor marker analysis. Levels of cytologic CYFRA 21-1, CEA, SCCA, and their serum counterparts were followed up for survival analysis. Optimal cutoff values for each tumor marker were obtained for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) analyses. All patients were followed up for a median of 22.8 months. Using cutoff values of 0.44 ng/ml for C-SCCA, 2.0 ng/ml for S-SCCA, and 3.3 ng/ml for S-CYFRA, a multivariate analysis revealed that high S-SCCA (hazard ratio, HR, 1.84) and high C-SCCA (HR, 1.63) were independent predictive factors of OS. The 3-year overall survival rate was 55 vs. 80 % for high and low C-SCCA, respectively. Cytologic tumor marker level detection is easily obtainable and provides prognostic information for NSCLC. Cytologic tumor markers provide comparable prognostic information relative to serum tumor markers, with C-SCCA acting as a strong prognostic factor of overall survival and PFS.

  17. Pimonidazole: a novel hypoxia marker for complementary study of tumor hypoxia and tumor biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varia, Mahesh A.; Kennedy, Andrew S.; Calkins-Adams, Dennise P.; Rinker, Lillian; Novotny, Debra; Fowler, Wesley C.; Raleigh, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Tumor hypoxia appears to be associated with treatment resistance and with gene expression that may lead to hypoxia-mediated selection of tumor cells as a source for cell growth and metastases. The objective of this study was to develop complementary techniques of hypoxia detection with molecular markers of cell proliferation and metastases in order to investigate the role of tumor hypoxia in tumor biology. Materials and Methods: Pimonidazole is a 2-nitroimidazole which is reductively-activated and becomes covalently bound to thiol-containing proteins only in hypoxic cells. These adducts can be detected using immunohistochemistry, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay or flow cytometry as a measure of hypoxia in tumors. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis has been completed for five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were given pimonidazole hydrochloride (0.5 g/m 2 intravenously) followed by cervical biopsies 24 hours later. Informed consent was obtained according to a protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board. A minimum of 3 random biopsies were obtained from the tumors and at least four sections examined from each biopsy site. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections were immunostained for pimonidazole binding using a mouse monoclonal antibody. Commercially available monoclonal antibodies were used to detect cell proliferation markers MIB-1 (Ki-67) and to detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor cells in contiguous sections. The extent of immunostaining was expressed as the percent of immunostained to total tumor cells as determined by Chalkley point counting. Results: No clinical toxicities were associated with pimonidazole infusion. Immunostaining with pimonidazole antibody was observed in all patients indicating the presence of tumor hypoxia. Qualitatively there is little or no overlap between the areas of hypoxia and proliferation. Quantitative data tabulated below show the

  18. Concordance of Hypermethylated DNA and the Tumor Markers CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA in Serum during Monitoring of Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Kristiansen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The serological protein tumor markers CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA are frequently used to monitor tumor burden among metastatic breast cancer patients. Breast cancer is associated with global DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation of some promoter regions. No monitoring study has yet investigated the interrelationship between protein tumor markers, the global DNA hypomethylation, and hypermethylated genes in serum from patients with advanced disease. Twenty-nine patients with histologically proven advanced breast cancer received first-line chemotherapy with epirubicin. Samples were collected prior to each treatment and prospectively analyzed for CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA. The same samples were retrospectively analyzed for the concentration of hypermethylated RASSF1A and for global DNA hypomethylation using LINE-1. Among patients with elevated concentrations of the protein markers, concordance could be observed between serial changes of the hypermethylated RASSF1A gene and the protein markers. Among patients with lower concentrations, RASSF1A could only be detected periodically. There was discordance between changes of the hypomethylated LINE-1 as compared to the protein markers. Circulating hypermethylated RASSF1A and protein markers may have similar kinetics during monitoring of tumor burden. Further investigations are needed to determine whether any of the hypermethylated DNA genes may provide predictive information during monitoring.

  19. Concordance of Hypermethylated DNA and the Tumor Markers CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA in Serum during Monitoring of Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Hansen, Morten Høgh; Nielsen, Dorte; Sölétormos, György

    2015-01-01

    The serological protein tumor markers CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA are frequently used to monitor tumor burden among metastatic breast cancer patients. Breast cancer is associated with global DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation of some promoter regions. No monitoring study has yet investigated the interrelationship between protein tumor markers, the global DNA hypomethylation, and hypermethylated genes in serum from patients with advanced disease. Twenty-nine patients with histologically proven advanced breast cancer received first-line chemotherapy with epirubicin. Samples were collected prior to each treatment and prospectively analyzed for CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA. The same samples were retrospectively analyzed for the concentration of hypermethylated RASSF1A and for global DNA hypomethylation using LINE-1. Among patients with elevated concentrations of the protein markers, concordance could be observed between serial changes of the hypermethylated RASSF1A gene and the protein markers. Among patients with lower concentrations, RASSF1A could only be detected periodically. There was discordance between changes of the hypomethylated LINE-1 as compared to the protein markers. Circulating hypermethylated RASSF1A and protein markers may have similar kinetics during monitoring of tumor burden. Further investigations are needed to determine whether any of the hypermethylated DNA genes may provide predictive information during monitoring.

  20. Menstrual Cycle Dependent Variability for Serum Tumor Markers CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125 and CA 15-3 in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Binnur Erbağci

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on menstrual cycle dependent variation of tumor markers in healthy women is a subject of diagnostic efficiency and has an impact in elucidating the normal function of these markers. In this study midfollicular and midluteal concentrations of serum CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125, CA 15-3 and their relations with LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone were evaluated during ovulatory cycles in a group of 23 healthy female individuals. Samples were collected on the 7th and 21st day of the same menstrual cycle. Tumor marker and hormone concentrations were determined with chemiluminescence or electrochemiluminescence EIA methods. A significant phase-dependent difference was observed for CA 15-3, midluteal concentrations (mean ± SEM; 26.33 ± 1.56 U/ml higher than the midfollicular (mean ± SEM; 19.27 ± 1.49 U/ml concentrations (p < 0.001. But an obvious difference for other tumor markers investigated did not exist. Significant correlations of follicular and luteal CA 125 levels with body mass index of the subjects were observed (r:0.52, p < 0.05 and r:0.57, p < 0.005, respectively.

  1. Relationship between bone scintigraphy and tumor markers in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, M.; Oral, B.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to specify the precise role of bone scintigraphy and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and breast cancer-associated antigen (CA) 15-3 assays in the monitoring of breast cancers in order to optimize their use and to determine whether it is possible to guide the prescription of bone scan by the use of CEA and CA 15-3 assays in the monitoring of breast cancer. For this purpose, from November 1997 to May 2002, 98 consecutive female breast cancer patients (median age, 52 years; range 35-77 years) underwent bone scintigraphy during follow-up. In these patients values of tumor markers were compared with the results of bone scintigraphy. Some of the patients with bone metastasis were checked repeatedly at intervals of 6 to 12 months, resulting in 49 patients with bone metastasis and 74 patients without bone metastasis being included in the study. In patients with bone metastasis, serum CEA levels were abnormal in 23/49 cases and CA 15-3 serum concentrations were elevated above the cut-off in 33/49 cases. Among patients without bone metastasis, CEA and CA 15-3 serum concentrations were normal in 50/74 and 55/74 cases respectively. The combination of the two markers improved the diagnostic sensitivity. Although serial tumor marker measurements are an efficient and cost effective method of monitoring disease progression, it does not allow prediction of the bone scan results; so it is not justifiable to reject a bone scintigraphy on the basis of these markers. (author)

  2. Prognostic values of tumor endothelial markers in patients with colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rmali, KA; Puntis, MCA; Jiang, WG

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Tumor endothelial markers (TEMs) are a newly discovered family of endothelial markers associated with tumor specific angiogenesis. This study sought to examine the levels of expression (qualitatively and quantitatively) for TEMs in human colon cancer.

  3. Serum tumor markers in pediatric osteosarcoma: a summary review

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    Savitskaya Yulia A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteosarcoma is the most common primary high-grade bone tumor in both adolescents and children. Early tumor detection is key to ensuring effective treatment. Serum marker discovery and validation for pediatric osteosarcoma has accelerated in recent years, coincident with an evolving understanding of molecules and their complex interactions, and the compelling need for improved pediatric osteosarcoma outcome measures in clinical trials. This review gives a short overview of serological markers for pediatric osteosarcoma, and highlights advances in pediatric osteosarcoma-related marker research within the past year. Studies in the past year involving serum markers in patients with pediatric osteosarcoma can be assigned to one of four categories, i.e., new approaches and new markers, exploratory studies in specialized disease subsets, large cross-sectional validation studies, and longitudinal studies, with and without an intervention. Most of the studies have examined the association of a serum marker with some aspect of the natural history of pediatric osteosarcoma. As illustrated by the many studies reviewed, several serum markers are emerging that show a credible association with disease modification. The expanding pool of informative osteosarcoma-related markers is expected to impact development of therapeutics for pediatric osteosarcoma positively and, it is hoped, ultimately clinical care. Combinations of serum markers of natural immunity, thyroid hormone homeostasis, and bone tumorigenesis may be undertaken together in patients with pediatric osteosarcoma. These serum markers in combination may do better. The potential effect of an intrinsic dynamic balance of tumor angiogenesis residing within a single hormone (tri-iodothyronine is an attractive concept for regulation of vascularization in pediatric osteosarcoma.

  4. Tumor markers kits development for use in radioimmunometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.

    1997-01-01

    The immunoassays such as RIA and IRMA are now widely used through the world for the quantitation of a variety of substances in the biological fluid for their high sensibility and specificity which required simple equipments. These techniques are also very used in Algeria for an effective amelioration of public heath The assays kits of RIA/IRMA of thyroid hormones are the most used, followed by peptidic hormones, steroids hormones and IRMA Tumor Markers (T.M) kits. In spite of the important demand, of tumor markers kits for the diagnosis and follow up of cancers their use are always insufficient due to the high cost. The research contract programme proposed by IAEA on the theme 'The Developments of IRMA Tumor Markers Kits' of prostate specific Antigen (PSA) and Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen (TPS) will allowed us to produce locally with best quality-price, the main reagents for PSA and TPS IRMA assays kits for diagnosis and follow up the prostate and breast cancers which are very spready in the country. This report include the following points: Generalities on the use of tumor markers in Algeria, programme for the Development of the PSA IRMA assay (schedule of protocols applied for each reagents; annual planning for assessing the programme activities) and conclusion

  5. The correlation between pre-operative serum tumor markers and lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer patients undergoing curative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangxuan; Li, Shixia; Wei, Lijuan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Juntian

    2013-11-01

    There was few study concentrated on the correlation between the evaluated tumor markers and lymph node metastasis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between the CA724, CA242, CA199, CEA and the lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer and assess the prognostic value of them in different N stage patients. We analyzed the correlation between serum level of CA724, CA242, CA199, CEA and lymph node metastasis in 1501 gastric cancer patients. Lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer was related with tumor location, Bormann type, tumor size, histological type, depth of invasion and TNM stage (p CEA were positively correlated with the metastatic lymph node counts and the N stage (p tumor markers were higher (p tumor markers, the positive rates of tumor markers combination were higher. The combination of CA724 + CA242 + CA199 + CEA had highest positive rate. The higher CEA level related to N1 stage patients while higher CA199 was related with poor prognosis for N1 stage patients. For N0 and N2 stage patients, evaluation of CA724 indicated poorer prognosis. For N1 and N2 stage gastric patients, the patients with increased CA242 inclined to have shorter survival time. The tumor makers CA724, CA242, CA199 and CEA were evaluated significantly in the gastric patients with later N stage. The combination of these four tumor markers maybe prefer diagnostic index of gastric cancer and its lymph node metastasis. These tumor markers can be a possible indicator of poorer prognosis in different N stage patients.

  6. The accuracy of CT and tumor markers in the detection of a recurrent ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Yukari; Ishida, Jiro; Kotake, Fumio; Hirose, Masahiro; Kawana, Koji; Abe, Kimihiko; Amino, Saburo; Negishi, Yoshiyuki; Akiya, Kiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-three patients previously diagnosed as having ovarian cancer were examined with both serum tumor markers (CA 125, CA 19-9, TPA, IAP, AFP) and a pelvic CT scan. The tumor markers predict the clinical outcome more accurately than the CT scan. Further, the tumor markers showed a clear correlation with the clinical course. But in one case, however, the tumor markers were seen to reduce below the normal level from chemotherapy, while the CT scan showed a tumor mass. Thus, both, a CT scan and tumor marker assays are felt to be indispensable for detecting the recurrence of an ovarian cancer. (author)

  7. Tumor markers in pancreatic cancer: a European Group on Tumor Markers (EGTM) status report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M J

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most difficult malignancies to diagnose and treat. The aim of this article is to review how tumor markers can aid the diagnosis and management of patients with this malignancy. The most widely used and best validated marker for pancreatic cancer is CA 19-9. Inadequate sensitivity and specificity limit the use of CA 19-9 in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. In non-jaundiced patients, however, CA 19-9 may complement other diagnostic procedures. In patients with resectable pancreatic cancer, presurgical and postresection CA 19-9 levels correlate with overall survival. In advanced disease, elevated pretreatment levels of CA 19-9 are associated with adverse patient outcome and thus may be combined with other factors for risk stratification. Most, but not all, reports indicate that serial levels of CA 19-9 correlate with response to systemic therapy. Use of CA 19-9 kinetics in conjunction with imaging is therefore recommended in monitoring therapy. Although several potential serum and tissue markers for pancreatic cancer are currently undergoing evaluation, none are sufficiently validated for routine clinical use. CA 19-9 thus remains the serum pancreatic cancer marker against which new markers for this malignancy should be judged.

  8. Significance of serum tumor markers monitoring in carcinomas of unknown primary site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejčić Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Unknown primary tumors represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies that are indicative of ominous prognosis. Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP is defined as the lack of any detectable primary site after full evaluation, and accounts for approximately 3-5% of all newly diagnosed patients with malignancies. The aim of this report was to present the prognostic and predictive value of 8 serum tumor markers in this group of patients. Methods. The study involved 63 patients. On histological examination, all the patients were presented with metastatic tumors whose primary site (origin could not be detected with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. Following the routine light microscopy, all histological findings were classified into one of the following three groups: plano-cellular carcinoma - 8 patients; adenocarcinoma - 33 patients; unclassifiable (undifferentiated carcinoma - 22 patients. In all the cases we evaluated 8 serum tumor markers: alpha-fetoproteins (AFP, chronic gonadotrophin beta submit, human (beta-HCG, neuron specific enolase (NSE, marker of malignant ovarian tumors (CA 125, prostate-specific antigene (PSA, marker of malignant brest tumor (CA 15-3, marker of malignant pancreas tumor and gastrointestinal tumor (Ca 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA at the time of diagnosis. The patients on chemotherapy had the markers determined after the third and sixth chemocycle, i.e. at the time of illness progression observation, if present. The patients responding to chemotherapy with complete response (CR, partial response (PR or stable disease (SD had the markers determined after three-month periods until the time of relapse or progression. Chemotherapy was applied in 32 patients (20 females and 12 males, aged 29-70 years, who met the inclusion criteria. The following chemotherapy regimen was used: doxorubicin 50mg/m2 (day 1, cisplatin 60mg/m2 (day 1, and etoposide 120 mg/m2 (days 1-3. The period between two chemotherapy

  9. SUVmax of 18F-FDG PET/CT correlates to expression of major chemotherapy-related tumor markers and serum tumor markers in gastric adenocarcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Guo, Chi-Hua; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Jun-Gang; Li, Miao; Shen, Cong; Guo, You-Min; Duan, Xiao-Yi

    2017-06-01

    The expression of P53 was previously found by us significantly correlated with maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Hence, the aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between SUVmax and the status of the chemotherapy-related tumor marker expression or serum tumor markers in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Sixty-four gastric adenocarcinoma patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment were enrolled in this study. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect changes of Her-2, P53 and Survivin in lesions, and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method was used to quantify expression of serum CA72-4, CA19-9 and CEA of these patients. Then, the relationships between these parameters above were assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. Also, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to determine the best cut-off value of SUVmax for suggesting chemotherapy resistant tumor markers. Besides, we identified a linear correlation to estimate the equations between SUVmax and the serum tumor markers. Our results showed that higher SUVmax was detected in patients with positive expression of Her-2 and P53, compared with negative groups. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that SUVmax was associated with Her-2 or P53 with the moderate relevant Pearson correlation coefficient. ROC curve analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of SUVmax for suggesting Her-2 or P53-positive, when the cut-off value of SUVmax was set at 3.25 or 5.45, respectively. Moreover, the relationship between SUVmax and serum tumor markers were analyzed by linear correlation analysis, and serum CA72-4 and CA19-9 could be used as independent parameters to establish an equation for SUVmax by the linear regression models. These results suggested that SUVmax of 18F-FDG PET/CT could be used to predict and evaluate Her-2 or P53 related chemotherapy resistance of gastric adenocarcinoma patients. However, before PET

  10. Limited utility of tissue micro-arrays in detecting intra-tumoral heterogeneity in stem cell characteristics and tumor progression markers in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kündig, Pascale; Giesen, Charlotte; Jackson, Hartland; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Papassotirolopus, Bärbel; Freiberger, Sandra Nicole; Aquino, Catharine; Opitz, Lennart; Varga, Zsuzsanna

    2018-05-08

    Intra-tumoral heterogeneity has been recently addressed in different types of cancer, including breast cancer. A concept describing the origin of intra-tumoral heterogeneity is the cancer stem-cell hypothesis, proposing the existence of cancer stem cells that can self-renew limitlessly and therefore lead to tumor progression. Clonal evolution in accumulated single cell genomic alterations is a further possible explanation in carcinogenesis. In this study, we addressed the question whether intra-tumoral heterogeneity can be reliably detected in tissue-micro-arrays in breast cancer by comparing expression levels of conventional predictive/prognostic tumor markers, tumor progression markers and stem cell markers between central and peripheral tumor areas. We analyzed immunohistochemical expression and/or gene amplification status of conventional prognostic tumor markers (ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6), tumor progression markers (PTEN, PIK3CA, p53, Ki-67) and stem cell markers (mTOR, SOX2, SOX9, SOX10, SLUG, CD44, CD24, TWIST) in 372 tissue-micro-array samples from 72 breast cancer patients. Expression levels were compared between central and peripheral tumor tissue areas and were correlated to histopathological grading. 15 selected cases additionally underwent RNA sequencing for transcriptome analysis. No significant difference in any of the analyzed between central and peripheral tumor areas was seen with any of the analyzed methods/or results that showed difference. Except mTOR, PIK3CA and SOX9 (nuclear) protein expression, all markers correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with histopathological grading both in central and peripheral areas. Our results suggest that intra-tumoral heterogeneity of stem-cell and tumor-progression markers cannot be reliably addressed in tissue-micro-array samples in breast cancer. However, most markers correlated strongly with histopathological grading confirming prognostic information as expression profiles were independent on the site of the

  11. Values of tumor markers (AFP, β-HCG and CEA) and gamma-camera scintigraphy in patients with testicular tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkov, V.; Sultanov, S.; Tsvetkov, D.

    1989-01-01

    Complex gamma-camera and radioimmunologic study of the tumor markers AFP, β-HCG and CEA was performed in 7 patients with testicular tumors. In all tested patients gamma-camera scintigraphy of the testes clearly delineated the zone of the pathological process. Gamma-camera examination very well differentiates malignant from nonmalignant processes in the testes. The serum levels of the tumor markers AFP and β-HCG proved elevated in 3 of the tested patients during the preoperative period. The histological types of the tumors in these patients were: teratocarcinoma in one and embryonal carcinoma in the other two. It is believed that investigation of the three tumor markers may gain acceptance as additonal method in the complex diagnosis of these diseases

  12. Clinical significance of determination of 3 tumor markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui; Hu Huacheng; Hu Yunzhu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of 3 tumor markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for diagnosis and evaluation of disease extent in patients with lung cancer. Methods: The level of CEA, CYFRA21-1 and NSE in BALF was measured in 92 patients with lung cancer and 40 patients with benign lung diseases by using chemoluminescence, RIA and ELISA methods respectively. Results: The level of all 3 tumor markers measured in BALF was much higher in lung cancer group than that in benign lung disease group (P<0.01 or P<0.05), and it was higher in patients with advanced disease (stage III and IV) than that in stage I and II. These tumor markers increased in different degrees among the patients in various pathological classifications. It was also found the level of these tumor markers was higher and more sensitive in BALF than that in serum. Conclusion: The measurement of the tumor markers in BALF has more significant value than the measurement in serum, which contribute to the early diagnosis, pathological classification and prognosis evaluation of lung cancer

  13. Stability of Markers Used for Real-Time Tumor Tracking After Percutaneous Intrapulmonary Placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voort van Zyp, Noelle C. van der; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Water, Steven van de; Levendag, Peter C.; Holt, Bronno van der; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Nuyttens, Joost J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the stability of markers used for real-time tumor tracking after percutaneous intrapulmonary placement. Methods and Materials: A total of 42 patients with 44 lesions, 111 markers, and ≥2 repeat computed tomography (CT) scans were studied. The tumor on the repeat CT scans was registered with the tumor on the planning CT scan. Next, the three-dimensional marker coordinates were determined on the planning CT scan and repeat CT scans. Marker stability was analyzed by the displacement of the markers and the displacement of the center of mass (COM) of the marker configurations. In addition, we assessed the reliability of using the intermarker distance as a check for displacements in the COM of the marker configurations. Results: The median marker displacement was 1.3 mm (range, 0.1-53.6). The marker displacement was >5 mm in 12% of the markers and >10 mm in 5% of the markers. The causes of marker displacement >5 mm included marker migration (2 of 13) and target volume changes (5 of 13). Nonsynchronous tumor and marker movement during breathing might have been responsible for the displacements >5 mm in the other 6 of 13 markers. The median displacement in the COM of the marker configurations was 1.0 mm (range, 0.1-23.3). Displacements in the COM of the marker configurations of ≥2.0 mm were detected by changes in the intermarker distance of >1.5 mm in 96% of the treatment fractions. Conclusion: The median marker displacement was small (1.3 mm). Nevertheless, displacements >5 mm occurred in 12% of the markers. Therefore, we recommend the implantation of multiple markers because multiple markers will enable a quick and reliable check of marker displacement by determining the change in the intermarker distance. A displacement in the COM of the marker configuration of ≥2.0 mm was almost always detected (96%) by a change in the distance between the markers of >1.5 mm. This enabled the displaced marker to be disabled, such that tumor localization was

  14. Diagnostic value of combined tumor markers detection for gastric and colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenzhang; Dong Lin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of combined tumor markers detection in the clinical diagnosis for gastric cancer and colorectal cancel. Methods: The serum concentration of CEA, CA199, CA125, CA242 were measured by radioimmunoassay and Immunoradioassy in 46 patients with gastric cancer, 62 patients with colorectal cancer and 30 controls. Results: The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CEA were 37.0%, 96.7%, 59.2% respectively in gastric cancer,and 51.6%, 96.7%, 66.3% respectively in colorectal cancer, those of CA199 were 47.8%, 100.0%, 65.8% in gastric cancer, and 43.5%, 100.0%, 62, 0% in colorectal cancer, those of CA125 were 41.3%, 96.7%, 63.2% in gastric cancer, and 38.7%, 100.0%, 58.7% in colorectal cancer, those of CA242 were 54.3%, 100.0%, 71.5% in gastric cancer, and 51.6%, 100.0%, 67.4% in colorectal cancer. The diagnostic sensitivity specificity and accuracy of combined four markers were 73.9%, 93.3%, 82.9% in gastric cancer, and 77.4%, 96.7%, 83.7% in colorectal cancer. Compared with the respective value of any single marker, the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy were significantly improved (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combined tumor markers detection could improve the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy in gastric and colorectal cancers and was helpful for screening. (authors)

  15. Correlation Between Bone Scintigraphy and Tumor Markers in Patients with Breast Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amela Begić

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic feature of many cancer types is their ability to metastasise to the skeleton. Bone is the most common site of metastatic invasion, after hematogenous spreading of breast cancer. Early detection of bone metastases is mandatory in the evaluation and management of these patients. Bone scintigraphy is commonly performed in detection and evaluation bone metastases. Tumor markers are present in healthy individuals as well as in patients with malignant diseases but in different concentration. Aim of study was to correlate serum levels of tumor marker Ca (15-3, CEA and presence of bone metastases detected by bone scintigraphy. Study included 25 patients with breast cancer, previously surgically treated. All patients underwent whole body scintigraphy. Ca (15-3 and CEA was measured by radioimmunoassay. Presence, number of bone metastases were correlated with Ca (15-3 and CEA levels. Median age of patients included in study was 50 varying from 30 to 67. Bone scintigraphy revealed bone metastases in 16 (64% patients. A weak correlation was found between number of metastases and level of Ca (15-3 (r=0.139, p=0.254. Significant differences in Ca (15-3 level was found in patient with metastases compared to patients without metastases (chi square 0, p=1.0. Good correlation was found between number of metastases and serum level of CEA. Correlation between level of two tumor markers Ca (15-3 and CEA was a weak (r = 0.096 , p=0.323. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive diagnostic toll for detecting breast cancer metastases to bone. Serum levels of tumor markes in isolation can not give complete accuracy about bone metastases.

  16. Diagnostic value of multi-tumor markers protein biochip detection for primary pulmonary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Fengpo; Wu Yiwei; Li Qingru; Fa Yihua

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of multi-tumor markers protein biochip detection for primary pulmonary cancer, 12 tumor markers including AFP, CEA, NSE, CA125, CA15-3, CA242, CA19-9, PSA, f-PSA, FER, β-HCG and HGH were measured by the protein biochip in the serum of 45 primary pulmonary cancer patients. Positive rate of tumor markers was FER (42.2%), CEA (35.6%), CA125 (24.4%), CA15-3 (17.8%), CA242 (13.3%), CA19-9 (11.1%), β-HCG(8.9%), HGH(6.7%), NSE(4.4%), AFP (0), f-PSA (0) and PSA (0), respectively. The rate of patients with one abnorma indicator was 57.8% except FER. The positive rate using multi-tumor markers protein biochip detection was significantly higher than that of single tumor marker detective method, and this detection can be used for the diagnosis of patients with primary pulmonary cancer. (authors)

  17. Elevated levels of serum tumor markers CA 15-3 and CEA are prognostic factors for diagnosis of metastatic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Sang; Park, Seho; Park, Ji Min; Cho, Jung Hoon; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of tumor markers, cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. After primary treatments of locoregional breast cancers, serum CA 15-3 and/or CEA concentrations were regularly measured, and systemic recurrences were identified in 351 patients between January 1999 and December 2009. The association between tumor marker levels at systemic recurrence and survival were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Elevated CA 15-3 and CEA levels were identified in 194 of 349 (55.6 %) and 111 of 308 (36.0 %) patients, respectively, at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. Elevated levels of CA 15-3 and CEA were correlated with visceral or multiple recurrences and elevated preoperative levels. Elevation of CA 15-3 was more prominent in younger patients and in primary node-positive tumors, while CEA was elevated in older patients at diagnosis and in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Elevated tumor markers as well as ER negativity, short disease-free interval, and advanced stage at initial diagnosis showed independent prognostic significance on multivariate analysis. Among 306 patients for whom levels of both tumor markers at recurrence were available, 106 patients without elevation of either marker showed significantly better overall survival than those with elevated levels of either one or both markers, and the significance persisted in multivariate analysis. Elevated serum CA 15-3 and CEA levels at recurrence suggest increased tumor burden and may be prognostic for survival for metastatic breast cancer patients.

  18. Real-time tumor tracking using implanted positron emission markers: Concept and simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Tong; Wong, Jerry T.; Shikhaliev, Polad M.; Ducote, Justin L.; Al-Ghazi, Muthana S.; Molloi, Sabee

    2006-01-01

    The delivery accuracy of radiation therapy for pulmonary and abdominal tumors suffers from tumor motion due to respiration. Respiratory gating should be applied to avoid the use of a large target volume margin that results in a substantial dose to the surrounding normal tissue. Precise respiratory gating requires the exact spatial position of the tumor to be determined in real time during treatment. Usually, fiducial markers are implanted inside or next to the tumor to provide both accurate patient setup and real-time tumor tracking. However, current tumor tracking systems require either substantial x-ray exposure to the patient or large fiducial markers that limit the value of their application for pulmonary tumors. We propose a real-time tumor tracking system using implanted positron emission markers (PeTrack). Each marker will be labeled with low activity positron emitting isotopes, such as 124 I, 74 As, or 84 Rb. These isotopes have half-lives comparable to the duration of radiation therapy (from a few days to a few weeks). The size of the proposed PeTrack marker will be 0.5-0.8 mm, which is approximately one-half the size of markers currently employed in other techniques. By detecting annihilation gammas using position-sensitive detectors, multiple positron emission markers can be tracked in real time. A multimarker localization algorithm was developed using an Expectation-Maximization clustering technique. A Monte Carlo simulation model was developed for the PeTrack system. Patient dose, detector sensitivity, and scatter fraction were evaluated. Depending on the isotope, the lifetime dose from a 3.7 MBq PeTrack marker was determined to be 0.7-5.0 Gy at 10 mm from the marker. At the center of the field of view (FOV), the sensitivity of the PeTrack system was 240-320 counts/s per 1 MBq marker activity within a 30 cm thick patient. The sensitivity was reduced by 45% when the marker was near the edge of the FOV. The scatter fraction ranged from 12% ( 124 I, 74 As

  19. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mie Grunnet; Sorensen, J B

    2012-01-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic...... significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those...... relevant for the present study. Four of these included both Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) patients, and 31 dealt solely with NSCLC patients. Regarding SCLC no studies showed that serum level of CEA was a prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). The use of CEA...

  20. Tumor markers in finding recurrent disease in colorectal cancer: a diagnostic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Muller Kobold

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the search for evidence-based follow-up of patients after resection for colorectal cancer, numerous tumor markers have been proposed. This review has evaluated these markers and comments on the diagnostic accuracy in finding recurrent disease in relation to Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA. Methods: A comprehensive literature review (1985-2010 was performed by two independent reviewers. Sensitivity and specificity of markers mentioned in the articles were checked by recalculation. A validated quality score system was used to estimate study quality. Results: Seventeen studies focusing on eight different markers were included. Three markers were shown to have comparable or better accuracy than CEA: TPA, CA 242 and CA 72-4 in at least one study. These three markers, from four independent studies, showed a tumor marker sensitivity of > 60% in combination with an outperformance of CEA in follow-up. These results were not confirmed by six other studies investigating the same markers. Conclusion: This review revealed three tumor markers other than CEA that have been shown to adequately indicate recurrences in colorectal cancer. However, comparability of studies was difficult. Therefore a prospective study of these markers seems necessary to investigate their real value, and to overcome design and inclusion biases.

  1. Serum tumor markers in chronic kidney disease: as clinical tool in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Fateme Shamekhi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is singled out as the biggest cause of death in the world, predicted to reach 13.1 million cancer-related deaths by the year 2030. Although there are no specific tumor markers used in cancer screening, some markers can be used to assist in making a diagnosis and determining a prognosis. They can be used to follow in cases where the diagnosis is cancer through monitoring of the disease recurrence and/or evaluating the response to therapy. These markers are not specific as the number increases in multiple cases of cancer. Some markers are positive in a single type of cancer; others are detectable in more than one type. An ideal tumor marker should be highly sensitive, specific, and reliable with high prognostic value. Other characteristics of an ideal tumor marker are organ specificity and correlation of it with tumor stages. However, none of the tumor markers reported to date has all these characteristics. Influence of different stages of chronic kidney function on serum tumor markers is variable. Furthermore, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation affect on tumor markers differently. Sometimes, no study has been found in the literature review. Combined serum tumor markers may also be valuable. This literature review points the role of serum tumor markers in screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of cancer patients in chronic kidney disease patients and renal allograft recipients. In addition, impact of chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation on different serum tumor markers is briefly explored.

  2. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunnet, M; Sorensen, J B

    2012-05-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those relevant for the present study. Four of these included both Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) patients, and 31 dealt solely with NSCLC patients. Regarding SCLC no studies showed that serum level of CEA was a prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). The use of CEA serum level as a prognostic marker in NSCLC was investigated in 23 studies and the use of CEA plasma level in two. In 18 (17 serum, 1 plasma) of these studies CEA was found to be a useful prognostic marker for either OS, recurrence after surgery or/and progression free survival (PFS) in NSCLC patients. Interestingly, an overweight of low stage (stage I-II) disease and adenocarcinoma (AC) patients were observed in this group. The remaining 7 studies (6 serum, 1 plasma) contained an overweight of patients with squamous carcinoma (SQ). One study found evidence for that a tumor marker index (TMI), based on preoperative CEA and CYFRA21-1 serum levels, is useful as a prognostic marker for OS in NSCLC. Six studies evaluated the use of CEA as a predictive marker for risk of recurrence and risk of death in NSCLC patients. Four of these studies found, that CEA was useful as a predictive marker for risk of recurrence and risk of death measured over time. No studies found CEA levels useful as a diagnostic marker for lung cancer. With regard to NSCLC the level of CEA measured in tumor tissue in

  3. Marker-based quantification of interfractional tumor position variation and the use of markers for setup verification in radiation therapy for esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Peng; van der Horst, Astrid; de Jong, Rianne; van Hooft, Jeanin E.; Kamphuis, Martijn; van Wieringen, Niek; Machiels, Melanie; Bel, Arjan; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify interfractional esophageal tumor position variation using markers and investigate the use of markers for setup verification. Sixty-five markers placed in the tumor volumes of 24 esophageal cancer patients were identified in computed tomography (CT) and follow-up

  4. Lung tumor tracking during stereotactic radiotherapy treatment with the CyberKnife: Marker placement and early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuyttens, J.J.; Prevost, J.B.; Praag, J.; Hoogeman, M.; Levendag, P.C.; Klaveren, R.J. van; Pattynama, P.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Lung tumor tracking during stereotactic radiotherapy with the CyberKnife requires the insertion of markers in or close to the tumor. To reduce the risk of pneumothorax, three methods of marker placement were used: 1) intravascular coil placement, 2) percutaneous intrathoracal, and 3) percutaneous extrathoracal placement. We investigated the toxicity of marker placement and the tumor response of the lung tumor tracking treatment. Markers were placed in 20 patients with 22 tumors: 13 patients received a curative treatment, seven a palliative. The median Charlson Comorbidity Score was 4 (range: 1-8). Platinum fiducials and intravascular embolisation coils were used as markers. In total, 78 markers were placed: 34 intrathoracal, 23 intravascular and 21 extrathoracal. The PTV equaled the GTV + 5 mm. A median dose of 45 Gy (range: 30-60 Gy, in 3 fractions) was prescribed to the 70-85% isodose. The response was evaluated with a CTscan performed 6-8 weeks after the last treatment and routinely thereafter. The median follow-up was 4 months (range: 2-11). No severe toxicity due to the marker placement was seen. Pneumothorax was not seen. The local control was 100%. Four tumors in four patients showed a complete response, 15 tumors in 14 patients a partial response, and three tumors in two patients with metastatic disease had stable disease. No severe toxicity of marker placement was seen due to the appropriate choice of one of the three methods. CyberKnife tumor tracking with markers is feasible and resulted in excellent tumor response. Longer follow-up is needed to validate the local control

  5. Tumor markers as prognostic factors in non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, C.; Nestle, U.; Ukena, D.; Niewald, M.; Sybrecht, G.W.; Schnabel, K.

    1995-01-01

    The data of 300 patients who had been irradiated for their primary tumor were analysed retrospectively. The serum concentrations of CEA, SCCA, NSE, and LDH were available before treatment and 3 months thereafter in a sufficient number of cases. The prognostic factors for survival and progression-free survival resulting from univariate tests were further evaluated by a Cox-proportional-hazards model. The serum levels of the particular tumor markers were pathologically elevated in 25 to 36.5% of the cases. Their values correlated with the stage of the disease and separately the N-stage too. A normalization of increased marker levels after irradiation occurred in 37.5 to 67% of the cases. Survival of patients with increased pretherapeutic values of CEA, SCCA, and LDH was significantly worse compared to those with normal values. In the case of a posttherapeutic return to normal levels, prognosis was significantly better than for those where the elevation persistet. However, after inclusion of all other parameters in multivariate analysis the tumor markers were meaningless. Karnofsky-performance status, total dose of radiotherapy, stage of the disease, and weight-loss evolved as independent prognostic factors for survival. For progression-free survival only stage of the disease was important. All subgroup analyses (restriction on patients with favorable prognosis) showed the same results. A prognostic importance of NSE could not be demonstrated. CEA, SCCA, and LDH were univariate predictors for survival and progression-free survival. But they proved to be dependent on the stage of the disease and were not confirmed as independent variables in the Cox-model. Their importance during the follow-up is diminished by the frequent lack of therapeutic approaches in the case of disease progression. Certainly a more favorable prognosis in case of a posttherapeutic normalization of previously elevated values was found. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Clinical Evaluation and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Serum Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of serum tumor markers is valuable for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. Tumor markers are frequently used for the management of cancer patients. However, single markers are less efficient but marker combinations increase the cost, which is troublesome for clinics. To find an optimal serum marker combination panel that benefits the patients and the medical management system as well, four routine lung cancer serum markers (SCCA, NSE, CEA, and CYFRA21-1 were evaluated individually and in combination. Meanwhile, the costs and effects of these markers in clinical practice in China were assessed by cost-effectiveness analysis. As expected, combinations of these tumor markers improved their sensitivity for lung cancer and different combination panels had their own usefulness. NSE + CEA + CYFRA21-1 was the optimal combination panel with highest Youden’s index (0.64, higher sensitivity (75.76%, and specificity (88.57%, which can aid the clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. Nevertheless, the most cost-effective combination was SCCA + CEA, which can be used to screen the high-risk group.

  7. Clinical values of detection of multiple tumor markers in pleural fluid for diagnosis malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Chuangqing; Jiang Li; Zhou Guanghua; He Yunnan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To improve the diagnostic accuracy for the differentiation of malignant from tuberculous pleural effusion with determination of multiple tumor markers in pleural fluid. Methods: With a multiple tumor markers combined protein chip diagnostic system, contents of twelve common tumor markers were detected in the chest fluid from 60 patients with malignant pleural effusion and 30 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion. Results: For pulmonary carcinoma related pleural effusion, the contents of four common tumor markers (CEA, NSE, SF, CA125) in chest fluid were significantly higher those in tuberculous related chest fluid. The diagnostic positive rate of combined test of these four marker for malignancy could be as high as 96.7%. Conclusion: Combined determination of chest fluid CEA, NSE, SF, CA125 contents was very sensitive and accurate for differentiation of malignant from tuberculous pleural effusion. (authors)

  8. Age-stratified analysis of tumor markers and tumor characteristics in adolescents and young women with mature cystic teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Yesilyurt

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum tumor markers are widely used for the preoperative evaluation of an adnexal mass. Elevations of cancer antigen (CA 125 and CA 19-9 have been reported in patients with mature cystic teratoma (MCT. The aim of the study is to investigate the relation of serum tumor markers with tumor characteristics in young women with MCT. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 157 patients under the age of 35 who underwent laparoscopic surgery for ovarian MCT. Patients were divided into two age groups: Group I (n = 80: adolescents/young adults (aged 13–25 years and Group II (n = 77: women aged 26–35 years. Data were analyzed for serum tumor markers, tumor size, and bilaterality. Results: The rates of elevated CA 125 and CA 19-9 were 10.7% and 31.5%, respectively, for Group I, and 13.9% and 26.5%, respectively, for Group II. The bilaterality rate was higher in Group II compared to Group I (19.5% vs. 8.8%, respectively, p = 0.04. Serum CA 125 and CA 19-9 elevations were not related to tumor size in Group I. In Group II, elevated levels of CA 125 were also unrelated to tumor size. However, significant elevation in CA 19-9 levels was observed when tumor size was larger than 4 cm in this age group (p = 0.004. Elevated CA 125 and CA 19-9 levels were not significantly associated with the presence of bilateral MCT in either group. Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that elevations of CA 19-9 are associated with larger tumor size in women aged 26–35 years, but not in adolescents/young adults. However, elevated serum CA 125 levels are not related to tumor size in either age group. Keywords: Adolescents, Mature cystic teratoma, Tumor marker, Tumor size, Young women

  9. The Combination of the Tumor Markers Suggests the Histological Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjie Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor markers are beneficial for the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of lung cancer. However, the value of tumor markers in lung cancer histological diagnosis is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the serum levels of six tumor markers (CEA, CYFRA21-1, SCC, NSE, ProGRP, and CA125 in 2097 suspected patients with lung cancer and determined whether the combination of the tumor markers was useful for histological diagnosis of lung cancer. We found that CYFRA21-1 was the most sensitive marker in NSCLC. ProGRP showed a better clinical performance than that of NSE in discriminating between SCLC and NSCLC. The serum level of CYFRA21-1 or SCC was significantly higher in squamous carcinoma (p<0.05, and the levels of ProGRP and NSE were significantly higher in SCLC (p<0.05. According to the criteria established, SCLC and NSCLC were discriminated with sensitivity of 87.12 and 62.63% and specificity of 64.61 and 99.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity in the differentiation of adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma were 68.1 and 81.63% and 70.73 and 65.93%, with NPV of 46.03 and 68.97% and PPV of 85.82 and 79.47%, respectively. Our results suggested the combination of six tumor markers could discriminate the histological types of lung cancer.

  10. Inflammatory markers in blood and serum tumor markers predict survival in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasms undergoing surgical cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Terence C; Chong, Chanel H; Liauw, Winston; Zhao, Jing; Morris, David L

    2012-08-01

    The study examines the role inflammatory and tumor markers as biomarkers to preoperatively predict outcome in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasm undergoing cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Associations between baseline variables, tumor markers [CEA (carcinoembyronic antigen], CA125, CA199), inflammatory markers including neutrophils-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined in patients undergoing surgical cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy for epithelial appendiceal neoplasm. A total of 174 patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasm (low-grade pseudomyxoma, n = 117; appendiceal cancer, n = 57) underwent cytoreduction. On univariate analysis, all 3 inflammatory and tumor markers predicted for both PFS and OS, respectively; NLR ≤ 2.6 (P = 0.01, P = 0.002), PLR ≤ 166 (P = 0.006, P = 0.016), CRP ≤ 12.5 (P = 0.001, P = 0.008), CEA (P 37 (P = 0.003), and a CRP > 12.5 (P = 0.013). A higher peritoneal cancer index (PCI > 24) was associated with elevation in CEA > 12, CA125 > 39, CA199 > 37, PLR > 166 and CRP > 12. The tumor histologic subtype was associated with CA 199 levels. The results from this investigation suggest that preoperative inflammatory markers in blood and serologic tumor markers may predict outcomes and are associated with tumor biology in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasm undergoing cytoreduction and intraperitoneal chemotherapy treatment.

  11. Changes in Values of Tumor Markers with Pregnant Women in their IInd Trimester

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topolčan, O.; Holubec jr., L.; Pecen, Ladislav; Pikner, R.; Svobodová, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2002), s. 121-123 ISSN 0886-3849. [International Conference on Human Tumor Markers /19./. 25.08.2002-29.08.2002, Velje] Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : tumor markers * pregrancy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. Transarterial Fiducial Marker Placement for Image-guided Proton Therapy for Malignant Liver Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Kengo, E-mail: yesterday.is.yesterday@gmail.com; Shimohira, Masashi, E-mail: mshimohira@gmail.com [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sasaki, Shigeru, E-mail: ssasaki916@yahoo.co.jp; Iwata, Hiromitsu, E-mail: h-iwa-ncu@nifty.com; Nishikawa, Hiroko, E-mail: piroko1018@gmail.com; Ogino, Hiroyuki, E-mail: oginogio@gmail.com; Hara, Masaki, E-mail: mhara@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Nagoya City West Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center (Japan); Hashizume, Takuya, E-mail: tky300@gmail.com; Shibamoto, Yuta, E-mail: yshiba@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study is to analyze the technical and clinical success rates and safety of transarterial fiducial marker placement for image-guided proton therapy for malignant liver tumors.Methods and MaterialsFifty-five patients underwent this procedure as an interventional treatment. Five patients had 2 tumors, and 4 tumors required 2 markers each, so the total number of procedures was 64. The 60 tumors consisted of 46 hepatocellular carcinomas and 14 liver metastases. Five-mm-long straight microcoils of 0.018 inches in diameter were used as fiducial markers and placed in appropriate positions for each tumor. We assessed the technical and clinical success rates of transarterial fiducial marker placement, as well as the complications associated with it. Technical success was defined as the successful delivery and placement of the fiducial coil, and clinical success was defined as the completion of proton therapy.ResultsAll 64 fiducial coils were successfully installed, so the technical success rate was 100 % (64/64). Fifty-four patients underwent proton therapy without coil migration. In one patient, proton therapy was not performed because of obstructive jaundice due to bile duct invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the clinical success rate was 98 % (54/55). Slight bleeding was observed in one case, but it was stopped immediately and then observed. None of the patients developed hepatic infarctions due to fiducial marker migration.ConclusionTransarterial fiducial marker placement appears to be a useful and safe procedure for proton therapy for malignant liver tumors.

  13. Transarterial Fiducial Marker Placement for Image-guided Proton Therapy for Malignant Liver Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Kengo; Shimohira, Masashi; Sasaki, Shigeru; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Nishikawa, Hiroko; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Hara, Masaki; Hashizume, Takuya; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study is to analyze the technical and clinical success rates and safety of transarterial fiducial marker placement for image-guided proton therapy for malignant liver tumors.Methods and MaterialsFifty-five patients underwent this procedure as an interventional treatment. Five patients had 2 tumors, and 4 tumors required 2 markers each, so the total number of procedures was 64. The 60 tumors consisted of 46 hepatocellular carcinomas and 14 liver metastases. Five-mm-long straight microcoils of 0.018 inches in diameter were used as fiducial markers and placed in appropriate positions for each tumor. We assessed the technical and clinical success rates of transarterial fiducial marker placement, as well as the complications associated with it. Technical success was defined as the successful delivery and placement of the fiducial coil, and clinical success was defined as the completion of proton therapy.ResultsAll 64 fiducial coils were successfully installed, so the technical success rate was 100 % (64/64). Fifty-four patients underwent proton therapy without coil migration. In one patient, proton therapy was not performed because of obstructive jaundice due to bile duct invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the clinical success rate was 98 % (54/55). Slight bleeding was observed in one case, but it was stopped immediately and then observed. None of the patients developed hepatic infarctions due to fiducial marker migration.ConclusionTransarterial fiducial marker placement appears to be a useful and safe procedure for proton therapy for malignant liver tumors

  14. Design of tumor biomarker-monitoring trials: a proposal by the European Group on Tumor Markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sölétormos, György; Duffy, Michael J.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Sturgeon, Catharine M.; Barak, Vivian; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.; Gion, Massimo; Hyltoft-Petersen, Per; Lamerz, Rolf M.; Nielsen, Dorte L.; Sibley, Paul; Tholander, Bengt; Tuxen, Malgorzata K.; Bonfrer, Johannes M. G.

    2013-01-01

    A major application of tumor biomarkers is in serial monitoring of cancer patients, but there are no published guidelines on how to evaluate biomarkers for this purpose. The European Group on Tumor Markers has convened a multidisciplinary panel of scientists to develop guidance on the design of such

  15. In vitro and in vivo applications of tumor markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatal, J.F.; Ricolleau, G.; Fumoleau, P.; Vuillez, J.P.H.; Chetanneau, A.; Peltier, P.; Lacroix, H.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo applications of tumor markers are reviewed. Concerning in vitro applications, the following topics are developed: ideal marker criterion; present availability of markers; immunoassay methodology; clinical applications; future prospects (oncogenes). In vivo applications deal with immunoscintigraphy a new imaging technique, different from conventional morphological methods, based on specific recognition of antigenic target and involving many immunologic, hemodynamic and methodologic parameters. These various parameters are presented and clinical applications and future prospects of immunoscintigraphy are evaluated [fr

  16. Gold markers for tumor localization and target volume delineation in radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorwerk, Hilke; Christiansen, Hans; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Hermann, Robert Michael; Liersch, Thorsten; Ghadimi, Michael; Rothe, Hilka

    2009-01-01

    In locally advanced rectal cancer, neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy is indicated. To improve target volume definition for radiotherapy planning, the potential of implanted gold markers in the tumor region was evaluated. In nine consecutive patients, two to three gold markers were implanted in the tumor region during rigid rectoscopy. Computed tomography scans were performed during treatment planning. All electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) recorded during treatment series were analyzed. All patients underwent complete tumor resection with meticulous histopathologic examination. The gold markers could easily be implanted into the mesorectal tissue at the caudal tumor border without any complications. They were helpful in identifying the inferior border of the planning target volume in order to spare normal tissue (in particular anal structures). No significant shift of the markers was found during the course of therapy. Marker matching of the EPIDs did not improve patient positioning in comparison to bone structure matching. The former position of at least one marker could be identified in all patients during histopathologic examination. The use of gold marker enables a more precise definition of the target volume for radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer. This could eventually allow a better protection of anal structures of patients with a tumor localization = 5 cm cranial of the anal sphincter. The implantation of the gold markers improved communication between the surgeon, the radiooncologist and the pathologist resulting in intensified exchange of relevant informations. (orig.)

  17. Development of a Prognostic Marker for Lung Cancer Using Analysis of Tumor Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0243 TITLE: Development of a Prognostic Marker for Lung Cancer Using Analysis of Tumor Evolution PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Development of a Prognostic Marker for Lung Cancer Using Analysis of Tumor Evolution 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...derive a prognostic classifier. 15. SUBJECT TERMS NSCLC; tumor evolution ; whole exome sequencing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  18. Combining PET/CT with serum tumor markers to improve the evaluation of histological type of suspicious lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rifeng; Dong, Ximin; Zhu, Wenzhen; Duan, Qing; Xue, Yunjing; Shen, Yanxia; Zhang, Guopeng

    2017-01-01

    Histological type is important for determining the management of patients with suspicious lung cancers. In this study, PET/CT combined with serum tumor markers were used to evaluate the histological type of lung lesions. Patients with suspicious lung cancers underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT and serum tumor markers detection. SUVmax of the tumor and serum levels of tumor markers were acquired. Differences in SUVmax and serum levels of tumor markers among different histological types of lung cancers and between EGFR mutation statues of adenocarcinoma were compared. The diagnostic efficiencies of SUVmax alone, each serum tumor marker alone, combined tumor markers and the combination of both methods were further assessed and compared. SCC had the highest level of SUVmax, followed by SCLC and adenocarcinoma, and benign lesions had a lowest level. CYFRA21-1 and SCC-Ag were significantly higher in SCC, NSE was significantly higher in SCLC (Ptumor marker or SUVmax alone. When combined, the AUC, sensitivity and specificity increased significantly (Ptumor markers (P>0.05 for all). SUVmax and serum tumor markers show values in evaluating the histological types of suspicious lung cancers. When properly combined, the diagnostic efficiency can increase significantly.

  19. NSE, CEA and SCC - a useful combination of tumor markers in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, W.; Jany, B.

    1988-01-01

    The usefulness of neuronspecific enolase (NSE), CEA, and of the tumor associated antigen SSC was investigated in 61 patients with histologically proven lung cancer (small cell lung cancer n=25, adenocarcinoma n=14, squamous cell carcinoma n=18 and large cell carcinoma n=4). The sensitivity of NSE was 93.3% in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), whereas in adeno- and squamous cell carcinoma only 8 or 13%, resp., elevated serum NSE were found. CEA was the most sensitive marker for adenocarcinoma (58.3%). Contrary to NSE, however, CEA does not allow any conclusions concerning differential diagnosis as pathological serum concentrations were also observed in 46.6% both in small cell lung cancer and in squamous cell carcinoma. SCC demonstrated a sensitivity of 53% in squamous cell carcinoma. Elevated serum levels were also found in adenocarcinoma (41.6%), but never in small lung cancer. For all three markers tested, high serum concentrations were predominantly present in patients with advanced disease state. (orig.) [de

  20. News and views on tumor markers: The use of radioactive antibodies against cell-bound antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleist, S. von

    1984-01-01

    It was doubtless due to the phenomenal progress in the field of tumor immunology that took place during the last 20 years, that today we dispose not only of highly sensitive immunological tests like the RIA or EIA, but also of most specific reagents like monospecific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. In this context the discovery in human carcinomas of tumor-associated antigens was of prime importance, especially since some of them were found to have clinical relevance as so-called tumor markers. It has been shown that there is a direct correlation between the absolute tumor burden and the blood concentration of these substances. Based on animal models a new technology for tumor and metastases detection was developed in recent years, that used polyvalent or monoclonal antibodies prepared against tumor-associated antigens. This technique called radioimmuno-detection (RAID), especially in the hands of experts, may be superior in many instances to conventional radiology, radionuclide scanning or ultra-sonographic techniques. (orig.) [de

  1. Molecular analysis of childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors defines markers associated with poor outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheurlen, W G; Schwabe, G C; Joos, S

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The diagnostic and prognostic significance of well-defined molecular markers was investigated in childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using microsatellite analysis, Southern blot analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), 30 primary tumors......: In our study, amplification of c-myc was a poor-prognosis marker in PNET. LOH of chromosome 17p was associated with metastatic disease. Molecular analysis of primary tumors using these markers may be useful for stratification of children with PNET in future prospective studies. The other aberrations...... investigated were not of significant prognostic value, but may provide an entry point for future large-scale molecular studies....

  2. Diagnostic value of multiple tumor markers for patients with esophageal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Zhenli; Liu, Yan; Jin, Xueyuan; Xu, Zhiwei; Yu, Qiuyan; Li, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Various studies assessing the diagnostic value of serum tumor markers in patients with esophageal cancer remain controversial. This study aims to comprehensively and quantitatively summarize the potential diagnostic value of 5 serum tumour markers in esophageal cancer. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), through February 28, 2013, without language restriction. Studies were assessed for quality using QUADAS (quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy). The positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were pooled separately and compared with overall accuracy measures using diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) and symmetric summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves. Of 4391 studies initially identified, 44 eligible studies including five tumor markers met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, while meta-analysis could not be conducted for 12 other tumor markers. Approximately 79.55% (35/44) of the included studies were of relatively high quality (QUADAS score≥7). The summary estimates of the positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR) and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for diagnosing EC were as follows: CEA, 5.94/0.76/9.26; Cyfra21-1, 12.110.59/22.27; p53 antibody, 6.71/0.75/9.60; SCC-Ag, 7.66/0.68/12.41; and VEGF-C, 0.74/0.37/8.12. The estimated summary receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the performance of all five tumor markers was reasonable. The current evidence suggests that CEA, Cyfra21-1, p53, SCC-Ag and VEGF-C have a potential diagnostic value for esophageal carcinoma.

  3. Clinical performance of LOCI™-based tumor marker assays for tumor markers CA 15-3, CA 125, CEA, CA 19-9 and AFP in gynecological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolscheid-Pommerich, Ramona C; Keyver-Paik, Mignon; Hecking, Thomas; Kuhn, Walther; Hartmann, Gunther; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Holdenrieder, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Evidence is sparse regarding the clinical performance of luminescent oxygen channeling immunoassays-based tumor marker assays in gynecological cancer. Analyzing serum samples of 336 patients with Dimension™Vista1500, we investigated the diagnostic power of carbohydrate antigen 15-3, carbohydrate antigen 125, carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, and alpha-fetoprotein in patients suffering from different types of gynecological cancer and precancerous gynecological diseases and compared findings to appropriate control groups. The cohort comprised 177 female patients with gynecological cancers (73 breast, 22 cervical, 16 endometrial, 17 vulva, and 49 ovarian cancers), 26 patients with precancerous gynecological diseases (11 vulva, 4 cervical, and 10 breast), 109 patients with benign gynecological diseases, and 24 healthy controls. Discriminative power was assessed by areas under the curve in receiver operating characteristic curves, and sensitivities were determined at a fixed specificity of 95%. Levels of biomarkers in healthy controls were in the expected ranges and a discriminative power between gynecological cancers and healthy controls was observed for several tumor markers. Established tumor type-associated markers were elevated in specific gynecological cancers and benign controls as well as within precancerous gynecological diseases and healthy control group. In ovarian cancer, carbohydrate antigen 125 and carbohydrate antigen 15-3 were significantly elevated compared to the respective benign diseases. Carbohydrate antigen 125 was the most conclusive marker (area under the curve = 0.86% and 77.6% sensitivity at 95% specificity). In breast cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 15-3 were significantly higher than in the respective benign diseases. Carcinoembryonic antigen achieved the most conclusive area under the curve (0.65) with 31.5% sensitivity at 95% specificity. None of the investigated markers was found to be of

  4. Use of Tumor Markers in Gastrointestinal Cancers: Surgeon Perceptions and Cost-Benefit Trade-Off Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Amish; Markar, Sheraz R; Matar, Michael; Ni, Melody; Hanna, George B

    2017-05-01

    Gastrointestinal cancers constitute the third most common cancers worldwide. Tumor markers have long since been used in the postoperative surveillance of these malignancies; however, the true value in clinical practice remains undetermined. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of three tumor markers in colorectal and esophagogastric cancer. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to elicit the sensitivity, specificity, statistical heterogeneity and ability to predict recurrence and metastases for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 and CA125. European surgeons were surveyed to assess their current practice and the characteristics of tumor markers they most valued. Data from the included studies and survey were combined in a cost-benefit trade-off analysis to assess which tumor markers are of most use in clinical practice. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were ranked the most desirable characteristics of a tumor marker by those surveyed. Overall, 156 studies were included to inform the cost-benefit trade-off. The cost-benefit trade-off showed that CEA outperformed both CA19-9 and CA125, with lower financial cost and a higher sensitivity, and diagnostic accuracy for metastases at presentation (area under the curve [AUC] 0.70 vs. 0.61 vs. 0.46), as well as similar diagnostic accuracy for recurrence (AUC 0.46 vs. 0.48). Cost-benefit trade-off analysis identified CEA to be the best performing tumor marker. Further studies should seek to evaluate new tumor markers, with investigation tailored to factors that meet the requirements of practicing clinicians.

