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Sample records for tumor draining lymph

  1. Structural alterations in tumor-draining lymph nodes before papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Andrew M; Massoll, Nicole A; Jolly, Lee Ann; Stack, Brendan C; Bodenner, Donald L; Franco, Aime T

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to define and characterize the thyroid tumor-draining lymph nodes in genetically engineered mice harboring thyroid-specific expression of oncogenic Braf V600E with and without Pten insufficiency. After intratumoral injection of methylene blue, the lymphatic drainage of the thyroid gland was visualized in real time. The thyroid gland/tumor was resected en bloc with the respiratory system for histological analysis. Although mice harboring Braf V600E mutations were smaller in body size compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates, the size of their thyroid glands and deep cervical lymph nodes were significantly larger. Additionally, the tumor-draining lymph nodes showed increased and enlarged lymphatic sinuses that were distributed throughout the cortex and medulla. Tumor-reactive lymphadenopathy and histiocytosis, but no frank metastases, were observed in all mice harboring Braf V600E mutations. The tumor-draining lymph nodes undergo significant structural alterations in immunocompetent mice, and this may represent a primer for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) metastasis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Selective Changes in the Immune Profile of Tumor-Draining Lymph Nodes After Different Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Regimens for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, Alessandra; Buzzonetti, Alexia; Martinelli, Enrica; Fanelli, Mara; Petrillo, Marco; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Scambia, Giovanni; Fattorossi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess how neoadjuvant chemoradiation regimens modulate the immune system state in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN), in the setting of advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Tumor-draining lymph nodes of patients undergoing chemotherapy only (nonirradiated, NI-TDLN) and chemoradiation with lower-dose (39.6 Gy, LD-TDLN) and higher-dose radiation (50 Gy, HD-TDLN) were analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry. Results: Enlarging our previous data, LD-TDLN showed features overall indicative of an enhanced antitumor response as compared with NI-TDLN, namely a significant Th1 and Tc1 polarization and a lower amount of the potent CD4 + Foxp3 + CD25 high regulatory T cell (Treg) subset identified by neuropilin-1 expression. Conversely, compared with NI-TDLN, HD-TDLN showed features overall indicative of an impaired antitumor response, namely a significantly inverted CD4/CD8 cell ratio, a higher Nrp1 + Treg frequency, and a higher frequency of CCR4 + Treg, a Treg subset facilitated in migrating out from TDLN to suppress the immune response against distant cancer cells. Moreover, the Th1 and Tc1 polarization induced by LD radiation was lost, and there was an unfavorable tolerogenic/immunogenic dendritic cell ratio compared with LD-TDLN. Conclusions: Even minor differences in radiation dose in neoadjuvant regimens for locally advanced cervical cancer are crucial for determining the balance between a tolerogenic and an efficacious antitumor immune response in TDLN. Because most of the anticancer immune response takes place in TDLN, the present findings also emphasize the importance of chemoradiation protocols in the context of immunotherapeutic trials.

  3. Human papilloma virus specific T cells infiltrating cervical cancer and draining lymph nodes show remarkably frequent use of HLA-DQ and -DP as a restriction element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Sytse J.; Welters, Marij J. P.; van der Hulst, Jeanette M.; Kloth, Judith N.; Kwappenberg, Kitty M. C.; Trimbos, Baptist J.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Hellebrekers, Bart W.; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Kenter, Gemma G.; Offringa, Rienk; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced malignancies are frequently infiltrated by lymphocytes. To comprehend the contribution of HPV-specific T cells in this anti-tumor response we developed a method that allowed the analysis of the presence and specificity of cervix-infiltrating and draining lymph node

  4. Retention of Ag-specific memory CD4+ T cells in the draining lymph node indicates lymphoid tissue resident memory populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Clare L; Dutton, Emma E; Tomura, Michio; Withers, David R

    2017-05-01

    Several different memory T-cell populations have now been described based upon surface receptor expression and migratory capabilities. Here we have assessed murine endogenous memory CD4 + T cells generated within a draining lymph node and their subsequent migration to other secondary lymphoid tissues. Having established a model response targeting a specific peripheral lymph node, we temporally labelled all the cells within draining lymph node using photoconversion. Tracking of photoconverted and non-photoconverted Ag-specific CD4 + T cells revealed the rapid establishment of a circulating memory population in all lymph nodes within days of immunisation. Strikingly, a resident memory CD4 + T cell population became established in the draining lymph node and persisted for several months in the absence of detectable migration to other lymphoid tissue. These cells most closely resembled effector memory T cells, usually associated with circulation through non-lymphoid tissue, but here, these cells were retained in the draining lymph node. These data indicate that lymphoid tissue resident memory CD4 + T-cell populations are generated in peripheral lymph nodes following immunisation. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Oral tolerance is determined at the level of draining lymph nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilsem, van E.G.; BrevÃ, J.; Savelkoul, H.; Claessen, A.; Scheper, R.J.; Kraal, G.

    1995-01-01

    In the skin and in the epithelium of the oral mucosa a comparable network of Langerhans cells can be found. Antigen application on either epithelium leads to rapid emigration of Langerhans cells to the draining lymph nodes. Application on the oral mucosa leads to tolerance induction while

  6. Profile of immune cells in lymph nodes draining human malignant tumors Perfil de las células inmunes en los ganglios linfáticos que drenan tumores malignos humanos

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    Wanda Di Girolamo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize and quantify cells involved in immune response in metastasis-free regional lymph nodes (RLNs draining different human epithelial tumors and compare them (by immunohistochemistry with control lymph nodes from patients with non malignant diseases. We showed that T cells number was decreased in RLNs as compared to the controls with reduction in both CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells subsets and an inverted ratio (CD4+: CD8+. B lymphocytes and follicular dendritic cells were decreased with respect to the controls. S100+ dendritic cells (DCs and mature DCs were detected in T dependent areas. Their mean number was significantly lower as compared to control. Immature DCs were significantly diminished compared to RLN and control nodes. CD57+ cells, follicular T helper cells and/or NK cells, were localized in the clear zone of germinal centres and their mean number was significantly increased. There were no CD57+ cells in hypoplastic follicles. In this study we show that RLNs draining human cancer present reduction in almost all immune cells, except CD57+ cells. These findings may be related to the deficient anti-tumor immune response in patients with cancer and subsequent tumor progression.El objetivo del trabajo fue caracterizar y cuantificar utilizando inmuno-histoquímica, las células involucradas en la respuesta inmune en ganglios linfáticos regionales (GLRs que drenan distintos tumores epiteliales malignos humanos y compararlas con ganglios controles (GLCs provenientes de pacientes sin enfermedad neoplásica maligna. Determinamos que los GLRs presentaban una marcada depleción de linfocitos B y T, células dendríticas (CD foliculares y CD interdigitantes maduras respecto a los controles. En los linfocitos T, además de estar disminuidos, se observó una inversión de la relación T CD4+: T CD8+, a favor de los T CD8+. La depleción de CD inmaduras fue mayor respecto a las maduras. Las células CD57+, c

  7. A study of technetium-labelled sulphide colloid uptake by regional lymph nodes draining a tumour-bearing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, J.L.; Agwunobi, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    With appropriate controls, experimental groups of inbred C 3 H mice bearing a syngeneic mammary carcinoma challenge in their right rear footpads were injected in both rear footpads with 99 Tcsup(m)ASC. Mice were sacrificed 15 and 90 min after the labelled colloid injection. Popliteal and sacral lymph nodes were weighed and counted in a well scintillation counter. A marked inhibition of labelled colloid uptake was demonstrated in regional lymph nodes draining a tumour-bearing area. Rabbits bearing VX 2 carcinoma in a forelimb received 99 Tc sup(m)ASC into each front footpad. Depression of labelled colloid uptake by regional lymph nodes draining tumour was evident on gamma-camera scanning. (author)

  8. Cellular dynamics in the draining lymph nodes during sensitization and elicitation phases of contact hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Geisler, Carsten; Nielsen, Martin Weiss

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The different role of various immunological effector cells in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is receiving increased attention. During the past decade, the involvement of different cell types in CHS has been investigated by the use of antibody-induced depletion of specific subtypes...... of immunological cells and by studying knockout mice lacking one or more of these immunological cell populations. OBJECTIVES: To develop a method for studying the collective cellular dynamics of immune cells in the draining lymph nodes during CHS in intact animals. PATIENTS/METHODS: Mice were sensitized and....../or challenged with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene or oxazolone. Using multi-parameter flow cytometry we determined the proliferation, activation state, and absolute number of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells in the draining lymph nodes. RESULTS: The presented method can be applied...

  9. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, R.E.; Field, L.A.; Kane, J.L.; Love, B.; Hooke, J.A.; Shriver, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (n=41) and positive (n=35) lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser micro dissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (P 1.5) revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis

  10. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E.; Field, Lori A.; Love, Brad; Kane, Jennifer L.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Shriver, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (n = 41) and positive (n = 35) lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser microdissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (P 1.5) revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis. PMID:22295210

  11. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Ellsworth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (=41 and positive (=35 lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser microdissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (1.5 revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis.

  12. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of inguinal lymph nodes, simulating lymphoma

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    Akansha Gandhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple enlarged lymph nodes in an elderly female patient can have varied etiologies as well as histologic pictures. We are presenting the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with inguinal lymphadenopathy with fever, which was clinically misconstrued as lymphoma. Cytology could not exclude a lymphoma. Histology led to the unusual diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of lymph node in this case. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lymph node is a rare, distinctive reactive proliferative pattern in the lymph node which involves proliferation of the connective tissue elements of the lymph node, admixed with lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and histiocytes. Multiple etiologic agents have been suggested in existing literature. Despite extensive search, no definite attributable cause could be sought. It is now widely accepted that inflammatory pseudotumor of the lymph node is a non-neoplastic proliferation which has a benign clinical course and excellent prognosis after surgical resection.

  13. Sentinel lymph node biopsy from the vantage point of an oncologic surgeon.

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    Wilson, Lori L

    2009-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has greatly influenced the surgical management of clinically localized primary melanoma. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy have been used for the selective management of the draining regional lymph node basin of primary cutaneous melanoma. Oncologic surgeons have adopted this procedure to selectively identify occult nodal status in melanoma patients who are at a higher risk of regional metastasis. The current standard of treatment of tumor-positive sentinel lymph node metastasis is immediate completion lymphadenectomy, but considerable debate surrounds the utility of this procedure. This contribution reviews development, technical aspects, selective management of the lymph node basin, and sentinel lymph node biopsy techniques.

  14. Tumor suppressor genes are frequently methylated in lymph node metastases of breast cancers

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    Xu Jia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Metastasis represents a major adverse step in the progression of breast carcinoma. Lymph node invasion is the most relevant prognostic factor; however little is known on the molecular events associated with lymph node metastasis process. This study is to investigate the status and role of methylation in lymph node metastatic tumors. Materials and methods Bisulfite pyrosequencing is used to screen 6 putative tumor suppressor genes (HIN-1, RASSF1A, RIL, CDH13, RARβ2 and E-cadherin in 38 pairs of primary breast tumors and lymph node metastases. Results We found that HIN-1, CDH13, RIL, RASSF1A and RARβ2 were frequently methylated both in primary and metastatic tissues (range: 55.3%~89.5%. E-cadherin was not frequently methylated in either setting (range: 18.4%~23.7%. The methylation status of HIN-1, CDH13, RIL, and RARβ2 in lymph nodes metastasis were correlated with that in primary tumors. The Pearson correlation values ranged from 0.624 to 0.472 (p values HIN-1 methylation and hormone status in metastatic lymph nodes. Hypermethylation of HIN-1 in metastasis lymph nodes was significantly associated with expression of ER (odds ratio, 1.070; P = 0.024 and with PR (odds ratio, 1.046; P = 0.026. Conclusions This study suggests that hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is extended from primary to metastatic tumors during tumor progression.

  15. LCP nanoparticle for tumor and lymph node metastasis imaging

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    Tseng, Yu-Cheng

    A lipid/calcium/phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle formulation (particle diameter ˜25 nm) has previously been developed to delivery siRNA with superior efficiency. In this work, 111In was formulated into LCP nanoparticles to form 111In-LCP for SPECT/CT imaging. With necessary modifications and improvements of the LCP core-washing and surface-coating methods, 111In-LCP grafted with polyethylene glycol exhibited reduced uptake by the mononuclear phagocytic system. SPECT/CT imaging supported performed biodistribution studies, showing clear tumor images with accumulation of 8% or higher injected dose per gram tissue (ID/g) in subcutaneous, human-H460, lung-cancer xenograft and mouse-4T1, breast cancer metastasis models. Both the liver and the spleen accumulated ˜20% ID/g. Accumulation in the tumor was limited by the enhanced permeation and retention effect and was independent of the presence of a targeting ligand. A surprisingly high accumulation in the lymph nodes (˜70% ID/g) was observed. In the 4T1 lymph node metastasis model, the capability of intravenously injected 111In-LCP to visualize the size-enlarged and tumor-loaded sentinel lymph node was demonstrated. By analyzing the SPECT/CT images taken at different time points, the PK profiles of 111In-LCP in the blood and major organs were determined. The results indicated that the decrement of 111In-LCP blood concentration was not due to excretion, but to tissue penetration, leading to lymphatic accumulation. Larger LCP (diameter ˜65 nm) nanoparticles were also prepared for the purpose of comparison. Results indicated that larger LCP achieved slightly lower accumulation in the tumor and lymph nodes, but much higher accumulation in the liver and spleen; thus, larger nanoparticles might not be favorable for imaging purposes. We also demonstrated that LCP with a diameter of ˜25 nm were better able to penetrate into tissues, travel in the lymphatic system and preferentially accumulate in the lymph nodes due to 1) small

  16. Accuracy of abdominal lymph node scintigraphy in tumor diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharczyk, D.

    1978-01-01

    In view of the diagnostical correspondence between lymph node scintigraphy and X-ray lymphograpy, this dissertation, which is based on 110 systematic comparative evaluations, examines the diagnostical weight of the scintigraphic criteria for tumor growth, discusses diagnostical discrepancies and confirms the efficacy of lymph node scintigraphy in detecting malignomas. In discussing the diagnostical results in the light of previous experience, the shortcomings of the nuclear medical method in tumor diagnostics are shown to be attributable to the uncertainty of the individual scintigraphic criteria. Owing to the variability of the lymph node system as to topography, anatomy and retention rate and the fact that it cannot morphologically be well differentiated in the scintigram, X-ray lymphography to verify the scintigraphic result and preclude misinterpretation remains an indispensable measure. (orig.) [de

  17. Tumors induce coordinate growth of artery, vein, and lymphatic vessel triads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddell, Alanna; Croft, Alexandra; Kelly-Spratt, Karen; Furuya, Momoko; Kemp, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Tumors drive blood vessel growth to obtain oxygen and nutrients to support tumor expansion, and they also can induce lymphatic vessel growth to facilitate fluid drainage and metastasis. These processes have generally been studied separately, so that it is not known how peritumoral blood and lymphatic vessels grow relative to each other. The murine B16-F10 melanoma and chemically-induced squamous cell carcinoma models were employed to analyze large red-colored vessels growing between flank tumors and draining lymph nodes. Immunostaining and microscopy in combination with dye injection studies were used to characterize these vessels. Each peritumoral red-colored vessel was found to consist of a triad of collecting lymphatic vessel, vein, and artery, that were all enlarged. Peritumoral veins and arteries were both functional, as detected by intravenous dye injection. The enlarged lymphatic vessels were functional in most mice by subcutaneous dye injection assay, however tumor growth sometimes blocked lymph drainage to regional lymph nodes. Large red-colored vessels also grew between benign papillomas or invasive squamous cell carcinomas and regional lymph nodes in chemical carcinogen-treated mice. Immunostaining of the red-colored vessels again identified the clustered growth of enlarged collecting lymphatics, veins, and arteries in the vicinity of these spontaneously arising tumors. Implanted and spontaneously arising tumors induce coordinate growth of blood and lymphatic vessel triads. Many of these vessel triads are enlarged over several cm distance between the tumor and regional lymph nodes. Lymphatic drainage was sometimes blocked in mice before lymph node metastasis was detected, suggesting that an unknown mechanism alters lymph drainage patterns before tumors reach draining lymph nodes

  18. Tumors induce coordinate growth of artery, vein, and lymphatic vessel triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Alanna; Croft, Alexandra; Kelly-Spratt, Karen; Furuya, Momoko; Kemp, Christopher J

    2014-05-21

    Tumors drive blood vessel growth to obtain oxygen and nutrients to support tumor expansion, and they also can induce lymphatic vessel growth to facilitate fluid drainage and metastasis. These processes have generally been studied separately, so that it is not known how peritumoral blood and lymphatic vessels grow relative to each other. The murine B16-F10 melanoma and chemically-induced squamous cell carcinoma models were employed to analyze large red-colored vessels growing between flank tumors and draining lymph nodes. Immunostaining and microscopy in combination with dye injection studies were used to characterize these vessels. Each peritumoral red-colored vessel was found to consist of a triad of collecting lymphatic vessel, vein, and artery, that were all enlarged. Peritumoral veins and arteries were both functional, as detected by intravenous dye injection. The enlarged lymphatic vessels were functional in most mice by subcutaneous dye injection assay, however tumor growth sometimes blocked lymph drainage to regional lymph nodes. Large red-colored vessels also grew between benign papillomas or invasive squamous cell carcinomas and regional lymph nodes in chemical carcinogen-treated mice. Immunostaining of the red-colored vessels again identified the clustered growth of enlarged collecting lymphatics, veins, and arteries in the vicinity of these spontaneously arising tumors. Implanted and spontaneously arising tumors induce coordinate growth of blood and lymphatic vessel triads. Many of these vessel triads are enlarged over several cm distance between the tumor and regional lymph nodes. Lymphatic drainage was sometimes blocked in mice before lymph node metastasis was detected, suggesting that an unknown mechanism alters lymph drainage patterns before tumors reach draining lymph nodes.

  19. Metastasis in the subcarinal lymph node with unknown primary tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, J.; Olsen, K. E.; Petersen, H.

    2011-01-01

    -differentiated squamous cell carcinoma but no primary tumor was visible on PET-computed tomography. Because of his previous lymphoma the patient was scheduled for mediastinoscopy where the diagnosis was confirmed. Subsequent gastroscopy was normal and a right-sided thoracotomy showed no evidence of cancer elsewhere, only...... an inoperable metastasis in a subcarinal lymph node which infiltrated the trachea, esophagus and aorta. Such isolated squamous cell carcinoma in a subcarinal lymph node without a primary tumor despite invasive work-up has not been reported before....

  20. Differential Motion Between Mediastinal Lymph Nodes and Primary Tumor in Radically Irradiated Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaake, Eva E.; Rossi, Maddalena M.G.; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A.; Burgers, Jacobus A.; Smit, Adrianus A.J.; Belderbos, José S.A.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: In patients with locally advanced lung cancer, planning target volume margins for mediastinal lymph nodes and tumor after a correction protocol based on bony anatomy registration typically range from 1 to 1.5 cm. Detailed information about lymph node motion variability and differential motion with the primary tumor, however, is lacking from large series. In this study, lymph node and tumor position variability were analyzed in detail and correlated to the main carina to evaluate possible margin reduction. Methods and Materials: Small gold fiducial markers (0.35 × 5 mm) were placed in the mediastinal lymph nodes of 51 patients with non-small cell lung cancer during routine diagnostic esophageal or bronchial endoscopic ultrasonography. Four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily 4D cone beam (CB) CT scans were acquired before and during radical radiation therapy (66 Gy in 24 fractions). Each CBCT was registered in 3-dimensions (bony anatomy) and 4D (tumor, marker, and carina) to the planning CT scan. Subsequently, systematic and random residual misalignments of the time-averaged lymph node and tumor position relative to the bony anatomy and carina were determined. Additionally, tumor and lymph node respiratory amplitude variability was quantified. Finally, required margins were quantified by use of a recipe for dual targets. Results: Relative to the bony anatomy, systematic and random errors ranged from 0.16 to 0.32 cm for the markers and from 0.15 to 0.33 cm for the tumor, but despite similar ranges there was limited correlation (0.17-0.71) owing to differential motion. A large variability in lymph node amplitude between patients was observed, with an average motion of 0.56 cm in the cranial-caudal direction. Margins could be reduced by 10% (left-right), 27% (cranial-caudal), and 10% (anteroposterior) for the lymph nodes and −2%, 15%, and 7% for the tumor if an online carina registration protocol replaced a

  1. Radiosensitivity of lymph node metastases versus initial subcutaneous tumors in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichard, M.; Courdi, A.; Fertil, B.; Malaise, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    The in vivo and in vitro radiosensitivity of EMT6 tumor cells growing subcutaneously and metastasizing to the regional lymph nodes has been studied in congenitally athymic nude mice. The fraction of hypoxic cells was determined using an in vitro colony method to assay cell survival after irradiation of both air-breathing and nitrogen-asphyxiated animals. In air-breathing animals, lymph node metastases contained a significantly higher fraction of hypoxic cells than subcutaneous tumors of the same size (61 and 36% respectively). Survival curves did not differ under hypoxic conditions (nitrogen-asphyxiated animals). Likewise, survival curves of cells extracted from tumors at both sites and irradiated in vitro were identical

  2. Optimization of dendrimer structure for sentinel lymph node imaging: Effects of generation and terminal group.

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    Niki, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Mikako; Makiura, Rie; Magata, Yasuhiro; Kojima, Chie

    2015-11-01

    The detection of the sentinel lymph node (SLN), the first lymph node draining tumor cells, is important in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Dendrimers are synthetic macromolecules with highly controllable structures, and are potent multifunctional imaging agents. In this study, 12 types of dendrimer of different generations (G2, G4, G6, and G8) and different terminal groups (amino, carboxyl, and acetyl) were prepared to determine the optimal dendrimer structure for SLN imaging. Radiolabeled dendrimers were intradermally administrated to the right footpads of rats. All G2 dendrimers were predominantly accumulated in the kidney. Amino-terminal, acetyl-terminal, and carboxyl-terminal dendrimers of greater than G4 were mostly located at the injection site, in the blood, and in the SLN, respectively. The carboxyl-terminal dendrimers were largely unrecognized by macrophages and T-cells in the SLN. Finally, SLN detection was successfully performed by single photon emission computed tomography imaging using carboxyl-terminal dendrimers of greater than G4. The early detection of tumor cells in the sentinel draining lymph nodes (SLN) is of utmost importance in terms of determining cancer prognosis and devising treatment. In this article, the authors investigated various formulations of dendrimers to determine the optimal one for tumor detection. The data generated from this study would help clinicians to fight the cancer battle in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary Vitamin D Increases Percentages and Function of Regulatory T Cells in the Skin-Draining Lymph Nodes and Suppresses Dermal Inflammation

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    Shelley Gorman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin inflammatory responses in individuals with allergic dermatitis may be suppressed by dietary vitamin D through induction and upregulation of the suppressive activity of regulatory T (TReg cells. Vitamin D may also promote TReg cell tropism to dermal sites. In the current study, we examined the capacity of dietary vitamin D3 to modulate skin inflammation and the numbers and activity of TReg cells in skin and other sites including lungs, spleen, and blood. In female BALB/c mice, dietary vitamin D3 suppressed the effector phase of a biphasic ear swelling response induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in comparison vitamin D3-deficient female BALB/c mice. Vitamin D3 increased the percentage of TReg (CD3+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the skin-draining lymph nodes (SDLN. The suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and blood was upregulated by vitamin D3. However, there was no difference in the expression of the naturally occurring TReg cell marker, neuropilin, nor the expression of CCR4 or CCR10 (skin-tropic chemokine receptors on TReg cells in skin, SDLN, lungs, and airway-draining lymph nodes. These data suggest that dietary vitamin D3 increased the percentages and suppressive activity of TReg cells in the SDLN, which are poised to suppress dermal inflammation.

  4. Pathology of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Gadir, A Fattah A; Theander, Thor G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whereas the clinical manifestations and treatment of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) have been adequately described before, the pathology received little attention, particularly the African form of PKDL which shows some clinical differences from the disease in India...... leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes....

  5. Dendritic Cell Migration to Skin-Draining Lymph Nodes Is Controlled by Dermatan Sulfate and Determines Adaptive Immunity Magnitude

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    Reza Nadafi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For full activation of naïve adaptive lymphocytes in skin-draining lymph nodes (LNs, presentation of peptide:MHC complexes by LN-resident and skin-derived dendritic cells (DCs that encountered antigens (Ags is an absolute prerequisite. To get to the nearest draining LN upon intradermal immunization, DCs need to migrate from the infection site to the afferent lymphatics, which can only be reached by traversing a collagen-dense network located in the dermis of the skin through the activity of proteolytic enzymes. Here, we show that mice with altered collagen fibrillogenesis resulting in thicker collagen fibers in the skin display a reduced DC migration to the draining LN upon immune challenge. Consequently, the initiation of the cellular and humoral immune response was diminished. Ag-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells as well as Ag-specific germinal center B cells and serum immunoglobulin levels were significantly decreased. Hence, we postulate that alterations to the production of extracellular matrix, as seen in various connective tissue disorders, may in the end affect the qualitative outcome of adaptive immunity.

  6. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells are essential for CD8+ T cell activation and anti-tumor responses after local immunotherapy

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    Sabine eKuhn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumors harbor several populations of dendritic cells with the ability to prime tumor-specific T cells. However, these T cells mostly fail to differentiate into armed effectors and are unable to control tumor growth. We have previously shown that treatment with immunostimulatory agents at the tumor site can activate anti-tumor immune responses, and is associated with the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in the tumor and tumor-draining lymph node. Here we use dendritic cell or monocyte depletion and monocyte transfer to show that these monocyte-derived dendritic cells are critical to the activation of anti-tumor immune responses. Treatment with the immunostimulatory agents Monosodium Urate crystals and Mycobacterium smegmatis induced the accumulation of monocytes in the draining lymph node, their upregulation of CD11c and MHCII, and expression of iNOS, TNFα and IL12p40. Blocking monocyte entry into the lymph node and tumor through neutralization of the chemokine CCL2 or inhibition of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 receptor signaling prevented the generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells, the infiltration of tumor-specific T cells into the tumor, and anti-tumor responses. In a reciprocal fashion, monocytes transferred into mice depleted of CD11c+ cells were sufficient to rescue CD8+ T cell priming in lymph node and delay tumor growth. Thus monocytes exposed to the appropriate conditions become powerful activators of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells and anti-tumor immunity.

  7. Renal lymph nodes for tumor staging: appraisal of 871 nephrectomies with examination of hilar fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vikas; Mudaliar, Kumaran; Ghai, Ritu; Quek, Marcus L; Milner, John; Flanigan, Robert C; Picken, Maria M

    2013-11-01

    Despite decades of research, the role of lymphadenectomy in the management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still not clearly defined. Before the implementation of targeted therapies, lymph node metastases were considered to be a portent of markedly decreased survival, regardless of the tumor stage. However, the role of lymphadenectomy and the relative benefit of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in the context of modern adjunctive therapies have not been conclusively addressed in the clinical literature. The current pathologic literature does not offer clear recommendations with regard to the minimum number of lymph nodes that should be examined in order to accurately stage the pN in renal cell carcinoma. Although gross examination of the hilar fat to assess the nodal status is performed routinely, it has not yet been determined whether this approach is adequate. To evaluate the status of lymph nodes and their rate of identification in the pathologic examination of nephrectomy specimens in adult renal malignancies. We reviewed the operative and pathology reports of 871 patients with renal malignancies treated by nephrectomy. All tumors were classified according to the seventh edition of the Tumor-Nodes-Metastasis classification. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Nx, no lymph nodes recovered; N0, negative; and N1, with positive lymph nodes. Grossly visible lymph nodes were submitted separately; as per grossing protocol, hilar fatty tissue was submitted for microscopic examination. We evaluated the factors that affected the number of lymph nodes identified and the variables that allowed the prediction of nodal involvement. Lymph nodes were recovered in 333 of 871 patients (38%): hilar in 125 patients, nonhilar in 137 patients, and hilar and nonhilar in 71 patients. Patients with positive lymph nodes (n = 87) were younger, had larger primary tumors, and had lymph nodes of average size, as well as a higher pT stage, nuclear grade, and rate of metastases

  8. Lymph-scintigraphic identification of sentinel lymph nodes in breast carcinoma and malignant melanoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergieva, S; Bajchev, G.; Aleksandrova, E.

    1999-01-01

    It is the purpose of the study to assay the possibilities of lymphoscintigraphy (LS) in evaluating local lymphatic drainage and sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) location in patients presenting breast carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Twenty-nine women with breast carcinoma (TI-IIa clinical stage, age range 31 to 74 y) and 7 patients with malignant melanoma (Clark III-V) are scanned in the period 1997 through 1998. 99m Tc-sulphur colloid (Solco Lymphoscint, SORIN) with mean size of particles 50 nm is used. Planar images are obtained at 20 and 120-180 min after sc injection in the region of primary tumor, at mean radioactivity 20 MBq per injection site in a volume 0.2-0.3 ml. In the breast cancer patients Patent Blue V or Mitoxantrone is injected around the tumor twice - 20 and 3 to 1/2 hours prior to surgery. In malignant melanoma patients immunoscintigraphy using 740 MBq 99m Tc-anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies (Technemab-K-1) is carried out before lymph node dissection. SLNs are visualized in 25 patients (86.2%) with breast cancer. In 21 (72%) patients to 4 SLNs are scanned in level I of the local axillary region, in 4 cases (14%) - in the region of axillary level II, in one female patient (3%) - at axillary level III, and in 3 patients (10%) i psilateral internal mammary lymph nodes are scanned. Two patients are suspected for the so-called s kip t ype of tumor lymphatic dissemination. In 4 patients no SLN images are visible. In breast carcinoma patients SLN are additionally stained blue and following intraoperative revision, evidence of metastatic involvement is established in 12 instances (41.3%). In 3 patients with melanoma in the abdomen and back SLNs are located in the region of inguinal and axillary lymph node groups, while in 3 patients presenting lesions to the surface of extremities only local lymph nodes draining the melanoma are visualized. Immunoscintigraphy shows enhanced uptake in the region of SLNs in 3 cases with the metastatic changes in them

  9. Effectiveness of Fibrin Sealant Patch in Reducing Drain Volume after Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Women with Gynecologic Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Cheong Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fibrin sealant in decreasing postoperative lymphatic drainage in women after pelvic lymphadenectomy and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy during gynecologic cancer surgery. Methods. This study is a retrospective case-control study. Forty-five patients who underwent staging surgery were enrolled. Twenty-seven patients were in the fibrin sealant group (group A and 18 in the control group (group B. The two groups were compared for the total volume of drain, hospital stay, harvested lymph node, and incidence of asymptomatic lymphocele. Lymphocele formation was evaluated by computed tomography (CT on 3 months after surgery. Results. There were no significant differences in patient demographics between group A and B with respect to age, BMI, and harvested lymph nodes. Patients who received fibrin sealants had reduced total volume of drainage from postoperative days 2 to 5 compared to the control group (group A versus group B: 994.819±745.85 ml versus 1847.89±1241.41 ml; P=0.015. However no differences were observed in hospital stay (P=0.282, duration of drain (P=0.207, and incidence of asymptomatic lymphocele at 3 months (P=0.126. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that the application of fibrin sealants after pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy may reduce lymphatic drainage in gynecologic malignancy.

  10. Distinct Ezrin Truncations Differentiate Metastases in Sentinel Lymph Nodes from Unaffected Lymph Node Tissues, from Primary Breast Tumors, and from Healthy Glandular Breast Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Röwer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis status is a prognostic factor for further lymph node involvement and for patient survival in breast cancer patients. Frozen section analysis of lymph nodes is a reliable method for detection of macro-metastases. However, this method is far less effective in detecting micro-metastases, requesting improved diagnostic procedures. METHODS: We investigated expression and truncation of ezrin in (i sentinel lymph node metastases, (ii unaffected axillary lymph nodes, (iii primary breast tumors, and (iv healthy glandular breast tissues using 2D gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry in addition to Western blotting. RESULTS: Full-length ezrin (E1; amino acids 1–586 is present in all four investigated tissues. Two truncated ezrin forms, one missing about the first hundred amino acids (E2a and the other lacking about 150 C-terminal amino acids (E2b were detectable in primary tumor tissues and in sentinel lymph node metastases but not in glandular tissues. Strikingly, an ezrin truncation (E3 which consists approximately of amino acids 238–586 was found strongly expressed in all sentinel lymph node metastases. Moreover, an N-terminal ezrin fragment (E4 that consists approximately of amino acids 1–273 was identified in sentinel lymph node metastases as well. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time the existence of tissue-dependent specific ezrin truncations. The distinguished strong Western blot staining of ezrin E3 in sentinel lymph node metastases underlines its capability to substantiate the occurrence of lymph node (micrometastases in breast cancer patients.