  5. Surrogate MRI markers for hyperthermia-induced release of doxorubicin from thermosensitive liposomes in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Michael; Willerding, Linus; Limmer, Simone; Hossann, Martin; Dietrich, Olaf; Ingrisch, Michael; Sroka, Ronald; Lindner, Lars H

    2016-09-10

    The efficacy of systemically applied, classical anti-cancer drugs is limited by insufficient selectivity to the tumor and the applicable dose is limited by side effects. Efficacy could be further improved by targeting of the drug to the tumor. Using thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) as a drug carrier, targeting is achieved by control of temperature in the target volume. In such an approach, effective local hyperthermia (40-43°C) (HT) of the tumor is considered essential but technically challenging. Thus, visualization of local heating and drug release using TSL is considered an important tool for further improvement. Visualization and feasibility of chemodosimetry by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has previously been demonstrated using TSL encapsulating both, contrast agent (CA) and doxorubicin (DOX) simultaneously in the same TSL. Dosimetry has been facilitated using T1-relaxation time change as a surrogate marker for DOX deposition in the tumor. To allow higher loading of the TSL and to simplify clinical development of new TSL formulations a new approach using a mixture of TSL either loaded with DOX or MRI-CA is suggested. This was successfully tested using phosphatidyldiglycerol-based TSL (DPPG2-TSL) in Brown Norway rats with syngeneic soft tissue sarcomas (BN175) implanted at both hind legs. After intravenous application of DOX-TSL and CA-TSL, heating of one tumor above 40°C for 1h using laser light resulted in highly selective DOX uptake. The DOX-concentration in the heated tumor tissue compared to the non-heated tumor showed an almost 10-fold increase. T1 and additional MRI surrogate parameters such as signal phase change were correlated to intratumoral DOX concentration. Visualization of DOX delivery in the sense of a chemodosimetry was demonstrated. Although phase-based MR-thermometry was affected by CA-TSL, phase information was found suitable for DOX concentration assessment. Local differences of DOX concentration in the tumors indicated the need for

  6. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Tumor Metabolic Markers for Cancer Diagnosis, Metabolic Phenotyping, and Characterization of Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong He

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells display heterogeneous genetic characteristics, depending on the tumor dynamic microenvironment. Abnormal tumor vasculature and poor tissue oxygenation generate a fraction of hypoxic tumor cells that have selective advantages in metastasis and invasion and often resist chemo- and radiation therapies. The genetic alterations acquired by tumors modify their biochemical pathways, which results in abnormal tumor metabolism. An elevation in glycolysis known as the “Warburg effect” and changes in lipid synthesis and oxidation occur. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has been used to study tumor metabolism in preclinical animal models and in clinical research on human breast, brain, and prostate cancers. This technique can identify specific genetic and metabolic changes that occur in malignant tumors. Therefore, the metabolic markers, detectable by MRS, not only provide information on biochemical changes but also define different metabolic tumor phenotypes. When combined with the contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, which has a high sensitivity for cancer diagnosis, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI improves the diagnostic specificity of malignant human cancers and is becoming an important clinical tool for cancer management and care. This article reviews the MRSI techniques as molecular imaging methods to detect and quantify metabolic changes in various tumor tissue types, especially in extracranial tumor tissues that contain high concentrations of fat. MRI/MRSI methods have been used to characterize tumor microenvironments in terms of blood volume and vessel permeability. Measurements of tissue oxygenation and glycolytic rates by MRS also are described to illustrate the capability of the MR technology in probing molecular information non-invasively in tumor tissues and its important potential for studying molecular mechanisms of human cancers in physiological conditions.

  7. Criteria for the Selection of Reference Groups in the Statistical Evaluation of Tumor Markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubec jr., L.; Topolčan, O.; Pikner, R.; Pecen, Ladislav; Holubec sen., L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 22, 1B (2002), s. 531 ISSN 0250-7005. [International Hamburg Symposium on Tumor Markers /11./. 27.01.2002-29.01.2002, Hamburg] Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : reference groups * tumor markers Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  8. [Utility of Multiple Increased Lung Cancer Tumor Markers in Treatment of Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Wang, Yan; Hao, Xuezhi; Li, Junling; Liu, Yutao; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-10-20

    Among frequently-used tumor markers in lung cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1) and squamous carcinoma antigen (SCC), neuron specific enolase (NSE) and pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) are respectively expressed highly in lung adenocarcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma and small cell lung cancer. By comparing patients with multiple increased tumor markers (group A) and patients with increase of CEA and/or CA125 (group B), this study aims to investigate the utility of multiple increased tumor markers in therapeutic evaluation and prediction of disease relapsing in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who receiving the first line chemotherapy in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristic, serum tumor markers before chemotherapy, efficacy evaluation, progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Except CEA and CA125, the highest ratio of increased tumor markersin group A was CYFRA21-1 (93%), then was NSE (36%), SCC (13%) and ProGRP (12%). Patients with multiple increased tumor markers tend to have more distant metastasis (Ptumor markers have high risk of relapse, and maintenance therapy can reduce relapse risk.

  9. The Dynamics of Glutathione Species and Ophthalmate Concentrations in Plasma from the VX2 Rabbit Model of Secondary Liver Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Available tumor markers have low sensitivity/specificity for the diagnosis of liver tumors. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidoreductive status of the liver as surrogates of tumor subsistence and growth. Methods. Glutathione species (GSH:GSSG, ophthalmate (OA concentrations, and their turnover were measured in plasma of rabbits (n=6 in their healthy state and in the state of tumor growth after implantation of the VX2 carcinoma in their liver. Tumors were allowed to grow for a period of 14 days when rabbits were sacrificed. Livers were removed and cysteine concentration was measured in liver tissue. Results. Tumor growth was found in 100% of the rabbits. Concentration and labeling of GSH/GSSG were similar in experimental animals before and after tumor implantation and to sham animals. In contrast, OA concentration increased significantly in experimental animals after tumor implantation when compared to same animals prior to tumor implantation and to sham animals (P<.05. The concentration of cysteine, a precursor of GSH, was found to be significantly lower in the liver tissue adjacent to the tumor (P<.05. Conclusion. Disturbances in the oxidoreductive state of livers appear to be a surrogate of early tumor growth.

  10. Investigating the KLF4 Gene Expression as a New Molecular Marker in Breast Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Hosseinpour Feizi

    2013-12-01

    Results: The results showed that: 1 KLF4 is over expressed in Breast tumors rather than adjacent normal tissues. 2 KLF4 is an oncogene in breast tumors (at least in IDC type. 3 The KLF4 expression levels are related significantly with nature of malignant breast tumors. Conclusion: Findings do not confirm KLF4 as a diagnostic marker in classification and identification of tumoral tissues from non-tumoral ones in breast, but we can use this marker to identify at least 50% of invasive Ductal Carcinoma in breast and utilize it as a potential predictive factor to demonstrate severity degree in various tumors.

  11. Changes of serum tumor markers, immunoglobulins, TNF-α and hs-CRP levels in patients with breast cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Gang Dai; Yong-Feng Wu; Mei Li

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the serum tumor markers, immunoglobulin, TNF-α and hs-CRP in breast cancer in different pathological stages of the concentration, and to analyze the clinical significance of early diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 130 patients with breast cancer were divided into stage I, II, III and IV according to clinical pathology. In addition, 40 patients with benign breast disease and 35 healthy subjects were selected as benign breast disease group and control group. Serum tumor markers, immunoglobulins, TNF-αand hs-CRP concentrations were measured and compared of all subjects. Results: There were no significant difference in serum tumor markers, immunoglobulin and inflammatory factors between the control group and the benign breast cancer group. The level of serum tumor markers in breast cancer group was significantly higher than that in control group and benign breast cancer group. The levels of serum CA125, CA153 and CEA were gradually increased with the severity enhancing from stage I and IV of breast cancer, and he difference was statistically significant. The level of serum immunoglobulin in breast cancer group was significantly higher than that in control group and benign breast cancer group. The levels of serum IgG and IgM increased gradually severity enhancing from stage I and IV of breast cancer, and the difference was statistically significant. The level of serum TNF-α and hs-CRP in serum of breast cancer group was significantly higher than that of control group and benign breast cancer group. The serum levels of TNF-α and hs-CRP increased gradually with severity enhancing from stage I and IV of breast cancer, and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The level of serum tumor markers in breast cancer patients is increasing. Humoral and inflammatory responses are activated to varying degrees and increase with the aggregation of disease. They may involve regulating the occurrence and metastasis of breast

  12. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil L Spector

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER in human tumors.Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor.In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers.Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor concentrations that maximally

  13. Detection of tumor markers in prostate cancer and comparison of sensitivity between real time and nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Takayuki; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yamamichi, Fukashi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kawabata, Masato; Shirakawa, Toshiro

    2012-06-27

    The objective of this study is to investigate and compare the sensitivity in conventional PCR, quantitative real time PCR, nested PCR and western blots for detection of prostate cancer tumor markers using prostate cancer (PCa) cells. We performed conventional PCR, quantitative real time PCR, nested PCR, and western blots using 5 kinds of PCa cells. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and androgen receptor (AR) were compared for their detection sensitivity by real time PCR and nested PCR. In real time PCR, there was a significant correlation between cell number and the RNA concentration obtained (R(2)=0.9944) for PSA, PSMA, and AR. We found it possible to detect these markers from a single LNCaP cell in both real time and nested PCR. By comparison, nested PCR reached a linear curve in fewer PCR cycles than real time PCR, suggesting that nested PCR may offer PCR results more quickly than real time PCR. In conclusion, nested PCR may offer tumor maker detection in PCa cells more quickly (with fewer PCR cycles) with the same high sensitivity as real time PCR. Further study is necessary to establish and evaluate the best tool for PCa tumor marker detection.

  14. Splenomegaly and tumor marker response following selective internal radiation therapy for non-resectable liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, M.; Yan, K.; Itoh, Seiji; King, J.; Glenn, D.; Quinn, R.; Morris, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in spleen size, the level of chromogranin A as a tumor marker, and the relationship between these two parameters before and 3 months after selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) for non-resectable liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Our first serious adverse event with this relatively new treatment is also discussed. A retrospective review of a prospective database identified patients with non-resectable liver metastases from NET who underwent SIRT between 2003 and 2007. Patients who underwent CT scans before and 3 months after treatment were included. The patients were divided into two groups: those with and without a 20% or more increase in splenic volume on the CT scans. The percentages of patients showing a tumor marker response in the two groups were then compared. Fourteen patients were included in the present analysis. A tumor marker response was seen in 6 of 7 patients (85.7%) who showed an increase in splenic volume of >20%, and in 3 of 7 patients (42.9%) without an increase in splenic volume (p=0.266). There was one death as a result of oesophageal variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension at 9 months after treatment. Splenic enlargement after SIRT may be associated with tumor marker response, although this could not be confirmed statistically in this study due to the small number of patients. Long-term splenomegaly and portal hypertension may be important complications of SIRT. This issue needs to be investigated further using a larger number of patients and longer follow-up. (author)

  15. Effect of Kanglaite combined with chemotherapy on myelosuppression, immune function and tumor markers levels in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of Kanglaite combined with chemotherapy on myelosuppression, immune function and tumor markers levels in patients with breast cancer. Methods: A total of 90 breast cancer patients in our hospital were randomly divided into control group (45 cases and observation group (45 cases. The two groups received CAF chemotherapy, and the observation group was additionally given Kanglaite injection (200 mL/d for 2 weeks continuously. Both groups had chemotherapy for 6 courses. The effect on myelosuppression, immune function and tumor markers levels was detected and compared before and after treatment in two groups. Results: After treatment, myelosuppression was found in both groups, and the levels of leukocyte, hemoglobin and platelet decreased significantly compared with before treatment (P0.05, and the levels of immune function indexes (CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/ CD8+ of the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05) . After treatment, the levels of two tumor markers (CEA, CA15-3 decreased significantly than before treatment in both groups (P<0.05, and the decrease amplitude in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Kanglaite combined with chemotherapy has evident therapeutic effect on breast cancer. It can alleviate the myelosuppression caused by chemotherapy, improve immune function, and reduce the concentration of tumor markers in patients with breast cancer.

  16. Histopathologic Consideration of Fiducial Gold Markers Inserted for Real-Time Tumor-Tracking Radiotherapy Against Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Mikado; Yamazaki, Koichi; Kubota, Kanako C.; Itoh, Tomoo; Onimaru, Rikiya; Cho, Yasushi; Hida, Yasuhiro; Kaga, Kichizo; Onodera, Yuya; Ogura, Shigeaki; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Shirato, Hiroki; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Internal fiducial gold markers, safely inserted with bronchoscopy, have been used in real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy for lung cancer. We investigated the histopathologic findings at several points after the insertion of the gold markers. Methods and Materials: Sixteen gold markers were inserted for preoperative marking in 7 patients who subsequently underwent partial resection of tumors by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery within 7 days. Results: Fibrotic changes and hyperplasia of type 2 pneumocytes around the markers were seen 5 or 7 days after insertion, and fibrin exudation without fibrosis was detected 1 or 2 days after insertion. Conclusions: Because fibroblastic changes start approximately 5 days after gold marker insertion, real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy should be started >5 days after gold marker insertion

  17. Additional diagnostic value of tumor markers in cytological fluid for diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hur Jin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytological fluid from a needle aspiration biopsy (NAB is obtained directly from tumor tissue, therefore many biomarker candidates will be present in high concentrations. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess and validate the tumor markers CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC in cytological fluid obtained from NAB samples to determine if they improved the performance of NAB for diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods A total of 194 patients (M:F = 128:66, mean age 63.7 years with suspected malignant pulmonary lesions were prospectively enrolled and underwent percutaneous NAB. Levels of CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC were measured by immunoassay in serum and cytological fluid obtained during aspiration biopsy. Cut-off values to determined malignancy were 3.3 ng/mL in serum and 15.7 ng/mL in cytological fluid for CYFRA 21–1, 5 ng/mL and 0.6 ng/mL for CEA, and 2 ng/mL and 0.86 ng/mL for SCC. Results Of 194 patients, 139 patients (71.6% had NSCLC and 55 (28.4% had benign lesions. Sensitivity increased significantly for NAB combined with cytological tumor markers compared with NAB alone (CYFRA 21–1: 95% versus 83.5%, p Conclusion Of the tested tumor markers, cytological fluid measurements of CYFRA 21–1 improved the diagnostic performance of NAB for NSCLC.

  18. Low accuracy of tumor markers for diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Joanne M.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; Weijmans, Maaike; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The assessment of tumor markers for diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients is advised in the current guidelines but has never been validated for this purpose. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the

  19. Low Accuracy of Tumor Markers for Diagnosing Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Joanne M.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; Weijmans, Maaike; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The assessment of tumor markers for diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients is advised in the current guidelines but has never been validated for this purpose. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the

  20. Utility of CEA and CA 19-9 tumor markers in diagnosis and prognostic assessment of mucinous epithelial cancers of the appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmignani, C Pablo; Hampton, Regina; Sugarbaker, Christina E; Chang, David; Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2004-09-15

    Tumor markers are a clinical tool frequently used in oncology in association with other clinical and radiologic information. For gastrointestinal cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) tumor markers have found selected clinical application. The use of these tumor markers in mucinous epithelial tumors of the appendix has not been previously determined. In patients with peritoneal dissemination of a mucinous epithelial malignancy of the appendix, tumor markers CEA and CA 19-9 were prospectively recorded preoperatively within 1 week prior to definitive treatment. Also, if the appendiceal tumor recurred, the tumor marker was determined. The accuracy of these two tumor markers in the management of this disease was determined for these two specific clinical situations. CEA was elevated in 56% of 532 patients and CA 19-9 was elevated in 67.1% of these patients. Although the absolute level of tumor marker did not correlate with prognosis, a normal value indicated an improved survival. CEA was elevated in 35.2% of 110 patients determined to have recurrent disease; CA 19-9 was elevated in 62.9% and at least one of the tumor markers was elevated in 68.2% of patients. An elevated CEA tumor marker at the time of recurrence indicated a reduced prognosis. Both CEA and CA 19-9 tumor markers were elevated in a majority of these patients and should be a valuable diagnostic tool previously underutilized in this group of patients. These tumor markers were also of benefit in the assessment of prognosis in that a normal level indicated an improved prognosis. At the time of a reoperative procedure, CEA and CA 19-9 tumor markers gave information regarding the progression of disease. These tumor markers have practical value in the management of epithelial appendiceal malignancy with peritoneal dissemination. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Diagnostic and prognostic yield of tumor markers in cancer of unknown primary site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Ibraheim, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    A case of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary is reported that had widely disseminated disease from the very outset. Every effort was made to find out the primary by integrating all results and specially tumor markers. It was assumed that lung was the most possible site for primary. Tumor markers did not show their diagnostic value even in combined panel, they only showed their prognostic value. (author)

  2. The evaluation of diagnostic value of the tumor markers: CCSA-2 and CEA in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knychalski, Bartłomiej; Lukieńczuk, Tadeusz

    2012-02-01

    Finding the biomarker or biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity in colorectal cancer, and thus a high diagnostic value will determine their clinical usefulness in clinical practice. An effective noninvasive blood test would be an ideal method to detect colorectal cancer. Discovered in 2007 a novel tumor marker CCSA-2 showes a promising results in patients with colorectal cancer. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was the evaluation of diagnostic and clinical value of a novel marker - colon cancer specific antigen-2 (CCSA-2) in colorectal adenocarcinoma in comparison to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in patients operated during the years 2008 to 2010 at Wrocław Medical University 1st Department and Clinic of General, Gastroenterological and Endocrinologic Surgery. The study was performed on 40 patients with colorectal cancer and 40 patients in control group consisted of healthy subjects who had colonoscopy examinations with negative results (no pathology in the colon was found). The obtained results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests - Mann Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. To determine the clinical value of CCSA-2 and CEA in those groups, their sensitivity and specifity was evaluated using ROC analysis. This analysis determines the accuracy and diagnostic value of both tests. There was a positive correlation between markers in patients with colorectal cancer and a statistically significant relationship according to which respondents with higher concentrations of CCSA-2 also have higher concentrations of CEA (R=0.754, ptumor markers increase and correlate with the clinical progression of the disease. Accuracy of CCSA-2 test using ROC analysis showed a slightly lower measurement of antigen CCSA-2 as diagnostic value in colorectal cancer in comparison to measurement of antigen CEA (accuracy of tests: CCSA-2 - 52%, CEA - 60%). CCSA-2 as a single tumor marker has a low diagnostic value in colorectal cancer because

  3. Immunoperoxidase staining and radioimmunobinding of human tumor markers separated by direct tissue agarose isoelectric focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravis, C.A.; Cunningham, C.G.; Marasco, P.V.; Cook, R.B.; Zamcheck, N.; FMC Corp., Rockland, ME

    1980-01-01

    The new technique of agarose isoelectric focusing is used to identify, quantitate, and characterize specific tumor markers. After fixation of the isoelectric focusing patterns these are reacted with specific anti-tumor marker antisera, then with second antibody either peroxidase conjugated or radiolabellad (radioiodine). (RB) [de

  4. [Markers of angiogenesis in tumor growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedova, N A; Kharlova, O A; Danilova, N V; Malkov, P G; Gaifullin, N M

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessels formation. The role of angiogenesis in growth, invasion and metastasis of malignant tumours is nowdays universally recognized. Though, investigation of mechanisms of blood vessels formation and elaboration methods for assessment of tumour angiogenesis are still up-dated. Another important concern are different aspects of usage of immunohistochemical markers of blood vessels endothelium (CD31 and CD34) for assessment of tumour aggressiveness and prognosis. The problems of malignant lymphangiogenesis are also up-to-date. The focus is on methods of immunohistochemical visualization of forming lymphatic vessels, role of podoplanin, the most reliable marker of lymphatic vessels, in their identification, and formulization of the main criteria for lymphangiogenesis estimation, its correlation with metastatic activity and prognostic potential. Studying of angiogenesis and lymph angiogenesis in malignant tumors is important and challenging direction for researching tumour progression and invention of antiangiogenic therapy.

  5. Effect of surgical resection combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization on postoperative serum tumor marker levels and stem cell characteristics during tumor recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of surgical resection combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE on postoperative serum tumor marker levels and stem cell characteristics during tumor recurrence. Methods: A total of 98 patients with liver cancer who received radical resection in our hospital between May 2013 and July 2015 were reviewed and divided into TACE group and control group according to whether they received TACE within two months after surgical resection. Serum levels of tumor markers were detected 4 weeks after operation; the tumor recurrence was followed up within 3 years after operation, and the expression of stem cell marker molecules and cell proliferation molecules in recurrent lesions were detected. Results: 4 weeks after radical hepatectomy, serum AFP, AFP-L3, GP73 and GPC3 levels in TACE group were significantly lower than those in control group; Nanog, CD133, EpCAM, PICK1, CyclinD1, C-myc and Survivin expression in surgically removed lesions of TACE group were not different from those of control group while Nanog, CD133, EpCAM, PICK1, CyclinD1, C-myc and Survivin expression in recurrent lesions were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Surgical resection combined with TACE can more effectively remove liver cancer lesions, reduce the tumor marker levels and inhibit the tumor stem cell characteristics and cell proliferation activity in recurrent lesions.

  6. CA19-9: A promising tumor marker for pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakajima, K.; Hidaka, A.; Nakashima, T.; Ohta, H.; Torizuka, K.; Naito, A.; Suzuki, T.

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate CA19-9 as a tumor marker for pancreatic carcinoma (PC), serum levels of CA19-9 were compared with those of CEA and elastase-1 in 56 patients, consisted of 43 cases with histologically proven adenocarcinomas and 13 cases with chronic pancreatitis. Serum levels were determined by using RIA kit obtained from CIS, France (CA19-9 and CEA) and Abbot (elastase-1). CA19-9 gave the highest accuracy among tumor markers the authors have studied and serum levels were markedly elevated over 100U/ml in 30 (70%) cases with PC, whereas none in chronic pancreatitis. CA19-9 values were closely related to the tumor size and the presence or absence of metastsis on CT findings. Small tumors of less than 3cm in diameter, although the site of tumor was limited to the head of the pancreas, showed positive results in 2 out of 5 cases. Furthermore, CA19-9 was at a level of less than 22U/ml in 98 normal controls and was found to be elevated in only 4 (3%) out of 124 patients with benign diseases, including liver diseases, gastric ulcer, cholelithiasis, and so on. These results indicate that CA19-9 is much better in diagnosis and management of PC than is CEA

  7. Tumor markers in finding recurrent disease iin colorectal cancer: a diagnostic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verberne, Charlotte; de Jong, W.H.; Grossmann, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Aim: In the search for evidence-based follow-up of patients after resection for colorectal cancer, numerous tumor markers have been proposed. This review has evaluated these markers and comments on the diagnostic accuracy in finding recurrent disease in relation to Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA...

  8. TIMP-1 as a tumor marker in breast cancer - an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg; Rasmussen, Anne-Sofie Schrohl; Mouridsen, Henning

    2008-01-01

    . This review gives an update on the ongoing investigation of the potential role of TIMP-1 as a tumor marker in breast cancer. Furthermore, we link the clinical findings with studies of the molecular actions of the TIMP-1 protein, raising hypotheses that may explain why TIMP-1 could play an important role...... opportunities emerge in the future this need will continue to grow. Thus, the search for molecular markers of prognosis and prediction is ongoing. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) has been suggested as a marker of both prognosis and response to treatment. Several studies have demonstrated...... the association between TIMP-1 and prognosis in breast cancer and new studies within this area have focused on the possibility of using blood samples or paraffin embedded tissue instead of tumor tissue extracts for measurements of TIMP-1. Interestingly, recent studies have investigated the association between...

  9. Comparison between clinical significance of serum proinflammatory proteins (IL-6 and CRP) and classic tumor markers (CEA and CA 19-9) in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewicz-Zając, Marta; Mroczko, Barbara; Gryko, Mariusz; Kędra, Bogusław; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2011-06-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a second most common cause of cancer-related death and represents an inflammation-driven malignancy. It has been suggested that interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) play a potential role in the growth and progression of GC. The aim of the present study was to compare clinical significance of IL-6 and CRP with classic tumor markers-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) in GC patients. The study included 92 patients with GC and 70 healthy subjects. The serum concentrations of IL-6, CEA and CA 19-9 were determined using immunoenzyme assays, whereas CRP using immunoturbidimetric method. We defined the diagnostic criteria and prognostic value for proteins tested. In GC patients, the serum concentrations of all the proteins tested were significantly higher than in healthy subjects. The IL-6, CEA and CA 19-9 levels correlated with nodal metastases, while CRP with tumor stage, gastric wall invasion, presence of nodal and distant metastases. Diagnostic sensitivity of IL-6 was higher (85%) than those of other markers (CRP 66%, CA 19-9 34%, CEA 22%) and increased in combined use with CRP or CEA (88%). The area under ROC curve for IL-6 was larger than those of CRP and classic tumor markers (CEA and CA 19-9). None of the proteins tested was independent prognostic factor for the survival of GC patients. Our findings indicate better usefulness of serum proinflammatory proteins-IL-6 and CRP than classic tumor markers-CEA and CA 19-9 in the diagnosis of GC.

  10. Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT Combined With Tumor Markers in the Evaluation of Ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Sun, Xun; Qin, Chunxia; Hassan Bakari, Khamis; Wu, Zhijian; Zhang, Yongxue; Lan, Xiaoli

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the value of 18 F-FDG PET/CT combined with assessment of tumor markers in serum or ascites for the diagnosing and determining the prognosis of benign and malignant ascites. Patients with ascites of unknown cause who underwent evaluation with FDG PET/CT were included in this retrospective study. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) and levels of the tumor markers carbohydrate antigen-125 (CA-125) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum and ascites were recorded. The diagnostic values of FDG PET/CT, CEA and CA-125 levels in serum or ascites, and the combination of imaging plus tumor marker assessment were evaluated. Factors that were predictive of survival were also analyzed. A total of 177 patients were included. Malignant ascites was eventually diagnosed in 104 patients, and benign ascites was diagnosed in the remaining 73 patients. With the use of FDG PET/CT, 44 patients (42.3%) were found to have primary tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FDG PET/CT were 92.3%, 83.6%, and 88.7%, respectively. CA-125 levels in serum and ascites showed much better sensitivity than did CEA levels, but they showed significantly lower specificity. If the combination of tumor markers and FDG PET/CT was analyzed, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of tumor markers in serum were 96.6%, 78.1%, and 88.7%, and those of tumor markers in ascites were 97.7%, 80.0%, and 90.4%, respectively. Sex may be an important factor affecting survival time (hazard ratio, 0.471; p = 0.004), but age, CEA level, and FDG PET/CT findings could not predict survival. FDG PET/CT combined with assessment of tumor markers, especially CEA, increased the efficacy of diagnosis of ascites of unknown causes. Male sex conferred a poorer prognosis, whereas age, CEA level, and FDG uptake had no predictive significance in patients with malignant ascites.

  11. Cystatin C and lactoferrin concentrations in biological fluids as possible prognostic factors in eye tumor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya A. Dikovskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the possible role of cystatin C in eye biological fluids locally and in serum and lactoferrin revealing anti-tumor activity in eye tumor development. Background. The increased number of eye tumors was registered recently not only in the countries with high insolation, but also in the northern countries including Russia (11 cases per million of population. Search for new biological markers is important for diagnosis and prognosis in eye tumors. Cystatin C, an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteases, plays an important protective role in several tumors. Lactoferrin was shown to express anti-tumor and antiviral activities. It was hypothesized that cystatin C and lactoferrin could serve as possible biomarkers in the diagnosis of malignant and benign eye tumors. Study design. A total of 54 patients with choroidal melanoma and benign eye tumors were examined (part of them undergoing surgical treatment. Serum, tear fluid and intraocular fluid samples obtained from the anterior chamber of eyes in patients with choroidal melanoma were studied. Methods. Cystatin C concentration in serum and eye biological fluids was measured by commercial ELISA kits for human (BioVendor, Czechia; lactoferrin concentration – by Lactoferrin-strip D 4106 ELISA test systems (Vector-BEST, Novosibirsk Region, Russia. Results. Cystatin C concentration in serum of healthy persons was significantly higher as compared to tear and intraocular fluids. In patients with choroidal melanoma, increased cystatin C concentration was similar in tear fluid of both the eyes. Lactoferrin level in tear fluid of healthy persons was significantly higher than its serum level. Significantly increased lactoferrin concentration in tear fluid was noted in patients with benign and malignant eye tumors. Conclusion. Increased level of cystatin C in tear fluid seems to be a possible diagnostic factor in the eye tumors studied. However, it does not allow us to differentiate

  12. A minimally invasive multiple marker approach allows highly efficient detection of meningioma tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meese Eckart

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of effective frameworks that permit an accurate diagnosis of tumors, especially in their early stages, remains a grand challenge in the field of bioinformatics. Our approach uses statistical learning techniques applied to multiple antigen tumor antigen markers utilizing the immune system as a very sensitive marker of molecular pathological processes. For validation purposes we choose the intracranial meningioma tumors as model system since they occur very frequently, are mostly benign, and are genetically stable. Results A total of 183 blood samples from 93 meningioma patients (WHO stages I-III and 90 healthy controls were screened for seroreactivity with a set of 57 meningioma-associated antigens. We tested several established statistical learning methods on the resulting reactivity patterns using 10-fold cross validation. The best performance was achieved by Naïve Bayes Classifiers. With this classification method, our framework, called Minimally Invasive Multiple Marker (MIMM approach, yielded a specificity of 96.2%, a sensitivity of 84.5%, and an accuracy of 90.3%, the respective area under the ROC curve was 0.957. Detailed analysis revealed that prediction performs particularly well on low-grade (WHO I tumors, consistent with our goal of early stage tumor detection. For these tumors the best classification result with a specificity of 97.5%, a sensitivity of 91.3%, an accuracy of 95.6%, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.971 was achieved using a set of 12 antigen markers only. This antigen set was detected by a subset selection method based on Mutual Information. Remarkably, our study proves that the inclusion of non-specific antigens, detected not only in tumor but also in normal sera, increases the performance significantly, since non-specific antigens contribute additional diagnostic information. Conclusion Our approach offers the possibility to screen members of risk groups as a matter of routine

  13. Serum level of tumor marker CA-125 in ovarian pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagni, B.; Feggi, L.M.; Prandini, N.; Pasini, S.; Mollica, G.

    1987-01-01

    The tumor marker CA-125 is an embrional glycoprotein detectable in tissues derived from celomatic epitelium. Serum Ca-125 was determined by RIA in 66 patients with various ovarian pathologies (16 malignant at stage III-IV and 50 benign). Six patients with ovarian carcinoma were monitored during the first week after surgery and chemiotherapy for a total of 150 days of treatment. It has been observed that CA-125 serum level is consistently above the normal range (>35 U/ml) in all malignant diseases. In benign pathology, levels above the normal were found to be represented almost exclusively by ovarian endometriosis. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that chemiotherapy alone is capable of lowering CA-125 serum levels. This tumor marker may be of great advantage in diagnosis and follow-up of ovarian malignancy

  14. Diagnostic value of combined detection of serum tumor markers for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanping; Wang Qun; Zhao Zihong; Zhou Shan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined detection of serum tumor markers, including CEA, CA125, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and cytokeratin fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA21-1) for lung cancer patients. Methods: The subjects involved 138 diagnosed lung cancer patients (82 males, 56 females, average age 58.6 years, from October 2010 to March 2012), 96 patients with benign lung diseases (56 males, 40 females, average age 51.3 years) and 45 healthy adults (30 males, 15 females, average age 43.9 years). The pathological types of lung cancer consisted of 66 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 52 adenocarcinoma and 20 small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The serum levels of CEA, CA125, NSE and CYFRA21-1 were measured with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The diagnostic efficacy for different pathological types was compared among each single tumor marker and combination of tumor markers. One-way analysis of variance q test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The serum levels of CEA, CA125, NSE and CYFRA21-1 in patients with lung cancer were higher than those in patients with benign lung diseases and in healthy subjects (CEA: (19.99±30.99), (10.78±19.77), (3.25±3.42) μg/L; CA125: (79.70±95.98), (44.96±44.97), (20.66±7.13) μg/L; NSE: (35.23±40.22), (15.31±8.42), (13.30±5.65) μg/L; CYFRA21-1: (18.07±43.71), (8.30±8.83), (3.13±1.60) μg/L; F=4.481, 5.436, 4.776, 6.002, all P<0.05). The highest level of CEA, NSE or CYFRA21-1 were found in adenocarcinoma (F=4.932, P<0.05), SCLC (F=5.119, P<0.05) or SCC (F=5.378, P<0.05), respectively. The highest sensitivity tumor markers for SCC, SCLC and adenocarcinoma were CYFRA21-1 (78.8%, 52/66), NSE (75.0%, 15/20) and CEA (57.7%, 30/52), respectively. In combined detection, the highest sensitivity combinations for SCC, SCLC and adenocarcinoma were CEA + CYFRA21-1 + NSE (89.4%, 59/66), CEA + CYFRA21-1 + NSE (80.0%, 16/20) and CEA + CA125 + NSE (78.8%, 41/52), respectively. Conclusions: Combined detection

  15. Dosimetric impact of gold markers implanted closely to lung tumors: a Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiinoki, Takehiro; Sawada, Akira; Ishihara, Yoshitomo; Miyabe, Yuki; Matsuo, Yukinori; Mizowaki, Takashi; Kokubo, Masaki; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-05-08

    We are developing an innovative dynamic tumor tracking irradiation technique using gold markers implanted around a tumor as a surrogate signal, a real-time marker detection system, and a gimbaled X-ray head in the Vero4DRT. The gold markers implanted in a normal organ will produce uncertainty in the dose calculation during treatment planning because the photon mass attenuation coefficient of a gold marker is much larger than that of normal tissue. The purpose of this study was to simulate the dose variation near the gold markers in a lung irradiated by a photon beam using the Monte Carlo method. First, the single-beam and the opposing-beam geometries were simulated using both water and lung phantoms. Subsequently, the relative dose profiles were calculated using a stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment plan for a lung cancer patient having gold markers along the anterior-posterior (AP) and right-left (RL) directions. For the single beam, the dose at the gold marker-phantom interface laterally along the perpendicular to the beam axis increased by a factor of 1.35 in the water phantom and 1.58 in the lung phantom, respectively. Furthermore, the entrance dose at the interface along the beam axis increased by a factor of 1.63 in the water phantom and 1.91 in the lung phantom, while the exit dose increased by a factor of 1.00 in the water phantom and 1.12 in the lung phantom, respectively. On the other hand, both dose escalations and dose de-escalations were canceled by each beam for opposing portal beams with the same beam weight. For SBRT patient data, the dose at the gold marker edge located in the tumor increased by a factor of 1.30 in both AP and RL directions. In clinical cases, dose escalations were observed at the small area where the distance between a gold marker and the lung tumor was ≤ 5 mm, and it would be clinically negligible in multibeam treatments, although further investigation may be required.

  16. Percutaneous fiducial marker placement prior to stereotactic body radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors: an initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Kengo; Shimohira, Masashi; Murai, Taro; Nishimura, Junichi; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Hashizume, Takuya; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe our initial experience with a gold flexible linear fiducial marker and to evaluate the safety and technical and clinical efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy using this marker for malignant liver tumors. Between July 2012 and February 2015, 18 patients underwent percutaneous fiducial marker placement before stereotactic body radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors. We evaluated the technical and clinical success rates of the procedure and the associated complications. Technical success was defined as successful placement of the fiducial marker at the target site, and clinical success was defined as the completion of stereotactic body radiotherapy without the marker dropping out of position. All 18 fiducial markers were placed successfully, so the technical success rate was 100% (18/18). All 18 patients were able to undergo stereotactic body radiotherapy without marker migration. Thus, the clinical success rate was 100% (18/18). Slight pneumothorax occurred as a minor complication in one case. No major complications such as coil migration or bleeding were observed. The examined percutaneous fiducial marker was safely placed in the liver and appeared to be useful for stereotactic body radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors

  17. Quantitative analysis of TEM-8 and CEA tumor markers indicating free tumor cells in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisossadati, Reza; Farshchian, Moein; Ganji, Azita; Tavassoli, Alieza; Velayati, Arash; Dadkhah, Ezzat; Chavoshi, Somaye; Mehrabi Bahar, Mostafa; Memar, Bahram; Rajabi Mashhadi, Mohammad Taghi; Naseh, Hossein; Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi; Moghbeli, Meysam; Moaven, Omeed; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2011-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common cancer in the world. Approximately in 50 percent of patients, metastatic disease is a major cause of death. Therefore, early diagnosis of CRC is crucial for a successful outcome. For the detection of circulating cancer cells, this study applied a sensitive method that employed specific tumor markers for early detection. A total of 80 blood samples from 40 CRC patients and 40 age-matched healthy controls were collected for the study. The circulating mRNA levels of two CRC tumor markers, tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM-8) and carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA) were evaluated using an absolute quantitative real-time PCR assay in a Stratagene Mx-3000P real-time PCR system. GAPDH was used as the endogenous control. TEM-8 and CEA were primarily detected more in the CRC patients rather than in the controls: 22/40 vs 9/40, p=0.009 and 30/40 vs 11/40, p=0.00054, respectively. In the CRC patients, the mRNA level of these markers was significantly higher in comparison to the normal controls (p=0.018 and 0.01). The overall sensitivity of this panel was 65% with a specificity of 75%. Statistical analysis for demographic variants did not reach significant values. TEM-8 and CEA markers were detected more frequently and in significantly higher levels in the blood samples of patients compared with samples from age-matched healthy controls. The copy number of CEA and TEM-8 mRNA, as detected by a real-time quantitative PCR, appears to be a promising marker for evaluating the risk of tumor spread.

  18. Insertion and fixation of fiducial markers for setup and tracking of lung tumors in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Mikado; Yamazaki, Koichi; Shirato, Hiroki; Onimaru, Rikiya; Fujino, Masaharu; Shimizu, Shinichi; Harada, Toshiyuki; Ogura, Shigeaki; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Internal 1.5-mm fiducial markers were used in real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RT) for lung cancer. The fixation rate of the markers using the bronchial insertion technique, reliability of the setup using markers around the target volume, dislocation of the markers after real-time tumor-tracking RT, and long-term toxicity of marker insertion were investigated. Methods and Materials: Between July 2000 and April 2004, 154 gold markers were inserted into 57 patients with peripheral lung cancer. The distances between the implanted markers in 198 measurements in 71 setups in 11 patients were measured using two sets of orthogonal diagnostic X-ray images of the real-time tumor-tracking RT system. The distance between the markers and the chest wall was also measured in a transaxial CT image on 186 occasions in 48 patients during treatment planning and during follow-up. The median treatment time was 6 days (range, 4-14 days). Results: In 115 (75%) of the 154 inserted markers, the gold marker was detected throughout the treatment period. In 122 markers detected at CT planning, 115 (94%) were detected until the end of treatment. The variation in the distances between the implanted markers was within ±2 mm in 95% and ±1 mm in 80% during treatment. The variation in the distances between the implanted markers was >2 mm in at least one direction in 9% of the setups for which reexamination with a CT scan was indicated. The fixation rate in the left upper lobe was lower than in the other lobes. A statistically significant relationship was found between a shorter distance between the markers and the chest wall and the fixation rate, suggesting that the markers in the smaller bronchial lumens fixed better than those in the larger lumens. A learning curve among the endoscopists was suggested in the fixation rate. The distance between the markers and the chest wall changed significantly within a median of 44 days (range, 16-181 days) after treatment. Conclusion: The

  19. The inflammation markers in serum of tumor-bearing rats after plasmonic photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Afanasyeva, Galina A.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Zakharova, Natalia B.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2018-02-01

    We report on plasmonic photothermal therapy of rats with inoculated cholangiocarcinoma through the intratumoral injection of PEG-coated gold nanorods followed by CW laser light irradiation. The length and diameter of gold nanorods were 41+/-8 nm and 10+/-2 nm, respectively; the particle mass-volume concentration was 400 μg/mL, which corresponds to the optical density of 20 at the wavelength 808 nm. The tumor-bearing rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) without any treatment (control); (2) with only laser irradiation of tumor; (3) with intratumoral administration of gold nanorods and laser irradiation of tumors. An hour before laser irradiation, the animals were injected intratumorally with gold nanorod solutions in the amount of 30% of the tumor volume. The infrared 808-nm laser with power density of 2.3 W/cm2 was used for plasmonic photothermal therapy (PTT). The withdraw of animals from the experiment was performed 24 h after laser exposure. The content of lipid peroxidation products and molecular markers of inflammation (TNF-α, IGF-1, VEGF-C) was determined by ELISA test in serum of rats. The standard histological techniques with hematoxylin and eosin staining were used for morphological examination of tumor tissues. It was revealed that the significant necrotic changes were noted in tumor tissue after plasmonic photothermal therapy, which were accompanied by formation of inflammatory reaction with release of proinflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation products into the bloodstream

  20. Immunohistochemical study of hepatocyte, cholangiocyte and stem cell markers of hepatocellular carcinoma: the second report: relationship with tumor size and cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Arisa; Kondo, Fukuo; Sano, Keiji; Inoue, Masafumi; Fujii, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Masaji; Watanabe, Masato; Soejima, Yurie; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Tokairin, Takuo; Saito, Koji; Sasajima, Yuko; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Fukusato, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether ordinary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) show positivity of stem/progenitor cell markers and cholangiocyte markers during the process of tumor progression. Ninety-four HCC lesions no larger than 8 cm from 94 patients were immuno-histochemically studied using two hepatocyte markers (Hep par 1 and α-fetoprotein), five cholangiocyte markers (cytokeratin CK7, CK19, Muc1, epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen) and three hepatic stem/progenitor cell markers (CD56, c-Kit and EpCAM). The tumors were classified into three groups by tumor size: S1, tumors were also classified according to tumor differentiation: well, moderately and poorly differentiated. The relationship between the positive ratios of these markers, tumor size and tumor differentiation was examined. The positive ratios of cholangiocyte markers tended to be higher in larger sized and more poorly differentiated tumors (except for CK7). The positive ratios of stem/progenitor cell markers tended to be higher in larger sized and more poorly differentiated tumors (except for c-Kit). Ordinary HCC can acquire the characteristic of positivity of cholangiocyte and stem/progenitor cell markers during the process of tumor progression. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  1. Inhibin as a tumor marker of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modarres Gilani M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Inhibin is a dimeric glycoprotein that has a depressive effect on the anterior hypophys secretion. The level of this tumor marker is undetectable in menopause women. In patients with gynecological cancer, especially granulosa and epidermal-type (mucinous, ovarian cancers considerable increase in the serum level of inhibin has been reported. The increased level of inhibin has been reported in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer."n"nMethods: We measured total serum inhibin and CA125 tumor marker level in 38 postmenopausal women with pathologically confirmed ovarian cancer before and after surgery out of 51 suspected women. Our control group were postmenopausal women that attended to our clinic for routine gynecologic check up. Both tumor markers were measured in these patients too."n"nResults: Among 38 women with ovarian cancer, 13(34.2% had elevated serum levels of total inhibin. Among the 16 women with serous adenocarcinoma, 3 patients (18.8% had elevated serum levels of inhibin. All the three women with granulosa cell tumor had elevated serum levels of inhibin (100% and 3 of 4(75% women with mucinous ovarian cancer had the same result. three out of 38 women in control group had elevated serum levels of

  2. Systematic review on the role of serum tumor markers in the detection of recurrent pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daamen, Lois A; Groot, Vincent P; Heerkens, Hanne D; Intven, Martijn P W; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2018-04-01

    Biomarker testing can be helpful to monitor disease progression after resection of pancreatic cancer. This systematic review aims to give an overview of the literature on the diagnostic value of serum tumor markers for the detection of recurrent pancreatic cancer during follow-up. A systematic search was performed to 2 October 2017. All studies reporting on the diagnostic value of postoperatively measured serum biomarkers for the detection of pancreatic cancer recurrence were included. Data on diagnostic accuracy of tumor markers were extracted. Forest plots and pooled values of sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Four articles described test results of CA 19-9. A pooled sensitivity and specificity of respectively 0.73 (95% CI 0.66-0.80) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.73-0.91) were calculated. One article reported on CEA, showing a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 65%. No other serum tumor markers were discussed for surveillance purposes in the current literature. Although testing of serum CA 19-9 has considerable limitations, CA 19-9 remains the most used serum tumor marker for surveillance after surgical resection of pancreatic cancer. Further studies are needed to assess the role of serum tumor marker testing in the detection of recurrent pancreatic cancer and to optimize surveillance strategies. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological markers as predictors of radiosensitivity in syngeneic murine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sei Kyung; Shin, Hyun Soo; Seong, Jin Sil; Kim, Sung Hee

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether a relationship exists between tumor control dose 50 (TCD 50 ) or tumor growth delay (TGD) and radiation induced apoptosis (RIA) in syngeneic murine tumors. Also we investigated the biological markers that can predict radiosensitivity in murine tumor system through analysis of relationship between TCD 50 , TGD, RIA and constitutive expression levels of the genetic products regulating RIA. Syngeneic murine tumors such as ovarian adenocarcinoma, mammary carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, hepatocarcinoma were used in this study. C3H/HeJ mice were bred and maintained in our specific pathogen free mouse colony and were 8 ∼ 12 weeks old when used for the experiments. The tumors, growing in the right hind legs of mice, were analyzed for TCD 50 , TGD, and RIA at 8 mm in diameter. The tumors were also analyzed for the constitutive expression levels of p53, p21 WAF1/CIP1 , BAX, Bcl-2, Bcl-x L , Bcl-x S , and p34. Correlation analysis was performed whether the level of RIA were correlated with TCD 50 or TGD, and the constitutive expression levels of genetic products regulating RIA were correlated with TCD 50 , TGD, RIA. The level of RIA showed a significant positive correlation (R = 0.922, ρ = 0.026) with TGD, and showed a trend to correlation (R = -0.848), marginally significant correlation with TCD 50 (ρ = 0.070). It indicates that tumors that respond to radiation with high percentage of apoptosis were more radiosensitive. The constitutive expression levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 and p34 showed a significant correlation either with TCD 50 (R = 0.893, ρ = 0.041 and R = 0.904, ρ = 0.035) or with TGD (R = -0.922, ρ 0.026 and R = -0.890, ρ = 0.043). The tumors with high constitutive expression levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 or p34 were less radiosensitive than those with low expression. Radiosensitivity may be predicted with the level of RIA in murine tumors. The constitutive expression levels of p21 WAF1/CIP1 or p34 can be used as biological

  4. Biological markers as predictors of radiosensitivity in syngeneic murine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sei Kyung; Shin, Hyun Soo [Bundang CHA General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Jin Sil; Kim, Sung Hee [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    We investigated whether a relationship exists between tumor control dose 50 (TCD{sub 50}) or tumor growth delay (TGD) and radiation induced apoptosis (RIA) in syngeneic murine tumors. Also we investigated the biological markers that can predict radiosensitivity in murine tumor system through analysis of relationship between TCD{sub 50}, TGD, RIA and constitutive expression levels of the genetic products regulating RIA. Syngeneic murine tumors such as ovarian adenocarcinoma, mammary carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, hepatocarcinoma were used in this study. C3H/HeJ mice were bred and maintained in our specific pathogen free mouse colony and were 8 {approx} 12 weeks old when used for the experiments. The tumors, growing in the right hind legs of mice, were analyzed for TCD{sub 50}, TGD, and RIA at 8 mm in diameter. The tumors were also analyzed for the constitutive expression levels of p53, p21{sup WAF1/CIP1}, BAX, Bcl-2, Bcl-x{sub L}, Bcl-x{sub S}, and p34. Correlation analysis was performed whether the level of RIA were correlated with TCD{sub 50} or TGD, and the constitutive expression levels of genetic products regulating RIA were correlated with TCD{sub 50}, TGD, RIA. The level of RIA showed a significant positive correlation (R = 0.922, {rho} = 0.026) with TGD, and showed a trend to correlation (R = -0.848), marginally significant correlation with TCD{sub 50} ({rho} = 0.070). It indicates that tumors that respond to radiation with high percentage of apoptosis were more radiosensitive. The constitutive expression levels of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} and p34 showed a significant correlation either with TCD{sub 50} (R = 0.893, {rho} = 0.041 and R = 0.904, {rho} = 0.035) or with TGD (R = -0.922, {rho} 0.026 and R = -0.890, {rho} = 0.043). The tumors with high constitutive expression levels of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} or p34 were less radiosensitive than those with low expression. Radiosensitivity may be predicted with the level of RIA in murine tumors. The

  5. Application of tumor markers SCC-Ag, CEA, and TPA in patients with cervical precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Farah; Shahghassempour, Shapour; Noshine, Bahram; Arab, Maliheh; Yaseri, Mehdi; Rafizadeh, Mitra; Alizadeh, Kamyab

    2014-01-01

    To determine the potential clinical utility of tumor markers CEA, TPA, and SCC-Ag for early detection of cervical precancerous lesions. A case-control study was carried out on 120 women (46 patients with histologically confirmed cervical precancerous lesions and 74 healthy controls). The significance of serum selected tumor markers in early detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were assessed. Of the case group, the rates of CIN I, II, III, was 69.6%, 23.9%, and 6.5%, respectively. According to the manufacturer's cut-off values of 2 ng/ml, 5 ng/ml, and 70 U/ml for SCC-Ag, CEA and TPA tests, in that order, SCC-Ag test had a sensitivity of 13%, but CEA and TPA tests could not distinguish between case and control groups. The diagnostic sensitivities were highest at cut-off values of 0.55 ng/ml for SCC-Ag, 2.6 ng/ ml for CEA, and 25.5 U/ml for TPA which were 93%, 61%, and 50%, respectively. However, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was the largest for SCC-Ag (0.95 vs. 0.61 and 0.60 for CEA and TPA, respectively). Moreover, there was a highly significant direct correlation between SCC-Ag concentration and the degree of cervical precancerous lesions (r=0.847, ptumor marker in Iranian patients with CIN and it needs to be more evaluated by studies with larger populationa.

  6. Mucins CA 125, CA 19.9, CA 15.3 and TAG-72.3 as tumor markers in patients with lung cancer: comparison with CYFRA 21-1, CEA, SCC and NSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rafael; Auge, Jose Maria; Escudero, Jose Miguel; Marrades, Ramon; Viñolas, Nuria; Carcereny, Emilio; Ramirez, Jose; Filella, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Tumor marker serum levels were prospectively studied in 289 patients with suspected, but unconfirmed, lung cancer and in 513 patients with lung cancer [417 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and 96 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients]. In patients with benign disease, abnormal serum levels were found for the following tumor markers: CEA (in 6.6% of patients); CA 19.9 (6.2%); CA 125 (28.7%); NSE (0.7%); CYFRA (8.7%); TAG-72.3 (4.2%); SCC (3.5%), and CA 15.3 (3.5%). Excluding patients with renal failure or liver diseases, tumor marker specificity improved with abnormal levels in 0.5% for NSE, 0.9% for SCC, 2.8% for CEA, CA 15.3 and TAG-72.3, 3.8% for CA 19.9, 4.2% for CYFRA and 21.4% for CA 125. Excluding CA 125, one of the markers was abnormal in 15% of patients without malignancy. Tumor marker sensitivity was related to cancer histology and tumor extension. NSE had the highest sensitivity in SCLC and CYFRA and CEA in NSCLC. Significantly higher concentrations of CEA, SCC, CA 125, CA 15.3 and TAG-72.3 were found in NSCLC than in SCLC. Likewise, significantly higher CEA (p tumors. Using a combination of 3 tumor markers (CEA, CYFRA 21-1 in all histologies, SCC in squamous tumors and CA 15.3 in adenocarcinomas), a high sensitivity may be achieved in all histological types. Tumor markers may be useful in the histological differentiation of NSCLC and SCLC. Using specific criteria for the differentiation of SCLC and NSCLC, the sensitivity was 84.2 and 68.8%, the specificity was 93.8 and 99.7%, the positive predictive value was 98.3 and 98.5% and the negative predictive value was 57.7 and 93.3%, respectively. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Detection of multiple tumor markers using ultra-long carbon nanotube devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hye-Mi; Park, Dong-Won; Kim, Beom Soo; Kong, Ki-Jeong; Buh, Gyoung-Ho; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Jeong-O.; Kong, Jing

    2008-03-01

    For the simultaneous detection of multiple tumor markers, we have fabricated ultra-long carbon nanotube sensors that can detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), simultaneously. Ultra-long carbon nanotubes, several millimeters long, were grown by ethanol CVD, and fabricated as FET sensors by using conventional photolithography. To functionalize each segment of a single ultra-long nanotube device with multiple-tumor markers, we first functionalize the entire device with CDI-Tween 20 linking molecules, and then immobilized CEA and PSA antibodies using the microfluidic channel. The electrical conductance from CEA-antibody functionalized and PSA-antibody functionalized segment of a ultra-long carbon nanotube device was monitored simultaneously with Ag/AgCl reference electrode as a liquid gate. We will discuss the advantages of long-nanotube device in detail.

  8. Additional diagnostic value of tumor markers in cytological fluid for diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin; Chung, Kyung Young; Lee, Hye Sun; Choi, Byoung Wook; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Nam, Ji Eun; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hee Yeong; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kim, Joo-Hang

    2012-01-01

    Cytological fluid from a needle aspiration biopsy (NAB) is obtained directly from tumor tissue, therefore many biomarker candidates will be present in high concentrations. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess and validate the tumor markers CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC in cytological fluid obtained from NAB samples to determine if they improved the performance of NAB for diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 194 patients (M:F = 128:66, mean age 63.7 years) with suspected malignant pulmonary lesions were prospectively enrolled and underwent percutaneous NAB. Levels of CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC were measured by immunoassay in serum and cytological fluid obtained during aspiration biopsy. Cut-off values to determined malignancy were 3.3 ng/mL in serum and 15.7 ng/mL in cytological fluid for CYFRA 21–1, 5 ng/mL and 0.6 ng/mL for CEA, and 2 ng/mL and 0.86 ng/mL for SCC. Of 194 patients, 139 patients (71.6%) had NSCLC and 55 (28.4%) had benign lesions. Sensitivity increased significantly for NAB combined with cytological tumor markers compared with NAB alone (CYFRA 21–1: 95% versus 83.5%, p < 0.001, CEA: 92.1% versus 83.5%, p = 0.002, SCC: 91.4% versus 83.5%, p = 0.003). Accuracy improved significantly for NAB combined with cytological CYFRA 21–1 compared with NAB alone (95.9% versus 88.1%, p < 0.001). The area under curve (AUC) of NAB with cytological CYFRA 21–1 was significantly larger than for NAB alone (0.966 versus 0.917, p = 0.009). Of the tested tumor markers, cytological fluid measurements of CYFRA 21–1 improved the diagnostic performance of NAB for NSCLC

  9. Detection of five tumor markers in lung cancer by trypsin digestion of sputum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Min; Nong Tianlei; Liu Daying

    2011-01-01

    To explore the detection of five tumor markers by trypsin digestion of sputum in the diagnosis of lung cancer, the samples of sputum in patients with lung cancer and benign lung disease were digested by trypsin and used to measure five tumor markers. The results showed that the sputum were well digested by 6% trypsin at pH8 and no affect on the determination of tumor markers. The CEA, CA125, CA153, CA211 and NSE levels in lung cancer group were significantly higher than that of in benign group (P<0.05). The sputum CEA and CA125 levels were significantly higher than that of the serum levels (P<0.05). The detection of sputum CEA, CA125, CA153, CA211 and NSE levels have clinical value in the diagnosis of lung cancer. When combined with other diagnostic methods,it might be helpful for further diagnosis in non confirmed lung cancer patients. (authors)

  10. Growth Factors and Breast Tumors, Comparison of Selected Growth Factors with Traditional Tumor Markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, R.; Černá, M.; Ňaršanská, A.; Svobodová, Š.; Straková, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Fuchsová, R.; Třešková, I.; Kydlíček, T.; Třeška, V.; Pecen, Ladislav; Topolčan, O.; Padziora, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 12 (2011), s. 4653-4656 ISSN 0250-7005 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NS9727; GA MZd(CZ) NS10238; GA MZd(CZ) NS10253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : growth factor * breast cancer * tumor markers * CA 15-3 * CEA * IGF1 * EGF * HGF Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2011

  11. Significance of serum and bile tumor markers in the diagnostic approach of patients with malignant pancreatobiliary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsios, Athanasios; Vezakis, Antonios; Kaparos, Georgios; Fragulidis, Georgios; Karakostas, Nikolaos; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Logothetis, Emmanouil; Polydorou, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Serum and bile tumor markers are under intense scrutiny for the diagnosis of malignant disease. The purpose of our study was to report the usefulness of serum and bile tumor markers for the discrimination between benign and malignant pancreatobiliary diseases. Between March 2010 and May 2013, 95 patients with obstructive jaundice or history of biliary obstruction, were included in the study. During ERCP, bile samples were obtained for measurement of tumor markers CEA, CA19- 9, CA125, CA72-4 and CA242. Serum samples were taken before ERCP for the same measurements. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with malignant disease and patients with benign disease. Serum tumor marker levels were significantly higher in patients with malignant disease. Serum CA242 and CA19-9 exhibited the highest diagnostic accuracy (76.8% and 73.7%, respectively). CA125 and CA72-4 levels in bile samples were significantly higher in patients with malignant disease. Bile CA125, CEA and CA72-4 achieved the best diagnostic accuracy (69, 65 and 65), respectively). The combined detection of CA19-9, CA242 in serum and CA125, CA72-4 in bile along with total bilirubin levels, showed the best diagnostic accuracy (81%). Serum and bile tumor markers, when studied alone, lack the diagnostic yield to discriminate benign from malignant pancreatobiliary diseases. In cases of diagnostic dilemmas the combination of serum and bile markers might be helpful.

  12. Microsatellite instability as prognostic marker in bladder tumors: a clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal RD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoma of urinary bladder is one of the leading causes of death in India. Successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on the early detection & specific diagnostic approaches. In the present study, microsatellite instability (MSI has been evaluated as a prognostic marker in patients with superficial urinary bladder cancer in lower urinary tract for determining risk of recurrence. Methods A total of 44 patients with bladder tumors diagnosed with Transitional Cell Carcinomas [TCC] from lower urinary tract were selected for the study. Tumors were staged and graded according to AJCC-UICC (1997 classification and patients were followed with cystoscopy as per the protocol. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was done to amplify microsatellite sequences at mononucleotide BAT – 26, BAT – 40, TGFβ RII, IGFIIR, hMSH3, BAX and dinucleotide D2S123, D9S283, D9S1851 and D18S58 loci in blood (control and tumor DNA. PCR products were separated on 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by autoradiography. Results MSI was observed in 72.7% of tumors at BAT – 26, BAT – 40, D2S123, D9S283, D9S1851 and D18S58 loci. Good association of MSI was seen with tumor stage and grade. MSI – High (instability at > 30% of loci was frequently observed in high stage (40.6% and high grade (59.4% tumors. Of 24 tumors of Ta-T1 stage with different grades, 11 (9/18 high grade and 2/6 low grade tumors recurred in the mean duration of 36 months. MSI positivity was significantly high in patients who had one or more recurrences (p = 0.02 for high grade and 0.04 for low grade tumors. Conclusions MSI may be an independent prognostic marker for assessing risk of recurrence in superficial tumors irrespective of the grade. Further studies on progression would help in stratifying the patients of T1G3 for early cystectomy vs bladder preservation protocol.

  13. Biomarkers Discovery for Colorectal Cancer: A Review on Tumor Endothelial Markers as Perspective Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Pietrzyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world. The early detection of CRC, during the promotion/progression stages, is an enormous challenge for a successful outcome and remains a fundamental problem in clinical approach. Despite the continuous advancement in diagnostic and therapeutic methods, there is a need for discovery of sensitive and specific, noninvasive biomarkers. Tumor endothelial markers (TEMs are associated with tumor-specific angiogenesis and are potentially useful to discriminate between tumor and normal endothelium. The most promising TEMs for oncogenic signaling in CRC appeared to be the TEM1, TEM5, TEM7, and TEM8. Overexpression of TEMs especially TEM1, TEM7, and TEM8 in colorectal tumor tissue compared to healthy tissue suggests their role in tumor blood vessels formation. Thus TEMs appear to be perspective candidates for early detection, monitoring, and treatment of CRC patients. This review provides an update on recent data on tumor endothelial markers and their possible use as biomarkers for screening, diagnosis, and therapy of colorectal cancer patients.

  14. Biomarkers Discovery for Colorectal Cancer: A Review on Tumor Endothelial Markers as Perspective Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. The early detection of CRC, during the promotion/progression stages, is an enormous challenge for a successful outcome and remains a fundamental problem in clinical approach. Despite the continuous advancement in diagnostic and therapeutic methods, there is a need for discovery of sensitive and specific, noninvasive biomarkers. Tumor endothelial markers (TEMs) are associated with tumor-specific angiogenesis and are potentially useful to discriminate between tumor and normal endothelium. The most promising TEMs for oncogenic signaling in CRC appeared to be the TEM1, TEM5, TEM7, and TEM8. Overexpression of TEMs especially TEM1, TEM7, and TEM8 in colorectal tumor tissue compared to healthy tissue suggests their role in tumor blood vessels formation. Thus TEMs appear to be perspective candidates for early detection, monitoring, and treatment of CRC patients. This review provides an update on recent data on tumor endothelial markers and their possible use as biomarkers for screening, diagnosis, and therapy of colorectal cancer patients.

  15. Interfractional Positional Variability of Fiducial Markers and Primary Tumors in Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer During Audiovisual Biofeedback Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Nicholas O., E-mail: nroman@mcvh-vcu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Shepherd, Wes [Department of Pulmonology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Nitai [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Weiss, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate implanted markers as a surrogate for tumor-based setup during image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy with audiovisual biofeedback. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer were implanted bronchoscopically with gold coils. Markers, tumor, and a reference bony structure (vertebra) were contoured for all 10 phases of the four-dimensional respiration-correlated fan-beam computed tomography and weekly four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography. Results: The systematic/random interfractional marker-to-tumor centroid displacements were 2/3, 2/2, and 3/3 mm in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z (superior-inferior) directions, respectively. The systematic/random interfractional marker-to-bone displacements were 2/3, 2/3, and 2/3 mm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. The systematic/random tumor-to-bone displacements were 2/3, 2/4, and 4/4 mm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. All displacements changed significantly over time (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Although marker-based image guidance may decrease the risk for geometric miss compared with bony anatomy-based positioning, the observed displacements between markers and tumor centroids indicate the need for repeated soft tissue imaging, particularly in situations with large tumor volume change and large initial marker-to-tumor centroid distance.

  16. Interfractional Positional Variability of Fiducial Markers and Primary Tumors in Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer During Audiovisual Biofeedback Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Nicholas O.; Shepherd, Wes; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate implanted markers as a surrogate for tumor-based setup during image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy with audiovisual biofeedback. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer were implanted bronchoscopically with gold coils. Markers, tumor, and a reference bony structure (vertebra) were contoured for all 10 phases of the four-dimensional respiration-correlated fan-beam computed tomography and weekly four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography. Results: The systematic/random interfractional marker-to-tumor centroid displacements were 2/3, 2/2, and 3/3 mm in the x (lateral), y (anterior–posterior), and z (superior–inferior) directions, respectively. The systematic/random interfractional marker-to-bone displacements were 2/3, 2/3, and 2/3 mm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. The systematic/random tumor-to-bone displacements were 2/3, 2/4, and 4/4 mm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. All displacements changed significantly over time (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Although marker-based image guidance may decrease the risk for geometric miss compared with bony anatomy–based positioning, the observed displacements between markers and tumor centroids indicate the need for repeated soft tissue imaging, particularly in situations with large tumor volume change and large initial marker-to-tumor centroid distance.

  17. Measurement of tumor volumes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by computed tomography (CT). Correlation with several tumor markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneshima, Manabu; Sawabu, Norio; Toya, Daishu

    1984-09-01

    Tumor volumes of HCC were measured by CT using planimeter and the clinical value of this measurement was evaluated by comparing several tumor markers. Tumor volumes measured by CT roughly agreed with those measured by angiography. In some cases, volumes from ultrasonography were smaller than those from CT and angiography. Tumor volumes measured by CT correlated significantly with the levels of ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein (AFP) but didn't relate to the presence of hepatoma specific ..gamma..-GTP isoenzyme (novel ..gamma..-GTP) nor to the values and positivities of LAI assay. In small HCCs (<=30 cm/sup 3/), the presence of novel ..gamma..-GTP and the levels of AFP were significantly lower than for larger tumors of HCC, but LAI assay wasn't lower. The non-tumorous volumes and the ratio of the non-tumorous volume to the whole liver volume didn't relate to the tests of liver function except for the presence of ascites.

  18. Correlation of elvated tumor markers and hepatic and nodal metastases on CT in postgastrectomy patients for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwa Jin; Park, Won Kyu; Seong, Ki Ho; Cho, Hyun Chul; Chang, Jae Chun; Park, Bok Hwan; Song, Sun Kyo

    1997-01-01

    The evaluation of tumor recurrence or metastasis in postgastrectomy cancer patients usually depends on a serum tumor marker test or radiologic study, but in both cases, accuracy is difficult to determine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between abdominal CT and serum tumor markers. In 337cases involving 226 patients who had undergone curative surgery for gastric cancer, we compared serum tumor markers and CT for the evaluation of metastasis. Amoong these 337 cases, CEA level was measured in 317, CA 19-9 level in 166,and both of these in 146. The cutoff level for serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 were 10ng/ml and 33U/ml, respectively. CEA level was elevated in 59 of 317 cases(18.6%) and that of CA 19-9 in 58 of 166(34.9%). Slightly higher overall senstivity and specificity was observed for CEA than for CA19-9 (72.9% vs 67.2%, 83.3% vs 70.4%, respectively). Among the total of 337 cases, liver or lymph node metastases were detected in 91 cases (27.0%) on CT. Negative predictive value was significantly higher in CEA than in CA19-9 (93.1% vs 80%, respectively)(p<0.01), but positive predictive value was lower (50% vs 54.9%, respectively). On CT scan, there was a significant relationship between serum tumor marker level and hepatic and nodal metastasis ; specificity and positivity of serum tumor markers were both higher than senstivity and negativity. Follow-up CT less useful when tumor markers levels are not elevated, but when these are elevated in postgastrectomy cancer patients, meticulous radiologic evaluation is necessary for the early detection of residual or recurrent tumors

  19. Investigations for a multi-marker RT-PCR to improve sensitivity of disseminated tumor cell detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlems, F.A.; Diepstra, J.H.S.; Cornelissen, I.M.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Wobbes, Th.; Punt, C.J.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Ruers, T.J.M.; Muijen, G.N.P. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to develop a multi-marker RT-PCR, which as such may be more sensitive than a single marker assay for the detection of disseminated tumor cells, we evaluated six RT-PCR markers: cytokeratin 20 (CK20), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), guanylyl cyclase C (GCC), epidermal growth

  20. Investigations for a multi-marker RT-PCR to improve sensitivity of disseminated tumor cell detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlems, F. A.; Diepstra, J. H. S.; Cornelissen, I. M. H. A.; Ligtenberg, M. J. L.; Wobbes, Th; Punt, C. J. A.; van Krieken, J. H. J. M.; Ruers, T. J. M.; van Muijen, G. N. P.

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop a multi-marker RT-PCR, which as such may be more sensitive than a single marker assay for the detection of disseminated tumor cells, we evaluated six RT-PCR markers: cytokeratin 20 (CK20), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), guanylyl cyclase C (GCC), epidermal growth factor receptor

  1. Clinical analysis of four serum tumor markers in 458 patients with ovarian tumors: diagnostic value of the combined use of HE4, CA125, CA19-9, and CEA in ovarian tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen F

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fawen Chen,1,2 Jing Shen,3 Jianwei Wang,1 Pengwei Cai,1 Yi Huang3 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fujian Provincial Hospital South Branch, 2Department of Blood Transfusion, 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Provincial Clinical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic values of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4, carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA for ovarian tumors. Methods: The participants were divided into three groups: 386 healthy women (control group, 262 patients with benign ovarian tumors (the benign group, and 196 patients with malignant pelvic tumors (the malignant group. The serum levels of HE4, CA125, CA19-9, and CEA were analyzed by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Results: It showed that serum levels of HE4, CA125, CA19-9, and CEA of patients with ­malignant ovarian tumors were significantly higher than those in the control group and benign group (P<0.01. HE4 had a high specificity (96.56% in malignant ovarian tumors. The tumor markers HE4, CA125, CA19-9, and CEA had a sensitivity of 63.78%, 62.75%, 35.71%, and 38.78%, respectively. The combined use of two or more tumor markers (parallel test had a higher diagnostic sensitivity but lower specificity than a single tumor marker. The combined efficiency of HE4 and CA125 was the highest, with a sensitivity and specificity of 80.10% and 69.08%, respectively. HE4 and CA125 combined with the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm provided an efficient means of screening and diagnosis of ovarian malignancies. The diagnostic sensitivity increased to 88.52% when three or four tumor markers were used but showed no significant difference compared with the combination of HE4 and CA125 (P>0.05. Conclusion: The combination of three or four tumor markers did not improve the diagnostic efficacy when compared with the combination

  2. An accurate algorithm to match imperfectly matched images for lung tumor detection without markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozario, Timothy; Bereg, Sergey; Yan, Yulong; Chiu, Tsuicheng; Liu, Honghuan; Kearney, Vasant; Jiang, Lan; Mao, Weihua

    2015-05-08

    In order to locate lung tumors on kV projection images without internal markers, digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) are created and compared with projection images. However, lung tumors always move due to respiration and their locations change on projection images while they are static on DRRs. In addition, global image intensity discrepancies exist between DRRs and projections due to their different image orientations, scattering, and noises. This adversely affects comparison accuracy. A simple but efficient comparison algorithm is reported to match imperfectly matched projection images and DRRs. The kV projection images were matched with different DRRs in two steps. Preprocessing was performed in advance to generate two sets of DRRs. The tumors were removed from the planning 3D CT for a single phase of planning 4D CT images using planning contours of tumors. DRRs of background and DRRs of tumors were generated separately for every projection angle. The first step was to match projection images with DRRs of background signals. This method divided global images into a matrix of small tiles and similarities were evaluated by calculating normalized cross-correlation (NCC) between corresponding tiles on projections and DRRs. The tile configuration (tile locations) was automatically optimized to keep the tumor within a single projection tile that had a bad matching with the corresponding DRR tile. A pixel-based linear transformation was determined by linear interpolations of tile transformation results obtained during tile matching. The background DRRs were transformed to the projection image level and subtracted from it. The resulting subtracted image now contained only the tumor. The second step was to register DRRs of tumors to the subtracted image to locate the tumor. This method was successfully applied to kV fluoro images (about 1000 images) acquired on a Vero (BrainLAB) for dynamic tumor tracking on phantom studies. Radiation opaque markers were

  3. A novel method for monitoring high-risk breast cancer with tumor markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Nielsen, D; Schiøler, V

    1993-01-01

    cancer. METHODS: Ninety females with high-risk breast cancer were included in the study. Response evaluation was based upon clinical examination, x-rays or histology and elaborated marker criteria. RESULTS: During the marker monitoring period, metastases in four patients were confined to skin or lymph......BACKGROUND: An early and reliable diagnosis of metastatic spread has increased interest in serum tumor markers. This study investigated the ability of CA 15.3, CEA, and TPA to identify, predict, and exclude metastases in bone/viscera during adjuvant treatment and follow-up of high-risk breast...

  4. Clinical value of combined detection of tumor markers in effusion fluid for diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and ascites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangang; Ji Zhigu; Cui Xuejun; Zhu Zili

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical usefulness of combined detection of tumor markers in effusion fluid in patients with malignant pleural effusion or ascites. Methods: Combined detection of six tumor markers (CA125, CA50, CA15-3, CYFRA21-1, βHCG, HCG) in effusion fluid was performed in 92 patients with malignant pleural effusion and 78 patients with malignant ascites as well as 100 control benign specimens. These tumor markers were examined with CLIA, except CA50, which was examined with RIA. Exfoliative cytology was also examined in the malignant specimens. Results: The positive rate of these markers was highest with CA125, followed by CA50, CA15-3, CYFRA21-1, βHCG and HCG in order. βHCG and HCG, though with quite low positive rate, were still useful markers due to the almost zero false-positive rate, i.e. very high specificity. For combined determination of two markers, CA15 + CYFRA21-1 or CA125 + CA50 would result in the highest positive rate. For highly suspected but undetermined cases, the following criteria for malignancy would be helpful: (1) two or more positive among CA125, CA50, CA15-3, CYFRA21-1 (2) One of the four CAs positive + either βHCG or HCG (3) Both βHCG and HCG positive. Tumor markers positiveness would be supplementary to doubtful cytological studies. Conclusion: Combined detection of tumor markers in effusion fluid would be very helpful for diagnosis of malignancy. (authors)

  5. Serum CA 125, carcinoembryonic antigen, and CA 19-9 as tumor markers in borderline ovarian tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, MJA; de Bruijn, HWA; Hollema, H; ten Koor, KA; Willemse, PHB; Aalders, JG; van der Zee, AGJ

    Objectives. The goals of this study were to analyze preoperative serum levels of CA 125, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and CA 19-9 in patients with borderline ovarian tumors and to investigate if routine assessment of these markers in follow-up may lead to earlier detection of recurrence. Methods.

  6. Nectin-4 is a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre-Lafay, Stéphanie; Geneix, Jeannine; Lecocq, Eric; Popovici, Cornel; Dubreuil, Patrice; Viens, Patrice; Gonçalves, Anthony; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Birnbaum, Daniel; Lopez, Marc; Monville, Florence; Garrido-Urbani, Sarah; Berruyer-Pouyet, Carole; Ginestier, Christophe; Reymond, Nicolas; Finetti, Pascal; Sauvan, Richard; Adélaïde, José

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. Evolution is difficult to predict according to classical histoclinical prognostic factors. Different studies highlight the importance of large-scale molecular expression analyses to improve taxonomy of breast cancer and prognostic classification. Identification of new molecular markers that refine this taxonomy and improve patient management is a priority in the field of breast cancer research. Nectins are cell adhesion molecules involved in the regulation of epithelial physiology. We present here Nectin-4/PVRL4 as a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast carcinoma. Expression of Nectin-4 protein was measured on a panel of 78 primary cells and cell lines from different origins and 57 breast tumors by FACS analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Serum Nectin-4 was detected by ELISA and compared with CEA and CA15.3 markers, on panels of 45 sera from healthy donors, 53 sera from patients with non-metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) at diagnosis, and 182 sera from patients with MBC. Distribution of histological/serological molecular markers and histoclinical parameters were compared using the standard Chi-2 test. Nectin-4 was not detected in normal breast epithelium. By contrast, Nectin-4 was expressed in 61% of ductal breast carcinoma vs 6% in lobular type. Expression of Nectin-4 strongly correlated with the basal-like markers EGFR, P53, and P-cadherin, and negatively correlated with the luminal-like markers ER, PR and GATA3. All but one ER/PR-negative tumors expressed Nectin-4. The detection of Nectin-4 in serum improves the follow-up of patients with MBC: the association CEA/CA15.3/Nectin-4 allowed to monitor 74% of these patients compared to 67% with the association CEA/CA15.3. Serum Nectin-4 is a marker of disease progression, and levels correlate with the number of metastases (P = 0.038). Serum

  7. Nectin-4 is a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauvan Richard

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease at the molecular level. Evolution is difficult to predict according to classical histoclinical prognostic factors. Different studies highlight the importance of large-scale molecular expression analyses to improve taxonomy of breast cancer and prognostic classification. Identification of new molecular markers that refine this taxonomy and improve patient management is a priority in the field of breast cancer research. Nectins are cell adhesion molecules involved in the regulation of epithelial physiology. We present here Nectin-4/PVRL4 as a new histological and serological tumor associated marker for breast carcinoma. Methods Expression of Nectin-4 protein was measured on a panel of 78 primary cells and cell lines from different origins and 57 breast tumors by FACS analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC, respectively. mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. Serum Nectin-4 was detected by ELISA and compared with CEA and CA15.3 markers, on panels of 45 sera from healthy donors, 53 sera from patients with non-metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC at diagnosis, and 182 sera from patients with MBC. Distribution of histological/serological molecular markers and histoclinical parameters were compared using the standard Chi-2 test. Results Nectin-4 was not detected in normal breast epithelium. By contrast, Nectin-4 was expressed in 61% of ductal breast carcinoma vs 6% in lobular type. Expression of Nectin-4 strongly correlated with the basal-like markers EGFR, P53, and P-cadherin, and negatively correlated with the luminal-like markers ER, PR and GATA3. All but one ER/PR-negative tumors expressed Nectin-4. The detection of Nectin-4 in serum improves the follow-up of patients with MBC: the association CEA/CA15.3/Nectin-4 allowed to monitor 74% of these patients compared to 67% with the association CEA/CA15.3. Serum Nectin-4 is a marker of disease progression, and levels

  8. Comparison of LUMIPULSE(®) G1200 With Kryptor and Modular E170 for the Measurement of Seven Tumor Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlet, Julien; Bernard, Maguy

    2016-01-01

    Tumor marker measurements are becoming essential for prognosis and follow-up of patients in oncology. In this context, we aimed to compare a new analyzer, Lumipulse(®) G1200 (Fujirebio group, distributed in Europe by the Innogenetics group) with Kryptor(®) (Thermo Fisher Scientific B.R.A.H.M.S, Asnières, France) and Modular(®) Elecsys E170 (Roche Diagnostics, Meylan, France) for the measurement of seven tumor markers: PSA, AFP, CEA, CA 15-3, CA 125, CA 19-9, and Cyfra 21-1. A total of 471 serum samples from patients with elevated tumor markers and 100 serum from healthy patients were analyzed with Lumipulse(®) G1200 and either Kryptor(®) (for AFP) or Modular(®) (for the six other markers). The good precision of Lumipulse(®) G1200 assays was confirmed with CVs Lumipulse results were well correlated with Modular or Kryptor results (r ≥ 0.94). Concordance of results interpretation was > 95% and tumor marker kinetics were all similar. We confirmed the analytical performances of Lumipulse(®) tumor marker assays except for the CYFRA 21-1 assay for which performances were poor in this study. We noticed a few discrepancies for the CEA assay. Besides, values obtained for CA 19-9 were higher with Lumipulse leading to a bias (slope = 1.5). But for the four other tumor markers assays (PSA, AFP, CA 125, CA 15-3), the results were directly transferable between Lumipulse and Kryptor or Modular, thus facilitating an eventual substitution of one system by another. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of Tumor Shape Variability in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Over the Course of Radiation Therapy Using Implanted Gold Markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Kranen, Simon Robert van; Beek, Suzanne van; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Herk, Marcel van; Brekel, Michiel Wilhelmus Maria van den; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Rasch, Coenraad Robert Nico

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study quantifies tumor shape variability in head-and-neck cancer patients during radiation therapy using implanted markers. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients with oropharyngeal tumors treated with (chemo)radiation were included. Helical gold markers (0.35 × 2 mm, 3-10/patient, average 6) were implanted around the tumor. Markers were identified on planning computed tomography (CT) and daily cone beam CT (CBCT). After bony anatomy registration, the daily vector length on CBCT in reference to the planning CT and daily marker movement perpendicular to the gross tumor volume (GTV) surface at planning CT (d normal ) of each marker were analyzed. Time trends were assessed with linear regression of the normal > markers . In 2 patients, 2 markers were implanted in normal tissue to evaluate migration by measuring intermarker distances. Results: Marker implantation was feasible without complications. Three-dimensional vectors (4827 measurements, mean 0.23 cm, interquartile ratio 0.24 cm) were highest in base of tongue sublocalization (P<.001) and bulky tumors (vectors exceeded 0.5 cm in 5.7% [0-20 mL], 12.0% [21-40 mL], and 21.7% [≥41 mL], respectively [P<.001] of measurements). The measured inward time trend in 11/27 patients correlated with the visual observed marker pattern. In patients with an outward trend (5/27) or no trend (11/27), visual observation showed predominantly an inhomogeneous pattern. Remarkably, in 6 patients, outward marker movement was observed in the posterior pharyngeal wall. The difference in distance between normal tissue markers (1 SD) was 0.05-0.06 cm without time trend, indicating that implanted markers did not migrate. Conclusions: During head-and-neck radiation therapy, normal tissue markers remained stable. Changes in position of tumor markers depended on sublocalization and tumor volume. Large differences in marker patterns between patients as well as within patients were observed. Based on our study, the cranial

  10. Investigation of the change in marker geometry during respiration motion: a preliminary study for dynamic-multi-leaf real-time tumor tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Rie; Nishioka, Seiko; Date, Hiroyuki; Shirato, Hiroki; Koike, Takao; Nishioka, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    The use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is rapidly increasing. Presently, the most accurate method uses fiducial markers implanted near the tumor. A shortcoming of this method is that the beams turn off during the majority of the respiratory cycle, resulting in a prolonged treatment time. Recent advances in collimation technology have enabled continuous irradiation to a moving tumor. However, the lung is a dynamic organ characterized by inhalation exhalation cycles, during which marker/tumor geometry may change (i.e., misalignment), resulting in under-dosing to the tumor. Eight patients with lung cancer who were candidates for stereotactic radiotherapy were examined with 4D high-resolution CT. As a marker surrogate, virtual bronchoscopy using the pulmonary artery (VBPA) was conducted. To detect possible marker/tumor misalignment during the respiration cycle, the distance between the peripheral bronchus, where a marker could be implanted, and the center of gravity of a tumor were calculated for each respiratory phase. When the respiration cycle was divided into 10 phases, the median value was significantly larger for the 30%-70% respiratory phases compared to that for the 10% respiratory phase (P<0.05, Mann–Whitney U-test). These results demonstrate that physiological aspect must be considered when continuous tumor tracking is applied to a moving tumor. To minimize an “additional” internal target volume (ITV) margin, a marker should be placed approximately 2.5 cm from the tumor

  11. Tumor endothelial markers define novel subsets of cancer-specific circulating endothelial cells associated with antitumor efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Reza; Nilsson, Monique; Khajavi, Mehrdad; Du, Zhiqiang; Cascone, Tina; Wu, Hua Kang; Cortes, Andrea; Xu, Li; Zurita, Amado; Schier, Robert; Riedel, Bernhard; El-Zein, Randa; Heymach, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are derived from multiple sources including bone marrow (circulating endothelial progenitors [CEP]) and established vasculature (mature CEC). Although CEC have shown promise as a biomarker for cancer patients, their utility has been limited in part by the lack of specificity for tumor vasculature and the different non-malignant causes that can impact CEC. Tumor endothelial markers (TEM) are antigens enriched in tumor vs non-malignant endothelia. We hypothesized that TEMs may be detectable on CEC and that these circulating TEM+ endothelial cells (CTEC) may be a more specific marker for cancer and tumor response than standard CEC. We found that tumor-bearing mice had a relative increase in numbers of circulating CTEC, specifically with increased levels of TEM7 and TEM8 expression. Following treatment with various vascular targeting agents, we observed a decrease in CTEC that correlated with the reductions in tumor growth. We extended these findings to human clinical samples and observed that CTEC were present in esophageal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (N=40) and their levels decreased after surgical resection. These results demonstrate that CTEC are detectable in preclinical cancer models and cancer patients. Further, they suggest that CTEC offer a novel cancer-associated marker that may be useful as a blood-based surrogate for assessing the presence of tumor vasculature and antiangiogenic drug activity. PMID:24626092

  12. Pre-treatment double- or triple-positive tumor markers are predictive of a poor outcome for patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Hidetoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Kaida, Takayoshi; Arima, Kota; Higashi, Takaaki; Taki, Katsunobu; Okabe, Hirohisa; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Chikamoto, Akira; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Beppu, Toru; Baba, Hideo

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the therapeutic effect of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to the number of positive tumor markers. The subjects of this study were 160 patients who underwent percutaneous and surgical RFA for HCC. Patients were divided into negative (n = 51), single- (n = 69), double- (n = 31), and triple-positive (n = 9) tumor marker groups according to the pre-treatment expression of these markers. We looked for any relationships among clinical parameters, outcomes, and tumor markers. The 3-year recurrence-free and overall survival rates of the negative, single-, double-, and triple-positive groups were 30, 19, 16, and 11 % (P = 0.02), and 94, 88, 67, and 37 % (P tumor marker profile was independently associated with local recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) 5.48, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.44-12.33, P tumor markers.

  13. Evaluation of Tumor Markers and Their Impact on Prognosis in Gallbladder, Bile Duct and Cholangiocellular Carcinomas - A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Vaclav; Treska, Vladislav; Skalicky, Tomas; Fichtl, Jakub; Bruha, Jan; Vycital, Ondrej; Topolcan, Ondrej; Palek, Richard; Rosendorf, Jachym; Polivka, Jiri; Holubec, Lubos

    2017-04-01

    The behavior of tumor markers in biliary tract malignancies is not well-known and has been scarcely studied. Such markers could play important roles in diagnostic and prognostic schemes as well as in decision-making about the best treatment strategies. This study analyzed the preoperative serum levels of conventional tumor markers (AFP, CEA, CA 19-9, CA 72-4), proliferative marker thymidine kinase (TK) and cytokeratins (TPA, TPS and CYFRA 21.1) in patients with gallbladder carcinoma, bile duct carcinoma (Klatskin) and cholangiocellular carcinoma, in relation to the patient prognosis. The study aimed in finding the role of tumor markers in not properly investigated diseases, where their importance is often marginalized. The study included 43 patients, who underwent either radical surgical procedure (n=21) or explorative laparotomy without any surgical treatment (n=22) for gallbladder carcinoma, bile duct carcinoma (Klatskin tumor) and cholangiocellular carcinoma (24, 8 and 11 patients, respectively) between 2003 and 2010 at our Department. The association of serum tumor markers and patients' prognosis were assessed for the entire cohort and for each cancer type and also with regard to treatment (radical surgery versus explorative laparotomy). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free interval (DFI) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and statistically evaluated using the LogRank test. DFI was computed only in the subgroup of patients treated by radical surgery. The statistical analysis of tumor markers revealed TK as a poor prognostic factor for shorter DFI (HR=3.5, 95%CI=0.6-21.3, ptumor markers for assessment of prognosis (OS or DFI) in patients with gallbladder carcinoma, bile duct carcinoma, and cholangiocellular carcinoma. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Aerobic Glycolysis as a Marker of Tumor Aggressiveness: Preliminary Data in High Grade Human Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei G. Vlassenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Glucose metabolism outside of oxidative phosphorylation, or aerobic glycolysis (AG, is a hallmark of active cancer cells that is not directly measured with standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, we characterized tumor regions with elevated AG defined based on PET measurements of glucose and oxygen metabolism. Methods. Fourteen individuals with high-grade brain tumors underwent structural MR scans and PET measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF, oxygen (CMRO2 and glucose (CMRGlu metabolism, and AG, using 15O-labeled CO, O2 and H2O, and FDG, and were compared to a normative cohort of 20 age-matched individuals. Results. Elevated AG was observed in most high-grade brain tumors and it was associated with decreased CMRO2 and CBF, but not with significant changes in CMRGlu. Elevated AG was a dramatic and early sign of tumor growth associated with decreased survival. AG changes associated with tumor growth were differentiated from the effects of nonneoplastic processes such as epileptic seizures. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that high-grade brain tumors exhibit elevated AG as a marker of tumor growth and aggressiveness. AG may detect areas of active tumor growth that are not evident on conventional FDG PET.

  15. Model-Independent Evaluation of Tumor Markers and a Logistic-Tree Approach to Diagnostic Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizeng Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity of using individual tumor markers hardly meet the clinical requirement. This challenge gave rise to many efforts, e.g., combing multiple tumor markers and employing machine learning algorithms. However, results from different studies are often inconsistent, which are partially attributed to the use of different evaluation criteria. Also, the wide use of model-dependent validation leads to high possibility of data overfitting when complex models are used for diagnosis. We propose two model-independent criteria, namely, area under the curve (AUC and Relief to evaluate the diagnostic values of individual and multiple tumor markers, respectively. For diagnostic decision support, we propose the use of logistic-tree which combines decision tree and logistic regression. Application on a colorectal cancer dataset shows that the proposed evaluation criteria produce results that are consistent with current knowledge. Furthermore, the simple and highly interpretable logistic-tree has diagnostic performance that is competitive with other complex models.

  16. Cell proliferation markers in the transplanted canine transmissible venereal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.A. Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult male mongrel dogs were subcutaneously transplanted with the canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT on the hypogastric region. Twelve specimens of tumors were collected, half during the proliferative phase and the other half during the regressive phase. Fragments of the tumor were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and routinely processed for light microscopy. Sections of 4µm were stained by Schorr or AgNOR or either immunostained for MIB1 (Ki67. Schorr stain, AgNOR and MIB1 showed an increased proliferative activity through mitotic index, nuclear argyrophilic protein stain and cycling tumoral cells in the growing tumors, respectively. All of the three cell proliferation markers were able to distinguish the TVT in both evolution phases. MIB1 monoclonal antibody was the best in the morphologic evaluation of growth and regression of TVT. This resulted in higher values than AgNORs counting and mitotic index. MIB1 immunostaining was the most effective parameter of the proliferative activity of TVT. However, a significant correlation has been detected only between mitosis counting and AgNORs.

  17. Molecular markers for tumor cell dissemination in female cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermayr, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the fight against cancer many advances have been made in early detection and treatment of the disease during the last few decades. Nevertheless, many patients still die of cancer due to metastatic spreading of the disease. Tumor cell dissemination may occur very early and usually is not discovered at the time of initial diagnosis. In these cases, the mere excision of the primary tumor is an insufficient treatment. Microscopic tumor residues will remain in the blood, lymph nodes, or the bone marrow and will cause disease recurrence. To improve the patient's prognosis, a sensitive tool for the detection of single tumor cells supplementing conventional diagnostic procedures is required. As the blood is more easily accessible than the bone marrow or tissue biopsies, we intended to identify gene markers for the detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood of cancer patients. We focused on patients with breast, ovarian, endometrial or cervical cancer. Starting from a genome-wide gene expression analysis of tumor cells and blood cells, we found six genes higher expression levels in cancer patients compared to healthy women. These findings suggest that an increased expression of these genes in the blood indicates the presence of circulating tumor cells inducing future metastases and thus the need for adjuvant therapy assisting the primary treatment. Measuring the expression levels of these six genes in the blood may supplement conventional diagnostic tests and improve the patient's prognosis. (author) [de

  18. The diagnostic value of serum tumor markers CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3, and TPS in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weigang; Xu, Xiaoqin; Tian, Baoguo; Wang, Yan; Du, Lili; Sun, Ting; Shi, Yanchun; Zhao, Xianwen; Jing, Jiexian

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to understand the diagnostic value of serum tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), and tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). A total of 164 metastatic breast cancer patients in Shanxi Cancer Hospital were recruited between February 2016 and July 2016. 200 breast cancer patients without metastasis in the same period were randomly selected as the control group. The general characteristics, immunohistochemical, and pathological results were investigated between the two groups, and tumor markers were determined. There were statistical differences in the concentration and the positive rates of CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3, and TPS between the MBC and control group (Ptumor marker at 56.7% and 97.0%, respectively. In addition, two tumor markers were used for the diagnosis of MBC and the CEA and TPS combination had the highest diagnostic sensitivity with 78.7%, while the CA15-3 and CA125 combination had the highest specificity of 91.5%. Analysis of tumor markers of 164 MBC found that there were statistical differences in the positive rates of CEA and CA15-3 between bone metastases and other metastases (χ 2 =6.00, P=0.014; χ 2 =7.32, P=0.007, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity values of the CEA and CA15-3 combination in the diagnosis of bone metastases were 77.1% and 45.8%, respectively. The positive rate of TPS in the lung metastases group was lower than in other metastases (χ 2 =8.06, P=0.005).There were significant differences in the positive rates of CA15-3 and TPS between liver metastases and other metastases (χ 2 =15.42, Ptumor markers have varying diagnostic value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical Significance of Tumor Marker Detection in Patients 
with Advanced Squamous Cell Carcimoma of the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping LIANG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Due to it's concealment and no obvious symptoms, lung squamous carcimoma often has advanced disease when diagnosed. The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of the disease, to evaluate the clinical importance of detection of multiple tumor markers in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Methods The characteristics of all patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer treated in Beijing Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences during Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2015 were identified by cases reviewing and data extracting. The characteristics, detection levels and sensitivity of multiple tumor makers among patients were described. Results The 260 patients were treated with mean age of (59.4±9.2 years, 85.8% (n=223 of them were male, 14.2% (n=37 of them were female. 78.1% (n=203 of all were smokers and 3.1% (n=8 of patients had family history of tumor. The positive rate of cytokerantin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1 was 71.2%, which was the highest among five tumor markers. The five tumor markers median level had no statistical significance between different tumor (T stages and node (N stages (all P>0.05, only the positive rate of SCC had statistical significance between different T stages (P=0.035. The combination measurement of CYFRA21-1+carcinogen-embryonic antigen (CEA, CYFRA21-1+CEA+cancer antigen (CA125, CA125+CYFRA21-1+CEA+neuron specific enolase (NSE, and CA125+CYFRA21-1+NSE+CEA+squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC were better and had higher clinical values, the positive rates were 82.7%, 84.6%, 85.0% and 86.2%, respectively. Conclusion The positive rate of CYFRA21-1 was the highest and the sensitivity of single test of five tumor markers was low, the combination of multiple tumor markers increased the sensitivity of diagnosis of SQCLC, the combination of CA125, CYFRA21-1 and CEA was the best choice.

  20. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbo Shao

    Full Text Available The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3 levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients.Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed.Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9% and 60(13.9% patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer.Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  1. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed. Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9%) and 60(13.9%) patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer. Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  2. Viral-Cellular DNA Junctions as Molecular Markers for Assessing Intra-Tumor Heterogeneity in Cervical Cancer and for the Detection of Circulating Tumor DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Carow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of cervical cancer is frequently accompanied by the integration of human papillomaviruses (HPV DNA into the host genome. Viral-cellular junction sequences, which arise in consequence, are highly tumor specific. By using these fragments as markers for tumor cell origin, we examined cervical cancer clonality in the context of intra-tumor heterogeneity. Moreover, we assessed the potential of these fragments as molecular tumor markers and analyzed their suitability for the detection of circulating tumor DNA in sera of cervical cancer patients. For intra-tumor heterogeneity analyses tumors of 8 patients with up to 5 integration sites per tumor were included. Tumor islands were micro-dissected from cryosections of several tissue blocks representing different regions of the tumor. Each micro-dissected tumor area served as template for a single junction-specific PCR. For the detection of circulating tumor-DNA (ctDNA junction-specific PCR-assays were applied to sera of 21 patients. Samples were collected preoperatively and during the course of disease. In 7 of 8 tumors the integration site(s were shown to be homogenously distributed throughout different tumor regions. Only one tumor displayed intra-tumor heterogeneity. In 5 of 21 analyzed preoperative serum samples we specifically detected junction fragments. Junction-based detection of ctDNA was significantly associated with reduced recurrence-free survival. Our study provides evidence that HPV-DNA integration is as an early step in cervical carcinogenesis. Clonality with respect to HPV integration opens new perspectives for the application of viral-cellular junction sites as molecular biomarkers in a clinical setting such as disease monitoring.

  3. Endothelial cell marker PAL-E reactivity in brain tumor, developing brain, and brain disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, S.; Troost, D.; Das, P. K.; Claessen, N.; Becker, A. E.; Bosch, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The endothelial cell marker PAL-E is not reactive to vessels in the normal brain. The present study concerns the PAL-E reactivity in brain tumors in contrast to normal brain and nonneoplastic brain disease. A total of 122 specimens were examined: brain tumors (n = 94), nonneoplastic brain disease (n

  4. Rex3 (reduced in expression 3) as a new tumor marker in mouse hepatocarcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeuning, Albert; Jaworski, Maike; Schwarz, Michael; Koehle, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    In a previous microarray expression analysis, Rex3, a gene formerly not linked to tumor formation, was found to be highly overexpressed in both Ctnnb1-(β-Catenin) and Ha-ras-mutated mouse liver tumors. Subsequent analyses by in situ hybridization and real-time PCR confirmed a general liver tumor-specific overexpression of the gene (up to 400-fold). To investigate the role of Rex3 in liver tumors, hepatoma cells were transfected with FLAG- and Myc-tagged Rex3 expression vectors. Rex3 was shown to be exclusively localized to the cytoplasm, as determined by fluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. However, forced overexpression of Rex3 did not significantly affect proliferation or stress-induced apoptosis of transfected mouse hepatoma cells. Rex3 mRNA was determined in primary hepatocytes in culture by real-time PCR. In primary mouse hepatocytes, expression of Rex3 increased while cells dedifferentiated in culture. This effect was abolished when hepatocytes were maintained in a differentiated state. Furthermore, expression of Rex3 decreased in mouse liver with age of mice and the expression profile was highly correlated to that of the tumor markers α-fetoprotein and H19. The findings suggest a role of Rex3 as a marker for hepatocyte differentiation/dedifferentiation processes and tumor formation

  5. Development of RIA kits for tumor-markers monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprarop, P.

    1997-01-01

    All reagents for tumor markers assays are imported from various manufacturers mainly CIS bio international. The average cost of these reagents is ranged from 80-150 bath/test (2-4 dollars test). The screening test for cancers could not be done especially in other regions of Thailand whose budgets and resources are so limited. If the reagents are made locally, many laboratories can perform the tests and use as primary diagnosis, screening or monitor the course of the disease following treatment. In addition, these reagents could help clinicians and give complementary information on the tumor status to improve quality of life in Thailand. Research objectives include: 1. Development of IRMA reagent kits suitable for diagnosing staging and monitoring prostrate and breast cancer. 2. Transfer of technology and reagent kits to relevant laboratories in Thailand. 3. Routine distribution of the reagents kits to the end users

  6. Variation of stemness markers expression in tumor nodules from synchronous multi-focal hepatocellular carcinoma - an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Regina Cheuk-Lam; Leung, Carmen Oi-Ning; Chok, Kenneth Siu-Ho; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Advancing knowledge in molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) opens up new horizons in the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic perspectives. Assessing the expression of molecular targets prior to definitive treatment is gaining importance in clinical practice. In this study, we investigated the variation in expression pattern of stemness markers in synchronous multi-focal HCC. In the first cohort, 21 liver explants with multi-focal HCC were examined for expression of stemness markers EpCAM, Sox9 and CK19 by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Expression data of 50 tumor nodules were analyzed to determine the concordance of expression among nodules in the same livers. In the second cohort, 14 tumor nodules from 6 multi-focal HCC cases proven as intra-hepatic metastasis were examined for Soc9 immunoexpression. In the first cohort, thirty nodules from 16 cases expressed one or more markers, with Sox9 being most frequently expressed. Complete concordance of expression pattern for all 3 markers was observed in 6 cases. Discrepancy of staining degree was noted in 4 cases for EpCAM, 14 cases for Sox9, and 6 cases for CK19. A two-tier or three-tier difference in staining scores was noted in 5 cases for Sox9 and one case for CK19. With Sox9, identical tumor morphology in terms of Edmondson grading and growth pattern did not infer the same degree of immunoexpression; and the largest tumor nodule was not representative of highest IHC score. In the second cohort of intra-hepatic metastasis, complete concordance of Sox9 expression level was observed in 5 out of 6 cases; while the remaining case showed a 1-tier difference of positive staining. Our findings suggested that clonality of tumor nodules is apparently an important factor to infer immunoexpression pattern. When there is limited information to discern multiple primaries versus intra-hepatic metastasis in multi-focal HCC, discordant degree of stemness markers expression among tumor nodules was commonly

  7. Clinical significance of serum tumor markers for gastric cancer: a systematic review of literature by the Task Force of the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Noie, Tamaki; Ohashi, Manabu; Oba, Koji; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate the clinical significance of serum tumor markers, particularly CEA, CA19-9, and CA72-4, in patients with gastric cancer. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "gastric cancer" and "tumor marker," to select 4,925 relevant reports published before the end of November 2012. A total of 187 publications contained data for CEA and CA19-9, and 19 publications contained data related to all three tumor markers. The positive rates were 21.1 % for CEA, 27.8 % for CA19-9, and 30.0 % for CA72-4. These three markers were significantly associated with tumor stage and patient survival. Serum markers are not useful for early cancer, but they are useful for detecting recurrence and distant metastasis, predicting patient survival, and monitoring after surgery. Tumor marker monitoring may be useful for patients after surgery because the positive conversion of tumor markers usually occurs 2-3 months before imaging abnormalities. Among other tumor markers, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is useful for detecting and predicting liver metastases. Moreover, CA125 and sialyl Tn antigens (STN) are useful for detecting peritoneal metastases. Although no prospective trial has yet been completed to evaluate the clinical significance of these serum markers, this literature survey suggests that combinations of CEA, CA19-9, and CA72-4 are the most effective ways for staging before surgery or chemotherapy. In particular, monitoring tumor markers that were elevated before surgery or chemotherapy could be useful for detection of recurrence or evaluation of the response.

  8. Embedding filtering criteria into a wrapper marker selection method for brain tumor classification: an application on metabolic peak area ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kounelakis, M G; Zervakis, M E; Giakos, G C; Postma, G J; Buydens, L M C; Kotsiakis, X

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify reliable sets of metabolic markers that provide accurate classification of complex brain tumors and facilitate the process of clinical diagnosis. Several ratios of metabolites are tested alone or in combination with imaging markers. A wrapper feature selection and classification methodology is studied, employing Fisher's criterion for ranking the markers. The set of extracted markers that express statistical significance is further studied in terms of biological behavior with respect to the brain tumor type and grade. The outcome of this study indicates that the proposed method by exploiting the intrinsic properties of data can actually reveal reliable and biologically relevant sets of metabolic markers, which form an important adjunct toward a more accurate type and grade discrimination of complex brain tumors

  9. Phosphatidylserine is a marker of tumor vasculature and a potential target for cancer imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, Sophia; Thorpe, Philip E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To determine whether exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) occurs on vascular endothelium in solid tumors in mice. (2) To determine whether PS exposure can be induced on viable endothelial cells in tissue culture by conditions present in the tumor microenvironment. Methods and Materials: Externalized PS in vivo was detected by injecting mice with a monoclonal anti-PS antibody and examining frozen sections of tumors and normal tissues for anti-PS antibody bound to vascular endothelium. Apoptotic cells were identified by anti-active caspase-3 antibody or by TUNEL assay. PS exposure on cultured endothelial cells was determined by 125 I-annexin V binding. Results: Anti-PS antibody bound specifically to vascular endothelium in six tumor models. The percentage of PS-positive vessels ranged from 4% to 40% in different tumor types. Vascular endothelium in normal organs was unstained. Very few tumor vessels expressed apoptotic markers. Hypoxia/reoxygenation, acidity, inflammatory cytokines, thrombin, or hydrogen peroxide induced PS exposure on cultured endothelial cells without causing loss of viability. Conclusions: Vascular endothelial cells in tumors, but not in normal tissues, externalize PS. PS exposure might be induced by tumor-associated oxidative stress and activating cytokines. PS is an abundant and accessible marker of tumor vasculature and could be used for tumor imaging and therapy

  10. Tumor markers in the diagnosis of primary bladder cancer. A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Afina S.; Roos, Daphne; Deutekom, Marije; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Kurth, Karl H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: We systematically reviewed the available evidence, and obtained and compared summary estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of cytology and the urine based markers bladder tumor antigen, BTA stat (Polymedco, Redmond, Washington), BTA TRAK (Polymedco), NMP22 (Matritech, Cambridge,

  11. Dosimetric perturbation due to scattered rays released by a gold marker used for tumor tracking in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habara, Kosaku; Furukawa, Takashi; Shimozato, Tomohiro; Obata, Yasunori; Aoyama, Yuichi; Kawanami, Ryota; Hayashi, Naoki; Yasui, Keisuke; Matsuura, Kanji

    2011-01-01

    Image-guided radiation therapy using a gold marker-based tumor tracking technique provides precise patient setup and monitoring. However, the marker consists of high-Z material, and the resulting scattered rays tend to have adverse effects on the dose distribution of radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric perturbation due to the use of a gold marker for radiotherapy in the lungs. The relative dose distributions were compared with film measurement, Monte Carlo simulation, and XiO calculation with the multi grid superposition algorithm using two types of virtual lung phantoms, which were composed of tough water phantoms, tough lung phantoms, cork boards, and a 2.0-mm-diameter gold ball. No dose increase and decrease in the vicinity of the gold ball was seen in the XiO calculations, although it was seen in the film measurements and the Monte Carlo simulation. The dose perturbation due to a gold marker cannot be evaluated using XiO calculation with the superposition algorithm when the tumor is near a gold marker (especially within 0.5 cm). To rule out the presence of such dose perturbations due to a gold marker, the distance between the gold marker and the tumor must therefore be greater than 0.5 cm. (author)

  12. Clinically Meaningful Use of Blood Tumor Markers in Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Holdenrieder, Stefan; Pagliaro, Lance; Morgenstern, David; Dayyani, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Before the introduction of modern imaging techniques and the recent developments in molecular diagnosis, tumor markers (TMs) were among the few available diagnostic tools for the management of cancer patients. Easily obtained from serum or plasma samples, TMs are minimally invasive and convenient, and the associated costs are low. Single TMs were traditionally used but these have come under scrutiny due to their low sensitivity and specificity when used, for example, in a screening setting. H...

  13. The role of tumor marker CA 15-3 in detection of breast cancer relapse after curative mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, In Young; Kim, In Ho; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of tumor marker CA 15-3 in the following: the diagnosis of breast cancer relapse after curative mastectomy, and the differentiation of the value of tumor marker by site of metastases. Two hundred two patients (median age 48 years) with breast cancer included in the follow-up after curative mastectomy. The tumor marker CA 15-3 was determined by IRMA (CIS BIO INTERNATIONAl, France). Test values > 30 U/ml were considered elevated (positive). Among 202 patients, recurrent diseases were found in 16 patients. CA 15-3 was elevated in 5 of 16 patients with recurrences. There was no false-positive patients who had elevated CA 15-3. Sensitivity and specificity of CA 15-3 for detection of breast cancer recurrence were 31%, and 100%. CA 15-3 was elevated in all of the 4 patients with liver metastases. CA 15-3 was elevated in none of the patients who relapsed with metastasis to bone-only or contralateral breast-only. The tumor marker CA 15-3 in the detection of breast cancer relapse after curative mastectomy is specific, but not sensitive. However, it is useful to rule out liver metastases of breast cancer, which indicates bad prognosis

  14. Irradiation-Dependent Effects on Tumor Perfusion and Endogenous and Exogenous Hypoxia Markers in an A549 Xenograft Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokas, Emmanouil; Haenze, Joerg; Kamlah, Florentine; Eul, Bastian G.; Lang, Nico; Keil, Boris; Heverhagen, Johannes T.; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; An Hanxiang; Rose, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is a major determinant of tumor radiosensitivity, and microenvironmental changes in response to ionizing radiation (IR) are often heterogenous. We analyzed IR-dependent changes in hypoxia and perfusion in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts. Materials and Methods: Immunohistological analysis of two exogenously added chemical hypoxic markers, pimonidazole and CCI-103F, and of the endogenous marker Glut-1 was performed time dependently after IR. Tumor vessels and apoptosis were analyzed using CD31 and caspase-3 antibodies. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and fluorescent beads (Hoechst 33342) were used to monitor vascular perfusion. Results: CCI-103F signals measuring the fraction of hypoxic areas after IR were significantly decreased by approximately 50% when compared with pimonidazole signals, representing the fraction of hypoxic areas from the same tumors before IR. Interestingly, Glut-1 signals were significantly decreased at early time point (6.5 h) after IR returning to the initial levels at 30.5 h. Vascular density showed no difference between irradiated and control groups, whereas apoptosis was significantly induced at 10.5 h post-IR. DCE-MRI indicated increased perfusion 1 h post-IR. Conclusions: The discrepancy between the hypoxic fractions of CCI-103F and Glut-1 forces us to consider the possibility that both markers reflect different metabolic alterations of tumor microenvironment. The reliability of endogenous markers such as Glut-1 to measure reoxygenation in irradiated tumors needs further consideration. Monitoring tumor microvascular response to IR by DCE-MRI and measuring tumor volume alterations should be encouraged.

  15. Study of Aided Diagnosis of Hepatic Carcinoma Based on Artificial Neural Network Combined with Tumor Marker Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shanjuan; Feng, Feifei; Wu, Yongjun; Wu, Yiming

    To develop a computer-aided diagnostic scheme by using an artificial neural network (ANN) combined with tumor markers for diagnosis of hepatic carcinoma (HCC) as a clinical assistant method. 140 serum samples (50 malignant, 40 benign and 50 normal) were analyzed for α-fetoprotein (AFP), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), sialic acid (SA) and calcium (Ca). The five tumor marker values were then used as ANN inputs data. The result of ANN was compared with that of discriminant analysis by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of ANN and discriminant analysis among all samples of the test group was 95.5% and 79.3%, respectively. Analysis of multiple tumor markers based on ANN may be a better choice than the traditional statistical methods for differentiating HCC from benign or normal.

  16. The importance of tumor marker titers for the indication of immunoscintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies anti-CEA and anti-CA 19.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, J.F.; Charrie, A.; Fleury-Goyon, M.C.; Chauvot, P. et; Lahneche, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    In 18 patients operated for malignant tumors 20 immunoscintigraphies were done with a monoclonal antibody cocktail (anti-CEA F(ab') 2 and anti-CA 19.9 F(ab') 2 ). Immediately before scintigraphy tumor marker titers in plasma were determined in all cases. Tumor marker levels corresponding to positive or doubtful scintigraphies are analysed. (Author)

  17. Application of support vector machine model for enhancing the diagnostic value of tumor markers in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Huang Gang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the early diagnostic value of tumor markers for gastric cancer using support vector machine (SVM) model. Methods: Subjects involved in the study consisted of 262 cases with gastric cancer, 156 cases with benign gastric diseases and 149 healthy controls. From those subjects, five tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate (CA) 125, CA19-9, alphafetoprotein (AFP) and CA50, were assayed and collected to make the datasets. To modify SVM model to fit the diagnostic classifiers, radial basis function was adopted and kernel function was optimized and validated by grid search and cross validation. For comparative study, methods of combination tests of five markers, Logistic regression, and decision tree were also used. Results: For gastric cancer, the diagnostic accuracy of the combination tests, Logistic regression, decision tree and SVM model were 46.2%, 64.5%, 63.9% and 95.1% respectively. SVM model significantly elevated the diagnostic value comparing with other three methods. Conclusion: The application of SVM model is of high value in enhancing the tumor marker for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. (authors)

  18. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 as a possible marker of COPD in smokers and ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram, Laura Miranda de Oliveira; Ferrari, R; Nogueira, D L; Oliveira, Mrm; Francisqueti, F V; Tanni, S E; Corrêa, C R; Godoy, I

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are higher in smokers and patients with COPD; however, markers that may help differentiate between smokers and patients with COPD have not yet been identified. We hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor (TNFR) and soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) can be indicators of COPD in asymptomatic patients. We evaluated 32 smokers (smoking history >10 pack-years), 32 patients with mild/moderate COPD (smokers and ex-smokers), and 32 never smokers. Concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, TNFR1 and TNFR2, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the sRAGE were measured in serum. There were higher CRP and AGEs concentrations in smokers and in patients with COPD ( P smokers and patients with COPD. Concentrations of sRAGE, IL-6, and TNFR1 did not differ between study groups. TNFR2 was significantly higher in patients with COPD than in smokers ( P =0.004) and controls ( P =0.004), and the presence of COPD ( P =0.02) and CRP ( P =0.001) showed a positive association with TNFR2. Positive associations for smoking ( P =0.04), CRP ( P =0.03), and IL-6 ( P =0.03) with AGEs were also found. The interaction variable (smoking × COPD) showed a positive association with IL-6. Our data suggest that TNFR2 may be a possible marker of COPD in asymptomatic smokers and ex-smokers. Although smokers and patients with early COPD presented other increased systemic inflammation markers (eg, CRP) and oxidative stress (measured by AGEs), they did not differentiate smokers from COPD.

  19. Apelin as a marker for monitoring the tumor vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Takara, Kazuhiro; Yamakawa, Daishi; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic agents transiently normalize tumor vessel structure and improve vessel function, thereby providing a window of opportunity for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Currently, there are no reliable predictors or markers reflecting this vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. Apelin, the expression of which is regulated by hypoxia, and which has well-described roles in tumor progression, is an easily measured secreted protein. Here, we show that apelin can be used as a marker for the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. Mice bearing s.c. tumors resulting from inoculation of the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29 were treated with a single injection of bevacizumab, a mAb neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor. Tumor growth, vessel density, pericyte coverage, tumor hypoxia, and small molecule delivery were determined at four different times after treatment with bevacizumab (days 1, 3, 5, and 8). Tumor growth and vessel density were significantly reduced after bevacizumab treatment, which also significantly increased tumor vessel maturity, and improved tumor hypoxia and small molecule delivery between days 3 and 5. These effects abated by day 8, suggesting that a time window for vessel normalization was opened between days 3 and 5 during bevacizumab treatment in this model. Apelin mRNA expression and plasma apelin levels decreased transiently at day 5 post-treatment, coinciding with vessel normalization. Thus, apelin is a potential indicator of the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  20. Diagnostic value of CEA and CYFRA 21-1 tumor markers in primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Kyoko; Takayama, Koichi; Izumi, Miiru; Harada, Taishi; Furuyama, Kazuto; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is sometimes difficult to differentiate from benign lung diseases expressing nodular shadow in imaging study. We assessed the diagnostic value of two commonly used tumor markers in distinguishing primary lung cancer from benign lung disease. The serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1) were retrospectively analyzed in 655 lung cancer patients and 237 patients with benign lung disease. The standard cut-off levels of 3.2 ng/mL CEA and 3.5 ng/mL CYFRA 21-1 and twice these respective levels (6.4 ng/mL and 7.0 ng/mL) were used. CEA and CYFRA 21-1 levels were elevated in 32% and 11% of benign lung disease patients, respectively. CEA sensitivity and specificity for lung cancer diagnosis was 69% and 68% respectively, while that for CYFRA 21-1 was 43% and 89%, respectively. Thus, the combined value for the specificity of the two tumor markers was greater than either alone. Patients were grouped depending on their hospital status, and prevalence rates were determined. The prevalence rate of lung cancer in admitted patients was 51%, the prevalence rate of lung cancer in outpatients was 12%, and the prevalence rate of lung cancer identified during health check-ups was 0.1%. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated using Bayes' theorem, and varied with the serum tumor marker and prevalence rate: PPVs of CEA [prevalence rate] were 69.2% [51%], 22.7% [12%], and 0.22% [0.1%], while PPVs of CYFRA 21-1 were 80.3% [51%], 34.8% [12%], and 0.39% [0.1%]. However, PPVs for lung cancer diagnosis at a prevalence rate of 51% were 87.3% or higher when the patient exhibited positive CEA and CYFRA 21-1, or CEA or CYFRA 21-1 levels twice the standard cut-off. Our results indicate that CEA and CYFRA 21-1 are reliable serum tumor markers for the diagnosis of lung cancer in addition to CT scans when combined or used individually at twice the standard cut-off level in high prevalence rate groups. The prevalence rate should

  1. Thrombomodulin as a marker for vascular tumors. Comparative study with factor VIII and Ulex europaeus I lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, S; Maruyama, I; Sakae, K; Igata, A; Majerus, P W; Sato, E

    1987-10-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is a newly described endothelial cell-associated protein that functions as a potent natural anticoagulant by converting thrombin from a procoagulant protease to an anticoagulant. Various vascular tumors were characterized with immunoperoxidase staining with the use of a polyclonal anti-TM serum. The staining patterns of TM were compared with those of Factor VIII-related antigen (FVIII-RAG) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), which have been used as markers for endothelial cells. The results showed that TM is a specific and a highly sensitive marker for angiosarcomas in comparison with FVIII-RAG or UEA-I. In contrast, UEA-I is more sensitive for benign vascular tumors than TM or FVIII-RAG. The other mesenchymal tumors of nonvascular origin showed negative staining for three endothelial markers. These results indicate that TM is a new specific and sensitive tool for the diagnosis of angiosarcomas.

  2. Optimum location of external markers using feature selection algorithms for real-time tumor tracking in external-beam radiotherapy: a virtual phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankali, Saber; Torshabi, Ahmad Esmaili; Miandoab, Payam Samadi; Baghizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-08

    In external-beam radiotherapy, using external markers is one of the most reliable tools to predict tumor position, in clinical applications. The main challenge in this approach is tumor motion tracking with highest accuracy that depends heavily on external markers location, and this issue is the objective of this study. Four commercially available feature selection algorithms entitled 1) Correlation-based Feature Selection, 2) Classifier, 3) Principal Components, and 4) Relief were proposed to find optimum location of external markers in combination with two "Genetic" and "Ranker" searching procedures. The performance of these algorithms has been evaluated using four-dimensional extended cardiac-torso anthropomorphic phantom. Six tumors in lung, three tumors in liver, and 49 points on the thorax surface were taken into account to simulate internal and external motions, respectively. The root mean square error of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as prediction model was considered as metric for quantitatively evaluating the performance of proposed feature selection algorithms. To do this, the thorax surface region was divided into nine smaller segments and predefined tumors motion was predicted by ANFIS using external motion data of given markers at each small segment, separately. Our comparative results showed that all feature selection algorithms can reasonably select specific external markers from those segments where the root mean square error of the ANFIS model is minimum. Moreover, the performance accuracy of proposed feature selection algorithms was compared, separately. For this, each tumor motion was predicted using motion data of those external markers selected by each feature selection algorithm. Duncan statistical test, followed by F-test, on final results reflected that all proposed feature selection algorithms have the same performance accuracy for lung tumors. But for liver tumors, a correlation-based feature selection algorithm, in

  3. Preclinical assessment of hypoxic marker specificity and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Renuka V.; Engelhardt, Edward L.; Stobbe, Corinne C.; Schneider, Richard F.; Chapman, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: In the search for a sensitive, accurate, and noninvasive technique for quantifying human tumor hypoxia, our laboratory has synthesized several potential radiodiagnostic agents. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the hypoxic marking properties of both radioiodinated and Tc-99m labeled markers in appropriate test systems which can predict for in vivo activity. Materials and Methods: Preclinical assessment of hypoxic marker specificity and sensitivity employed three laboratory assays with tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Radiolabeled marker uptake and/or binding to whole EMT-6 tumor cells under extremely hypoxic and aerobic conditions was measured and their ratio defined hypoxia-specific factor (HSF). Marker specificity to hypoxic tumor tissue was estimated from its selective avidity to two rodent tumors in vivo, whose radiobiologic hypoxic fractions (HF) had been measured. The ratios of % injected dose/gram (%ID/g) of marker at various times in EMT-6 tumor tissue relative to that in the blood and muscle of scid mice were used to quantify hypoxia-specific activity. This tumor in this host exhibited an average radiobiologic HF of ∼35%. As well, nuclear medicine images were acquired from R3327-AT (HF ≅15%) and R3327-H (no measurable HF) prostate carcinomas growing in rats to distinguish between marker avidity due to hypoxia versus perfusion. Results: The HSF for FC-103 and other iodinated markers were higher (5-40) than those for FC-306 and other Tc-99m labeled markers. The latter did not show hypoxia-specific uptake into cells in vitro. Qualitative differences were observed in the biodistribution and clearance kinetics of the iodinated azomycin nucleosides relative to the technetium chelates. The largest tumor/blood (T/B) and tumor/muscle (T/M) ratios were observed for compounds of the azomycin nucleoside class in EMT-6 tumor-bearing scid mice. These markers also showed a 3-4 x higher uptake into R3327-AT tumors relative to the well

  4. Relationship of preoperative gastric cancer CT enhancement ratio and perfusion parameters with serum tumor marker levels and proliferation molecule expression in tumor lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hong Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of preoperative gastric cancer CT enhancement ratio and perfusion parameters with serum tumor marker levels and proliferation molecule expression in tumor lesions. Methods: A total of 68 patients with gastric cancer treated in the Second Hospital of Yulin City between May 2012 and May 2016 were chosen as observation group and sub-divided into early and middle gastric cancer group (n=41 and advanced gastric cancer group (n=27 according to the tumor stage; 50 patients diagnosed with benign gastric diseases in our hospital during the same period were selected as benign gastric lesion group. CT enhancement rate and perfusion parameters of three groups of patients were detected by CT scan, serum tumor marker levels were evacuated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and the proliferation gene mRNA expression levels were detected by RTPCR method. Results: CER, AF, BV and CL levels of advanced gastric cancer group were higher than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group; serum CA72-4, CA19-9, CA125 and CEA contents of advanced gastric cancer group were higher than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group; CADM1, miRNA-34a and Cystatin M mRNA expression in tissue of advanced gastric cancer group were lower than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group while Survivin and I2PP2A mRNA expression were higher than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group. The Pearson test showed that the CT enhancement rate and perfusion parameters in patients with gastric cancer are directly correlated with the serum tumor marker levels and the proliferation gene expression in tumor lesions. Conclusion: Preoperative gastric cancer CT enhancement rate and perfusion parameters are directly related to the tumor malignancy, and can be used as a reliable method for the long-term tumor

  5. Chromogranins - new sensitive markers for neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, B.; Arnberg, H.; Oeberg, K.; Hellman, U.; Lundqvist, G.; Wernstedt, C.; Wilander, E.; Uppsala Hospital; Uppsala Hospital

    1989-01-01

    Chromogranins A, B and C, proteins that are costored and coreleased with peptides and amines, have been identified in a variety of endocrine and nervous tissues, both normal and neoplastic. We examined the secretion of chromogranin A and chromogranin A+B by hormone-producing tumors in patients with endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPT), carcinoid tumors, pheochromocytomas and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of the plasma/serum concentrations of chromogranin A+B showed a greater sensitivity than RIA of chromogranin A alone. All patients with EPT, carcinoids and pheochromocytomas had increased levels of chromogranin A+B, whereas a small number of the patients (5/18 with EPT and 1/3 with pheochromocytomas) had normal levels of chromogranin A. Also in immunocytochemical stainings, our polyclonal antiserum detecting both chromogranin A and B showed a greater sensitivity than other available antisera against chromogranin A, B and C. (orig.)