  11. Tumor implantation model for rapid testing of lymphatic dye uptake from paw to node in small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Barth, Richard J.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue - used in the sentinel lymph node procedure - in normal and tumor-bearing animals, and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  12. The correlation between pre-operative serum tumor markers and lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer patients undergoing curative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangxuan; Li, Shixia; Wei, Lijuan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Juntian

    2013-11-01

    There was few study concentrated on the correlation between the evaluated tumor markers and lymph node metastasis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between the CA724, CA242, CA199, CEA and the lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer and assess the prognostic value of them in different N stage patients. We analyzed the correlation between serum level of CA724, CA242, CA199, CEA and lymph node metastasis in 1501 gastric cancer patients. Lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer was related with tumor location, Bormann type, tumor size, histological type, depth of invasion and TNM stage (p CEA were positively correlated with the metastatic lymph node counts and the N stage (p tumor markers were higher (p tumor markers, the positive rates of tumor markers combination were higher. The combination of CA724 + CA242 + CA199 + CEA had highest positive rate. The higher CEA level related to N1 stage patients while higher CA199 was related with poor prognosis for N1 stage patients. For N0 and N2 stage patients, evaluation of CA724 indicated poorer prognosis. For N1 and N2 stage gastric patients, the patients with increased CA242 inclined to have shorter survival time. The tumor makers CA724, CA242, CA199 and CEA were evaluated significantly in the gastric patients with later N stage. The combination of these four tumor markers maybe prefer diagnostic index of gastric cancer and its lymph node metastasis. These tumor markers can be a possible indicator of poorer prognosis in different N stage patients.

  13. Malignant Phyllodes Tumor Presenting in Bone, Brain, Lungs, and Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phyllodes tumors (PTs are rare fibroepithelial tumors of the breast which are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. Malignant PTs account for <1% of malignant breast tumors, and borderline tumors have potential to progress to malignant tumors. Metastatic recurrences are most commonly documented in bone and lungs. We report an extremely rare presentation of recurrent malignant PTs involving the brain, lung, lymph nodes, and bone. Case: A 66-year-old female presented with a large breast mass. Biopsy identified malignant PT, treated by mastectomy. One year later she presented with acute back pain; imaging showed pathological L4 spinal compression fracture. Core biopsy confirmed PT. Staging identified additional metastases in the lymph nodes, brain, and lung. Discussion: PTs are rare and fast-growing tumors that originate from periductal stromal tissues and are composed of both epithelial and stromal components. Histologically, they are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant. The prognosis of the malignant type is poorly defined, with local recurrence occurring in 10–40% and metastases in 10%. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are generally ineffective in this tumor type. The most common metastatic sites for malignant cases are the lung and bones, but in rare instances, PTs may metastasize elsewhere. Conclusion: We report a rare presentation of recurrent malignant PT presenting as pathological fracture of the lumbar spine with impingement on the spinal column, along with cerebellar, nodal, and pulmonary metastases. Only 1 similar case has been previously reported.

  14. Clinical value of sentinel lymph node diagnostics in head and neck cancer; Klinische Wertigkeit der Sentinel-Lymph-Node-Diagnostik bei Kopf-Hals-Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampen, W.U. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin am Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Hoeft, S. [Klinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie am Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Maune, S. [Praxis fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Kiel (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The concept of the so-called sentinel lymph node (SLN), being the first node draining a malignant tumor and thus carrying the highest risk of metastatic disease, is already frequently applied in patients suffering from malignant melanoma and breast cancer. It is the aim of this concept, to reduce postoperative morbidity by omitting a conventional lymph node dissection if the SLN is proven to be free of any tumor cells. First clinical studies showed promising results also in patients with head and neck cancer. However, both the anatomical localization of the primary tumor and the very complex lymphatic, frequently bilateral drainage pattern may lead to significant methodological problems. Besides a skilful intraoperative usage of the gamma probe, the precise preoperative staging of the respective patient for determination of the N0 status and the assiduous histopathological analysis of the excised SLN are extremely important to reach a maximum of sensitivity in this clinical setting. This paper summarizes the data published on the SLN concept in patients with head and neck cancer, describes the several methodological aspects of labeling the SLN with radiocolloides and reviews the today's impact of the SLN method in clinical routine. (orig.)

  15. Clinical relevance of occult tumor cells in lymph nodes from gastric cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doekhie, F.S.; Mesker, W.H.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Kok, N.F.; Hartgrink, H.H.; Kranenbarg, E.K.; Putter, H.; Kuppen, P.J.; Tanke, H.J.; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Velde, C.J. van de

    2005-01-01

    The current method for staging in gastric cancer is not sufficient as even after a complete primary tumor resection, patients with node-negative gastric cancer suffer from disease recurrence. In this study, the relation between disease recurrence and the presence of occult tumor cells (OTC) in lymph

  16. Local behavior and lymph node metastases of Wilms' tumor: accuracy of computed tomography; Comportamento local e metastases linfonodais do tumor de Wilms: acuracia da tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Eduardo Just da Costa e, E-mail: eduardojust@oi.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. Maternal Infantil

    2014-01-15

    Objective: to evaluate the accuracy of computed tomography for local and lymph node staging of Wilms' tumor. Materials and methods: each case of Wilms' tumor was evaluated for the presence of abdominal lymph nodes by a radiologist. Signs of capsule and adjacent organ invasion were analyzed. Surgical and histopathological results were taken as the gold standard. Results: sensitivity was 100% for both mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes detection, and specificity was, respectively, 12% and 33%, with positive predictive value of 8% and 11% and negative predictive value of 100%. Signs of capsular invasion presented sensitivity of 87%, specificity of 77%, positive predictive value of 63% and negative predictive value of 93%. Signs of adjacent organ invasion presented sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 78%, positive predictive value of 37% and negative predictive value of 100%. Conclusion: computed tomography tumor showed low specificity and low positive predictive value in the detection of lymph node dissemination. The absence of detectable lymph nodes makes their presence unlikely, and likewise regarding the evaluation of local behavior of tumors. (author)

  17. [Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lymph node with paraneoplastic thrombosis and eosinophilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Ali; Müller, Andrea; Rösler, Wolf; Amann, Kerstin; Linke, Rainer; Mackensen, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    A 52-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital because of progressive thrombosis despite therapeutic anticoagulation as well as leukocytosis with eosinophilia and thrombocytopenia. On examination, the patient presented with dyspnea and swelling oft her left leg and arm. The laboratory findings revealed leukocytosis (31,000/microl) with eosinophilia (54%), thrombocytopenia (58,000/microl), together with an increased C-reactive protein of 247 mg/dl (reference range < 5 mg/dl). Initial computed tomography scans showed pulmonary embolism and a slightly enlarged left inguinal lymph node. Histological examination of the lymph node biopsy revealed in part an epitheloid and spindle cell-like tumorous lesion with slightly increased tissue eosinophilia consistent with an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Resection of the left inguinal lymph node resulted in an immediate regression of the paraneoplastic eosinophilia and thrombocytopenia. Anti-inflammatory medication with ibuprofen was subsequently initiated. Imaging and clinical examination at 3 months after discharge revealed no relapse and no signs of a paraneoplastic syndrome. The IMT is a rare soft-tissue tumor of intermediate dignity with a low tendency to metastasize. It is consistently accompanied by paraneoplastic syndromes. Therapy of choice is complete resection of the tumor. In nonresectable cases, corticosteroids and nonsteroidal antirheumatics have been shown to be effective. Because of the variable clinical course ranging from spontaneous regression to metastasis, IMTs might be separated into different entities (autoimmune, inflammatory, neoplastic subtype) which thus far cannot be classified on a histopathologic basis. A clinical assessment of the dignity is therefore important until further subclassifications of this rare disease become available.

  18. DETECTION OF OCCULT LYMPH NODE TUMOR CELLS IN NODE-NEGATIVE GASTRIC CANCER PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marina Alessandra; Ramos, Marcus Fernando Kodama Pertille; Dias, Andre Roncon; Yagi, Osmar Kenji; Faraj, Sheila Friedrich; Zilberstein, Bruno; Cecconello, Ivan; Mello, Evandro Sobroza de; Ribeiro, Ulysses

    2017-01-01

    The presence of lymph nodes metastasis is one of the most important prognostic indicators in gastric cancer. The micrometastases have been studied as prognostic factor in gastric cancer, which are related to decrease overall survival and increased risk of recurrence. However, their identification is limited by conventional methodology, since they can be overlooked after routine staining. To investigate the presence of occult tumor cells using cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3 immunostaining in gastric cancer patients histologically lymph node negative (pN0) by H&E. Forty patients (T1-T4N0) submitted to a potentially curative gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy were evaluated. The results for metastases, micrometastases and isolated tumor cells were also associated to clinicopathological characteristics and their impact on stage grouping. Tumor deposits within lymph nodes were defined according to the tumor-node-metastases guidelines (7th TNM). A total of 1439 lymph nodes were obtained (~36 per patient). Tumor cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in 24 lymph nodes from 12 patients (30%). Neoplasic cells were detected as a single or cluster tumor cells. Tumor (p=0.002), venous (p=0.016), lymphatic (p=0.006) and perineural invasions (p=0.04), as well as peritumoral lymphocytic response (p=0.012) were correlated to CK-positive immunostaining tumor cells in originally negative lymph nodes by H&E. The histologic stage of two patients was upstaged from stage IB to stage IIA. Four of the 28 CK-negative patients (14.3%) and three among 12 CK-positive patients (25%) had disease recurrence (p=0.65). The CK-immunostaining is an effective method for detecting occult tumor cells in lymph nodes and may be recommended to precisely determine tumor stage. It may be useful as supplement to H&E routine to provide better pathological staging. A presença de metástase em linfonodos é um dos indicadores prognósticos mais importantes no câncer gástrico. As micrometástases têm sido

  19. CCL3 Enhances Antitumor Immune Priming in the Lymph Node via IFNγ with Dependency on Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Allen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lymph node (LN plays a critical role in tumor cell survival outside of the primary tumor sites and dictates overall clinical response in many tumor types (1, 2. Previously, we and others have demonstrated that CCL3 plays an essential role in orchestrating T cell—antigen-presenting cell (APC encounters in the draining LN following vaccination, and such interactions enhance the magnitude of the memory T cell pool (3–5. In the current study, we investigate the cellular responses in the tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs of a CCL3-secreting CT26 colon tumor (L3TU as compared to wild-type tumor (WTTU during the priming phase of an antitumor response (≤10 days. In comparison to WTTU, inoculation of L3TU resulted in suppressed tumor growth, a phenomenon that is accompanied by altered in vivo inflammatory responses on several fronts. Autologous tumor-derived CCL3 (aCCL3 secretion by L3TU bolstered the recruitment of T- and B-lymphocytes, tissue-migratory CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs, and CD49b+ natural killer (NK cells, resulting in significant increases in the differentiation and activation of multiple Interferon-gamma (IFNγ-producing leukocytes in the TDLN. During this early phase of immune priming, NK cells constitute the major producers of IFNγ in the TDLN. CCL3 also enhances CD8+ T cell proliferation and differentiation by augmenting DC capacity to drive T cell activation in the TDLN. Our results revealed that CCL3-dependent IFNγ production and CCL3-induced DC maturation drive the priming of effective antitumor immunity in the TDLN.

  20. Increased cell proliferation in spleen and lymph nodes peripheral to contact allergen application site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipinda, Itai; Anderson, Stacey E.; Butterworth, Leon F.; Beezhold, Donald; Siegel, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that are contact sensitizers. The assay involves dosing mice with the chemical on both ears and pooling the superficial parotid lymph nodes for assessment of lymphocyte proliferation as a marker of sensitization. The present study explored potential reduction in animal usage by dosing one ear with the allergen and the other with vehicle-only. The respective draining lymph nodes were processed separately for tritiated thymidine ( 3 H-TdR) incorporation. Cell proliferation in proper axillary and renal nodes, as well as in the spleen was also assessed. Cross-contamination of the chemicals from the dosed ears to other parts of the body via preening was prevented by dosing restrained animals and washing off the residual chemical with saline after 4 h. Dosing the left ear with 0.02% oxazolone (OX) on unrestrained animals resulted in marked cell proliferation in its draining lymph node (stimulation index, SI = 12.8) and in the lymph node draining the contra-lateral vehicle-dosed ear (SI = 6), as well as the proper axillary lymph nodes (SI = 3.3). Increased 3 H-TdR incorporation was not observed in the renal lymph nodes (SI = 1.1). Similar stimulation of cells was observed in the lymph node draining the ear contra-lateral to the 30% hexylcinnamaldehyde (HCA)-dosed ear. Increased proliferative activity was observed in contra-lateral draining lymph nodes of restrained mice demonstrating that these results cannot be attributed to cross-contamination of adjacent skin. A significant increase in proliferation of splenocytes was also observed. It is concluded that dermal application of a contact allergen, as exemplified by OX and HCA, may induce cell proliferation in the neighboring lymph nodes and spleen indicative of hapten and/or haptenated proteins diffusing through the skin to peripheral nodes and the blood to produce systemic sensitization. It is also possible that lymphatic capillaries may communicate

  1. Clinical value of sentinel lymph node diagnostics in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampen, W.U.; Hoeft, S.; Maune, S.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of the so-called sentinel lymph node (SLN), being the first node draining a malignant tumor and thus carrying the highest risk of metastatic disease, is already frequently applied in patients suffering from malignant melanoma and breast cancer. It is the aim of this concept, to reduce postoperative morbidity by omitting a conventional lymph node dissection if the SLN is proven to be free of any tumor cells. First clinical studies showed promising results also in patients with head and neck cancer. However, both the anatomical localization of the primary tumor and the very complex lymphatic, frequently bilateral drainage pattern may lead to significant methodological problems. Besides a skilful intraoperative usage of the gamma probe, the precise preoperative staging of the respective patient for determination of the N0 status and the assiduous histopathological analysis of the excised SLN are extremely important to reach a maximum of sensitivity in this clinical setting. This paper summarizes the data published on the SLN concept in patients with head and neck cancer, describes the several methodological aspects of labeling the SLN with radiocolloides and reviews the today's impact of the SLN method in clinical routine. (orig.)

  2. Effect of One versus Two Drain Insertion on Postoperative Seroma Formation after Modified Radical Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farzaneh ebrahimifard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modified radical mastectomy (MRM is still one of globally accepted surgical techniques for breast cancer and in some selected patient is the gold standard type of surgery. The most frequent complication of this procedure is seroma under skin flaps or in the axilla as reported as much as 30% in some studies. The use of closed suction drainage system to reduce the incidence of this complication has been routinely accepted by surgeons; however, length of catheter stay and the number of catheters inserted in the wound are still controversial. The present study compares the results of single versus double drain insertion in patients undergoing MRM for breast cancer.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 women with breast cancer who were candidate for MRM surgery during 2007-2010 referred to Modarres hospital, Tehran, Iran as a randomized group matched controlled trial.Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, BMI, and tumor weight (P=0.406 (Table 1. Similarly, the difference between the two groups was insignificant in tumor size (T and number of lymph nodes involved (P=0.145. There was no significant difference between the two groups in timing of axillary drain removal (P=0.064. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in mean aspirated fluid (P=0.071 and mean aspirated sera (P=0.484 after removal of drains.Conclusion: This study revealed one drain insertion in MRM surgery is as effective as two drain and probably less morbidity and cost.

  3. Duration of 18F-FDG avidity in lymph nodes after pandemic H1N1v and seasonal influenza vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, Anders; Lerberg Nielsen, Anne; Gerke, Oke; Johansen, Allan; Petersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity in draining axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against influenza (H1N1v pandemic and seasonal) and to determine the period of increased FDG uptake. During December 2009, patients referred for 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans (n = 293) filled in a questionnaire concerning vaccination type (seasonal and/or H1N1v), time and anatomical localization of vaccination. Only injections in deltoid regions were evaluated, thus ensuring that draining lymph nodes were axillary. If more vaccinations had been given, only the latest vaccination was evaluated in each deltoid region. Of all patients who underwent PET/CT scans during December 2009, 26% had been vaccinated with at least one influenza vaccination in the deltoid region. A total of 92 'draining' and 60 'reference' (i.e. contralateral, non-vaccinated) axillary lymph nodes were evaluated in 61 patients (19 of 61 patients were scanned twice). The maximal intensity in FDG uptake (SUV max ) in draining lymph nodes was 5 g/ml body weight (BW), whereas the maximal intensity in reference lymph nodes was 1.9 g/ml BW. The SUV max was normalized approximately 40 days after vaccination. No significant enlargement of metabolically active draining lymph nodes could be demonstrated on CT scan. Chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs given within 2 weeks from vaccination did not affect SUV max in the axillary lymph nodes. Influenza vaccination may lead to FDG-avid draining lymph nodes beyond 1 month. (orig.)

  4. [Volume changes to the neck lymph node metastases in head-neck tumors. The evaluation of radiotherapeutic treatment success].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszka, G; Thalacker, U; Somogyi, A; Németh, G

    1997-08-01

    This work is engaged with the volume change of neck lymph node metastasis of malignant tumors in the head-neck region during radiotherapy. In 54 patients with head and neck tumors, the volume of neck lymph nodes before and after radiation was measured. The volumetry was done with CT planimetry. The total dose was 66 Gy (2 Gy/d) telecobalt from 2 lateral opponated fields. The time of volume change could be defined with measuring of the half-time and the doubling-time by the help of Schwartz formula. After 10 Gy the volume diminution was about 20% and half-time 24 to 26 days. Afterwards the time of volume diminution picked up speed and finally achieved 60 to 72%. Meanwhile the half-time decreased to the half value. The result was independent of the site of primary tumor, the patient's sex and age. In our opinion the effectivity of radiotherapy can best be judged with defining of the volume change of lymph nodes of the neck.

  5. Duration of {sup 18}F-FDG avidity in lymph nodes after pandemic H1N1v and seasonal influenza vaccination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, Anders; Lerberg Nielsen, Anne; Gerke, Oke; Johansen, Allan; Petersen, Henrik [OUH, Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity in draining axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against influenza (H1N1v pandemic and seasonal) and to determine the period of increased FDG uptake. During December 2009, patients referred for {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans (n = 293) filled in a questionnaire concerning vaccination type (seasonal and/or H1N1v), time and anatomical localization of vaccination. Only injections in deltoid regions were evaluated, thus ensuring that draining lymph nodes were axillary. If more vaccinations had been given, only the latest vaccination was evaluated in each deltoid region. Of all patients who underwent PET/CT scans during December 2009, 26% had been vaccinated with at least one influenza vaccination in the deltoid region. A total of 92 'draining' and 60 'reference' (i.e. contralateral, non-vaccinated) axillary lymph nodes were evaluated in 61 patients (19 of 61 patients were scanned twice). The maximal intensity in FDG uptake (SUV{sub max}) in draining lymph nodes was 5 g/ml body weight (BW), whereas the maximal intensity in reference lymph nodes was 1.9 g/ml BW. The SUV{sub max} was normalized approximately 40 days after vaccination. No significant enlargement of metabolically active draining lymph nodes could be demonstrated on CT scan. Chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs given within 2 weeks from vaccination did not affect SUV{sub max} in the axillary lymph nodes. Influenza vaccination may lead to FDG-avid draining lymph nodes beyond 1 month. (orig.)

  6. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) for Breast Cancer (BC) - Validation Protocol of the Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blidaru, A.; Bordea, C.I.; Condrea, Ileana; Albert, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The sentinel ganglion concept originates in the assumption according to which the primary tumor drains into a specific ganglionar area and then runs through the lymphatic nodes in an orderly, sequential mode. When neoplastic dissemination along the lymphatic pathway occurs, there is an initial invasion of a specific lymph node (rarely more than one) located on the drainage route. That firstly lymph node has been identified as the sentinel node, which mirrors the regional ganglionar status. In order to establish the indication for lymphadenectomy and avoid the situations in which such a surgical procedure would be of no use (N-), the only correct method consists in the identification and biopsy of the sentinel node. Radioactive tracing and/or use of vital staining enable the identification of the regional ganglionar group towards which the primary lesion is draining. The technique of sentinel lymph node identification and biopsy by means of radioactive tracing includes: - pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy, - identification of the sentinel lymph node and its excisional biopsy, - intra-operative histopathological examination and immunohistochemical stains of the sentinel lymph node. Regional lymphadenectomy serves two major purposes: - diagnosis (axillary lymph node invasion represents an important prognostic factor) and therapeutic (to ensure local control of the disease). Regional lymph node invasion in breast cancer is directly related to the primary tumour size. In the less advanced stages (T1), as there is rarely invasion of the axillary lymph nodes, lymphadenectomy can be avoided in most cases. The paper presents the refinement of the technique, the validation of the method for the identification and biopsy of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using Tc99 and the intra-operative use of NEOPROBE 2000 gamma camera at the 'Prof. Dr. Alexandru Trestioreanu' Oncological Institute in Bucharest. 93 patients with primary breast cancer (T1, T2, N0

  7. Targeted Delivery of Immunomodulators to Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Azzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Active-targeted delivery to lymph nodes represents a major advance toward more effective treatment of immune-mediated disease. The MECA79 antibody recognizes peripheral node addressin molecules expressed by high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. By mimicking lymphocyte trafficking to the lymph nodes, we have engineered MECA79-coated microparticles containing an immunosuppressive medication, tacrolimus. Following intravenous administration, MECA79-bearing particles showed marked accumulation in the draining lymph nodes of transplanted animals. Using an allograft heart transplant model, we show that targeted lymph node delivery of microparticles containing tacrolimus can prolong heart allograft survival with negligible changes in tacrolimus serum level. Using MECA79 conjugation, we have demonstrated targeted delivery of tacrolimus to the lymph nodes following systemic administration, with the capacity for immune modulation in vivo.

  8. Efficacy and safety of 32P-nanocolloid for treatment of distant lymph node metastasis in VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shengxiang; Huang Gang; Liu Penan; Ma Yubo; Yan Weili; Wan Liangrong; Zhu Changqing

    2008-01-01

    Eradication of micrometastases present in lymph nodes of cancer patients improves their prognosis significantly. Radionuclide therapy possesses the potential to eliminate such metastases. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 32 P-nanocolloid therapy in the treatment of distant carcinoma cell metastases in lymph nodes of VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits. The Method of this study was to obtain VX2 tumor micrometastases in right armpit lymph nodes of 12 male New Zealand white rabbits, VX2 tumors were implanted by hypodermal inoculation into the right anterior limb. Animals were randomly divided into therapy (n=6) and control (n=6) groups. 32 P-nanocolloid (0.5 mCi), 95% of which was >50 nm in diameter, was administered to the therapy group, and saline was administered to the control group. Injections were given once weekly for 4 weeks. 2-Deoxy-2[ 18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography revealed that the number of involved lymph nodes and the maximum standardized uptake value decreased in the 32 P-nanocolloid therapy group as compared with the baseline or saline control group (P 32 P-nanocolloid. These findings support treatment with 32 P-nanocolloid as a safe and effective approach for eradication of lymph node micrometastases. (author)

  9. Tumor Budding Detection by Immunohistochemical Staining is Not Superior to Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining for Predicting Lymph Node Metastasis in pT1 Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuma; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Nogami, Hitoshi; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi; Ajioka, Yoichi

    2016-05-01

    Tumor budding is recognized as an important risk factor for lymph node metastasis in pT1 colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin has the potential to improve the objective diagnosis of tumor budding over detection based on hematoxylin and eosin staining. However, it remains unclear whether tumor budding detected by immunohistochemical staining is a significant predictor of lymph node metastasis in pT1 colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of tumor budding detected by immunohistochemical staining in comparison with that detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. This was a retrospective study. The study was conducted at Niigata University Medical & Dental Hospital. We enrolled 265 patients with pT1 colorectal cancer who underwent surgery with lymph node dissection. Tumor budding was evaluated by both hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining with the use of CAM5.2 antibody. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted to determine the optimal cutoff values for tumor budding detected by hematoxylin and eosin and CAM5.2 staining. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the significant factors for predicting lymph node metastasis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that the cutoff values for tumor budding detected by hematoxylin and eosin and CAM5.2 staining for predicting lymph node metastases were 5 and 8. On multivariate analysis, histopathological differentiation (OR, 6.21; 95% CI, 1.16-33.33; p = 0.03) and tumor budding detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining (OR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.64-14.66; p = 0.004) were significant predictors for lymph node metastasis; however, tumor budding detected by CAM5.2 staining was not a significant predictor. This study was limited by potential selection bias because surgically resected specimens were collected instead of endoscopically resected specimens. Tumor budding detected by

  10. Prognostic significance of pathological response of primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, M R; Romero, A O; Pérez, J E; Lacava, J A; Domínguez, M E; Rodríguez, R; Barbieri, M R; Romero Acuña, L A; Romero Acuña, J M; Langhi, M J; Amato, S; Ortiz, E H; Vallejo, C T; Leone, B A

    1998-01-01

    The prognostic significance of pathological response of primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was assessed in patients with noninflammatory locally advanced breast carcinoma. Between January 1989 and April 1995, 148 consecutive patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma participated in the study. Of these, 140 fully evaluable patients (67, stage IIIA; 73, stage IIIB) were treated with three courses of 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC), followed by modified radical mastectomy when technically feasible or definitive radiation therapy. The median age was 53 years (range, 26 to 75 years); 55% of patients were postmenopausal. Objective response was recorded in 99 of 140 patients (71%; 95% confidence interval, 63% to 79%). Complete response occurred in 11 patients (8%), and partial response occurred in 88 patients (63%). No change was recorded in 37 patients (26%), and progressive disease occurred in 4 patients (3%). One hundred and thirty-six patients underwent the planned surgery. Maximal pathological response of the primary tumor (in situ carcinoma or minimal microscopic residual tumor) was observed in 24 (18%); 112 patients (82%) presented minimal pathological response of the primary tumor (gross residual tumor). The number of metastatic axillary nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was as follows: N0, 39 patients (29%); N1-N3, 35 patients (26%); > N3, 62 patients (45%). Considering the initial TNM status, 75% of the patients had decreases in tumor compartment after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Also, 31% and 23% of patients with clinical N1 and N2, respectively, showed uninvolved axillary lymph nodes. A significant correlation was noted between pathological response of primary tumor and the number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes. Median disease-free survival was 34 months, whereas median overall survival was 66 months. Pathological responses of both primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes

  11. Sequential activation of CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph nodes in response to pulmonary virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heesik; Legge, Kevin L; Sung, Sun-sang J; Braciale, Thomas J

    2007-07-01

    We have used a TCR-transgenic CD8+ T cell adoptive transfer model to examine the tempo of T cell activation and proliferation in the draining lymph nodes (DLN) in response to respiratory virus infection. The T cell response in the DLN differed for mice infected with different type A influenza strains with the onset of T cell activation/proliferation to the A/JAPAN virus infection preceding the A/PR8 response by 12-24 h. This difference in T cell activation/proliferation correlated with the tempo of accelerated respiratory DC (RDC) migration from the infected lungs to the DLN in response to influenza virus infection, with the migrant RDC responding to the A/JAPAN infection exhibiting a more rapid accumulation in the lymph nodes (i.e., peak migration for A/JAPAN at 18 h, A/PR8 at 24-36 h). Furthermore, in vivo administration of blocking anti-CD62L Ab at various time points before/after infection revealed that the virus-specific CD8+ T cells entered the DLN and activated in a sequential "conveyor belt"-like fashion. These results indicate that the tempo of CD8+ T cell activation/proliferation after viral infection is dependent on the tempo of RDC migration to the DLN and that T cell activation occurs in an ordered sequential fashion.

  12. Dominant lymph drainage patterns in the occipital and parietal regions: evaluation of lymph nodes in patients with skin cancer of the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Taku; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Oyama, Akihiko; Funayama, Emi; Murao, Naoki; Hayashi, Toshihiko

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the superficial lymph drainage patterns of primary skin cancers of the head arising from the occipital or parietal region. The dominant patterns of lymph drainage were retrospectively reviewed in eight patients aged 36-85 years with skin cancers in the occipital or parietal region in whom sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection had been performed at Hokkaido University Hospital between January 1981 and December 2015. Lymph drainage was mainly to the occipital (6/8, 75%), level II (5/8, 63%), and level V lymph nodes (5/8, 63%). Of the six patients with drainage to the occipital lymph nodes, four (67%) also had drainage to level V nodes. The dominant lymph drainage pattern in patients with skin cancer arising from the occipital or parietal region was to the occipital, level II, and level V lymph nodes. Further, lymph tended to drain directly from the occipital region to the level V lymph nodes.

  13. Cross-reactivity between methylisothiazolinone, octylisothiazolinone and benzisothiazolinone using a modified local lymph node assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, J. F.; Bonefeld, C. Menne; Zachariae, C.

    2017-01-01

    , and between MI and BIT. Methods Immune responses to MI, OIT and BIT were studied in vehicle and MI-sensitized female CBA mice by a modified local lymph node assay. The inflammatory response was measured by ear thickness, cell proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and CD19+ B cells in the auricular draining...... lymph nodes. Results MI induced significant, strong, concentration-dependent immune responses in the draining lymph nodes following a sensitization phase of three consecutive days. Groups of MI-sensitized mice were challenged on day 23 with 0·4% MI, 0·7% OIT and 1·9% BIT – concentrations corresponding...

  14. Experimental studies of metastases of esophageal carcinoma to lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazumasa

    1977-01-01

    Marked progress has been made in surgery for esophageal carcinoma, however, when compared to results of surgery for other carcinomas of the digestive tract, much research remains to be done. The author transplanted VX2 carcinoma, a transplantable tumor of the rabbit, to the esophagus in attempt to determine the mode of metastases of esophageal carcinoma to lymph nodes and also to observe the effect of chemotherapy (Bleomycin) and radiotherapy (Betatron). Carcinoma of the cervical esophagus metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes and then to the paratracheal lymph nodes. Carcinoma of the upper thoracic esophagus metastasized to the paratracheal lymph nodes and then to the cervical lymph nodes. Carcinoma of the mid-thoracic esophagus metastasized to the intrathoracic lymph nodes and then to the intraperitoneal lymph nodes. Carcinoma of the abdominal esophagus metastasized to the intraperitoneal lymph nodes and then to the intrathoracic lymph nodes. Skipping metastasis was rarely observed. Carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus with metastases of lymph nodes in the cervical or abdominal portion was considerably advanced, therefore it is considered that cleaning of the intrathoracic lymph nodes and simultaneous chemotherapy are required when such cases are encountered clinically. Irradiation resulted in regression in the size of the tumor and metastases to lymph nodes and there was a decrease in metastases to the distant lymph nodes. Effects of irradiation were similar on tumors and lymph nodes with positive metastases located within the field of irradiation. Bleomycin medication resulted in regression in the size of tumor and metastases to lymph nodes. Effects of Bleomycin medication were similar on tumors and lymph nodes with positive metastases. (auth.)

  15. Podoplanin-positive Cancer-associated Stromal Fibroblasts in Primary Tumor and Synchronous Lymph Node Metastases of HER2-overexpressing Breast Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Joanna; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Harazin-Lechowska, Agnieszka; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Grela-Wojewoda, Aleksandra; Majchrzyk, Kaja; Kruczak, Anna; Sas-Korczyńska, Beata; Ryś, Janusz

    2018-04-01

    We compared the status of stromal podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts (ppCAFs) between primary tumors and paired synchronous lymph node metastases (LNMs) and analyzed the prognostic significance of tumoral ppCAFs in 203 patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast carcinoma. ppCAFs were found in 167/203 and in 35/87 tumors and LNM, respectively. ppCAFs were most frequently found in tumors and corresponding LNM (n=52, 59.8%; p=0.001). However, for all LNMs (n=12) without ppCAFs, their paired tumors also lacked ppCAFs. In both tumors and LNMs, ppCAFs were α-smooth muscle actin-positive and cluster of differentiation 21 protein-negative, suggesting them not to be resident lymph node cells. Moreover, in our series, the presence of ppCAFs in tumors was borderline related to poor disease-free survival (p=0.058). These results speak in favor of a hypothesis suggesting ppCAFs accompany metastatic cancer cells migrating from tumor to LNMs. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Reducing morbidity with surgical adhesives following inguinal lymph node dissections for the treatment of malignant skin tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stollwerck, Peter. L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND is associated with a high rate of morbidity. To evaluate the clinical benefit of surgical adhesives to reduce complications in patients undergoing ILND, we compared the use of TissuGlu Surgical Adhesive and ARTISS fibrin sealant with a control population. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing ILND for metastatic malignant skin tumors at one hospital, Fachklinik Hornheide (Münster, Germany, from January 2011 through September 2013, assessing 137 patients with a total of 142 procedures. Results: Complications occurred in 22/60 procedures in the TissuGlu group (TG, in 8/17 in the ARTISS group (AG, and in 29/65 in the control group (CG. Prolonged drainage and seroma were recorded in four (23.5%, and 26 (40% respectively (non-significant. TG showed less extended drainage vs. CG (p=0.082. Mean daily drain volumes were significantly lower in AG vs. CG (p=0.000. With regard to wound infection, there was a 15% reduction in TG and 74% increase in AG group. Revision surgery was reduced by 36% in TG and increased by 54% in AG. Mean daily drain volumes were significantly lower in AG vs. CG (p=0.000. Mean total post-operative drain volume was lower in TG and AG vs. CG (p<0.001 among groups, CG vs. TG p<0.001, CG vs. AG p<0.001. The mean body mass index (BMI was significantly higher in patients with complications, 29.4±5.8 vs. 25.3±4.1 (p=0.000.Conclusion: The use of TissuGlu in our ILND patients was associated with a reduction in post-operative wound related complications and the need for revision surgeries compared to the control group. Daily drainage was significantly lower within the first 7 post-operative days with the use of ARTISS, but the benefit was lost due to the higher occurrence of wound infection and revision surgery. BMI above 29 is a risk factor for complications following ILND.(Level of evidence: level IV, retrospective case study

  17. Lipid nanoparticle vectorization of indocyanine green improves fluorescence imaging for tumor diagnosis and lymph node resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Fabrice P; Berger, Michel; Guillermet, Stéphanie; Josserand, Véronique; Guyon, Laurent; Neumann, Emmanuelle; Vinet, Françoise; Texier, Isabelle

    2012-10-01

    Fluorescence imaging is opening a new era in image-guided surgery and other medical applications. The only FDA approved contrast agent in the near infrared is IndoCyanine Green (ICG), which despites its low toxicity, displays poor chemical and optical properties for long-term and sensitive imaging applications in human. Lipid nanoparticles are investigated for improving ICG optical properties and in vivo fluorescence imaging sensitivity. 30 nm diameter lipid nanoparticles (LNP) are loaded with ICG. Their characterization and use for tumor and lymph node imaging are described. Nano-formulation benefits dye optical properties (6 times improved brightness) and chemical stability (>6 months at 4 degrees C in aqueous buffer). More importantly, LNP vectorization allows never reported sensitive and prolonged (>1 day) labeling of tumors and lymph nodes. Composed of human-use approved ingredients, this novel ICG nanometric formulation is foreseen to expand rapidly the field of clinical fluorescence imaging applications.