  6. Clinical usefulness of CEA, CA19-9, and CYFRA 21-1 as tumor markers for urothelial bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washino, Satoshi; Hirai, Masaru; Matsuzaki, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of measuring serum CEA, CA19-9, and CYFRA 21-1 levels for the diagnosis and monitoring of bladder cancer. Serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, and CYFRA 21-1 were measured in 85 patients with bladder cancer. The absolute level of each marker and the positive rate were compared with the clinical stage and histological grade of the tumor. Changes of the markers were assessed in patients with or without disease progression, and the correlations between survival and positivity/negativity of these markers were also evaluated. A higher serum level of CYFRA 21-1 was significantly correlated with higher tumor stage (p CEA and CA19-9 levels did not differ significantly among each stage and grade. The CYFRA 21-1 level increased significantly along with disease progression (from 7.33 ± 13.3 to 55.9 ± 127 ng/ml, p marker of advanced- and high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. It is useful for monitoring this disease and for predicting the prognosis. In contrast, the clinical usefulness of CEA and CA19-9 as tumor markers was not demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Tumor markers CEA and CA 19-9 correlate with radiological imaging in metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving first-line chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, M; Koch, J; Laubender, R P; Modest, D P; Giessen, C; Schulz, Ch; Heinemann, V

    2014-10-01

    In patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), radiological imaging represents the current standard to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy. However, with growing knowledge about tumor biology, other diagnostic tools become of interest which can supplement radiology. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation of tumor and serum markers with radiological imaging in patients with mCRC receiving first-line therapy. Patients were included if tumor (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9)) and serum marker (lactatdehydrogenase (LDH), γ-glutamyltransferase (γGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), C-reactive protein (CRP), leucocyte count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb)) levels were available at baseline and at least two times during treatment. The decline and increase of tumor and serum markers over time were approximated for each patient by estimating slopes depending on the radiological assessment. A linear mixed effects multiple regression model for each subject was used to evaluate the intra-class correlation of these slopes modeling tumor and serum marker changes with radiological imaging. Data of 124 patients (41 female, 83 male; median age 62.9 years, range 27-85) who received first-line chemotherapy for mCRC from 11/2007 to 04/2010 were analyzed retrospectively. CEA level slopes (n = 49; slopes = 102) differed between radiologically determined progressive disease (PD) and partial response (PR) (p = 0.005) and between PD and stable disease (SD) (p = 0.042). CA 19-9 level slopes (n = 57; slopes = 127) also showed a significant difference between PD and PR (p = 0.002) and PD and SD (p = 0.058). Furthermore, CRP slopes (n = 62; slopes = 134) differed significantly between PD and PR (p = 0.009). For LDH, ALP, γGT, Hb, and WBC, no correlations were observed. The results indicate the correlation of the tumor markers CEA, CA 19-9, and the serum marker CRP with radiological imaging in

  8. The prognostic value of tumor markers doubling times in medullary thyroid carcinoma - preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlik Tomasz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Calcitonin (Ct and carcinoembrional antigen (CEA are widely used as tumor markers for the post-operative follow-up of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC. In patients with elevated serum Ct and CEA their dynamics can be described by calculating the doubling time (DT - the time, they need to double the serum concentration. Previous reports concluded that the Ct and CEA DT have prognostic value in MTC patients. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed data of 70 MTC patients with elevated serum Ct or CEA. In total, doubling times were calculated and the DT of the less favorable marker was used to stratify the patients into the low- and high-risk group with the cut-off value of 2 years. The survival analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard method. Results The doubling time Conclusions The calcitonin and carcinembrional antigen doubling times of less than two years are negative prognostic factors for MTC recurrence-free and total survival in patients with persistent or recurrent disease. They may be used as predictive factors for more intensive search of disease localization in asymptomatic hypercalcitoninemia and for therapy choice in symptomatic disease.

  9. Circulating levels of cell adhesion molecule L1 as a prognostic marker in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, Hilke; Kaifi, Jussuf; Rawnaq, Tamina; Wedemeyer, Max von; Tachezy, Michael; Kunkel, Miriam; Wolters, Gerrit; Bockhorn, Maximilian; Schachner, Melitta; Izbicki, Jakob R

    2011-01-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (CD171) is expressed in many malignant tumors and its expression correlates with unfavourable outcome. It thus represents a target for tumor diagnosis and therapy. An earlier study conducted by our group identified L1 expression levels in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) as a prognostic marker. The aim of the current study was to compare L1 serum levels of GIST patients with those of healthy controls and to determine whether levels of soluble L1 in sera could serve as a prognostic marker. Using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), soluble L1 was measured in sera of 93 GIST patients und 151 healthy controls. Soluble L1 levels were then correlated with clinicopathological data. Median levels of soluble L1 were significantly higher (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U test) in sera of GIST patients compared to healthy individuals. Median soluble L1 levels were particularly elevated in patients with recurrence and relapse (p < 0.05; Mann Whitney U test). These results suggest that high soluble L1 levels predict poor prognosis and may thus be a promising tumor marker that can contribute to individualise therapy

  10. A method of surface marker location optimization for tumor motion estimation in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bo; Park, Justin C.; Fan, Qiyong; Kahler, Darren; Liu, Chihray; Chen, Yunmei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Accurately localizing lung tumor localization is essential for high-precision radiation therapy techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Since direct monitoring of tumor motion is not always achievable due to the limitation of imaging modalities for treatment guidance, placement of fiducial markers on the patient’s body surface to act as a surrogate for tumor position prediction is a practical alternative for tracking lung tumor motion during SBRT treatments. In this work, the authors propose an innovative and robust model to solve the multimarker position optimization problem. The model is able to overcome the major drawbacks of the sparse optimization approach (SOA) model. Methods: The principle-component-analysis (PCA) method was employed as the framework to build the authors’ statistical prediction model. The method can be divided into two stages. The first stage is to build the surrogate tumor matrix and calculate its eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors. The second stage is to determine the “best represented” columns of the eigenvector matrix obtained from stage one and subsequently acquire the optimal marker positions as well as numbers. Using 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and breath hold CT imaging data, the PCA method was compared to the SOA method with respect to calculation time, average prediction accuracy, prediction stability, noise resistance, marker position consistency, and marker distribution. Results: The PCA and SOA methods which were both tested were on all 11 patients for a total of 130 cases including 4DCT and breath-hold CT scenarios. The maximum calculation time for the PCA method was less than 1 s with 64 752 surface points, whereas the average calculation time for the SOA method was over 12 min with 400 surface points. Overall, the tumor center position prediction errors were comparable between the two methods, and all were less than 1.5 mm. However, for the extreme scenarios (breath hold), the

  11. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for use of tumor markers in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturgeon, Catharine M; Hoffman, Barry R; Chan, Daniel W

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This report presents updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines summarizing quality requirements for the use of tumor markers. METHODS: One subcommittee developed guidelines for analytical quality relevant to serum and tissue-based tumor...... questions to ensure selection of the appropriate test, adherence to good clinical and laboratory practices (e.g., minimization of the risk of incorrect patient and/or specimen identification, tube type, or timing), use of internationally standardized and well-characterized methods, careful adherence...... records. Also mandatory is extensive validation encompassing all stages of analysis before introduction of new technologies such as microarrays and mass spectrometry. Provision of high-quality tumor marker services is facilitated by dialogue involving researchers, diagnostic companies, clinical...

  12. Multiplex detection of tumor markers with photonic suspension array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yuanjin; Zhao Xiangwei [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Pei Xiaoping [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Hu Jing; Zhao Wenju [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Chen Baoan [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Gu Zhongze [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Research Institute of Southeast University in Suzhou, Dushu Lake Higher Education Town, Suzhou 215123 (China)], E-mail: gu@seu.edu.cn

    2009-02-02

    A novel photonic suspension array was developed for multiplex immunoassay. The carries of this array were silica colloidal crystal beads (SCCBs). The codes of these carriers are the characteristic reflection peak originated from their structural periodicity, and therefore they do not suffer from fading, bleaching, quenching, and chemical instability. In addition, because no dyes or materials related with fluorescence are included, the fluorescence background of SCCBs is very low. With a sandwich format, the proposed suspension array was used for simultaneous multiplex detection of tumor markers in one test tube. The results showed that the four tumor markers, {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carcinoma antigen 125 (CA 125) and carcinoma antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) could be assayed in the ranges of 1.0-500 ng mL{sup -1}, 1.0-500 ng mL{sup -1}, 1.0-500 U mL{sup -1} and 3.0-500 U mL{sup -1} with limits of detection of 0.68 ng mL{sup -1}, 0.95 ng mL{sup -1}, 0.99 U mL{sup -1} and 2.30 U mL{sup -1} at 3{sigma}, respectively. The proposed array showed acceptable accuracy, detection reproducibility, storage stability and the results obtained were in acceptable agreement with those from parallel single-analyte test of practical clinical sera. This technique provides a new strategy for low cost, automated, and simultaneous multiplex immunoassay.

  13. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Methods Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and ...

  14. Diagnostic significance of tumor markers CEA, CA50 and CA19-9 for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei; Huang Gang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression and diagnostic significance of three serum tumor markers (CEA, CA50, CA19-9) in patients with colorectal cancer, with special emphasis on their combined assay. Methods: Serum CEA, CA19-9 levels (with chemiluminescence immunoassay) and CA50 levels (with immunoradiometric assay) were determined in 94 patients with colorectal cancer, 20 patients with benign colorectal disorders and 37 controls. Results: The expressions of the serum tumor markers were significantly higher in patients with colorectal cancer than those in patients with benign colorectal disorders and controls (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the levels in the latter two groups. CEA assay had the highest sensitivity (57.4%) and specificity (85.9%). Combined assay of the three could enhance both the sensitivity (62.7%) and specificity (96.5%). The serum levels of the markers were significantly higher in patients with colonic cancer than those in patients with rectal cancer (P<0.05). The levels were positively correlated with the size of the growth and stage of the disease. Serum tumor marker levels were also significantly higher in patients with metastasis (regional/distant) than those in patients without metastasis (P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum CEA, CA50 and CA19-9 levels had definite value for the diagnosis and assessment of the pathology as well as biologic behavior colorectal cancer. Combined assay of the three could enhance the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. (authors)

  15. CRX is a diagnostic marker of retinal and pineal lineage tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Santagata

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available CRX is a homeobox transcription factor whose expression and function is critical to maintain retinal and pineal lineage cells and their progenitors. To determine the biologic and diagnostic potential of CRX in human tumors of the retina and pineal, we examined its expression in multiple settings.Using situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we show that Crx RNA and protein expression are exquisitely lineage restricted to retinal and pineal cells during normal mouse and human development. Gene expression profiling analysis of a wide range of human cancers and cancer cell lines also supports that CRX RNA is highly lineage restricted in cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of 22 retinoblastomas and 13 pineal parenchymal tumors demonstrated strong expression of CRX in over 95% of these tumors. Importantly, CRX was not detected in the majority of tumors considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors (n = 78. The notable exception was medulloblastoma, 40% of which exhibited CRX expression in a heterogeneous pattern readily distinguished from that seen in retino-pineal tumors.These findings describe new potential roles for CRX in human cancers and highlight the general utility of lineage restricted transcription factors in cancer biology. They also identify CRX as a sensitive and specific clinical marker and a potential lineage dependent therapeutic target in retinoblastoma and pineoblastoma.

  16. Circulating tumor cells and miRNAs as prognostic markers in neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Grossrubatscher, Erika Maria; Guadagno, Elia; Sciammarella, Concetta; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-06-01

    The prognosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) is widely variable and has been shown to associate with several tissue- and blood-based biomarkers in different settings. The identification of prognostic factors predicting NEN outcome is of paramount importance to select the best clinical management for these patients. Prognostic markers have been intensively investigated, also taking advantage of the most modern techniques, in the perspective of personalized medicine and appropriate resource utilization. This review summarizes the available data on the possible role of circulating tumor cells and microRNAs as prognostic markers in NENs. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Tumor-associated auto-antibodies as early detection markers for ovarian cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Hüsing, Anika

    2018-01-01

    .08-0.40] for CTAG1A, CTAG2 and NUDT1 to 0.23 [0.10-0.44] for P53 (0.33 [0.11-0.68] for high-grade serous tumors). However, at longer lead-times the ability of these AAb markers to distinguish future ovarian cancer cases from controls declined rapidly; at lead times >1 year, SE98 estimates were close to zero (all...... invasive cases, range: 0.01-0.11). Compared to CA125 alone, combined logistic regression scores of AAbs and CA125 did not improve detection sensitivity at equal level of specificity. The added value of these selected AAbs as markers for ovarian cancer beyond CA125 for early detection is therefore limited...

  18. The Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Tumor Markers (CEA, SCC, CYFRA 21-1, TPS) in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Vivian; Meirovitz, Amichay; Leibovici, Vera; Rachmut, Jacob; Peretz, Tamar; Eliashar, Ron; Gross, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Establishing prognostic factors is very important in the management of cancer patients. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical significance of a panel of tumor markers, including CEA (Carcino Embryonic Antigen), SCC (Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen), TPS (Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen) and CYFRA 21-1 in head and neck cancer patients, for assessing treatment response and prognosis of patients. We evaluated 312 blood samples from 143 head and neck cancer patients, from several sub-groups: 82 Larynx Carcinoma pre- and 38 post-therapy, 46 Oral Cavity pre and 29 post-therapy, 12 nasopharynx, 16 parotid and other salivary gland patients. Blood tumor markers levels were evaluated by conventional ELISA assays. Correlations of marker levels to stage of disease, lymph node involvement and therapy, were performed. Serum levels of all four tumor markers were higher before therapy and decreased thereafter in all patients. The decrease in TPS level following therapy was significant (p=0.03). Significantly higher levels of TPS and similarly higher levels of the other tumor markers were demonstrated in advanced disease (stages III and IV) patients, as opposed to early disease (stages I and II) patients (p=0.012). Node positive patients had significantly higher TPS levels as compared to node negative (p=0.02). The same trend was shown by the other markers as well, but did not reach statistical significance. TPS was best correlated to survival of patients; those having low levels had the best clinical outcome and longer survival. CEA, SCC, TPS and CYFRA 21-1 can all serve as useful tumor markers in HNC patients. They assessed response to therapy and were prognostic for recurrence. TPS proved to be the most sensitive predictor of advanced disease and poor prognosis. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. GLUT1 expression in malignant tumors and its use as an immunodiagnostic marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia C. Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze glucose transporter 1 expression patterns in malignant tumors of various cell types and evaluate their diagnostic value by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: Glucose is the major source of energy for cells, and glucose transporter 1 is the most common glucose transporter in humans. Glucose transporter 1 is aberrantly expressed in several tumor types. Studies have implicated glucose transporter 1 expression as a prognostic and diagnostic marker in tumors, primarily in conjunction with positron emission tomography scan data. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for glucose transporter 1 was performed in tissue microarray slides, comprising 1955 samples of malignant neoplasm from different cell types. RESULTS: Sarcomas, lymphomas, melanomas and hepatoblastomas did not express glucose transporter 1. Fortyseven per cent of prostate adenocarcinomas were positive, as were 29% of thyroid, 10% of gastric and 5% of breast adenocarcinomas. Thirty-six per cent of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck were positive, as were 42% of uterine cervix squamous cell carcinomas. Glioblastomas and retinoblastomas showed membranous glucose transporter 1 staining in 18.6% and 9.4% of all cases, respectively. Squamous cell carcinomas displayed membranous expression, whereas adenocarcinomas showed cytoplasmic glucose transporter 1 expression. CONCLUSION: Glucose transporter 1 showed variable expression in various tumor types. Its absence in sarcomas, melanomas, hepatoblastomas and lymphomas suggests that other glucose transporters mediate the glycolytic pathway in these tumors. The data suggest that glucose transporter 1 is a valuable immunohistochemical marker that can be used to identify patients for evaluation by positron emission tomography scan. The function of cytoplasmic glucose transporter 1 in adenocarcinomas must be further examined.

  20. Apprasial of the diagnostic value of combined detection of serum tumor markers (AFP, CEA, SF, TSA) for common malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jingyin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the detection rate of common malignancies with combined determination of four serum tumor markers (AFP, CEA, SF, TSA). Methods: Serum AFP, CEA, SF (with RIA) and TSA (with biochemical method) contents were determined in 612 patients with various kinds of proved malignancies. Results: Positive rates of combined determination of these four tumor markers for detection of common malignancies were: 95.2%(79/83) for liver carcinoma, 92.6% (125/135) for lung carcinoma, 88.5% (115/130) for gastric cancer, 83.3% (60/72) for colorectal cancer, 84.2% (85/101) for breast cancer, 90.0% (9/10) for chorionepithelioma and 88.9% (72/81) for ovarian cancer. Conclusion: Combined determination of these four tumor markers for screening malignancies is simple, cheap, practical and worth popularization. (authors)

  1. Optimum location of external markers using feature selection algorithms for real‐time tumor tracking in external‐beam radiotherapy: a virtual phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankali, Saber; Miandoab, Payam Samadi; Baghizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    In external‐beam radiotherapy, using external markers is one of the most reliable tools to predict tumor position, in clinical applications. The main challenge in this approach is tumor motion tracking with highest accuracy that depends heavily on external markers location, and this issue is the objective of this study. Four commercially available feature selection algorithms entitled 1) Correlation‐based Feature Selection, 2) Classifier, 3) Principal Components, and 4) Relief were proposed to find optimum location of external markers in combination with two “Genetic” and “Ranker” searching procedures. The performance of these algorithms has been evaluated using four‐dimensional extended cardiac‐torso anthropomorphic phantom. Six tumors in lung, three tumors in liver, and 49 points on the thorax surface were taken into account to simulate internal and external motions, respectively. The root mean square error of an adaptive neuro‐fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) as prediction model was considered as metric for quantitatively evaluating the performance of proposed feature selection algorithms. To do this, the thorax surface region was divided into nine smaller segments and predefined tumors motion was predicted by ANFIS using external motion data of given markers at each small segment, separately. Our comparative results showed that all feature selection algorithms can reasonably select specific external markers from those segments where the root mean square error of the ANFIS model is minimum. Moreover, the performance accuracy of proposed feature selection algorithms was compared, separately. For this, each tumor motion was predicted using motion data of those external markers selected by each feature selection algorithm. Duncan statistical test, followed by F‐test, on final results reflected that all proposed feature selection algorithms have the same performance accuracy for lung tumors. But for liver tumors, a correlation‐based feature

  2. Prognostic impact of normalization of serum tumor markers following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic carcinoma with arterial contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yoshiaki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Sudo, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Yasushi; Kondo, Naru; Nakagawa, Naoya; Okada, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro

    2017-04-01

    The survival benefit of neoadjuvant therapy for patients with borderline resectable pancreatic carcinoma has been reported recently. However, prognostic factors for this strategy have not been clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify prognostic factors for patients with borderline resectable pancreatic carcinoma who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Medical records of 66 patients with pancreatic carcinoma with arterial contact who intended to undergo tumor resection following neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. Prognostic factors were investigated by analyzing the clinicopathological factors with univariate and multivariate survival analyses. Gemcitabine plus S-1 was generally used as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The objective response rate was 24%, and normalization of serum tumor markers following neoadjuvant chemotherapy was achieved in 29 patients (44%). Of the 66 patients, 60 patients underwent tumor resection and the remaining six patients did not due to distant metastases following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. For all 66 patients, overall 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates were 87.8, 54.5, and 20.5%, respectively (median survival time, 27.1 months) and multivariate analysis revealed that normalization of serum tumor markers was found to be an independent prognostic factor of better overall survival (P = 0.023). Moreover, for 60 patients who undergo tumor resection, normalization of serum tumor markers (P = 0.005) was independently associated with better overall survival by multivariate analysis. Patients with pancreatic carcinoma with arterial contact who undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy and experience normalization of serum tumor markers thereafter may be good candidates for tumor resection.

  3. Tumor Hypoxia: Causative Mechanisms, Microregional Heterogeneities, and the Role of Tissue-Based Hypoxia Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaupel, Peter; Mayer, Arnulf

    Tumor hypoxia is a hallmark of solid malignant tumor growth, profoundly influences malignant progression and contributes to the development of therapeutic resistance. Pathogenesis of tumor hypoxia is multifactorial, with contributions from both acute and chronic factors. Spatial distribution of hypoxia within tumors is markedly heterogeneous and often changes over time, e.g., during a course of radiotherapy. Substantial changes in the oxygenation status can occur within the distance of a few cell layers, explaining the inability of currently used molecular imaging techniques to adequately assess this crucial trait. Due to the possible importance of tumor hypoxia for clinical decision-making, there is a great demand for molecular tools which may provide the necessary resolution down to the single cell level. Exogenous and endogenous markers of tumor hypoxia have been investigated for this purpose. Their potential use may be greatly enhanced by multiparametric in situ methods in experimental and human tumor tissue.

  4. The role of tumor markers (CEA, TPA, CA 19-9) in colon and rectum carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cangemi, V.; Volpino, P.; Fiori, E.; Giammarco, A.; Piat, G.

    1987-01-01

    We have evaluated the diagnostic efficacy (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, predictive malignancy index) of CEA, TPA, CA 19-9 in colon and rectum tumors (56 cases), the difference in behaviour of these markers in relation to the stage and grading of the cancer, their reliability regarding postsurgical relapses and/or metastases. The sensitivity of CEA (>10 ng/ml), TPA (>130 U/L), CA 19-9 (>37 u/ml) for diagnostic purpose was rather limited (28.6% - 30% - 18.5%) with a malignancy prediction value of 100% - 81.8% - 62.5%. With regard to relapses and/or metastases, the diagnostic efficacy of the marker proved to be evident only for CEA, TPA, CA 19-9 value greater than 25 ng/ml, 250 U/L and 100 u/ml. The use of thethree markers together was certainly an advantage both for primitive tumors (sensitivity: 52.8%) and relapses and/or metastases after surgery (sensitivity: 66.7%)

  5. The Diagnostic Value of Transvaginal Sonograph (TVS), Color Doppler, and Serum Tumor Marker CA125, CEA, and AFP in Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Zhou-Long

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of transvaginal sonograph (TVS), color Doppler, and serum tumor marker CA125, CEA, and AFP in ovarian cancer. From June, 2011 to May, 2013, 102 cases with adnexal mass were recruited in this study (32 cases of malignant ovarian cancer and 70 cases of benign ovarian tumor according to pathological diagnosis). TVS, color Doppler, and serum tumor markers were used for tumor diagnosis. The sensitivity, specifity, positive prediction, negative prediction, and Youden's index were analyzed. Of the 102 patients, 32 were diagnosed with malignant ovarian cancer and 70 were diagnosed with benign ovarian tumor according to pathological diagnosis. Based on TVS results, 37 cases were malignant while 65 cases were benign. Based on color Doppler results, 34 cases were malignant while 68 cases were benign. Based on TVS and color Doppler results, 35 cases were malignant while 65 were benign. Based on CA125 test results, 34 cases were malignant while 68 cases were benign. Based on CEA test results, 8 cases were malignant and 94 cases were benign. Bases on AFP test results, 9 cases were malignant while 93 cases were benign. Based on the results of combination tumor marker test, 38 cases were malignant while 64 cases were benign. The combination of TVS, color Doppler, and tumor marker test showed optimal diagnostic value with a sensitivity of 90.63 %, specificity of 97.14 %, positive prediction of 93.94 %, negative prediction of 98.55 %, and Youden's index of 94.02 %. The combination of TVS, color Doppler, and tumor marker test is of great diagnostic value, which should be widely used in clinical practice.

  6. Clinical value of multi-tumor markers detection with (CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4) for diagnosis of gastric malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yun; Li Jiangang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of multi-tumor markers detection with (CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4) for diagnosis of gastric malignancy. Methods: Serum CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4 contents were measured with IRMA in 228 patients with gastric malignancies, 152 patients with benign gastric disorders and 200 controls. Results: The positive rates of single marker detection were all above 70% and that of CA72-4 was the highest (84.21%), next was CA19-9 (75.43%). Three tumor markers were all negative in only 4 cases (false negative rate was 1.75% ). So combined detection of 3 tumor markers could improve the positive rate to 98.25%. With combined determination of two markers, double positive rate for different sets of combinations was: 61.84% for CA72-4 + CA19-9, 51.31% for CA72-4 + CEA and 48.24% for CEA + CA19-9. Conclusion: It was suggested that for screening, CA72-4 was the first choice in single marker detections, and CA72-4 + CA19-9 was the first choice for combined detections of two markers. For follow-up, a combination of 2 markers with highest positive rate for the specific histopathologic type (i. e. carcinoma, leiomyosarcoma or lymphosarcoma) should be used throughout the study. (authors)

  7. Clinical use of serum TRA-1-60 as tumor marker in patients with germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Henrik; Daugaard, Gedske; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2002-01-01

    TRA-1-60 antigen has been related to the presence of embryonal germ cell carcinoma (EC) and carcinoma in situ. Our study further investigated the clinical efficacy of TRA-1-60 as a serum tumor marker for germ cell cancer in the testis. Three groups of patients with germ cell tumors were included:...

  8. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and chemotherapy-related tumor marker expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Xiao-Yi; Wang, Wen; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Shang, Jin; Gao, Jun-Gang; Guo, You-Min

    2013-01-01

    The chemotherapy resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a clinic challenge and is closely associated with several biomarkers including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (Drugs 72(Suppl 1):28–36, 012.), p53 (Med Sci Monit 11(6):HY11–HY20, 2005.) and excision repair cross complementing gene 1 (ERCC1) (J Thorac Oncol 8(5):582–586, 2013.). Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG–PET) is the best non-invasive surrogate for tumor biology with the maximal standardized uptake values (SUV max ) being the most important paradigm. However, there are limited data correlating FDG-PET with the chemotherapy resistant tumor markers. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of chemotherapy related tumor marker expression with FDG–PET SUV max in NSCLC. FDG–PET SUV max was calculated in chemotherapy naïve patients with NSCLC (n = 62) and immunohistochemical analysis was performed for EGFR, p53 or ERCC1 on the intraoperative NSCLC tissues. Each tumor marker was assessed independently by two pathologists using common grading criteria. The SUV max difference based on the histologic characteristics, gender, differentiation, grading and age as well as correlation analysis among these parameters were performed. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was further performed to determine the primary predictor for SUV max and the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to detect the optimized sensitivity and specificity for SUV max in suggesting chemotherapy resistant tumor markers. The significant tumor type (P = 0.045), differentiation (P = 0.021), p53 (P = 0.000) or ERCC1 (P = 0.033) positivity dependent differences of SUV max values were observed. The tumor differentiation is significantly correlated with SUV max (R = -0.327), tumor size (R = -0.286), grading (R = -0.499), gender (R = 0.286) as well as the expression levels for p53 (R = -0.605) and ERCC1 (R = -0.644). The expression level of p53

  9. MAP17 and SGLT1 protein expression levels as prognostic markers for cervical tumor patient survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Perez

    Full Text Available MAP17 is a membrane-associated protein that is overexpressed in human tumors. Because the expression of MAP17 increases reactive oxygen species (ROS generation through SGLT1 in cancer cells, in the present work, we investigated whether MAP17 and/or SGLT1 might be markers for the activity of treatments involving oxidative stress, such as cisplatin or radiotherapy. First, we confirmed transcriptional alterations in genes involved in the oxidative stress induced by MAP17 expression in HeLa cervical tumor cells and found that Hela cells expressing MAP17 were more sensitive to therapies that induce ROS than were parental cells. Furthermore, MAP17 increased glucose uptake through SGLT receptors. We then analyzed MAP17 and SGLT1 expression levels in cervical tumors treated with cisplatin plus radiotherapy and correlated the expression levels with patient survival. MAP17 and SGLT1 were expressed in approximately 70% and 50% of cervical tumors of different types, respectively, but they were not expressed in adenoma tumors. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between MAP17 and SGLT1 expression levels. High levels of either MAP17 or SGLT1 correlated with improved patient survival after treatment. However, the patients with high levels of both MAP17 and SGLT1 survived through the end of this study. Therefore, the combination of high MAP17 and SGLT1 levels is a marker for good prognosis in patients with cervical tumors after cisplatin plus radiotherapy treatment. These results also suggest that the use of MAP17 and SGLT1 markers may identify patients who are likely to exhibit a better response to treatments that boost oxidative stress in other cancer types.

  10. Gene methylation profiles of normal mucosa, and benign and malignant colorectal tumors identify early onset markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatn Morten

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple epigenetic and genetic changes have been reported in colorectal tumors, but few of these have clinical impact. This study aims to pinpoint epigenetic markers that can discriminate between non-malignant and malignant tissue from the large bowel, i.e. markers with diagnostic potential. The methylation status of eleven genes (ADAMTS1, CDKN2A, CRABP1, HOXA9, MAL, MGMT, MLH1, NR3C1, PTEN, RUNX3, and SCGB3A1 was determined in 154 tissue samples including normal mucosa, adenomas, and carcinomas of the colorectum. The gene-specific and widespread methylation status among the carcinomas was related to patient gender and age, and microsatellite instability status. Possible CIMP tumors were identified by comparing the methylation profile with microsatellite instability (MSI, BRAF-, KRAS-, and TP53 mutation status. Results The mean number of methylated genes per sample was 0.4 in normal colon mucosa from tumor-free individuals, 1.2 in mucosa from cancerous bowels, 2.2 in adenomas, and 3.9 in carcinomas. Widespread methylation was found in both adenomas and carcinomas. The promoters of ADAMTS1, MAL, and MGMT were frequently methylated in benign samples as well as in malignant tumors, independent of microsatellite instability. In contrast, normal mucosa samples taken from bowels without tumor were rarely methylated for the same genes. Hypermethylated CRABP1, MLH1, NR3C1, RUNX3, and SCGB3A1 were shown to be identifiers of carcinomas with microsatellite instability. In agreement with the CIMP concept, MSI and mutated BRAF were associated with samples harboring hypermethylation of several target genes. Conclusion Methylated ADAMTS1, MGMT, and MAL are suitable as markers for early tumor detection.

  11. Possible application of tumor marker radioimmunoassay in diagnosis of testicular and prostatic carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kausitz, J

    1988-10-01

    Determinations of alpha fetoprotein and chorionic gonadotropin levels by radioimmunoassay in 340 patients with germ cell tumors of the testes have confirmed that tumor markers are suitable prognostic parameters, facilitate assessment of the clinical stage, are sensitive parameters of the efficacy of chemotherapy and enable early detection of relapses. In a group of 71 patients with prostate cancer, systematic determination of prostate specific antigen levels proved to be a reliable method of monitoring and a sensitive method of detecting remote metastases. (author). 5 figs., 13 tabs., 23 refs.

  12. Proteomic profiling identifies markers for inflammation-related tumor-fibroblast interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drev, Daniel; Bileck, Andrea; Erdem, Zeynep N; Mohr, Thomas; Timelthaler, Gerald; Beer, Andrea; Gerner, Christopher; Marian, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Cancer associated fibroblasts are activated in the tumor microenvironment and contribute to tumor progression, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and inflammation. To identify proteins characteristic for fibroblasts in colorectal cancer we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to derive protein abundance from whole-tissue homogenates of human colorectal cancer/normal mucosa pairs. Alterations of protein levels were determined by two-sided t test with greater than threefold difference and an FDR of matrix organization, TGFβ receptor signaling and angiogenesis mainly originating from the stroma. Most prominent were increased abundance of SerpinB5 in the parenchyme and latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein, thrombospondin-B2, and secreted protein acidic-and-cysteine-rich in the stroma. Extracellular matrix remodeling involved collagens type VIII, XII, XIV, and VI as well as lysyl-oxidase-2. In silico analysis of mRNA levels demonstrated altered expression in the tumor and the adjacent normal tissue as compared to mucosa of healthy individuals indicating that inflammatory activation affected the surrounding tissue. Immunohistochemistry of 26 tumor specimen confirmed upregulation of SerpinB5, thrombospondin B2 and secreted protein acidic-and-cysteine-rich. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting tumor- and compartment-specific protein-signatures that are functionally meaningful by proteomic profiling of whole-tissue extracts together with mining of RNA expression datasets. The results provide the basis for further exploration of inflammation-related stromal markers in larger patient cohorts and experimental models.

  13. Impact of renal failure on the tumor markers of mesothelioma, N-ERC/mesothelin and osteopontin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Kazu; Shiomi, Satoko; Ishinaga, Yuji; Sakuraba, Motoki; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Miyashita, Kazuya; Maeda, Masahiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Hino, Okio

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge of the characteristics and effective use of tumour markers for mesothelioma is essential for early-stage diagnosis of mesothelioma. We examined whether renal dysfunction influences blood concentrations of promising new tumour markers, N-ERC/mesothelin (N-ERC) and osteopontin (OPN), to an important degree. Levels of serum N-ERC and plasma OPN in 32 patients with chronic renal dysfunction, 22 of whom were on hemodialysis (CKD group), and 102 healthy volunteers were measured. Serum concentrations of N-ERC and plasma concentrations of OPN in the CKD group were significantly higher than those in volunteers, regardless of diabetes status and age. Blood concentrations of these markers increased as renal function decreased. N-ERC and OPN concentrations are significantly influenced by renal function. Therefore, the extent of renal failure must be considered when inferring the existence of tumours and chemotherapeutic response from the values of these markers in routine practice.

  14. The comparison of nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate (NUCKS) with Ki67 proliferation marker expression in common skin tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduniak, Krzysztof; Agrawal, Siddarth; Symonowicz, Krzysztof; Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinases substrate (NUCKS) is a chromosomal protein of unknown function. Its amino acid composition and structure of its DNA binding domain resemble those of high mobility group A (HMGA) proteins which are associated with various malignancies. Since changes in expression of HMGA are considered as a marker of tumor progression, it is possible that similar changes in expression of NUCKS could be a useful tool in diagnosis of malignant skin tumors. To investigate this assumption we used specific antibodies against NUCKS for immunohistochemistry of squamous (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) as well as keratoacanthoma (KA). We found high expression of NUCKS in nuclei of SCC and BCC cells which exceeded expression of the well-known proliferation marker Ki67. Expression of NUCKS in benign KA was much below that of malignant tumors. With the present study and based on our previous experience we would like to suggest the NUCKS protein as a novel proliferation marker for immunohistochemical evaluation of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded skin tumor specimens. We would like to emphasize that NUCKS abundance in malignant skin tumors is higher than that of the well-known proliferation marker Ki67, thus allowing more precise assessment of tumor proliferation potential.

  15. Assessment of CA 15.3, CEA and TPA concentrations during monitoring of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Petersen, P H; Dombernowsky, P

    2000-01-01

    The variability of the tumor markers cancer antigen (CA) 15.3, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) during steady state concentrations and the rate of increase during progression is described. One hundred and ninety-two patients were monitored during first...... with above cutoff level values. Clinical and marker progression was registered for 75 (CA 15.3), 62 (CEA), and 57 (TPA) patients. The coefficients of total variation of steady state concentrations (comprising the intra- and interassay analytical imprecision and the within subject biological variation) were...... for TPA (0.0346). Our data indicate that criteria for assessment of sequential tumor marker concentrations should consider the marker in question, the steady state variability, the cutoff value, and the rate of increase during disease progression....

  16. Serum tumor marker CA 125 for monitoring ovarian cancer during follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Malgorzata K.; Sölétormos, G; Dombernowsky, P

    2002-01-01

    CA 125 is currently widely applied in the management of patients with ovarian cancer. However, a change in results of CA 125, which should be considered significant, has not been defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of CA 125 to signal progressive ovarian cancer during fo...... utility of serological tumor markers in patients with ovarian cancer....

  17. Alternative fiducial markers for Vero real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy: A phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Chul; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of potential fiducial markers consisting of various materials in a Vero real-time tumor-tracking (RTTT) system. In order to determine the applicability of fiducial markers for the Vero RTTT system, we tested various markers consisting of 8 kinds of material (titanium, stainless steel, high-carbon steel, pure steel, copper, silver, tantalum, and gold) with various diameters ranging from 0.3 mm to 1.6 mm and a length of 5 mm. Additionally, a commercial gold coil marker (Visicoil™, IBA dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) of diameter 0.5 mm and length 1 cm was included for evaluation. The radiologic visibility on kV fluoroscopy/kV CT scan images of the fiducial markers was evaluated. The detectability on the RTTT system was tested using a two-dimensional moving phantom (Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany), producing sinusoidal motion. The target center's accuracy was evaluated by calculating the deviation of the position of a metal sphere from the center on the dose profile. Dose profiles were measured using Gafchromic EBT2 films (International Specialty Products, NJ, USA). All markers were visible on kV fluoroscopy/kV CT while markers with atomic number ≥ 25.7 were detectable on the Vero RTTT system. All the detected markers showed excellent geometric accuracy.

  18. Tumor markers as baseline for indication to chemo- and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senn, H.J.; Kantonsspital Sankt Gallen

    1986-01-01

    Most Tumor markers (TM) are neither organ- nor tumor-specific. Their growing number is presently more disturbing than helpful for the clinician and their present potential as an indication-basis for radio- and/or chemotherapy can be roughly summarized in 3 categories: 1) High specificity and high clinical value: Examples are beta-HCG in female chorio-CA, AFP and beta-HCG in testicular tumors, calcitonin in medullary thyroid CA and subclasses of immunglobulins in lymphoproliferative disorders. 2) High specificity and low clinical value: Examples are AFP in primary liver CA, CEA in colon cancer, CA 19-9 in pancreatic CA and CA 125 in ovarian CA. Despite of their high specificity, detection of 'earlier relapse' does not serve the purpose of important treatment decisions due to the current lack of salvage therapy. 3) Low specificity and low clinical value: Most of the rest of TM, for which there is no clinically proven basis, which renders their use neither interesting nor economical. The clinical value of TM belonging to the 'second category' at present time, will reach clinical usefulness as soon as secondary curative treatment will be available for those clinical situations. (orig.) [de

  19. Profiling tumor-associated markers for early detection of malignant mesothelioma: an epidemiologic study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amati, M.; Tomasetti, M.; Scartozzi, M.; Mariotti, L.; Alleva, R.; Pignotti, E.; Borghi, B.; Valentino, M.; Governa, M.; Neužil, Jiří; Santarelli, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2008), s. 163-170 ISSN 1055-9965 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : malignant mesothelioma * tumor markers * asbestos Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.770, year: 2008

  20. The diagnostic value of tumor markers and endoscopy in patients with gastric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Turk

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Tumor markers cannot detect any kind of digestive system malignancy. Physicians must pay attention to premalignant lesions due to gastric cancer development. We must pay more attention to diagnose gastric malignancy in patients who have increased CEA and CA 19-9 levels. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(2.000: 74-78

  1. Comparison of Lumipulse® G1200 with Kryptor and Modular E170 for the measurement of 7 tumor markers

    OpenAIRE

    Marlet , Julien; Bernard , Maguy

    2014-01-01

    "This is the pre-peer reviewed version of the following article: "Comparison of LUMIPULSE® G1200 With Kryptor and Modular E170 for the Measurement of Seven Tumor Markers", which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcla.21802/abstract. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving."; Background: Tumor marker measurements are becoming essential for prognosis and follow-up of patien...

  2. Clinical value of assays of multiple serum tumor markers in conjunction with 18F-FDG SPECT for discriminating malignant from benign lung disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyan; Wang Linglong; Tu Liping; Yu Yuefang; Zhu Weijie; Cai Ao; Gao Shuxing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of assays of multiple tumor markers in conjunction with 18 F-FDG SPECT for discriminating malignant from benign lung disorders. Methods: A total of 62 patients with malignant and benign lung diseases un- derwent 18 F-FDG SPECT examination and tests for serum tumor markers CEA, CA50, CA199 and CA242, alone or combined. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of these tests were examined. Results: The sensitivity, specificity accuracy of 18 F-FDG SPECT for the diagnosis of malignant lung tumors were 85.7 (30/35), 59.3 (16/27) and 74.2(46/62) respectively, those of each of serum CEA, CA199, CA50, CA242 levels in diagnosing malignant lung tumors were 22.9(8/35), 92.6(25/27), 59.7(33/62), 14.3(5/35), 100(27/27), 51.6 (32/62), 34.3 (12/35), 85.2 (23/27), 56.5 (35/62), 28.6 (10/35), 85.2 (23/27) and 53.2 (33/62) respectively, those of assays of multiple serum tumor markers for diagnosis of malignant lung tumors were 85.7 (30/35), 85.2 (23/27) and 85.5 (53/62) respectively, those of assays of multiple tumor markers in conjunction with 18 F-FDG SPECT for discriminating malignant from benign lung nodules were 88.6(31/35), 85.2(23/27) and 87.1 (54/62) respectively. Conclusion: Assays of multiple serum tumor markers in conjunction with 18 F-FDG SPECT for discriminating malignant from benign lung disorders can yield higher sensitivity, specialty and accuracy, making a significant contribution to clinical application. (authors)

  3. Predicting Response to Chemotherapy based on Tumor Marker Trend in Patients with Testicular Cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekulová, M.; Pecen, Ladislav; Kocák, I.; Šimíčková, M.; Frgala, T.; Pilný, R.; Valík, D.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2004), s. 70 ISSN 1211-8869. [CECHTUMA 2004. 01.10.2004-03.10.2004, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : evaluation of therapy response * model of tumor markers decrease * testicular cancer Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  4. Uterine Tumor Resembling Ovarian Sex Cord Tumor (UTROSCT) Commonly Exhibits Positivity With Sex Cord Markers FOXL2 and SF-1 but Lacks FOXL2 and DICER1 Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Sabrina; de Kock, Leanne; Boshari, Talia; Hostein, Isabelle; Velasco, Valerie; Foulkes, William D; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT) is a rare neoplasm which morphologically and immunohistochemically exhibits overlap with an ovarian sex cord tumor. Although many of these neoplasms are positive with markers of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, staining is often limited and the pathogenesis of UTROSCT is unknown. To further explore the sex cord lineage of UTROSCT, we studied 19 of these neoplasms and examined the expression of 2 recently described markers of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, FOXL2, and steroidogenic factor-1. We also undertook FOXL2 and DICER1 mutation analysis in these cases; a somatic missense mutation in codon C134W (402C→G) of FOXL2 gene has been demonstrated in the vast majority (>95%) of ovarian adult granulosa cell tumors and somatic DICER1 mutations are found in approximately 60% of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. Ten of 19 cases (53%) exhibited nuclear immunoreactivity with FOXL2 and 11 of 19 (58%) exhibited nuclear staining with steroidogenic factor-1. Neither FOXL2 nor DICER1 mutations were identified in any case where there was sufficient tumor tissue for analysis (18 and 9 cases, respectively). Despite exhibiting an immunophenotype characteristic of a sex cord-stromal tumor, mutations in FOXL2 and DICER1, the 2 most common mutations hitherto reported in ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, are not a feature of UTROSCT.

  5. Tumor hypoxia at the micro-regional level: clinical relevance and predictive value of exogenous and endogenous hypoxic cell markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tumor oxygenation is recognized as an important determinant of the outcome of radiotherapy and possibly also of other treatment modalities in a number of tumor types and in particular in squamous cell carcinomas. The hypoxic status of various solid tumors has been related to a poor prognosis due to tumor progression towards a more malignant phenotype, with increased metastatic potential, and an increased resistance to treatment. It has been demonstrated in head and neck cancer that hypoxic radioresistance can be successfully counteracted by hypoxia modifying approaches. The microregional distribution and the level of tumor hypoxia depend on oxygen consumption and temporal and spatial variations in blood supply. It is unclear if severely hypoxic cells can resume clonogenicity when O 2 and nutrients become available again as a result of (treatment related) changes in the tumor microenvironment. Non-terminally differentiated hypoxic cells that are capable of proliferation are important for outcome because of their resistance to radiotherapy and possibly other cytotoxic treatments. Various exogenous and endogenous markers for hypoxia are currently available and can be studied in relation to each other, the tumor architecture and the tumor microenvironment. Use of nitroimidazole markers with immunohistochemical detection allows studying tumor cell hypoxia at the microscopic level. Co-registration with other microenvironmental parameters, such as vascular architecture (vascular density), blood perfusion, tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, offers the possibility to obtain a comprehensive functional image of tumor patho-physiology and to study the effects of different modalities of cancer treatment. Conclusion: A number of functional microregional parameters have emerged that are good candidates for future use as indicators of tumor aggressiveness and treatment response. The key question is whether these parameters can be used as tools for

  6. Development of a Prognostic Marker for Lung Cancer Using Analysis of Tumor Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Bambanker cell freezing medium (Lymphotec Inc., Tokyo, Japan ). Prior to FACS, isolated tumor cells were stained with mouse anti-human CD45RA PE/Cy7... clone L48, BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) and Aqua Vital Dye (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). CD45 is a blood cell marker used to separate blood cells from

  7. Effect of Xiao Chaihu Tang combined with intravenous chemotherapy on tumor markers and immune function in patients with advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ping Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Xiao Chaihu Tang combined with intravenous chemotherapy on tumor markers and immune function in patients with advanced breast cancer. Methods: 76 patients with advanced breast cancer treated in our hospital between May 2012 and November 2015 were collected and divided into the combined treatment group (n=34 who accepted Xiao Chaihu Tang combined with intravenous chemotherapy and the control group (n=42 who accepted intravenous chemotherapy alone according to different treatment, and the treatment cycle was 3 months for both groups. Before treatment and 3 months after treatment, ELISA method was used to detect serum levels of broad-spectrum tumor markers and breast cancerspecific tumor markers; flow cytometer was used to detect cellular immune function index levels, and turbidimetric immunoassay was used to detect humoral immune function index levels in peripheral blood. Results: Before treatment, differences in serum tumor marker levels as well as cellular immunity and humoral immunity index levels in peripheral blood were not statistically significant between two groups of patients (P>0.05; after 3 months of treatment, broad-spectrum tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153 and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125 levels in serum of combined treatment group were lower than those of control group, and breast cancer-specific tumor markers insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, midkine (MK, soluble E-cadherin (sEC and thymidine kinase 1 (TK1 levels were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte levels as well as CD4+/CD8+ ratio in peripheral blood of combined treatment group were higher than those of control group while CD8+ T lymphocyte level was lower than that of control group, and immunoglobulin G (IgG, immunoglobulin A (IgA and immunoglobulin M (IgM levels in peripheral blood were higher than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Xiao Chaihu Tang

  8. Serum tumor markers CEA, CYFRA21-1, and CA-125 are associated with worse prognosis in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedrés, Susana; Nuñez, Isaac; Longo, Marina; Martinez, Pablo; Checa, Eva; Torrejón, Davis; Felip, Enriqueta

    2011-05-01

    Serum tumor markers are considered a negative prognostic factor in early-stages NSCLC but its role in advanced disease is controversial. The aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic value of tumor markers in advanced NSCLC. Two hundred and seventy seven patients diagnosed in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Baseline prognostic factors analyzed were gender, histology and brain metastases. Baseline patients characteristics: median age 63 years (30-81 years); males 84.4%, stage IV: 61.7%; adenocarcinoma 38.6%, squamous carcinoma 22.4%. High levels of CEA, CYFRA21-1, and CA125 levels were detected in 179 (55.9%), 119 (65%), and 129 (46.6%) patients respectively. Significant higher levels of CEA and CA125 at baseline were present in adenocarcinoma (P CEA, CYFRA21-1, and CA125 was 5.3 months (m), 3.5 m and 4.6 m versus 7.4 m, 6.2 m and 7.5 m in patients with normal levels (P tumor markers was 10.0 m vs 14.0 m (P = 0.085) for CEA; 5.6 vs 12.1 m for CYFRA21-1 (P = .002), and 8.7 vs 14.0 (P = .03) for CA125. In the multivariate analysis high levels of tumor markers, histology and clinical stage were significant correlated with worse prognostic. Patients with all the tumor markers elevated presented the worst prognosis (3.6 m for PFS and 7.1 m for OS, P tumor markers at baseline are correlated with worse survival in stage III-IV NSCLC patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Screening of specific nucleic acid aptamers binding tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients and identification of their activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Xiu, Chen-Lin; Gao, Li-Ming; Liang, Hua-Gang; Xu, Shu-Feng; Shi, Ming; Li, Jian; Liu, Zhi-Wei

    2017-07-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer death in the world. Despite the improvements in diagnostic methods, the status of early detection was not achieved. So, a new diagnostic method is needed. The aim of this study is to obtain the highly specific nucleic acid aptamers with strong affinity to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients for targeting the serum. Aptamers specifically binding to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients were screened from the random single-stranded DNA library with agarose beads as supports and the serum as a target by target-substituting subtractive SELEX technique and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique. Subsequently, the secondary single-stranded DNA library obtained by 10 rounds of screening was amplified to double-stranded DNA, followed by high-throughput genome sequence analysis to screen aptamers with specific affinity to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients. Finally, six aptamers obtained by 10 rounds of screening were identified with high specific affinity to tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients. Compared with other five aptamers, the aptamer 43 was identified both with the highest specificity to bind target molecule and without any obvious affinity to non-specific proteins. The screened aptamers have relatively high specificity to combine tumor markers in the serum of the lung cancer patients, which provides breakthrough points for early diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  10. Is a comparative clinical trial for breast cancer tumor markers to monitor disease recurrence warranted? A value of information analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariani, Rahber; Henry, Norah Lynn; Ramsey, Scott D; Blough, David K; Barlow, Bill; Gralow, Julie R; Veenstra, David L

    2013-05-01

    Breast cancer tumor markers are used by some clinicians to screen for disease recurrence risk. Since there is limited evidence of benefit, additional research may be warranted. To assess the potential value of a randomized clinical trial of breast tumor marker testing in routine follow-up of high-risk, stage II-III breast cancer survivors. We developed a decision-analytic model of tumor marker testing plus standard surveillance every 3-6 months for 5 years. The expected value of sample information was calculated using probabilistic simulations and was a function of: the probability of selecting the optimal monitoring strategy with current versus future information; the impact of choosing the nonoptimal strategy; and the size of the population affected. The value of information for a randomized clinical trial involving 9000 women was US$214 million compared with a cost of US$30-60 million to conduct such a trial. The probability of making an alternate, nonoptimal decision and choosing testing versus no testing was 32% with current versus future information from the trial. The impact of a nonoptimal decision was US$2150 and size of population impacted over 10 years was 308,000. The value of improved information on overall survival was US$105 million, quality of life US$37 million and test performance US$71 million. Conducting a randomized clinical trial of breast cancer tumor markers appears to offer a good societal return on investment. Retrospective analyses to assess test performance and evaluation of patient quality of life using tumor markers may also offer valuable areas of research. However, alternative investments may offer even better returns in investments and, as such, the trial concept deserves further study as part of an overall research-portfolio evaluation.

  11. Migrating glioma cells express stem cell markers and give rise to new tumors upon xenografting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Sune; Sørensen, Mia D; Thomassen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and malignant brain tumor with an overall survival of only 14.6 months. Although these tumors are treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, recurrence is inevitable. A critical population of tumor cells in terms of therapy, the so-called cancer stem......-like phenotype is currently lacking. In the present study, the aim was to characterize the phenotype of migrating tumor cells using a novel migration assay based on serum-free stem cell medium and patient-derived spheroid cultures. The results showed pronounced migration of five different GBM spheroid cultures......-related genes and the HOX-gene list in migrating cells compared to spheroids. Determination of GBM molecular subtypes revealed that subtypes of spheroids and migrating cells were identical. In conclusion, migrating tumor cells preserve expression of stem cell markers and functional CSC characteristics. Since...

  12. Immunohistochemical study of tumor markers (CEA, TPA, CA19-9, POA and Ferritin) and pancreatic exocrine enzymes(Amylase and Elastase 1) in pancreatic tumors

    OpenAIRE

    脇谷, 勇夫

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), pancreatic oncofetal antigen (POA), Ferritin, Amylase and Elastase 1 was studied immunohistochemically using an immunoperoxidase method in 26 conventional histopathologic sections of pancreatic tumor. CEA and CA19-9 were regarded as markers secreted into the glandular lumina from cancer cells, but TPA and POA were not. The expression of these markers was different from one...

  13. Reduced blood flow increases the in vivo ammonium ion concentration in the RIF-1 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinidis, Ioannis; Gamcsik, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies from our laboratory have suggested that pooling of ammonium in tumor tissues may be caused by its inefficient removal due to the poor vasculature commonly found in tumors. The purpose of these experiments was to validate the relationship between tumor ammonium ion concentration and tumor blood flow, and to determine whether large concentrations of ammonium ion detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are either produced within the tumor or simply imported into the tumor through the blood stream. Methods and Materials: To test this hypothesis, we reduced blood flow in subcutaneously grown Radiation Induced Fibrosarcoma-1 (RIF-1) tumors, either by creating partial ischemia with a bolus injection of hydralazine or by occlusion with surgical sutures. 14 N and 31 P NMR spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of ammonium, and to assess the bioenergetic status of the tumors, respectively. Results: A correlation between ammonium ion concentration and (PCr(P i )) ratio was established for untreated tumors. An increase in the in vivo tumor ammonium ion concentration was observed for every tumor that experienced a reduction in blood flow caused by either hydralazine injection or suture ligation. Changes in ammonium ion concentration paralleled changes in the bioenergetics of hydralazine-treated tumors. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that a reduction in tumor blood flow is responsible for the accumulation of ammonium in tumors, and that detected ammonium originated from within the tumor

  14. Radioimmunoassay for determination of tumor markers in the diagnosis of rectal cancer recurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozhiganov, E.L.; Kuznetsova, L.F.

    1991-01-01

    The levels of tumor markers were determined in patients with rectal cancer recurrences by radioimmunoassay. An increase in a CEA level was observed most frequently. An increase in the levels of α-fetoprotein, ferritin and β 2 -microglobulin was observed. It was shown that the most specific and effective diagnostic test of rectal cancer recurrences was the determination of a CEA level

  15. Tumor Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cell as a Prognostic Marker in Primary Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Jin Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation from brain tumors of tumor mesenchymal stem-like cells (tMSLCs suggests that these cells play a role in creating a microenvironment for tumor initiation and progression. The clinical characteristics of patients with primary glioblastoma (pGBM positive for tMSLCs have not been determined. This study analyzed samples from 82 patients with pGBM who had undergone tumor removal, pathological diagnosis, and isolation of tMSLC from April 2009 to October 2014. Survival, extent of resection, molecular markers, and tMSLC culture results were statistically evaluated. Median overall survival was 18.6 months, 15.0 months in tMSLC-positive patients and 29.5 months in tMSLC-negative patients (P=0.014. Multivariate cox regression model showed isolation of tMSLC (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1~5.6, P=0.021 showed poor outcome while larger extent of resection (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.2~0.8, P=0.011 has association with better outcome. The presence of tMSLCs isolated from the specimen of pGBM is associated with the survival of patient.