  18. Clinical Significance of Lymph Node Metastasis in the Mesentery of the Terminal Ileum in Patients With Right-sided Colon Tumors at Different Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung Il; Kim, Duck-Woo; Shin, Eun; Kim, Myung Jo; Son, Il Tae; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2018-06-01

    There are limited reports on peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in patients with right-sided colon cancer, and little is known about their clinical significance. This study aimed to examine the role of tumor location in the prevalence and clinical significance of peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in patients with right-sided colon cancer. This is a retrospective study from a prospective cohort database. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. Patients with right-sided colon cancer treated with radical surgery in a hospital between May 2006 and September 2016 were included. The frequency of peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in the study cohort and the role of tumor location and the clinical characteristics of patients with peri-ileal lymph node metastasis were determined. We examined 752 cases with right-sided colon cancer including 82 cecal, 554 ascending colon, and 116 hepatic flexure cancer. Twenty patients (2.7%) had peri-ileal lymph node metastasis. The incidence of metastasis to peri-ileal lymph nodes was 7.3% (6/82) in patients with cecal cancer, 2.2% (12/554) in patients with ascending colon cancer, and 1.7% (2/116) in patients with hepatic flexure cancer. Three patients had stage III cancer and 17 had stage IV. All 3 patients with positive peri-ileal lymph nodes and stage III cancer had cecal tumors. In contrast, all patients with ascending colon or hepatic flexure cancer and positive peri-ileal lymph nodes had stage IV cancer. The results were limited by the retrospective design of the study and the small number of patients with peri-ileal lymph node metastasis. Peri-ileal lymph node metastasis was rare even in right-sided colon cancer and occurred mainly in stage IV. However, it occurred in some patients with locally advanced cecal cancer. These results suggest that optimal resection of the mesentery of the terminal ileum might have clinical benefit, especially in curative surgery for cecal cancer. See Video Abstract at http

  19. A novel mouse model of human prostate cancer to study intraprostatic tumor growth and the development of lymph node metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linxweiler, Johannes; Körbel, Christina; Müller, Andreas; Hammer, Markus; Veith, Christian; Bohle, Rainer M; Stöckle, Michael; Junker, Kerstin; Menger, Michael D; Saar, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish a versatile in vivo model of prostate cancer, which adequately mimics intraprostatic tumor growth, and the natural routes of metastatic spread. In addition, we analyzed the capability of high-resolution ultrasonography (hrUS), in vivo micro-CT (μCT), and 9.4T MRI to monitor tumor growth and the development of lymph node metastases. A total of 5 × 10 5 VCaP cells or 5 × 10 5 cells of LuCaP136- or LuCaP147 spheroids were injected into the prostate of male CB17-SCID mice (n = 8 for each cell type). During 12 weeks of follow-up, orthotopic tumor growth, and metastatic spread were monitored by repetitive serum-PSA measurements and imaging studies including hrUS, μCT, and 9.4T MRI. At autopsy, primary tumors and metastases were harvested and examined by histology and immunohistochemistry (CK5, CK8, AMACR, AR, Ki67, ERG, and PSA). From imaging results and PSA-measurements, tumor volume doubling time, tumor-specific growth rate, and PSA-density were calculated. All 24 mice developed orthotopic tumors. The tumor growth could be reliably monitored by a combination of hrUS, μCT, MRI, and serum-PSA measurements. In most animals, lymph node metastases could be detected after 12 weeks, which could also be well visualized by hrUS, and MRI. Immunohistochemistry showed positive signals for CK8, AMACR, and AR in all xenograft types. CK5 was negative in VCaP- and focally positive in LuCaP136- and LuCaP147-xenografts. ERG was positive in VCaP- and negative in LuCaP136- and LuCaP147-xenografts. Tumor volume doubling times and tumor-specific growth rates were 21.2 days and 3.9 %/day for VCaP-, 27.6 days and 3.1 %/day for LuCaP136- and 16.2 days and 4.5 %/day for LuCaP147-xenografts, respectively. PSA-densities were 433.9 ng/mL per milliliter tumor for VCaP-, 6.5 ng/mL per milliliter tumor for LuCaP136-, and 11.2 ng/mL per milliliter tumor for LuCaP147-xenografts. By using different monolayer and 3D spheroid cell cultures in an

  20. The local lymph node assay (LLNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovida, Costanza; Ryan, Cindy; Cinelli, Serena; Basketter, David; Dearman, Rebecca; Kimber, Ian

    2012-02-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a widely accepted method for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. Compared with other in vivo methods in guinea pig, the LLNA offers important advantages with respect to animal welfare, including a requirement for reduced animal numbers as well as reduced pain and trauma. In addition to hazard identification, the LLNA is used for determining the relative skin sensitizing potency of contact allergens as a pivotal contribution to the risk assessment process. The LLNA is the only in vivo method that has been subjected to a formal validation process. The original LLNA protocol is based on measurement of the proliferative activity of draining lymph node cells (LNC), as determined by incorporation of radiolabeled thymidine. Several variants to the original LLNA have been developed to eliminate the use of radioactive materials. One such alternative is considered here: the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA method, which uses 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in place of radiolabeled thymidine to measure LNC proliferation in draining nodes. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Importance of CD200 expression by tumor or host cells to regulation of immunotherapy in a mouse breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Curry

    Full Text Available Cell-surface CD200 expression by mouse EMT6 breast tumor cells increased primary tumor growth and metastasis to the draining lymph nodes (DLN in normal (WT BALB/c female recipients, while lack of CD200R1 expression in a CD200R1-/- host negated this effect. Silencing CD200 expression in EMT6siCD200 tumor cells also reduced their ability to grow and metastasize in WT animals. The cellular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been studied in detail. We report characterization of tumor infiltrating (TILs and draining lymph node (DLN cells in WT and CD200-/- BALB/c mice, receiving WT tumor cells, or EMT6 lacking CD200 expression (EMT6siCD200 cells. Our data show an important correlation with augmented CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and resistance to tumor growth in mice lacking exposure (on either host cells or tumor to the immunoregulatory molecule CD200. Confirmation of the importance of such CD8+ cells came from monitoring tumor growth and characterization of the TILs and DLN cells in WT mice challenged with EMT6 and EMT6siCD200 tumors and treated with CD8 and CD4 depleting antibodies. Finally, we have assessed the mechanisms(s whereby addition of metformin as an augmenting chemotherapeutic agent in CD200-/- animals given EMT6 tumors and treated with a previously established immunotherapy regime can increase host resistance. Our data support the hypothesis that increased autophagy in the presence of metformin increases CD8+ responses and tumor resistance, an effect attenuated by the autophagy inhibitor verteporfin.

  2. Independent position correction on tumor and lymph nodes; consequences for bladder cancer irradiation with two combined IMRT plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooijen, Dominique C van; Pool, René; Kamer, Jeroen B van de; Hulshof, Maarten CCM; Koning, Caro CE; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    The application of lipiodol injections as markers around bladder tumors combined with the use of CBCT for image guidance enables daily on-line position correction based on the position of the bladder tumor. However, this might introduce the risk of underdosing the pelvic lymph nodes. In this study several correction strategies were compared. For this study set-up errors and tumor displacements for ten complete treatments were generated; both were based on the data of 10 bladder cancer patients. Besides, two IMRT plans were made for 20 patients, one for the elective field and a boost plan for the tumor. For each patient 10 complete treatments were simulated. For each treatment the dose was calculated without position correction (option 1), correction on bony anatomy (option 2), on tumor only (option 3) and separately on bone for the elective field (option 4). For each method we analyzed the D{sub 99%} for the tumor, bladder and lymph nodes and the V{sub 95%} for the small intestines, rectum, healthy part of the bladder and femoral heads. CTV coverage was significantly lower with options 1 and 2. With option 3 the tumor coverage was not significantly different from the treatment plan. The ΔD{sub 99%} (D{sub 99%,} {sub option} {sub n} - D{sub 99%,} {sub treatment} {sub plan}) for option 4 was small, but significant. For the lymph nodes the results from option 1 differed not significantly from the treatment plan. The median ΔD{sub 99%} of the other options were small, but significant. ΔD{sub 99%} for PTV{sub bladder} was small for options 1, 2 and 4, but decreased up to -8.5 Gy when option 3 was applied. Option 4 is the only method where the difference with the treatment plan never exceeds 2 Gy. The V{sub 95%} for the rectum, femoral heads and small intestines was small in the treatment plan and this remained so after applying the correction options, indicating that no additional hot spots occurred. Applying independent position correction on bone for the elective

  3. Independent position correction on tumor and lymph nodes; consequences for bladder cancer irradiation with two combined IMRT plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulshof Maarten CCM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of lipiodol injections as markers around bladder tumors combined with the use of CBCT for image guidance enables daily on-line position correction based on the position of the bladder tumor. However, this might introduce the risk of underdosing the pelvic lymph nodes. In this study several correction strategies were compared. Methods For this study set-up errors and tumor displacements for ten complete treatments were generated; both were based on the data of 10 bladder cancer patients. Besides, two IMRT plans were made for 20 patients, one for the elective field and a boost plan for the tumor. For each patient 10 complete treatments were simulated. For each treatment the dose was calculated without position correction (option 1, correction on bony anatomy (option 2, on tumor only (option 3 and separately on bone for the elective field (option 4. For each method we analyzed the D99% for the tumor, bladder and lymph nodes and the V95% for the small intestines, rectum, healthy part of the bladder and femoral heads. Results CTV coverage was significantly lower with options 1 and 2. With option 3 the tumor coverage was not significantly different from the treatment plan. The ΔD99% (D99%, option n - D99%, treatment plan for option 4 was small, but significant. For the lymph nodes the results from option 1 differed not significantly from the treatment plan. The median ΔD99% of the other options were small, but significant. ΔD99% for PTVbladder was small for options 1, 2 and 4, but decreased up to -8.5 Gy when option 3 was applied. Option 4 is the only method where the difference with the treatment plan never exceeds 2 Gy. The V95% for the rectum, femoral heads and small intestines was small in the treatment plan and this remained so after applying the correction options, indicating that no additional hot spots occurred. Conclusions Applying independent position correction on bone for the elective field and on

  4. Independent position correction on tumor and lymph nodes; consequences for bladder cancer irradiation with two combined IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, Dominique C van; Pool, René; Kamer, Jeroen B van de; Hulshof, Maarten CCM; Koning, Caro CE; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    The application of lipiodol injections as markers around bladder tumors combined with the use of CBCT for image guidance enables daily on-line position correction based on the position of the bladder tumor. However, this might introduce the risk of underdosing the pelvic lymph nodes. In this study several correction strategies were compared. For this study set-up errors and tumor displacements for ten complete treatments were generated; both were based on the data of 10 bladder cancer patients. Besides, two IMRT plans were made for 20 patients, one for the elective field and a boost plan for the tumor. For each patient 10 complete treatments were simulated. For each treatment the dose was calculated without position correction (option 1), correction on bony anatomy (option 2), on tumor only (option 3) and separately on bone for the elective field (option 4). For each method we analyzed the D 99% for the tumor, bladder and lymph nodes and the V 95% for the small intestines, rectum, healthy part of the bladder and femoral heads. CTV coverage was significantly lower with options 1 and 2. With option 3 the tumor coverage was not significantly different from the treatment plan. The ΔD 99% (D 99%, option n - D 99%, treatment plan ) for option 4 was small, but significant. For the lymph nodes the results from option 1 differed not significantly from the treatment plan. The median ΔD 99% of the other options were small, but significant. ΔD 99% for PTV bladder was small for options 1, 2 and 4, but decreased up to -8.5 Gy when option 3 was applied. Option 4 is the only method where the difference with the treatment plan never exceeds 2 Gy. The V 95% for the rectum, femoral heads and small intestines was small in the treatment plan and this remained so after applying the correction options, indicating that no additional hot spots occurred. Applying independent position correction on bone for the elective field and on tumor for the boost separately gives on average the best

  5. Clinicopathologic risk factors for right paraesophageal lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q A; Ma, D K; Liu, K P; Wang, P; Xie, C M; Wu, Y H; Dai, W J; Jiang, H C

    2018-03-17

    To investigate risk factors associated with right paraesophageal lymph node (RPELN) metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and to determine the indications for right lymph node dissection. Clinicopathologic data from 829 patients (104 men and 725 women) with PTC, operated on by the same thyroid surgery team at the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University from January 2013 to May 2017, were analyzed. Overall, 309 patients underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral lymph node dissection, 488 underwent right thyroid lobe and isthmic resection with right central compartment lymph node dissection, and 32 underwent near-total thyroidectomy (ipsilateral thyroid lobectomy with contralateral near-total lobectomy) with bilateral lymph node dissection. The overall rate of central compartment lymph node metastasis was 43.5% (361/829), with right central compartment lymph node and RPELN metastasis rates of 35.5% (294/829) and 19.1% (158/829), respectively. Tumor size, number, invasion, and location, lymph node metastasis, right central compartment lymph node metastasis, and right lateral compartment lymph node metastasis were associated with RPELN in the univariate analysis, whereas age and sex were not. Multivariate analysis identified tumors with a diameter ≥ 1 cm, multiple tumors, tumors located in the right lobe, right central compartment lymph node metastasis, and right lateral compartment lymph node metastasis as independent risk factors for RPELN metastasis. Lymph node dissection, including RPELN dissection, should be performed for patients with PTC with a tumor diameter ≥ 1 cm, multiple tumors, right-lobe tumors, right central compartment lymph node metastasis, or suspected lateral compartment lymph node metastasis.

  6. [Knockdown of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2)gene inhibits tumor growth and enhances immune function in mice bearing melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Liu, Huan; Xiang, Yingqing; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xu, Ping; Min, Weiping

    2017-12-01

    Objective To study the role of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) in anti-tumor therapy and its effect on the immune response when using IDO2 as therapeutic target. Methods B16-BL6 cells were used to construct mouse xenografted melanoma model. IDO2-shRNA that contained IDO2-siRNA or control shRNA (scrambled-shRNA) was injected hydrodynamically via the tail vein to treat melanoma. The tumor size was measured by vernier caliper. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs), T cell apoptosis rate in draining lymph nodes and the expressions of co-stimulatory molecules on splenic dendritic cells (DCs) from different treatment groups. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was used to determine the CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were detected by ELISA. Results In the IDO2-shRNA treated group, the tumor formation time was delayed, tumor grew slowly, and excised tumor mass was significantly reduced. IDO2-shRNA treatment also decreased the percentage of Tregs and T cell apoptosis in draining lymph nodes and increased the expressions of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 on splenic DCs. The capacity of CD8 + T cells to kill B16-BL6 cells was enhanced and the serum levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ were upregulated. Conclusion Silencing IDO2 can effectively inhibit the growth of melanoma and improve the anti-tumor immune response in vivo.

  7. Renal malignant solitary fibrous tumor with single lymph node involvement: report of unusual metastasis and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mearini E

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ettore Mearini,1 Giovanni Cochetti,1 Francesco Barillaro,1 Sonia Fatigoni,2 Fausto Roila2 1Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, Division of Urological Andrological Surgery and Minimally Invasive Techniques, University of Perugia, Terni, Italy; 2Medical Oncology, S Maria Hospital, Terni, Italy Abstract: Solitary fibrous tumors are rare mesenchymal spindle cell neoplasms that are usually found in the pleura. The kidneys are an uncommon site and only few cases of renal solitary fibrous tumor exhibit malignant behavior metastasizing to the liver, lung, and bone through the hematogenous pathway. Purpose: To describe the first case of lymph node metastasis from renal solitary fibrous tumor in order to increase the knowledge about the malignant behavior of these tumors. Patients and methods: A 19-year-old female patient had intermittent hematuria for several months without flank pain or other symptoms. A chest and abdomen CT scan was performed and showed a multi-lobed bulky solid mass of 170 × 98 × 120 mm in the left kidney. One day before the surgery, the left renal artery was catheterized and the kidney embolization was performed using a Haemostatic Absorbable Gelatin Sponge and polyvinyl alcohol. We then performed a radical nephrectomy with hilar, para-aortic, and inter-aortocaval lymphadenectomy. Results: Estimated intraoperative blood loss was 200 mL and the operative time was 100 minutes. No postoperative complications occurred. The hospital stay was 7 days long. The histological examination was malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney. Cancerous tissue showed cellular atypia, with an increased mitotic index (up to 7 × 10 hpf. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positive results for CD34, BCL2, partial expression of HBME1, and occasionally of synaptophysin. Histological evaluation confirmed the presence of metastasis in one hilar node. The patient did not receive any other therapy. At 30-month follow-up, the

  8. Contribution of lymph node staging method and prognostic factors in malignant ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors: A world wide database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieyu; Li, Jun; Chen, Ruifang; Lu, Xin

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the clinicopathologic prognostic factors in patients with malignant sex cord-stromal tumors (SCSTs) with lymph node dissection, and at the same time, to evaluate the influence of the log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) on their survival. Patients diagnosed with malignant SCSTs who underwent lymph node dissection were extracted from the 1988-2013 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent predictors of survival. 576 patients with malignant SCSTs and with lymphadenectomy were identified, including 468 (81.3%) patients with granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) and 80 (13.9%) patients with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs). 399 (69.3%) patients and 118 (20.5%) patients were in the LODDS < -1 group and -1 ≤ LODDS < -0.5 group, respectively. The 10-year OS rate was 80.9% and CSS was 87.2% in the LODDS < -0.5 group, whereas the survival rates for other groups were 68.5% and 73.3%. On multivariate analysis, age 50 years or less (p < 0.001), tumor size of 10 cm or less (p < 0.001), early-stage disease (p < 0.001), and GCT histology (p ≤ 0.001) were the significant prognostic factors for improved survival. LODDS < -0.5 was associated with a favorable prognosis (OS: p = 0.051; CSS:P = 0.055). Younger age, smaller tumor size, early stage, and GCT histologic type are independent prognostic factors for improved survival in patients with malignant SCST with lymphadenectomy. Stratified LODDS could be regarded as an effective value to assess the lymph node status, and to predict the survival status of patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with no preoperative evidence of lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Óscar; Zafon, Carles; Caubet, Enric; García-Burillo, Amparo; Serres, Xavier; Fort, José Manuel; Mesa, Jordi; Castell, Joan; Roca, Isabel; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Iglesias, Carmela

    2017-10-01

    Lymphadenectomy is recommended during surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma when there is evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (therapeutic) or in high-risk patients (prophylactic) such as those with T3 and T4 tumors of the TNM classification. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy may improve preoperative diagnosis of nodal metastases. To analyze the results of selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in a group of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no evidence of nodal involvement before surgery. A retrospective, single-center study in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no clinical evidence of lymph node involvement who underwent surgery between 2011 and 2013. The sentinel node was identified by scintigraphy. When the sentinel node was positive, the affected compartment was removed, and when sentinel node was negative, central lymph node dissection was performed. Forty-three patients, 34 females, with a mean age of 52.3 (±17) years, were enrolled. Forty-six (27%) of the 170 SNs resected from 24 (55.8%) patients were positive for metastasis. In addition, 94 (15.6%) out of the 612 lymph nodes removed in the lymphadenectomies were positive for metastases. Twelve of the 30 (40%) low risk patients (cT1N0 and cT2N0) changed their stage to pN1, whereas 12 of 13 (92%) high risk patients (cT3N0 and cT4N0) changed to pN1 stage. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy changes the stage of more than 50% of patients from cN0 to pN1. This confirms the need for lymph node resection in T3 and T4 tumors, but reveals the presence of lymph node metastases in 40% of T1-T2 tumors. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: omitting a pelvic drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Canes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Our goal was to assess outcomes of a selective drain placement strategy during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP with a running urethrovesical anastomosis (RUVA using cystographic imaging in all patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients undergoing LRP between January 2003 and December 2004. The anastomosis was performed using a modified van Velthoven technique. A drain was placed at the discretion of the senior surgeon when a urinary leak was demonstrated with bladder irrigation, clinical suspicion for a urinary leak was high, or a complex bladder neck reconstruction was performed. Routine postoperative cystograms were obtained. RESULTS: 208 patients underwent LRP with a RUVA. Data including cystogram was available for 206 patients. The overall rate of cystographic urine leak was 5.8%. A drain was placed in 51 patients. Of these, 8 (15.6% had a postoperative leak on cystogram. Of the 157 undrained patients, urine leak was radiographically visible in 4 (2.5%. The higher leak rate in the drained vs. undrained cohort was statistically significant (p = 0.002. Twenty-four patients underwent pelvic lymph node dissection (8 drained, 16 undrained. Three undrained patients developed lymphoceles, which presented clinically on average 3 weeks postoperatively. There were no urinomas or hematomas in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Routine placement of a pelvic drain after LRP with a RUVA is not necessary, unless the anastomotic integrity is suboptimal intraoperatively. Experienced clinical judgment is essential and accurate in identifying patients at risk for postoperative leakage. When suspicion is low, omitting a drain does not increase morbidity.

  11. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor C increases growth and alters the metastatic pattern of orthotopic PC-3 prostate tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomela, Johanna; Valta, Maija; Seppänen, Jani; Tarkkonen, Kati; Väänänen, H Kalervo; Härkönen, Pirkko

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant sites but the roles of lymphatic and hematogenous pathways in metastasis are not fully understood. We studied the roles of VEGF-C and VEGFR3 in prostate cancer metastasis by blocking VEGFR3 using intravenous adenovirus-delivered VEGFR3-Ig fusion protein (VEGFR3-Ig) and by ectopic expression of VEGF-C in PC-3 prostate tumors in nude mice. VEGFR3-Ig decreased the density of lymphatic capillaries in orthotopic PC-3 tumors (p < 0.05) and inhibited metastasis to iliac and sacral lymph nodes. In addition, tumor volumes were smaller in the VEGFR3-Ig-treated group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Transfection of PC-3 cells with the VEGF-C gene led to a high level of 29/31 kD VEGF-C expression in PC-3 cells. The size of orthotopic and subcutaneous PC-3/VEGF-C tumors was significantly greater than that of PC-3/mock tumors (both p < 0.001). Interestingly, while most orthotopic PC-3 and PC-3/mock tumors grown for 4 weeks metastasized to prostate-draining lymph nodes, orthotopic PC-3/VEGF-C tumors primarily metastasized to the lungs. PC-3/VEGF-C tumors showed highly angiogenic morphology with an increased density of blood capillaries compared with PC-3/mock tumors (p < 0.001). The data suggest that even though VEGF-C/VEGFR3 pathway is primarily required for lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, an increased level of VEGF-C can also stimulate angiogenesis, which is associated with growth of orthotopic prostate tumors and a switch from a primary pattern of lymph node metastasis to an increased proportion of metastases at distant sites

  12. Detection of metastatic tumor in normal-sized retroperitoneal lymph nodes by monoclonal-antibody imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldofsky, P.J.; Sears, H.F.; Mulhern, C.B. Jr.; Hammond, N.D.; Powe, J.; Gatenby, R.A.; Steplewski, Z.; Koprowski, H.

    1984-01-01

    Detection of metastatic colon carcinoma is reported in retroperitoneal lymph nodes that were visible but normal in size (less than 1 cm) and number on CT scanning and at surgery. A case history is presented of 1 of 27 patients with colon carcinoma, metastatic or primary, evaluated with intravenously administered, radiolabeled monoclonal-antibody fragments and subsequent nuclear medicine imaging. Images of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells corresponding to each [ 131 I]antibody view of the abdomen were obtained as a control, to avoid interpretation of simple blood-pool radioactivity as specific localization of antibody on tumor. Antibody images were evaluated both without and with computer blood-pool image substraction. Directed to the level of the left renal hilum by the antibody scan, the surgeon removed the largest palpable node, which measured slightly less than 1 cm in diameter and was not palpably or visibly abnormal to the surgeon until it was removed and sectioned. Pathological evaluation of frozen and permanent sections revealed microscopic foci of adenocarcinoma consistent with a colonic primary tumor. Immunoperoxidase staining for the 1083-17-1A colorectal-carcinoma antigen demonstrated the presence of the antigen in the lymph node. As a result of the detection of this metastasis outside the liver, the patient did not receive the planned hepatic-artery chemotherapy pump but instead received intravenous chemotherapy

  13. Tumors of the upper urothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafla, S.

    1975-01-01

    Forty-two cases of malignant tumors of renal pelvis were reviewed: 28 were transitional cell carcinomas; and 14 were squamous cell carcinomas. The natural history and spread of the disease is discussed in detail. Transitional cell carcinomas spread primarily to the ureter (40 percent), followed closely by the renal bed (33 percent) and bladder (30 percent). Squamous cell carcinomas spread primarily through the renal bed (60 percent), followed by the draining lymph nodes (28 percent). The spread to other regions (bones, splanchnic organs, chest, etc.), occurred with relatively less frequency, but more in squamous than transitional cell carcinomas. Transitional cell carcinomas seem to have a longer natural history than squamous cell carcinomas. Recurrences in bladder and the remainder of the urothelium seem to be controlled for relatively long periods of time, while those in lymph nodes and renal bed seem to be rapidly fatal. The results of treatment and factors influencing them are discussed. Patients suffering from transitional cell carcinomas faired better than those with squamous cell carcinomas at the 5 year mark (25 and 15 percent, respectively), but the 10 year results are poor in both. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of these tumors and the influencing factors are also discussed in detail. The response of these tumors to radiotherapy seems to be akin to that of the lower urothelium (bladder), provided adequate dosage is delivered to the relevant volume at the proper moment in time. (U.S.)

  14. Hepatoduodenal lymph node metastasis mimicking Klatskin tumor in a patient with sigmoid colon mucinous cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovhannes Vardevanyan, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 48-year-old female patient, who presented with abdominal pain, jaundice, and lack of appetite. Ultrasound showed intrahepatic biliary dilatation with retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. Further magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography detected Klatskin tumor. Computed tomography (CT confirmed the Klatskin tumor with liver metastases and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy from the hepatic lesion identified mucinous adenocarcinoma, likely originating from bile ducts. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed 3 times with stents placed in the left and right hepatic bile ducts. Later the patient had hematochezia and was referred to colonoscopy. Tubulovillous adenoma with dysplasia was diagnosed with signs of in situ cancer. Preoperative CT was done for further staging: new pulmonary metastases were discovered. Sigmoid colon was resected. Histopathology verified a poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma within the tubulovillous adenoma. Intraoperative biopsies of porta hepatis mass resembled metastatic lymph nodes in hepatoduodenal ligament, mimicking Klatskin tumor. Retrospective analysis of CT data demonstrated presence of sigmoid colon tumor.

  15. VERIFICATION OF A TUMOR LESION OF INTRAPELVIC LYMPH NODES AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY. THE FIRST EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kapustin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the possibilities of transrectal ultrasound scan (TRUS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in identifying and verifying a tumor lesion of intrapelvic lymph nodes (LN in patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.Subjects and methods. Metastatic tumor lesion of intrapelvic LNs was verified in 4 patients by transrectal ultrasound (US-guided needle biopsies. All the patients underwent multi-parametric MRI studies and TRUS.Results. The application of current MRI technologies (for qualitative and quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted images and for postcontrast sequences could detect and judge with confidence the metastatic lesion of intrapelvic LNs. TRUS permits clearly visualizing pathologically altered LNs, by taking into account their MRI pattern and verifying their tumor lesion by US-guided core needle biopsy.Conclusion. The combined use of multi-parametric MRI and TRUS provides a means for diagnosing and verifying the tumor lesion of pelvic LNs in patients after prostatectomy.

  16. VERIFICATION OF A TUMOR LESION OF INTRAPELVIC LYMPH NODES AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY. THE FIRST EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kapustin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the possibilities of transrectal ultrasound scan (TRUS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in identifying and verifying a tumor lesion of intrapelvic lymph nodes (LN in patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.Subjects and methods. Metastatic tumor lesion of intrapelvic LNs was verified in 4 patients by transrectal ultrasound (US-guided needle biopsies. All the patients underwent multi-parametric MRI studies and TRUS.Results. The application of current MRI technologies (for qualitative and quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted images and for postcontrast sequences could detect and judge with confidence the metastatic lesion of intrapelvic LNs. TRUS permits clearly visualizing pathologically altered LNs, by taking into account their MRI pattern and verifying their tumor lesion by US-guided core needle biopsy.Conclusion. The combined use of multi-parametric MRI and TRUS provides a means for diagnosing and verifying the tumor lesion of pelvic LNs in patients after prostatectomy.

  17. Modeling protective anti-tumor immunity via preventative cancer vaccines using a hybrid agent-based and delay differential equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter S; Lee, Peter P

    2012-01-01

    A next generation approach to cancer envisions developing preventative vaccinations to stimulate a person's immune cells, particularly cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), to eliminate incipient tumors before clinical detection. The purpose of our study is to quantitatively assess whether such an approach would be feasible, and if so, how many anti-cancer CTLs would have to be primed against tumor antigen to provide significant protection. To understand the relevant dynamics, we develop a two-compartment model of tumor-immune interactions at the tumor site and the draining lymph node. We model interactions at the tumor site using an agent-based model (ABM) and dynamics in the lymph node using a system of delay differential equations (DDEs). We combine the models into a hybrid ABM-DDE system and investigate dynamics over a wide range of parameters, including cell proliferation rates, tumor antigenicity, CTL recruitment times, and initial memory CTL populations. Our results indicate that an anti-cancer memory CTL pool of 3% or less can successfully eradicate a tumor population over a wide range of model parameters, implying that a vaccination approach is feasible. In addition, sensitivity analysis of our model reveals conditions that will result in rapid tumor destruction, oscillation, and polynomial rather than exponential decline in the tumor population due to tumor geometry.

  18. Preoperative 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging and sentinel node biopsy in the detection of regional lymph node metastases in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljinder; Ezziddin, Samer; Palmedo, Holger; Reinhardt, Michael; Strunk, Holger; Tüting, Thomas; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of preoperative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanning, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy (LS), and sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with malignant melanoma. Fifty-two patients (36 men: 16 women; mean age 55.0+/-13.0 years; median age 61 years; range 17-76 years) with malignant melanoma were selected. According to the latest version of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, the disease in the study patients was initially classified as either stage I or II. The other primary tumor characteristics were mean Breslow depth=2.87 mm and median=2 mm; range 1-12.0 mm and Clarks levels III-V. None of the study patients had clinical or radiological evidence of regional lymph node metastatic disease. At least one sentinel node was identified in all patients. Preoperative LS detected a total of 111 sentinel lymph nodes (average 2.13 sentinel lymph node per patient) and demonstrated a single nodal draining basin in 38 (73%) patients and multiple (2-3 draining basins) in the remaining 14 (27%) patients. Fourteen out of the 52 patients (27%) had at least one involved sentinel node. Positron emission tomography was true positive in two patients with a sentinel node greater than 1 cm and false positive in two other patients. In this study, the detection of sentinel lymph node by LS and gamma probe had a sensitivity of 100%. In contrast, 18F-FDG-PET imaging demonstrated very low sensitivity (14.3%; 95% CI, 2.5 to 44%) and positive predictive value (50%; 95% CI, 9 to 90%) for localizing the subclinical nodal metastases. The specificity, net present value, and diagnostic accuracy were 94.7, 75, and 73%, respectively. Preoperative fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging is not able to substitute LS/sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients at stage I or II.

  19. Outcomes by Ethnicity: Sentinel Lymph Node Status in Women With Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassett, Mary; Hunt, Kelly K; Keyomarsi, Khandan

    2005-01-01

    .... Race/ethnicity and tumor biology may affect outcomes. Since regional lymph node status and tumor markers are strong prognostic indicators, this study examines the role of sentinel lymph node status (SLNS...

  20. Natural CD4+ T-cell responses against indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munir, Shamaila; Larsen, Stine Kiaer; Iversen, Trine Zeeberg

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) contributes to immune tolerance in a variety of settings. In cancer IDO is expressed within the tumor itself as well as in antigen-presenting cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes, where it endorses the establishment of peripheral immune tolerance to tum...... antigens. Recently, we described cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell reactivity towards IDO-derived peptides.......The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) contributes to immune tolerance in a variety of settings. In cancer IDO is expressed within the tumor itself as well as in antigen-presenting cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes, where it endorses the establishment of peripheral immune tolerance to tumor...

  1. Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated radiation, Proton beam therapy and proton arc therapy for para-aortic lymph node tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Konyang University Hospital. Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To test feasibility of proton arc therapy (PAT) in the treatment of para-aortic lymph node tumor and compare its dosimetric properties with advanced radiotherapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and conventional 3D conformal proton beam therapy (PBT). The treatment plans for para-aortic lymph node tumor were planned for 9 patients treated at our institution using IMRT, PBT, and PAT. Feasibility test and dosimetric evaluation were based on comparisons of dose volume histograms (DVHs) which reveal mean dose, D{sub 30%}, D{sub 60%}, D{sub 90%}, V{sub 30%}, V{sub 60%}, V{sub 90}%, organ equivalent doses (OEDs), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI). The average doses delivered by PAT to the liver, kidney, small bowel, duodenum, stomach were 7.6%, 3%, 17.3%, 26.7%, and 14.4%, of the prescription dose (PD), respectively, which is higher than the doses delivered by IMRT (0.4%, 7.2%, 14.2%, 15.9%, and 12.8%, respectively) and PBT (4.9%, 0.5%, 14.12%, 16.1% 9.9%, respectively). The average homogeneity index and conformity index of tumor using PAT were 12.1 and 1.21, respectively which were much better than IMRT (21.5 and 1.47, respectively) and comparable to PBT (13.1 and 1.23, respectively). The result shows that both NTCP and OED of PAT are generally lower than IMRT and PBT. This study demonstrates that PAT is better in target conformity and homogeneity than IMRT and PBT but worse than IMRT and PBT for most of dosimetric factor which indicate that PAT is not recommended for the treatment of para-aortic lymph node tumor.

  2. Topographic distribution of inguinal lymph nodes metastasis: significance in determination of treatment margin for elective inguinal lymph nodes irradiation of low pelvic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.J.; Chin, Y.Y.; Leung, Stephen Wan; Chen, H.C.; Sun, L.M.; Fang, F.M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To study the distribution of gross inguinal lymph node metastasis and, in particular, its correlation with major pelvic bony structures on a simulation film. Methods and Materials: Thirty-seven cases of low pelvic tumors having gross inguinal lymph node metastasis that were treated with radiation therapy between November 1987 and December 1992 were segregated for study. The patient's nodes were palpated and marked with lead wire before the simulation film was taken. The geometric center of the usually round or elliptical node on the film was assumed to be the origin of the previously uninfested node. A total of 84 such labeled nodes was obtained from these 37 cases. These centers were transferred to and mapped collectively on a new simulation film showing major pelvic bony structures of left hemipelvis and upper femur. Results: Distribution of gross inguinal lymph nodes was found confined to the following area, as related to major pelvic bony structure: laterally, just abutting the tangential line that passes through lateral border of the femoral head; medially: 3 cm away from the body's midline axis; superiorly: 1 cm below the line that joins both upper borders of the femoral head; inferiorly: 2.5 cm below the low borders of ischial tuberosity. According to this rectangular boundary, three nodes were out of field, nine nodes near the border less than 1 cm margin. This area adequately covered 86% (72 of 84) of the studied nodes. Conclusion: Distribution study is important in determining the treatment margin. In general, an additional 1-2 cm beyond the area described above is the recommended treatment margin for elective inguinal lymph nodes irradiation with high confidence level of coverage.

  3. Angiosarcoma of the Thyroid and Regional Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfi Dogan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid angiosarcomas are typically infiltrative and large tumors with very similar clinical findings of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid. Early hematogenous metastasis is very frequent, but regional lymph node metastasis is quite rare. We present a case of angiosarcoma of the thyroid gland in a 68 years old man with regional lymph node metastasis. Total thyroidectomy with right modified radical neck dissection was applied. Four out of 19 lymph nodes dissected were seen to contain metastasis. Metastatic tumor was composed of sarcomatous areas containing large numbers of blood filled clefts. There after the surgery PET-CT was performed and multiple metastatic involvements were reported. Thyroid angiosarcomas are completely different tumors from angiomatoid anaplastic carcinomas. Longer survival with these tumors is only possible with agressive surgery and in case of regional LN metastasis, neck dissection should be done.

  4. Tumor deposits counted as positive lymph nodes in TNM staging for advanced colorectal cancer: a retrospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Shengke; Hu, Junjie; Liu, Hao; Du, Feng; Yin, Jie; Liu, Sai; Li, Ci; Xing, Shasha; Yuan, Jiatian; Lv, Bo; Fan, Jun; Leng, Shusheng; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Bing

    2016-04-05

    We investigated the possibility of counting tumor deposits (TDs) as positive lymph nodes (pLNs) in the pN category and evaluated its prognostic value for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. A new pN category (npN category) was calculated using the numbers of pLNs plus TDs. The npN category included 4 tiers: npN1a (1 tumor node), npN1b (2-3 tumor nodes), npN2a (4-6 tumor nodes), and npN2b (≥7 tumor nodes). We identified 4,121 locally advanced CRC patients, including 717 (11.02%) cases with TDs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the disease-free and overall survival (DFS and OS) for npN and pN categories. Multivariate analysis showed that the npN and pN categories were both independent prognostic factors for DFS (HR 1.614, 95% CI 1.541 to 1.673; HR 1.604, 95% CI 1.533 to 1.679) and OS (HR 1.633, 95% CI 1.550 to 1.720; HR 1.470, 95% CI 1.410 to 1.532). However, the npN category was superior to the pN category by Harrell's C statistic. We conclude that it is thus feasible to consider TDs as positive lymph nodes in the pN category when evaluating the prognoses of CRC patients, and the npN category is potentially superior to the TNM (7th edition) pN category for predicting DFS and OS among advanced CRC patients.

  5. Sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer: a critical reappraisal of the internal mammary chain issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, G; Volterrani, D; Mazzarri, S; Duce, V; Svirydenka, A; Giuliano, A; Mariani, G

    2014-06-01

    Although, like the axilla, the internal mammary nodes (IMNs) are a first-echelon nodal drainage site in breast cancer, the importance of their treatment has long been debated. Seminal randomized trials have failed to demonstrate a survival benefit from surgical IMN dissection, and several retrospective studies have shown that IMNs are rarely the first site of recurrence. However, the recent widespread adoption of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has stimulated a critical reappraisal of such early results. Furthermore, the higher proportion of screening-detected cancers, improved imaging and techniques (i.e., lymphoscintigraphy for radioguided SLN biopsy) make it possible to visualize lymphatic drainage to the IMNs. The virtually systematic application of adjuvant systemic and/or loco-regional radiotherapy encourages re-examination of the significance of IMN metastases. Moreover, randomized trials testing the value of postmastectomy irradiation and a meta-analysis of 78 randomized trials have provided high levels of evidence that local-regional tumor control is associated with long-term survival improvements. This benefit was limited to trials that used systemic chemotherapy, which was not routinely administered in the earlier studies. However, the contribution from IMN treatment is unclear. Lymphoscintigraphic studies have shown that a significant proportion of breast cancers have primary drainage to the IMNs, including approximately 30% of medial tumors and 15% of lateral tumors. In the few studies where IMN biopsy was performed, 20% of sentinel IMNs were metastatic. The risk of IMN involvement is higher in patients with medial tumors and positive axillary nodes. IMN metastasis has prognostic significance, as recognized by its inclusion in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging criteria, and seems to have similar prognostic importance as axillary nodal involvement. Although routine IMN evaluation might be indicated, it has not been routinely performed

  6. Sheep lymph-nodes as a biological indicator of environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledda, Caterina; Loreto, Carla; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2016-01-01

    A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. The lymph-nodes draining the pulmonary lobes of sheep grazing around the town were examined, to gain insights into fibre diffusion. The pasture areas of six sheep flocks lying about 3 km from Biancavilla were located using the global positioning system. The cranial tracheobronchial and one middle mediastinal lymph-node as well as four lung tissue samples were collected from 10 animals from each flock and from 10 control sheep for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The lymph-nodes from exposed sheep were enlarged and exhibited signs of anthracosis. Histologically, especially at the paracortical level, they showed lymph-follicle hyperplasia with large reactive cores and several macrophages (coniophages) containing grey-brownish particulate interspersed with elements with a fibril structure, forming aggregates of varying dimensions (coniophage nodules). Similar findings were detected in some peribronchiolar areas of the lung parenchyma. SEM examination showed that FE fibres measured 8–41 µm in length and 0.4–1.39 µm in diameter in both lymph-nodes and lung tissue. Monitoring of FE fibres in sheep lymph-nodes using appropriate techniques can help set up environmental pollution surveillance. - Highlights: • Lymph-nodes draining sheep lung were used to assess environmental fluoro-edenite exposure. • Monitoring fluoro-edenite fibres in sheep lung nodes can provide pollution surveillance. • Our findings document a risk of fluoro-edenite fibre inhalation a few kilometres from the source. • Sheep appear to be a valuable bioindicator species.

  7. Sheep lymph-nodes as a biological indicator of environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledda, Caterina, E-mail: cledda@unict.it [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Loreto, Carla [Human Anatomy and Histology, Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Pomara, Cristoforo [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Rapisarda, Giuseppe [Department of Veterinary Medicine, ASP Catania, Catania (Italy); Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita [Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Fenga, Concettina [Occupational Medicine, Department of the Environment, Safety, Territory, Food and Health Sciences, University of Messina, Messina (Italy); Rapisarda, Venerando [Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. The lymph-nodes draining the pulmonary lobes of sheep grazing around the town were examined, to gain insights into fibre diffusion. The pasture areas of six sheep flocks lying about 3 km from Biancavilla were located using the global positioning system. The cranial tracheobronchial and one middle mediastinal lymph-node as well as four lung tissue samples were collected from 10 animals from each flock and from 10 control sheep for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The lymph-nodes from exposed sheep were enlarged and exhibited signs of anthracosis. Histologically, especially at the paracortical level, they showed lymph-follicle hyperplasia with large reactive cores and several macrophages (coniophages) containing grey-brownish particulate interspersed with elements with a fibril structure, forming aggregates of varying dimensions (coniophage nodules). Similar findings were detected in some peribronchiolar areas of the lung parenchyma. SEM examination showed that FE fibres measured 8–41 µm in length and 0.4–1.39 µm in diameter in both lymph-nodes and lung tissue. Monitoring of FE fibres in sheep lymph-nodes using appropriate techniques can help set up environmental pollution surveillance. - Highlights: • Lymph-nodes draining sheep lung were used to assess environmental fluoro-edenite exposure. • Monitoring fluoro-edenite fibres in sheep lung nodes can provide pollution surveillance. • Our findings document a risk of fluoro-edenite fibre inhalation a few kilometres from the source. • Sheep appear to be a valuable bioindicator species.

  8. Mechanical disruption of tumors by iron particles and magnetic field application results in increased anti-tumor immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam N Bouchlaka

    Full Text Available The primary tumor represents a potential source of antigens for priming immune responses for disseminated disease. Current means of debulking tumors involves the use of cytoreductive conditioning that impairs immune cells or removal by surgery. We hypothesized that activation of the immune system could occur through the localized release of tumor antigens and induction of tumor death due to physical disruption of tumor architecture and destruction of the primary tumor in situ. This was accomplished by intratumor injection of magneto-rheological fluid (MRF consisting of iron microparticles, in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer, followed by local application of a magnetic field resulting in immediate coalescence of the particles, tumor cell death, slower growth of primary tumors as well as decreased tumor progression in distant sites and metastatic spread. This treatment was associated with increased activation of DCs in the draining lymph nodes and recruitment of both DCs and CD8(+T cells to the tumor. The particles remained within the tumor and no toxicities were observed. The immune induction observed was significantly greater compared to cryoablation. Further anti-tumor effects were observed when MRF/magnet therapy was combined with systemic low dose immunotherapy. Thus, mechanical disruption of the primary tumor with MRF/magnetic field application represents a novel means to induce systemic immune activation in cancer.

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howman-Giles, R.

    2002-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an important technique in the management of patients with intermediate level melanoma, clinical operable breast cancer and some other cancers. The technique relies on lymphatic mapping to define the lymph drainage from a primary tumour with the premise that the lymph nodes, which directly drain from that area, will reflect the tumour status of the remainder of the node field. Current techniques use lymphoscintigraphy where a radioactive labelled particle and / or blue dye are injected intradermally or intraparenchymally to map the lymph drainage, often in conjunction with a radioactive gamma probe at surgery. In patients with melanoma the SLNB has improved the staging and prognostic information by more accurate determination of whether regional lymph nodes have metastatic spread. This has a major impact on patient management as those patients with negative nodes do not require regional lymph node dissection and have a significantly better prognosis. In our experience of over 3000 patients the combined sentinel node biopsy technique localised accurately 98% of sentinel lymph nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy in patients with melanoma to locate the sentinel lymph nodes involves the intradermal injection of a radiocolloid around the melanoma site or the excision biopsy site. Injections of 5 -10 MBq in 0.05-0.1ml/inj are used and typically 4 injections are usually required. Following tracer injection dynamic imaging is performed to follow the lymphatic collecting vessels until they reach the draining sentinel nodes. An image should be acquired as the vessels reach the node field so that the sentinel nodes directly receiving the channels can be identified and distinguished from any second tier nodes which may sometimes be seen. Delayed scans are performed 2 hours later at which time all regions which can possible drain the primary melanoma site are examined with 5-10 minute static images. The surface location of all sentinel nodes is

  10. Inhibition of IL-17A suppresses enhanced-tumor growth in low dose pre-irradiated tumor beds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Lee

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation induces modification of the tumor microenvironment such as tumor surrounding region, which is relevant to treatment outcome after radiotherapy. In this study, the effects of pre-irradiated tumor beds on the growth of subsequently implanted tumors were investigated as well as underlying mechanism. The experimental model was set up by irradiating the right thighs of C3H/HeN mice with 5 Gy, followed by the implantation of HCa-I and MIH-2. Both implanted tumors in the pre-irradiated bed showed accelerated-growth compared to the control. Tumor-infiltrated lymphocyte (TIL levels were increased, as well as pro-tumor factors such as IL-6 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 in the pre-irradiated group. In particular, the role of pro-tumor cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A was investigated as a possible target mechanism because IL-6 and TGF-β are key factors in Th17 cells differentiation from naïve T cells. IL-17A expression was increased not only in tumors, but also in CD4+ T cells isolated from the tumor draining lymph nodes. The effect of IL-17A on tumor growth was confirmed by treating tumors with IL-17A antibody, which abolished the acceleration of tumor growth. These results indicate that the upregulation of IL-17A seems to be a key factor for enhancing tumor growth in pre-irradiated tumor beds.

  11. Sentinel nodes are identifiable in formalin-fixed specimens after surgeon-performed ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, Fraser McLean

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the technique of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has been applied to colorectal cancer. One aim was to ultrastage patients who were deemed node negative by routine pathologic processing but who went on to develop systemic disease. Such a group may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: With fully informed consent and ethical approval, 37 patients with primary colorectal cancer and 3 patients with large adenomas were prospectively mapped. Isosulfan blue dye (1 to 2 mL) was injected around tumors within 5 to 10 minutes of resection. After gentle massage to recreate in vivo lymph flow, specimens were placed directly into formalin. During routine pathologic analysis, all nodes were bivalved, and blue-staining nodes were noted. These later underwent multilevel step sectioning with hematoxylin and eosin and cytokeratin staining. RESULTS: SLNs were found in 39 of 40 patients (98% sensitivity), with an average of 4.1 SLNs per patient (range, 1-8). In 14 of 16 (88% specificity) patients with nodal metastases on routine reporting, SLN status was in accordance. Focused examination of SLNs identified occult tumor deposits in 6 (29%) of 21 node-negative patients. No metastatic cells were found in SLNs draining the three adenomas. CONCLUSIONS: The ability to identify SLNs after formalin fixation increases the ease and applicability of SLN mapping in colorectal cancer. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity of this simple ex vivo method for establishing regional lymph node status were directly comparable to those in previously published reports.

  12. Immune complexes stimulate CCR7-dependent dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatworthy, Menna R.; Aronin, Caren E. Petrie; Mathews, Rebeccah J.; Morgan, Nicole; Smith, Kenneth G.C.; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies are critical for defence against a variety of microbes but may also be pathogenic in some autoimmune diseases. Many effector functions of antibody are mediated by Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), which are found on most immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are important antigen presenting cells and play a central role in inducing antigen-specific tolerance or immunity1,2. Following antigen acquisition in peripheral tissues, DCs migrate to draining lymph nodes via lymphatics to present antigen to T cells. In this study we demonstrate that FcγR engagement by IgG immune complexes (IC) stimulates DC migration from peripheral tissues to the paracortex of draining lymph nodes. In vitro, IC-stimulated murine and human DCs showed enhanced directional migration in a CCL19 gradient and increased CCR7 expression. Using intravital two-photon microscopy, we observed that local administration of IC resulted in dermal DC mobilisation. We confirmed that dermal DC migration to lymph nodes was CCR7-dependent and increased in the absence of the inhibitory receptor, FcγRIIb. These observations have relevance to autoimmunity, because autoantibody-containing serum from mice and humans with SLE also increased dermal DC migration to lymph nodes in vivo, suggesting that this process may occur in lupus, potentially driving the inappropriate localisation of autoantigen-bearing DCs. PMID:25384086

  13. Computed tomography (CT) of cervical lymph nodes in patients with oral cancer. Comparison of low-attenuation areas in lymph nodes on CT images with pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunari, Fumiko; Okamura, Kazuhiko; Yuasa, Kenji; Kagawa, Toyohiro; Zeze, Ryousuke

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the histopathological features of low-attenuation areas in computed tomography (CT) images of cervical metastatic and benign lymph nodes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). CT images of 230 lymph nodes from 37 patients with oral SCC were classified into four categories and compared with histopathological findings. Metastatic lymph nodes were evaluated in terms of focal necrosis, keratinization, fibrous tissue, and the proportion of the lymph node showing focal necrosis. Benign lymph nodes were evaluated in terms of adipose tissue, follicular hyperplasia, sinus histiocytosis, hyperemia, focal hemorrhaging, and the amount of adipose tissue. Histopathologically, all 13 metastatic lymph nodes with rim enhancement on CT images included focal necrosis. However, most of the lymph nodes showed no focal necrosis. In addition, tumor cells, keratinization, and fibrous tissue were observed in the lymph nodes. Of the 26 metastatic lymph nodes with a heterogeneous appearance on CT images, four did not show focal necrosis. These lymph nodes showed keratinization or accumulation of lymph fluid. Histopathologically, 20 of 24 benign lymph nodes with a heterogeneous appearance on CT images (83.3%) had accompanying adipose tissue. Focal necrosis was the most important factor contributing to low attenuation in metastatic lymph nodes. However, other factors, such as tumor cells, keratinization, fibrous tissue, and accumulation of lymph fluid, also contributed. In benign lymph nodes, the presence of adipose tissue was a contributing factor in low-attenuation areas, as was focal hemorrhaging. (author)

  14. Lymph node status as a prognostic factor after palliative resection of primary tumor for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingguo; Wang, Changjian; Li, Yaqi; Li, Xinxiang; Xu, Ye; Cai, Guoxiang; Lian, Peng; Cai, Sanjun

    2017-07-18

    Lymph node (LN) status is one of the most important predictors for M0 colorectal cancer patients. However, its clinical impact on stage IV colorectal cancer remains unclear. The study aimed to explore the prognostic value of LN status after palliative resection of primary tumor for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We combined analyses of mCRC patients in Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC).A total of 17,553 patients with mCRC were identified in SEER database. X-tile program was adopted to identify 2 and 10 as optimal cutoff values for negative lymph node (NLN) count to divide patients into 3 subgroups of high, middle and low risk of cancer related death. N stage and NLN count were verified as independent prognostic factors in multivariate analyses of patients in whole cohort and in subgroup analyses of each N stage (Pcolorectal cancer. Advanced N stage and small number of NLN were correlated with high risk of cancer related death after palliative resection of primary tumor.

  15. Comparison of four staging systems of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhu, Guanyu; Ma, Yan; Xue, Yingwei

    2009-11-01

    The classification of lymph node metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is still controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the relative merits of four staging systems of lymph node metastasis. In our study, the nodal status was classified according to the 5th edition of the tumor node metastasis (TNM) system, the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma (JCGC), the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes, and the size of the largest metastatic lymph node. Each staging system was scored as good (+2), fair (+1), or poor (0) with respect to the theoretical value (extent of the anatomical lymphatic tumor spread), convenience (simplicity), surgical applicability (extent of lymph node dissection), and prognostic value (ability to predict survival rate). In the multivariate analysis including the four staging systems and other potential prognostic factors, stepwise Cox regression revealed that the ratio of metastatic lymph nodes was the most independent prognostic factor. The TNM, ratio, and size systems were convenient because they had no consideration for the location of the tumor and lymph node. Although the JCGC system had advantages in theoretical value and surgical application, it was most optional due to the complexity of the system. Although all different staging systems are comparable, the metastatic lymph node ratio system is convenient, reproducible, and has the highest ability to predict survival.

  16. Primo vessel inside a lymph vessel emerging from a cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwoo; Ryu, Yeonhee; Cha, Jinmyung; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Kim, Sungchul; Lim, Jaekwan

    2012-10-01

    Primo vessels were observed inside the lymph vessels near the caudal vena cava of a rabbit and a rat and in the thoracic lymph duct of a mouse. In the current work we found a primo vessel inside the lymph vessel that came out from the tumor tissue of a mouse. A cancer model of a nude mouse was made with human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460. We injected fluorescent nanoparticles into the xenografted tumor tissue and studied their flow in blood, lymph, and primo vessels. Fluorescent nanoparticles flowed through the blood vessels quickly in few minutes, and but slowly in the lymph vessels. The bright fluorescent signals of nanoparticles disappeared within one hour in the blood vessels but remained much longer up to several hours in the case of lymph vessels. We found an exceptional case of lymph vessels that remained bright with fluorescence up to 24 hours. After detailed examination we found that the bright fluorescence was due to a putative primo vessel inside the lymph vessel. This rare observation is consistent with Bong-Han Kim's claim on the presence of a primo vascular system in lymph vessels. It provides a significant suggestion on the cancer metastasis through primo vessels and lymph vessels. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Nano-imaging of the lymph network structure with quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikage, Makoto; Gonda, Kohsuke; Takeda, Motohiro; Ohuchi, Noriaki [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kamei, Takashi; Satomi, Susumu [Department of Advanced Surgical Science and Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masaki; Kumasaka, Masutaka [Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Yagiyama Kasumicho, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, Mika, E-mail: gonda@m.tains.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)

    2010-05-07

    Sentinel lymph node diagnosis contributes to operative strategy in cancer surgery. During lymph node metastasis, cancer cells first reach the sentinel lymph node (SLN) via lymph flow. To perform SLN biopsy effectively, it is important that cancer cells are detected with high sensitivity in SLN connected to the tumor site. Here we present a method to visualize a high-risk area in the SLN for lymph node metastasis with a high degree of accuracy. Quantum dots (QDs), bright fluorescent nanoparticles, were endoscopically injected into the gastrointestinal wall of pigs, and their signal was specifically detected in the SLN with a laparoscopic device. Single-particle imaging under a confocal microscope showed that the QDs were distributed heterogeneously in the SLN and that their distribution marked the inflow locus of afferent lymphatic vessels where lymph node metastasis begins. Moreover, we developed a method using cellular marker conjugated QDs that visualizes specific cells in SLNs, suggesting that this method can be applied for the detection of cancer cells in sentinel lymph nodes using tumor-specific-molecular conjugated QDs. These results show that our method might significantly increase the detection rate of cancer metastasis in SLNs.

  18. Perioperative lumbar drain utilization in transsphenoidal pituitary resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Shatha; Harsh, Griffith; Ajlan, Abdulrazag

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate lumbar drain (LD) efficacy in transnasal resection of pituitary macroadenomas in preventing postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, technique safety, and effect on length of hospital stay. We conducted a retrospective data review of pituitary tumor patients in our institution who underwent surgery between December 2006 and January 2013. All patients were operated on for complete surgical resection of pituitary macroadenoma tumors. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 received a preoperative drain, while LD was not preoperatively inserted in group 2. In cases of tumors with suprasellar extension with anticipation of high-flow leak, LD was inserted after the patient was intubated and in a lateral position. Lumbar drain was used for 48 hours, and the drain was removed if no leak was observed postoperatively. In documented postoperative CSF leak patients with no preoperative drain, the leak was treated by LD trial prior to surgical reconstruction. Cases in which leak occurred 6 months postoperatively were excluded. Our study population consisted of 186 patients, 99 women (53%) and 87 men (47%), with a mean age of 50.3+/-16.1 years. Complications occurred in 7 patients (13.7%) in group 1 versus 21 (15.5%) in group 2 (p=0.72). Postoperative CSF leak was observed in 1 patient (1.9%) in group 1 and 7 (5%) in group 2 (Fisher exact test=0.3). Length of hospital stay was a mean of 4.7+/-1.9 days in group 1 and a mean of 2.7+/-2.4 days in group 2 (pLD insertion is generally considered safe with a low risk of complications, it increases the length of hospitalization. Minor complications include headaches and patient discomfort.

  19. Skeleton labeled 13C-carbon nanoparticles for the imaging and quantification in tumor drainage lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Xie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ping Xie,1 Qian Xin,2 Sheng-Tao Yang,3 Tiantian He,2,4 Yuanfang Huang,2 Guangfu Zeng,2,4 Maosheng Ran,2,5 Xiaohai Tang2 1State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2Chongqing Lummy Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Chongqing, 3College of Chemistry & Environment Protection Engineering, Southwest University for Nationalities, 4College of Life Sciences, Sichuan Normal University, 5State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs have been widely used in tumor drainage lymph node (TDLN imaging, drug delivery, photothermal therapy, and so on. However, during the theranostic applications, the accumulation efficiency of CNPs in target organs is unknown yet, which largely hinders the extension of CNPs into clinical uses. Herein, we prepared skeleton-labeled 13C-CNPs that had identical properties to commercial CNPs suspension injection (CNSI for the imaging and quantification in TDLN. 13C-CNPs were prepared by arc discharge method, followed by homogenization with polyvinylpyrrolidone. The size distribution and morphology of 13C-CNPs were nearly the same as those of CNSI under transmission electron microscope. The hydrodynamic radii of both 13C-CNPs and CNSI were similar, too. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy analyses, the chemical compositions and chemical states of elements were also nearly identical for both labeled and commercial forms. The skeleton labeling of 13C was reflected by the shift of G-band toward lower frequency in Raman spectra. 13C-CNPs showed competitive performance in TDLN imaging, where the three lymph nodes (popliteal lymph node, common iliac artery lymph node, and paraaortic lymph node were stained black upon the injection into the hind extremity of mice. The direct quantification of 13C-CNPs indicated that 877 µg

  20. Classification of lymph nodes in computerized tomography scans using extracting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Allan F.F.; Pina, Diana R. de; Altemani, Joao M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node changes in the neck region may be originated by both inflammatory and tumor causes. Diagnostic imaging method such as computed tomography are used to distinguish between these two main causes of lymph nodes alterations. In this work we used feature extracting tools I CT scans such as the average value of pixels, wavelet entropy, skewness and kurtosis to assist the radiologist in diagnosing lymph nodes alterations. The wavelet entropy proved to be the best image characteristic parameter to differentiate between the two groups of patients evaluated in this study. The study of cervical lymph nodes changes by features extraction methods may prove to be an excellent tool to assist in differentiating between infectious / inflammatory and tumor causes in CT scans. (author)

  1. Survival benefit of post-mastectomy radiotherapy in breast carcinoma patients with T1-2 tumor and 1-3 axillary lymph node(s) metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraker, N.; Demir, D.; Bati, B.; Yilmaz, B.D.; Bati, Y.; Sobutay, E.; Caynak, Z.C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of post-mastectomy radiotherapy in breast carcinoma patients with a tumor size of 5 cm or smaller (T1-2) and 1-3 axillary lymph node(s) metastasis (N1). We retrospectively reviewed the file records of 575 patients receiving radiotherapy (452 patients) and not receiving radiotherapy (123 patients). In the whole series, locoregional recurrence-free survival was significantly better in patients receiving radiotherapy compared with patients not receiving radiotherapy (P 0.25 and in T2N1 breast carcinoma patients with a lymph node ratio of >0.08. In patients with a lymph node ratio equal to or less than these ratios, post-mastectomy radiotherapy could be omitted to avoid radiotherapy-related risks. (author)

  2. Sentinel lymph node (Sln) detection in vulvar cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, J.; Mende, T.; Lantzsch, T.; Seliger, G.; Koelbl, H.; Buchmann, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the study is to verify the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in patients with evidence of vulva cancer. We studied 13 women with early stage (T1/T2) carcinoma of the vulva. One day before surgery a lymphoscintigraphy was done. We injected intradermally an average 76 MBq of 99m Tc-labelled human colloides (Albu-Res(r) in 0.4-0.6 ml NaCI at 4 locations round the tumor regarding the midline. Because of the large particles the colloid was filtered before to obtain the small particle fraction between 200-450 nm. Immediately alter injection a dynamic scintigraphy was performed with 28 images, 1 minute per frame. Additional we made static images, 5 minutes per image, 30 and 120 minutes after injection. The location of the SLN was marked on the skin. The SLN was intraoperatively identified using a hand-held gamma probe. In every case a complete inguino-femoral lymph node dissection was done. In all cases we could show one or more (on average 3) SLN by means of lymphoscintigraphy and in 11/13 cases we could detect SLN by using the gamma probe. Lymph channels were seen in 7/13 dynamic studies. 4/13 patients had lymph node metastasis in the SLN (3/4 cases only the SLN and in 1/4 cases the SLN and one additional lymph node were positive). We did not found any tumor-positive non-sentinel lymph node in case of tumor-negative SLN. The morbidity after operation of patients with vulva cancer is considerable and related to the groin dissection. The selective SLN-biopsy instead of radical groin dissection is feasible to reduce the morbidity without a loss of staging and prognostic factors. This method should be restricted to patients with early stage vulva cancer with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes. Further studies are needed to evaluate the accuracy and clinical validity of this procedure. (author)

  3. [Improvement of local lymph node assay for cosmetics safety evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Junping; Wang, Fei; Xu, Guifeng; Hou, Juan; Wan, Xuying; Zhang, Tianbao

    2009-09-01

    To improve the local lymph node assay (LLNA) as an alternative method to detect chemicals for both sensitization and irritation. The following chemicals: one negative control: 4-Aminobenzoic Acid, three sensitizers: 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), Hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), 2-Aminophenol (2-APC) and two irritations: potassium hydroxide (KOH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) were selected. According to the normal LLNA, groups of female Balb/c mice were treated with test solutions. The thickness of each ear was measured and each auricle was weighed. On the sixth day, the bilateral draining auricular lymph nodes were excised and weighed. The single cell suspensions were prepared, the lymphocyte were counted and the proliferations of lymph cells were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Significant increase in ear thickness and weight were found in groups of KOH, SLS and DNCB (above 0.5%) (P LLNA using auricle thickness and weighing as observed markers for irritation, and using lymph nodes weighing and proliferation of lymphocyte as observed markers for sensitization, could evaluate both sensitization and irritation at the same time.