  16. Study on the clinical value of combined determination of six tumor marker for diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhong; Liu Yun; Liu Li; Lu Xiaopeng; Zhang Jun; Li Jiangang; Zhu Zili

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical applicability of single/combined determination of six tumor markers (CEA, CA125, CA50, CA19-9, CA153, CYFRA21-1) for diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoma. Methods: Serum contents of these six tumor markers were determined with RIA in 130 patients with pulmonary carcinoma, 40 patients with various benign pulmonary disorders, and 45 controls. Results: (1) Only two false positive cases were found in the 40 patients with benign pulmonary disorders (CA125, n=1, CA153 n=1). (2) Positive rate of single marker in patients with pulmonary cancer: CYFRA21-1 (79.23%)>CA153 (61.53%) > CA125(58.46%)> CA19-9(57.69%) > CEA(46.92%) > CA50(43.84%). (3) Combined determination of CYFRA21-1 with any one of the other 5 markers would increase the positive rate to 86.15%-89.23%. (4) Mean value of any marker in the malignant cases were over 4 folds of that in the benign cases-high diagnostic credibility. (5) Histology of the malignancy (squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma) made no difference on the positive rate of the markers with the exception of a slight higher positive rate of CA19-9 in adenocarcinomas. Conclusion: The authors believe that combined determination of CYFRA21-1 with CA153 would be the first choice for diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoma, followed by CYFRA21-1 + CA125 or CA19-9. (authors)

  17. Tumor Heterogeneity: Mechanisms and Bases for a Reliable Application of Molecular Marker Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Cano, Salvador J.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor heterogeneity is a confusing finding in the assessment of neoplasms, potentially resulting in inaccurate diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tests. This tumor heterogeneity is not always a random and unpredictable phenomenon, whose knowledge helps designing better tests. The biologic reasons for this intratumoral heterogeneity would then be important to understand both the natural history of neoplasms and the selection of test samples for reliable analysis. The main factors contributing to intratumoral heterogeneity inducing gene abnormalities or modifying its expression include: the gradient ischemic level within neoplasms, the action of tumor microenvironment (bidirectional interaction between tumor cells and stroma), mechanisms of intercellular transference of genetic information (exosomes), and differential mechanisms of sequence-independent modifications of genetic material and proteins. The intratumoral heterogeneity is at the origin of tumor progression and it is also the byproduct of the selection process during progression. Any analysis of heterogeneity mechanisms must be integrated within the process of segregation of genetic changes in tumor cells during the clonal expansion and progression of neoplasms. The evaluation of these mechanisms must also consider the redundancy and pleiotropism of molecular pathways, for which appropriate surrogate markers would support the presence or not of heterogeneous genetics and the main mechanisms responsible. This knowledge would constitute a solid scientific background for future therapeutic planning. PMID:22408433

  18. Comparison of the value of PCNA and Ki-67 as markers of cell proliferation in ameloblastic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Mori-Estevez, Ana D.; Sánchez-Acuña, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare among PCNAand Ki-67 as the most reliable immunohistochemical marker for evaluating cell proliferation in ameloblastic tumors. Study Design: Observational, retrospective, and descriptive study of a large series of ameloblastic tumors, composed of 161 ameloblastomas and four ameloblastic carcinomas, to determine and compare PCNA and Ki-67 expression using immunohistochemistry techniques. Results: When analyzing Ki-67 positivity, the desmoplastic ameloblastoma demonstrated a significantly lower proliferation rate (1.9%) compared with the solid/multicystic and unicystic ameloblastomas and ameloblastic carcinomas (p<0.05), whereas the ameloblastic carcinomas displayed a significantly higher rate compared with all of the other ameloblastomas (48.7%) (p<0.05). When analyzing cell proliferation with PCNA, we found significant differences only between the ameloblastic carcinomas (93.3%) and the desmoplastic ameloblastomas (p<0.05). When differences between the immunopositivity for PCNA and Ki-67 were compared, the percentages were higher for PCNA in all types of ameloblastomas and ameloblastic carcinomas. In all cases, the percentages were greater than 80%, whereas the immunopositivity for Ki-67 was significantly lower; for example, the ameloblastic carcinoma expressed the highest positivity and only reached 48.7%, compared to 93.3% when we used PCNA. Conclusions: In the present study, when we used the proliferation cell marker Ki-67, the percentages of positivity were more specific and varied among the different types of ameloblastomas, suggesting that Ki-67 is a more specific marker for the proliferation of ameloblastic tumor cells. Key words:Ameloblastomas, ameloblastic carcinoma, PCNA, Ki-67, cell proliferation markers. PMID:23229269

  19. Preoperative CEA and CA 19-9 are prognostic markers for survival after curative resection for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas - a retrospective tumor marker prognostic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distler, Marius; Pilarsky, Eva; Kersting, Stephan; Grützmann, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis for patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (PDAC) remains poor even after curative resection. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) and the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are the most widely used serum-based tumor markers for the diagnosis and follow up of pancreatic cancer. In our analysis we aim to assess the prognostic value of a combination of both tumor markers in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Between 01/1995 and 08/2012 we performed a total of 264 pancreatic resections due to PDAC. Patients were stratified into 3 groups in regard to their preoperative tumor marker levels. Survival was compared between the groups using Kaplan Meier analysis and log rank test. Univariate subgroup analysis and multivariate analysis were performed. For 259 cases complete follow up could be obtained. In patients with low preoperative CEA and CA 19-9 levels (group 1 n = 91) the mean survival was 33.3 month (CI 95% 25.1-41.5). If one of the analyzed tumor markers (CEA/CA19-9) was preoperatively elevated above the cut-off level (group 2 n = 106) mean survival was 28.5 month (CI 95% 22.1-35.1). 62 patients showed preoperative elevation of both, CEA and CA 19-9 (group 3); mean survival in this group was 23.9 month (CI 95% 13.9-33.9), p > 0.01. Multivariate analysis confirmed preoperative CEA/CA 19-9 level as independent prognostic factor (HR 1.299). Preoperative CEA and CA 19-9 levels correlate with patient prognosis after curative pancreatic resection due to PDAC. This is especially true for the most frequently pT 3/4 stages of PDAC. Even if CEA and CA 19-9 might not be appropriate for screening, its serum levels should therefore be determined prior to operation and taken into account when resectability or operability is doubtful. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High Retention and Safety of Percutaneously Implanted Endovascular Embolization Coils as Fiducial Markers for Image-Guided Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy of Pulmonary Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Julian C.; Yu Yao; Rao, Aarti K.; Dieterich, Sonja; Maxim, Peter G.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Diehn, Maximilian; Sze, Daniel Y.; Kothary, Nishita; Loo, Billy W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the retention rates of two types of implanted fiducial markers for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) of pulmonary tumors, smooth cylindrical gold 'seed' markers ('seeds') and platinum endovascular embolization coils ('coils'), and to compare the complication rates associated with the respective implantation procedures. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the retention of percutaneously implanted markers in 54 consecutive patients between January 2004 and June 2009. A total of 270 markers (129 seeds, 141 coils) were implanted in or around 60 pulmonary tumors over 59 procedures. Markers were implanted using a percutaneous approach under computed tomography (CT) guidance. Postimplantation and follow-up imaging studies were analyzed to score marker retention relative to the number of markers implanted. Markers remaining near the tumor were scored as retained. Markers in a distant location (e.g., pleural space) were scored as lost. CT imaging artifacts near markers were quantified on radiation therapy planning scans. Results: Immediately after implantation, 140 of 141 coils (99.3%) were retained, compared to 110 of 129 seeds (85.3%); the difference was highly significant (p < 0.0001). Of the total number of lost markers, 45% were reported lost during implantation, but 55% were lost immediately afterwards. No additional markers were lost on longer-term follow-up. Implanted lesions were peripherally located for both seeds (mean distance, 0.33 cm from pleural surface) and coils (0.34 cm) (p = 0.96). Incidences of all pneumothorax (including asymptomatic) and pneumothorax requiring chest tube placement were lower in implantation of coils (23% and 3%, respectively) vs. seeds (54% and 29%, respectively; p = 0.02 and 0.01). The degree of CT artifact was similar between marker types. Conclusions: Retention of CT-guided percutaneously implanted coils is significantly better than that of seed markers. Furthermore, implanting coils is at

  1. Evaluation of tumor markers (HER-2/neu oncoprotein, CEA, and CA 15.3) in patients with locoregional breast cancer: prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rafael; Augé, Jose M; Escudero, Jose M; Filella, Xavier; Zanon, Gabriel; Pahisa, Jaume; Farrus, Blanca; Muñoz, Montserrat; Velasco, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Tumor markers were studied in the sera of 883 untreated patients with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 1989 and 2007. Abnormal human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)/neu levels (>15 ng/mL) were found in 9.5%, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 15.9%, and cancer antigen (CA) 15.3 in 19.7% of the patients. One or more tumor markers were abnormal in 305 (34.5%) of the 883 studied patients. Significantly higher serum HER-2/neu levels were found in patients with tissue overexpression of this oncoprotein (p CEA, CA 15.3, and HER-2/neu (only in those patients with tissue overexpression) serum levels were related with tumor stage (tumor size and nodal involvement) and steroid receptors (higher values in estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) tumors). Univariate analysis showed that HER-2/neu serum levels were prognostic factors in disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) only in patients with tissue overexpression. Multivariate analysis in 834 patients show that nodal involvement, tumor size, ER, CEA, and adjuvant treatment were independent prognostic factors in DFS and OS. When only patients with HER-2/neu overexpression in tissue were studied, tumor size, nodal involvement, and tumor markers (one or another positive) were independent prognostic factors for both DFS and OS. HER-2/neu serum levels were also an independent prognostic factor, with CEA, ER, and nodes in 106 patients treated with neoadjuvant treatment. In summary, serum HER-2/neu, CEA, and CA 15.3 are useful tools in the prognostic evaluation of patients with primary breast cancer.

  2. Levels of some molecular and biochemical tumor markers in Egyptian patients with different grades and stages of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-elgoad, E.I.; Elkashef, H.S.; Hanfy, A.; El-maghraby, T.

    2003-01-01

    This study enrolled 64 patients with bladder cancer disease, 54 of them treated by surgery and 10 by radiotherapy. The patients were classified according to their clinical data that include infection with bilharziasis, grade, stage and type of tumor. The present study included determination of telomerase activity in tissue and urine using molecular methods and the levels of nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) and fibronectin in urine. The applied tumor markers showed significant differences in malignant patients compared to control. The same picture was noticed in case of patients received radiotherapy but less pronounced. The results revealed that there is significant correlation between the three tumor markers and the grade of tumor, while NMP22 and fibronectin correlated with stage. Moreover, fibronectin only have significant correlation with the infection with the bilharziasis. The results indicated that determination of telomerase, fibronectin and NMP22 can give clear idea about the development of malignancy and may help in the prediction of cancer recurrence

  3. Serial study of the concentration of misonidazole in human tumors correlated with histologic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, T.A.; Dische, S.; Saunders, M.I.; Stratford, M.R.L.; Minchinton, A.

    1981-01-01

    Multiple biopsies were obtained from eight patients with malignant tumors during a course of fractionated radiotherapy. An analysis of the total 2-nitroimidazole concentration and a histological examination of the biopsy sample was done on material which appeared macroscopically similar. The parts of the tumor biopsies showing necrosis were found to contain much lower concentrations of nitroimidazole when compared with those found in the samples with well-vascularized and apparently viable tumor. During the course of irradiation changes in misonidazole concentrations were not found when similar histological material was examined. The low values of misonidazole in necrotic regions in human tumors may partly account for the wide variation of misonidazole concentrations reported in the literature (percent tumor/plasma, mean 62.9 +- 34.4 STD). The clinical significance of the microscopic distribution of misonidazole in tumors in unknown but further work in this area may aid in predicting the usefulness of future radiosensitizers

  4. Correlation Between PSMA and VEGF Expression as Markers for LNCaP Tumor Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Tsui

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is the identification and correlation of changes in tumor-associated protein expression which results from therapy. LNCaP tumors, excised from nude mice treated either by orchiectomy or with the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel, were evaluated for the expression of proteins and receptors associated with growth, differentiation, and angiogenesis using immunohistologic procedures. Compared to untreated control tumors, both treatments reduced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA, prostate-specific antigen (PSA, androgen receptor (AR, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. The effect of paclitaxel treatment on AR expression was the most significant (P=.005. Of particular interest was identifying a significant correlation (P<.000801 between PSMA and VEGF expression regardless of treatment modality. These altered expressions suggest that PSMA may also be a marker for angiogenesis and could represent a target for deliverable agents recognizing either prostatic tumors or endothelial development. Cell surface PSMA would then present a unique target for treatment of patients early in their development of prostatic metastases.

  5. CEA in activated macrophages. New diagnostic possibilities for tumor markers in early colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japink, Dennis; Leers, Mathie P G; Sosef, Meindert N; Nap, Marius

    2009-08-01

    Serum tumor markers show low sensitivity, making them unsuitable for early detection of cancer. Activated macrophages (AM) from peripheral blood can accumulate tumor marker substances and facilitate early detection in prostate cancer. Here it was investigated whether carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-containing macrophages (CEACM) can be used to detect colorectal cancer (CRC) at earlier stages than can serum CEA. Peripheral blood was collected from patients with CRC (n=48), inflammatory colorectal disease (n=5) and from healthy controls (n=18). After separating and labeling AM with CD14-APC/CD16-FITC, AM were intracellularly labeled with anti-CEA antibody and flow cytometrically analyzed. Serum CEA and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. The fraction-size of CEACM discriminated between controls and CRC patients, irrespective of AJCC stage (AJCC stage I-IV, pCEA values were significantly elevated in AJCC stage II, III and IV (p=0.02, 0.006 and <0.0001, respectively). Combining CEACM with CRP levels separated CRC from inflammatory colorectal disease. CEACM combined with CRP appears to have diagnostic potential in early CRC.

  6. Registration accuracy and possible migration of internal fiducial gold marker implanted in prostate and liver treated with real-time tumor-tracking radiation therapy (RTRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kei; Shirato, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shinichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Harabayashi, Toru; Shimizu, Tadashi; Kodama, Yoshihisa; Endo, Hideho; Onimaru, Rikiya; Nishioka, Seiko; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiko; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: We have developed a linear accelerator synchronized with a fluoroscopic real-time tumor-tracking system to reduce errors due to setup and organ motion. In the real-time tumor-tracking radiation therapy (RTRT) system, the accuracy of tumor tracking depends on the registration of the marker's coordinates. The registration accuracy and possible migration of the internal fiducial gold marker implanted into prostate and liver was investigated. Materials and methods: Internal fiducial gold markers were implanted in 14 patients with prostate cancer and four patients with liver tumors. Computed tomography (CT) was carried out as a part of treatment planning in the 18 patients. A total of 72 follow-up CT scans were taken. We calculated the relative relationship between the coordinates of the center of mass (CM) of the organs and those of the marker. The discrepancy in the CM coordinates during a follow-up CT compared to those recorded during the planning CT was used to study possible marker migration. Results: The standard deviation (SD) of interobserver variations in the CM coordinates was within 2.0 and 0.4 mm for the organ and the marker, respectively, in seven observers. Assuming that organs do not shrink, grow, or rotate, the maximum SD of migration error in each direction was estimated to be less than 2.5 and 2.0 mm for liver and prostate, respectively. There was no correlation between the marker position and the time after implantation. Conclusion: The degree of possible migration of the internal fiducial marker was within the limits of accuracy of the CT measurement. Most of the marker movement can be attributed to the measurement uncertainty, which also influences registration in actual treatment planning. Thus, even with the gold marker and RTRT system, a planning target volume margin should be used to account for registration uncertainty

  7. Integrating molecular markers into the World Health Organization classification of CNS tumors: a survey of the neuro-oncology community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldape, Kenneth; Nejad, Romina; Louis, David N; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2017-03-01

    Molecular markers provide important biological and clinical information related to the classification of brain tumors, and the integration of relevant molecular parameters into brain tumor classification systems has been a widely discussed topic in neuro-oncology over the past decade. With recent advances in the development of clinically relevant molecular signatures and the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) update, the views of the neuro-oncology community on such changes would be informative for implementing this process. A survey with 8 questions regarding molecular markers in tumor classification was sent to an email list of Society for Neuro-Oncology members and attendees of prior meetings (n=5065). There were 403 respondents. Analysis was performed using whole group response, based on self-reported subspecialty. The survey results show overall strong support for incorporating molecular knowledge into the classification and clinical management of brain tumors. Across all 7 subspecialty groups, ≥70% of respondents agreed to this integration. Interestingly, some variability is seen among subspecialties, notably with lowest support from neuropathologists, which may reflect their roles in implementing such diagnostic technologies. Based on a survey provided to the neuro-oncology community, we report strong support for the integration of molecular markers into the WHO classification of brain tumors, as well as for using an integrated "layered" diagnostic format. While membership from each specialty showed support, there was variation by specialty in enthusiasm regarding proposed changes. The initial results of this survey influenced the deliberations underlying the 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology.

  8. Tumor markers in breast cancer- European Group on Tumor Markers recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Rafael; Barak, Vivian; van Dalen, Arie

    2005-01-01

    in the selection of patients for treatment with hormone therapy, while HER-2 is essential in selecting patients with advanced breast cancer for treatment with Herceptin (trastuzumab). Urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 are recently validated prognostic markers for lymph node...

  9. Production and Purification of Monoclonal Antibody Against Tumor Marker of TPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Amir Abbas Ghodrat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the invasive nature of cancer cells, one of the most important and best indicator of them is the markers inside them. One of the most important markers that observed in some types of cancer cells in various parts of the body is the Cytokeratin. Tissue plasminogen activator antigen (TPA is a Cytokeratin composed of molecules with various molecular weights. The level of TPA serum as associated with cellular growth level and tumorization of cells. In this research, the hybrid of spleen cells in BALB/c female mouse with myeloma cells was conducted with a ratio of 10:1. The resulting monoclonal antibodies were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot. Protein G chromatography was utilized to purify monoclonal antibodies. The results for determining isotypes showed IgM and IgG classes. The titer of the antibody obtained from various clones was capable of identifying Cytokeratin antigen with a dilution of 1/10000. The resulting antibodies were finally confirmed by western blot and all the 5 resulting monoclonal antibodies were capable of identifying a 48 kDa protein. The results indicate that with the help of TPA marker and the monoclonal antibodies produced against them, this marker can be recognized quickly with great accuracy in suspicious cases of cancer. Thus, appropriate measures will be taken to prevent and fight off its probable side effects. This factor can be further used to build a diagonal kit with high sensitivity.

  10. Predictive value of modeled AUC(AFP-hCG), a dynamic kinetic parameter characterizing serum tumor marker decline in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Benoit; Fronton, Ludivine; Boyle, Helen; Droz, Jean-Pierre; Girard, Pascal; Tranchand, Brigitte; Ribba, Benjamin; Tod, Michel; Chabaud, Sylvie; Coquelin, Henri; Fléchon, Aude

    2010-08-01

    The early decline profile of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) treated with chemotherapy may be related to the risk of relapse. We assessed the predictive values of areas under the curve of hCG (AUC(hCG)) and AFP (AUC(AFP)) of modeled concentration-time equations on progression-free survival (PFS). Single-center retrospective analysis of hCG and AFP time-points from 65 patients with IGCCCG intermediate-poor risk NSGCT treated with 4 cycles of bleomycin-etoposide-cisplatin (BEP). To determine AUC(hCG) and AUC(AFP) for D0-D42, AUCs for D0-D7 were calculated using the trapezoid rule and AUCs for D7-D42 were calculated using the mathematic integrals of equations modeled with NONMEM. Combining AUC(AFP) and AUC(hCG) enabled us to define 2 predictive groups: namely, patients with favorable and unfavorable AUC(AFP-hCG). Survival analyses and ROC curves assessed the predictive values of AUC(AFP-hCG) groups regarding progression-free survival (PFS) and compared them with those of half-life (HL) and time-to-normalization (TTN). Mono-exponential models best fit the patterns of marker decreases. Patients with a favorable AUC(AFP-hCG) had a significantly better PFS (100% vs 71.5%, P = .014). ROC curves confirmed the encouraging predictive accuracy of AUC(AFP-hCG) against HL or TTN regarding progression risk (ROC AUCs = 79.6 vs 71.9 and 70.2 respectively). Because of the large number of patients with missing data, multivariate analysis could not be performed. AUC(AFP-hCG) is a dynamic parameter characterizing tumor marker decline in patients with NSGCT during BEP treatment. Its value as a promising predictive factor should be validated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human endothelial precursor cells express tumor endothelial marker 1/endosialin/CD248.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Rebecca G; Rouleau, Cecile; St Martin, Thia; Boutin, Paula; Weber, William; Ruzek, Melanie; Honma, Nakayuki; Nacht, Mariana; Shankara, Srinivas; Kataoka, Shiro; Ishida, Isao; Roberts, Bruce L; Teicher, Beverly A

    2008-08-01

    Angiogenesis occurs during normal physiologic processes as well as under pathologic conditions such as tumor growth. Serial analysis of gene expression profiling revealed genes [tumor endothelial markers (TEM)] that are overexpressed in tumor endothelial cells compared with normal adult endothelial cells. Because blood vessel development of malignant tumors under certain conditions may include endothelial precursor cells (EPC) recruited from bone marrow, we investigated TEM expression in EPC. The expression of TEM1 or endosialin (CD248) and other TEM has been discovered in a population of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2+/CD31+/CD45-/VE-cadherin+ EPC derived from human CD133+/CD34+ cells. EPC share some properties with fully differentiated endothelial cells from normal tissue, yet reverse transcription-PCR and flow cytometry reveal that EPC express higher levels of endosialin at the molecular and protein levels. The elevated expression of endosialin in EPC versus mature endothelial cells suggests that endosialin is involved in the earlier stages of tumor angiogenesis. Anti-endosialin antibodies inhibited EPC migration and tube formation in vitro. In vivo, immunohistochemistry indicated that human EPC continued to express endosialin protein in a Matrigel plug angiogenesis assay established in nude mice. Anti-endosialin antibodies delivered systemically at 25 mg/kg were also able to inhibit circulating murine EPC in nude mice bearing s.c. SKNAS tumors. EPC and bone marrow-derived cells have been shown previously to incorporate into malignant blood vessels in some instances, yet they remain controversial in the field. The data presented here on endothelial genes that are up-regulated in tumor vasculature and in EPC support the hypothesis that the angiogenesis process in cancer can involve EPC.

  12. Tumor Heterogeneity: Mechanisms and Bases for a Reliable Application of Molecular Marker Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador J. Diaz-Cano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumor heterogeneity is a confusing finding in the assessment of neoplasms, potentially resulting in inaccurate diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tests. This tumor heterogeneity is not always a random and unpredictable phenomenon, whose knowledge helps designing better tests. The biologic reasons for this intratumoral heterogeneity would then be important to understand both the natural history of neoplasms and the selection of test samples for reliable analysis. The main factors contributing to intratumoral heterogeneity inducing gene abnormalities or modifying its expression include: the gradient ischemic level within neoplasms, the action of tumor microenvironment (bidirectional interaction between tumor cells and stroma, mechanisms of intercellular transference of genetic information (exosomes, and differential mechanisms of sequence-independent modifications of genetic material and proteins. The intratumoral heterogeneity is at the origin of tumor progression and it is also the byproduct of the selection process during progression. Any analysis of heterogeneity mechanisms must be integrated within the process of segregation of genetic changes in tumor cells during the clonal expansion and progression of neoplasms. The evaluation of these mechanisms must also consider the redundancy and pleiotropism of molecular pathways, for which appropriate surrogate markers would support the presence or not of heterogeneous genetics and the main mechanisms responsible. This knowledge would constitute a solid scientific background for future therapeutic planning.

  13. Analysis in patients of the Hospital A.C. Camargo of two tumors markers: CA-72.4 and CYFRA-21.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuto, Jose Alexandre Marzagao; Oda, Emilia Emiko; Oliveira, Ricardo Manoel de

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of two tumor markers, CA-72.4 and CYFRA-19.9 was analysed in patients of the Hospital A.C. Camargo. The measurement of CA-272.4 serum levels was performed by an automated chemo luminescence assay in 49 patients and proved useful in the two groups analyzed, patients with esophageal tumors and with gastric tumors. In both cases, there was an increase in sensitivity when measurements of this marker was added to that of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and of CA-19.9. The most sensitive associations were of CA-72.4 and CA-19.9 for esophageal tumors and of CA-72.4 and CEA for the gastric tumors. The maker CYFRA-21.1 was analyzed by a radioimmunoassay in 102 normal blood donors and in 20 patients with lung cancer. Among these, CYFRA-21.1 was altered in 55% of the cases. Therefore, CYFRA-21.1 could be considered, as the neuron-specific enolase (NSE), very useful tool for the follow-up lung cancer patients. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the CRACTES and BIANTA Programs for the Result Interpretation of Tumor Marker Assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecen, Ladislav; Topolčan, O.; Nekulová, M.; Šimíčková, M.; Kaušitz, J.; Eben, Kryštof; Vondráček, Jiří; Pikner, R.; Holubec, L.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2000), s. 57-58 ISSN 0886-3849. [International Conference on Human Tumor Markers /17./. 23.03.2000-24.03.2000, Hong Kong] Grant - others:IGA MZ ČR(CZ) NC4780; IGA MZ ČR(CZ) NC4746 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915

  15. Oxygenation level and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor estimated by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Volovetsky, A. B.; Shilyagina, N. Yu.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using diffuse optical spectroscopy the level of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor in comparison with normal muscle tissue of mice have been studied. Subcutaneously growing SKBR-3 was used as a tumor model. Continuous wave fiber probe diffuse optical spectroscopy system was employed. Optical properties extraction approach was based on diffusion approximation. Decreased blood oxygen saturation level and increased total hemoglobin content were demonstrated in the neoplasm. The main reason of such differences between tumor and norm was significant elevation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration in SKBR-3. The method can be useful for diagnosis of tumors as well as for study of blood flow parameters of tumor models with different angiogenic properties.

  16. Quantification of respiration-induced esophageal tumor motion using fiducial markers and four-dimensional computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; de Jong, Rianne; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Bel, Arjan; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    Respiration-induced tumor motion is an important geometrical uncertainty in esophageal cancer radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify this motion using fiducial markers and four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Twenty esophageal cancer patients underwent endoscopy-guided marker implantation in the tumor volume and 4DCT acquisition. The 4DCT data were sorted into 10 breathing phases and the end-of-inhalation phase was selected as reference. We quantified for each visible marker (n=60) the motion in each phase and derived the peak-to-peak motion magnitude throughout the breathing cycle. The motion was quantified and analyzed for four different regions and in three orthogonal directions. The median(interquartile range) of the peak-to-peak magnitudes of the respiration-induced marker motion (left-right/anterior-posterior/cranial-caudal) was 1.5(0.5)/1.6(0.5)/2.9(1.4) mm for the proximal esophagus (n=6), 1.5(1.4)/1.4(1.3)/3.7(2.6) mm for the middle esophagus (n=12), 2.6(1.3)/3.3(1.8)/5.4(2.9) mm for the distal esophagus (n=25), and 3.7(2.1)/5.3(1.8)/8.2(3.1) mm for the proximal stomach (n=17). The variations in the results between the three directions, four regions, and patients suggest the need of individualized region-dependent anisotropic internal margins. Therefore, we recommend using markers with 4DCT to patient-specifically adapt the internal target volume (ITV). Without 4DCT, 3DCTs at the end-of-inhalation and end-of-exhalation phases could be alternatively applied for ITV individualization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MRI contrast agent concentration and tumor interstitial fluid pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2016-10-07

    The present work describes the relationship between tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) and the concentration of contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We predict the spatial distribution of TIFP based on that of contrast agent concentration. We also discuss the cases for estimating tumor interstitial volume fraction (void fraction or porosity of porous medium), ve, and contrast volume transfer constant, K(trans), by measuring the ratio of contrast agent concentration in tissue to that in plasma. A linear fluid velocity distribution may reflect a quadratic function of TIFP distribution and lead to a practical method for TIFP estimation. To calculate TIFP, the parameters or variables should preferably be measured along the direction of the linear fluid velocity (this is in the same direction as the gray value distribution of the image, which is also linear). This method may simplify the calculation for estimating TIFP. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of serum tumor markers, tumor cell apoptosis and immune response in patients with advanced colon cancer after DC-CIK combined with intravenous chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei-Fan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of DC-CIK combined with intravenous chemotherapy on serum tumor markers, tumor cell apoptosis and immune response in patients with advanced colon cancer. Methods: A total of 79 patients with advanced colon cancer conservatively treated in our hospital between May 2012 and October 2015 were retrospectively studied and divided into DC-CIK group and intravenous chemotherapy group according to different therapeutic regimens, DC-CIK group received DC-CIK combined with intravenous chemotherapy and intravenous chemotherapy group received conventional intravenous chemotherapy. After three cycles of chemotherapy, the content of tumor markers in serum, expression levels of apoptotic molecules in tumor lesions as well as immune function indexes were determined. Results: After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, CEA, CA199, CA242, HIF-1α, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 content in serum of DC-CIK group were significantly lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group; p53, FAM96B, PTEN, PHLPP, ASPP2 and RASSF10 mRNA content in tumor lesions of DC-CIK group were significantly higher than those of intravenous chemotherapy group; the fluorescence intensity of CD3, CD4 and CD56 on peripheral blood mononuclear cell surface of DC-CIK group were significantly higher than those of intravenous chemotherapy group while the fluorescence intensity of CD8 and CD25 were significantly lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group; IL-2 and IFN-γ content in serum of DC-CIK group were significantly higher than those of intravenous chemotherapy group while IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 content were significantly lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group. Conclusions: DC-CIK combined with intravenous chemotherapy has better effect on killing colon cancer cells and inducing colon cancer cell apoptosis than conventional intravenous chemotherapy, and can also improve the body's anti-tumor immune response.

  19. Small renal masses: The molecular markers associated with outcome of patients with kidney tumors 7 cm or less

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirina, L. V.; Usynin, Y. A.; Kondakova, I. V.; Yurmazov, Z. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Pikalova, L. V.

    2016-08-01

    The investigation of molecular mechanisms of tumor cell behavior in small renal masses is required to achieve the better cancer survival. The aim of the study is to find molecular markers associated with outcome of patients with kidney tumors 7 cm or less. A homogenous group of 20 patients T1N0M0-1 (mean age 57.6 ± 2.2 years) with kidney cancer was selected for the present analysis. The content of transcription and growth factors was determined by ELISA. The levels of AKT-mTOR signaling pathway components were measured by Western blotting analysis. The molecular markers associated with unfavorable outcome of patients with kidney tumors 7 cm or less were high levels of NF-kB p50, NF-kB p65, HIF-1, HIF-2, VEGF and CAIX. AKT activation with PTEN loss also correlated with the unfavorable outcome of kidney cancer patients with tumor size 7 cm or less. It is observed that the biological features of kidney cancer could predict the outcome of patients.

  20. Measurement of Lung Cancer Tumor Markers in a Glass Wool Company Workers Exposed to Respirable Synthetic Vitreous Fiber and Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Abtahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposures to respirable synthetic vitreous fiber (SVF and dust are associated with many lung diseases including lung cancer. Low-dose computed tomography is used for screening patients who are highly suspicious of having lung carcinoma. However, it seems not to be cost-effective. Serum biomarkers could be a useful tool for the surveillance of occupational exposure, by providing the possibility of diagnosing lung cancer in its early stages. Objective: To determine if serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA 21-1 levels in workers exposed more than normal population to respirable SVF and dust may be used as indicators of progression towards lung cancer. Methods: An analytic cross-sectional study, including 145 personnel of a glass wool company, along with 25 age-matched healthy individuals, was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to respirable SVFs and dust and serum levels of two lung/pleura serum tumor markers, CEA and CYFRA 21-1, measured by ELISA. Results: Individuals exposed to higher than the recommended levels of respirable SVF had higher serum concentrations of CEA and CYFRA 21-1, compared to controls (p=0.008 and 0.040, respectively, as well as in comparison to those exposed to lower than recommended OSHA levels (p=0.046 and 0.033, respectively. Workers with >9 years work experience, had significantly (p=0.045 higher levels of serum CYFRA 21-1 than those with ≤9 years of experience. Conclusion: It seems that working for >9 years in sites with detectable levels of respirable SVF and dust would increase the levels of known lung cancer serum tumor markers. Transferring these workers to sites with respirable SVF concentrations lower than the limit of detection in the air is recommended.

  1. Evaluation of Lumipulse® G1200 for the measurement of six tumor markers: Comparison with AIA® 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rancher, Marie-Aude Robert; Oudart, Jean-Baptiste; Maquart, François-Xavier; Monboisse, Jean Claude; Ramont, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Tumor marker assays are daily practiced, for screening and follow up of cancers. Interassay precision is an important parameter for the interpretation of the kinetics of the markers, in order to conclude to the efficiency or failure of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare two automated Immunoassay analyzers, Lumipulse® G1200 and AIA® 2000. Both analyzers used an immunoassay system but with different antibodies. Six tumor markers commonly used were studied: AFP, PSA, CA 19-9, CA 15-3, CA 125 and CEA. 253 samples have been collected over a period of one month and analyzed by both analyzers. Regression of Passing-Badblock and Bland-Altman diagram were used to analyze the results for AFP (n=36), PSA (n=39), CA-125 (n=40), CA 15-3 (n=40), CA 19-9 (n=46) and CEA (n=52) were performed. Analytical performances of Lumipulse® G1200 highlighted the good inter-run and intra-run precision of the analyzer. We obtained a good correlation coefficient between Lumipulse G1200® and AIA 2000®, >0.96 for most markers except CA 19-9 which provided a correlation coefficient significantly lower than that obtained with other markers. The concordance for all markers was >94% except for CA 19-9 (83.7%). This study showed a good correlation between the two analyzers and, therefore, a transfer from one analyzer to the other is possible for the different markers studied. However, we found here the classical difficulty to transfer this type of analysis, due to the absence of method standardization. This difficulty was particularly illustrated by CA19-9. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Imaging tumor endothelial marker 8 using an 18F-labeled peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Qimeng; Yang, Min; Gao, Haokao; Zhu, Lei; Lin, Xin; Guo, Ning; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Guixiang; Eden, Henry S.; Niu, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) has been reported to be upregulated in both tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells in several cancer types. TEM8 antagonists and TEM8-targeted delivery of toxins have been developed as effective cancer therapeutics. The ability to image TEM8 expression would be of use in evaluating TEM8-targeted cancer therapy. A 13-meric peptide, KYNDRLPLYISNP (QQM), identified from the small loop in domain IV of protective antigen of anthrax toxin was evaluated for TEM8 binding and labeled with 18 F for small-animal PET imaging in both UM-SCC1 head-and-neck cancer and MDA-MB-435 melanoma models. A modified ELISA showed that QQM peptide bound specifically to the extracellular vWA domain of TEM8 with an IC 50 value of 304 nM. Coupling 4-nitrophenyl 2- 18 F-fluoropropionate with QQM gave almost quantitative yield and a high specific activity (79.2 ± 7.4 TBq/mmol, n = 5) of 18 F-FP-QQM at the end of synthesis. 18 F-FP-QQM showed predominantly renal clearance and had significantly higher accumulation in TEM8 high-expressing UM-SCC1 tumors (2.96 ± 0.84 %ID/g at 1 h after injection) than TEM8 low-expressing MDA-MB-435 tumors (1.38 ± 0.56 %ID/g at 1 h after injection). QQM peptide bound specifically to the extracellular domain of TEM8. 18 F-FP-QQM peptide tracer would be a promising lead compound for measuring TEM8 expression. Further efforts to improve the affinity and specificity of the tracer and to increase its metabolic stability are warranted. (orig.)

  3. Promising markers for the detection of premature senescence tumor cells induced by ionizing radiation: Cathepsin D and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hae-Ok; Han, Na-Kyung; Lee, Jae-Seon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Recently, it has been proved that induction of senescence could be a promising way of tumor treatment. Senescence was originally described in normal human cells undergoing a finite number of divisions before permanent growth arrest. It has now become regarded more broadly as a general biological program of terminal growth arrest. A variety of stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), oxidative stress, oncogenic transformation, DNA damaging agents triggers stress-induced premature senescence, i.e. rapid and permanent cell growth arrest. Therefore, premature senescence is bona fide barrier to tumorigenesis and hallmark of premalignant tumors. However, there is lack of obvious markers for senescent tumor cells. To identify useful premature senescence markers for tumor cells, we monitored the changes of protein expression profile in IR-induced premature senescence MCF7 human breast cancer cells. We identified biomarkers which evidently changed their expression levels in ionizing radiation-induced senescenct tumor cells.

  4. Promising markers for the detection of premature senescence tumor cells induced by ionizing radiation: Cathepsin D and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hae-Ok; Han, Na-Kyung; Lee, Jae-Seon

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it has been proved that induction of senescence could be a promising way of tumor treatment. Senescence was originally described in normal human cells undergoing a finite number of divisions before permanent growth arrest. It has now become regarded more broadly as a general biological program of terminal growth arrest. A variety of stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), oxidative stress, oncogenic transformation, DNA damaging agents triggers stress-induced premature senescence, i.e. rapid and permanent cell growth arrest. Therefore, premature senescence is bona fide barrier to tumorigenesis and hallmark of premalignant tumors. However, there is lack of obvious markers for senescent tumor cells. To identify useful premature senescence markers for tumor cells, we monitored the changes of protein expression profile in IR-induced premature senescence MCF7 human breast cancer cells. We identified biomarkers which evidently changed their expression levels in ionizing radiation-induced senescenct tumor cells

  5. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal endocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashima, Hirosato, E-mail: hmashima1-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Ohno, Hideki [Division of Advanced Medical Science, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yamada, Yumi; Sakai, Toshitaka; Ohnishi, Hirohide [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells along the colorectum. ► INSL5 is expressed increasingly from proximal colon to rectum. ► INSL5 co-localizes rarely with chromogranin A. ► All rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined expressed INSL5. -- Abstract: Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a member of the insulin superfamily, and is a potent agonist for RXFP4. We have shown that INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells (EECs) along the colorectum with a gradient increase toward the rectum. RXFP4 is ubiquitously expressed along the digestive tract. INSL5-positive EECs have little immunoreactivity to chromogranin A (CgA) and might be a unique marker of colorectal EECs. CgA-positive EECs were distributed normally along the colorectum in INSL5 null mice, suggesting that INSL5 is not required for the development of CgA-positive EECs. Exogenous INSL5 did not affect the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines, and chemically-induced colitis in INSL5 null mice did not show any significant changes in inflammation or mucosal healing compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, all of the rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined co-expressed INSL5 and RXFP4. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal EECs, and INSL5–RXFP4 signaling might play a role in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the colorectal epithelium and rectal neuroendocrine tumors.

  6. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal endocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashima, Hirosato; Ohno, Hideki; Yamada, Yumi; Sakai, Toshitaka; Ohnishi, Hirohide

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells along the colorectum. ► INSL5 is expressed increasingly from proximal colon to rectum. ► INSL5 co-localizes rarely with chromogranin A. ► All rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined expressed INSL5. -- Abstract: Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a member of the insulin superfamily, and is a potent agonist for RXFP4. We have shown that INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells (EECs) along the colorectum with a gradient increase toward the rectum. RXFP4 is ubiquitously expressed along the digestive tract. INSL5-positive EECs have little immunoreactivity to chromogranin A (CgA) and might be a unique marker of colorectal EECs. CgA-positive EECs were distributed normally along the colorectum in INSL5 null mice, suggesting that INSL5 is not required for the development of CgA-positive EECs. Exogenous INSL5 did not affect the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines, and chemically-induced colitis in INSL5 null mice did not show any significant changes in inflammation or mucosal healing compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, all of the rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined co-expressed INSL5 and RXFP4. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal EECs, and INSL5–RXFP4 signaling might play a role in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the colorectal epithelium and rectal neuroendocrine tumors

  7. P63 marker Expression in Usual Skin Cancers Compared With Non Tumoral Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Esmaili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancers in human. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of P63 marker in usual skin cancers compared with non-tomoral skin lesions. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sampling was performed from archival blocks of Shahid Mohammadi hospital patients during 2010-2011. 60 samples (including 30 samples of non tumoral skin lesions and 30 samples of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were studied and evaluation of p63 gene expression was done with Immunohistochemistry method. T-test and Chi-square were used for analysis of data. Results: P63 gene were expressed in 4 cases (13.33 % of non tumoral lesions and all tumoral lesions (100 %. In tumoral lesions, 5 cases (16.66 % showed 1+ severity experssion, 11 cases (36.66% 2 + severity experssion and 14 cases (46.66 % 3+severity experssion. All 4 non tumoral lesions shoed 1+ severity experssion of P63gene. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the incidence and severity of gene expression of P63 can be use for differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as well as non-tumoral skin lesions. 

  8. Performance of biomarkers SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA 21-1 as potential tumor markers for malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer in a cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gube, M.; Taeger, D.; Weber, D.G.; Pesch, B.; Johnen, G.; Gross, I.M.; Wiethege, T.; Weber, A.; Bruening, T.; Brand, P.; Mueller-Lux, A.; Kraus, T.; Raithel, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the cancer-predictive values of SMRP (soluble mesothelin-related peptides), CA125, and CYFRA21-1 as potential tumor markers for lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma in a cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos. A voluntary surveillance program has been established for German workers with former asbestos exposure. A subgroup of 626 subjects with a mean age of 63 years (range 53-70 years) at baseline was enrolled in an extended health examination program with high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) of the chest and blood drawing between 1993 and 1997. Serum concentrations of SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 were measured in archived serum samples in 2005 and 2006. A mortality follow-up was conducted through 2007. So far, 12 cases with lung cancer and 20 cases with malignant mesothelioma have been observed in this cohort. The average time between sample collection and diagnosis was 4.7 years. Analyzed biomarkers showed low sensitivities (5-25%) and positive predictive values (4-30%) for both cancer sites. Marker combinations resulted in sensitivities between 5 and 50% and positive predictive values ranging from 3 to 14%. Even in those cases, where biomarker concentrations were available within 36 months before diagnosis, no trend for increasing biomarker levels was observed. The analyzed tumor markers were characterized by high specificities, but low sensitivities. SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 alone or in combination were less suitable to serve as predictors for the diagnosis of lung cancer or malignant mesothelioma. However, a prospective study with annual sampling might reveal a better predictive value of these markers. (orig.)

  9. Performance of biomarkers SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA 21-1 as potential tumor markers for malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer in a cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gube, M. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, Medical Faculty, Aachen (Germany); Westfaelische Technische Hochschule, Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin und Sozialmedizin am Universitaetsklinikum Aachen, Rheinisch, Aachen (Germany); Taeger, D.; Weber, D.G.; Pesch, B.; Johnen, G.; Gross, I.M.; Wiethege, T.; Weber, A.; Bruening, T. [Institute of the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (IPA), Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Bochum (Germany); Brand, P.; Mueller-Lux, A.; Kraus, T. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, Medical Faculty, Aachen (Germany); Raithel, H.J. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The aim of the study is to examine the cancer-predictive values of SMRP (soluble mesothelin-related peptides), CA125, and CYFRA21-1 as potential tumor markers for lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma in a cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos. A voluntary surveillance program has been established for German workers with former asbestos exposure. A subgroup of 626 subjects with a mean age of 63 years (range 53-70 years) at baseline was enrolled in an extended health examination program with high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) of the chest and blood drawing between 1993 and 1997. Serum concentrations of SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 were measured in archived serum samples in 2005 and 2006. A mortality follow-up was conducted through 2007. So far, 12 cases with lung cancer and 20 cases with malignant mesothelioma have been observed in this cohort. The average time between sample collection and diagnosis was 4.7 years. Analyzed biomarkers showed low sensitivities (5-25%) and positive predictive values (4-30%) for both cancer sites. Marker combinations resulted in sensitivities between 5 and 50% and positive predictive values ranging from 3 to 14%. Even in those cases, where biomarker concentrations were available within 36 months before diagnosis, no trend for increasing biomarker levels was observed. The analyzed tumor markers were characterized by high specificities, but low sensitivities. SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 alone or in combination were less suitable to serve as predictors for the diagnosis of lung cancer or malignant mesothelioma. However, a prospective study with annual sampling might reveal a better predictive value of these markers. (orig.)

  10. The discovery of putative urine markers for the specific detection of prostate tumor by integrative mining of public genomic profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    Full Text Available Urine has emerged as an attractive biofluid for the noninvasive detection of prostate cancer (PCa. There is a strong imperative to discover candidate urinary markers for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of PCa. The rising flood of various omics profiles presents immense opportunities for the identification of prospective biomarkers. Here we present a simple and efficient strategy to derive candidate urine markers for prostate tumor by mining cancer genomic profiles from public databases. Prostate, bladder and kidney are three major tissues from which cellular matters could be released into urine. To identify urinary markers specific for PCa, upregulated entities that might be shed in exosomes of bladder cancer and kidney cancer are first excluded. Through the ontology-based filtering and further assessment, a reduced list of 19 entities encoding urinary proteins was derived as putative PCa markers. Among them, we have found 10 entities closely associated with the process of tumor cell growth and development by pathway enrichment analysis. Further, using the 10 entities as seeds, we have constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI subnetwork and suggested a few urine markers as preferred prognostic markers to monitor the invasion and progression of PCa. Our approach is amenable to discover and prioritize potential markers present in a variety of body fluids for a spectrum of human diseases.

  11. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers with a rapid and sensitive multicolor quantum dots based immunochromatographic test strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunying; Hou, Fei; Ma, Yicai

    2015-06-15

    A novel multicolor quantum dots (QDs) based immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) was developed for simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers, by utilizing alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as models. The immunosensor could realize simultaneous quantitative detection of tumor markers with only one test line and one control line on the nitrocellulose membrane (NC membrane) due to the introduction of multicolor QDs. In this method, a mixture of mouse anti-AFP McAb and mouse anti-CEA McAb was coated on NC membrane as test line and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody was coated as control line. Anti-AFP McAb-QDs546 conjugates and anti-CEA McAb-QDs620 conjugates were mixed and applied to the conjugate pad. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers was achieved by detecting the fluorescence intensity of captured QDs labels on test line and control line using a test strip reader. Under the optimum conditions, AFP and CEA could be detected as low as 3 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL in 15 min with a sample volume of 80 μL, and no obvious cross-reactivity was observed. The immunosensor was validated with 130 clinical samples and in which it exhibited high sensitivity (93% for AFP and 87% for CEA) and specificity (94% for AFP and 97% for CEA). The immunosensor also demonstrated high recoveries (87.5-113% for AFP and 90-97.3% for CEA) and low relative standard deviations (RSDs) (2.8-6.2% for AFP and 4.9-9.6% for CEA) when testing spiked human serum. This novel multicolor QDs based ICTS provides an easy and rapid, simultaneous quantitative detecting strategy for point-of-care testing of tumor markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined Evaluation of AFP, CA15-3, CA125, CA19-9, and CEA Tumor Markers in Patients with Hepatitis B and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmar, Mehdi; Yeganeh, Sara; Mansourghanaei, Fariborz; Amirmozafari, Nour

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of tumor markers AFP, CA15-3, CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in patients with hepatitis B and C. This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed from Oct 2012 to Oct 2014. Serum samples of 129 patients with hepatitis B and C referred to Guilan Liver and Digestive Disease Research Center in Rasht, Iran were collected and checked for the existence of the listed tumor markers by ELISA. No increase in serum levels of tumor marker CA19-9, CEA and CA15-3 were seen in patients with hepatitis ( P >0.05). In patients with hepatitis B, increase in CA125 were observed ( P =0.03). In hepatitis C patients, there was an increase in AFP levels ( P =0.03). The levels of AFP and CA125 markers were high in hepatitis C and hepatitis B, respectively. However, the increased levels were not seen is malignancy. Due to the small sample size, further study is necessary to find the reasons of the increase.

  13. Detection of lung tumor movement in real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shinichi; Shirato, Hiroki; Ogura, Shigeaki; Akita-Dosaka, Hirotoshi; Kitamura, Kei; Nishioka, Takeshi; Kagei, Kenji; Nishimura, Masaji; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: External radiotherapy for lung tumors requires reducing the uncertainty due to setup error and organ motion. We investigated the three-dimensional movement of lung tumors through an inserted internal marker using a real-time tumor-tracking system and evaluated the efficacy of this system at reducing the internal margin. Methods and Materials: Four patients with lung cancer were analyzed. A 2.0-mm gold marker was inserted into the tumor. The real-time tumor-tracking system calculates and stores three-dimensional coordinates of the marker 30 times/s. The system can trigger the linear accelerator to irradiate the tumor only when the marker is located within the predetermined 'permitted dislocation'. The value was set at ±1 to ±3 mm according to the patient's characteristics. We analyzed 10,413-14,893 data sets for each of the 4 patients. The range of marker movement during normal breathing (beam-off period) was compared with that during gated irradiation (beam-on period) by Student's t test. Results: The range of marker movement during the beam-off period was 5.5-10.0 mm in the lateral direction (x), 6.8-15.9 mm in the craniocaudal direction (y) and 8.1-14.6 mm in the ventrodorsal direction (z). The range during the beam-on period was reduced to within 5.3 mm in all directions in all 4 patients. A significant difference was found between the mean of the range during the beam-off period and the mean of the range during the beam-on period in the x (p=0.007), y (p=0.025), and z (p=0.002) coordinates, respectively. Conclusion: The real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system was useful to analyze the movement of an internal marker. Treatment with megavoltage X-rays was properly given when the tumor marker moved into the 'permitted dislocation' zone from the planned position

  14. Tumor-related markers in histologically normal margins correlate with locally recurrent oral squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhong; Chen, Si; Chen, Xinming; Zhang, Cuicui; Liang, Xueyi

    2016-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is characterized by a high rate of local recurrence (LR) even when the surgical margins are considered histopathologically 'normal'. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between early tumor-related markers detected in histologically normal margins (HNM) and LR as well as disease-free survival in OSCC. The loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of markers on 9p21 (D9s1747, RPS6, D9s162) and 17p13 (TP53) and the immunostaining results of the corresponding mutant P53, P14, P15, and P16 proteins were assessed and correlated with LR and disease-free survival in 71 OSCC patients who had HNM. Fifteen of 71 patients with HNM developed LR. The presence of the following molecular markers in surgical margins was significantly correlated with the development of LR: LOH on chromosome 9p21 (D9s1747 + RPS6 + D9s162), any LOH, P16, and P53 (chi-square test, P tumor-related markers in histologically 'normal' resection margins may be a useful method for assessing LR in OSCC patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Checking the Course of Colorectal Carcinoma Follow up Using Mathematical Classification of Tumor Marker Profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubec jr., L.; Botterlich, N.; Topolčan, O.; Finek, J.; Pikner, R.; Pecen, Ladislav; Holubec, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, Suppl.1 (2002), s. 57 ISSN 1010-4283. [Meeting of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine /30./. 08.09.2002-12.09.2002, Boston] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 438 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : tumor markers * colorectal CA * mathematical classification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  16. Evaluation of a CLEIA automated assay system for the detection of a panel of tumor markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzarano, Renato; Viggiani, Valentina; Michienzi, Simona; Longo, Flavia; Tudini, Silvestra; Frati, Luigi; Anastasi, Emanuela

    2013-10-01

    Tumor markers are commonly used to detect a relapse of disease in oncologic patients during follow-up. It is important to evaluate new assay systems for a better and more precise assessment, as a standardized method is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the concordance between an automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay system (LUMIPULSE® G1200) and our reference methods using seven tumor markers. Serum samples from 787 subjects representing a variety of diagnoses, including oncologic, were analyzed using LUMIPULSE® G1200 and our reference methods. Serum values were measured for the following analytes: prostate-specific antigen (PSA), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1). For the determination of CEA, AFP, and PSA, an automatic analyzer based on chemiluminescence was applied as reference method. To assess CYFRA 21-1, CA125, CA19-9, and CA15-3, an immunoradiometric manual system was employed. Method comparison by Passing-Bablok analysis resulted in slopes ranging from 0.9728 to 1.9089 and correlation coefficients from 0.9977 to 0.9335. The precision of each assay was assessed by testing six serum samples. Each sample was analyzed for all tumor biomarkers in duplicate and in three different runs. The coefficients of variation were less than 6.3 and 6.2 % for within-run and between-run variation, respectively. Our data suggest an overall good interassay agreement for all markers. The comparison with our reference methods showed good precision and reliability, highlighting its usefulness in clinical laboratory's routine.

  17. Real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy for adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Norio; Onimaru, Rikiya; Sakuhara, Yusuke; Abo, Daisuke; Shimizu, Shinichi; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Ishikawa, Masayori; Shirato, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the three-dimensional movement of internal fiducial markers near the adrenal tumors using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system and to examine the feasibility of high-dose hypofractionated radiotherapy for the adrenal tumors. Materials and methods: The subjects considered in this study were 10 markers of the 9 patients treated with RTRT. A total of 72 days in the prone position and 61 treatment days in the supine position for nine of the 10 markers were analyzed. All but one patient were prescribed 48 Gy in eight fractions at the isocenter. Results: The average absolute amplitude of the marker movement in the prone position was 6.1 ± 4.4 mm (range 2.3-14.4), 11.1 ± 7.1 mm (3.5-25.2), and 7.0 ± 3.5 mm (3.9-12.5) in the left-right (LR), craniocaudal (CC), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, respectively. The average absolute amplitude in the supine position was 3.4 ± 2.9 mm (0.6-9.1), 9.9 ± 9.8 mm (1.1-27.1), and 5.4 ± 5.2 mm (1.7-26.6) in the LR, CC, and AP directions, respectively. Of the eight markers, which were examined in both the prone and supine positions, there was no significant difference in the average absolute amplitude between the two positions. No symptomatic adverse effects were observed within the median follow-up period of 16 months (range 5-21 months). The actuarial freedom-from-local-progression rate was 100% at 12 months. Conclusions: Three-dimensional motion of a fiducial marker near the adrenal tumors was detected. Hypofractionated RTRT for adrenal tumors was feasible for patients with metastatic tumors

  18. A novel classifier based on three preoperative tumor markers predicting the cancer-specific survival of gastric cancer (CEA, CA19-9 and CA72-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Chen, Shangxiang; Li, Shun; Sun, Xiaowei; Li, Wei; Zhou, Zhiwei; Chen, Yingbo; Xu, Dazhi

    2018-01-12

    Several studies have highlighted the prognostic value of the individual and the various combinations of the tumor markers for gastric cancer (GC). Our study was designed to assess establish a new novel model incorporating carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4). A total of 1,566 GC patients (Primary cohort) between Jan 2000 and July 2013 were analyzed. The Primary cohort was randomly divided into Training set (n=783) and Validation set (n=783). A three-tumor marker classifier was developed in the Training set and validated in the Validation set by multivariate regression and risk-score analysis. We have identified a three-tumor marker classifier (including CEA, CA19-9 and CA72-4) for the cancer specific survival (CSS) of GC (ptumor marker classifier is closely associated with the CSS of GC and may serve as a novel model for future decisions concerning treatments.

  19. Treatment Outcome and Prognostic Molecular Markers of Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hee Choi

    Full Text Available To identify prognostic factors and define the optimal management of patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs, we investigated treatment outcomes and explored the prognostic value of specific molecular markers.A total of 47 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed sPNETs between May 1985 and June 2012 were included. Immunohistochemical analysis of LIN28, OLIG2, and Rad51 expression was performed and correlated with clinical outcome.With a median follow-up of 70 months, 5-year overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS was 55.5% and 40%, respectively, for all patients. Age, surgical extent, and radiotherapy were significant prognostic factors for OS and PFS. Patients who received initially planned multimodal treatment without interruption (i.e., radiotherapy and surgery (≥subtotal resection, with or without chemotherapy showed significantly higher 5-year OS (71.2% and PFS (63.1%. In 29 patients with available tumor specimens, tumors with high expression of either LIN28 or OLIG2 or elevated level of Rad51 were significantly associated with poorer prognosis.We found that multimodal treatment improved outcomes for sPNET patients, especially when radiotherapy and ≥subtotal resection were part of the treatment regimen. Furthermore, we confirmed the prognostic significance of LIN28 and OLIG2 and revealed the potential role of Rad51 in sPNETs.

  20. Clinical impact of [18F]FDG-PET in patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer based on asymptomatically elevated tumor marker serum levels. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Kao, Chia-Hung; Yen, Ruoh-Fang

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the impact of [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on the detection of recurrent breast cancer based on asymptomatically elevated tumor markers levels. Whole-body FDG-PET was performed in 30 patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer and asymptomatic tumor marker increase but negative or equivocal other imaging modality results. A blood sample was drawn in each case for marker assay (CA 15-3 and CEA) on the same day as the FDG-PET. All of these 30 asymptomatic patients had either CA 15-3>32 U/ml or CEA>5 ng/ml. The final diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer was established by operation/biopsy histopathological findings or clinical follow-up for >1 year by additional morphological imaging techniques. Among the 30 patients, the final diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer was established in 38 sites in 28 patients. FDG-PET accurately detected 35/38 sites in 25/28 patients with recurrence. The diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy of FDG-PET in patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer and asymptomatically elevated tumor markers were 96 and 90%, respectively. FDG-PET is a useful technique for detecting recurrent breast cancer suspected from asymptomatically elevated tumor markers levels and has an important clinical impact on the management of these patients. (author)

  1. Clinical Evaluation of Tumor Markers for Diagnosis in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Xie, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Hai-Yan; Ma, Ling-Yun; Wen, Zhong-Guang

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the value of combined detection of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1), and carbohydrateantigen 125 (CA125) for the clinical diagnosis of non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Serum CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA125 were assessed in 140 patients with NSCLC, 90 patients with benign lung disease and 90 normal control subjects, and differences of expression were compared in each group, and joint effects of these tumor markers in the diagnosis of NSCLC were analyzed. Serum CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA125 in patients with NSCLC were significantly higher than those with benign lung disease and normal controls (PCEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA125 were 49.45%, 59.67%, and 44.87% respectively. As expected, combinations of these tumor markers improved their sensitivity for NSCLC. The combined detection of CEA+CYFRA21-1 was the most cost-effective combination which had higher sensitivity and specificity in NSCLC. Elevation of serum CEA and CYFRA21-1 was significantly associated with pathological types (PCEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA125 was significantly associated with TNM staging (PCEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA125 is of diagnostic value in the diagnosis of lung cancer, and a joint detection of these three tumor markers, could greatly improve the sensitivity of diagnosis on NSCLC. Combined detection of CEA+CYFRA21-1 proved to be the most economic and practical strategy in diagnosis of NSCLC, which can be used to screen the high-risk group.

  2. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry laboratory medicine practice guidelines for use of tumor markers in testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturgeon, Catharine M.; Duffy, Michael J.; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed. METHODS: Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 5 cancer sites--testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast...... for differential diagnosis of nonseminomatous and seminomatous germ cell tumors. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is not recommended for prostate cancer screening, but may be used for detecting disease recurrence and monitoring therapy. Free PSA measurement data are useful for distinguishing malignant from benign...... prostatic disease when total PSA is cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen is recommended (with some caveats) for prognosis determination, postoperative surveillance, and therapy monitoring in advanced disease. Fecal occult blood testing may be used for screening asymptomatic adults 50...

  3. Calcium Concentration in Culture Medium as a Nondestructive and Rapid Marker of Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikake, Yohei; Akahane, Manabu; Furukawa, Akira; Tohma, Yasuaki; Inagaki, Yusuke; Kira, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-06-09

    Artificial bones made of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) combined with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are used for effective reconstruction of bone defects caused by genetic defects, traumatic injury, or surgical resection of bone tumors. However, the selection of constructs with high osteogenic potential before implantation is challenging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the calcium concentration in BM-MSC culture medium can be used as a nondestructive and simple osteogenic marker for selecting tissue-engineered grafts constructed using β-TCP and BM-MSCs. We prepared three cell passages of BM-MSCs derived from three 7-week-old, male Fischer 344 rats; the cells were cultured in osteoinductive medium in the presence of β-TCP for 15 days. The medium was replaced with fresh medium on day 1 in culture and subsequently changed every 48 h; it was collected for measurement of osteocalcin secretion and calcium concentration by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, respectively. After cultivation, the constructs were implanted subcutaneously into the backs of recipient rats. Four weeks after implantation, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin content of the constructs were measured. A strong inverse correlation was observed between the calcium concentration in the medium and the ALP activity and osteocalcin content of the constructs, with Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.90, respectively. These results indicate that tissue-engineered bone with high osteogenic ability can be selected before implantation based on low calcium content of the culture medium, resulting in successful bone formation after implantation. This nondestructive, simple method shows great promise for assessing the osteogenic ability of tissue-engineered bone.

  4. Clinical value of combined detection of serum tumor markers and whole body bone scan for diagnosis of bone metastases from breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chao; Zhao Jing; Liu Desheng; Zhang Jingchuan; Ji Xuejing; Hou Xiancun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical value of serum tumor marker determination and whole body bone scan for diagnosis of bone metastases from breast cancer. Methods: Serum tumor markers (CA15-3, CEA, TSGF)were detected with GLIA and whole body bone scan were investigated by SPECT in 124 breast cancer patients. Results: In 124 patients, 38 patients were diagnosed as positive for bone metastases with whole body bone scan. The positive predicting values of CA15-3, CEA, TSGF were 76.78%, 80% and 82.14%, and the negative predicting values of CA15-3, GEA, TSGF were 82.41%, 86.74% and 84.29% respectively. The levels of CA15-3, CEA, TSGF in patients with bone metastases were significantly higher than those in patients without metastasis and the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of levels of serum tumor markers CA15-3, CEA, TSGF is helpful for diagnosis of bone metastases from breast cancer. Combined detection of GA15-3, CEA, TSGF could increase the sensitivity and accuracy of diagnosing bone metastases. (authors)

  5. Comparative study between 131I-MIBG scintigraphy and other tumor markers in diagnosis of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Yoshihiro; Iwafuchi, Makoto; Odano, Ikuo; Yamagiwa, Iwao.