  4. Accuracy of EUS for estimating the depth of tumor invasion and for diagnosing lymph node metastasis and recurrence in patients with m3 and sm esophageal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Miwako; Tada, Masahiro; Tanaka, Youichi; Arima, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    Esophagus-preserving therapy has been increasingly used to treat esophageal cancer invading the m 3 and sm, thereby avoiding radical surgery. However, many problems remain to be solved, including the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis and recurrence and the assessment of long-term outcomes. We studied 132 patients who had esophageal cancer with m 3 and sm invasion. Clinical course after esophagus-preserving therapy, and the accuracy and roles of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for diagnosing the depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and recurrence were assessed. EUS can be used to examine the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal regions, without being affected by heat beats. Therefore, EUS can more clearly depict lymph nodes than CT or US. The accuracy of EUS was 86.4% for estimating the depth of tumor invasion and 82% for diagnosing lymph node metastasis. All cases of nodal recurrence were diagnosed by EUS. Among patients who received chemoradiotherapy, enlarged lymph nodes often appeared around 3 years after treatment, and recurrence was diagnosed slightly later than that in patients who underwent endoscopic mucosal resection. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy was sometimes performed to determine the treatment policy. Patients who receive chemoradiotherapy should undergo regular long-term follow-up by CT, US, and EUS. EUS is essential for the earlier detection of recurrence. (author)

  5. Analysis of the movement of calcified lymph nodes during breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Peter; Salmon, Clare; Mannion, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and measure the respiratory-induced movement of calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. Methods and materials: Twenty-one patients receiving radiation therapy for primary lung or pleural tumors were noted to have calcification within one or more mediastinal lymph nodes. The breathing motion of 27 such nodes was measured with orthogonal fluoroscopic imaging during quiet respiration. Results: All 27 nodes showed some motion synchronous with breathing. The mean respiratory movement was 6.6 mm, 2.6 mm, and 1.4 mm in the craniocaudal, dorsoventral, and mediolateral planes, respectively. There was a significant difference in the amplitude of motion in the craniocaudal plane compared with movement in the other two directions (p < 0.001). No differences were seen in the movement of lymph nodes dependent on position within the mediastinum (supracarinal vs. infracarinal or hilar vs. mediastinal). Neither size of the primary tumor nor spirometric parameters were correlated with the amplitude of lymph node movement. Conclusions: Mediastinal lymph nodes move during breathing, and this needs to be accounted for when the internal margin component of the PTV is defined. The amplitude of this movement is anisotropic and seems to be less than that reported for primary lung tumors. This should permit a modest reduction in the margin allowed for breathing movement around involved mediastinal nodes, particularly in the mediolateral and dorsoventral planes

  6. Cervical Lymph Node Metastases fromMeningioma: Report of Two Cases andTreatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Daneshbod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningioma is usually a benign central nervous system (CNS tumor. Metastasisis rare; however if it does occur the most metastatic sites are the liver and lungs. Here,two cases of CNS meningioma with metastasis to cervical lymph nodes are reported.The first case, a 48 year-old man developed cervical lymph node metastasis nine yearsafter primary tumor diagnosis. The second case, a 23 year-old woman with parietallobe meningioma, developed lymph node metastasis in the neck nine months afterthe diagnosis of meningioma

  7. Intranodal Palisaded Myofibroblastoma in a Submandibular Lymph Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bouhajja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intranodal palisaded myofibroblastoma (IPM, also known as “intranodal hemorrhagic spindle cell tumor with amianthoid fibers,” is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor originating from smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts, often with the presence of amianthoid fibers. Usually IPM affects inguinal lymph nodes, but three cases have been described in the submandibular and cervical lymph nodes. We report a new case of a 44-year-old women with submandibular mass. Cervical ultrasound showed a suspect right submandibular adenomegaly. The patient underwent an excision of the submandibular mass. Histological features of the tumor include an encapsulated fusocellular proliferation, with nuclear palisading, amianthoid fibers, hemosiderin pigment, and extravasated erythrocytes. In the light of these results, we made the diagnosis of IPM. No recurrence was found 5 years after surgery.

  8. Significance of lymph node capsular invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Makoto; Suzuki, Shigemasa; Sano, Akihiko; Tanaka, Naritaka; Inose, Takanori; Sohda, Makoto; Nakajima, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    Extranodal invasion (ENI) has been reported to be associated with a poor prognosis in several malignancies. However, previous studies have included perinodal fat tissue tumor deposits in their definitions of ENI. To investigate the precise nature of ENI in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we excluded these tumor deposits from our definition of ENI and defined tumor cell invasion through the lymph node capsule and into the perinodal tissues as lymph node capsular invasion (LNCI). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the significance of LNCI in ESCC. We investigated the associations between LNCI and other clinicopathologic features in 139 surgically resected ESCC. We also investigated the prognostic significance of LNCI in ESCC. LNCI was detected in 35 (25.2%) of 139 patients. The overall survival rate of the ESCC patients with LNCI was significantly lower than that of the ESCC patients with lymph node metastasis who were negative for LNCI. The survival difference between the patients with 1–3 lymph node metastases without LNCI and those with no lymph node metastasis was not significant. LNCI was significantly associated with distant organ recurrence. LNCI was also found to be an independent predictor of overall survival in addition to the number of lymph node metastases. LNCI in ESCC patients is an indicator of distant organ recurrence and a worse prognosis. LNCI could be used as a candidate marker for designing more precise staging and therapeutic strategies for ESCC.

  9. Comparison between CT and histopathological findings of cervical lymph node metastases in the oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Akemi

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the findings of contrast-enhanced CT scans and the histopathological findings of regional lymph nodes obtained from a complete extirpation of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Twenty-seven pairs of contrast-enhanced CT scans and histopathological specimens of 27 oral squamous cell carcinoma used in this study were obtained at Kyushu Dental College Hospital between 1987 and 1999. The primary site of the 27 tumor consists of the tongue (13 cases), the mandibular gingiva (6 cases), the maxillary gingiva (4 cases), the floor of the oral cavity (3 cases), and the buccal mucosa (1 case). The results obtained were as follows: Of the 27 cases, 11 (41%) were proven to be positive lymph nodes metastatic cases histopathologically. Metastatic lymph nodes were predominantly detected in both the submandibular regions and the superior internal jugular chains (95%). The length and the ratio of the short and long axes of the metastatic lymph nodes were larger than those of the non-metastatic lymph nodes. Many of the metastatic lymph nodes revealed a low density in their central area and were also accompanied by a thin ring enhancement. Non-metastatic lymph nodes, affected by inflammation, often revealed a heterogeneous density. The ring enhancement was predominantly seen in the metastatic lymph nodes (45%), which were filled with a well-differentiated tumor cell. In the metastatic lymph nodes, which were filled with moderately-differentiated tumor cells, were seen heterogeneous density, but a ring enhancement was not seen. In the metastatic lymph nodes, it was difficult to decide the metastasis by contrast CT scan, if the tumor extension degree was not predominant. The ring enhancement was caused by the dilatation of the capsular vessels, but not by the extra capsular spread of the tumor cells. (author)

  10. Detection of Genetic Alterations in Breast Sentinel Lymph Node by Array-CGH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavalli, Luciane R

    2005-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first node in the mammary gland to harbor malignant cells in breast tumors with metastasis, and SLN positivity is an indication for axillary lymph node dissection...

  11. Detection of Genetic Alterations in Breast Sentinel Lymph Node by Array-CGH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavalli, Luciane R

    2006-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first node in the mammary gland to harbor malignant cells in breast tumors with metastasis, and SLN positivity is an indication for axillary lymph node dissection...

  12. Clinical and pathologic factors affecting lymph node yields in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Wen Hsu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lymph node yield is recommended as a benchmark of quality care in colorectal cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of various factors upon lymph node yield and to identify independent factors associated with lymph node harvest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 162 patients with Stage I to Stage III colorectal cancers seen in one institution were reviewed. These patients underwent radical surgery as definitive therapy; high-risk patients then received adjuvant treatment. Pathologic and demographic data were recorded and analyzed. The subgroup analysis of lymph node yields was determined using a t-test and analysis of variants. Linear regression model and multivariable analysis were used to perform potential confounding and predicting variables. RESULTS: Five variables had significant association with lymph node yield after adjustment for other factors in a multiple linear regression model. These variables were: tumor size, surgical method, specimen length, and individual surgeon and pathologist. The model with these five significant variables interpreted 44.4% of the variation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients, tumor characteristics and surgical variables all influence the number of lymph nodes retrieved. Physicians are the main gatekeepers. Adequate training and optimized guidelines could greatly improve the quality of lymph node yields.

  13. Pitfalls in the assessment of radioresponse as determined by tumor regression. Consideration based on the location and histologic constitution of tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Wakako; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2000-05-01

    To prove the following hypotheses regarding tumor shrinkage after radiotherapy. Tumors located on an outer tissue surface, e.g. esophageal tumors shrink faster than parenchymal tumors, e.g. lymph-node metastasis, because two clearance mechanisms, exfoliation and absorption, can operate in the former type of tumors whereas only absorption can function in the latter. Tumors which are being controlled do not necessarily respond completely, because tumors are constituted not only of tumor cells but also stromal tissues that are difficult to be absorbed. Long-term shrinkage patterns of a parenchymal tumor were determined by using 18 curatively irradiated hepatomas. Preoperatively irradiated thymomas (10) and lymph-node metastases (37) from head and neck cancers were examined histopathologically. Twenty-one esophageal cancers were used for intra-patient response comparison between the primary disease and the lymph-node metastases. Shrinkage patterns were generally biphasic: rapid exponential regression followed by a plateau phase. Histologically, thymomas generally consisted of predominant fibrous tissues and few remaining tumor cells. Radioresponse did not predict the presence of remaining cancer cells in the lymph nodes. Esophageal-cancer radiorespone was always higher for the primary disease than the lymph-node metastases. The location and histologic constitution of tumors must be taken into account in predicting radiocurability using radioresponse. (author)

  14. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against pandemic (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Exarhos, Demetrios; Housianakou, Irene; Bournazos, Apostolos; Datseris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    To alert the imaging community to potential false positive findings related to current immunization programmes against H1N1 influenza virus. We reviewed 10 patients referred for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) who had undergone recent vaccination. All studies showed 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the draining axillary lymph nodes close to the vaccination site, while low-dose CT revealed lymph nodes ranged between 0.5 cm and 1.2 cm at the same site. This potential pitfall in PET/CT should be borne in mind during current vaccination programmes. (orig.)

  15. Annexin A7 suppresses lymph node metastasis of hepatocarcinoma cells in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yanling; Wang, Shaoqing; Chen, Wenjing; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Bo; Guan, Hongwei; Tang, Jianwu

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in China. This study investigated the effects of Annexin A7 (ANXA7) on the inhibition of HCC lymph node metastasis in a mouse model. The stable knockup and knockdown of Annexin A7-expressing HCC cells using Annexin A7 cDNA and shRNA vectors, respectively, were injected into a mouse footpad to establish primary and metastatic tumors in mice. On the 14th, 21st, and 28th days after HCC cells inoculation, the mice were sacrificed for inspection of primary and secondary tumors and immunohistochemistry of Annexin A7 expression. The lymph node metastasis rate of the F ANXA7-control group was 77%, and the lymph node metastasis rate of the F ANXA7-down group was 100% (p < 0.05). In contrast, the lymph node metastasis rate of the P ANXA7-up group was 0% and that of the P ANXA7-control group was 36% (p < 0.05). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry experiments revealed that the subcellular localization of Annexin A7 protein in both primary and lymph node-metastasized tumors was mainly in the cytosol. In addition, the expression of the 47 kDa and 51 kDa isoforms of Annexin A7 protein changed during tumor progression. This study indicated that Annexin A7 expression was able to inhibit HCC lymph node metastasis, whereas knockdown of Annexin A7 expression significantly induced HCC metastasis to local lymph nodes

  16. Analysis of molecular markers as predictive factors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Luciana Marques; De Moraes, Luis Henrique Ferreira; Do Canto, Abaeté Leite; Dos Santos, Laurita; Martin, Airton Abrahão; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; De Azevedo Canevari, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Nodal status is the most significant independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. Identification of molecular markers would allow stratification of patients who require surgical assessment of lymph nodes from the large numbers of patients for whom this surgical procedure is unnecessary, thus leading to a more accurate prognosis. However, up to now, the reported studies are preliminary and controversial, and although hundreds of markers have been assessed, few of them have been used in clinical practice for treatment or prognosis in breast cancer. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1D, β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9, prohibitin, phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 (PIK3R5), phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type IIα, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase 2, BCL2 associated agonist of cell death, G2 and S-phase expressed 1 and PAX interacting protein 1 genes, described as prognostic markers in breast cancer in a previous microarray study, are also predictors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on primary breast tumor tissues from women with negative lymph node involvement (n=27) compared with primary tumor tissues from women with positive lymph node involvement (n=23), and was also performed on primary tumors and paired lymph node metastases (n=11). For all genes analyzed, only the PIK3R5 gene exhibited differential expression in samples of primary tumors with positive lymph node involvement compared with primary tumors with negative lymph node involvement (P=0.0347). These results demonstrate that the PIK3R5 gene may be considered predictive of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma. Although the other genes evaluated in the present study have been previously characterized to be involved with

  17. Convective diffusion of nanoparticles from the epithelial barrier toward regional lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhin, Stanislav S; Labib, Mohamed E

    2013-11-01

    Drug delivery using nanoparticles as drug carriers has recently attracted the attention of many investigators. Targeted delivery of nanoparticles to the lymph nodes is especially important to prevent cancer metastasis or infection, and to diagnose disease stage. However, systemic injection of nanoparticles often results in organ toxicity because they reach and accumulate in all the lymph nodes in the body. An attractive strategy would be to deliver the drug-loaded nanoparticles to a subset of draining lymph nodes corresponding to a specific site or organ to minimize systemic toxicity. In this respect, mucosal delivery of nanoparticles to regional draining lymph nodes of a selected site creates a new opportunity to accomplish this task with minimal toxicity. One example is the delivery of nanoparticles from the vaginal lumen to draining lymph nodes to prevent the transmission of HIV in women. Other known examples include mucosal delivery of vaccines to induce immunity. In all cases, molecular and particle transport by means of diffusion and convective diffusion play a major role. The corresponding transport processes have common inherent regularities and are addressed in this review. Here we use nanoparticle delivery from the vaginal lumen to the lymph nodes as an example to address the many aspects of associated transport processes. In this case, nanoparticles penetrate the epithelial barrier and move through the interstitium (tissue) to the initial lymphatics until they finally reach the lymph nodes. Since the movement of interstitial liquid near the epithelial barrier is retarded, nanoparticle transport was found to take place through special foci present in the epithelium. Immediately after nanoparticles emerge from the foci, they move through the interstitium due to diffusion affected by convection (convective diffusion). Specifically, the convective transport of nanoparticles occurs due to their convection together with interstitial fluid through the

  18. Sentinel-lymph node procedure in breast, uterine cervix, prostate, vulva and penile cancers: Practical methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot-Rossi, I.

    2008-01-01

    The nodal status is the strongest prognostic factor in early stage cancers. The sentinel-lymph node (S.L.N.) is defined as the first draining lymph node of an organ; the lymph node status is determined by the histological results of S.L.N.. The lymphadenectomy, with high morbidity, is realised only in case of metastatic S.L.N.. The S.L.N. identification, in most of cases, is performed using the combination of blue dye and radiocolloid 99m Tc injections. The purpose of this article is to give some practical details about the S.L.N. isotopic procedure in breast cancer, vulva and penile cancer, uterine cervix and prostate cancer. (author)

  19. Effects of transuranics on pulmonary lymph nodes of rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Pulmonary lymph nodes have been suggested as the ''critical'' tissue for insoluble, inhaled transuranic compounds owing to the high concentration of transuranics in these lymph nodes. About 800 rats were given from 0.2 to 3600 nCi of 238 PuO 2 or 239 PuO 2 by inhalation, intratracheal instillation, intrapleural injection, or intraperitoneal injection. From about 1 to 10 percent of deposited plutonium was translocated to pulmonary lymph nodes, the amount depending on the time after deposition and the route of administration; 238 PuO 2 was cleared from pulmonary lymph nodes faster than 239 PuO 2 owing to the greater in vivo solubility of 238 PuO 2 . No primary tumors of pulmonary lymph nodes were observed, indicating that this tissue was not the critical tissue for carcinogenic induction

  20. Sentinel lymph node detection in canine oncological patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, L.; Andocs, G.; Mathe, D.

    2002-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node detection was investigated in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumours. In this pilot study, 24 client-owned spontaneously tumorous dogs presented for sentinel lymph node detection. A multiple method was used with a nuclear medicine technique (injection of 99mT c human serum albumin colloid) with scintigraphy and intraoperative guidance, and blue dye injection. Of the 35 lymph nodes histologically demonstrated to contain metastases, 34 (97%) were found by radioguided surgery, which means that one would have been missed in the intraoperative localisation process; 31 nodes (89%) were clearly visualised in the gamma camera images; only 27 (77%) were blue-stained by vital dye; a mere 8 lymph nodes (23%) were enlarged and therefore easily detectable by palpation. Data obtained from the harmless application of the sentinel node concept are useful for the radiopharmaceutist. The sentinel lymph node concept is well applicable in the veterinary clinic. (author)

  1. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinWu Cui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient’s prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  2. Monoclonal origin of peritoneal implants and lymph node deposits in serous borderline ovarian tumors (s-BOT) with high intratumoral homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Lars-Christian; Höhn, Anne K; Einenkel, Jens; Siebolts, Udo

    2014-11-01

    Molecular studies have shown that the most prevalent mutations in serous ovarian borderline tumors (s-BOT) are BRAF and/or KRAS alterations. About one third of s-BOT represent peritoneal implants and/or lymph node involvement. These extraovarian deposits may be monoclonal or polyclonal in origin. To test both the hypotheses, mutational analyses using pyrosequencing for BRAF codon 600 and KRAS codon 12/13 and 61 of microdissected tissue was performed in 15 s-BOT and their invasive and noninvasive peritoneal implants. Two to 6 implants from different peritoneal sites were examined in 13 cases. Lymph node deposits were available for the analysis in 3 cases. Six s-BOT showed mutation in exon 2 codon 12 of the KRAS proto-oncogen. Five additional cases showed BRAF p.V600E mutation representing an overall mutation rate of 73.3%. Multiple (2-6) peritoneal implants were analyzed after microdissection in 13 of 15 cases. All showed identical mutational results when compared with the ovarian site of the disease. All lymph node deposits, including those with multiple deposits in different nodes, showed identical results, suggesting high intratumoral mutational homogeneity. The evidence presented in this study and the majority of data reported in the literature support the hypothesis that s-BOT with their peritoneal implants and lymph node deposits show identical mutational status of BRAF and KRAS suggesting a monoclonal rather than a polyclonal disease regarding these both tested genetic loci. In addition, a high intratumoral genetic homogeneity can be suggested. In conclusion, the results of the present study support the monoclonal origin of s-BOT and their peritoneal implants and lymph node deposits.

  3. Feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, Hylton R; Freeman, Lynetta J; Rohleder, Jacob J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Our goal was to develop and validate a technique to identify the sentinel lymph nodes of the mammary glands of healthy dogs with contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and evaluate the feasibility of obtaining representative samples of a sentinel lymph node under ultrasound guidance using a new biopsy device. Three healthy intact female adult hounds were anesthetized and each received an injection of octafluoropropane-filled lipid microspheres and a separate subcutaneous injection of methylene blue dye around a mammary gland. Ultrasound was then used to follow the contrast agent through the lymphatic channel to the sentinel lymph node. Lymph node biopsy was performed under ultrasound guidance, followed by an excisional biopsy of the lymph nodes and a regional mastectomy procedure. Excised tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination and evaluated as to whether they were representative of the node. The ultrasound contrast agent was easily visualized with ultrasound leading up to the sentinel lymph nodes. Eight normal lymph nodes (two inguinal, one axillary in two dogs; two inguinal in one dog) were identified and biopsied. Lymphoid tissue was obtained from all biopsy specimens. Samples from four of eight lymph nodes contained both cortical and medullary lymphoid tissue. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be successfully used to image and guide minimally invasive biopsy of the normal sentinel lymph nodes draining the mammary glands in healthy dogs. Further work is needed to evaluate whether this technique may be applicable in patients with breast cancer or other conditions warranting evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in animals.

  4. The Prognostic Value of Lymph Nodes Dissection Number on Survival of Patients with Lymph Node-Negative Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study was designed to explore the prognostic value of examined lymph node (LN number on survival of gastric cancer patients without LN metastasis. Methods. Between August 1995 and January 2011, 300 patients who underwent gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for LN-negative gastric cancer were reviewed. Patients were assigned to various groups according to LN dissection number or tumor invasion depth. Some clinical outcomes, such as overall survival, operation time, length of stay, and postoperative complications, were compared among all groups. Results. The overall survival time of LN-negative GC patients was 50.2±30.5 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that LN dissection number (P30. Besides, it was not correlated with operation time, transfusion volume, length of postoperative stay, or postoperative complication incidence (P>0.05. Conclusions. The number of examined lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor of survival for patients with lymph node-negative gastric cancer. Sufficient dissection of lymph nodes is recommended during surgery for such population.

  5. Proliferative responses in the local lymph node assay associated with concomitant exposure to 1,4-phenylenediamine and methyldibromo glutaronitrile: evidence for synergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowsey, Ian R; Basketter, David A; Irwin, Anita

    2008-08-01

    A key consideration when undertaking risk assessments should be the potential for synergy between contact allergens. Previously, this concept has only been investigated during elicitation in contact allergic individuals. To determine whether there exists evidence for synergy between contact allergens during the induction phase of skin sensitization using the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) as a model system. Proliferative responses in draining lymph nodes were assessed with increasing concentrations of 1,4-phenylenediamine (PPD), methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN), and a combination of PPD and MDBGN. Data from each of two independent experiments show that lymph node cell proliferation associated with combined exposure to PPD and MDBGN was, in general, only modestly increased relative to that predicted from a simple summation of their individual responses. Although the increase in response is very modest, it does imply a relationship between this combination of sensitizers that may not be simply additive in terms of their ability to stimulate proliferative responses in draining lymph nodes. The reproducibility of this observation should be confirmed in future studies with additional pairs of contact allergens to ascertain whether or not this represents evidence of synergy.

  6. The local lymph node assay and skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2010-01-01

    The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the identification and characterization of skin sensitization hazards. In this context the method can be used both to identify contact allergens, and also determine the relative skin sensitizing potency as a basis for derivation of effective risk assessments.The assay is based on measurement of proliferative responses by draining lymph node cells induced following topical exposure of mice to test chemicals. Such responses are known to be causally and quantitatively associated with the acquisition of skin sensitization and therefore provide a relevant marker for characterization of contact allergic potential.The LLNA has been the subject of exhaustive evaluation and validation exercises and has been assigned Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 429. Herein we describe the conduct and interpretation of the LLNA.

  7. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy and Isolated Tumor Cells in Invasive Lobular Versus Ductal Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truin, Wilfred; Roumen, Rudi M; Siesling, Sabine; van der Heiden-van der Loo, Margriet; Lobbezoo, Dorien J; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C; Voogd, Adri C

    2016-08-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in invasive breast cancer. The introduction of SLN biopsy with an extensive pathology examination, in addition to the introduction of the 2002 TNM classification, led to different axillary classification outcomes. We evaluated the effect of axillary staging procedures and subsequent axillary nodal status in patients with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) versus invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) from 1998 to 2013. The use of SLN biopsy and the nodal status distribution were analyzed in patients with stage T1-T2 ILC and IDC. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent effect of histologic type on the probability of the presence of isolated tumor cells (ITCs), micrometastases, and macrometastases. A total of 89,971 women were diagnosed, 10,146 with ILC (11%) and 79,825 with IDC (89%). The patients who had undergone SLN biopsy were more frequently diagnosed with ITCs than were those who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection only (odds ratio, 8.8; 95% confidence interval, 7.0-11.2). In 2013, the proportion of patients with ITCs in the axillary nodes was 8% in those with ILC and 4.4% in those with IDC. Patients with ILC were significantly more likely to have ITCs in their axillary lymph nodes than were patients with IDC (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.0). With the introduction of SLN biopsy and the renewed 2002 TNM classification, patients with ILC have been more frequently diagnosed with ITCs than have patients with IDC. The clinical consequence of this finding must be established from further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumor tissue levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-I (TIMP-I) and outcome following adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrohl, Anne-Sofie; Look, Maxime P.; Gelder, Marion E. Meijer-van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 are associated with no or limited clinical benefit from chemotherapy with CMF and anthracyclines in metastatic breast cancer patients. Here, we extend our investigations to the adjuvant setting studying outcome...... an association between shorter survival after treatment in TIMP-1 high patients compared with TIMP-1 low patients, especially in patients receiving anthracycline-based therapy. This suggests that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 might be associated with reduced benefit from classical adjuvant chemotherapy. Our...... after adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive patients. We hypothesize that TIMP-1 high tumors are less sensitive to chemotherapy and accordingly that high tumor tissue levels are associated with shorter survival. METHODS: From our original retrospectively collected tumor samples we...

  9. Raloxifene inhibits tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model of metastatic mammary cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhong-Lian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of raloxifene, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, were studied in a mouse metastatic mammary cancer model expressing cytoplasmic ERα. Methods Mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of syngeneic BALB/c mice with BJMC3879luc2 cells, were subsequently treated with raloxifene at 0, 18 and 27 mg/kg/day using mini-osmotic pumps. Results In vitro study demonstrated that the ERα in BJMC3879luc2 cells was smaller (between 50 and 64 kDa than the normal-sized ERα (66 kDa and showed cytoplasmic localization. A statistically significant but weak estradiol response was observed in this cell line. When BJMC3879luc2 tumors were implanted into mice, the ERα mRNA levels were significantly higher in females than in males. In vitro studies showed that raloxifene induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in the G1-phase and a decrease in the cell population in the S-phase. In animal experiments, tumor volumes were significantly suppressed in the raloxifene-treated groups. The multiplicity of lymph node metastasis was significantly decreased in the 27 mg/kg group. Levels of apoptosis were significantly increased in the raloxifene-treated groups, whereas the levels of DNA synthesis were significantly decreased in these groups. No differences in microvessel density in tumors were observed between the control and raloxifene-treated groups. The numbers of dilated lymphatic vessels containing intraluminal tumor cells were significantly reduced in mammary tumors in the raloxifene-treated groups. The levels of ERα mRNA in mammary tumors tended to be decreased in the raloxifene-treated groups. Conclusion These results suggest that the antimetastatic activity of raloxifene in mammary cancer expressing cytoplasmic ERα may be a crucial finding with clinical applications and that raloxifene may be useful as an adjuvant therapy and for the chemoprevention of breast cancer development.

  10. Abdominal lymph node metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed by computed tomography and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hironobu; Oi, Hiromichi [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Microbial Diseases; Tanaka, Takeshi; Sai, Soomi; Hori, Shinichi

    1984-04-01

    CT scans of 164 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were studied, and abdominal lymph node metastases were detected in 13 cases. Most of these lymph node metastases occured in periportal, peripancreatic and paraaortic lymph nodes. Ten instances of each these metastases were identified by CT. Six of the patients had metastases in all three sites. In 9 of 13 cases, lymph node metastases were demonstrated by angiography and various degrees of contrast material stain were seen. Lymph node metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma is apt to be hypervascular. Most of hepatocellular carcinoma with lymph node metastasis showed infiltrative growth, and tumor thrombosis in the portal vein was commonly complicated.

  11. Primary Germ Cell Tumor of Testes with Extensive Lymph Nodal and Splenic Metastases Masquerading Lymphoma on 18-F-FDG PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sarthak; Mukherjee, Anirban; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Tripathi, Madhavi; Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCT) account for the 95% of the malignancies associated with testes. They are the most common solid malignancies affecting the males in the age group of 15–35 years. It is known to be bilateral in 3% of cases. We herein present FDG PET-CT findings of a case with biopsy proven GCT with multiple lymph nodal and splenic metastases mimicking lymphomatous neoplasm. PMID:28533651

  12. Endometrial Stromal Cells and Immune Cell Populations Within Lymph Nodes in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazleabas, A. T.; Braundmeier, A. G.; Markham, R.; Fraser, I. S.; Berbic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that immunological responses may be altered in endometriosis. The baboon (Papio anubis) is generally considered the best model of endometriosis pathogenesis. The objective of the current study was to investigate for the first time immunological changes within uterine and peritoneal draining lymph nodes in a nonhuman primate baboon model of endometriosis. Paraffin-embedded femoral lymph nodes were obtained from 22 normally cycling female baboons (induced endometriosis n = 11; control n = 11). Immunohistochemical staining was performed with antibodies for endometrial stromal cells, T cells, immature and mature dendritic cells, and B cells. Lymph nodes were evaluated using an automated cellular imaging system. Endometrial stromal cells were significantly increased in lymph nodes from animals with induced endometriosis, compared to control animals (P = .033). In animals with induced endometriosis, some lymph node immune cell populations including T cells, dendritic cells and B cells were increased, suggesting an efficient early response or peritoneal drainage. PMID:21617251

  13. Numeric pathologic lymph node classification shows prognostic superiority to topographic pN classification in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kotaro; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Uemura, Yukari; Mitsui, Takashi; Yagi, Koichi; Nishida, Masato; Aikou, Susumu; Mori, Kazuhiko; Nomura, Sachiyo; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2017-10-01

    The current eighth tumor node metastasis lymph node category pathologic lymph node staging system for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is based solely on the number of metastatic nodes and does not consider anatomic distribution. We aimed to assess the prognostic capability of the eighth tumor node metastasis pathologic lymph node staging system (numeric-based) compared with the 11th Japan Esophageal Society (topography-based) pathologic lymph node staging system in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 289 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent esophagectomy with extended lymph node dissection during the period from January 2006 through June 2016. We compared discrimination abilities for overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and cancer-specific survival between these 2 staging systems using C-statistics. The median number of dissected and metastatic nodes was 61 (25% to 75% quartile range, 45 to 79) and 1 (25% to 75% quartile range, 0 to 3), respectively. The eighth tumor node metastasis pathologic lymph node staging system had a greater ability to accurately determine overall survival (C-statistics: tumor node metastasis classification, 0.69, 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.76; Japan Esophageal Society classification; 0.65, 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.71; P = .014) and cancer-specific survival (C-statistics: tumor node metastasis classification, 0.78, 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.87; Japan Esophageal Society classification; 0.72, 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.80; P = .018). Rates of total recurrence rose as the eighth tumor node metastasis pathologic lymph node stage increased, while stratification of patients according to the topography-based node classification system was not feasible. Numeric nodal staging is an essential tool for stratifying the oncologic outcomes of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma even in the cohort in which adequate

  14. Tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T lymphocytes in early breast cancer reflect lymph node involvement Linfócitos T CD4+ tumor infiltrantes no câncer de mama inicial refletem envolvimento linfonodal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Henrique Macchetti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of immune system in the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer is a subject of controversy, and this stimulated us to investigate the association of the immunophenotype of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in early breast cancer with the spread of tumor cells to axillary lymph nodes. METHODS: Tumor samples from 23 patients with early breast cancer from the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Ribeirão Preto Medical School (USP were obtained at the time of biopsy and submitted to an enzyme-digestion procedure for the extraction of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The lymphocytes extracted were analyzed by dual-color flow cytometry with monoclonal antibodies in these combinations: CD3 FITC/CD19 PE, CD3 FITC/CD4 PE, CD3 FITC/CD8 PE, and CD16/56 PerCP, which are specific for immunophenotyping of T and B lymphocytes, helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK cells. The mean percentage of these cells was used for comparing groups of patients with or without lymph node metastasis. RESULTS: The mean value for T-lymphocyte infiltration was 24.72 ± 17.37%; for B-lymphocyte infiltration, 4.22 ± 6.27%; for NK-cell infiltration, 4.41 ± 5.22%, and for CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte infiltration, 12.43 ± 10.12% and 11.30 ± 15.09%, respectively. Only mean values of T- and CD4+ T-lymphocyte infiltration were higher in the group of patients with lymph node metastasis, while no differences were noted in the other lymphocyte subpopulations. CONCLUSION: The association of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T lymphocytes with lymph node metastasis suggests a role for these cells in the spread of neoplasia to lymph nodes in patients with early breast cancer.INTRODUÇÃO: O papel do sistema imunológico na patogênese e progressão do câncer de mama ainda é controverso, e isto nos estimulou a verificar a associação do imunofenótipo dos linfócitos tumor infiltrantes do câncer de mama inicial com a disseminação de c

  15. Prolonged lymphatic leak after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browne Katherine M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Persistent lymphatic drainage following retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular tumor is an uncommon complication. Case presentation We describe a 21-year old man of Caucasian origin who had metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis, and underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, nephrectomy and partial inferior vena cava excision for a residual mass. The patient subsequently developed persistent lymphatic drainage causing foot drop that eventually responded to conservative medical and surgical measures. Conclusion This postoperative condition usually responds well to conservative measures but has the potential for serious morbidity if it is not managed appropriately.

  16. The Effect of Overweight Status on Total and Metastatic Number of Harvested Lymph Nodes During Colorectal Surgery

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    Sezgin Zeren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the rela­tionship between higher body mass index (BMI and har­vested total or metastatic lymph node numbers in patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancers. Methods: Between March 2014 and January 2016, totally 71patients who underwent laparoscopic or conventional surgery for colorectal cancer were evaluated retrospec­tively. The data of age, gender, BMI, surgical procedure, tumor localization , postoperative mortality status, total number of harvested and metastatic lymph node were collected. The patients having 24.9 (kg/m2 or lower BMI values were classified as normal (Group 1 and patients having BMI values of 25 or over were overweight (Group 2. Afterwards, the parameters between groups and the effect of higher BMI were analyzed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 64.5 ± 14 years. The average BMI value in group 1 was 22.3 (kg/m2 and 27.0 (kg/m2 in group 2. According to localisation of tumor, transverse colon was the rare region for both groups. The common regions for tumor localisation in group 1 were right colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. In group 2 the common localisation for tumors were rectum, right colon and sigmoid colon. There was no difference between groups about postoperative mortality rates (p > 0.05. The mean of the total number of harvested lymph nodes were 14 in group 1 and 12 in group 2. There were no relationship between BMI and tumor diameter, total or metastatic number of harvested lymph nodes. Conclusion: Higher BMI values does not effect the num­ber of excised total or metastatic lymph nodes and tumor diameters. Therefore, the surgeons should not hesitate in overweight patients cancer surgery for dissecting ad­equate number of lymph nodes.

  17. Evaluation of the necessity for chest drain placement following thoracoscopic wedge resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ting-Yu; Chen, Jian-Xun; Chen, Pin-Ru; Lin, Yu-Sen; Chen, Chien-Kuang; Kao, Pei-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Ming; Fang, Hsin-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent thoracoscopic wedge resection without chest drain placement. The subjects of this retrospective study were 89 patients, who underwent thoracoscopic wedge resection at our hospital between January, 2013 and July, 2015. A total of 45 patients whose underlying condition did not meet the following criteria were assigned to the "chest drain placement group" (group A): peripheral lesions, healthy lung parenchyma, no intraoperative air leaks, hemorrhage or effusion accumulation, and no pleural adhesion. The other 44 patients whose underlying condition met the criteria were assigned to the "no chest drain placement group" (group B). Patient characteristics, specimen data, and postoperative conditions were analyzed and compared between the groups. Group A patients had poorer forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) values, less normal spirometric results, significantly higher resected lung volume, a greater maximum tumor-pleura distance, and a larger maximum tumor size. They also had a longer postoperative hospital stay. There was no difference between the two groups in postoperative complications. Avoiding chest drain placement after a thoracoscopic wedge resection appears to be safe and beneficial for patients who have small peripheral lesions and healthy lung parenchyma.

  18. Anatomy, gross tumor volume and clinical target volume: tumors of the lower third of the esophagus and the gastro esophageal junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calais, G.; Asquier, E.; Louisot, P.

    2001-01-01

    The esophagus is divided into four regions: cervical esophagus, intrathoracic esophagus with upper, mid and lower thoracic portion. Cancer may occur on each of these regions. Computed tomography of the thorax and superior abdomen and endoscopic ultrasound are necessary for reliable staging. CT simulation allows accurate definition of tumor volume. GTV includes tumor volume and regional lymph nodes. CTV encompasses GTV plus safety margin and lymph nodes areas considered to harbor potential microscopic disease. The extent of prophylactic lymph node irradiation depends on the anatomic location of the primary tumor. (author)

  19. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals a Massive, Aneuploidy-Dependent Transcriptional Deregulation and Distinct Differences between Lymph Node–Negative and Lymph Node–Positive Colon Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Marian; Hörmann, Patrick; Becker, Sandra; Hummon, Amanda B.; Wangsa, Danny; Varma, Sudhir; Simon, Richard; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Ried, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To characterize patterns of global transcriptional deregulation in primary colon carcinomas, we did gene expression profiling of 73 tumors [Unio Internationale Contra Cancrum stage II (n = 33) and stage III (n = 40)] using oligonucleotide microarrays. For 30 of the tumors, expression profiles were compared with those from matched normal mucosa samples. We identified a set of 1,950 genes with highly significant deregulation between tumors and mucosa samples (P 5-fold average expression difference between normal colon mucosa and carcinomas, including up-regulation of MYC and of HMGA1, a putative oncogene. Furthermore, we identified 68 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between lymph node–negative and lymph node–positive tumors (P deregulated genes were validated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in >40 tumor and normal mucosa samples with good concordance between the techniques. Finally, we established a relationship between specific genomic imbalances, which were mapped for 32 of the analyzed colon tumors by comparative genomic hybridization, and alterations of global transcriptional activity. Previously, we had conducted a similar analysis of primary rectal carcinomas. The systematic comparison of colon and rectal carcinomas revealed a significant overlap of genomic imbalances and transcriptional deregulation, including activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade, suggesting similar pathogenic pathways. PMID:17210682

  20. Abscopal Effects With Hypofractionated Schedules Extending Into the Effector Phase of the Tumor-Specific T-Cell Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanwei; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2018-05-01

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (hRT) combined with immune checkpoint blockade can induce T-cell-mediated local and abscopal antitumor effects. We had previously observed peak levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) between days 5 and 8 after hRT. Because TILs are regarded as radiosensitive, hRT schedules extending into this period might be less immunogenic, prompting us to compare clinically relevant, short and extended schedules with equivalent biologically effective doses combined with anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD1) antibody treatment. In mice bearing 2 B16-CD133 melanoma tumors, the primary tumor was irradiated with 3 × 9.18 Gy in 3 or 5 days or with 5 × 6.43 Gy in 10 days; an anti-PD1 antibody was given weekly. The mice were monitored for tumor growth and survival. T-cell responses were determined on days 8 and 15 of treatment. The role of regional lymph nodes was studied by administering FTY720, which blocks lymph node egress of activated T cells. Tumor growth measurements after combination treatment using short or extended hRT and control treatment were also performed in the wild-type B16 melanoma and 4T1 breast carcinoma models. In the B16-CD133 model, growth inhibition of irradiated primary and nonirradiated secondary tumors and overall survival were similar with all 3 hRT/anti-PD1 combinations, superior to hRT and anti-PD1 monotherapy, and was strongly dependent on CD8 + T cells. TIL infiltration and local and systemic tumor-specific CD8 + T-cell responses were also similar, regardless of whether short or extended hRT was used. Administration of FTY720 accelerated growth of both primary and secondary tumors, strongly reduced their TIL infiltration, and increased tumor-specific CD8 + T cells in the lymph nodes draining the irradiated tumor. In the 4T1 model, local and abscopal tumor control was also similar, regardless of whether short or extended hRT was used, although the synergy between hRT and anti-PD1 was weaker. No

  1. The sentinel lymph concept in breast cancer. World J Nucl Med 2004; 3: 4-7 [Letter-to-the-editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizales, A.L.; Al-Yasi, A.; Gambhir, S.; Morris, G.; Granowska, M.; Britton, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full test: The commentary on Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer in the World Journal of Nuclear Medicine (Volume- 3, January 2004) by Canizales AL et al made an interesting reading.We would like to offer the following Comments: 1. It was indeed exciting to find that the ratio of radioactivity in involved vs. the uninvolved axillary lymph nodes was 4:1, and the involved sentinel lymph nodes had shown about 25 times more tracer uptake as compared to the uninvolved sentinel lymph nodes (p<0.009). This observation throws new light on the subject and further studies into this will be invaluable. That certain nodes have preference for colloid and malignant cells, either by the virtue of anatomical location or larger lymphatics is something to be verified by further studies may be by excision of the lymphatic channels and its studies. Further, it would be interesting to study if any particular histopathology has preferential lodging or if it is true for all variants of breast cancer. 2. There has been a debate going on for the past several years to identify the best method of injection of nannocolloid for imaging sentinel lymph node in breast cancer. The debate may be unwarranted. We feel that peri-tumoral injection would be the most accurate. This is because, what we are interested in is studying the lymphatic drainage of the breast area in which the cancer (tumour) is present. It may be noted that every point in the breast has definite area/areas of drainage. A point source that corresponds to a very small mass will have drainage to either axilla/internal mammary/supraclavicular lymph nodes. A large tumour may drain into more than one lymph node. What we are trying to achieve by injecting a radiocolloid around the tumour is to simulate the actual lymphatic drainage of the tumour. A periareolar /subareolar injection will never be able to simulate the actual lymphatic drainage from the tumour site particularly when the existence of subareolar plexus of sappy is

  2. Characteristics of Metastatic Mediastinal Lymph Nodes of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer on Preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of PET and CT features of mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes on F-18 FDG PET/CT and to determine the diagnostic criteria in nodal staging of non-small cell lung cancer. One hundred four non-small cell lung cancer patients who had preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT were included. For quantitative analysis, the maximum SUV of the primary tumor, maximum SUV of the lymph nodes (SUVmax), size of the lymph nodes, and average Hounsfield units (aHUs) and maximum Hounsfield units (mHUs) of the lymph nodes were measured. The SUVmax, SUV ratio of the lymph node to blood pool (LN SUV/blood pool SUV), SUV ratio of the lymph node to primary tumor (LN SUV/primary tumor SUV), size, aHU, and mHU were compared between the benign and malignant lymph nodes. Among 372 dissected lymph node stations that were pathologically diagnosed after surgery, 49 node stations were malignant and 323 node stations benign. SUVmax, LN SUV/blood pool SUV, and size were significantly different between the malignant and benign lymph node stations (P <0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in LN SUV/primary tumor SUV (P =0.18), mHU (P =0.42), and aHU (P =0.98). Using receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses, there was no significant difference among these three variables (SUVmax, LN SUV/blood pool SUV, and size). The optimal cutoff values were 2.9 for SUVmax, 1.4 for LN SUV/blood pool SUV, and 5 mm for size. When the cutoff value of SUVmax≥2.9 and size≥5 mm were used in combination, the positive predictive value was 44.2%, and the negative predictive value was 90.9 %. When we evaluated the results based on the histology of the primary tumor, the negative predictive value was 92.3 % in adenocarcinoma (cutoff values of SUVmax≥2.3 and size≥5 mm) and 97.2 % in squamous cell carcinoma (cutoff values of SUVmax≥3.6 and size≥8 mm), separately. In the lymph node staging of non-small cell lung cancer, SUVmax, LN SUV/blood pool SUV

  3. Capture of influenza by medullary dendritic cells via SIGN-R1 is essential for humoral immunity in draining lymph nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Santiago F.; Lukacs-Kornek, Veronika; Kuligowski, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    A major pathway for B cell acquisition of lymph-borne particulate antigens relies on antigen capture by subcapsular sinus macrophages of the lymph node. Here we tested whether this mechanism is also important for humoral immunity to inactivated influenza virus. By multiple approaches, including...

  4. Glycan Sulfation Modulates Dendritic Cell Biology and Tumor Growth

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    Roland El Ghazal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In cancer, proteoglycans have been found to play roles in facilitating the actions of growth factors, and effecting matrix invasion and remodeling. However, little is known regarding the genetic and functional importance of glycan chains displayed by proteoglycans on dendritic cells (DCs in cancer immunity. In lung carcinoma, among other solid tumors, tumor-associated DCs play largely subversive/suppressive roles, promoting tumor growth and progression. Herein, we show that targeting of DC glycan sulfation through mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1 in mice increased DC maturation and inhibited trafficking of DCs to draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic-driven DC migration and chemokine (CCL21-dependent activation of a major signaling pathway required for DC migration (as measured by phospho-Akt were sensitive to Ndst1 mutation in DCs. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice deficient in Ndst1 were reduced in size. Purified CD11c+ cells from the tumors, which contain the tumor-infiltrating DC population, showed a similar phenotype in mutant cells. These features were replicated in mice deficient in syndecan-4, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the DC surface: Tumors were growth-impaired in syndecan-4–deficient mice and were characterized by increased infiltration by mature DCs. Tumors on the mutant background also showed greater infiltration by NK cells and NKT cells. These findings indicate the genetic importance of DC heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor growth and may guide therapeutic development of novel strategies to target syndecan-4 and heparan sulfate in cancer.

  5. Influence of Pathological Nodal Status and Maximal Standardized Uptake Value of the Primary Tumor and Regional Lymph Nodes on Treatment Plans in Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.-T.; Wang, H.-M.; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Lin, C.-Y.; Ng, S.-H.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Hsueh Chuen; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A better understanding of the prognostic factors in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may optimize the therapeutic approach. In this study, we sought to investigate whether the combination of clinical information, pathologic results, and preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes might improve the prognostic stratification in this patient group. Methods and Materials: A total of 347 consecutive OSCC patients were investigated. All participants underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. The duration of follow-up was at least 24 months in all surviving patients. The optimal cutoff values for SUVmax at the primary tumor (SUVtumor-max) and regional lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) were selected according to the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: In multivariate analysis, a cutoff SUVtumor-max of 8.6, a cutoff SUVnodal-max of 5.7, and the presence of pathologic lymph node metastases were found to be significant prognosticators for the 5-year DFS. A scoring system using these three prognostic factors was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. The 5-year rates for patients with a score between 0 and 3 were as follows: neck control, 94%, 86%, 77%, 59% (p < 0.0001); distant metastases, 1%, 7%, 22%, 47% (p < 0.0001); disease-specific survival, 93%, 85%, 61%, 36%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Based on the study findings, the combined evaluation of pathologic node status and SUVmax at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes may improve prognostic stratification in OSCC patients.

  6. Factors Predictive of Sentinel Lymph Node Involvement in Primary Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malter, Wolfram; Hellmich, Martin; Badian, Mayhar; Kirn, Verena; Mallmann, Peter; Krämer, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for axillary staging in patients with early-stage breast cancer. The need for therapeutic ALND is the subject of ongoing debate especially after the publication of the ACOSOG Z0011 trial. In a retrospective trial with univariate and multivariate analyses, factors predictive of sentinel lymph node involvement should be analyzed in order to define tumor characteristics of breast cancer patients, where SLNB should not be spared to receive important indicators for adjuvant treatment decisions (e.g. thoracic wall irradiation after mastectomy with or without reconstruction). Between 2006 and 2010, 1,360 patients with primary breast cancer underwent SLNB with/without ALND with evaluation of tumor localization, multicentricity and multifocality, histological subtype, tumor size, grading, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. These characteristics were retrospectively analyzed in univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to define significant predictive factors for sentinel lymph node involvement. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor size and LVI (pbreast cancer. Because of the increased risk for metastatic involvement of axillary sentinel nodes in cases with larger breast cancer or diagnosis of LVI, patients with these breast cancer characteristics should not be spared from SLNB in a clinically node-negative situation in order to avoid false-negative results with a high potential for wrong indication of primary breast reconstruction or wrong non-indication of necessary post-mastectomy radiation therapy. The prognostic impact of avoidance of axillary staging with SLNB is analyzed in the ongoing prospective INSEMA trial. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Omics-based profiling of carcinoma of the breast and matched regional lymph node metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, J.; Gromov, P.; Gromova, I.

    2008-01-01

    Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is currently used as an important clinical indicator of breast cancer prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lymph node metastasis are poorly understood and the relationship between ALN metastasis and the primary tumor remains unclear. In an effor...

  8. Role of protease activated receptor-2 in lymph node metastasis of uterine cervical cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, Israt; Fujimoto, Jiro; Alam, Syed Mahfuzul; Sato, Eriko; Tamaya, Teruhiko

    2008-01-01

    Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) has been implicated in cellular proliferation, invasion and metastasis in various tumors. Lymph node metastasis is an important patient prognostic factor for uterine cervical cancers. This prompted us to study the role of PAR-2 in lymph node metastasis of uterine cervical cancers. Thirty patients underwent surgery for uterine cervical cancers. PAR-2 histoscores and mRNA levels were determined by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Patient prognosis was analyzed with a 48-month survival rate. PAR-2 histoscores and mRNA levels significantly (P < 0.05) increased in 12 of 30 metastatic lymph node lesions from the corresponding primary tumor. The 48-month survival rate of the 12 patients with increased PAR-2 levels in metastatic lymph nodes was 42%, while the rate of the other 18 patients with no change in PAR-2 levels was 82%, regardless of histopathological type. PAR-2 might work on lymph node metastasis of uterine cervical cancers, and is considered to be a novel prognostic indicator for uterine cervical cancers

  9. Contribution of radioisotopic techniques to identify sentinel lymph-nodes (SLN) in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarlenga, Ana C.; Katz, Lidia; Armesto, Amparo; Noblia, Cristina; Gorostidi, Susana; Perez, Juan; Parma, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The SLN (one or several) is the first to receive lymph from a tumor. When a cancer cell comes off the tumor and circulates along the outgoing lymph, it meets a barrier, the SLN that intercepts and destroys it. If not, the cancer cell can stay and reproduce in the SLN making a metastasis which can affect other nodes in the same way. It has been shown that if the original tumor is small there is little chance that the SLN could be invaded and therefore little chance of dissemination to other lymph-nodes. Nowadays due to early detection, breast tumors are smaller than one cm, therefore with such size there is little chance of axillary lymph-nodes being affected. If it is confirmed by histological study that the SLN is free of metastasis, it is not necessary to perform a axillary emptying. This identification of SLNs has been achieved because of the advances of Radioisotopic Techniques, which has been carried out in our Hospital since 1997. We have been adapting this technique to the national supply of equipment and radio compounds always under a reliable and secure way. The aim of this presentation is to highlight the radioisotopic identification of SLNs in clinical investigation in 'Angel H. Roffo Institute', and its daily practice compare with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). By combining Radioisotopic Lymphography, Lymphochromography and intra surgical detection of the SN with Gamma Probe, we have obtained a true negative value of 95% of the SN, with 5% false negative. Due to this method we have included SN study in daily practice breast tumor patients with tumor up to 5 cm of diameter. Comparing this methods result (5% false negative), with the PET results, using 18 F-FDG, that has 33% false negatives, we conclude that a negative result can not replace this method of SN detection. (author)

  10. Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma with lymph node metastasis and an 8-year follow-up: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maximilien; Rahmi, Gabriel; Duong van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Landi, Bruno; Cellier, Christophe; Berger, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) is a rare tumor, usually located in the second part of the duodenum. On pathological examination, GP is characterized by the association of the histological features of paragangliomas, ganglioneuromas, and carcinoid tumors. Classical clinical presentations are upper gastrointestinal bleeding and abdominal pain. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult because of the submucosal site of the tumor, with usually negative mucosal biopsies. Endoscopic ultrasound helps establish the diagnosis and allows lymph node staging, which will guide the choice of the treatment. If GPs usually follow a benign course, metastatic spread to regional lymph nodes treated by surgical resection alone has been reported. We report a case of GP with lymph node metastases treated by duodenopancreatectomy with long-term disease-free survival, suggesting that surgical resection is a reasonable approach for metastatic GPs.

  11. Reproducible isolation of lymph node stromal cells reveals site-dependent differences in fibroblastic reticular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Anne L; Malhotra, Deepali; Acton, Sophie E; Lukacs-Kornek, Veronika; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angelique; Curry, Mark; Armant, Myriam; Turley, Shannon J

    2011-01-01

    Within lymph nodes, non-hematopoietic stromal cells organize and interact with leukocytes in an immunologically important manner. In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, several recent studies have shown that lymph node stromal cells shape the naïve T cell repertoire, expressing self-antigens which delete self-reactive T cells in a unique and non-redundant fashion. A fundamental role in peripheral tolerance, in addition to an otherwise extensive functional portfolio, necessitates closer study of lymph node stromal cell subsets using modern immunological techniques; however this has not routinely been possible in the field, due to difficulties reproducibly isolating these rare subsets. Techniques were therefore developed for successful ex vivo and in vitro manipulation and characterization of lymph node stroma. Here we discuss and validate these techniques in mice and humans, and apply them to address several unanswered questions regarding lymph node composition. We explored the steady-state stromal composition of lymph nodes isolated from mice and humans, and found that marginal reticular cells and lymphatic endothelial cells required lymphocytes for their normal maturation in mice. We also report alterations in the proportion and number of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) between skin-draining and mesenteric lymph nodes. Similarly, transcriptional profiling of FRCs revealed changes in cytokine production from these sites. Together, these methods permit highly reproducible stromal cell isolation, sorting, and culture.

  12. Clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jing-Yu; Liang, Han

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignancies in the world, frequently reveals lymph node, peritoneum, and liver metastases. Most of gastric cancer patients present with lymph node metastasis when they were initially diagnosed or underwent surgical resection, which results in poor prognosis. Both the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node involvement are considered as the most important prognostic predictors of gastric cancer. Although extended lymphadenectomy was not considered a survival benefit procedure and was reported to be associated with high mortality and morbidity in two randomized controlled European trials, it showed significant superiority in terms of lower locoregional recurrence and disease related deaths compared to limited lymphadenectomy in a 15-year follow-up study. Almost all clinical investigators have reached a consensus that the predictive efficiency of the number of metastatic lymph nodes is far better than the extent of lymph node metastasis for the prognosis of gastric cancer worldwide, but other nodal metastatic classifications of gastric cancer have been proposed as alternatives to the number of metastatic lymph nodes for improving the predictive efficiency for patient prognosis. It is still controversial over whether the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes is superior to the number of metastatic lymph nodes in prognostic evaluation of gastric cancer. Besides, the negative lymph node count has been increasingly recognized to be an important factor significantly associated with prognosis of gastric cancer. PMID:24744586

  13. Evaluation of primary neck tumors by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiko

    1983-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to neck tumors has received little attention. 40 CT scans of primary neck tumors were reviewed, and CT was proved to be extremely useful in the diagnosis and definition of extension of primary neck tumors. In the carotid triangle and sternocleidomastoid region 2nd branchial cysts, cystic hygromas and tuberculous lymphadenitis are included in the differential diagnosis of cystic tumors. In the carotid triangle markedly enhanced solid tumors must be paragangliomas, i.e. carotid body tumors, if they are located posteromedial to the carotid artery. And moderately enhanced tumors are neurilemmomas arising from sympathetic or vagus nerve. It is easy to define enlarged deep jugular lymph nodes because they are located lateral to the carotid artery. In the supraclavicular fossa enlarged lymph nodes can be differentiated from neurilemmomas of branchial plexus because enlarged lymph nodes are located anterior to subclavian vessels or anterior scalene muscle and branchial neurilemmomas are located superoposterior to them. (author)

  14. Assessment of lymph node metastasis of the stomach cancer by /sup 99m/Tc phytate lymphoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Chang Yun; Min, Jin Sik; Kim, Choong Bai

    1985-11-01

    Prospective study of lymph node imaging of twenty stomach cancer cases with dissected lymph nodes being injected into the submucosa laser of stomach under surgical field was done. Total dose of 5 mci in 5 cc of volume was injected along the multiple sites of the lesser and greater curvature of stomach and collected lymph nodes within 2 hour of surgical time were placed under gamma camera and lymph node imagings were obtained. Pathological invasion of tumor and correlation of cold defect or hot uptake was compared each other. Tumor invasion of nodes revealed cold defect area which was correlated well with the pathological specimen. Correlation rate was 84.6%. We are planning to extend these procedures and trying endoscopic injection of positive imaging agents such as Ga-73-3 Ig 2 alpha in future.

  15. Drains and Drainage Capabilities: Quantitative Analysis of Drain Efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andaç Aykan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to compare the efficiency of the same type of but different-sized silicone drains at different surgical procedures. Material and Methods: Twenty-four patients, who had different diagnoses and were operated between 2011 and 2013, were included. In all patients, 7- and 10-mm silicone-ended, Jackson–Pratt drains were used. Drains that were under 30 cc/day removed. The connection tube and perforated silicone end were examined due to the clot content. All drain efficiencies were calculated, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Seven of the 24 patients (29.2% were males and 17 (70.8% were females; the mean age was 39.0±11.4 years. Totally, 49 drains were used, of which 25 (51% were 7 mm and 24 (49% were 10 mm in size. Median removal time was the 5th day (2–12 for the 7-mm drains and the 6th day (3–14 for the 10-mm drains. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for drain removal time (p=0.268. Further, there was no difference at the connection tube and silicone end for clot content between the 7- and 10-mm drains (p=0.58. For the drainage volume and efficiency, no difference was observed between the groups (p=0.146. Conclusion: In this study it was observed that there is no difference in the drainage volume and efficiency between different-sized Jackson–Pratt drains.

  16. Multimodal imaging of lymph nodes and tumors using glycol-chitosan-coated gold nanoparticles (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, In-Cheol; Dumani, Diego S.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2017-03-01

    A key step in staging cancer is the diagnosis of metastasis that spreads through lymphatic system. For this reason, researchers develop various methods of sentinel lymph node mapping that often use a radioactive tracer. This study introduces a safe, cost-effective, high-resolution, high-sensitivity, and real-time method of visualizing the sentinel lymph node: ultrasound-guided photoacoustic (US/PA) imaging augmented by a contrast agent. In this work, we use clearable gold nanoparticles covered by a biocompatible polymer (glycol chitosan) to enhance cellular uptake by macrophages abundant in lymph nodes. We incubate macrophages with glycol-chitosan-coated gold nanoparticles (0.05 mg Au/ml), and then fix them with paraformaldehyde solution for an analysis of in vitro dark-field microscopy and cell phantom. The analysis shows enhanced cellular uptake of nanoparticles by macrophages and strong photoacoustic signal from labeled cells in tissue-mimicking cell phantoms consisting gelatin solution (6 %) with silica gel (25 μm, 0.3%) and fixed macrophages. The in-vivo US/PA imaging of cervical lymph nodes in healthy mice (nu/nu, female, 5 weeks) indicates a strong photoacoustic signal from a lymph node 10 minutes post-injection (2.5 mg Au/ml, 80 μl). The signal intensity and the nanoparticle-labeled volume of tissue within the lymph node continues to increase until 4 h post-injection. Histological analysis further confirms the accumulation of gold nanoparticles within the lymph nodes. This work suggests the feasibility of molecular/cellular US/PA imaging with biocompatible gold nanoparticles as a photoacoustic contrast agent in the diagnosis of lymph-node-related diseases.

  17. Predictors of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node (Pilot study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldweny, H.; Alkhaldy, Kh.; Alsaleh, N.; Abdulsamad, M.; Abbas, A.; Hamad, A.; Mounib, Sh.; Essam, T.; Kukawski, P.; Bobin, J.; Oteifa, M.; Amangoono, H.; Abulhoda, F.; Usmani, Sh.; Elbasmy, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy [SLNB) procedure was found to be an accurate method of staging the axilla in patients with early stage breast cancer. The standard of care for breast cancer patients with positive SLN metastasis includes complete Axillary Lymph Node Dissection (ALND). Haw ever, in 40-70% of patients, the SLN the only involved axillary node. Factors predicting non SLW metastasis should be identified in order to define subgroups of patient with positive SLN in whom the axilla may be staged by SLNB done. Objective: To identify the factors predicting metastatic involvement of the non-SLNs in breast cancer patients having SLN metastases. Patients and Methods: Data were collected and analyzed from 80 patients with early stage invasive breast cancer (T1, T2, N0, M0) who underwent SLNB at the surgical Oncology Department, Kuwait Cancel control Center (KCCC) between November 2004 and February 2009. SLNB was perfomed using a combined technique (radioactive colloid, and blue dye) in the majority of cases in some cases, only one technique was used. Complete ALND was performed in the case of failure of SLN identification and in patients with positive SLN. Multiple variables (patient, tumor and of SLN identification and in patients with positive SLN. Multiple variables (patient, tumor, and SLN characteristics) with tested as possible predictors of non sentinel lymph node metastasis. Results: The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 46.6 years. The median tumor size was 2 cm. The SLN identification rate was 96.2% (77 out of 80 patients). The SLN was positive in 24 patients(31%), and half of these showed evidence of capsular invasion. The median number of SLNs removed was two. The median number positive SLNs was one. The incidence of non-SLN metatasis associated with positive SLN was 50% (12 out of 24 patients). lymphovascular invasion was found to be the only factor associated with non-SLN metastases. In addition, two trends were observed, though they did

  18. Superficial EWSR1-negative undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma with CIC/DUX4 gene fusion: a new variant of Ewing-like tumors with locoregional lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Isidro; Cruz, Julia; Lavernia, Javier; Rubio, Luis; Campos, Jorge; Barrios, María; Grison, Camille; Chene, Virginie; Pierron, Gaelle; Delattre, Olivier; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The present study describes a new case of EWSR1-negative undifferentiated sarcoma with CIC/DUX4 gene fusion. This case is similar to tumors described as primitive undifferentiated round cell sarcomas that occur mainly in the trunk and display an aggressive behavior. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a tumor presenting locoregional lymph node metastasis. In view of previous studies that prove the existence of a particular variant of undifferentiated sarcoma with Ewing-like morphology and CIC/DUX-4 gene fusion, a search for this gene fusion in all undifferentiated round cell sarcomas should be considered if a conclusive diagnosis cannot be reached following other conventional studies. Although additional cases with more extensive follow-up studies are needed, we believe that EWSR1-negative undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma with CIC/DUX4 gene fusion should be added to the list of new sarcoma variants with the possibility of lymph node metastasis.

  19. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing...

  20. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  1. Lymph node hemangioma in one-humped camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Aljameel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is a benign tumor of blood and lymphatic vessels. It is common in skin, mucosa and soft tissues, and its occurrence in lymph nodes is extremely rare. A 10 year-old she-camel was slaughtered at Nyala slaughterhouse, South Darfur State, Sudan. Grossly, the carcass was emaciated. The left ventral superficial cervical lymph node was enlarged, hard on palpation and protruded outside the body. Its cut surface was dark red in color and measured (18 cm in diameter. Histopathologically, the sections revealed vascular masses were composed of non-encapsulated clusters of small and medium sized with thick and thin-walled, filled with blood, separated by courageous stroma and surrounded by closely packed proliferating capillaries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of the left ventral superficial cervical lymph node hemangioma in a camel in the Sudan.

  2. Investigation of HIFU-induced anti-tumor immunity in a murine tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyerly H Kim

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is an emerging non-invasive treatment modality for localized treatment of cancers. While current clinical strategies employ HIFU exclusively for thermal ablation of the target sites, biological responses associated with both thermal and mechanical damage from focused ultrasound have not been thoroughly investigated. In particular, endogenous danger signals from HIFU-damaged tumor cells may trigger the activation of dendritic cells. This response may play a critical role in a HIFU-elicited anti-tumor immune response which can be harnessed for more effective treatment. Methods Mice bearing MC-38 colon adenocarcinoma tumors were treated with thermal and mechanical HIFU exposure settings in order to independently observe HIFU-induced effects on the host's immunological response. In vivo dendritic cell activity was assessed along with the host's response to challenge tumor growth. Results Thermal and mechanical HIFU were found to increase CD11c+ cells 3.1-fold and 4-fold, respectively, as compared to 1.5-fold observed for DC injection alone. In addition, thermal and mechanical HIFU increased CFSE+ DC accumulation in draining lymph nodes 5-fold and 10-fold, respectively. Moreover, focused ultrasound treatments not only caused a reduction in the growth of primary tumors, with tumor volume decreasing by 85% for thermal HIFU and 43% for mechanical HIFU, but they also provided protection against subcutaneous tumor re-challenge. Further immunological assays confirmed an enhanced CTL activity and increased tumor-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells in the mice treated by focused ultrasound, with cytotoxicity induced by mechanical HIFU reaching as high as 27% at a 10:1 effector:target ratio. Conclusion These studies present initial encouraging results confirming that focused ultrasound treatment can elicit a systemic anti-tumor immune response, and they suggest that this immunity is closely related to

  3. Sentinel node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy spares breast cancer patients axillary lymph node dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijk, Maartje C; Nieweg, Omgo E; Rutgers, Emiel J T; Oldenburg, Hester S A; Olmos, Renato Valdés; Hoefnagel, Cornelis A; Kroon, Bin B R

    2006-04-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients is a valuable method to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy and potentially downsize the primary tumor, which facilitates breast-conserving therapy. In 18 studies published about sentinel node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the sentinel node was identified in on average 89%, and the false-negative rate was on average 10%. Because of these mediocre results, no author dares to omit axillary clearance just yet. In our institute, sentinel lymph node biopsy is performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate our experience with this approach. Sentinel node biopsy was performed before neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 25 T2N0 patients by using lymphoscintigraphy, a gamma ray detection probe, and patent blue dye. Axillary lymph node dissection was performed after chemotherapy if the sentinel node contained metastases. Ten patients had a tumor-positive axillary sentinel node, and one patient had an involved lateral intramammary node. Four patients had additional involved nodes in the completion lymph node dissection specimen. The other 14 patients (56%) had a tumor-negative sentinel node and did not undergo axillary lymph node dissection. No recurrences have been observed after a median follow-up of 18 months. Fourteen (56%) of the 25 patients were spared axillary lymph node dissection when the sentinel node was found to be disease free. Performing sentinel node biopsy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy seems successful and reliable in patients with T2N0 breast cancer.

  4. Recommendations for reporting tumor budding in colorectal cancer based on the International Tumor Budding Consensus Conference (ITBCC) 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lugli, Alessandro; Kirsch, Richard; Ajioka, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    to determine the strength of recommendations and quality of evidence. The following 10 statements achieved consensus: Tumor budding is defined as a single tumor cell or a cell cluster consisting of four tumor cells or less (22/22, 100%). Tumor budding is an independent predictor of lymph node metastases in pT1......%). Intratumoral budding exists in colorectal cancer and has been shown to be related to lymph node metastasis (22/22, 100%). Tumor budding is assessed in one hotspot (in a field measuring 0.785 mm 2) at the invasive front (22/22, 100%). A three-tier system should be used along with the budding count in order...