    1989-01-01

    In order to prove the clinical usefulness in diagnosis of neuroblastoma, comparative studies between iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 131 I-MIBG) scintigraphy and other related tumor markers were attempted. Sixteen children diagnosed as having a neuroblastoma in recent 2 years were examined. In 5 postoperative patients in complete remission, who were negative to other tumor markers, showed no pathological accumulation of 131 I-MIBG (specificity 100%). In other 11 patients with remains of neuroblastoma, 131 I-MIBG was negative only in 2 patients (sensitivity 82%) and these 2 patients showed negative urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites (VMA). (Negative urinary VMA was proved in 3 of 11 patients). Serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was elevated in all 8 preoperative patients, but only in 2 of 11 postoperative patients. On the other hand 131 I-MIBG was positive in 9 among these 11 postoperative patients in whom neuroblastoma remained. Similar relationship was obtained between 131 I-MIBG scintigraphy and serum LDH. On the basis of our present experience, we like to regard 131 I-MIBG scintigraphy as one of the most sensitive parameters for neuroblastoma during a follow-up period after treatment. (author)

  6. Functional histology of tumors as a basis of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungkvist, A.S.; Bussink, J.; Rijken, P.F.; Van Der Kogel, A.; Kaanders, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the various elements of the microenvironment and their interrelationships by quantitative image analysis. Tumor cell proliferation, hypoxia, and apoptosis are detected by immunohistochemical methods, and mapped in relation to the vasculature. This allows quantitative relationships to be measured in the context of tissue structure. Guided by e.g., gene expression profiles for hypoxia induced-genes, several molecular markers of tumor hypoxia were identified and are immunohistochemically detectable. We have thus far concentrated on the glucose transporters glut-1 and glut-3, as well as a pH-regulating enzyme, carbonic anhydrase IX. The extent and distribution of hypoxia is assessed by administering nitroimidazole-based markers such as pimonidazole, that can be detected immunohistochemically. Multiple hypoxia markers (CCI-103F, pimonidazole) can be used to study the effects of modifiers of perfusion or oxygenation on the distribution and dynamics of hypoxic cells in the same tumor. Proliferating cells are detected by thymidine analogues. Apoptotic cells are imaged by TUNEL and caspase-3 detection. In xenografted human tumors, examples of the use of quantitative imaging of hypoxia and proliferation are the study of reoxygenation after irradiation, or the investigation of the lifespan and dynamics of hypoxic cell populations over time. Perturbation of the microenvironment after cytotoxic treatments has been investigated by co-registration of the various markers, e.g. after treatment with the hypoxic cytotoxin tirapazamine. The combination of well-timed administration of external markers of hypoxia and proliferation with the detection of intrinsic molecular markers followed by quantitative image-registration yields a comprehensive view of the dynamics of the microenvironment in individual tumors

  7. The relationship between Glasgow Prognostic Score and serum tumor markers in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ai-Gui; Chen, Hong-Lin; Lu, Hui-Yu

    2015-05-10

    Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) has been reported as a powerful prognostic tool for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between GPS and prognosis related tumor markers in patients with advanced NSCLC. We included 138 advanced NSCLC patients and twenty healthy controls in the study. GPS was calculated by combined serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin. Three serum tumor markers, which included cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA21-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS), were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GPS and tumor markers were all assessed before chemotherapy. All patients received at least 2 courses of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. After that, 2 to 5 years follow-up was conducted. Median levels of CYFRA21-1 were 1.5 ng/ml (0.1-3.1 ng/ml) in healthy controls, and 4.6 ng/ml (0.7-35.2 ng/ml) in GPS 0 advanced NSCLC, 11.2 ng/ml (0.4-89.2) ng/ml in GPS 1 advanced NSCLC, and 15.7 ng/ml (2.9-134.6 ng/ml) in GPS 2 advanced NSCLC, respectively. Median levels of CYFRA21-1 were higher in NSCLC patients than in healthy controls, and CYFRA21-1 increased gradually according to GPS category in NSCLC patients (PGPS, CEA and GPS, TPS and GPS. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were 0.67 (P GPS was an independent prognostic factor for advanced NSCLC. CYFRA21-1(>3.3 ng/ml) and TPS (>80 U/l) were related with the prognosis of advanced NSCLC by univariate analyses, but multivariate analyses showed CYFRA21-1, TPS and CEA were not the independent prognostic factors for advanced NSCLC. Our results showed GPS were positive correlated with CYFRA21-1, CEA and TPS in patients with advanced NSCLC. However, GPS was more efficient in predicting prognosis of advanced NSCLC than these three single prognosis related tumor markers.

  8. Hypoxia marker labeling in tumor biopsies: quantification of labeling variation and criteria for biopsy sectioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, Donald E.; Rosner, Gary L.; Azuma, Chieko; McEntee, Margaret C.; Raleigh, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: The error associated with using biopsy-based methods for assessing parameters reflective of the tumor microenvironment depends on the variability in distribution of the parameter throughout the tumor and the biopsy sample. Some attention has been given to intratumoral distribution of parameters, but little attention has been given to their intrabiopsy distribution. We evaluated the intrabiopsy distribution of CCI-103F, a 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker. Materials and methods: The hypoxia marker CCI-103F was studied in dogs bearing spontaneous solid tumors. Two biopsies were taken from each of seven tumors, for a total of 14 biopsies. Biopsies were serially sectioned and four to six contiguous slides from each 100-150 μm of the biopsy were used to formulate the best estimate of CCI-103F labeled area throughout the biopsy sample. One, two or four slides were then randomly selected from each biopsy and the labeled area, based on this limited sample, was compared to the estimate obtained from counting all available slides. Random sampling of slides was repeated 1000 times for each biopsy sample. Results: CCI-103F labeling variance throughout the biopsy decreased as the estimated overall labeled area in the biopsy decreased. The error associated with estimating the overall labeled area in a biopsy from a randomly selected subset of slides decreased as the number of slides increased, and as the overall labeled area in the biopsy decreased. No minimally labeled biopsy was classified as unlabeled based on limited sampling. Conclusion: With regard to CCI-103F labeling, quantification of the labeled area in four randomly selected slides from a biopsy can provide, in most biopsies, an estimate of the labeled area in the biopsy within an absolute range of ±0.05

  9. Stability of percutaneously implanted markers for lung stereotactic radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte Bjørnsen Fredberg; Josipovic, Mirjana; Von Der Recke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of complex markers implanted into lung tumors throughout a course of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Fifteen patients referred for lung SBRT were prospectively included. Radio-opaque markers were implanted percutaneously, guided...... mm in one or more registrations throughout the SBRT course. This is the first study to evaluate stability of complex markers implanted percutaneously into lung tumors for image guidance in SBRT. We conclude that the observed stability of marker position within the tumor indicates that complex markers...... can be used as surrogates for tumor position during a short course of SBRT as long as the uncertainties related to their position within the tumor are incorporated into the planning target volume....

  10. Clinical impact of [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET in patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer based on asymptomatically elevated tumor marker serum levels. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical Coll., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Hospital; Shen, Yeh-You [Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yen, Ruoh-Fang [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Hospital

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the impact of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on the detection of recurrent breast cancer based on asymptomatically elevated tumor markers levels. Whole-body FDG-PET was performed in 30 patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer and asymptomatic tumor marker increase but negative or equivocal other imaging modality results. A blood sample was drawn in each case for marker assay (CA 15-3 and CEA) on the same day as the FDG-PET. All of these 30 asymptomatic patients had either CA 15-3>32 U/ml or CEA>5 ng/ml. The final diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer was established by operation/biopsy histopathological findings or clinical follow-up for >1 year by additional morphological imaging techniques. Among the 30 patients, the final diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer was established in 38 sites in 28 patients. FDG-PET accurately detected 35/38 sites in 25/28 patients with recurrence. The diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy of FDG-PET in patients with suspected recurrent breast cancer and asymptomatically elevated tumor markers were 96 and 90%, respectively. FDG-PET is a useful technique for detecting recurrent breast cancer suspected from asymptomatically elevated tumor markers levels and has an important clinical impact on the management of these patients. (author)

  11. Effect of DC-CIK treatment on tumor markers and T cell subsets in patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Qun Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of dendritic cells (DC and cytokine induced killer cells (CIK on tumor markers and T cell subsets in peripheral blood of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Methods: A total of 100 cases of patients with advanced ovarian cancer who were proved by operation and pathology in the department of gynecologic oncology in our hospital were selected from April 2013 to April 20l6, and randomly divided into experimental group and control group, the control group was treated with TC (Taxinol+Cisplat chemotherapy alone, the experimental group was treated with DC-CIK combined with chemotherapy. Before and after treatment, the changes of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, CD4+/CD25+, NK cells in peripheral blood and serum tumor markers (CA125, CA19-9, HE4 were detected. Results: Before treatment, the phenotypes of T cell subsets in the two groups were not significantly different; in the experimental group after treatment, the levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, and NK cells were increased,while the levels of CD4+/CD25+ and CD8+ were decreased, compared with before treatment, the differences were statistically significant; the phenotype changes of T cells were not statistically significant before and after treatment in the control group; after treatment, there were significant differences in the levels of CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, CD4+/CD25+ and NK cells between the two groups. Before treatment, there were no significant differences in HE4 value, CA125 value and CA19-9 value between the two groups; after treatment, the tumor markers in the two groups were all decreased, and the difference was significant as compared with those before treatment; after treatment, the CA125 value, CA19-9 value and HE4 value were (73.68±79.46 U/mL, (54.32±32.85 U/mL and (69.57±39.85 pmol/L respectively, the values of three tumor markers were compared with the control group, with a statistical difference. Conclusion: DC-CIK treatment can improve the

  12. Evaluation of serum biochemical marker concentrations and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G; Heilmann, Romy M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Burgener Dvm, Iwan A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate serum concentrations of biochemical markers and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Prospective study. 29 dogs with PLE and 18 dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD). Data regarding serum concentrations of various biochemical markers at the initial evaluation were available for 18 of the 29 dogs with PLE and compared with findings for dogs with FRD. Correlations between biochemical marker concentrations and survival time (interval between time of initial evaluation and death or euthanasia) for dogs with PLE were evaluated. Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum α1-proteinase inhibitor concentration was less than the lower reference limit in 9 dogs with PLE and 1 dog with FRD. Compared with findings in dogs with FRD, values of those 3 variables in dogs with PLE were significantly different. Serum calprotectin (measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA) and S100A12 concentrations were high but did not differ significantly between groups. Seventeen of the 29 dogs with PLE were euthanized owing to this disease; median survival time was 67 days (range, 2 to 2,551 days). Serum C-reactive protein, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations differed significantly between dogs with PLE and FRD. Most initial biomarker concentrations were not predictive of survival time in dogs with PLE.

  13. Investigations of relevance of the tumor marker neopterine for therapeutic decision and control of progress in mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, I; Lauterbach, H.; Kob, D.

    1989-01-01

    The value of serum neopterin as tumor marker was verified in 104 breast cancer patients. Based on the results the evaluation of neopterin cannot be recommended, neither for the decision of treatment after primary therapy nor for monitoring of the breast cancer. (author)

  14. Serum levels of CA15-3, AFP, CA19-9 and CEA tumor markers in cancer care and treatment of patients with impaired renal function on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estakhri, Rasoul; Ghahramanzade, Ali; Vahedi, Amir; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Since renal failure causes decrease in tumor marker excretion, use of these markers in cancer care and treatment in patients with renal insufficiency or hemodialysis is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate differences of serum levels of tumor markers CA15-3, AFP, CA19-9 and CEA in patients with impaired renal function. A total of 100 patients referred to the Tabriz Immam Reza and Amiralmomenin hospital from June 2010 to November 2011 were selected for study. Subjects were divided to 3 groups of healthy, dialysis and renal failure but non hemodialysis cases, the last category being re-grouped based on creatinine clearance. No significant relationship between different groups in serum levels of CEA (P=0.99) and CA19-9 (P=0.29) tumor markers was found. A significant correlation was observed between serum levels of AFP (PCEA (r=0.05, P=0.625). Creatinine clearance significantly correlated with AFP (Ptumor markers in patients with impaired renal function should be performed with special precautions.

  15. Computerized method for estimation of the location of a lung tumor on EPID cine images without implanted markers in stereotactic body radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimura, H; Toyofuku, F; Higashida, Y; Onizuka, Y; Terashima, H; Egashira, Y; Shioyama, Y; Nomoto, S; Honda, H; Nakamura, K; Yoshidome, S; Anai, S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computerized method for estimation of the location of a lung tumor in cine images on an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) without implanted markers during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Each tumor region was segmented in the first EPID cine image, i.e., reference portal image, based on a multiple-gray level thresholding technique and a region growing technique, and then the image including the tumor region was cropped as a 'tumor template' image. The tumor location was determined as the position in which the tumor template image took the maximum cross-correlation value within each consecutive portal image, which was acquired in cine mode on the EPID in treatment. EPID images with 512 x 384 pixels (pixel size: 0.56 mm) were acquired at a sampling rate of 0.5 frame s -1 by using energies of 4, 6 or 10 MV on linear accelerators. We applied our proposed method to EPID cine images (226 frames) of 12 clinical cases (ages: 51-83, mean: 72) with a non-small cell lung cancer. As a result, the average location error between tumor points obtained by our method and the manual method was 1.47 ± 0.60 mm. This preliminary study suggests that our method based on the tumor template matching technique might be feasible for tracking the location of a lung tumor without implanted markers in SBRT.

  16. FDG uptake in cold and heat treated MCF-7 cells, comparison with cell viability, apoptosis, and tumor marker changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, X.; Huang, G.; Liu, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objectives-To investigate the FDG uptake changes in cold and hyperthermia therapy and its correlation with cell viability, apoptosis and tumor marker changes. Methods: An in vitro cultured breast adenocarcinoma cell line, MCF- 7, was divided into 5 groups. Hyperthermia group: cell was treated in 43 degree centigrade 30 min. Hypothermia group: cell was treated in 0 degree centigrade 30 min. Hypo- and hyperthermia group: cell was treated in 0 degree centigrade 30 min and 43 degree centigrade 30 min. chemotherapy group: cell was treated with 21 microgram Cisplatin for 6 hours. And Control group: cell was untreated. The levels 18F-labelled FDG uptake, a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide viability assay, flow cytometry assay and tumor markers (CA153, CA125) were detected at 24 hour and 48 hour. Results: The change of 18F- FDG uptake (which came out at the 24h) is early than tumor marker (which came out at the 48h) under our study conditions. In treated MCF-7 cells, the levels of 18F-labelled FDG uptake were significantly lower than control group. The levels of 18F-FDG uptake depression were well correlated with cell viability and apoptosis data. Conclusion: FDG uptake is sensitive and well correlated with cell viability and apoptosis assay, and can be used for early response monitoring in hypo- and hyperthermia therapy. (author)

  17. Clinical applicability of determination of serum tumor markers (CEA, CA15-3 and CA125) levels changes for assessment of efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Junying; Liu Chaoying; Li Jiang; Hu Hong; Wang Runjie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the usefulness of monitoring changes of serum levels of tumor markers (CEA, CA15-3 and CA125) for assessment of efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Serum CEA, CA15-3 and CA125 levels were measured with CLIA three days before beginning 1st course of appropriate chemotherapy and 3 weeks after completing 2nd course of treatment in 45 patients with advanced breast cancer (TNM stage III, n=20, stage IV n=25). Results: Expressed as CR, PR, SD and PD as defined by the changes of serum tumor markers levels (according to Bac D.J. et al) were compared with clinically observed ones (WHO standard). The serum levels of Cea, CA15-3 decreased markedly in the CR and PR groups of patients but increased markedly in PD patients (P 0.05). The coincidence rate between the results observed clinically and results derived from tumor marker changes was 50.0% for CEA, 55.6% for CA15-3, 31.1% for CA125 and 73% for three markers combined. Conclusion: Combined determination of the changes of serum levels of three tumor marker would help to make a reasonably satisfactory assessment of efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. (authors)

  18. The effect of high level natural ionizing radiation on expression of PSA, CA19-9 and CEA tumor markers in blood serum of inhabitants of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Porghasem, Mohsen; Mirzaei, Nazanin; Mohseni, Jafar Hesam; Heidari, Matine; Azargashb, Eznollah; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Heidari, Reihane; Molouki, Aidin; Larijani, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Since several high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) exist on our planet, considerable attention has been drawn to health issues that may develop as the result of visiting or living in such places. City of Ramsar in Iran is an HNLRA, and is a tourist attraction mainly due to its hot spas. However, the growing awareness over its natural radiation sources has prompted widespread scientific investigation at national level. In this study, using an ELISA method, the level of expression of three tumor markers known as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and carcino antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in blood serum of 40 local men of Ramsar (subject group) was investigated and compared to 40 men from the city of Noshahr (control group). Noshahr was previously identified as a normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA) that is some 85 km far from Ramsar. According to statistical analysis, there was a significant difference in the levels of PSA and CA19-9 markers between the two groups (p < 0.001) with those of Ramsar being considerably higher. CEA level did not show any difference. Although some of the volunteers tested positive to the markers, they were in good health as confirmed by the physician. Moreover, the high number of positive markers in Noshahr was considerable. Therefore, future study is needed to further validate this result and to determine the level of positivity to tumor markers in both cities. -- Highlights: • Expression of three tumor markers was examined in 80 volunteers from Ramsar. • There was a significant difference in the levels of PSA and CA19-9 markers. • Some of the volunteers from the control city of Noshahr also tested positive. • Radiation might have caused an adaptive response in people of Ramsar. • Further study is necessary to re-confirm the positivity to tumor marker

  19. Effects of Thoracic Paravertebral Block on Postoperative Analgesia and Serum Level of Tumor Marker in Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiheng CHEN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Perioperative management of pain associated with the prognosis of cancer patients. Optimization of perio-perative analgesia method, then reduce perioperative stress response, reduce opioiddosage, to reduce or even avoid systemic adverse reactions and elevated levels of tumor markers. Serum levels of tumor markers in patients with lung cancer are closely related to tumor growth. Clinical research reports on regional anesthesia effect on tumor markers for lung cancer are still very little in domesticliterature. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of thoracic paraverte-bral block on postoperative analgesia and serum level of tumor marker in lung cancer patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Lung cancer patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=20 in each group. The patients in group G were given only general anesthesia. The thoracic paravertebral blockade (PVB was performed before general anesthesia in patients of group GP. The effect of PVB was judged by testing area of block. Patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA pump started before the end of surgery in 2 groups. Visual analogue scale (VAS score was recorded after extubation 2 h (T1, 24 h (T2 and 48 h (T3 after surgery and the times of PCIA and the volume of analgesic drugs used were recorded during 48 h after surgery. The serum levels of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA, carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199, carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1 and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in 40 lung cancer cases undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy were measured before operation and 24 h after operation. Results Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status I or II patients, aged 20 yr-70 yr, body mass index (BMI 18 kg/m2-25 kg/m2, scheduled for elective video-assisted thoraeoscopic lobectomy

  20. How could Decision Support System Based on Non-Linear Model Help to Interpret Tumor Marker Measurments in Oncology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecen, Ladislav; Eben, Kryštof; Vondráček, Jiří; Holubec, L.; Topolčan, O.; Pikner, R.; Kausitz, J.; Nekulová, M.; Šimíčková, M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, Suppl.1 (2002), s. 38 ISSN 1010-4283. [Meeting of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine /30./. 08.09.2002-12.09.2002, Boston] Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : tumor markers * decision support systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  1. Dynamic observation on changes of serum tumor markers levels after implantation of 125I radioactive seeds as treatment for several malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qihe; Yang Jiali; Gao Mingzhong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the dynamic changes of serum levels of several tumor markers after implantation of 125 I seeds as treatment for breast, prostate and lung malignancies. Methods: Serum CA15-3 (in 48 cases of breast cancer), PSA (in 59 cases of prostate cancer) and CYFRA21-1 (in 59 cases of lung cancer) levels were measured with RIA both before and after implantation of 125 I seeds as treatment. Furthermore, dynamic observation on the serum markers levels was carried out every 3 months in ten patients in each category. Results: After treatment, levels of these markers dropped significantly. Dynamic observation revealed that in the 10 cases of breast cancer, the levels of CA15-3 dropped continually. However, in the 10 cases of prostatic cancer, the disease got worse and the PSA levels kept increasing. In the lung cancer group, the CYFRA21-1 levels rose markedly and all patients expired before 9 months. Conclusion: Dynamic observation on changes of serum tumor markers (CA15-3, PSA, CYFRA21-1) levels after 125 I seed implantation treatment was of definite prognostic value. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of the Novel Monoclonal Antibody Against DOG1 as a Diagnostic Marker for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hadi, M.; Hamam, S.M.; Bessa, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. With the growing effectiveness and availability of first and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drugs, the accurate diagnosis of GIST has become imperative. The problem is that some GISTs with KIT or Alpha-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRA) mutations may have low KIT expression by immunohistochemistry yet will still benefit from TKI drugs. Molecular analysis is a costly and laborious process. Therefore the emergence of a new sensitive immunohistochemical marker for GISTs would be ideal. Recently antibodies against D iscovered on GIST-1 ( DOG1) have been generated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the monoclonal DOG1.1 antibody as a diagnostic marker for GISTs and to compare immunohistochemical staining and diagnostic efficacy of DOG1.1 with that of KIT in GISTs. Materials and Methods: Forty seven paraffin embedded GISTs were immuno stained with both Kit and DOG1.1 antibodies. Immunoreactivity was graded semiquantitatively from 0 to 4. Some other mesenchymal tumors were included in the study and stained for both markers to test for their specificity. Results: Out of the 47 GISTs, 44 were immunoreactive for both KIT and DOG1.1 antibodies (93.62%). Two cases (4.25%) were KIT-positive DOG-negative and the remaining case was DOG-positive KIT-negative (2.13%). A statistically significant concordance was found between KIT and DOG1.1 immunoreactivity (p=0.004), with moderate agreement between immunostaining scores (kappa =0.379). As regards tumor site, a statistically significant association was found between high DOG1.1 scores and gastric GIST (p=0.008). High KIT and DOG1.1 immunostaining scores were significantly associated with high risk tumors (p=0.002 and p=0.002 respectively). DOG1.1 immunoreactivity was focal in more than half of the cases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of DOG1.1 was 96.5%, with a specificity and

  3. Glycolysis-related gene induction and ATP reduction during fractionated irradiation. Markers for radiation responsiveness of human tumor xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetze, K.; Meyer, S.S.; Mueller-Klieser, W. [University Medical Center Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physiology and Pathophysiology; Yaromina, A. [Technical Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Zips, D. [University Hospital Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Baumann, M. [Technical Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; University Hospital Dresden Technical Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-09-15

    Background and purpose: Lactate was previously shown to be a prognostic but not a predictive pre-therapeutic marker for radiation response of tumor xenografts. We hypothesize that metabolic changes during fractionated irradiation may restrict the predictiveness of lactate regarding tumor radiosensitivity. Materials and methods: Tumor xenografts were generated in nude mice by implanting 4 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma lines with different sensitivities to fractionated irradiation. Tumors were irradiated with up to 15 fractions of 2 Gy over a period of 3 weeks, and ATP and lactate levels were measured in vital tumor areas with induced metabolic bioluminescence imaging. Corresponding changes in mRNA expression of glycolysis-related genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Results: Lactate content decreased significantly in 3 out of 4 cell lines in the course of irradiation showing no correlation with cell line-specific radiosensitivity. Radiation-induced changes in ATP levels and glycolysis-related mRNA expression, however, only occurred in radiosensitive or intermediately radioresistant xenografts, whereas these parameters remained unchanged in radioresistant tumors. Conclusion: Sensitivity-related differences in the transcriptional response of tumors to radiotherapy may be exploited in the clinic for better individualization of tumor treatment. (orig.)

  4. Four-dimensional treatment planning and fluoroscopic real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy for moving tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirato, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shinichi; Kitamura, Kei; Nishioka, Takeshi; Kagei, Kenji; Hashimoto, Seiko; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Kunieda, Tatsuya; Shinohara, Nobuo; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To achieve precise three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy for mobile tumors, a new radiotherapy system and its treatment planning system were developed and used for clinical practice. Methods and Materials: We developed a linear accelerator synchronized with a fluoroscopic real-time tumor tracking system by which 3D coordinates of a 2.0-mm gold marker in the tumor can be determined every 0.03 second. The 3D relationships between the marker and the tumor at different respiratory phases are evaluated using CT image at each respiratory phase, whereby the optimum phase can be selected to synchronize with irradiation (4D treatment planning). The linac is triggered to irradiate the tumor only when the marker is located within the region of the planned coordinates relative to the isocenter. Results: The coordinates of the marker were detected with an accuracy of ± 1 mm during radiotherapy in the phantom experiment. The time delay between recognition of the marker position and the start or stop of megavoltage X-ray irradiation was 0.03 second. Fourteen patients with various tumors were treated by conformal radiotherapy with a 'tight' planning target volume (PTV) margin. They were surviving without relapse or complications with a median follow-up of 6 months. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy following 4D treatment planning was developed and shown to be feasible to improve the accuracy of the radiotherapy for mobile tumors

  5. [Impact of the implementation of a protocol for the adequate and safe use of tumor markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida de la Torre, Francisco Javier; Moreno Campoy, Elvira Eva; Martos Crespo, Francisco

    2015-12-21

    Improper clinical use of tumor markers (TM) may cause unnecessary additional studies to confirm or refute a positive result. After observing 2 adverse events due to a wrong use of TM, a protocol for improving their use was implemented. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the implementation of the protocol. This was a pre-postintervention study, where analytical requests of carcinoembryonic antigen, CA15.3, CA19.9 and CA125 were analyzed during one year in patients not undergoing checking of neoplasia. A protocol was implemented and physicians were trained as recommended by the European Group on Tumor Markers, limiting its use to monitor the disease and its treatment. The study period was 2010-2014. The total number of requests dropped 50.81% and the percentage of adequacy of TM increased, each year, from 31.03 to 77.91%. The implementation of a protocol for the proper use of TM contributes to a safer use, avoiding incorrect studies and unnecessary and harmful tests for the patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Progression criteria for cancer antigen 15.3 and carcinoembryonic antigen in metastatic breast cancer compared by computer simulation of marker data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Hyltoft Petersen, P; Dombernowsky, P

    2000-01-01

    .3 and carcinoembryonic antigen concentrations were combined with representative values for background variations in a computer simulation model. Fifteen criteria for assessment of longitudinal tumor marker data were obtained from the literature and computerized. Altogether, 7200 different patients, each based on 50......BACKGROUND: We investigated the utility of computer simulation models for performance comparisons of different tumor marker assessment criteria to define progression or nonprogression of metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: Clinically relevant values for progressive cancer antigen 15...... of progression. CONCLUSIONS: The computer simulation model is a fast, effective, and inexpensive approach for comparing the diagnostic potential of assessment criteria during clinically relevant conditions of steady-state and progressive disease. The model systems can be used to generate tumor marker assessment...

  7. AgNOR Count in Resting Cells (Resting NOR Is a New Prognostic Marker in Invasive Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuro Tomobe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that the AgNOR count in proliferating cells is a predictor of tumor recurrence in superficial bladder tumor (J. Urol. 162 (1999, 63–68. In the present study, we evaluate the type of AgNOR associated with cell cycles as a prognostic factor in invasive bladder tumor using a double staining technique employing both AgNOR and MIB-1 labelling. Materials and methods: Forty-four paraffin sections of invasive bladder tumors were stained simultaneously with AgNOR and MIB-1. The number of AgNORs in proliferating (MIB-1 positive or resting (MIB-1 negative cells were counted from a total of 100 nuclei. Correlations between MIB-1 associated AgNOR count and clinicopathological parameters were statistically analyzed. Results: The AgNOR count in proliferating cells (proliferating NOR was significantly higher than that in resting cells (resting NOR (p < 0.01. The resting NOR in tumors with distant metastases was significantly higher than that in tumors without metastases (p < 0.05. Patients with a low resting NOR tumor had a better prognosis than those with a high resting NOR tumor, whereas the proliferating NOR was not associated with survival. Survival analysis revealed that the resting NOR was the most powerful prognostic marker in patients with invasive bladder tumor (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Resting NOR had a predictive value in the prognosis of patients with invasive bladder tumor. Keywords: Transitional cell carcinoma, invasive, resting cell, AgNORs, MIB-1

  8. Concordance of Hypermethylated DNA and the Tumor Markers CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA in Serum during Monitoring of Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Høgh Hansen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The serological protein tumor markers CA 15-3, CEA, and TPA are frequently used to monitor tumor burden among metastatic breast cancer patients. Breast cancer is associated with global DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation of some promoter regions. No monitoring study has yet investigated the ...

  9. Stemness-related markers in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs, with their self-renewal ability and multilineage differentiation potential, are a critical subpopulation of tumor cells that can drive tumor initiation, growth, and resistance to therapy. Like embryonic and adult stem cells, CSCs express markers that are not expressed in normal somatic cells and are thus thought to contribute toward a “stemness” phenotype. This review summarizes the current knowledge of stemness-related markers in human cancers, with a particular focus on important transcription factors, protein surface markers, and signaling pathways.

  10. Methylated DNA for monitoring tumor growth and regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Nielsen, Dorte; Söletormos, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A wide range of protein cancer biomarkers is currently recommended in international guidelines for monitoring the growth and regression of solid tumors. However, a number of these markers are also present in low concentrations in blood obtained from healthy individuals and from patients...... of gene promoters. Because tumor cells naturally secrete DNA and upon cell death leak DNA, modified methylated DNA can be detected in blood, urine, sputum and other body fluids. At present international guidelines do not include recommendations for monitoring modified methylated DNA. The low level...... of evidence can partly be explained by incomplete collection of serial blood samples, by analytical challenges, and by lack of knowledge of how monitoring studies should be designed and how serial marker data obtained from individual patients should be interpreted. Here, we review the clinical validity...

  11. Cation-exchange antibody labeling for simultaneous electrochemical detection of tumor markers CA15-3 and CA19-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guangjie; Qing, Yi; Shan, Jinlu; Jin, Feng; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Ruo

    2013-01-01

    We report on a new kind of non-covalent multi-label electrochemical immunoassay that was applied to simultaneously quantify the tumor markers CA15-3 and CA19-9. The method employs a nanohybrid composed of an ionomer and conductive titanium dioxide nanoparticles that act as a matrix support for the antibodies. The two antibodies (anti-CA153 and anti-CA199) were labeled (a) with a cobaltous dipyridine complex, and (b) with methylene blue. Labeling is based on cation-exchange interaction rather than on covalent conjugation. The redox potentials of the two labels are separated by an interval of 0.3 V. The resulting sandwich-type immunosensor was read out by differential pulse voltammetry. The potential sites and currents of the two redox probes reflect the concentration of the two analytes. The two analytes were determined with a detection limit of 1.6 U mL −1 for CA19-9, and of 0.3 U mL −1 for CA15-3 (author)

  12. Characterization of novel tumor stroma markers identified by gene expression profiling of human cancer tissues and 3D co-culture models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, C.

    2010-01-01

    The tumor stroma plays an important role in tumorigenesis. During cancer progression it undergoes changes in architecture, gene expression and secretion of proteolytic enzymes that are essential for the invasive and metastatic phenotype of malignant tumors. Cancer associated fibroblasts (Cafes) represent the major cellular component of the stroma and recent studies demonstrated the prognostic and therapeutic significance of CaF-related molecular signatures. The identification and characterization of genes and signaling pathways involved in the molecular interactions between tumor and stromal cells has been the focus of this study. For that purpose we have used two complementary approaches: the identification of novel tumor stroma targets in human colon cancer samples using whole genome Affymetrix GeneChip analysis and the validation of theses targets in a newly established of 3D co-culture model that mimics the cellular and molecular heterogeneity of human cancers. We have demonstrated increased expression of gene sets related to hypoxia, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and TGFβ pathway activation in CAFs vs their normal counterparts in both systems. The putative TGFβ target IGFBP7 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7) was identified as a tumor stroma marker of epithelial cancers and as a tumor antigen in mesenchyme-derived sarcomas. IGFPB7 was shown to promote anchorage-independent growth in malignant mesenchymal cells and malignant epithelial cells with an EMT-phenotype, whereas a tumor suppressor function was observed in tumor epithelial cells. In summary, we have demonstrated that a number of important signaling pathways involved in cancer progression and metastasis are specifically dysregulated in the tumor stroma both in our in vivo screen and in the in vitro 3D model, illustrating the value of these approaches for the identification and characterization of novel stromal markers. (author) [de

  13. [Isolation and identification of brain tumor stem cells from human brain neuroepithelial tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia-sheng; Deng, Yong-wen; Li, Ming-chu; Chen, Feng-Hua; Wang, Yan-jin; Lu, Ming; Fang, Fang; Wu, Jun; Yang, Zhuan-yi; Zhou, Xang-yang; Wang, Fei; Chen, Cheng

    2007-01-30

    To establish a simplified culture system for the isolation of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) from the tumors of human neuroepithelial tissue, to observe the growth and differentiation pattern of BTSCs, and to investigate their expression of the specific markers. Twenty-six patients with brain neuroepithelial tumors underwent tumor resection. Two pieces of tumor tissues were taken from each tumor to be dissociated, triturated into single cells in sterile DMEM-F12 medium, and then filtered. The tumor cells were seeded at a concentration of 200,000 viable cells per mL into serum-free DMEM-F12 medium simply supplemented with B27, human basic fibroblast growth factor (20 microg/L), human epidermal growth factor (20 microg /L), insulin (4 U/L), L-glutamine, penicillin and streptomycin. After the primary brain tumor spheres (BTSs) were generated, they were triturated again and passed in fresh medium. Limiting dilution assay was performed to observe the monoclone formation. 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation test was performed to observe the proliferation of the BTS. The BTSCs were cultured in mitogen-free DMEM-F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum to observe their differentiation. Immunocytochemistry was used to examine the expression of CD133 and nestin, specific markers of BTSC, and the rate of CD133 positive cells. Only a minority of subsets of cells from the tumors of neuroepithelial tissue had the capacity to survive, proliferate, and generate free-floating neurosphere-like BTSs in the simplified serum-free medium. These cells attached to the poly-L-lysine coated coverslips in the serum-supplemented medium and differentiated. The BTSCs were CD133 and nestin positive. The rate of CD133 positive cells in the tumor specimens was (21 +/- 6.2)% - (38 +/- 7.0)%. A new simplified culture system for the isolation of BTSCs is established. The tumors of human neuroepithelial tissue contain CD133 and nestin positive tumor stem cells which can be isolated

  14. Development of a real-time internal and external marker tracking system for particle therapy: a phantom study using patient tumor trajectory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junsang; Cheon, Wonjoong; Ahn, Sanghee; Jung, Hyunuk; Sheen, Heesoon; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Youngyih

    2017-09-01

    Target motion-induced uncertainty in particle therapy is more complicated than that in X-ray therapy, requiring more accurate motion management. Therefore, a hybrid motion-tracking system that can track internal tumor motion and as well as an external surrogate of tumor motion was developed. Recently, many correlation tests between internal and external markers in X-ray therapy have been developed; however, the accuracy of such internal/external marker tracking systems, especially in particle therapy, has not yet been sufficiently tested. In this article, the process of installing an in-house hybrid internal/external motion-tracking system is described and the accuracy level of tracking system was acquired. Our results demonstrated that the developed in-house external/internal combined tracking system has submillimeter accuracy, and can be clinically used as a particle therapy system as well as a simulation system for moving tumor treatment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  15. Prognostic features and markers for testicular cancer management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy S Leman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular neoplasm accounts for about 1% of all cancers in men. Over the last 40 years, the incidence of testicular cancer has increased in northern European male populations for unknown reasons. When diagnosed at early stage, testicular cancer is usually curable with a high survival rate. In the past three decades, successful multidisciplinary approaches for the management of testicular cancer have significantly increased patient survival rates. Utilization of tumor markers and accurate prognostic classification has also contributed to successful therapy. In this article, we highlight the most commonly used tumor markers and several potential "novel" markers for testicular cancer as part of the ongoing effort in biomarker research and discovery. In addition, this article also identifies several key prognostic features that have been demonstrated to play a role in predicting relapse. These features include tumor size, rete testis invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and tumor histology. Together with tumor markers, these prognostic factors should be taken into account for risk-adapted management of testicular cancer.

  16. Predictive and prognostic value of preoperative serum tumor markers is EGFR mutation-specific in resectable non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Richeng; Wang, Xinyue; Li, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Background The predictive and prognostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin-19 fragments (Cyfra21-1), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) has been investigated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, few studies have directly focused on the association between these markers and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status or mutation subtypes. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed 1016 patients with stage I-IIIA NSCLC who underwent complete resection between 2008 and 2012. Correlations between serum tumor marker levels and EGFR mutations and survival parameters were analyzed and prognostic factors were identified. Results Cyfra21-1 levels (P = 0.032 for disease-free survival [DFS]; P CEA levels (P CEA (P = 0.005) and clinical stage were predictive factors of DFS, while elevated CEA (P = 0.005) and Cyfra21-1 (P = 0.027) were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion Cyfra21-1 and CEA exhibit different predictive and prognostic values between EGFR-mutated and wild-type adenocarcinomas, as well as between EGFR mutation subtypes. The prognostic impact of preoperative serum tumor markers should be evaluated together with EGFR mutation status. PMID:27072585

  17. Intrinsic structural variation of the complex microsatellite marker MYCL1 in Finnish and Somali populations and its relevance to gastrointestinal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Vauhkonen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The structurally complex MYCL1 microsatellite marker is often used to determine microsatellite instability in colorectal cancers but the allelic variation of this marker has remained largely uncharacterized in both populations and in cancers. Our study describes the allelic distributions of MYCL1 in Finnish (n = 117 and Somali population samples (n = 61 of non-related individuals and compares this distribution with the instability pattern obtained from 61 gastrointestinal tumors.

  18. Behavior of Lipiodol Markers During Image Guided Radiotherapy of Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Herk, Marcel van; Kamer, Jeroen B. van de; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; De Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to identify the tumor. A planning CT scan was made, followed by daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans during treatment. To study the accuracy of using these markers for image guidance, uncertainties U1 and U2 were calculated, which were defined as the difference between submask registration (covering single marker) and the average of all submask registrations and the difference between the submask registration and the general mask registration (including all markers), respectively. Finally, to study tumor deformation, the relative movement of each marker pair was correlated with the relative bladder volume (RBV). Results: The analyzed patients had 2.3 marker injections on average. The lipiodol spot size was 0.72 ± 1.1 cm 3 . The intensity of spots in both CT and CBCT was significantly higher than the surrounding bladder tissue. The uncertainties U1 and U2 were comparable, and the uncertainties in left-right direction (0.14-0.19 cm) were smaller than those in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior directions (0.19-0.32 cm). The relative marker movement of within-zone marker pairs was much smaller (and has less dependence on the RBV) than across-zones marker pairs. Conclusions: Lipiodol markers are a feasible method to track bladder tumor by using online CBCT. Tumor deformation is observed, especially for tumors that cross the defined bladder zones.

  19. Behavior of Lipiodol Markers During Image Guided Radiotherapy of Bladder Cancer

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    Chai Xiangfei, E-mail: x.chai@amc.uva.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kamer, Jeroen B. van de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bex, Axel [Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Betgen, Anja [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Reijke, Theo M [Department of Urology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to identify the tumor. A planning CT scan was made, followed by daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans during treatment. To study the accuracy of using these markers for image guidance, uncertainties U1 and U2 were calculated, which were defined as the difference between submask registration (covering single marker) and the average of all submask registrations and the difference between the submask registration and the general mask registration (including all markers), respectively. Finally, to study tumor deformation, the relative movement of each marker pair was correlated with the relative bladder volume (RBV). Results: The analyzed patients had 2.3 marker injections on average. The lipiodol spot size was 0.72 +- 1.1 cm{sup 3}. The intensity of spots in both CT and CBCT was significantly higher than the surrounding bladder tissue. The uncertainties U1 and U2 were comparable, and the uncertainties in left-right direction (0.14-0.19 cm) were smaller than those in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior directions (0.19-0.32 cm). The relative marker movement of within-zone marker pairs was much smaller (and has less dependence on the RBV) than across-zones marker pairs. Conclusions: Lipiodol markers are a feasible method to track bladder tumor by using online CBCT. Tumor deformation is observed, especially for tumors that cross the defined bladder zones.

  20. A preclinical model for noninvasive imaging of hypoxia-induced gene expression; comparison with an exogenous marker of tumor hypoxia

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    Wen Bixiu; Burgman, Paul; Zanzonico, Pat; O' Donoghue, Joseph; Li, Gloria C.; Ling, C. Clifton [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York (United States); Cai Shangde; Finn, Ron [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Serganova, Inna [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Neurology, New York (United States); Blasberg, Ronald; Gelovani, Juri [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Neurology, New York (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Hypoxia is associated with tumor aggressiveness and is an important cause of resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Assays of tumor hypoxia could provide selection tools for hypoxia-modifying treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize a rodent tumor model with a reporter gene construct that would be transactivated by the hypoxia-inducible molecular switch, i.e., the upregulation of HIF-1. The reporter gene construct is the herpes simplex virus 1-thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the regulation of an artificial hypoxia-responsive enhancer/promoter. In this model, tumor hypoxia would up-regulate HIF-1, and through the hypoxia-responsive promoter transactivate the HSV1-tkeGFPfusion gene. The expression of this reporter gene can be assessed with the {sup 124}I-labeled reporter substrate 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-1-{beta}-d-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil ({sup 124}I-FIAU), which is phosphorylated by the HSV1-tk enzyme and trapped in the hypoxic cells. Animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and phosphor plate imaging (PPI) were used in this study to visualize the trapped {sup 124}I-FIAU, providing a distribution of the hypoxia-induced molecular events. The distribution of {sup 124}I-FIAU was also compared with that of an exogenous hypoxic cell marker, {sup 18}F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO). Our results showed that {sup 124}I-FIAU microPET imaging of the hypoxia-induced reporter gene expression is feasible, and that the intratumoral distributions of {sup 124}I-FIAU and {sup 18}F-FMISO are similar. In tumor sections, detailed radioactivity distributions were obtained with PPI which also showed similarity between {sup 124}I-FIAU and {sup 18}F-FMISO. This reporter system is sufficiently sensitive to detect hypoxia-induced transcriptional activation by noninvasive imaging and might provide a valuable tool in studying tumor hypoxia and in validating existing and future

  1. Associations between plasma tenofovir concentration and renal function markers in HIV-infected women

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    Mwila Mulubwa

    2016-07-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between plasma tenofovir (TFV concentration and certain renal function markers in HIV-infected women on TDF antiretroviral therapy (ART.These markers were also compared to a HIV-uninfected control group. Methods: HIV-infected women (n = 30 on TDF-based ART were matched with 30 controls forage and body mass index. Renal markers analysed were estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, creatinine clearance (CrCl, serum creatinine, albuminuria, glucosuria, serum urea, serum uric acid, urine sodium and maximum tubular reabsorption of phosphate. Baseline eGFR and CrCl data were obtained retrospectively for the HIV-infected women. Plasma TFV was assayed using a validated HPLC-MS/MS method. Step wise regression, Mann–Whitney test, unpaired and paired t-tests were applied in the statistical analyses. Results: TFV concentration was independently associated with albuminuria (adjusted r2 = 0.339; p = 0.001 in HIV-infected women. In the adjusted (weight analysis, eGFR (p = 0.038,CrCl (p = 0.032 and albuminuria (p = 0.048 were significantly higher in HIV-infected compared to the uninfected women, but eGFR was abnormally high in HIV-infected women. Both eGFR (p < 0.001 and CrCl (p = 0.008 increased from baseline to follow-up in HIV-infected women. Conclusion: Plasma TFV concentration was associated with increased albuminuria in HIV infected women in this sub-study. Both eGFR and CrCl were increased in HIV-infected women from baseline. These findings should be confirmed in larger studies, and hyperfiltration in HIV-infected women warrants further investigation.

  2. The concentration of CYFRA 21-1, NSE and CEA in cerebro-spinal fluid can be useful indicators for diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Piao, Yingzhe; Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Wenliang; Hao, Xishan

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the concentration of CYFRA 21-1, NSE and CEA in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and to explore their clinical value in the meningeal carcinomatosis (MC) of lung cancer. So that, sensitive and specificity of CSF examination can be improved in the initial diagnosis of MC. A total of 35 lung cancer patients and 35 patients with benign brain tumor in the same period enrolled in this study. The concentrations of tumor markers CEA, CYFRA 21-1 and NSE in CSF and peripheral blood were examined. The concentrations of three tumor markers of CYFRA 21-1, NSE and CEA in blood serum and CSF were obviously higher than that of benign disease group. In MC patients, the concentrations of three tumor markers of CYFRA 21-1, NSE and CEA in blood serum were significant lower than that in CSF. The maximum of Youden's index was identified as the cutoff value of indicator of MC in three tumor markers in CSF which were CEA > 4.7 μg/L, NSE > 14.6 μg/L and CYFRA21-1 > 5.5 μg/L respectively. Based on the cutoff values, the CEA had the highest sensitivity while the CYFRA21-1 had the highest specificitiy. Three tumor markers in the CSF had higher positive rate than those in blood serum. We combined the levels of CEA, NSE and CYFRA21-1 in CSF to diagnosis of MC. Positive of CEA or CYFRA21-1 had the greatest sensitivity of 100% while the specificity of 91.4%; the positive of both CEA and CYFRA21-1 had the highest specificity of 100% while the sensitivity of 74.3%. Both positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 100% when combination positive were confirmed when the all three markers were positive. The combination of CEA and CYFRA21-1 can be recommended in early screening of meningeal carcinoma. Especially, for the patient who was difficult to be diagnosed by CSF histology and MRI, it will be a useful auxiliary marker in diagnosis of MC. The combination of CEA, NSE and CYFRA21-1 can be an effective clinically confirmation and exclusively diagnose indictor of

  3. The relationship between glasgow prognostic score and serum tumor markers in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Ai-Gui; Chen, Hong-Lin; Lu, Hui-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) has been reported as a powerful prognostic tool for patients with advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between GPS and prognosis related tumor markers in patients with advanced NSCLC. We included 138 advanced NSCLC patients and twenty healthy controls in the study. GPS was calculated by combined serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin. Three serum tumor markers, which included cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA21–1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS), were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GPS and tumor markers were all assessed before chemotherapy. All patients received at least 2 courses of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. After that, 2 to 5 years follow-up was conducted. Median levels of CYFRA21–1 were 1.5 ng/ml (0.1–3.1 ng/ml) in healthy controls, and 4.6 ng/ml (0.7–35.2 ng/ml) in GPS 0 advanced NSCLC, 11.2 ng/ml (0.4–89.2) ng/ml in GPS 1 advanced NSCLC, and 15.7 ng/ml (2.9–134.6 ng/ml) in GPS 2 advanced NSCLC, respectively. Median levels of CYFRA21-1 were higher in NSCLC patients than in healthy controls, and CYFRA21-1 increased gradually according to GPS category in NSCLC patients (P < 0.05). Similar results were found for median levels of CEA and TPS in healthy controls and NSCLC patients (P < 0.05). In NSCLC patients, positive correlations were found between CYFRA21-1 and GPS, CEA and GPS, TPS and GPS. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were 0.67 (P < 0.05), 0.61 (P < 0.05) and 0.55 (P < 0.05), respectively. Survival analyses showed GPS was an independent prognostic factor for advanced NSCLC. CYFRA21-1(>3.3 ng/ml) and TPS (>80 U/l) were related with the prognosis of advanced NSCLC by univariate analyses, but multivariate analyses showed CYFRA21-1, TPS and CEA were not the independent prognostic factors for advanced NSCLC. Our results showed GPS were positive correlated

  4. Concentration of MMP-9, TNF-a and IL-6 in patients with tumors and tumor-like bone lesions

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    Puchinyan D.M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to determine the concentration of MMP-9, TNF-a and IL-6 in blood serum of patients with benign and malignant bone tumors and feasibility of cytokine data use for differential diagnostics of the neoplastic process nature. Material and Methods. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in blood serum were determined by the immunoenzyme method in 64 patients with bone tissue neoplasms (fibrous dysplasia, osteocystoma, giant-cell tumor, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, bone metastases, multiple myeloma. Re-sults. MMP-9 level was heightened in patients suffered from chondrosarcoma and multiple myeloma. TNF-a and IL-6 expression was increased in cases with bone metastases. MMP-9, TNF-a and IL-6 levels were higher in cases with malignant bone neoplasms than in cases with benign bone tumors. Conclusion. MMP-9, TNF-a and IL-6 participate in the neoplastic process pathogenesis directly. Nevertheless it is too early to speak about the diagnostic value of the cytokines in cases with tumorous bone affection.

  5. Changed adipocytokine concentrations in colorectal tumor patients and morbidly obese patients compared to healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenbrand, Andreas; Fassler, Juliane; Huber, Nadine; Xu, Pengfei; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Templin, Markus; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Wolf, Anna Maria; Knippschild, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. Adipose tissue dysfunction accompanied with alterations in the release of adipocytokines has been proposed to contribute to cancer pathogenesis and progression. The aim of this study was to analyze plasma concentrations of several adipose tissue expressed hormones in colorectal cancer patients (CRC) and morbidly obese (MO) patients and to compare these concentrations to clinicopathological parameters. Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, resistin, leptin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were determined in 67 patients operated on for CRC (31 rectal cancers, 36 colon cancers), 37 patients operated on for morbid obesity and 60 healthy blood donors (BD). Compared to BD, leptin concentrations were lowered in CRC patients whereas those of MO patients were elevated. Adiponectin concentrations were only lowered in MO patients. Concentrations of MCP-1, PAI-1, and IL-1 alpha were elevated in both CRC and MO patients, while resistin and TNF-alpha were similarly expressed in MO and CRC patients compared to BD. Resistin concentrations positively correlated with tumor staging (p<0.002) and grading (p=0.015) of rectal tumor patients. The results suggest that both MO and CRC have low-grade inflammation as part of their etiology

  6. Comparison of the Serum Tumor Markers S100 and Melanoma-inhibitory Activity (MIA) in the Monitoring of Patients with Metastatic Melanoma Receiving Vaccination Immunotherapy with Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Ugur; Schliep, Stefan; Schliep, Klaus; Erdmann, Michael; Koch, Hans-Uwe; Parsch, Hans; Rosenheinrich, Stina; Anzengruber, Doris; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin; Schuler, Gerold; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice

    2017-09-01

    In patients with melanoma, early dissemination via lymphatic and hematogenous routes is frequently seen. Thus, besides clinical follow-up examination and imaging, reliable melanoma-specific serological tumor markers are needed. We retrospectively compared two serum markers for melanoma, S100 and melanoma-inhibitory activity (MIA), for monitoring of patients with metastatic melanoma under either adjuvant or therapeutic vaccination immunotherapy with dendritic cells (DC). Serum was obtained from a total of 100 patients (28 patients in stage III and 72 patients in stage IV, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 2002) at regular intervals during therapy, accompanied by follow-up imaging. When relapse was detected, both markers often remained within normal range. In contrast, in patients with metastatic measurable disease receiving therapeutic and not adjuvant DC vaccination, an increase of both markers was a strong indicator for disease progression. When comparing both markers in the whole study population, MIA showed a superior sensitivity to detect disease progression. S100 and MIA are highly sensitive tumor markers for monitoring of patients with melanoma with current metastases, but less sensitive for monitoring of tumor-free patients. In the current study, MIA had a slightly superior sensitivity to detect progressive disease compared to S100 and seems to be more useful in monitoring of patients with metastatic melanoma receiving immunotherapy. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Molina, Julian; Jiang, John; Ferber, Matthew; Pruthi, Sandhya; Jatkoe, Timothy; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Yixin

    2013-11-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  8. Cyclophosphamide Enhances Human Tumor Growth in Nude Rat Xenografted Tumor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjen Jeffrey Wu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the immunomodulatory chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide (CTX on tumor growth was investigated in primary and metastatic intracerebral and subcutaneous rat xenograft models. Nude rats were treated with CTX (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally 24 hours before human ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3, small cell lung carcinoma (LX-1 SCLC, and glioma (UW28, U87MG, and U251 tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, or in the right cerebral hemisphere or were infused into the right internal carotid artery. Tumor development was monitored and recorded. Potential mechanisms were further investigated. Only animals that received both CTX and Matrigel showed consistent growth of subcutaneous tumors. Cyclophosphamide pretreatment increased the percentage (83.3% vs 0% of animals showing intraperitoneal tumors. In intracerebral implantation tumor models, CTX pretreatment increased the tumor volume and the percentage of animals showing tumors. Cyclophosphamide increased lung carcinoma bone and facial metastases after intra-arterial injection, and 20% of animals showed brain metastases. Cyclophosphamide transiently decreased nude rat white blood cell counts and glutathione concentration, whereas serum vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly elevated. Cyclophosphamide also increased CD31 reactivity, a marker of vascular endothelium, and macrophage (CD68-positive infiltration into glioma cell-inoculated rat brains. Cyclophosphamide may enhance primary and metastatic tumor growth through multiple mechanisms, including immune modulation, decreased response to oxidative stress, increased tumor vascularization, and increased macrophage infiltration. These findings may be clinically relevant because chemotherapy may predispose human cancer subjects to tumor growth in the brain or other tissues.

  9. Interfractional Position Variation of Pancreatic Tumors Quantified Using Intratumoral Fiducial Markers and Daily Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, Astrid van der, E-mail: a.vanderhorst@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wognum, Silvia; Dávila Fajardo, Raquel; Jong, Rianne de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hooft, Jeanin E. van; Fockens, Paul [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to quantify interfractional pancreatic position variation using fiducial markers visible on daily cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. In addition, we analyzed possible migration of the markers to investigate their suitability for tumor localization. Methods and Materials: For 13 pancreatic cancer patients with implanted Visicoil markers, CBCT scans were obtained before 17 to 25 fractions (300 CBCTs in total). Image registration with the reference CT was used to determine the displacement of the 2 to 3 markers relative to bony anatomy and to each other. We analyzed the distance between marker pairs as a function of time to identify marker registration error (SD of linear fit residuals) and possible marker migration. For each patient, we determined the mean displacement of markers relative to the reference CT (systematic position error) and the spread in displacements (random position error). From this, we calculated the group systematic error, Σ, and group random error, σ. Results: Marker pair distances showed slight trends with time (range, −0.14 to 0.14 mm/day), possibly due to tissue deformation, but no shifts that would indicate marker migration. The mean SD of the fit residuals was 0.8 mm. We found large interfractional position variations, with for 116 of 300 (39%) fractions a 3-dimensional vector displacement of >10 mm. The spread in displacement varied significantly (P<.01) between patients, from a vector range of 9.1 mm to one of 24.6 mm. For the patient group, Σ was 3.8, 6.6, and 3.5 mm; and σ was 3.6, 4.7 and 2.5 mm, in left–right, superior–inferior, and anterior–posterior directions, respectively. Conclusions: We found large systematic displacements of the fiducial markers relative to bony anatomy, in addition to wide distributions of displacement. These results for interfractional position variation confirm the potential benefit of using fiducial markers rather than bony anatomy for daily online

  10. THE THYMIDINE KINASE-1(TK-1 AS A POTENTIAL TUMOR MARKER: SERUM LEVELS IN SERUM OF PATIENTS WITH SOLID AND SYSTEM MALIGNANCE NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Sergeeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review summarizes the results of studies of levels and/or activity in the blood serum of a metabolic marker thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1 of proliferating cells in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD and malignant neopasms (NM.Comparison of the data in the literature in some cases have been difficult due to the fundamentally different methods of detection the activity or concentration of TK-1, used by authors, even despite the presence of relatively high (but not absolute correlation between these parameters (maximum 0.8.Many clinical and laboratory studies have shown levels of correlation and/or TK-1 activity with clinical stages and different types of LPD and solid MN and can serve as a prognostic factor for overall and recurrence-free survival of patients. When solid MN shown that the activity of TK-1 accurately reflects the proliferative status of tumor.A comparison of the dynamics of TC-1 in the process of chemotherapy and its clinical efficacy, different authors have received fundamentally different results: in some cases the marker reduction was associated with treatment efficacy, and in part of publications they show that the clinically relevant effects of the treatment observed increase in the marker after the first chemotherapy.The entire set of received data demonstrates the relevance of the further development of the algorithm use of TK-1 in oncology practice.

  11. Serum Paraoxonase-1 Concentration as a Potential Predictor of Urinary Bladder Cancer Recurrence. A Five Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimie, Simona; García-Heredia, Anabel; Pujol-Bosch, Francesc; Pont-Salvadó, Antoni; López-Azcona, Ana Felisa; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Cabré, Noemí; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Fort-Gallifa, Isabel; Castro, Antoni; Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge

    2018-04-23

    This study provides preliminary information on the usefulness of measuring serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) concentration and activity (and other inflammatory markers) to predict tumor recurrence in patients with urinary bladder cancer. We studied a total of 39 hospitalized patients in whom the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer was confirmed by transurethral resection. After five years of follow-up, 29 patients presented with tumor recurrence. As control subjects, we also studied 61 healthy subjects and a further 132 hospitalized patients who had a urinary catheter-related infection due to causes other than cancer. Results showed that urinary bladder patients had lower serum PON1 concentration and activity, and higher chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin concentrations than the control individuals. Patients with tumor recurrence had significantly lower serum PON1 concentration than patients without tumor recurrence. The mean area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristics plot for serum PON1 concentration in discriminating patients with and those without tumor recurrence was 0.755 and the best combination of sensitivity and specificity was obtained at PON1 = 100 mg/L (0.72 and 0.80, respectively). Establishing this value as a cut-off, positive predictive value was = 0.91, and negative predictive value was = 0.50. These results suggest that the measurement of serum PON1 concentration may be a high-sensitivity marker of tumor recurrence in urinary bladder cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinically Meaningful Use of Blood Tumor Markers in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdenrieder, Stefan; Pagliaro, Lance; Morgenstern, David; Dayyani, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Before the introduction of modern imaging techniques and the recent developments in molecular diagnosis, tumor markers (TMs) were among the few available diagnostic tools for the management of cancer patients. Easily obtained from serum or plasma samples, TMs are minimally invasive and convenient, and the associated costs are low. Single TMs were traditionally used but these have come under scrutiny due to their low sensitivity and specificity when used, for example, in a screening setting. However, recent research has shown superior performance using a combination of multiple TMs as a panel for assessment, or as part of validated algorithms that also incorporate other clinical factors. In addition, newer TMs have been discovered that have an increased sensitivity and specificity profile for defined malignancies. The aim of this review is to provide a concise overview of the appropriate uses of both traditional and newer TMs and their roles in diagnosis, prognosis, and the monitoring of patients in current clinical practice. We also look at the future direction of TMs and their integration with other diagnostic modalities and other emerging serum based biomarkers, such as circulating nucleic acids, to ultimately advance diagnostic performance and improve patient management.