  5. Prognostic factors for lymph node metastasis from advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the trunk and extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Andre

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the skin of the trunk and extremities may present lymph node metastasis with difficult disease control and poor survival. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for lymph node metastasis and outcome. Patients/Methods Retrospective review of 57 patients with locally advanced SCC of the trunk and extremities was performed and several clinical variables including age, gender, ethnicity, previously injured skin (burns, scars, ulcers and others, patient origin (rural or urban, anatomic site and treatment were studied. Results Fifteen patients presented with previous skin lesions. Thirty-six were classified as T3 tumors and 21 as T4; 46 were N0, and 11, N1. Eleven N0 patients presented lymph node metastasis during follow up. Univariate analysis identified previous skin lesions (ulcers and scars as risk factor for lymph node metastasis (p = 0.047. Better survival was demonstrated for T3 (p = 0.018 classification. N0 patients who presented lymph node metastasis during follow up (submitted to lymphadenectomy had similar survival to patients without lymph node recurrence (p = 0.219. Conclusion Local advanced tumors are at risk of lymph node metastasis. Increased risk is associated to previous lesions at tumor site. T4 classification have worse prognosis. Lymph node recurrences in N0 patients, once treated, did not affect survival. For these patients, we propose close follow up and prompt treatment of lymph node metastasis. These results do not support indication for elective lymphadenectomy or sentinel node mapping. Further prospective studies must address this issue.

  6. Ratio of mediastinal lymph node SUV to primary tumor SUV in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for nodal staging in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Hyuk; Choe, Jae Gol; Pahk, Kisoo; Choi, Sun Ju; Kwon, Hye Ryeong; Kim, Sun Geun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Jae Seon; Seo, Hyo Jung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Han [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Following determination of the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the mediastinal lymph nodes (SUV-LN) and of the primary tumor (SUV-T) on 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the aim of the study was to determine the value of the SUV-LN/SUV-T ratio in lymph node staging in comparison with that of SUV-LN. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 289 mediastinal lymph node stations from 98 patients with NSCLC who were examined preoperatively for staging and subsequently underwent pathologic studies of the mediastinal lymph nodes. We determined SUV-LN and SUV-R for each lymph node station on 18F-FDG PET/CT and then classified each station into one of three groups based on SUV-T (low, medium and high SUV-T groups). Diagnostic performance was assessed based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and the optimal cut-off values that would best discriminate metastatic from benign lymph nodes were determined for each method. The average of SUV-R of malignant lymph nodes was significantly higher than that of benign lymph nodes (0.79 ± 0.45 vs. 0.36 ± 0.23, P < 0.0001). In the ROC curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) of SUV-R was significantly higher than that of SUV-LN in the low SUV-T group (0.885 vs. 0.810, P = 0.019). There were no significant differences between the AUCs of SUV-LN and of SUV-R in the medium and high SUV-T groups. The optimal cut-off value for SUV-R in the low SUV-T group was 0.71 (sensitivity 87.5 %, specificity 85.9 %). The SUV-R performed well in distinguishing between metastatic and benign lymph nodes. In particular, SUV-R was found to have a better diagnostic performance than SUV-LN in the low SUV-T group.

  7. Assessment of Lymph Node Metastasis of the Stomach Cancer by {sup 99m}Tc Phytate Lymphoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Chang Yun; Min, Jin Sik; Kim, Choong Bai [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-09-15

    Prospective study of lymph node imaging of twenty stomach cancer cases with dissected lymph nodes being injected into the submucosa layer of stomach under surgical field was done. Total dose of 5 mCi in 5 cc of volume was injected along the multiple sites of the lesser and greater curvature of stomach and collected lymph nodes within 2 hour of surgical time were placed under gamma camera and lymph node imagings were obtained, Pathological invasion of tumor and correlation of cold defect or hot uptake was compared each other. Tumor invasion of nodes revealed cold defect area which was correlated well with the pathological specimen. Correlation rate was 84.6%. We are planning to extend these procedures and trying endoscopic injection of positive imaging agents such as GR-73-3 Ig{sub 2} alpha in future.

  8. Endoscopic tattooing of early colon carcinoma enhances detection of lymph nodes most prone to harbor tumor burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldecoa, Iban; Montironi, Carla; Planell, Nuria; Pellise, Maria; Fernandez-Esparrach, Gloria; Gines, Angels; Delgado, Salvadora; Momblan, Dulce; Moreira, Leticia; Lopez-Ceron, Maria; Rakislova, Natalia; Martinez-Palli, Graciela; Balust, Jaume; Bombi, Josep Antoni; de Lacy, Antonio; Castells, Antoni; Balaguer, Francesc; Cuatrecasas, Miriam

    2017-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs result in the detection of early-stage asymptomatic carcinomas suitable to be surgically cured. Lymph nodes (LN) from early CRC are usually small and may be difficult to collect. Still, at least 12 LNs should be analyzed from colectomies, to ensure a reliable pN0 stage. Presurgical endoscopic tattooing improves LN procurement. In addition, molecular detection of occult LN tumor burden in histologically pN0 CRC patients is associated with a decreased survival rate. We aimed to study the impact of presurgical endoscopic tattooing on the molecular detection of LN tumor burden in early colon neoplasms. A prospective cohort study from a CRC screening-based population was performed at a tertiary academic hospital. LNs from colectomies with and without preoperative endoscopic tattooing were assessed by two methods, hematoxylin and eosin (HE), and RT-LAMP, to detect tumor cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA. We compared the amount of tumor burden and LN yields from tattooed and non-tattooed specimens. HE and RT-LAMP analyses of 936 LNs were performed from 71 colectomies containing early carcinomas and endoscopically unresectable adenomas (8 pT0, 17 pTis, 27 pT1, 19 pT2); 47 out of 71 (66.2 %) were tattooed. Molecular positivity correlated with the presence of tattoo in LN [p < 0.001; OR 3.1 (95 % CI 1.7-5.5)]. A significantly higher number of LNs were obtained in tattooed specimens (median 17 LN vs. 14.5 LN; p = 0.019). Endoscopic tattooing enables the analysis of those LNs most prone to harbor tumor cells and improves the number of LN harvested.

  9. Duration of (18)F-FDG avidity in lymph nodes after pandemic H1N1v and seasonal influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Anders; Lerberg Nielsen, Anne; Gerke, Oke

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to investigate the occurrence of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity in draining axillary lymph nodes after vaccination against influenza (H1N1v pandemic and seasonal) and to determine the period of increased FDG uptake. METHODS: During December 2009, patients...

  10. STMN-1 is a potential marker of lymph node metastasis in distal esophageal adenocarcinomas and silencing its expression can reverse malignant phenotype of tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Javed; Wang, Zhou; Yu, Che; Li, Chen-Sheng; Shi, Yu-Long; Liu, Hong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Distal esophageal adenocarcinoma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis is still poor. Stathmin (STMN-1) is a ubiquitously expressed microtubule destabilizing phosphoprotein. It promotes the disassembly of microtubules and prevents assembly. STMN-1 can cause uncontrolled cell proliferation when mutated and not functioning properly. Recently, found to be overexpressed in many types of human cancers. However, its clinical significance remains elusive in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. Here, we reported for the first time that STMN-1 is highly overexpressed in adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus and strongly associated with lymph node metastasis. STMN-1 expression in 63 cases of distal esophageal adenocarcinoma was analyzed by immunoblotting, while expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR and western blotting. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi was employed to knock-down STMN-1 expression in Human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells. The relationship between STMN-1 expression and lymph node metastasis in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma was determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. STMN-1 was detected in 31 (49.21%) of the 63 cases. STMN-1 was highly overexpressed in specimens with lymph node metastasis pN (+), but its expression was almost undetected in pN (−) status. Multivarian regression analysis demonstrated that STMN-1 overexpression is an independent factor for lymph node metastasis in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. STMN-1 shRNA effectively reduced STMN-1 expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells (P < 0.05), which significantly suppressed proliferation (P < 0.05), increased migration (P < 0.05) and invasion ability (P < 0.05) and G1 phase arrest (P < 0.05) which lead to induction of apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. To verify the in vitro data, we conducted in vivo tumor xenograft studies. Esophageal

  11. Reproducible isolation of lymph node stromal cells reveals site-dependent differences in fibroblastic reticular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Fletcher

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Within lymph nodes, non-hematopoietic stromal cells organize and interact with leukocytes in an immunologically important manner. In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, several recent studies have shown that lymph node stromal cells shape the naïve T cell repertoire, expressing self-antigens which delete self-reactive T cells in a unique and non-redundant fashion. A fundamental role in peripheral tolerance, in addition to an otherwise extensive functional portfolio, necessitates closer study of lymph node stromal cell subsets using modern immunological techniques; however this has not routinely been possible in the field, due to difficulties reproducibly isolating these rare subsets. Techniques were therefore developed for successful ex vivo and in vitro manipulation and characterization of lymph node stroma. Here we discuss and validate these techniques in mice and humans, and apply them to address several unanswered questions regarding lymph node composition. We explored the steady-state stromal composition of lymph nodes isolated from mice and humans, and found that marginal reticular cells and lymphatic endothelial cells required lymphocytes for their normal maturation in mice. We also report alterations in the proportion and number of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs between skin-draining and mesenteric lymph nodes. Similarly, transcriptional profiling of FRCs revealed changes in cytokine production from these sites. Together, these methods permit highly reproducible stromal cell isolation, sorting, and culture.

  12. The external and internal radioimmunodetection of metastatic lymph nodes of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Li

    1991-01-01

    A radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (McAb) 6c6 was used to detect the metastatic lymph nodes of breast cancer externally and internally. 111 In was labeled to 6c6 by DTPA method. Iodogen method was used to label 131 I. The radiolabeled 6c6 was injected into the web space of each hand in seven women with breast cancer and one with benign breast tumor. The scans were positive in two axillae with palpable nodes and four with impalpable nodes. Pathologic examination later confirmed metastases in five of the axillae. Two axillae, one of them with palpable nodes, showed negative result, and here no tumor cells were found pathologically. Intraoperative metastatic lymph node detection with a hand-held gamma probe was carried out in six patients. 24 lymph nodes were measured with 17% (1/6) false negative and no false positive result (0/18), indicating that the result detected by the hand-held gamma probe presents the real radioactivity of the tissues being examined. There were 60 lymph nodes that were removed and detected again by well-shape detector after operation. The false positive rate was 14% (6/42), and the false negative rate was 11% (2/18), indicating that the radiolabeled McAb 6c6 could specifically combine with the metastatic lymph nodes of breast cancer in vivo

  13. Patterns of lymph node sampling and the impact of lymph node density in favorable histology Wilms tumor: An analysis of the national cancer database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, A F; Carrasco, A; Amini, A; Aldrink, J H; Dasgupta, R; Gow, K W; Glick, R D; Ehrlich, P F; Cost, N G

    2018-04-01

    There is controversy about the role of lymph node (LN) sampling or dissection in the management of favorable histology (FH) Wilms tumor (WT), specifically how it performed and how it may impact survival. The objective of this study was to analyze factors affecting LN sampling patterns and the impact of LN yield and density (number of positive LNs/LNs examined) on overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced-stage favorable histology Wilms tumor (FHWT). The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for patients with FHWT during 2004-2013. Demographic, clinical and OS data were abstracted for those who underwent surgical resection. Poisson regression was performed to analyze how factors influenced LN yield. Patients with positive LNs had LN density calculated and were further analyzed. A total of 2340 patients met criteria, with a median age at diagnosis of 3 years (range 0-78 years). The median number of LNs examined was three (range 0-87). Lymph node yield was affected by age, race, insurance, tumor size, laterality, advanced stage, LN positivity, and institutional volume. A total of 390 (16.6%) patients had LN-positive disease. Median LN density for these LN-positive patients was 0.38 (range 0.02-1) (Summary Figure). Estimated 5-year OS was significantly improved for those with LN density ≤0.38 vs. >0.38 (94% vs. 84.6%, P = 0.012). In this population, on multivariate analysis, age and LN density were significant predictors of OS. It is difficult to compile large numbers of cases in rare diseases like WT, and fortunately a large administrative database such as the NCDB can serve as a great resource. However, administrative data come with inherent limitations such as missing data and inability to account for a variety of factors that may influence LN yield and/or OS (specimen designation, pathologist experience, surgeon experience/volume, institutional Children's Oncology Group (COG) association, etc.). In this specific disease, the American Joint Committee

  14. Adenocarcinoma arising at a colostomy site with inguinal lymph node metastasis: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masayoshi; Kawada, Kenji; Hida, Koya; Hasegawa, Suguru; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2015-02-01

    Inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma arising at a colostomy site is extremely rare, and the significance of surgical resection for metastatic inguinal lymph nodes has not been established. An 82-year-old woman who had undergone abdominoperineal resection 27 years earlier was admitted to our hospital complaining of bleeding from a colostomy. Physical examination revealed that a tumor at the colostomy site directly invaded into the peristomal skin, and that a left inguinal lymph node was firm and swollen. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan demonstrated accumulation of (18)F-fluorodeoxy glucose into both the colostomy tumor and the left swollen inguinal lymph node, while there was no evidence of metastasis to liver or lungs. She underwent open left hemicolectomy with wide local resection of the colostomy, and dissection of left inguinal lymph nodes. Histological diagnosis was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma that directly invaded into the surrounding skin and metastasized to the left inguinal lymph node. The patient has been followed up for >5 years without any sign of recurrence. In general, inguinal lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancers is regarded as a systemic disease with a poor prognosis, and so systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but not surgical lymph node dissection, are recommended. Considering the lymphatic drainage route in the present case, inguinal lymph node metastasis does not represent a systemic disease but rather a sentinel nodal metastasis from adenocarcinoma at a colostomy site. Surgical dissection of metastatic inguinal lymph nodes should be considered to enable a favorable prognosis in the absence of distant metastasis to other organs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Contraindications of sentinel lymph node biopsy: Áre there any really?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zografos George

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most exciting and talked about new surgical techniques in breast cancer surgery is the sentinel lymph node biopsy. It is an alternative procedure to standard axillary lymph node dissection, which makes possible less invasive surgery and side effects for patients with early breast cancer that wouldn't benefit further from axillary lymph node clearance. Sentinel lymph node biopsy helps to accurately evaluate the status of the axilla and the extent of disease, but also determines appropriate adjuvant treatment and long-term follow-up. However, like all surgical procedures, the sentinel lymph node biopsy is not appropriate for each and every patient. Methods In this article we review the absolute and relative contraindications of the procedure in respect to clinically positive axilla, neoadjuvant therapy, tumor size, multicentric and multifocal disease, in situ carcinoma, pregnancy, age, body-mass index, allergies to dye and/or radio colloid and prior breast and/or axillary surgery. Results Certain conditions involving host factors and tumor biologic characteristics may have a negative impact on the success rate and accuracy of the procedure. The overall fraction of patients unsuitable or with multiple risk factors that may compromise the success of the sentinel lymph node biopsy, is very small. Nevertheless, these patients need to be successfully identified, appropriately advised and cautioned, and so do the surgeons that perform the procedure. Conclusion When performed by an experienced multi-disciplinary team, the SLNB is a highly effective and accurate alternative to standard level I and II axillary clearance in the vast majority of patients with early breast cancer.

  16. Clinicopathological features of lymph node metastatic EMPNST: a case report and review of literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xue-yong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Mesenchymal malignancies prefer hematogenous spread, while epithelial malignancies tend to prefer lymphatic spread. However, mesenchymal malignancies occasionally generate lymphatic metastases. Objective To investigate the clinicopathological features of the epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (EMPNST. Methods The clinical data, histopathological, histochemical and immunohistochemical features in one case of EMPNST with lymph node metastases were retrospectively analyzed, and the related literatures were reviewed. Results A 42-year-old woman presented right upper arm and shoulder numbness with a right axillary nodule measuring 4 cm × 4 cm × 3 cm for 2 months. Type-B ultrasonic examination showed substantive lesions in right axillary which appeared to be a neurofibroma. CT scan showed soft tissue masses in right axillary with multiple enlarged lymph nodes were considered to be malignant lesions. MR image showed nodules in right armpit muscles were considered to be malignant tumor. The multiple nodules were identified in right axillary and the largest one was about 5 cm × 3 cm × 3 cm intraoperatively. The section of specimen was hard, gray-red and sallow in color with focal necrosis. The nodules were partly circumvoluted with blood vessel and without distinct border. The surrounding nerves were not obviously compressed. Microscopically, the structure of lymph node was damaged. The tumor invaded the surrounding fibrous connective tissue and adipose tissue with focal hemorrhage and necrosis. Tumor cells arranged in sheets, nests, and were separated by thin fibrous and blood vessels tissue. Most tumor cells were epithelioid. They were large in size with abundant cytoplasm. Cell border was indistinct, and the cytoplasm consisted of fine granules. Nuclei were invariably intensely hyperchromatic with coarse chromatin, and were vacuolated with prominent nucleoli in the center of the nuclei. Tumor cells showed frequent

  17. Loss of Cdx2 expression in primary tumors and lymph node metastases is specific for mismatch repair-deficiency in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eDawson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 20% of all colorectal cancers are hypothesized to arise from the serrated pathway characterized by mutation in BRAF, high-level CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP and microsatellite instability/mismatch repair (MMR-deficiency. MMR-deficient cancers show frequent losses of Cdx2, a homeodomain transcription factor. Here, we determine the predictive value of Cdx2 expression for MMR-deficiency and investigate changes in expression between primary cancers and matched lymph node metastases. Methods: Immunohistochemistry for Cdx2, Mlh1, Msh2, Msh6, and Pms2 was performed on whole tissue sections from 201 patients with primary colorectal cancer and 59 cases of matched lymph node metastases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis and Area under the Curve (AUC were investigated; association of Cdx2 with clinicopathological features and patient survival was carried out.Results Loss of Cdx2 expression was associated with higher tumor grade (p=0.0002, advanced pT (p=0.0166, and perineural invasion (p=0.0228. Cdx2 loss was an unfavorable prognostic factor in univariate (p=0.0145 and multivariate (p=0.0427; HR (95%CI: 0.58 (0.34-0.98 analysis. The accuracy (AUC for discriminating MMR-proficient and –deficient cancers was 87% (OR (95%CI:0.96 (0.95-0.98; p<0.0001. Specificity and negative predictive value for MMR-deficiency was 99.1% and 96.3%. 174 patients had MMR-proficient cancers, of which 60 (34.5% showed Cdx2 loss. Cdx2 loss in metastases was related to MMR-deficiency (p<0.0001. There was no difference in expression between primary tumors and matched metastases.Conclusion: Loss of Cdx2 is a sensitive and specific predictor of MMR-deficiency, but is not limited to these tumors, suggesting that events upstream of the development of MSI may impact Cdx2 expression.

  18. Sentinel lymph node detection through radioguided surgery in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Benedita Andrade Leal de; Santos, Adriana de Morais; Soares, Livia de Almeida; Santos, Antonio Ricardo dos; Barros, Idna de Carvalho; Abreu, Everardo Leal de; Cruz Filho, Alexandre Jorge Gomes da; Abreu, Joao Batista de; Vieira, Sabas Carlos [Universidade Estadual do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Piaui (CEFET-PI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Faculdade Sao Gabriel, PI (Brazil); Hospital Sao Marcos, PI (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Biopsy of the sentinel lymphnode (SLNB), the first lymphnode to receive lymphatic drainage from the primary tumor, accurately predicts the axillary lymph node status and, when negative, obviates the need for axillary lymphadenectomy (AL). The aim of this study was, to verify the SLN localization in breast cancer through preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma-probe, as well as to demonstrate the benefits of such techniques in preventing complications of AL. Medical records of 228 patients with breast carcinoma, who were underwent SLN localization and, radioguided surgery, from March 2005 to December 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. Data regarding age, tumor characteristic, breast involved, type of surgery, radiopharmaceutical drainage pattern, axillary assessment (SLNB or AL) and number of lymph nodes dissected were collected. It was ascertained that radioguided surgery is a selective method of axillary assessment in breast cancer, which makes this technique a safe alternative to radical assessment of total dissection of axillary lymph nodes and its subsequent complications. (author)

  19. Sentinel lymph node detection through radioguided surgery in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Benedita Andrade Leal de; Santos, Adriana de Morais; Soares, Livia de Almeida; Santos, Antonio Ricardo dos; Barros, Idna de Carvalho; Abreu, Everardo Leal de; Cruz Filho, Alexandre Jorge Gomes da; Abreu, Joao Batista de; Vieira, Sabas Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Biopsy of the sentinel lymphnode (SLNB), the first lymphnode to receive lymphatic drainage from the primary tumor, accurately predicts the axillary lymph node status and, when negative, obviates the need for axillary lymphadenectomy (AL). The aim of this study was, to verify the SLN localization in breast cancer through preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma-probe, as well as to demonstrate the benefits of such techniques in preventing complications of AL. Medical records of 228 patients with breast carcinoma, who were underwent SLN localization and, radioguided surgery, from March 2005 to December 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. Data regarding age, tumor characteristic, breast involved, type of surgery, radiopharmaceutical drainage pattern, axillary assessment (SLNB or AL) and number of lymph nodes dissected were collected. It was ascertained that radioguided surgery is a selective method of axillary assessment in breast cancer, which makes this technique a safe alternative to radical assessment of total dissection of axillary lymph nodes and its subsequent complications. (author)

  20. Changes in antigen-presenting cell function in the spleen and lymph nodes of ultraviolet-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurish, M.F.; Lynch, D.H.; Daynes, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    It has been previously reported that mice exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation exhibit a decrease in splenic antigen-presenting cell (APC) function. The results presented here confirm this observation and further demonstrate that animals exposed daily to UV for extended periods of time (5 weeks instead of 6 days) no longer exhibit this depressed capability. In spite of the depression in splenic APC activity found in 6-day UV-irradiated mice, lymph node APC function from these same animals was elevated compared with that found in the lymph nodes from normal animals. Lymph node APC activity in animals that were splenectomized prior to the UV irradiation, however, was not enhanced over controls. Treatment of animals with a chemical irritant (turpentine) also caused a depression in splenic APC function without modifying lymph node activity. Collectively, our findings suggest that the observed decrease in splenic APC activity, found after the first week of UV exposures, may be attributable to the migration of splenic APC to peripheral lymphoid tissue which drain the site of epidermal inflammation

  1. Cervical Lymph Nodes as a Selective Niche for Brucella during Oral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bargen, Kristine; Gagnaire, Aurélie; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; de Bovis, Béatrice; Baudimont, Fannie; Chasson, Lionel; Bosilkovski, Mile; Papadopoulos, Alexia; Martirosyan, Anna; Henri, Sandrine; Mège, Jean-Louis; Malissen, Bernard; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cervical lymph nodes (CLN) are the first lymph nodes encountered by material taking the oral route. To study their role in orally acquired infections, we analyzed 307 patients of up to 14 years treated in the university clinic of Skopje, Macedonia, for brucellosis, a zoonotic bacterial disease frequently acquired by ingestion of contaminated dairy products. From these children, 36% had lymphadenopathy. Among orally infected children, lymphadenopathy with CLN being the only lymph nodes affected was significantly more frequent as compared to those infected by contact with animals (83% vs. 63%), suggesting a possible involvement of CLN during orally acquired human brucellosis. Using a murine model where bacteria are delivered into the oral cavity, we show that Brucella quickly and selectively colonize the CLN where they proliferate and persist over long periods of time for up to 50 days post-infection. A similar efficient though less specific drainage to CLN was found for Brucella, Salmonella typhimurium and fluorescent microspheres delivered by gavage, a pathway likely representing a mixed infection mode of intragastric and oral infection, suggesting a central pathway of drained material. Microspheres as well as bacteria drained to CLN predominately reside in cells expressing CD68 and no or low levels of CD11c. Even though no systemic response could be detected, Brucella induced a locally restricted inflammatory reaction with increased expression levels of interferon γ, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, granzyme B and a delayed induction of Nos2. Inflammation led to pronounced lymphadenopathy, infiltration of macrophages/monocytes expressing high levels of major histocompatibility complex II and to formation of epitheloid granulomas. Together, these results highlight the role of CLN in oral infections as both, an initial and efficient trap for bacterial invaders and as possible reservoir for chronic pathogens. They likewise cast a new light on the significance of oral

  2. Role of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in the resection of metastatic lymph nodes in an optimized orthotopic animal model of HNSCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, I; Milet, C; Quatre, R; Henry, M; Reyt, E; Coll, J-L; Hurbin, A; Righini, C A

    2015-12-01

    To study the role of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in the detection and resection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in head and neck cancer. CAL33 head and neck cancer cells of human origin were implanted in the oral cavity of nude mice. The mice were followed up after tumor resection to detect the development of lymph node metastases. A specific fluorescent tracer for αvβ3 integrin expressed by CAL33 cells was injected intravenously in the surviving mice between the second and the fourth month following tumor resection. A near-infrared fluorescence-imaging camera was used to detect tracer uptake in metastatic cervical lymph nodes, to guide of lymph-node resection for histological analysis. Lymph node metastases were observed in 42.8% of surviving mice between the second and the fourth month following orthotopic tumor resection. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging provided real-time intraoperative detection of clinical and subclinical lymph node metastases. These results were confirmed histologically. Near infrared fluorescence imaging provides real-time contrast between normal and malignant tissue, allowing intraoperative detection of metastatic lymph nodes. This preclinical stage is essential before testing the technique in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of MR lymphography with positive lymphotropic contrast agent in diagnosing lymph node lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhengyang; Yu Haiping; Chen Junkun; Zhu Bin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interstital MR lymphography using positive lymphotropic contrast agent for differentiation of metastatic lymph nodes from inflammatory lymph nodes hyperplasm. Methods: Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits weighted at 2. 0-2. 5 kg were used. Inflammatory hyperplastic popliteal lymph node model was established in 9 rabbits by injection of complete freund adjuvant into the interdigitial skin of the dorsal aspect of one hind leg, and tumor-bearing popliteal lymph node model was established in another 9 rabbits by injection of VX2 tumor cell suspension. The popliteal lymph nodes of another hind leg of all 18 rabbits were assigned to the normal contral group. In each group, every rabbit underwent MR lymphography examination before and after the inoculation. Volumes of 0.2 ml of Gd [ DTPA-bis ( 2-aminoethoxy ) ethane ] polymeric contrast agent ( Gd-poly-DTPA-EOEA ) injection were injected subcutaneously into the dorsal feet of both hind legs of two groups of rabbits. T 1 -weighted 3D gradient-echo images were obtained, and source images were used to reconstruct images of MIP before and after the administration of agent. The maximum short-axis diameter (MSAD) of each popliteal lymph node was measured on the enhanced 3D MIP images, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurement was performed in the largest popliteal node of each rabbit at each time point in delayed scan. Independent- samples t test was used to compare the sizes of popliteal nodes in MSADs between inflammatorily hyperplastic and tumor-bearing nodes after the inoculation, and the values of SNRs of popliteal nodes at each time point between inflammatorily hyperplastic, tumor-bearing and normal popliteal lymph nodes. Imaging results of the popliteal nodes were analyzed and correlated with pathological findings. Results: All of the rabbits were successfully inoculated except of the 2 rabbits in tumor-bearing nodal group. The size in MSAD of 13 inflammatorily hyperplastic and 11 tumor

  4. Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organ...

  5. FDG uptake and glut-1 expression in primary tumors and loco-regional lymph nodes in non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Woo; Nguyen, Xuan Canh; Chung, Jin Haeng; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    FDG uptake level by primary tumors in NSCLC may affect the likelihood of malignant involvement in loco-regional lymph nodes (LNs). FDG uptake in tumors has been reported to be mediated by glucose transporter type 1 (Glut-I). Here, we investigated the correlations between primary tumors and loco-regional LNs in NSCLC regarding FDG uptake and Glut-1 expression. 126 NSCLC patients (M: F=103: 23, age=659.7y) who underwent curative resection and loco-regional LN dissection within 4 week period after FDG-PET study were enrolled. Maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) by PET and %Glut-1 expression by immunostaining were compared between primary tumors and FDG uptake positive loco-regional LNs. Significant correlations were found between 52 malignant LNs and 37 primary tumors in terms of maxSUV (r=0.6451, p<0.0001) and %Glut-1 expression (r=0.8341, p<0.0001). Linear regression of the relation between maxSUVs of malignant LNs (Y) and maxSUVs of primary tumors (X) yielded the expression Y = 0.5938 + 0.4808 X with an r2 value of 0.4162. On the other hand, no significant correlation was observed between 144 benign LNs and 75 primary tumors in terms of maxSUVs (r= -0.0125, p 0.8831). Moreover, %Glut-1 expressions of pathologically proven benign LNs and primary tumors were found to be correlated (r=0.3863, p=0.0004), but r2 value was low at 0.1492. High correlations were found between primary tumors and loco-regional metastatic LNs in NSCLC regarding FDG uptake and Glut-1 expression. Mediastinal LN staging of NSCLC by FDG-PET may be improved by considering the linear correlation between FDG uptakes of metastatic LNs and primary tumors

  6. Multi-detector row CT in the assessment of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Shogo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic capability instead of clinical efficacy of multi-detector row CT (MDCT) in the assessment of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. MDCT was performed in 63 patients with breast cancer, and multiplanar reformation (MPR) and volume rendering (VR) images were reconstructed for the evaluation of bilateral axillary lymph nodes. Two hundred sixty eight lymph nodes were depicted with MDCT, and correlation with pathological findings was performed. The short axis length of lymph node was measured on MPR image, and the shape of the nodes was analyzed with the pathological results statistically. The diagnostic criteria on size and shape of lymph node metastasis were discussed Dynamic study with contrast media was also performed, and the CT value ratios (CTVR) of the lymph nodes and breast tumors were calculated. No relevance of axillary lymph node metastasis was noted to the pathological types of breast cancer. The average short axis length of the ipsilateral axillary nodes was 8.9 mm±3.8 (SD) while that of the contralateral nodes was 4.9 mm±1.1 (SD) showing significant difference. More than 6.5 mm in short length of the lymph node was thought to be an effective criterion for positive metastasis, and its sensitivity was 96%. Soybean-shape lymph node was statistically common in metastasis, while non-metastatic nodes were commonly demonstrated as letter ''c'' shape or ring-like shape. Statistical relevance was obtained between the CTVR of axillary lymph nodes and that of breast tumors, suggesting clinical usefulness of dynamic study using contrast media in the evaluation of lymph node metastasis. With MPR and VR images using MDCT, more accurate morphological evaluation of axillary lymph nodes was possible. When soybean-shape node with more than 6.5 mm in short axis is depicted in the axillar region on MDCT metastasis should be the consideration. Comparison with the contralateral side as a control in coronal

  7. SENTINEL LYMPH NODE CONCEPT IN DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CANCER

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    Markovic Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC account up to 90% of all thyroid malignacies, and represents the most common malignant tumors of endocrine system. The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, especially small tumors is rapidly increasing during past three decades. At the time of diagnosis, the incidence of lymph node metastases (LNM ranges from 80 to 90%. During the last 15 years, LNM were recognized as bad prognostic factor for both local-regional relapse (LRR and cancer specific survival. There is general agreement that neck dissections are indicated in cases of clinically apparent LNM. The subject of the current controversy is the surgical treatment of occult LNM that remain unrecognized on preoperative diagnosis (cN0. The extent of operations of the lymph nodes ranges from “wait and see” so-called “Western school” principle substantiated the role of applying ablative I131therapy and frequency peroperative complications (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism, especially for less experienced teams to mutual prophylactic dissection of the central and lateral compartments so-called “Japanese school” due to the limited use of radioactive iodine therapy and significantly lower operating morbidity if dissetion was done during primary operation. Despite high prevalence of occult LNM, existing controversies regarding diagnosis, longterm prognostic impact and extent of lymph node surgery, motivated some authors to apply consept of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNb in DTC, taking into account excellent results of SLN concept in breast cancer and skin melanoma. This review presents the summarized results of relevant studies and three meta-analysis of accuracy and applicability of SLN concept in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  8. Methylation signature of lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barekati, Zeinab; Radpour, Ramin; Lu, Qing; Bitzer, Johannes; Zheng, Hong; Toniolo, Paolo; Lenner, Per; Zhong, Xiao Yan

    2012-01-01

    Invasion and metastasis are two important hallmarks of malignant tumors caused by complex genetic and epigenetic alterations. The present study investigated the contribution of aberrant methylation profiles of cancer related genes, APC, BIN1, BMP6, BRCA1, CST6, ESR-b, GSTP1, P14 (ARF), P16 (CDKN2A), P21 (CDKN1A), PTEN, and TIMP3, in the matched axillary lymph node metastasis in comparison to the primary tumor tissue and the adjacent normal tissue from the same breast cancer patients to identify the potential of candidate genes methylation as metastatic markers. The quantitative methylation analysis was performed using the SEQUENOM’s EpiTYPER™ assay which relies on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The quantitative DNA methylation analysis of the candidate genes showed higher methylation proportion in the primary tumor tissue than that of the matched normal tissue and the differences were significant for the APC, BIN1, BMP6, BRCA1, CST6, ESR-b, P16, PTEN and TIMP3 promoter regions (P<0.05). Among those candidate methylated genes, APC, BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 displayed higher methylation proportion in the matched lymph node metastasis than that found in the normal tissue (P<0.05). The pathway analysis revealed that BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 have a role in prevention of neoplasm metastasis. The results of the present study showed methylation heterogeneity between primary tumors and metastatic lesion. The contribution of aberrant methylation alterations of BMP6, BRCA1 and P16 genes in lymph node metastasis might provide a further clue to establish useful biomarkers for screening metastasis

  9. Predictors of Regional Lymph Node Recurrence after Initial Thyroidectomy in Patients with Thyroid Cancer

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    Amirsina Sharifi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regional lymph node recurrence (RLNR is common in patients with thyroid cancer but clinicopathological predictors are unclear. We aimed to clarify these predictors and identify patients who would benefit from prophylactic lymph node dissection the most. Method. 343 patients with different types of thyroid cancer were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy between 2007 and 2013. Results. The median ± interquartile range of patients’ age was 40 ± 25 years. 245 (71.4% patients were female. Regarding the risk of regional lymph node recurrence, we found that male gender, age ≥45 years, non-PTC (i.e., medullary, follicular, and anaplastic types histopathology, T3 (i.e., tumor size >4 cm in the greatest dimension limited to the thyroid or any tumor with minimal extrathyroid extension, stage IVa, and isolated cervical lymphadenopathy as initial manifestation (ICL are significant risk factors. T3 (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 156.41, 95% CI [55.72–439.1] and ICL (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 77.79, 95% CI [31.55–191.81] were the strongest predictors of regional lymph node recurrence. Conclusion. We found easily achievable risk factors for RLNR in thyroid cancers patients. We suggested that patients with specific clinicopathological features like male gender, age ≥45 years, larger tumor size, and extrathyroidal extension be considered as prophylactic lymphadenectomy candidates.