  13. Clinically Meaningful Use of Blood Tumor Markers in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Holdenrieder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Before the introduction of modern imaging techniques and the recent developments in molecular diagnosis, tumor markers (TMs were among the few available diagnostic tools for the management of cancer patients. Easily obtained from serum or plasma samples, TMs are minimally invasive and convenient, and the associated costs are low. Single TMs were traditionally used but these have come under scrutiny due to their low sensitivity and specificity when used, for example, in a screening setting. However, recent research has shown superior performance using a combination of multiple TMs as a panel for assessment, or as part of validated algorithms that also incorporate other clinical factors. In addition, newer TMs have been discovered that have an increased sensitivity and specificity profile for defined malignancies. The aim of this review is to provide a concise overview of the appropriate uses of both traditional and newer TMs and their roles in diagnosis, prognosis, and the monitoring of patients in current clinical practice. We also look at the future direction of TMs and their integration with other diagnostic modalities and other emerging serum based biomarkers, such as circulating nucleic acids, to ultimately advance diagnostic performance and improve patient management.

  14. Proteomic profiling of antibody-inducing immunogens in tumor tissue identifies PSMA1, LAP3, ANXA3, and maspin as colon cancer markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Roehrl, Michael H.; Wang, Julia Y.

    2018-01-01

    We hypothesized that cancer tissue immunogens – antigens capable of inducing specific antibody production in patients – are promising targets for development of precision diagnostics and humoral immunotherapies. We developed an innovative immuno-proteomic strategy and identified new immunogenic markers of colon cancer. Proteins from cancers and matched normal tissues were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis and blotted with serum antibodies from the same patients. Antibody-reactive proteins were sequenced by mass spectrometry and validated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. 170 serum antibody-reactive proteins were identified only in cancerous but not matched normal. Among these, proteasome subunit alpha type 1 (PSA1), leucine aminopeptidase 3 (LAP3), annexin A3 (ANXA3), and maspin (serpin B5) were reproducibly found in tissues from three patients. Differential expression patterns were confirmed in samples from eight patients with various stages of colon adenocarcinoma and liver metastases. These tumor-resident proteins and/or their associated serum antibodies may be promising markers for colon cancer screening and early diagnosis. Furthermore, tumor tissue-specific antibodies could potentially be exploited as immunotherapeutic targets against cancer. More generally, proteomic profiling of antibody-inducing cancer-associated immunogens represents a powerful generic method for uncovering the tumor antigen-ome, i.e., the totality of immunogenic tumor-associated proteins. PMID:29423100

  15. [Prognostic and predictive molecular markers for urologic cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A; Schlomm, T; Bertz, S; Heinzelmann, J; Hölters, S; Simon, R; Stoehr, R; Junker, K

    2014-04-01

    Molecular prognostic factors and genetic alterations as predictive markers for cancer-specific targeted therapies are used today in the clinic for many malignancies. In recent years, many molecular markers for urogenital cancers have also been identified. However, these markers are not clinically used yet. In prostate cancer, novel next-generation sequencing methods revealed a detailed picture of the molecular changes. There is growing evidence that a combination of classical histopathological and validated molecular markers could lead to a more precise estimation of prognosis, thus, resulting in an increasing number of patients with active surveillance as a possible treatment option. In patients with urothelial carcinoma, histopathological factors but also the proliferation of the tumor, mutations in oncogenes leading to an increasing proliferation rate and changes in genes responsible for invasion and metastasis are important. In addition, gene expression profiles which could distinguish aggressive tumors with high risk of metastasis from nonmetastasizing tumors have been recently identified. In the future, this could potentially allow better selection of patients needing systemic perioperative treatment. In renal cell carcinoma, many molecular markers that are associated with metastasis and survival have been identified. Some of these markers were also validated as independent prognostic markers. Selection of patients with primarily organ-confined tumors and increased risk of metastasis for adjuvant systemic therapy could be clinically relevant in the future.

  16. Tumor budding is a strong and reproducible prognostic marker in T3N0 colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Lai Mun

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor budding along the advancing front of colorectal adenocarcinoma is an early event in the metastatic process. A reproducible, prognostic budding scoring system based on outcomes in early stage colorectal cancer has not been established. DESIGN: One hundred twenty-eight T3N0M0 colorectal carcinoma patients with known outcome were identified. Tumor budding was defined as isolated tumor cells or clusters of <5 cells at the invasive tumor front. Tumor bud counts were generated in 5 regions at 200x by 2 pathologists (conventional bud count method). The median bud count per case was used to divide cases into low (median=0) and high budding (median > or =1) groups. Forty cases were reevaluated to assess reproducibility using the conventional and a novel rapid bud count method. RESULTS: Fifty-seven (45%) carcinomas had high and 71 (55%) had low budding scores. High budding was associated with an infiltrative growth pattern (P<0.0001) and lymphovascular invasion (P=0.005). Five-year cancer-specific survival was significantly poorer in high compared with low budding groups: 63% versus 91%, respectively, P<0.0001. Multivariate analysis demonstrated tumor budding to be independently prognostic (hazard ratio=4.76, P<0.001). Interobserver agreement was at least equivalent comparing the conventional to the rapid bud count methods: 87.5% agreement (kappa=0.75) versus 92.5% agreement (kappa=0.85), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor budding is a strong, reproducible, and independent prognostic marker of outcome that is easily assessed on hematoxylin and eosin slides. This may be useful for identifying the subset of T3N0M0 patients at high risk of recurrence who may benefit from adjuvant therapy.

  17. The Serum Concentrations of Chemokine CXCL12 and Its Specific Receptor CXCR4 in Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Łukaszewicz-Zając

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Recent investigations have suggested that upregulated levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as chemokines, may be associated with development of many malignancies, including esophageal cancer (EC. Based on our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the serum concentration of chemokine CXCL12 and its specific receptor CXCR4 in the diagnosis of EC patients. Material and Methods. The present study included 79 subjects: 49 patients with EC and 30 healthy volunteers. The serum concentrations of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and classical tumor markers such as carcinoembryonal antigen (CEA and squamous cell cancer antigen (SCC-Ag were measured using immunoenzyme assays, while C-reactive protein (CRP levels were assessed by immunoturbidimetric method. Moreover, diagnostic criteria of all proteins tested and the survival of EC patients were assessed. Results. The serum concentrations of CXCL12 were significantly higher, while those of its receptor CXCR4 were significantly lower in EC patients compared to healthy controls. The diagnostic sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy of CXCR4 were the highest among all analyzed proteins and increased for combined analysis with classical tumor markers and CRP levels. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum CXCR4 may improve the diagnosis of EC patients, especially in combination with classical tumor markers.

  18. Behaviour of solute and particle markers in the stomach of sheep given a concentrate diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faichney, G.J.; Griffiths, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Fistulated sheep given a concentrate diet were used to study the behaviour of solute ([ 51 Cr]EDTA) and particle ([ 103 Ru]phenanthroline) markers in the stomach under conditions of continuous feeding. An injection of a mixed dose of [ 51 Cr]EDTA and [ 103 Ru]phenanthroline was given into the rumen and the time course of marker concentrations in the rumen and the abomasum was recorded. The curves were analysed on the assumption that the stomach of the sheep could be represented as two mixing compartments (reticulo-rumen and abomasum) and a time delay (omasum). This model provided a very good description of the data. [ 103 Ru]-phenanthroline associated with small particles was retained in the rumen much longer than [ 51 Cr]EDTA. Although exchange of [ 103 Ru] phenanthroline occurred between large and small particle fractions, the results suggested that small particles may have been retained somewhat longer in the rumen than solutes. However, it was clear from the results that the mean retention times for particulate matter in the rumen could not be simply obtained using adsorbable markers. Cyclical fluctuations in the concentration of [ 51 Cr]EDTA in the rumen indicated that there were daily variations in net water flux in the rumen. The presence of protozoa was associated with much shorter retention times of both solutes and particles in the rumen. Protozoa were also associated with reduced rumen volumes. (author)

  19. Effects of oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil on serum tumor markers, VEGF, CRP and matrix metalloproteinases in patients with advanced esophageal cancer

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    Lei Lei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil on serum tumor markers, VEGF, CRP and matrix metalloproteinases in patients with advanced esophageal cancer. Methods: From March 2012 to March 2017 a total of 248 patients with advanced esophageal cancer were selected as the study subjects. According to random data table, they were divided into control group (n=123 and observation group (n=125 according to random data table. The control group was treated with cisplatin combined with fluorouracil, leucovorin chemotherapy, and patients in the observation group received oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil chemotherapy, all patients were treated for 2 cycles. The changes of serum tumor markers, VEGF, CRP and matrix metalloproteinase levels in the two groups before and after treatment was compared. Results: Before treatment, there was no significant difference of the levels of serum CA125, CA19-9, CEA, VEGF, CRP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 between the control group and the observation group. Compared with the group before treatment, the levels of CA125, CA19-9, CEA, VEGF, CRP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the two groups were significantly lower. After treatment, the level of CA125, CA19-9, CEA, VEGF, CRP, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the observation group was significantly lower than those of the control group. Conclusion: Oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil chemotherapy can effectively reduce the levels of serum tumor markers, VEGF, CRP and matrix metalloproteinase in patients with advanced esophageal cancer, it has important clinical value.

  20. Tumor microenvironment in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: predictive value and clinical relevance of hypoxic markers. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogsteen, Ilse J; Marres, Henri A M; Bussink, Johan; van der Kogel, Albert J; Kaanders, Johannes H A M

    2007-06-01

    Hypoxia and tumor cell proliferation are important factors determining the treatment response of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Successful approaches have been developed to counteract these resistance mechanisms although usually at the cost of increased short- and long-term side effects. To provide the best attainable quality of life for individual patients and the head and neck cancer patient population as a whole, it is of increasing importance that tools be developed that allow a better selection of patients for these intensified treatments. A literature review was performed with special focus on the predictive value and clinical relevance of endogenous hypoxia-related markers. New methods for qualitative and quantitative assessment of functional microenvironmental parameters such as hypoxia, proliferation, and vasculature have identified several candidate markers for future use in predictive assays. Hypoxia-related markers include hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, carbonic anhydrase IX, glucose transporters, erythropoietin receptor, osteopontin, and others. Although several of these markers and combinations of markers are associated with treatment outcome, their clinical value as predictive factors remains to be established. A number of markers and marker profiles have emerged that may have potential as a predictive assay. Validation of these candidate assays requires testing in prospective trials comparing standard treatment against experimental treatments targeting the related microregional constituent. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2007.

  1. CD44 isoforms are heterogeneously expressed in breast cancer and correlate with tumor subtypes and cancer stem cell markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Eleonor; Lövgren, Kristina; Fernö, Mårten; Grabau, Dorthe; Borg, Åke; Hegardt, Cecilia; Honeth, Gabriella; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Saal, Lao H; Gruvberger-Saal, Sofia; Ringnér, Markus; Vallon-Christersson, Johan; Jönsson, Göran; Holm, Karolina

    2011-01-01

    The CD44 cell adhesion molecule is aberrantly expressed in many breast tumors and has been implicated in the metastatic process as well as in the putative cancer stem cell (CSC) compartment. We aimed to investigate potential associations between alternatively spliced isoforms of CD44 and CSCs as well as to various breast cancer biomarkers and molecular subtypes. We used q-RT-PCR and exon-exon spanning assays to analyze the expression of four alternatively spliced CD44 isoforms as well as the total expression of CD44 in 187 breast tumors and 13 cell lines. ALDH1 protein expression was determined by IHC on TMA. Breast cancer cell lines showed a heterogeneous expression pattern of the CD44 isoforms, which shifted considerably when cells were grown as mammospheres. Tumors characterized as positive for the CD44 + /CD24 - phenotype by immunohistochemistry were associated to all isoforms except the CD44 standard (CD44S) isoform, which lacks all variant exons. Conversely, tumors with strong expression of the CSC marker ALDH1 had elevated expression of CD44S. A high expression of the CD44v2-v10 isoform, which retain all variant exons, was correlated to positive steroid receptor status, low proliferation and luminal A subtype. The CD44v3-v10 isoform showed similar correlations, while high expression of CD44v8-v10 was correlated to positive EGFR, negative/low HER2 status and basal-like subtype. High expression of CD44S was associated with strong HER2 staining and also a subgroup of basal-like tumors. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of CD44 isoform expression data divided tumors into four main clusters, which showed significant correlations to molecular subtypes and differences in 10-year overall survival. We demonstrate that individual CD44 isoforms can be associated to different breast cancer subtypes and clinical markers such as HER2, ER and PgR, which suggests involvement of CD44 splice variants in specific oncogenic signaling pathways. Efforts to link CD44 to

  2. CD44 isoforms are heterogeneously expressed in breast cancer and correlate with tumor subtypes and cancer stem cell markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallon-Christersson Johan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CD44 cell adhesion molecule is aberrantly expressed in many breast tumors and has been implicated in the metastatic process as well as in the putative cancer stem cell (CSC compartment. We aimed to investigate potential associations between alternatively spliced isoforms of CD44 and CSCs as well as to various breast cancer biomarkers and molecular subtypes. Methods We used q-RT-PCR and exon-exon spanning assays to analyze the expression of four alternatively spliced CD44 isoforms as well as the total expression of CD44 in 187 breast tumors and 13 cell lines. ALDH1 protein expression was determined by IHC on TMA. Results Breast cancer cell lines showed a heterogeneous expression pattern of the CD44 isoforms, which shifted considerably when cells were grown as mammospheres. Tumors characterized as positive for the CD44+/CD24- phenotype by immunohistochemistry were associated to all isoforms except the CD44 standard (CD44S isoform, which lacks all variant exons. Conversely, tumors with strong expression of the CSC marker ALDH1 had elevated expression of CD44S. A high expression of the CD44v2-v10 isoform, which retain all variant exons, was correlated to positive steroid receptor status, low proliferation and luminal A subtype. The CD44v3-v10 isoform showed similar correlations, while high expression of CD44v8-v10 was correlated to positive EGFR, negative/low HER2 status and basal-like subtype. High expression of CD44S was associated with strong HER2 staining and also a subgroup of basal-like tumors. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of CD44 isoform expression data divided tumors into four main clusters, which showed significant correlations to molecular subtypes and differences in 10-year overall survival. Conclusions We demonstrate that individual CD44 isoforms can be associated to different breast cancer subtypes and clinical markers such as HER2, ER and PgR, which suggests involvement of CD44 splice variants in

  3. Detection of Tumor Markers in Prostate Cancer and Comparison of Sensitivity between Real Time and Nested PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Takayuki; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yamamichi, Fukashi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kawabata, Masato; Shirakawa, Toshiro

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate and compare the sensitivity in conventional PCR, quantitative real time PCR, nested PCR and western blots for detection of prostate cancer tumor markers using prostate cancer (PCa) cells. We performed conventional PCR, quantitative real time PCR, nested PCR, and western blots using 5 kinds of PCa cells. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and androgen receptor (AR) were compared for their detection sensitivi...

  4. Diagnostic values of serum tumor markers Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, CEA, CA19-9, and AFP in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

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    Yuan CS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chuanshu Yuan, Kai Yang, Hong Tang, Dan Chen Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: At present, the research on serum tumor markers in the early diagnosis of malignant tumors has aroused widespread concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic values of serum tumor markers cytokeratin 19 fragment (Cyfra21-1, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg, ferritin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, and α-fetoprotein (AFP for patients with oral/oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OSCC/OPSCC. Methods: One hundred and sixty-nine cases of patients with OSCC/OPSCC as the experimental group, 86 cases of oral benign tumor patients as the control group, and 30 cases of healthy people as the normal control group were studied. The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, CEA, CA19-9, and AFP were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, and CEA in patients with OSCC/OPSCC were significantly higher than those of benign tumor and healthy control group (P<0.05. The levels of CA19-9 and AFP showed no significant difference between patients with OSCC/OPSCC, benign tumor, and healthy group (P>0.05. The level of serum Cyfra21-1 in patients with early OSCC/OPSCC (stage I + II was significantly higher than that of benign tumor and healthy control group (P<0.05. However, the levels of serum SCCAg, ferritin, CEA, CA19-9, and AFP showed no significant difference between patients with early OSCC/OPSCC, benign tumor, and healthy control group (P>0.05. The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, and CEA in the middle-late stage of patients with OSCC/OPSCC (stage III + IV were significantly higher than those of patients with the early OSCC/OPSCC, benign tumor, and healthy control group (P<0.05. The diagnostic cutoff levels of Cyfra21

  5. Duct- and Acinar-Derived Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas Show Distinct Tumor Progression and Marker Expression

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    Rute M.M. Ferreira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell of origin of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC has been controversial. Here, we show that identical oncogenic drivers trigger PDAC originating from both ductal and acinar cells with similar histology but with distinct pathophysiology and marker expression dependent on cell of origin. Whereas acinar-derived tumors exhibited low AGR2 expression and were preceded by pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs, duct-derived tumors displayed high AGR2 and developed independently of a PanIN stage via non-mucinous lesions. Using orthotopic transplantation and chimera experiments, we demonstrate that PanIN-like lesions can be induced by PDAC as bystanders in adjacent healthy tissues, explaining the co-existence of mucinous and non-mucinous lesions and highlighting the need to distinguish between true precursor PanINs and PanIN-like bystander lesions. Our results suggest AGR2 as a tool to stratify PDAC according to cell of origin, highlight that not all PanIN-like lesions are precursors of PDAC, and add an alternative progression route to the current model of PDAC development.

  6. Quantitative image analysis of intra-tumoral bFGF level as a molecular marker of paclitaxel resistance

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    Wientjes M Guillaume

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in chemoresistance is controversial; some studies showed a relationship between higher bFGF level and chemoresistance while other studies showed the opposite finding. The goal of the present study was to quantify bFGF levels in archived tumor tissues, and to determine its relationship with chemosensitivity. Methods We established an image analysis-based method to quantify and convert the immunostaining intensity of intra-tumor bFGF to concentrations; this was accomplished by generating standard curves using human xenograft tumors as the renewable tissue source for simultaneous image analysis and ELISA. The relationships between bFGF concentrations and tumor chemosensitivity of patient tumors (n = 87 to paclitaxel were evaluated using linear regression analysis. Results The image analysis results were compared to our previous results obtained using a conventional, semi-quantitative visual scoring method. While both analyses indicated an inverse relationship between bFGF level and tumor sensitivity to paclitaxel, the image analysis method, by providing bFGF levels in individual tumors and therefore more data points (87 numerical values as opposed to four groups of staining intensities, further enabled the quantitative analysis of the relationship in subgroups of tumors with different pathobiological properties. The results show significant correlation between bFGF level and tumor sensitivity to the antiproliferation effect, but not the apoptotic effect, of paclitaxel. We further found stronger correlations of bFGF level and paclitaxel sensitivity in four tumor subgroups (high stage, positive p53 staining, negative aFGF staining, containing higher-than-median bFGF level, compared to all other groups. These findings suggest that the relationship between intra-tumoral bFGF level and paclitaxel sensitivity was context-dependent, which may explain the previous contradictory findings

  7. Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-β3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers α-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047

  8. Clinical significance of combined determination of several tumor markers (including CYFRA21-1, NSE, CA-50 and CEA) in patients with pulmonary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingfeng; Wen Chijun; Zhu Cuiying

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To enhance the diagnosis of pulmonary cancer by determination of optimal combinations of various tumor markers. Methods: Serum CYFRA 21-1 , NSE, CA-50 (with RIA) and CEA (with CLIA) contents were determined in 107 patients with various types of pulmonary cancers, 66 patients with various benign pulmonary diseases and 59 controls. Results: It was revealed that CYFRA 21-1 determination was most sensitive for detection of squamous cell carcinoma. The same was true for CEA in the detection of adenocarcinoma. NSE determination was very specific for small cell carcinoma. Combined determinations of either CYFRA 21- l + NSE or CYFRA 21-1 + NSE + CEA were excellent for general screening. Conclusion: Combined determination of these tumor markers could be applied expediently as supplementary diagnostic measure for pulmonary malignancies. (authors)

  9. CEA A BIOCHEMICAL MARKER FOR DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS OF GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Prathibha; Vishnu Datt

    2016-01-01

    Serum tumor markers (TM) are widely used for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of cancer. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) is one of the most widely investigated tumor markers in gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Estimation of circulating tumor markers is a non- invasive quantitative method. Serum levels of CEA were studied for diagnosis and prognosis of gastrointestinal malignancies. 140 subjects were undertaken out of which 35 normal and remaining 105 were GI cancer patients. Ser...

  10. Serum tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 in the diagnostics of squamous cell lung cancer - comparison with CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.; Letkovicova, M.; Arpasova, M.; Zuffova, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the diagnostic value tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 for squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) in comparison with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Ninety-one patients were induced in this study: 56 with SQCLC - Group I, 25 with other types of lung cancer - Group II, 10 with benign respiratory tract diseases - Group III. Median CYFRA 21-1 serum concentration (ng/ml) was: in Group I: 4.52 (0.94 - >16), in Group II: 3.58 (1.72 - >16), in Group III: 2.05 (0.99 - 3.41). Median CEA serum concentration (ng/ml) was: in Group I: 4.49 (076- >20), in Group II: 3.32 (1.17 - >20), in Group III: 3.09 (1.84 - 6.37). There was a highly significant difference between the levels of CYFRA 21-1 in group I and Group III (p < 0.001), but there was no statistically significant difference between the levels of CEA in Group I and III. Sensitivity of CYFRA 21-1 by the cut-off 3.33 ng/ml in the diagnostics of SQCLC was 0.68, specificity 0.090, positive predictive value 0.91, negative predictive value 0.65. Sensitivity of CEA by cut-off 4.61 ng/ml was 0.5 by the same specificity 0.90. CYFRA 21-1 has high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value in the diagnostics of SQCLC. Sensitivity of CYFRA 21-1 is significantly higher than sensitivity of CEA in this settings. (author)

  11. 26S proteasome and insulin-like growth factor-1 in serum of dogs suffering from malignant tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Ingrid; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Neumann, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    Studies in humans have shown that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the insulin-like growth factor axis are involved in carcinogenesis, thus, components of these systems might be useful as prognostic markers and constitute potential therapeutic targets. In veterinary medicine, only a few studies exist on this topic. Here, serum concentrations of 26S proteasome (26SP) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured by canine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 43 dogs suffering from malignant tumors and 21 clinically normal dogs (control group). Relationships with tumor size, survival time, body condition score (BCS), and tumor entity were assessed. The median 26SP concentration in the tumor group was non-significantly higher than in the control group. However, dogs with mammary carcinomas displayed significantly increased 26SP levels compared to the control group and dogs with tumor size less than 5 cm showed significantly increased 26SP concentrations compared to dogs with larger tumors and control dogs. 26SP concentrations were not correlated to survival time or BCS. No significant difference in IGF-1 levels was found between the tumor group and the control group; however, IGF-1 concentrations displayed a larger range of values in the tumor group. Dogs with tumors greater than 5 cm showed significantly higher IGF-1 levels than dogs with smaller tumors. The IGF-1 concentrations were positively correlated to survival time, but no correlation with BCS was found. Consequently, serum 26SP concentrations seem to be increased in some dogs suffering from malignant tumors, especially in dogs with mammary carcinoma and smaller tumors. Increased serum IGF-1 concentrations could be an indication of large tumors and a poor prognosis.

  12. Peculiarities in the CT findings of germ cell tumors in various tumor localizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazoe, Makoto; Miyagami, Mitsusuke; Tsubokawa, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    The CT findings of 17 germ cell tumors were studied in relation to the locations of the tumor, the pathological diagnoses, and the tumor markers (AFP and HCG). Generally, the CT findings of germ cell tumors depended on the pathological diagnoses more strongly than on the location of the tumors. On plain CT of 7 germ cell tumors in the pineal region, all of them demonstrated heterogeneous findings. Hydrocephalus was seen in 6 cases (86%) and calcification in 6 cases (86%) of the germ cell tumors in the pineal region. Calcification and hydrocephalus that appeared more often than in other regions were characteristic of germ cell tumors of the pineal region. The germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia had a slightly homogenous high density, with small cysts and calcification in most of them on plain CT. On enhanced CT, the tumors were moderately enhanced in all cases located in the basal ganglia. Four cases of germ cell tumors located in the basal ganglia revealed the dilatation of lateral ventricle due to hemispheric atrophy in the tumor side. The germ cell tumors showing an increase in the tumor markers such as AFP and HCG, which were usually malignant germ cell tumors, were strongly enhanced on enhanced CT. (author)

  13. Molecular markers in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kirsten; Kornblum, Harley I

    2017-09-01

    Gliomas are the most malignant and aggressive form of brain tumors, and account for the majority of brain cancer related deaths. Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma are treated with radiation and temozolomide, with only a minor benefit in survival time. A number of advances have been made in understanding glioma biology, including the discovery of cancer stem cells, termed glioma stem cells (GSC). Some of these advances include the delineation of molecular heterogeneity both between tumors from different patients as well as within tumors from the same patient. Such research highlights the importance of identifying and validating molecular markers in glioma. This review, intended as a practical resource for both clinical and basic investigators, summarizes some of the more well-known molecular markers (MGMT, 1p/19q, IDH, EGFR, p53, PI3K, Rb, and RAF), discusses how they are identified, and what, if any, clinical relevance they may have, in addition to discussing some of the specific biology for these markers. Additionally, we discuss identification methods for studying putative GSC's (CD133, CD15, A2B5, nestin, ALDH1, proteasome activity, ABC transporters, and label-retention). While much research has been done on these markers, there is still a significant amount that we do not yet understand, which may account for some conflicting reports in the literature. Furthermore, it is unlikely that the investigator will be able to utilize one single marker to prospectively identify and isolate GSC from all, or possibly, any gliomas.

  14. Immunohistochemical Expression of Ki67 and p53 in Wilms Tumor and Its Relationship with Tumor Histology and Stage at Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, O. H. Radhika; Kayla, Geetha; Abdul Aleem, Mohammed; Malleboyina, Ramani; Reddy Kota, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Evaluate tumor proliferation marker (Ki67) and p53 tumor suppressor marker in Wilms tumor and correlate with histology, anaplasia, and staging. Design. Prospective, hospital based study conducted at a tertiary pediatric referral centre in south India. Setting. Wilms tumor is the most common childhood renal malignancy worldwide. Anaplasia on histology is associated with treatment resistance but not with aggressiveness clinical presentation. Chemotherapy for Wilms tumor is based on histology and staging. Most patients respond to current chemotherapy protocol. However, a small fraction relapses or metastasizes. Affordable prognostic markers are needed for histopathological evaluation of this tumor. Subjects. Cases of histologically confirmed Wilms tumor over five years. Cases after chemotherapy were excluded as the immunostaining was inconsistent in necrotic areas. Methods. The clinical and radiological findings of 31 cases of Wilms tumor were documented at a tertiary pediatric referral hospital over five years. In addition to Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, Ki67 proliferation index and p53 expression were correlated with tumor histology and staging. Results. Age incidence was 3–8 years with female preponderance. Significant correlation was noted between Ki67 proliferation index and tumor staging. p53 expression was not useful in stratification of Wilms tumor. Conclusion. Ki67 was cost-effective immunohistochemical marker for prognostication of pediatric Wilms tumor. PMID:26904359

  15. Immunohistochemical Expression of Ki67 and p53 in Wilms Tumor and Its Relationship with Tumor Histology and Stage at Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Radhika Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Evaluate tumor proliferation marker (Ki67 and p53 tumor suppressor marker in Wilms tumor and correlate with histology, anaplasia, and staging. Design. Prospective, hospital based study conducted at a tertiary pediatric referral centre in south India. Setting. Wilms tumor is the most common childhood renal malignancy worldwide. Anaplasia on histology is associated with treatment resistance but not with aggressiveness clinical presentation. Chemotherapy for Wilms tumor is based on histology and staging. Most patients respond to current chemotherapy protocol. However, a small fraction relapses or metastasizes. Affordable prognostic markers are needed for histopathological evaluation of this tumor. Subjects. Cases of histologically confirmed Wilms tumor over five years. Cases after chemotherapy were excluded as the immunostaining was inconsistent in necrotic areas. Methods. The clinical and radiological findings of 31 cases of Wilms tumor were documented at a tertiary pediatric referral hospital over five years. In addition to Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, Ki67 proliferation index and p53 expression were correlated with tumor histology and staging. Results. Age incidence was 3–8 years with female preponderance. Significant correlation was noted between Ki67 proliferation index and tumor staging. p53 expression was not useful in stratification of Wilms tumor. Conclusion. Ki67 was cost-effective immunohistochemical marker for prognostication of pediatric Wilms tumor.

  16. Testicular germinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of testicular germinal tumors. The presumed diagnosis is based in the anamnesis, clinical examination, testicular ultrasound and tumor markers. The definitive diagnosis is obtained through the inguinal radical orchidectomy

  17. Serum acute phase protein concentrations in female dogs with mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecles, Fernando; Caldín, Marco; Zanella, Anna; Membiela, Francisco; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Subiela, Silvia Martínez; Cerón, José Joaquín

    2009-03-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) are proteins whose concentrations in serum change after any inflammatory stimulus or tissue damage. The aim of the current study was to evaluate 3 positive APPs (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and haptoglobin) and 1 negative APP (albumin) in female dogs with mammary neoplasia. Acute phase proteins were studied in 70 female dogs aged 8-12 years in the following groups: healthy (n = 10); mammary tumors in stages I (n = 19), II (n = 5), III (n = 6), IV (n = 5), and V (n = 7); and with mammary neoplasia plus a concomitant disease (n = 18). In animals with mammary neoplasia, significant increases of positive APPs were only detected in those that had metastasis or a neoplasm with a diameter greater than 5 cm and ulceration. Dogs with mammary neoplasia and a concomitant disease also had high C-reactive protein concentrations. Albumin concentration was decreased in animals with metastasis and with a concomitant disease. The results of the present study indicate that the acute phase response could be stimulated in female dogs with mammary gland tumors because of different factors, such as metastasis, large size of the primary mass, and ulceration or secondary inflammation of the neoplasm.

  18. Interfractional variability of respiration-induced esophageal tumor motion quantified using fiducial markers and four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; van Wieringen, Niek; Bel, Arjan; Alderliesten, Tanja

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the interfractional variability of respiration-induced esophageal tumor motion using fiducial markers and four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) and assess if a 4D-CT is sufficient for predicting the motion during the treatment. Twenty-four patients with 63 markers visible in the retrospectively reconstructed 4D-CBCTs were included. For each marker, we calculated the amplitude and trajectory of the respiration-induced motion. Possible time trends of the amplitude over the treatment course and the interfractional variability of amplitudes and trajectory shapes were assessed. Further, the amplitudes measured in the 4D-CT were compared to those in the 4D-CBCTs. The amplitude was largest in the cranial-caudal direction of the distal esophagus (mean: 7.1mm) and proximal stomach (mean: 7.8mm). No time trend was observed in the amplitude over the treatment course. The interfractional variability of amplitudes and trajectory shapes was limited (mean: ≤1.4mm). Moreover, small and insignificant deviation was found between the amplitudes quantified in the 4D-CT and in the 4D-CBCT (mean absolute difference: ≤1.0mm). The limited interfractional variability of amplitudes and trajectory shapes and small amplitude difference between 4D-CT-based and 4D-CBCT-based measurements imply that a single 4D-CT would be sufficient for predicting the respiration-induced esophageal tumor motion during the treatment course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of faecal markers in screening for colorectal neoplasia: a European group on tumor markers position paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Several randomized controlled trials have shown that population-based screening using faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) can reduce mortality from colorectal neoplasia. Based on this evidence, a number of countries have introduced screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and high-risk adenoma and many others are considering its introduction. The aim of this article is to critically review the current status of faecal markers as population-based screening tests for these neoplasia. Most of the available faecal tests involve the measurement of either occult blood or a panel of DNA markers. Occult blood may be measured using either the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) or a faecal immunochemical test (iFOBT). Although iFOBT may require a greater initial investment, they have several advantages over gFOBT, including greater analytical sensitivity and specificity. Their use results in improved clinical performance and higher uptake rates. Importantly for population screening, some of the iFOBTs can be automated and provide an adjustable cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. However, samples for iFOBT, may be less stable after collection than for gFOBT. For new centres undertaking FOBT for colorectal neoplasia, the European Group on Tumour Markers recommends use of a quantitative iFOBT with an adjustable cutoff point and high throughput analysis. All participants with positive FOBT results should be offered colonoscopy. The panel recommends further research into increasing the stability of iFOBT and the development of improved and affordable DNA and proteomic-based tests, which reduce current false negative rates, simplify sample transport and enable automated analysis.

  20. FOXQ1, a novel target of the Wnt pathway and a new marker for activation of Wnt signaling in solid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Christensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The forkhead box transcription factor FOXQ1 has been shown to be upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC and metastatic breast cancer and involved in tumor development, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chemoresistance. Yet, its transcriptional regulation is still unknown. METHODS: FOXQ1 mRNA and protein expression were analysed in a panel of CRC cell lines, and laser micro-dissected human biopsy samples by qRT-PCR, microarray GeneChip® U133 Plus 2.0 and western blots. FOXQ1 regulation was assayed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays. RESULTS: FOXQ1 was robustly induced in CRC compared to other tumors, but had no predictive value with regards to grade, metastasis and survival in CRC. Prototype-based gene coexpression and gene set enrichment analysis showed a significant association between FOXQ1 and the Wnt pathway in tumors and cancer cell lines from different tissues. In vitro experiments confirmed, on a molecular level, FOXQ1 as a direct Wnt target. Analysis of known Wnt targets identified FOXQ1 as the most suitable marker for canonical Wnt activation across a wide panel of cell lines derived from different tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that FOXQ1 is one of the most over-expressed genes in CRC and a direct target of the canonical Wnt pathway. It is a potential new marker for detection of early CRC and Wnt activation in tumors of different origins.

  1. FBXW7 Acts as an Independent Prognostic Marker and Inhibits Tumor Growth in Human Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7 is a potent tumor suppressor in human cancers including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we found that the expressions of FBXW7 protein and mRNA levels in osteosarcoma (OS cases were significantly lower than those in normal bone tissues. Clinical analysis indicated that FBXW7 was expressed at lower levels in OS patients with advanced clinical stage, high T classification and poor histological differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that high expression of FBXW7 was correlated with a better 5-year survival of OS patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that FBXW7 was an independent prognostic marker in OS. Our in vitro studies showed that FBXW7 overexpression inhibited cell cycle transition and cell proliferation, and promoted apoptosis in both U2OS and MG-63 cells. In a nude mouse xenograft model, FBXW7 overexpression slowed down tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and growth arrest. Mechanistically, FBXW7 inversely regulated oncoprotein c-Myc and cyclin E levels in both U2OS and MG-63 cells. Together these findings suggest that FBXW7 may serve as a prognostic biomarker and inhibit tumor progression by inducing apoptosis and growth arrest in OS.

  2. Validation of tumor markers in central nervous system germ cell tumors by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dowhan; Lee, Da Hye; Choi, Junjeong; Shim, Kyu Won; Kim, Se Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic protocols for treatment of germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) are completely different, so it is important to distinguish pure germinomas from NGGCTs. As it can be difficult to diagnose by morphology alone, immunohisto-chemistry (IHC) has been widely used as an ancillary test to improve diagnostic accuracy. However, IHC has limitations due to the misinterpretation of results or the aberrant loss of immunoreactivity. However, real-time RT-PCR has certain advantages over IHC, including its quantitative nature. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of real-time RT-PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks for the diagnosis of germ cell tumors of the central nervous system. We selected eight markers of germ cell tumors using a literature search, and validated them using real-time RT-PCR. Among them, POU5F1, NANOG and TGFB2 were statistically significant (P=0.05) in multiple comparisons (MANOVA) of three groups (pure germinomas, mature teratomas and malignant germ cell tumors). Two-group (pure germinomas and NGGCTs) discriminant analysis achieved a 70.0% success rate in cross-validation. We concluded that real-time RT-PCR using FFPE tissue has adequate validating power comparable to IHC in the diagnosis of central nervous system germ cell tumors; therefore, when IHC is not available, not conclusive or not informative, RT-PCR is a potential alternative to a repeat biopsy.

  3. Diagnostic test pepsinogen I and combination with tumor marker CEA in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, J.; Sarumpaet, K.; Ganie, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality globally. Human pepsinogens (HP) are considered promising serological biomarkers for the screening of atrophic gastritis (AG) and GC. HP are biochemically and immunochemically classified into two groups: pepsinogen I (PG I) and PG II. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein, which is present in normal mucosal cells but increased amounts are associated with adenocarcinoma, especially colorectal cancer. CEA in combination with other tumour markers can be used in pre-operative staging and thereby assist in the planning of the type of surgery required and future management options. The purpose of this study was to diagnose test PG I and combination with tumor marker CEA in 32 patients suspected with GC. There was a significant difference in levels of CEA between GC group with non-GC with a value p <0.001. PGI sensitivity was 70.58% and specificity 93.3%. The sensitivity of PGI and CEA combination of 94.1% and specificity 80%. The area of AUC obtained was 92.7% at 95% confidence interval (82.7-100%). This AUC value indicated that the value of diagnostic accuracy of the PGI and CEA combinations of 92.7%.

  4. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Elimination of ghost markers during dual sensor-based infrared tracking of multiple individual reflective markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroian, G.; Falco, T.; Seuntjens, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of dose delivery in radiotherapy is affected by the uncertainty in tumor localization. Motion of internal anatomy due to physiological processes such as respiration may lead to significant displacements which compromise tumor coverage and generate irradiation of healthy tissue. Real-time tracking with infrared-based systems is often used for tracking thoracic motion in radiation therapy. We studied the origin of ghost markers ('crosstalk') which may appear during dual sensor-based infrared tracking of independent reflective markers. Ghost markers occur when two or more reflective markers are coplanar with each other and with the sensors of the two camera-based infrared tracking system. Analysis shows that sensors are not points but they have a finite extent and this extent determines for each marker a 'ghost volume'. If one reflective marker enters the ghost volume of another marker, ghost markers will be reported by the tracking system; if the reflective markers belong to a surface their 'ghost volume' is reduced to a 'ghost surface' (ghost zone). Appearance of ghost markers is predicted for markers taped on the torso of an anthropomorphic phantom. This study illustrates the dependence of the shape, extent, and location of the ghost zones on the shape of the anthropomorphic phantom, the angle of view of the tracking system, and the distance between the tracking system and the anthropomorphic phantom. It is concluded that the appearance of ghost markers can be avoided by positioning the markers outside the ghost zones of the other markers. However, if this is not possible and the initial marker configuration is ghost marker-free, ghost markers can be eliminated during real-time tracking by virtue of the fact that they appear in the coordinate data sequence only temporarily

  6. Relation of smoking status to a panel of inflammatory markers: the framingham offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Yamini S; Guo, Chao-Yu; Rong, Jian; Larson, Martin G; Walter, Robert E; Keaney, John F; Sutherland, Patrice A; Vasan, Aditi; Lipinska, Izabella; Evans, Jane C; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2008-11-01

    We sought to investigate the hypothesis that smoking is accompanied by systemic inflammation. We examined the relation of smoking to 11 systemic inflammatory markers in Framingham Study participants (n=2944, mean age 60 years, 55% women, 12% ethnic minorities) examined from 1998-2001. The cohort was divided into never (n=1149), former (n=1424), and current smokers with last cigarette >6h (n=134) or < or =6h (n=237) prior to phlebotomy. In multivariable-adjusted models there were significant overall between-smoking group differences (defined as p<0.0045 to account for multiple testing) for every inflammatory marker tested, except for serum CD40 ligand (CD40L), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (TNFR2). With multivariable-adjustment, pair-wise comparisons with never smokers revealed that former smokers had significantly lower concentrations of plasma CD40L (p<0.0001) and higher concentrations of (CRP) C-reactive protein (p=0.002). As opposed to never smokers, those with acute cigarette smoke exposure (< or =6h) had significantly higher concentrations of all markers (p<0.0001) except serum CD40L, MPO, and TNFR2; plasma CD40L were significantly lower. Compared with never smokers, cigarette smokers have significantly elevated concentrations of most circulating inflammatory markers, consistent with the hypothesis that smoking is associated with a systemic inflammatory state.

  7. A new technique for labeling of Lipiodol with 188Re in the treatment of hepatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyh-Jen Wang; Wan-Yu Lin; Bor-Tsung Hsieh; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Lie-Hang Shen; Ming-Ja Su

    2004-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of 188 Re-Lipiodol without using a chelating agent and to evaluate the stability and biodistribution of the new agent in rats with hepatic tumors was attempted. Eighteen male Sprague -Dawley rats with liver tumors were sacrificed at 1, 24, and 48 hours (six rats at each time) after injection of approximately 7.4 MBq (0.2 mCi) of 188 Re Lipiodol via the hepatic artery. Samples of tumor, liver and other organs were collected and tissue concentration (%ID/g) of the markers were calculated. A high level of radioactivity in the hepatic tumors was found at every time of the study. The ratios of tumor to normal liver tissue concentration (T/N ratio) were 7.62 at 1 hour, 8.03 at 24 hours, and 7.70 at 48 hours. Except for the liver, kidneys and lungs, concentrations in other organs were low. The new method for labeling Lipiodol with 188 Re is simple and has potential for the treatment of hepatic tumors. (author)

  8. Soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor as markers of disease activity in visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, E. E.; van der Poll, T.; Mevissen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Serum concentrations of soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor (sTNFRs) were measured before and after antimony therapy in 25 Sudanese patients with active visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Both sTNFR types I and II were significantly elevated in patients with VL compared with healthy controls from

  9. Overexpression of Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase Enhances Tumor Hypoxia: An Insight into the Relationship of Hypoxia and Angiogenesis In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Kostourou

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The oxygenation status of tumors derived from wild-type C6 glioma cells and clone D27 cells overexpressing dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH was assessed in vivo using a variety of direct and indirect assays of hypoxia. Clone D27 tumors exhibit a more aggressive and better-vascularized phenotype compared to wild-type C6 gliomas. Immunohistochemical analyses using the 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker pimonidazole, fiber optic OxyLite measurements of tumor pO2, and localized 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of tumor bioenergetic status and pH clearly demonstrated that the D27 tumors were more hypoxic compared to C6 wild type. In the tumor extracts, only glucose concentrations were significantly lower in the D27 tumors. Elevated Glut-1 expression, a reliable functional marker for hypoxia-inducible factor-1-mediated metabolic adaptation, was observed in the D27 tumors. Together, the data show that overexpression of DDAH results in C6 gliomas that are more hypoxic compared to wild-type tumors, and point strongly to an inverse relationship of tumor oxygenation and angiogenesis in vivo-a concept now being supported by the enhanced understanding of oxygen sensing at the molecular level.

  10. Radioimmunoassays for tumor diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, J.

    1983-01-01

    Aside from imaging techniques several (radio-)immunological analyses are used for tumor diagnosis. Oncofetal antigens, for instance the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), have become the most important substances for many malignancies. However, nearly all of the so-called tumor markers are not suitable for early diagnosis or screening either because of low sensitivity or low tumor specifity. On the other hand follow-up measurements give a very sensitive index of the success of treatment and may indicate tumor progression when other signs are still not present. In some carcinomas and under some clinical circumstances tumorspecific markers are available and mandatory for detection and/or staging: AFP in hepatoma, acid phosphatase in metastasizing carcinoma of the prostate and serum thyreoglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.) [de

  11. Molecular markers: Implications for cytopathology and specimen collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Paul A

    2015-08-01

    Cytologic specimens obtained through minimally invasive biopsy techniques are increasingly being used as principle diagnostic specimens for tumors arising in multiple sites. The number and scope of ancillary tests performed on these specimens have grown substantially over the past decade, including many molecular markers that not only can aid in formulating accurate and specific diagnoses but also can provide prognostic or therapeutic information to help direct clinical decisions. Thus, the cytopathologist needs to ensure that adequate material is collected and appropriately processed for the study of relevant molecular markers, many of which are specific to tumor site. This brief review covers considerations for effective cytologic specimen collection and processing to ensure diagnostic and testing success. In addition, a general overview is provided of molecular markers pertinent to tumors from a variety of sites. The recognition of these established and emerging molecular markers by cytopathologists is an important step toward realizing the promise of personalized medicine. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  12. Advances in the Genetic Characterization of Cutaneous Mesenchymal Neoplasms: Implications for Tumor Classification and Novel Diagnostic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Leigh A; Doyle, Leona A

    2017-06-01

    Cutaneous mesenchymal neoplasms often pose significant diagnostic challenges; many such entities are rare or show clinical and histologic overlap with both other mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal lesions. Recent advances in the genetic classification of many cutaneous mesenchymal neoplasms have not only helped define unique pathologic entities and increase our understanding of their biology, but have also provided new diagnostic markers. This review details these recent discoveries, with a focus on their implications for tumor classification and diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Glioma Cells in the Tumor Periphery Have a Stem Cell Phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Sune; Petterson, Stine Asferg; Dahlrot, Rikke Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    and a panel of markers was used. The panel comprised of six stem cell-related markers (CD133, Musashi-1, Bmi-1, Sox-2, Nestin and Glut-3), a proliferation marker (Ki-67) as well as a chemo-resistance marker (MGMT). Computer-based automated classifiers were designed to measure the mIDH1 positive nucleus area......-fraction of the chosen markers. Moreover, orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts from five different patient-derived spheroid cultures were obtained and the tumor cells identified by human specific immunohistochemical markers. The results showed that tumor cells in the periphery of patient gliomas expressed stem cell...... in the periphery of patient gliomas have a stem cell phenotype, although it is less pronounced than in the tumor core. Novel therapies aiming at preventing recurrence should therefore take tumor stemness into account. Migrating cells in orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts preserve expression and stem cell markers...

  14. The value of combined tumor markers of CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 for diagnosis of patients with colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Hongyong; Tang Jianlin; Li Yuying; Gao Liuyan; Tang Xiuping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of serum tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and carbohydrate antigen 242 (CA242) levels in patients with colorectal cancer using single item and multi-items determination. Methods: Serum levels of CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 were measured with chemiuminescent immunoassay (CLIA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 89 cases of colorectal cancer patients and 50 cases of normal people. Results: The serum levels of this three tumor markers were significantly higher than those in the control group (t=3.97, 3.55 and 7.44, P 2 =30.552, 32.076, 18.365, 7.130 and 8.862, P<0.01). Combined determination of those three could enhance the sensitivity (85.39%) and accuracy (90.60%), but the specificity was decreased (88.00%). Conclusion: Determination of serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA242 levels are valuable for the diagnosis and evaluation of patients with colorectal cancer, and the diagnosis sensitivity can be enhanced with combined determinations. (authors)

  15. Diagnostic values of serum tumor markers Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, CEA, CA19-9, and AFP in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chuanshu; Yang, Kai; Tang, Hong; Chen, Dan

    2016-01-01

    At present, the research on serum tumor markers in the early diagnosis of malignant tumors has aroused widespread concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic values of serum tumor markers cytokeratin 19 fragment (Cyfra21-1), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg), ferritin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), and α-fetoprotein (AFP) for patients with oral/oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OSCC/OPSCC). One hundred and sixty-nine cases of patients with OSCC/OPSCC as the experimental group, 86 cases of oral benign tumor patients as the control group, and 30 cases of healthy people as the normal control group were studied. The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, CEA, CA19-9, and AFP were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, and CEA in patients with OSCC/OPSCC were significantly higher than those of benign tumor and healthy control group (Ptumor, and healthy group (P>0.05). The level of serum Cyfra21-1 in patients with early OSCC/OPSCC (stage I + II) was significantly higher than that of benign tumor and healthy control group (PCEA, CA19-9, and AFP showed no significant difference between patients with early OSCC/OPSCC, benign tumor, and healthy control group (P>0.05). The levels of serum Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, and CEA in the middle-late stage of patients with OSCC/OPSCC (stage III + IV) were significantly higher than those of patients with the early OSCC/OPSCC, benign tumor, and healthy control group (PCEA were 2.17, 0.72, 109.95, and 1.99 ng/mL, respectively. The sensitivities were 60.36%, 73.37%, 81.66%, and 66.27%, respectively. The specificities were 81.03%, 68.10%, 40.52%, and 61.21%, respectively. Cyfra21-1, SCCAg, ferritin, and CEA had diagnostic values for patients with OSCC/OPSCC. Meanwhile, Cyfra21-1 had better early diagnostic value for patients with OSCC/OPSCC.

  16. Detection of Tumor Cell-Specific mRNA in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Breast Cancer — Evaluation of Several Markers with Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Andergassen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that cells from epithelial tumors, e.g., breast cancer, detach from their primary tissue and enter blood circulation. We show that the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs in samples of patients with primary and metastatic breast cancer can be detected with an array of selected tumor-marker-genes by reverse transcription real-time PCR. The focus of the presented work is on detecting differences in gene expression between healthy individuals and adjuvant and metastatic breast cancer patients, not an accurate quantification of these differences. Therefore, total RNA was isolated from blood samples of healthy donors and patients with primary or metastatic breast cancer after enrichment of mononuclear cells by density gradient centrifugation. After reverse transcription real-time PCR was carried out with a set of marker genes (BCSP, CK8, Her2, MGL, CK18, CK19. B2M and GAPDH were used as reference genes. Blood samples from patients with metastatic disease revealed increased cytokine gene levels in comparison to normal blood samples. Detection of a single gene was not sufficient to detect CTCs by reverse transcription real-time PCR. Markers used here were selected based on a recent study detecting cancer cells on different protein levels. The combination of such a marker array leads to higher and more specific discovery rates, predominantly in metastatic patients. Identification of CTCs by PCR methods may lead to better diagnosis and prognosis and could help to choose an adequate therapy.

  17. [Familial retinoblastoma: cytogenetic study of the tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo Batanero, M; Manzanal Martínez, A; Ayuso García, C; Benítez Ortiz, J

    1990-05-01

    We report a case of familiar retinoblastoma, in which both mother and daughter show bilateral retinoblastoma. The cytogenetic study, in both peripheral blood lymphocytes and tumoral tissue did not show alterations on the 13 chromosome, although we found a complex kariotype in tumoral tissue defined by three celular lines. In all of them appears a marker in which the 6 chromosome is involved (der 6). The derivated of 6 chromosome are markers highly characteristic of the retinoblastoma cases, and can be related with the aggressivity of tumor and the appearance of the second tumors.

  18. Inflammatory markers in dependence on the plasma concentration of 37 fatty acids after the coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Jiří; Meloun, Milan; Mužáková, Vladimíra

    2018-02-05

    Using the regression model building the relationships between the concentration of 37 fatty acids of blood plasma phospholipids of 41 patients with coronary artery disease after coronary stent implantation, the inflammatory response and oxidative stress markers were estimated. The dynamics of the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress was indicated by measuring plasma concentrations of highly sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, serum amyloid A and malondialdehyde before, 24h after stent implantation. The multiple linear regression analysis was preceded by an exploratory data analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis, which proved a hidden internal relation of 37 fatty acids. The concentration of cerotic acid (C26:0) has been positively associated with an increase of malondialdehyde concentration after stent implantation, while the concentrations of tetracosatetraenoic (C24:4 N6) and nonadecanoic (C19:0) acids were associated with decrease of lipoperoxidation. The increase of interleukin-6 during the 24h after implantation was associated with higher levels of pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and lower levels of α-linolenic acid (C18:3 N3). Regression models found several significant fatty acids at which the strength of the parameter β for each fatty acid on selected markers of C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde, interleukin-6 and serum amyloid A was estimated. Parameter β testifies to the power of the positive or negative relationship of the fatty acid concentration on the concentration of selected markers. The influencing effect of the cerotic acid (C26:0) concentration in plasma phospholipids exhibiting parameter β=140.4 is, for example, 3.5 times higher than this effect of n-3 tetracosapentaenoic acid (C24:5 N3) with β=40.0. Composition of fatty acids in plasma phospholipids shows spectrum of fatty acids available for intercellular communication in systemic inflammatory response of organism and should affect

  19. Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Xiong, Sijing; Huang, Liwen Charlotte; Ng, Kee Woei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are commonly used in cytotoxic evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) despite numerous reports on possible interactions with protein markers in these assays that can confound the results obtained. In this study, conventional cytotoxicity assays where assay markers may (LDH and TNF- α) or may not (PicoGreen and WST-8) come into contact with NPs were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NPs. The findings revealed selective interactions between negatively charged protein assay markers (LDH and TNF- α) and positively charged ZnO NPs under abiotic conditions. The adsorption and interaction with these protein assay markers were strongly influenced by surface charge, concentration, and specific surface area of the NPs, thereby resulting in less than accurate cytotoxic measurements, as observed from actual cell viability measurements. An improved protocol for LDH assay was, therefore, proposed and validated by eliminating any effects associated with protein–particle interactions. In view of this, additional measures and precautions should be taken when evaluating cytotoxicity of NPs with standard protein-based assays, particularly when they are of opposite charges

  20. Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Xiong, Sijing; Huang, Liwen Charlotte; Ng, Kee Woei, E-mail: kwng@ntu.edu.sg; Loo, Say Chye Joachim, E-mail: joachimloo@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (Singapore)

    2015-01-15

    Protein-based cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are commonly used in cytotoxic evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) despite numerous reports on possible interactions with protein markers in these assays that can confound the results obtained. In this study, conventional cytotoxicity assays where assay markers may (LDH and TNF- α) or may not (PicoGreen and WST-8) come into contact with NPs were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NPs. The findings revealed selective interactions between negatively charged protein assay markers (LDH and TNF- α) and positively charged ZnO NPs under abiotic conditions. The adsorption and interaction with these protein assay markers were strongly influenced by surface charge, concentration, and specific surface area of the NPs, thereby resulting in less than accurate cytotoxic measurements, as observed from actual cell viability measurements. An improved protocol for LDH assay was, therefore, proposed and validated by eliminating any effects associated with protein–particle interactions. In view of this, additional measures and precautions should be taken when evaluating cytotoxicity of NPs with standard protein-based assays, particularly when they are of opposite charges.

  1. Nanoparticle-assay marker interaction: effects on nanotoxicity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Xiong, Sijing; Huang, Liwen Charlotte; Ng, Kee Woei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based cytotoxicity assays such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are commonly used in cytotoxic evaluation of nanoparticles (NPs) despite numerous reports on possible interactions with protein markers in these assays that can confound the results obtained. In this study, conventional cytotoxicity assays where assay markers may (LDH and TNF- α) or may not (PicoGreen and WST-8) come into contact with NPs were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of NPs. The findings revealed selective interactions between negatively charged protein assay markers (LDH and TNF- α) and positively charged ZnO NPs under abiotic conditions. The adsorption and interaction with these protein assay markers were strongly influenced by surface charge, concentration, and specific surface area of the NPs, thereby resulting in less than accurate cytotoxic measurements, as observed from actual cell viability measurements. An improved protocol for LDH assay was, therefore, proposed and validated by eliminating any effects associated with protein-particle interactions. In view of this, additional measures and precautions should be taken when evaluating cytotoxicity of NPs with standard protein-based assays, particularly when they are of opposite charges.

  2. Clinical Relevance of Prognostic and Predictive Molecular Markers in Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Tali

    2016-01-01

    Sorting and grading of glial tumors by the WHO classification provide clinicians with guidance as to the predicted course of the disease and choice of treatment. Nonetheless, histologically identical tumors may have very different outcome and response to treatment. Molecular markers that carry both diagnostic and prognostic information add useful tools to traditional classification by redefining tumor subtypes within each WHO category. Therefore, molecular markers have become an integral part of tumor assessment in modern neuro-oncology and biomarker status now guides clinical decisions in some subtypes of gliomas. The routine assessment of IDH status improves histological diagnostic accuracy by differentiating diffuse glioma from reactive gliosis. It carries a favorable prognostic implication for all glial tumors and it is predictive for chemotherapeutic response in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas with codeletion of 1p/19q chromosomes. Glial tumors that contain chromosomal codeletion of 1p/19q are defined as tumors of oligodendroglial lineage and have favorable prognosis. MGMT promoter methylation is a favorable prognostic marker in astrocytic high-grade gliomas and it is predictive for chemotherapeutic response in anaplastic gliomas with wild-type IDH1/2 and in glioblastoma of the elderly. The clinical implication of other molecular markers of gliomas like mutations of EGFR and ATRX genes and BRAF fusion or point mutation is highlighted. The potential of molecular biomarker-based classification to guide future therapeutic approach is discussed and accentuated.

  3. The possible role of tumor antigen CA 15-3, CEA and ferritin in malignant and benign disease

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    Nafija Serdarević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serum CA15-3 has been one of the most reliable tumor markers used in monitoring of breast cancer patients. To increase its sensitivity, the combined measurement of other tumor markers (CEA and ferritin with CA15-3 was investigated. The aim of this study was determination of CA 15-3, CEA and ferritin in female patients with breast cancer, lung cancer and mastitisMethods: 300 patients with carcinoma, hospitalized at Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Department for Oncology at the University Clinics Center of Sarajevo and 200 healthy subjects were compared.Results: In patients with breast cancer the mean value of tumor markers were CEA 155.61 ng/mL, CA 15-3 106.38 U/mL and ferritin 197.03 ng/mL. In patients with lung cancer CEA was 58.97 ng/ml, CA 15-3 40.62 U/mL and ferritin 544.16 ng/mL. Patients with mastitis had CEA 5.17 ng/mL, CA 15-3 112.67 U/mL and ferritin 174.92 ng/mL. The control group had values of tumor markers CEA 1.62 ng/mL, CA 15-3 11.72 U/mL and ferritin 85.35 ng/mL. We found good correlation between CA 15-3 and CEA correlation coeffi cient was r = 0.750. There was a low correlation between CA 15-3 and ferritin with correlation coeffi cient r = 0.274.Conclusions: The CA 15-3 and CEA are useful markers in patients with confi rmed diagnosis of breast and lung cancers. The ferritin concentration has not increased in patients with breast cancer but it increased inlung patients. The future study has to make investigations of tumor markers and ferritin in different stage of breast cancer.

  4. Characterization of Heterogeneous Prostate Tumors in Targeted Pten Knockout Mice.

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    Hanneke Korsten

    Full Text Available Previously, we generated a preclinical mouse prostate tumor model based on PSA-Cre driven inactivation of Pten. In this model homogeneous hyperplastic prostates (4-5m developed at older age (>10m into tumors. Here, we describe the molecular and histological characterization of the tumors in order to better understand the processes that are associated with prostate tumorigenesis in this targeted mouse Pten knockout model. The morphologies of the tumors that developed were very heterogeneous. Different histopathological growth patterns could be identified, including intraductal carcinoma (IDC, adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma, all strongly positive for the epithelial cell marker Cytokeratin (CK, and carcinosarcomas, which were negative for CK. IDC pattern was already detected in prostates of 7-8 month old mice, indicating that it could be a precursor stage. At more than 10 months IDC and carcinosarcoma were most frequently observed. Gene expression profiling discriminated essentially two molecular subtypes, denoted tumor class 1 (TC1 and tumor class 2 (TC2. TC1 tumors were characterized by high expression of epithelial markers like Cytokeratin 8 and E-Cadherin whereas TC2 tumors showed high expression of mesenchyme/stroma markers such as Snail and Fibronectin. These molecular subtypes corresponded with histological growth patterns: where TC1 tumors mainly represented adenocarcinoma/intraductal carcinoma, in TC2 tumors carcinosarcoma was the dominant growth pattern. Further molecular characterization of the prostate tumors revealed an increased expression of genes associated with the inflammatory response. Moreover, functional markers for senescence, proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis were higher expressed in tumors compared to hyperplasia. The highest expression of proliferation and angiogenesis markers was detected in TC2 tumors. Our data clearly showed that in the genetically well-defined PSA-Cre;Pten-loxP/loxP prostate tumor

  5. Associations of persistent organic pollutants in serum and adipose tissue with breast cancer prognostic markers

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    Arrebola, J.P., E-mail: jparrebola@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Artacho-Cordón, F. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); University of Granada, Radiology and Physical Medicine Department (Spain); Garde, C. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Perez-Carrascosa, F.; Linares, I.; Tovar, I. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); González-Alzaga, B. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Granada (Spain); Expósito, J. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Department, Oncology Unit, Granada (Spain); Torne, P. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs. GRANADA), Hospitales Universitarios de Granada (Spain); and others

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate associations between exposure to a group of persistent organic pollutants, measured in both adipose tissue and serum samples from breast cancer patients, and a set of tumor prognostic markers. The study population comprised 103 breast cancer patients recruited in Granada, Southern Spain. Data for tumor prognostic markers were retrieved from hospital clinical records and socio-demographic information was gathered by questionnaire. Persistent organic pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Exposure levels were categorized in quartiles, and associations were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. Adipose tissue HCB concentrations were associated positively with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.044 and 0.005, respectively) and negatively with E-Cadherin and p53 expression (p-trends = 0.012 and 0.027, respectively). PCB-180 adipose tissue concentrations were positively associated with HER2 expression (p-trend = 0.036). Serum PCB-138 concentrations were positively associated with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.052 and 0.042, respectively). The risk of p53 expression was higher among women in the lowest quartile of serum PCB-138 concentrations, but no significant trend was observed (p-trend = 0.161). These findings indicate that human exposure to certain persistent organic pollutants might be related to breast cancer aggressiveness. We also highlight the influence on exposure assessment of the biological matrix selected, given that both serum and adipose tissue might yield relevant information on breast cancer prognosis. - Highlights: • The role of POP exposure on the pathogenesis breast cancer is still controversial. • POPs were analyzed in serum and adipose tissue from breast cancer patients. • POP concentrations were associated with breast cancer prognostic markers. • POPs in serum and adipose tissue of breast cancer patients may provide different clues.

  6. Associations of persistent organic pollutants in serum and adipose tissue with breast cancer prognostic markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrebola, J.P.; Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Artacho-Cordón, F.; Garde, C.; Perez-Carrascosa, F.; Linares, I.; Tovar, I.; González-Alzaga, B.; Expósito, J.; Torne, P.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate associations between exposure to a group of persistent organic pollutants, measured in both adipose tissue and serum samples from breast cancer patients, and a set of tumor prognostic markers. The study population comprised 103 breast cancer patients recruited in Granada, Southern Spain. Data for tumor prognostic markers were retrieved from hospital clinical records and socio-demographic information was gathered by questionnaire. Persistent organic pollutants were quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Exposure levels were categorized in quartiles, and associations were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. Adipose tissue HCB concentrations were associated positively with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.044 and 0.005, respectively) and negatively with E-Cadherin and p53 expression (p-trends = 0.012 and 0.027, respectively). PCB-180 adipose tissue concentrations were positively associated with HER2 expression (p-trend = 0.036). Serum PCB-138 concentrations were positively associated with ER and PR expression (p-trends = 0.052 and 0.042, respectively). The risk of p53 expression was higher among women in the lowest quartile of serum PCB-138 concentrations, but no significant trend was observed (p-trend = 0.161). These findings indicate that human exposure to certain persistent organic pollutants might be related to breast cancer aggressiveness. We also highlight the influence on exposure assessment of the biological matrix selected, given that both serum and adipose tissue might yield relevant information on breast cancer prognosis. - Highlights: • The role of POP exposure on the pathogenesis breast cancer is still controversial. • POPs were analyzed in serum and adipose tissue from breast cancer patients. • POP concentrations were associated with breast cancer prognostic markers. • POPs in serum and adipose tissue of breast cancer patients may provide different clues.

  7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits differentiation of myogenic cells in human urethral rhabdosphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Mayuka; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Sato, Fuminori; Kiyono, Tohru; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Mimata, Hiromitsu

    2017-06-01

    To examine the inhibitory effects of tumor necrosis factor-α on myogenic differentiation of human urethral rhabdosphincter cells. A rhabdosphincter sample was obtained from a patient who underwent total cystectomy. To expand the lifespan of the primary cultured cells, rhabdosphincter myogenic cells were immortalized with mutated cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin D1 and telomerase. The differential potential of the cells was investigated. The transfected human rhabdosphincter cells were induced for myogenic differentiation with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α and/or the tumor necrosis factor-α antagonist etanercept at different concentrations, and activation of signaling pathways was monitored. Human rhabdosphincter cells were selectively cultured for at least 40 passages. Molecular analysis confirmed the expression of myosin heavy chain, which is a specific marker of differentiated muscle cells, significantly increased after differentiation induction. Although tumor necrosis factor-α treatment reduced the myosin heavy chain expression in a concentration-dependent manner, etanercept inhibited this suppression. Tumor necrosis factor-α suppressed phosphorylation of protein kinase B and p38, whereas etanercept pretreatment promoted phosphorylation and myosin heavy chain expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibits differentiation of urethral rhabdosphincter cells in part through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α might be a useful strategy to treat stress urinary incontinence. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  8. Hypoxic cell turnover in different solid tumor lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungkvist, Anna S.E.; Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Begg, Adrian C.; Raleigh, James A.; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Most solid tumors contain hypoxic cells, and the amount of tumor hypoxia has been shown to have a negative impact on the outcome of radiotherapy. The efficacy of combined modality treatments depends both on the sequence and timing of the treatments. Hypoxic cell turnover in tumors may be important for optimal scheduling of combined modality treatments, especially when hypoxic cell targeting is involved. Methods and Materials: Previously we have shown that a double bioreductive hypoxic marker assay could be used to detect changes of tumor hypoxia in relation to the tumor vasculature after carbogen and hydralazine treatments. This assay was used in the current study to establish the turnover rate of hypoxic cells in three different tumor models. The first hypoxic marker, pimonidazole, was administered at variable times before tumor harvest, and the second hypoxic marker, CCI-103F, was injected at a fixed time before harvest. Hypoxic cell turnover was defined as loss of pimonidazole (first marker) relative to CCI-103F (second marker). Results: The half-life of hypoxic cell turnover was 17 h in the murine C38 colon carcinoma line, 23 h and 49 h in the human xenograft lines MEC82 and SCCNij3, respectively. Within 24 h, loss of pimonidazole-stained areas in C38 and MEC82 occurred concurrent with the appearance of pimonidazole positive cell debris in necrotic regions. In C38 and MEC82, most of the hypoxic cells had disappeared after 48 h, whereas in SCCNij3, viable cells that had been labeled with pimonidazole were still observed after 5 days. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that the double hypoxia marker assay can be used to study changes in both the proportion of hypoxic tumor cells and their lifespan at the same time. The present study shows that large differences in hypoxic cell turnover rates may exist among tumor lines, with half-lives ranging from 17-49 h

  9. In vivo Identification and Specificity assessment of mRNA markers of hypoxia in human and mouse tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busk, Morten; Toustrup, Kasper; Sørensen, Brita S; Alsner, Jan; Horsman, Michael R; Jakobsen, Steen; Overgaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is linked to poor prognosis, but identification and quantification of tissue hypoxia remains a challenge. The hypoxia-specificity of HIF-1α target genes in vivo has been questioned due to the confounding influence of other microenvironmental abnormalities known to affect gene expression (e.g., low pH). Here we describe a new technique that by exploiting intratumoral oxygenation heterogeneity allows us to identify and objectively rank the most robust mRNA hypoxia biomarkers. Mice carrying human (FaDu dd ) or murine (SCCVII) tumors were injected with the PET hypoxia tracer FAZA. Four hours post-injection tumors were removed, frozen, and crushed into milligram-sized fragments, which were transferred individually to pre-weighed tubes containing RNAlater and then weighed. For each fragment radioactivity per tissue mass and expression patterns of selected mRNA biomarkers were analyzed and compared. In both tumour models, fragmentation into pieces weighing 10 to 60 mg resulted in tissue fragments with highly variable relative content of hypoxic cells as evidenced by an up to 13-fold variation in FAZA radioactivity per mass of tissue. Linear regression analysis comparing FAZA retention with patterns of gene expression in individual tissue fragments revealed that CA9, GLUT1 and LOX mRNA levels were equally and strongly correlated to hypoxic extent in FaDu dd . The same link between hypoxia and gene expression profile was observed for CA9 and GLUT1, but not LOX, in SCCVII tumors. Apparent in vivo hypoxia-specificity for other putative molecular markers of tissue hypoxia was considerably weaker. The portrayed technique allows multiple pairwise measurements of mRNA transcript levels and extent of hypoxia in individual tumors at a smallest possible volumetric scale which (by limiting averaging effects inherent to whole-tumor analysis) strengthen the conclusiveness on true hypoxia-specificity of candidate genes while limiting the required number of tumors. Among

  10. In vivo Identification and Specificity assessment of mRNA markers of hypoxia in human and mouse tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsman Michael R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor hypoxia is linked to poor prognosis, but identification and quantification of tissue hypoxia remains a challenge. The hypoxia-specificity of HIF-1α target genes in vivo has been questioned due to the confounding influence of other microenvironmental abnormalities known to affect gene expression (e.g., low pH. Here we describe a new technique that by exploiting intratumoral oxygenation heterogeneity allows us to identify and objectively rank the most robust mRNA hypoxia biomarkers. Methods Mice carrying human (FaDudd or murine (SCCVII tumors were injected with the PET hypoxia tracer FAZA. Four hours post-injection tumors were removed, frozen, and crushed into milligram-sized fragments, which were transferred individually to pre-weighed tubes containing RNAlater and then weighed. For each fragment radioactivity per tissue mass and expression patterns of selected mRNA biomarkers were analyzed and compared. Results In both tumour models, fragmentation into pieces weighing 10 to 60 mg resulted in tissue fragments with highly variable relative content of hypoxic cells as evidenced by an up to 13-fold variation in FAZA radioactivity per mass of tissue. Linear regression analysis comparing FAZA retention with patterns of gene expression in individual tissue fragments revealed that CA9, GLUT1 and LOX mRNA levels were equally and strongly correlated to hypoxic extent in FaDudd. The same link between hypoxia and gene expression profile was observed for CA9 and GLUT1, but not LOX, in SCCVII tumors. Apparent in vivo hypoxia-specificity for other putative molecular markers of tissue hypoxia was considerably weaker. Conclusions The portrayed technique allows multiple pairwise measurements of mRNA transcript levels and extent of hypoxia in individual tumors at a smallest possible volumetric scale which (by limiting averaging effects inherent to whole-tumor analysis strengthen the conclusiveness on true hypoxia-specificity of candidate

  11. Tumor markers and bone scan in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugrinska, A.; Vaskova, O.; Kraleva, S.; Petrova, D.; Smickova, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this study was to compare the levels of CA15-3 and CEA with the bone scan findings in patients with breast cancer. Retrospective analysis of 76 bone scans from 61 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the last 5 years was performed by two nuclear medicine specialists. All bone scans were performed after surgical treatment of the disease. Patients with loco-regional residual disease or distant metastases in the liver, lung or the brain were excluded from the study. According to the bone scan the patients were divided in 5 groups: normal bone scan (N), equivocal bone scan (E), single metastasis (1MS), three metastases (3MS) and multiple metastases (MMS). Tumor markers were determined within a month before or after the bone scan was performed. Cut-off value for CA 15-3 was 35 U/ml, and for CEA 3 ng/ml. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistic and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Bone metastases were revealed in 38% of the patients referred for bone scintigraphy out of which 26% had MMS, 7.8% had single MS and 4% had 3MS. The results of 6.5% of the patients were determined as equivocal. The values of CA15-3 were higher in all patient groups compared with the group that had normal bone scan, but this difference reached statistical significance only in groups with 3MS and MMS (p < 0.01). The values of CEA were significantly higher only in patients with multiple metastases when compared with group N (p < 0.01). Values higher than cut-off value for CA 15-3 was found in 9 patients out of 42 in the group with normal bone scan. The highest value of CA 15-3 in this group was 47 U/ml. Only one patient in this group showed elevated levels for CEA. Three patients in the group with single metastasis had normal CA 15-3, while CEA was elevated only in one patient. All patients in the group with 3MS had elevated levels of CA 15-3 while CEA was in the normal range. All patients with MMS had elevated CA 15-3 values while CEA was elevated in

  12. Mitigating Errors in External Respiratory Surrogate-Based Models of Tumor Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, Kathleen T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); McAvoy, Thomas J. [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Institute of Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); George, Rohini [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Dieterich, Sonja [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); D' Souza, Warren D., E-mail: wdsou001@umaryland.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of tumor site, measurement precision, tumor-surrogate correlation, training data selection, model design, and interpatient and interfraction variations on the accuracy of external marker-based models of tumor position. Methods and Materials: Cyberknife Synchrony system log files comprising synchronously acquired positions of external markers and the tumor from 167 treatment fractions were analyzed. The accuracy of Synchrony, ordinary-least-squares regression, and partial-least-squares regression models for predicting the tumor position from the external markers was evaluated. The quantity and timing of the data used to build the predictive model were varied. The effects of tumor-surrogate correlation and the precision in both the tumor and the external surrogate position measurements were explored by adding noise to the data. Results: The tumor position prediction errors increased during the duration of a fraction. Increasing the training data quantities did not always lead to more accurate models. Adding uncorrelated noise to the external marker-based inputs degraded the tumor-surrogate correlation models by 16% for partial-least-squares and 57% for ordinary-least-squares. External marker and tumor position measurement errors led to tumor position prediction changes 0.3-3.6 times the magnitude of the measurement errors, varying widely with model algorithm. The tumor position prediction errors were significantly associated with the patient index but not with the fraction index or tumor site. Partial-least-squares was as accurate as Synchrony and more accurate than ordinary-least-squares. Conclusions: The accuracy of surrogate-based inferential models of tumor position was affected by all the investigated factors, except for the tumor site and fraction index.

  13. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  14. Differences in vitamin D concentration between metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese adults: associations with inflammatory and cardiometabolic markers in 4391 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamati, A; Aryan, Z; Esteghamati, A; Nakhjavani, M

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to compare concentrations of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and inflammatory markers in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO), and to determine whether the relationship between vitamin D levels and both cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers differs between MHO and MUO. This cross-sectional study comprised 4391 obese subjects aged>18 years. A panel of cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers, including anthropometric variables, glycaemic indices, lipid profiles, liver enzymes, homocysteine, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, was investigated. All cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers in MHO and MUO as well as in vitamin D deficiency were compared. Prevalence of MHO was 41.9% in our obese subjects using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Considering insulin resistance and inflammation, the prevalence of MHO was 38.4%. Individuals with MHO had significantly higher vitamin D concentrations compared with MUO, and this difference in vitamin D status persisted after accounting for BMI and waist circumference. Subjects with MHO had significantly better metabolic status, lower liver enzymes, lower inflammatory markers and higher serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D than those with MUO. Associations between vitamin D levels and inflammatory and cardiometabolic markers differed according to MHO/MUO status. Among MUO subjects, vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher liver marker and homocysteine levels. Serum vitamin D was negatively associated with fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c in MHO only. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were lower in MUO vs MHO, and reduced vitamin D concentrations were more strongly associated with cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers in MUO than in MHO subjects. These findings suggest that a deficiency in vitamin D could be a key component of MUO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Changed adipocytokine concentrations in colorectal tumor patients and morbidly obese patients compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillenbrand Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. Adipose tissue dysfunction accompanied with alterations in the release of adipocytokines has been proposed to contribute to cancer pathogenesis and progression. The aim of this study was to analyze plasma concentrations of several adipose tissue expressed hormones in colorectal cancer patients (CRC and morbidly obese (MO patients and to compare these concentrations to clinicopathological parameters. Methods Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, resistin, leptin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-1 alpha, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha were determined in 67 patients operated on for CRC (31 rectal cancers, 36 colon cancers, 37 patients operated on for morbid obesity and 60 healthy blood donors (BD. Results Compared to BD, leptin concentrations were lowered in CRC patients whereas those of MO patients were elevated. Adiponectin concentrations were only lowered in MO patients. Concentrations of MCP-1, PAI-1, and IL-1 alpha were elevated in both CRC and MO patients, while resistin and TNF-alpha were similarly expressed in MO and CRC patients compared to BD. Resistin concentrations positively correlated with tumor staging (p Conclusions The results suggest that both MO and CRC have low-grade inflammation as part of their etiology.

  16. Elevated S100A9 expression in tumor stroma functions as an early recurrence marker for early-stage oral cancer patients through increased tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment and interleukin-6 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yi-Wen; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Liu, Chiang-Shin; Kuo, Yi-Zih; Wang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Kung-Chao; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Chang, Mei-Zhu; Lin, Siao-Han; Wu, Li-Wha

    2015-09-29

    S100A9 is a calcium-binding protein with two EF-hands and frequently deregulated in several cancer types, however, with no clear role in oral cancer. In this report, the expression of S100A9 in cancer and adjacent tissues from 79 early-stage oral cancer patients was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Although S100A9 protein was present in both tumor and stromal cells, only the early-stage oral cancer patients with high stromal expression had reduced recurrence-free survival. High stromal S100A9 expression was also significantly associated with non-well differentiation and recurrence. In addition to increasing cell migration and invasion, ectopic S100A9 expression in tumor cells promoted xenograft tumorigenesis as well as the dominant expression of myeloid cell markers and pro-inflammatory IL-6. The expression of S100A9 in one stromal component, monocytes, stimulated the aggressiveness of co-cultured oral cancer cells. We also detected the elevation of serum S100A9 levels in early-stage oral cancer patients of a separate cohort of 73 oral cancer patients. The release of S100A9 protein into extracellular milieu enhanced tumor cell invasion, transendothelial monocyte migration and angiogenic activity. S100A9-mediated release of IL-6 requires the crosstalk of tumor cells with monocytes through the activation of NF-κB and STAT-3. Early-stage oral cancer patients with both high S100A9 expression and high CD68+ immune infiltrates in stroma had shortest recurrence-free survival, suggesting the use of both S100A9 and CD68 as poor prognostic markers for oral cancer. Together, both intracellular and extracellular S100A9 exerts a tumor-promoting action through the activation of oral cancer cells and their associated stroma in oral carcinogenesis.

  17. Radiotherapy in conjunction with 7-hydroxystaurosporine: a multimodal approach with tumor pO2 as a potential marker of therapeutic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadeem; Mupparaju, Sriram P; Hou, Huagang; Lariviere, Jean P; Demidenko, Eugene; Swartz, Harold M; Eastman, Alan

    2009-11-01

    Checkpoint inhibitors potentially could be used to enhance cell killing by DNA-targeted therapeutic modalities such as radiotherapy. UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine) inhibits S and G2 checkpoint arrest in the cells of various malignant cell lines and has been investigated in combination with chemotherapy. However, little is known about its potential use in combination with radiotherapy. We report the effect of 20 Gy radiation given in conjunction with UCN-01 on the pO2 and growth of subcutaneous RIF-1 tumors. Multisite EPR oximetry was used for repeated, non-invasive tumor pO2 measurements. The effect of UCN-01 and/or 20 Gy on tumor pO2 and tumor volume was investigated to determine therapeutic outcomes. Untreated RIF-1 tumors were hypoxic with a tissue pO2 of 5-7 mmHg. Treatment with 20 Gy or UCN-01 significantly reduced tumor growth, and a modest increase in tumor pO2 was observed in tumors treated with 20 Gy. However, irradiation with 20 Gy 12 h after UCN-01 treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth and a significant increase in tumor pO2 to 16-28 mmHg from day 1 onward compared to the control, UCN-01 or 20-Gy groups. Treatment with UCN-01 12 h after 20 Gy also led to a similar growth inhibition of the tumors and a similar increase in tumor pO2. The changes in tumor pO2 observed after the treatment correlated inversely with the tumor volume in the groups receiving UCN-01 with 20 Gy. This multimodal approach could be used to enhance the outcome of radiotherapy. Furthermore, tumor pO2 could be a potential marker of therapeutic response.

  18. Characterization of a canine tetranucleotide microsatellite marker located in the first intron of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masashi; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Takizawa, Tatsuya; Segawa, Kazuhito; Neo, Sakurako; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Murata, Michiko; Murakami, Masaru; Hisasue, Masaharu

    2014-01-01

    A polymorphic tetranucleotide (GAAT)n microsatellite in the first intron of the canine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) gene was characterized in this study; 139 dogs were analyzed: 22 Beagles, 26 Chihuahuas, 20 Miniature Dachshunds, 24 Miniature Poodles, 22 Pembroke Welsh Corgis and 25 Shiba Inus. We detected the presence of the 4 alleles (GAAT)5, (GAAT)6, (GAAT)7 and (GAAT)8, including 9 of the 10 expected genotypes. The expected heterozygosity (He) and the polymorphic information content (PIC) value of this microsatellite locus varied from 0.389 to 0.749 and from 0.333 to 0.682, respectively, among the 6 breeds. The allelic frequency differed greatly among breeds, but this microsatellite marker was highly polymorphic and could be a useful marker for the canine TNFA gene.

  19. BEHAVIOR OF LIPIODOL MARKERS DURING IMAGE GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY OF BLADDER CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; de Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to

  20. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum tumor markers (NSE, CA-242, TPA, CEA) levels in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Juzhen; Cai Tietie; Qin Shana

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum NSE, CA242, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) and CEA levels in patients with primary lung cancer. Methods: Serum NSE, CA242, TPA and CEA levels were determined with ELISA in (1) 102 patients with various types of primary lung carcinoma (adenocarcinoma 38, squamous cell carcinoma 32, small cell lung carcinoma 32) (2) 33 patients with open lung T. B. and (3) 30 controls. Results: (1) In patients with lung cancer, serum levels of all the four markers were increased and significantly higher than their respective values in patients with open lung T.B. and controls. (2) Positive rate of combined any two markers were 75% for adenocarcinoma, 50% for squamous cell carcinoma and 65% for small cell lung carcinoma, while false positive rate was only 9% for T.B patients and none for the controls. (3) The most appropriate single marker for each specific type of lung cancer was: NSE for SCLC (sensitivity 72%, specificity 97%, CA242 for adenocarcinoma sensitivity 62%, specificity 90%). Conclusion: Combined determination of these tumor markers would improve the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of primary lung carcinoma. (authors)

  1. Genetic changes of two Wilms tumors with anaplasia and a review of the literature suggesting a marker profile for therapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Cornelia; Ambros, Inge M; Lion, Thomas; Zoubek, Andreas; Amann, Gabriele; Gadner, Helmut; Ambros, Peter F

    2002-06-01

    Cytogenetic data on Wilms tumors (WT) with anaplasia frequently associated with an unfavorable outcome are scarce. We present cytogenetic changes of two WT with anaplasia (primary tumor material) from nonresponders with a synopsis of the literature. The WT were investigated by cytogenetic analysis, comparative genomic hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometric analyses. Both tumors exhibited characteristic genetic changes. One tumor was hypodiploid due to loss of entire chromosome 11; losses of 16p, 16q, 17p, chromosome 19 material, and loss of 22q12-qter. The other tumor was hyperdiploid and triploid, and displayed gain of 1q12-q23 and chromosome 9 material. Moreover, two morphological and genetically distinct cell lines have been established from both tumors, demonstrating underrepresentation of chromosomes 13, 14, 16, and 19. Karyotype descriptions of 120 WT with known clinical data together with data of this report confirm: (1) inter- and intratumor heterogeneity exists; (2) loss or underrepresentation of chromosome material at 11, 13, 14, 16, 17p, 19, and 22q in various combinations presents a new marker profile of resistance to cytotoxic agents regardless of the histological types; and (3) the prognostic impact of gain at 1q12-q23 sequences warrants further validation.

  2. A Unique Model System for Tumor Progression in GBM Comprising Two Developed Human Neuro-Epithelial Cell Lines with Differential Transforming Potential and Coexpressing Neuronal and Glial Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Shiras

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms involved in tumor progression from a low-grade astrocytoma to the most malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM have been hampered due to lack of suitable experimental models. We have established a model of tumor progression comprising of two cell lines derived from the same astrocytoma tumor with a set of features corresponding to low-grade glioma (as in HNGC-1 and high-grade GBM (as in HNGC-2. The HNGC-1 cell line is slowgrowing, contact-inhibited, nontumorigenic, and noninvasive, whereas HNGC-2 is a rapidly proliferating, anchorage-independent, highly tumorigenic, and invasive cell line. The proliferation of cell lines is independent of the addition of exogenous growth factors. Interestingly, the HNGC-2 cell line displays a near-haploid karyotype except for a disomy of chromosome 2. The two cell lines express the neuronal precursor and progenitor markers vimentin, nestin, MAP-2, and NFP160, as well as glial differentiation protein S100μ. The HNGC-1 cell line also expresses markers of mature neurons like Tuj1 and GFAP, an astrocytic differentiation marker, hence contributing toward a more morphologically differentiated phenotype with a propensity for neural differentiation in vitro. Additionally, overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor and c-erbB2, and loss of fibronectin were observed only in the HNGC-2 cell line, implicating the significance of these pathways in tumor progression. This in vitro model system assumes importance in unraveling the cellular and molecular mechanisms in differentiation, transformation, and gliomagenesis.

  3. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase polymorphisms, sex hormone concentrations, and tumor receptor status in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, Rachel; Yuan, Xiaopu; Lin, Ming Gang; McVarish, Lynda; Aiello, Erin J; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Bigler, Jeannette; Tworoger, Shelley S; Yasui, Yutaka; Rajan, Kumar B; Porter, Peggy; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes are involved in removing sex hormones from circulation. Polymorphic variation in five UGT and SULT genes – UGT1A1 ((TA) 6 /(TA) 7 ), UGT2B4 (Asp 458 Glu), UGT2B7 (His 268 Tyr), UGT2B15 (Asp 85 Tyr), and SULT1A1 (Arg 213 His) – may be associated with circulating sex hormone concentrations, or the risk of an estrogen receptor-negative (ER - ) or progesterone receptor-negative (PR - ) tumor. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of an ER - or PR - tumor associated with polymorphisms in the genes listed above for 163 breast cancer patients from a population-based cohort study of women in western Washington. Adjusted geometric mean estradiol, estrone, and testosterone concentrations were calculated within each UGT and SULT genotype for a subpopulation of postmenopausal breast cancer patients not on hormone therapy 2–3 years after diagnosis (n = 89). The variant allele of UGT1A1 was associated with reduced risk of an ER - tumor (P for trend = 0.03), and variants of UGT2B15 and SULT1A1 were associated with non-statistically significant risk reductions. There was some indication that plasma estradiol and testosterone concentrations varied by UGT2B15 and SULT1A1 genotypes; women with the UGT2B15 Asp/Tyr and Tyr/Tyr genotypes had higher concentrations of estradiol than women with the Asp/Asp genotype (P = 0.004). Compared with women with the SULT1A1 Arg/Arg and Arg/His genotypes, women with the His/His genotype had elevated concentrations of testosterone (P = 0.003). The risk of ER - breast cancer tumors may vary by UGT or SULT genotype. Further, plasma estradiol and testosterone concentrations in breast cancer patients may differ depending on some UGT and SULT genotypes

  4. Comparative Study of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Tumor Marker in Stomach and Colon Cancer Patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Gul, Bushra; Ali, Sajid; Bashir, Shumaila; Mahmood, Nourin; Ahmad, Jamshed; Nawaz, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase in morbidity and mortality rate, cancer has become an alarming threat to the human population worldwide. Since cancer is a progressive disorder, timely diagnosis would be helpful to prevent/stop cancer from progressing to severe stage. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, most of the time, tumors are diagnosed with endoscopy and biopsy; therefore rare studies exist regarding the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GIT) carcinomas based on tumor markers, especially CEA. This study made a comparative analysis of CEA in admitted hospitalized stomach and colon cancer patients diagnosed as GIT with biopsy. In this study, a total of 66 cases were included. The level of CEA was determined in the blood of these patients using ELISA technique. Out of 66 patients, the level of CEA was high in 59.1% of the total, 60.7% in colon cancer patients and 57.9 % in stomach cancer patients. Moreover, the incidence of colorectal and stomach cancer was greater in males as compared to females. Patients were more of the age group of 40- 60 and the level of CEA was comparatively higher in patients (51.5%) with histology which was moderately differentiated, than patients with well differentiated and poorly differentiated tumor histology. CEA level was high in more than 50% of the total patients. Moreover, CEA exhibited higher sensitivity for colon than stomach cancer.

  5. Molecular markers derived from bombesin for tumor diagnosis by SPECT and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujatti, Priscilla Brunelli

    2012-01-01

    A high number of molecules have already been identified to have high affinity to some receptors overexpressed on tumour cells and the radiolabelling of those molecules offers the possibility of new compounds for tumour diagnosis and therapy by nuclear medicine. Among of those molecules, bombesin (BBN) has become focus of interest, as its BB 2 receptors are known to be overexpressed in prostate, breast, colon, pancreatic and lung tumour, as long as glioblastomas and neuroblastomas. BBN agonists and antagonists have already been described for this purpose and promising results were obtained in preclinical studies. However, most of them exhibited high abdominal accumulation, especially in pancreas and intestines, which can compromise diagnosis accuracy and cause serious adverse effects in therapy. In this context, the goal of the present work to radiolabel new BBN derivatives with 11 1In and 68 Ga and to evaluate their potential for BB 2 positive tumors diagnosis by single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). The structure of studied peptides was Q-YG n -BBN(6-14), where Q is the chelator, n is the number of glycine aminoacids in the spacer YG n and BBN(6-14) is the original bombesin sequence from the aminoacid 6 to 14. The derivative in which the last aminoacid (methionine, Met) was replaced by norleucine (Nle) was also evaluated. The experimental evaluation of the bombesin derivatives was divided into four steps: computational studies, molecular markers for SPECT, molecular markers for PET and toxicological studies. The theoretical partition (log P) and distribution (log D) coefficients were calculated for all bombesin derivatives conjugated to DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) chelators applying computational programmes. Bombesin derivatives for SPECT were developed by radiolabelling DTPA-conjugated bombesin derivatives with 111 In to determine the best

  6. Turnover rate of hypoxic cells in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungkvist, A.S.E.; Bussink, J.; Rijken, P.F.J.W.; Van Der Kogel, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Most solid tumors contain hypoxic cells, and both the amount and duration of tumor hypoxia has been shown to influence the effect of radiation treatment negatively. It is important to understand the dynamic processes within the hypoxic cell population in non-treated tumors, and the effect of different treatment modalities on the kinetics of hypoxic cells to be able to design optimal combined modality treatments. The turnover rate of hypoxic cells was analyzed in three different solid tumor models with a double bio-reductive hypoxic marker assay with sequential injection of the two hypoxic markers. Previously it was shown that this assay could be used to detect both a decrease and an increase of tumor hypoxia in relation to the tumor vasculature with high spatial resolution. In this study the first hypoxic marker, pimonidazole, was administered at variable times relative to tumor harvest, and the second hypoxic marker, CCI-103F, was injected at a fixed time before harvest. The hypoxic cell turnover rate was calculated as the loss of pimonidazole positive cells relative to CCI-103F. The murine C38 line had the fastest hypoxic turnover rate of 60% /24h and the human xenograft line SCCNij3 had the slowest hypoxic turnover rate of 30% /24 h. The hypoxic turnover rate was most heterogeneous in the SCCNij3 line that even contained viable groups of cells that had been hypoxic for at least 5 days. The human xenograft line MEC82 fell in between with a hypoxic turnover rate of 50% /24 h. The hypoxic cell turnover was related to the potential tumor volume doubling time (Tpot) with a Tpot of 26h in C38 and 103h in SCCNij3. The dynamics of hypoxic cells, quantified with a double hypoxic marker method, showed large differences in hypoxic cell turnover rate and were related to Tpot

  7. High Concentration of Serum Soluble Fas in Patients with Head and Neck Carcinoma: A Comparative Study Before and After Surgical Removal of Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Basir Hashemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Alternative splicing of the Fas transcript can produce a naturalsecreted isoform of this molecule. Some cancer cells can also produce soluble Fas (sFaswhich may have suppressive effects on the immune system's anti-tumor response.Elevated concentrations of sFas have been detected in the sera of patients with differentmalignancies. Materials and Methods:The concentrations of sFas in sera of patients with headand neck carcinoma (HNC, n=98 and healthy individuals (n=30 were measured bySandwich ELISAand compared to values obtained six months after surgical removalof the tumor (n=48. Data were correlated with different clinical findings of thepatients. Results:sFas concentrations in the sera of HNC patients were found to besignificantly higher in patients with different tumor stages. sFas concentration did notcorrelate with age or tumor invasiveness, however a higher concentration of sFas wasfound in the sera of patients who had higher tumor grades. Surgical removal oftumors in patients resulted in a substantial decrease in sFas concentration.Conclusion:The initial rise in sFas concentration in the sera of HNC patients andits consequent decrease could be regarded as a sign of tumor suppressive mechanisms.Additional studies are needed to fully elucidate this mechanism however these findingsmight show the prospective use of such biomarkers to determine disease prognosis andeven immunotherapeutic applications.

  8. γH2AX/53BP1 foci as a potential pre-treatment marker of HNSCC tumors radiosensitivity - preliminary methodological study and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Martin; Horakova, Zuzana; Svobodova, Marketa; Masarik, Michal; Kopecna, Olga; Gumulec, Jaromir; Raudenska, Martina; Depes, Daniel; Bacikova, Alena; Falkova, Iva; Binkova, Hana

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve patients' post-treatment quality of life, a shift from surgery to non-surgical (chemo)radio-treatment is recognized in head and neck oncology. However, about half of HNSCC tumors are resistant to irradiation and an efficient marker of individual tumor radiosensitivity is still missing. We analyzed whether various parameters of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair determined in vitro can predict, prior to clinical treatment initiation, the radiosensitivity of tumors. We compared formation and decrease of γH2AX/53BP1 foci in 48 h after irradiating tumor cell primocultures with 2 Gy of γ-rays. To better understand complex tumor behavior, three different cell type primocultures - CD90-, CD90+, and a mixed culture of these cells - were isolated from 1 clinically radioresistant, 2 radiosensitive, and 4 undetermined HPV-HNSCC tumors and followed separately. While DSB repair was delayed and the number of persisting DSBs increased in the radiosensitive tumors, the results for the radioresistant tumor were similar to cultured normal human skin fibroblasts. Hence, DSB repair kinetics/efficiency may correlate with clinical response to radiotherapy for a subset of HNSCC tumors but the size (and therefore practical relevance) of this subset remains to be determined. The same is true for contribution of different cell type primocultures to tumor radioresistance.

  9. The effect of tumor location and respiratory function on tumor movement estimated by real-time tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onimaru, Rikiya; Shirato, Hiroki; Fujino, Masaharu; Suzuki, Keishiro; Yamazaki, Kouichi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of tumor location and pulmonary function on the motion of fiducial markers near lung tumors were evaluated to deduce simple guidelines for determining the internal margin in radiotherapy without fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: Pooled data collected by a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system on 42 markers in 39 patients were analyzed. The pulmonary functions of all patients were assessed before radiotherapy. Using chest X-ray film, the position of the marker was expressed relative to the geometry of the unilateral lung. Posterior location meant the area of the posterior half of the lung in a lateral chest X-ray film, and caudal location meant the caudal half of the chest X-ray film; these categories were determined by measuring the distance between the marker and anatomic landmarks, including the apex, costophrenic angle, midline of spinal canal, lateral, anterior, and posterior boundary of the lung. Results: Before the radiotherapy, 18 patients had obstructive respiratory dysfunction (ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity [FEV 1.0 /FVC] 1.0 /FVC and %VC were 97.0% and 66.5%, respectively. Median tumor movements in the x (left-right), y (anteroposterior), and z (craniocaudal) directions were 1.1 mm, 2.3 mm, and 5.4 mm, respectively. There was no significant correlation between respiratory function and magnitude of marker movement in any direction. Median marker movement in the z direction was 2.6 mm for the cranial location and 11.8 mm for the caudal location, respectively (p < 0.001). Median movement in the z direction was 11.8 mm for posterior location and 3.4 mm for anterior location, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Simple measurement of the relative location on plain chest X-ray film was related, but respiratory function test was not related, to the craniocaudal amplitude of the motion of the fiducial marker near lung tumors

  10. Evaluation of morphologically unclassified renal cell carcinoma with electron microscopy and novel renal markers: implications for tumor reclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento, Romualdo; Hewan-Lowe, Karlene; Yin, Ming

    2013-02-01

    Despite progress in the classification of renal cell carcinomas (RCC), a subset of these carcinomas remains unclassified (RCC-U). Patients with RCC-U usually present at a late stage and have a poor prognosis. Several studies have attempted to extract new classifications of newly recognized renal carcinomas from the group of RCC-U. However, to date, no studies in the literature have attempted to characterize the RCC-U with unrecognizable cell types beyond the morphologic evaluation on H&E-stained sections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this group of RCC-U using electron microscopy and novel renal markers. Ten cases of such RCC-U were identified for this study. At the ultrastructural level, they did not show typical morphology that resembled any of the well-studied, recognizable subtypes of RCC. However, they did reveal features of renal tubular epithelial differentiation. The histologic, ultrastructural, and immunophenotypic features indicated that these tumors are poorly differentiated renal epithelial tumors, possibly derived from the proximal nephron, with an immunohistochemical profile similar to high-grade clear cell RCC. It is, therefore, proposed that this group of renal carcinomas be renamed "poorly differentiated renal cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified." The current study showed that PAX-8 and carbonic anhydrase IX are reliable markers for this novel group of renal carcinoma, and that electron microscopy is an important adjunct in the evaluation of new and unusual renal entities.

  11. Mitigating Errors in External Respiratory Surrogate-Based Models of Tumor Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Kathleen T.; McAvoy, Thomas J.; George, Rohini; Dieterich, Sonja; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of tumor site, measurement precision, tumor–surrogate correlation, training data selection, model design, and interpatient and interfraction variations on the accuracy of external marker-based models of tumor position. Methods and Materials: Cyberknife Synchrony system log files comprising synchronously acquired positions of external markers and the tumor from 167 treatment fractions were analyzed. The accuracy of Synchrony, ordinary-least-squares regression, and partial-least-squares regression models for predicting the tumor position from the external markers was evaluated. The quantity and timing of the data used to build the predictive model were varied. The effects of tumor–surrogate correlation and the precision in both the tumor and the external surrogate position measurements were explored by adding noise to the data. Results: The tumor position prediction errors increased during the duration of a fraction. Increasing the training data quantities did not always lead to more accurate models. Adding uncorrelated noise to the external marker-based inputs degraded the tumor–surrogate correlation models by 16% for partial-least-squares and 57% for ordinary-least-squares. External marker and tumor position measurement errors led to tumor position prediction changes 0.3–3.6 times the magnitude of the measurement errors, varying widely with model algorithm. The tumor position prediction errors were significantly associated with the patient index but not with the fraction index or tumor site. Partial-least-squares was as accurate as Synchrony and more accurate than ordinary-least-squares. Conclusions: The accuracy of surrogate-based inferential models of tumor position was affected by all the investigated factors, except for the tumor site and fraction index.

  12. Prognostic value of CEA and CA 19-9 tumor markers combined with cytology from peritoneal fluid in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In Kyu; Kim, Do Hyoung; Gorden, D Lee; Lee, Yoon Suk; Sung, Na Young; Park, Gyeoung-Sin; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kang, Won Kyung; Park, Jong Kyung; Ahn, Chang Hyeok; Kim, Jun-Gi; Jeon, Hae Myung; Oh, Seong Taek

    2009-04-01

    Early diagnosis and management of peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer patients are difficult clinical challenges. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical significance of tumor markers and cytology in peritoneal effusions (PE) and peritoneal irrigation fluid (PI) and to determine their value as prognostic indicators in this disease. Two hundred thirty-four consecutive patients who underwent abdominal surgery for colorectal cancer from January 2006 to December 2007 were included, and tumor markers and cytology in PE and PI were analyzed prospectively. The incidence of free cancer cells retrieved from peritoneal samples was 7.9%. Cytology was positive in 40.0% by Papanicolaou and Giemsa staining, 73.3% by hematoxylin and eosin staining of cell blocks, and 66.7% by carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and calretinin immunohistochemistry. Multivariate analysis revealed that peritoneal CEA and cancer antigen (CA) 19-9 in PI were correlated with peritoneal metastasis and cytology. Level of peritoneal fluid CEA was statistically significantly correlated with recurrence and peritoneal metastatic recurrence in patients with negative peritoneal cytology. Cytology, peritoneal CEA, and peritoneal CA 19-9 showed correlations with cancer-free survival and overall survival. These correlations demonstrate the importance of continuous follow-up of peritoneal metastasis if there is positive cytology or an increase in CEA and CA 19-9 in peritoneal fluid.

  13. Pre-treatment prediction of chemoresistance in second-line chemotherapy of ovarian carcinoma: value of serological tumor marker determination (tetranectin, YKL-40, CASA, CA 125)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, B; Høgdall, E V S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2006-01-01

    for the biochemical tumor markers tetranectin, YKL-40, CASA (cancer-associated serum antigen), and CA 125. The serum tumor marker levels at time of relapse were correlated with response status at landmark time after 4 cycles of second-line chemotherapy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses...... (OR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0-3.3; p=0.045), and CASA (OR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.7; p=0.007) had predictive value for second-line chemoresistance, whereas serum CA 125 had no predictive value. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, serum tetranectin and CASA both had independent predictive value...... for chemoresistance. The combined determination of tetranectin and CASA had a specificity of 90% with 33% sensitivity for the prediction of chemoresistance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.66-0.91; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Low serum levels of tetranectin, or high serum levels...

  14. Role of FDG-PET in the Diagnosis of Recurrence and Assessment of Therapeutic Response in Cervical Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Patients: Comparison of Diagnostic Report between PET, Abdominal CT and Tumor Marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, You Mie; Choe, Jae Gol; Kang, Bung Chul

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to assess the role of positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in the diagnosis of recurrence or the assessment of therapeutic response in cervical and ovarian cancer patients through making a comparison between FDG-PET, abdominal computed tomography (CT) and serum tumor marker. We included 103 cases (67 patients) performed FDG-PET and abdominal CT. There were 42 cervical cancers and 61 ovarian cancers. We retrospectively reviewed the interpretations of PET and CT images as well as the level of tumor marker. We calculated their sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for these three modalities. And then we analyzed the differences between these three modalities. Tumor recurrences were diagnosed in 37 cases (11 cervical cancers and 26 ovarian cancers). For PET, CT and tumor marker, in cervical cancer group, sensitivity was 100% (11/11), 54.5% (6/11) and 81.1% (9/11), respectively. And specificity was 93.6% (29/31), 93.6% (29/31) and 100% (31/31). In ovarian cancer group, sensitivity was 96.2% (25/26), 84.6% (22/26) and 80.8% (21/26), and specificity was 94.3% (33/35), 94.3% (33/35), 94.3% (33/35). PET was highly sensitive to detect the intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal metastasis with the help of the CT images to localize the lesions. However, CT had limitations in differentiation of the recurrent tumor from benign fibrotic tissue, identification of viable tumors at the interface of tissues, and detecting extraperitoneal lesions. FDG-PET can be an essential modality to detect the recurrent or residual tumors in gynecologic cancer patients because of its great field of the application and high sensitivity

  15. Importance of radioimmunoassay for the determination of tumor markers in the diagnosis of malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purizhanskij, I.I.; Pavlichuk, S.N.; Toritsina, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    The investigation was conducted to study the role of the determination of tumor markers (CEA, β 2 -microglobulin, IgE and ferritin) in patients with malignant lymphomas. Altogether 66 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 60 with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 15 with clinocohematological remission over one year were investigated, using radioimmunoassay with commercial kits of reagents. An increase in the level of β 2 -MG was shown to depend on the spreading of a lymphoproliferative process. An elevated level of IgE was noted in Hodgkin's disease whereas a significant rise was unnoticed in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. An increase in the level of serum ferritin was noted in an advanced and aggressive lymphoproliferative process. The CEA test in malignant lymphomas is not informative

  16. SU-G-BRA-05: Application of a Feature-Based Tracking Algorithm to KV X-Ray Fluoroscopic Images Toward Marker-Less Real-Time Tumor Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M; Matsuo, Y; Mukumoto, N; Iizuka, Y; Yokota, K; Mizowaki, T; Hiraoka, M [Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nakao, M [Kyoto University, Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To detect target position on kV X-ray fluoroscopic images using a feature-based tracking algorithm, Accelerated-KAZE (AKAZE), for markerless real-time tumor tracking (RTTT). Methods: Twelve lung cancer patients treated with RTTT on the Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan, and Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) were enrolled in this study. Respiratory tumor movement was greater than 10 mm. Three to five fiducial markers were implanted around the lung tumor transbronchially for each patient. Before beam delivery, external infrared (IR) markers and the fiducial markers were monitored for 20 to 40 s with the IR camera every 16.7 ms and with an orthogonal kV x-ray imaging subsystem every 80 or 160 ms, respectively. Target positions derived from the fiducial markers were determined on the orthogonal kV x-ray images, which were used as the ground truth in this study. Meanwhile, tracking positions were identified by AKAZE. Among a lot of feature points, AKAZE found high-quality feature points through sequential cross-check and distance-check between two consecutive images. Then, these 2D positional data were converted to the 3D positional data by a transformation matrix with a predefined calibration parameter. Root mean square error (RMSE) was calculated to evaluate the difference between 3D tracking and target positions. A total of 393 frames was analyzed. The experiment was conducted on a personal computer with 16 GB RAM, Intel Core i7-2600, 3.4 GHz processor. Results: Reproducibility of the target position during the same respiratory phase was 0.6 +/− 0.6 mm (range, 0.1–3.3 mm). Mean +/− SD of the RMSEs was 0.3 +/− 0.2 mm (range, 0.0–1.0 mm). Median computation time per frame was 179 msec (range, 154–247 msec). Conclusion: AKAZE successfully and quickly detected the target position on kV X-ray fluoroscopic images. Initial results indicate that the differences between 3D tracking and target position would be clinically acceptable.

  17. SU-G-BRA-05: Application of a Feature-Based Tracking Algorithm to KV X-Ray Fluoroscopic Images Toward Marker-Less Real-Time Tumor Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M; Matsuo, Y; Mukumoto, N; Iizuka, Y; Yokota, K; Mizowaki, T; Hiraoka, M; Nakao, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To detect target position on kV X-ray fluoroscopic images using a feature-based tracking algorithm, Accelerated-KAZE (AKAZE), for markerless real-time tumor tracking (RTTT). Methods: Twelve lung cancer patients treated with RTTT on the Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan, and Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) were enrolled in this study. Respiratory tumor movement was greater than 10 mm. Three to five fiducial markers were implanted around the lung tumor transbronchially for each patient. Before beam delivery, external infrared (IR) markers and the fiducial markers were monitored for 20 to 40 s with the IR camera every 16.7 ms and with an orthogonal kV x-ray imaging subsystem every 80 or 160 ms, respectively. Target positions derived from the fiducial markers were determined on the orthogonal kV x-ray images, which were used as the ground truth in this study. Meanwhile, tracking positions were identified by AKAZE. Among a lot of feature points, AKAZE found high-quality feature points through sequential cross-check and distance-check between two consecutive images. Then, these 2D positional data were converted to the 3D positional data by a transformation matrix with a predefined calibration parameter. Root mean square error (RMSE) was calculated to evaluate the difference between 3D tracking and target positions. A total of 393 frames was analyzed. The experiment was conducted on a personal computer with 16 GB RAM, Intel Core i7-2600, 3.4 GHz processor. Results: Reproducibility of the target position during the same respiratory phase was 0.6 +/− 0.6 mm (range, 0.1–3.3 mm). Mean +/− SD of the RMSEs was 0.3 +/− 0.2 mm (range, 0.0–1.0 mm). Median computation time per frame was 179 msec (range, 154–247 msec). Conclusion: AKAZE successfully and quickly detected the target position on kV X-ray fluoroscopic images. Initial results indicate that the differences between 3D tracking and target position would be clinically acceptable.

  18. Significance of the tumor markers CA 125 and CA 15-3 in postoperative diagnosis of ovarian and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, B.; Bartel, U.; Elling, D.

    1989-01-01

    In 271 patients with ovarian carcinoma, benign ovarian tumors, breast cancer, and two control groups, serum levels of CA 125, CA 15-3, CEA and, partly, CA 19-9 were determined immunoradiometrically. According to the results of the determination of CA 125 in the follow-up of ovarian carcinoma, CA 125 represents a useful marker for early detection of recurrences, especially in cases of diffuse carcinoma dissemination. In incomplete tumor debulking, postoperative CA 125 serum levels did not prove to be helpful except that a positive level renders invasive diagnostic investigation no longer necessary. Postoperative follow-up in breast cancer early reveals distant metastases, with very high levels in patients with bone metastases. By simultaneous measurement of CA 15-3 and CEA the sensitivity could be increased from 86% (CA 15-3 only) to 93%. (author)

  19. Evaluation of clinical value of combined tumor markers detection in diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangming; Deng Shouzhen; Wang Yun; Xu Lianqin; He Wanting; Gao Quan; Lin Xiangtong

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate clinical value of single or combined tumor marker detection CY21-1, CEA, CA15-3 and SCC in the diagnosis of lung cancer. There was retrospective analysis of 87 lung cancer inpatients, all of them was confirmed by pathology. Results showed: (1) Sensitivity of CY21-1, CEA, CA15-3 and SCC by single detection in diagnosing lung cancer was 59.8%, 39.1%, 44.8%, 18.4%, respectively. (2) Sensitivity of group I (CY21-1 + CEA) was 78.2%; sensitivity of group II (CY21-1 + CEA + CA15-3) was 88.5%; sensitivity of group III (CY21-1 + CEA + CA15-3 + SCC) was the same as group II. In the diagnosis of lung cancer, the combined detection with CY21-1, CEA, CA15-3 was an ideal selective combination

  20. Hedgehog pathway activity in the LADY prostate tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Susan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robust Hedgehog (Hh signaling has been implicated as a common feature of human prostate cancer and an important stimulus of tumor growth. The role of Hh signaling has been studied in several xenograft tumor models, however, the role of Hh in tumor development in a transgenic prostate cancer model has never been examined. Results We analyzed expression of Hh pathway components and conserved Hh target genes along with progenitor cell markers and selected markers of epithelial differentiation during tumor development in the LADY transgenic mouse model. Tumor development was associated with a selective increase in Ihh expression. In contrast Shh expression was decreased. Expression of the Hh target Patched (Ptc was significantly decreased while Gli1 expression was not significantly altered. A survey of other relevant genes revealed significant increases in expression of Notch-1 and Nestin together with decreased expression of HNF3a/FoxA1, NPDC-1 and probasin. Conclusion Our study shows no evidence for a generalized increase in Hh signaling during tumor development in the LADY mouse. It does reveal a selective increase in Ihh expression that is associated with increased expression of progenitor cell markers and decreased expression of terminal differentiation markers. These data suggest that Ihh expression may be a feature of a progenitor cell population that is involved in tumor development.

  1. HRAS1-selected chromosome transfer generates markers that colocalize aniridia- and genitourinary dysplasia-associated translocation breakpoints and the Wilms tumor gene within band 11p13.

    OpenAIRE

    Porteous, D J; Bickmore, W; Christie, S; Boyd, P A; Cranston, G; Fletcher, J M; Gosden, J R; Rout, D; Seawright, A; Simola, K O

    1987-01-01

    We show that chromosome-mediated gene transfer can provide an enriched source of DNA markers for predetermined, subchromosomal regions of the human genome. Forty-four human DNA recombinants isolated from a HRAS1-selected chromosome-mediated gene transformant map exclusively to chromosome 11, with several sublocalizing to the Wilms tumor region at 11p13. We present a detailed molecular map of the deletion chromosomes 11 from five WAGR (Wilms tumor/aniridia/genitourinary abnormalities/mental re...

  2. Molecular mechanisms involved in the inhibition of tumor cells proliferation exposed to elevated concentrations of the epidermal growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, Isabel A; Berlanga, Jorge; Camacho, Hanlet

    2013-01-01

    The EGF promotes inhibition of cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo models depending on its concentration, application schema and the type of tumor cells on which it acts. Our research hypothesis was based on the fact that the EGF varies the expression of genes involved in a negative regulation of tumor cell lines proliferation carrying high levels of its receptor (EGFR). Our objectives were, to obtain information about the effect of EGF on tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo models and, know the gene expression patterns of a group of genes involved in cancer signaling pathways and EGFR. The results showed that EGF at nanomolar concentrations inhibits the tumor cells proliferation bearing high levels of EGFR and, promotes the survival of treated animals, establishing a direct relationship between the inhibition of cell proliferation, high concentrations of EGF and, high amount of EGFR in the cells. The differential gene expression profile showed a variation in a group of genes which exert a powerful control over the cell cycle progression, gene transcription and apoptosis. It was concluded that the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation by the action of EGF is due to activation of molecular mechanisms controlling cell cycle progression. This work won the Annual Award of the Cuban Academy of Sciences in 2012

  3. Is Serum Prostate-specific Antigen a Diagnostic Marker for Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Abdollahi, Alireza; Taran, Ludmila; Shoar, Saeed; Omranipour, Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Prostrate-specific antigen (PSA) is a marker of prostate gland malignancy which has been considered in cases with breast cancer in recent years. The goal of this study was to determine total and free PSA levels in cases with malignant and benign breast lesions. Ninety women with histological proved malignant breast masses and 90 with benign breast masses were enrolled. Total and free PSA levels along with histological grade and conditions of vascular and perinural invasion, status of hormonal tumor receptors, immune-histo-chemistry markers recorded for all cases. Total and free PSA levels were assessed after treatment in cases with malignant masses. Total and free PSA levels were significantly higher in cases with malignant masses. The best cut off point for total PSA to differentiate benign and malignant masses was 0.31 and the best cut off point for free PSA to differentiate benign and malignant masses was 0.19. After treatment, mean free PSA level was significantly lower than free PSA before treatment (0.23 vs 0.3, pbenign and malignant breast masses.

  4. Tumor markers in the early detection of tumor recurrence in breast cancer patients: CA 125, CYFRA 21-1, HER2 shed antigen, LDH and CRP in combination with CEA and CA 15-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioia, Dorit; Blankenburg, Irene; Nagel, Dorothea; Heinemann, Volker; Stieber, Petra

    2016-10-01

    Kinetics of CA 15-3 and CEA have a high specificity in the early detection of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, this high specificity is associated with a lack of sensitivity. To decrease the number of false negative patients, the additional diagnostic potential of an extended panel of biomarkers was evaluated. This analysis was performed as part of a large follow-up study (1998-2010) evaluating 813 patients with a median follow-up of 63months. After primary therapy, all patients underwent tumor marker monitoring for CEA and CA 15-3 at 6-week intervals. A reproducible previously defined increase (≥100%) based on the individual baseline value of each patient was considered as a strong indicator of MBC. For the present analysis, we retrospectively evaluated 1011 blood samples from 95 patients. Forty-seven of these had metastatic disease for the first time at the time of this evaluation, while the remaining 48 patients showed no evidence of disease. The sera of these patients were additionally assessed for the following parameters: cancer antigen (CA) 125, cytokeratin-19 soluble fragment (CYFRA 21-1), HER2 shed antigen, lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP). 26 of 47 patients with MBC showed a reproducible tumor marker increase of at least CEA and/or CA 15-3 (55.3%, true-positive). The remaining 21 patients with MBC showed no increase in CEA or CA 15-3 (44.7%, false negative, FN). By combining all markers mentioned above, 41 of 47 patients with MBC showed a reproducible marker increase with a sensitivity of 87.2% and specificity of 100%. This retrospective analysis indicates that a panel of biomarkers can increase the sensitivity of the CA 15-3/CEA combination without loss of specificity. The combined use is therefore helpful for early detection of MBC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene discovery in glioma in the context of molecular reclassification of tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Irshad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional classification of tumors, especially in terms of staging and grading is of immense importance for both prognostication as well as management strategies. However it is not a perfect system and there are many instances where tumor behaviour does not correspond to what is expected. In addition, with the onset of targeted therapy, the identification of the distinct molecular target in a subset of tumors becomes a marker of tumor behaviour as well as a target of therapy. This leads to the concept of molecular subclassification of tumors where molecular markers further refine and in some cases, alter conventional classification. We would be presenting this concept in relation to glial tumors, especially in the context of molecular markers discovered in our laboratory.

  6. The Serum CA-125 Concentration Data Assists in Evaluating CT Imaging Information When Used to Differentiate Borderline Ovarian Tumor from Malignant Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji Eun; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Mi Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Sik

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum CA-125 concentration, when used in combination with the preoperative contrast-enhanced CT results, to differentiate borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) from stage I malignant epithelial ovarian tumors (MEOTs). Ninety-eight masses (46 BOTs and 52 stage I MEOTs) from 87 consecutive patients (49 with BOTs and 38 with stage I MEOTs) who had undergone preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and surgical staging were evaluated retrospectively and independently by two radiologists. The preoperative serum CA-125 concentration was measured in all patients. The utility of analyzing serum CA-125 concentration in combination with the CT results was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. An irregular tumor surface and lymphadenopathy were predictive of a MEOT. ROC analysis showed that the combination of CT data and the serum CA-125 level resulted in a higher diagnostic performance than did using the CT alone for differentiating BOTs from MEOTs. The areas under the curves (AUCs) without and with the use of the serum CA-125 level data were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.77) and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.68-0.85), respectively, for reader 1 (p = 0.029) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61-0.80) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.72-0.89), respectively, for reader 2 (p = 0.009). The serum CA-125 concentration is of additional diagnostic value when used in conjunction with the CT imaging results for differentiating BOTs from MEOTs.

  7. Recent Developments in Active Tumor Targeted Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Combination Chemotherapy in Cancer Treatment and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Micah D. K.; Chougule, Mahavir B.

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology and combination therapy are two major fields that show great promise in the treatment of cancer. The delivery of drugs via nanoparticles helps to improve drug’s therapeutic effectiveness while reducing adverse side effects associated with high dosage by improving their pharmacokinetics. Taking advantage of molecular markers over-expressing on tumor tissues compared to normal cells, an “active” molecular marker targeted approach would be beneficial for cancer therapy. These actively targeted nanoparticles would increase drug concentration at the tumor site, improving efficacy while further reducing chemo-resistance. The multidisciplinary approach may help to improve the overall efficacy in cancer therapy. This review article summarizes recent developments of targeted multifunctional nanoparticles in the delivery of various drugs for a combinational chemotherapy approach to cancer treatment and imaging. PMID:26554150

  8. [Correlation between Serum Tumor Markers and Efficacy of First-line EGFR-TKIs in Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanxiao; Yang, Xue; Liu, Huijun; Ma, Kun; Zhong, Jia; Dong, Zhi; Zhuo, Minglei; Wang, Yuyan; Li, Jianjie; An, Tongtong; Wu, Meina; Wang, Ziping; Zhao, Jun

    2017-09-20

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) significantly improve the survival of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring EGFR mutation. Limited to the standards of tumor tissue samples and detection methods, still some people can't receive target therapy following genetic guidance. This study was to explore the relevance between serum tumor markers and treatment of EGFR-TKIs. We retrospectively collected the clinical information of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring EGFR mutation, who received EGFR-TKIs as first-line therapy from June 2009 to June 2014 in Peking University Cancer Hospital, analyzed the relationship between serum tumor markers and efficacy of EGFR-TKIs. The objective response rate (ORR) was 52.8% and the disease control rate (DCR) was 89.