  10. The Malnutrition-Related Increase in Early Visceralization of Leishmania donovani Is Associated with a Reduced Number of Lymph Node Phagocytes and Altered Conduit System Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa K.; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Anstead, Gregory M.; Jimenez, Fabio; Travi, Bruno L.; Peniche, Alex G.; Osorio, E. Yaneth; Ahuja, Seema S.; Melby, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    In a murine model of moderate childhood malnutrition we found that polynutrient deficiency led to a 4–5-fold increase in early visceralization of L. donovani (3 days post-infection) following cutaneous infection and a 16-fold decrease in lymph node barrier function (pmalnutrition-related parasite dissemination we analyzed the cellularity, architecture, and function of the skin-draining lymph node. There was no difference in the localization of multiple cell populations in the lymph node of polynutrient deficient (PND) mice, but there was reduced cellularity with fewer CD11c+dendritic cells (DCs), fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), MOMA-2+ macrophages, and CD169+ subcapsular sinus macrophage (p<0.05 for all) compared to the well-nourished (WN) mice. The parasites were equally co-localized with DCs associated with the lymph node conduit network in the WN and PND mice, and were found in the high endothelial venule into which the conduits drain. When a fluorescent low molecular weight (10 kD) dextran was delivered in the skin, there was greater efflux of the marker from the lymph node conduit system to the spleens of PND mice (p<0.04), indicating that flow through the conduit system was altered. There was no evidence of disruption of the conduit or subcapsular sinus architecture, indicating that the movement of parasites into the subcortical conduit region was due to an active process and not from passive movement through a leaking barrier. These results indicate that the impaired capacity of the lymph node to act as a barrier to dissemination of L. donovani infection is associated with a reduced number of lymph node phagocytes, which most likely leads to reduced capture of parasites as they transit through the sinuses and conduit system. PMID:23967356

  11. Cervical Lymph Node Metastases of Unknown Origin: Primary Tumor Detection with Whole-Body Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassenstein, K.; Veit-Haibach, P.; Stergar, H.; Gutzeit, A.; Freudenberg, L.; Kuehl, H.; Fischer, M.; Barkhausen, J.; Bockisch, A.; Antoch, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Identification of primary tumor in patients with cervical lymph node metastasis of unknown primary (MUO) has a great impact on therapy approach and potentially on patient prognosis. Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/computer tomography (CT) for primary tumor detection in cervical metastases of unknown origin compared to PET, CT, and PET+CT side-by-side evaluation. Material and Methods: 39 consecutive patients (eight women, 31 men; mean age 59.9±11.2 years) with MUO were enrolled in this study. PET/CT images were obtained 1 hour after injection of 350 MBq of fluorodeoxyglucose. Oral and intravenous contrast agents were administered in all patients to ensure diagnostic CT data. Fused PET/CT data were evaluated for primary tumor detection. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated and compared with CT alone, PET alone, and side-by-side PET+CT evaluation. Statistical analysis of differences in diagnostic performance between the different imaging procedures was based on the McNemar test. Results: Fused PET/CT depicted the primary tumor in 11 of 39 (28%) patients. In 28 (72%) patients, the primary tumor remained occult. CT revealed the primary in five (13%), PET alone in 10 (26%), and side-by-side evaluation of PET+CT in 10 (26%) of 39 patients. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between the imaging modalities. Conclusion: PET, side-by-side PET+CT, and PET/CT revealed similar detection rates for primary tumors in cervical MUO patients. Therefore, cervical metastases of an unknown primary may be assessed with either of these imaging modalities. Detection rates with CT were substantially lower. Thus, inclusion of functional data for assessment of cervical MUO patients must be recommended

  12. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Oral Cancer: Validation of Technique and Clinical Implications of Added Oblique Planar Lymphoscintigraphy and/or Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, J.B.; Soerensen, J.A.; Grupe, P.; Krogdahl, A. [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nuclear Medicine, and Pathology

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: To validate lymphatic mapping combined with sentinel lymph node biopsy as a staging procedure, and to evaluate the possible clinical implications of added oblique lymphoscintigraphy and/or tomography and test the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of lymphoscintigraphy. Material and Methods: Forty patients (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90) with 24 T1 and 16 T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Planar lymphoscintigraphy, emission and transmission tomography were performed. Detection and excision of the sentinel nodes were guided by a gamma probe. The sentinel nodes were step-sectioning and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and cytokeratin (CK 1). Histology and follow-up were used as 'gold standard'. Tumor location, number of sentinel lymph nodes, metastasis, and recurrences were registered. Two observers evaluated the lymphoscintigraphic images to assess the inter-rater agreement. Results: Eleven (28%) patients were upstaged. The sentinel lymph node identification rate was 97.5%. Sentinel lymph node biopsy significantly differentiated between patients with or without lymph node metastasis ( P = 0.001). Lymphatic mapping revealed 124 hotspots and 144 hot lymph nodes were removed by sentinel lymph node biopsy. Three patients developed a lymph node recurrence close to the primary tumor site during follow-up. Added oblique lymphoscintigraphic images and/or tomography revealed extra hotspots in 15/40 (38%) patients. In 4/40 (10%), extra contralateral hotspots were detected. Conclusion: Sentinel lymph node biopsy upstaged 28% of the patients. Sentinel lymph nodes close to the primary tumor were difficult to find. Added oblique planar images and/or tomographic images revealed extra clinical relevant hotspots in 38% of patients. Reproducibility proved excellent.

  13. An oral Salmonella-based vaccine inhibits liver metastases by promoting tumor-specific T cell-mediated immunity in celiac & portal lymph nodes. A preclinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina eVendrell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary tumor excision is one of the therapies of cancer most widely used. However, the risk of metastases development still exists following tumor resection. The liver is a common site of metastatic disease for numerous cancers. Breast cancer is one of the most frequent source of metastases to the liver. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the orally-administered Salmonella Typhi vaccine strain CVD 915 on the development of liver metastases in a mouse model of breast cancer. To this end, one group of BALB/c mice was immunized with CVD 915 via o.g. while another received PBS as a control. After 24 h, mice were injected with LM3 mammary adenocarcinoma cells into the spleen and subjected to splenectomy. This oral Salmonella-based vaccine produced an antitumor effect, leading to a decrease in the number and volume of liver metastases. Immunization with Salmonella induced an early cellular immune response in mice. This innate stimulation rendered a large production of IFN-γ by intrahepatic immune cells (IHIC detected within 24 h. An antitumor adaptive immunity was found in the liver and celiac & portal lymph nodes (LDLN 21 days after oral bacterial inoculation. The antitumor immune response inside the liver was associated with increased CD4+ and DC cell populations as well as with an inflammatory infiltrate located around liver metastatic nodules. Enlarged levels of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF were also detected in IHIC. Furthermore, a tumor-specific production of IFN-γ and TNF as well as tumor-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells (CD8+IFN-γ+ were found in the celiac & portal lymph nodes of Salmonella-treated mice. This study provides first evidence for the involvement of LDLN in the development of an efficient cellular immune response against hepatic tumors, which resulted in the elimination of liver metastases after oral Salmonella-based vaccination.

  14. PET/CT in breast carcinoma, combined with sarcoidosis, imitating mediastinal lymph node metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcheva, M.; Hadhyiska, V.; Bochev, P.

    2013-01-01

    PET/CT is a high sensitive, but low-specific method visualizing all the metabolic active processes. Fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake is high in tumors, as well as in infections, inflammations, granulomatous processes, post-radiotherapy alterations and in activated organs and tissues like brown fat, adrenals, thyroid, thymus, or bone marrow. This uptake can represent differential diagnostic problem. The clinical case is a young patient with invasive ductal and lobular breast carcinoma, after sectorial resection, without lymph node dissection. The chemotherapy was stopped after 3 courses due to thrombosis of vena cephalica. The local clinical status raises suspicion of recurrence, as the ultrasound. PET/CT was not conclusive about mediastinal lymph node involvement. The histology proves sarcoidosis, which frequently demonstrates symmetric 18F-FDG avid mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. However the biopsy is mandatory, because of the low specificity of PET/CT for discrimination of this systemic disorder from tumor involvement. Keywords: PET/CT. Differential Diagnostic Problems

  15. The respiratory local lymph node assay as a tool to study respiratory sensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Josje H E; de Jong, Wim H; van Triel, Jos J; Schijf, Marcel A; de Klerk, Arja; van Loveren, Henk; Kuper, C Frieke

    2008-12-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used to test the potential of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds to induce sensitization via the skin. In the present study, a respiratory LLNA was developed. Male BALB/c mice were exposed head/nose-only during three consecutive days for 45, 90, 180, or 360 min/day to various LMW allergens. Ear application (skin LLNA) was used as a positive control. Negative controls were exposed to the vehicle. Three days after the last exposure, proliferation was determined in the draining mandibular lymph nodes, and the respiratory tract was examined microscopically. Upon inhalation, the allergens trimellitic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, hexamethylene diisocyanate, toluene diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), dinitrochlorobenzene, and oxazolone were positive and showed stimulation indices (SIs) up to 11, whereas trimeric IPDI, formaldehyde, and methyl salicylate were negative (viz. SI LLNA.

  16. The expression of HSP60 and HSP10 in large bowel carcinomas with lymph node metastase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappello, Francesco; David, Sabrina; Rappa, Francesca; Bucchieri, Fabio; Marasà, Lorenzo; Bartolotta, Tommaso E; Farina, Felicia; Zummo, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    The involvement of Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) in cancer development and progression is a widely debated topic. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence and expression of HSP60 and HSP10 in a series of large bowel carcinomas and locoregional lymph nodes with and without metastases. 82 Astler and Coller's stage C2 colorectal cancers, of which 48 well-differentiated and 34 poorly-differentiated, were selected along with 661 lymph nodes, including 372 with metastases and 289 with reactive hyperplasia only, from the same tumours. Primitive tumours and both metastatic and reactive lymph nodes were studied; specifically, three different compartments of the lymph nodes, secondary follicle, paracortex and medullary sinus, were also analysed. An immunohistochemical research for HSP60 and HSP10 was performed and the semiquantitative results were analysed by statistical analysis to determine the correlation between HSPs expression and 1) tumour grading; 2) degree of inflammation; 3) number of lymph nodes involved; 4) lymph node compartment hyperplasia. Moreover, western blotting was performed on a smaller group of samples to confirm the immunohistochemical results. Our data show that the expression of HSP60, in both primary tumour and lymph node metastasis, is correlated with the tumoral grade, while the HSP10 expression is not. Nevertheless, the levels of HSP10 are commonly higher than the levels of HSP60. In addition, statistical analyses do not show any correlation between the degree of inflammation and the immunopositivity for both HSP60 and HSP10. Moreover, we find a significant correlation between the presence of lymph node metastases and the positivity for both HSP60 and HSP10. In particular, metastatic lymph nodes show a higher percentage of cells positive for both HSP60 and HSP10 in the secondary follicles, and for HSP10 in the medullary sinuses, when compared with hyperplastic lymph nodes. HSP60 and HSP10 may have diagnostic and prognostic

  17. Histological pattern of Merkel cell carcinoma sentinel lymph node metastasis improves stratification of Stage III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jennifer S; Prieto, Victor G; Elson, Paul J; Vilain, Ricardo E; Pulitzer, Melissa P; Scolyer, Richard A; Reynolds, Jordan P; Piliang, Melissa P; Ernstoff, Marc S; Gastman, Brian R; Billings, Steven D

    2016-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is used to stage Merkel cell carcinoma, but its prognostic value has been questioned. Furthermore, predictors of outcome in sentinel lymph node positive Merkel cell carcinoma patients are poorly defined. In breast carcinoma, isolated immunohistochemically positive tumor cells have no impact, but in melanoma they are considered significant. The significance of sentinel lymph node metastasis tumor burden (including isolated tumor cells) and pattern of involvement in Merkel cell carcinoma are unknown. In this study, 64 Merkel cell carcinomas involving sentinel lymph nodes and corresponding immunohistochemical stains were reviewed and clinicopathological predictors of outcome were sought. Five metastatic patterns were identified: (1) sheet-like (n=38, 59%); (2) non-solid parafollicular (n=4, 6%); (3) sinusoidal, (n=11, 17%); (4) perivascular hilar (n=1, 2%); and (5) rare scattered parenchymal cells (n=10, 16%). At the time of follow-up, 30/63 (48%) patients had died with 21 (33%) attributable to Merkel cell carcinoma. Patients with pattern 1 metastases had poorer overall survival compared with patients with patterns 2-5 metastases (P=0.03), with 22/30 (73%) deaths occurring in pattern 1 patients. Three (10%) deaths occurred in patients showing pattern 5, all of whom were immunosuppressed. Four (13%) deaths occurred in pattern 3 patients and 1 (3%) death occurred in a pattern 2 patient. In multivariable analysis, the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes (1 or 2 versus >2, PMerkel cell carcinoma, the pattern of sentinel lymph node involvement provides important prognostic information and utilizing this data with other clinicopathological features facilitates risk stratification of Merkel cell carcinoma patients who may have management implications.

  18. Extra-nodal extension is a significant prognostic factor in lymph node positive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Aziz

    Full Text Available Presence of lymph node (LN metastasis is a strong prognostic factor in breast cancer, whereas the importance of extra-nodal extension and other nodal tumor features have not yet been fully recognized. Here, we examined microscopic features of lymph node metastases and their prognostic value in a population-based cohort of node positive breast cancer (n = 218, as part of the prospective Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program NBCSP (1996-2009. Sections were reviewed for the largest metastatic tumor diameter (TD-MET, nodal afferent and efferent vascular invasion (AVI and EVI, extra-nodal extension (ENE, number of ENE foci, as well as circumferential (CD-ENE and perpendicular (PD-ENE diameter of extra-nodal growth. Number of positive lymph nodes, EVI, and PD-ENE were significantly increased with larger primary tumor (PT diameter. Univariate survival analysis showed that several features of nodal metastases were associated with disease-free (DFS or breast cancer specific survival (BCSS. Multivariate analysis demonstrated an independent prognostic value of PD-ENE (with 3 mm as cut-off value in predicting DFS and BCSS, along with number of positive nodes and histologic grade of the primary tumor (for DFS: P = 0.01, P = 0.02, P = 0.01, respectively; for BCSS: P = 0.02, P = 0.008, P = 0.02, respectively. To conclude, the extent of ENE by its perpendicular diameter was independently prognostic and should be considered in line with nodal tumor burden in treatment decisions of node positive breast cancer.

  19. Mesothelioma tumor cells modulate dendritic cell lipid content, phenotype and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne K Gardner

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play an important role in the generation of anti-cancer immune responses, however there is evidence that DCs in cancer patients are dysfunctional. Lipid accumulation driven by tumor-derived factors has recently been shown to contribute to DC dysfunction in several human cancers, but has not yet been examined in mesothelioma. This study investigated if mesothelioma tumor cells and/or their secreted factors promote increases in DC lipid content and modulate DC function. Human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs were exposed to human mesothelioma tumor cells and tumor-derived factors in the presence or absence of lipoproteins. The data showed that immature MoDCs exposed to mesothelioma cells or factors contained increased lipid levels relative to control DCs. Lipid accumulation was associated with reduced antigen processing ability (measured using a DQ OVA assay, upregulation of the co-stimulatory molecule, CD86, and production of the tolerogenic cytokine, IL-10. Increases in DC lipid content were further enhanced by co-exposure to mesothelioma-derived factors and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, but not low-density lipoproteins. In vivo studies using a murine mesothelioma model showed that the lipid content of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ CD8α- DCs, CD4- CD8α- DCs DCs and plasmacytoid DCs increased with tumor progression. Moreover, increasing tumor burden was associated with reduced proliferation of tumor-antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. This study shows that mesothelioma promotes DC lipid acquisition, which is associated with altered activation status and reduced capacity to process and present antigens, which may impair the ability of DCs to generate effective anti mesothelioma T cell responses.

  20. Do tumor size or patient age influence the accuracy of sentinel lymph node (Sn) detection in breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, M.; Fernandez, A.; Benito, E.; Azpeitia, D.; Ricart, Y.; Escobedo, A.; Martin-Comin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim was to analyze the influence of the age of the patient and tumor size on the accuracy to identify SN in patients with breast cancer. The whole population are 250 patients with breast cancer. In 236 data on size and age were available. Mean age was 53.6 years, range 28-87 years. Patients were classified 1) depending an age: 40 60 years: 73 p and 2) depending on tumor size (mm): 30: 46 p. Examination protocol: All patients received a peritumoral injection of 111 MBq (3mCi) of 99mTc-HSA-nanocolloid in 1 - 3 ml. 2 h later 300 seconds anterior and lateral thoracic scans were obtained. A 57-Co flood phantom was positioned back to the patient to outline the anatomical contour and help to localize SN. SN was marked on the skin with permanent ink. Intraoperative SN localization was performed using a gamma probe. Histopathologic analysis of SN was done with haematoxylin/eosin, immunohistochemistry and PCR. Histopathology of the SN was compared to the histopathology of all the other lymph nodes drawn out by the surgeon. SN were identified by lymphoscintigraphy in 227 cases of 250 (91 %). 221 of them (97 %) were localized in axyla. In 210 of 221 SN could be localized and drawn out at surgery. The no detection and false negative rate were much higher in patients aged > 60 (29 and 33 %) and in tumors > 30 mm (32 and 19 %) than in patients 60 y and tumors > 30 mm (46 %) and the highest false negative rate appears in patients >60 and tumors > 30 mm (33 %) 1) No FN were found in patients with tumor size <10 mm. 2) No FN were found in patients aged under 40 years. 3) FN rate seems to be higher in older patients. 4) The age of patients and the size of tumor seem to influence an the SN detection rates. (author)

  1. Support vector machine model for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer with multidetector computed tomography: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Zhi-Long; Tang, Lei; Sun, Ying-Shi; Cao, Kun; Gao, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) of gastric cancer is an important prognostic factor regarding long-term survival. But several imaging techniques which are commonly used in stomach cannot satisfactorily assess the gastric cancer lymph node status. They can not achieve both high sensitivity and specificity. As a kind of machine-learning methods, Support Vector Machine has the potential to solve this complex issue. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. 175 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent MDCT before surgery were included. We evaluated the tumor and lymph node indicators on CT images including serosal invasion, tumor classification, tumor maximum diameter, number of lymph nodes, maximum lymph node size and lymph nodes station, which reflected the biological behavior of gastric cancer. Univariate analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the six image indicators with LNM. A SVM model was built with these indicators above as input index. The output index was that lymph node metastasis of the patient was positive or negative. It was confirmed by the surgery and histopathology. A standard machine-learning technique called k-fold cross-validation (5-fold in our study) was used to train and test SVM models. We evaluated the diagnostic capability of the SVM models in lymph node metastasis with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. And the radiologist classified the lymph node metastasis of patients by using maximum lymph node size on CT images as criterion. We compared the areas under ROC curves (AUC) of the radiologist and SVM models. In 175 cases, the cases of lymph node metastasis were 134 and 41 cases were not. The six image indicators all had statistically significant differences between the LNM negative and positive groups. The means of the sensitivity, specificity and AUC of SVM models with 5-fold cross-validation were 88.5%, 78.5% and 0.876, respectively. While the diagnostic power of the

  2. MUC1 enhances tumor progression and contributes toward immunosuppression in a mouse model of spontaneous pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinder, Teresa L; Subramani, Durai B; Basu, Gargi D; Bradley, Judy M; Schettini, Jorge; Million, Arefayene; Skaar, Todd; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2008-09-01

    MUC1, a membrane tethered mucin glycoprotein, is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in >80% of human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, the role of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer has been elusive, partly due to the lack of an appropriate model. We report the characterization of a novel mouse model that expresses human MUC1 as a self molecule (PDA.MUC1 mice). Pancreatic tumors arise in an appropriate MUC1-tolerant background within an immune-competent host. Significant enhancement in the development of pancreatic intraepithelial preneoplastic lesions and progression to adenocarcinoma is observed in PDA.MUC1 mice, possibly due to increased proliferation. Tumors from PDA.MUC1 mice express higher levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and IDO compared with PDA mice lacking MUC1, especially during early stages of tumor development. The increased proinflammatory milieu correlates with an increased percentage of regulatory T cells and myeloid suppressor cells in the pancreatic tumor and tumor draining lymph nodes. Data shows that during pancreatic cancer progression, MUC1-mediated mechanisms enhance the onset and progression of the disease, which in turn regulate the immune responses. Thus, the mouse model is ideally suited for testing novel chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies against pancreatic cancer.

  3. MUC1 enhances tumor progression and contributes towards immunosuppression in a mouse model of spontaneous pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinder, Teresa L.; Subramani, Durai B.; Basu, Gargi D.; Bradley, Judy M.; Schettini, Jorge; Million, Arefayene; Skaar, Todd

    2008-01-01

    MUC1, a membrane tethered mucin glycoprotein, is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in >80% of human ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, the role of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer has been elusive, partly due to the lack of an appropriate model. We report the characterization of a novel mouse model that expresses human MUC1 as a self molecule (PDA.MUC1 mice). Pancreatic tumors arise in an appropriate MUC1-tolerant background within an immune competent host. Significant enhancement in the development of pancreatic intraepithelial pre-neoplastic lesions (PanINs) and progression to adenocarcinoma is observed in PDA.MUC1 mice, possibly due to increased proliferation. Tumors from PDA.MUC1 mice express higher levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and indoleamine 2,3, dioxygenase compared to PDA mice lacking MUC1, especially during early stages of tumor development. The increased pro-inflammatory milieu correlates with an increased percentage of regulatory T cells and myeloid suppressor cells in the pancreatic tumor and tumor draining lymph nodes. Data shows that during pancreatic cancer progression, MUC1-mediated mechanisms enhance the onset and progression of the disease which in turn regulate the immune responses. Thus, the mouse model is ideally-suited for testing novel chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies against pancreatic cancer. PMID:18713982

  4. Forced LIGHT expression in prostate tumors overcomes Treg mediated immunosuppression and synergizes with a prostate tumor therapeutic vaccine by recruiting effector T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lisa; Da Silva, Diane M; Verma, Bhavna; Gray, Andrew; Brand, Heike E; Skeate, Joseph G; Porras, Tania B; Kanodia, Shreya; Kast, W Martin

    2015-02-15

    LIGHT, a ligand for lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) and herpes virus entry mediator, is predominantly expressed on activated immune cells and LTβR signaling leads to the recruitment of lymphocytes. The interaction between LIGHT and LTβR has been previously shown to activate immune cells and result in tumor regression in a virally-induced tumor model, but the role of LIGHT in tumor immunosuppression or in a prostate cancer setting, where self antigens exist, has not been explored. We hypothesized that forced expression of LIGHT in prostate tumors would shift the pattern of immune cell infiltration toward an anti-tumoral milieu, would inhibit T regulatory cells (Tregs) and would induce prostate cancer tumor associated antigen (TAA) specific T cells that would eradicate tumors. Real Time PCR was used to evaluate expression of forced LIGHT and other immunoregulatory genes in prostate tumors samples. For in vivo studies, adenovirus encoding murine LIGHT was injected intratumorally into TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer cell tumor bearing mice. Chemokine and cytokine concentrations were determined by multiplex ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to phenotype tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and expression of LIGHT on the tumor cell surface. Tumor-specific lymphocytes were quantified via ELISpot assay. Treg induction and Treg suppression assays determined Treg functionality after LIGHT treatment. LIGHT in combination with a therapeutic vaccine, PSCA TriVax, reduced tumor burden. LIGHT expression peaked within 48 hr of infection, recruited effector T cells that recognized mouse prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) into the tumor microenvironment, and inhibited infiltration of Tregs. Tregs isolated from tumor draining lymph nodes had impaired suppressive capability after LIGHT treatment. Forced LIGHT treatment combined with PSCA TriVax therapeutic vaccination delays prostate cancer progression in mice by recruiting effector T lymphocytes to the tumor and inhibiting Treg mediated

  5. Sentinel lymph node mapping in melanoma with technetium-99m dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, S; Mena, I; Iglesis, R; Schwartz, R; Acevedo, J C; Leon, A; Gomez, L

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the capability of Tc99m B Dextran as a lymphoscintigraphic agent in the detection of the sentinel node in skin lesions. Forty-one patients with melanomas (39) and Merkel cell tumors (2) had perilesional intradermal injection of Tc99m-Dextran 2 hours before surgery. Serial gamma camera images and a handheld gamma probe were used to direct sentinel node biopsy. In 39/41 patients, lymph channels and 52 sentinel nodes (one to three sentinel nodes/patient) could be visualized. In one patient, with a dorsal melanoma, no lymph channels or lymph nodes could be demonstrated on the images and only minimal radioactivity was found in the regional nodes with the probe. Another patient with a facial lesion failed to demonstrate lymph channels or nodes. No adverse reactions were observed. Tc99m-Dextran provided good definition of lymph channels and sentinel node localization, without the risks related to the use of potentially hazardous labeled materials of biological origin.

  6. PRIMARY HEMANGIOMA OF A SUBMENTAL LYMPH NODE –A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri LakshmiS, Durga PrasadD, Subba Rao D, PrasanthiC, Vandana Gangadharan, Kishore Kumar C

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Primary vascular tumors occurring in lymph nodes are extremely rare. Nodal hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors that can occur at any age and seen mostly in females. It is usually asymptomatic, affects only one node, and does not recur. Four histologic types of hemangioma have been identified: capillary/cavernous, lobular capillary, cellular, and epithelioid. This case has been reported for its rarity

  7. Correlation between tumor size and surveillance of lymph node metastasis for IB and IIA cervical cancer by magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, See Hyung; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Young Whan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of preoperative MRI based measurement of tumor size with regard to lymph node (LN) metastasis in early uterine cervical cancer. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of patients with FIGO stage IB–IIA cervical cancer who underwent lymphadenectomy was performed. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI in detecting LN metastasis and rate of LN recurrence in terms of tumor size (≤4 cm versus >4 cm) were analyzed. ROC curve analysis was used to determine LN size for differentiating LN metastasis in terms of tumor size. P 4 cm revealed higher diagnostic accuracy of MRI in detecting LN metastasis (85.4% versus 50.6%, P = 0.023) and rate of LN recurrence (20.0% versus 6.4%, P = 0.031) in than those with size with ≤4 cm, the differences were statistically significant. Discriminant analysis of LN size for the differentiation of metastasis from non-metastasis resulted in cut-off values (11.8 mm; size with >4 cm versus 8.3 mm; size with ≤4 cm) and diagnostic accuracy (84.0% of size with >4 cm versus 72.0% of size with ≤4 cm). Conclusion: MRI has limited sensitivity, but high specificity in predicting surveillance of LN metastasis in the preoperative early cervical cancer, especially useful tool for patients with tumor size with >4 cm.

  8. Photodynamic Therapy of the Murine LM3 Tumor Using Meso-Tetra (4-N,N,N-Trimethylanilinium) Porphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, L L; Juarranz, A; Cañete, M; Villanueva, A; Stockert, J C

    2007-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer is based on the cytotoxicity induced by a photosensitizer in the presence of oxygen and visible light, resulting in cell death and tumor regression. This work describes the response of the murine LM3 tumor to PDT using meso-tetra (4-N,N,N-trimethylanilinium) porphine (TMAP). BALB/c mice with intradermal LM3 tumors were subjected to intravenous injection of TMAP (4 mg/kg) followed 24 h later by blue-red light irradiation (λmax: 419, 457, 650 nm) for 60 min (total dose: 290 J/cm(2)) on depilated and glycerol-covered skin over the tumor of anesthetized animals. Control (drug alone, light alone) and PDT treatments (drug + light) were performed once and repeated 48 h later. No significant differences were found between untreated tumors and tumors only treated with TMAP or light. PDT-treated tumors showed almost total but transitory tumor regression (from 3 mm to less than 1 mm) in 8/9 animals, whereas no regression was found in 1/9. PDT response was heterogeneous and each tumor showed different regression and growth delay. The survival of PDT-treated animals was significantly higher than that of TMAP and light controls, showing a lower number of lung metastasis but increased tumor-draining lymph node metastasis. Repeated treatment and reduction of tissue light scattering by glycerol could be useful approaches in studies on PDT of cancer.

  9. Carbon-ion radiotherapy for marginal lymph node recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Nakano, Takashi; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kiyohara, Hiroki; Noda, Shin-ei; Ohkubo, Yu; Ando, Ken; Wakatsuki, Masaru; Kato, Shingo; Kamada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy often occur at common iliac or para-aortic lymph nodes as marginal lymph node recurrences. Patients with these recurrences have a chance of long-term survival by optimal re-treatment with radiotherapy. However, the re-irradiation often overlaps the initial and the secondary radiotherapy fields and can result in increased normal tissue toxicities in the bowels or the stomach. Carbon-ion radiotherapy, a form of particle beam radiotherapy using accelerated carbon ions, offers more conformal and sharp dose distribution than X-ray radiotherapy. Therefore, this approach enables the delivery of high radiation doses to the target while sparing its surrounding normal tissues. Marginal lymph node recurrences in common iliac lymph nodes after radiotherapy were treated successfully by carbon-ion radiotherapy in two patients. These two patients were initially treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy and intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy. However, the diseases recurred in the lymph nodes near the border of the initial radiotherapy fields after 22 months and 23 months. Because re-irradiation with X-ray radiotherapy may deliver high doses to a section of the bowels, carbon-ion radiotherapy was selected to treat the lymph node recurrences. A total dose of 48 Gy (RBE) in 12 fractions over 3 weeks was given to the lymph node recurrences, and the tumors disappeared completely with no severe acute toxicities. The two patients showed no evidence of disease for 75 months and 63 months after the initial radiotherapy and for 50 months and 37 months after the carbon-ion radiotherapy, respectively. No severe late adverse effects are observed in these patients. The two presented cases suggest that the highly conformal dose distribution of carbon-ion radiotherapy may be beneficial in the treatment of marginal lymph node recurrences after radiotherapy. In addition, the higher biological effect of carbon

  10. Imaging vasculature and lymphatic flow in mice using quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots are ideal probes for fluorescent imaging of vascular and lymphatic tissues. On injection into appropriate sites, red- and near-infrared-emitting quantum dots provide excellent definition of vasculature, lymphoid organs, and lymph nodes draining both normal tissues and tumors. We detail...

  11. A preliminary study on sentinel lymph node biopsy. Feasibility and predictive ability in oral cavity cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikamatsu, Kazuaki; Kamada, Hideo; Ninomiya, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Katsumasa; Sakurai, Tsutomu; Oriuchi, Noboru; Furuya, Nobuhiko

    2004-01-01

    The main factor that affects the prognosis of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) is regional lymph node metastases. For this reason, the accurate evaluation of neck metastases is required for neck management. This study investigates the sentinel lymph node identification and the accuracy of the histopathology of the sentinel lymph node in patients with HNC. Eleven patients with histologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma accessible to radiocolloid injection were enrolled in this study. Using both lymphoscintigraphy and a handheld gamma probe, the sentinel lymph node could be identified in all 11 patients. Subsequently, the sentinel lymph nodes and the neck dissection specimen were examined for lymph node involvement due to tumor. The histopathology of sentinel lymph nodes was consistent with the pathological N classification in all 11 patients. Furthermore, the histopathology of sentinel lymph nodes was superior to physical examination, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. The results of this study indicate that sentinel lymph node identification is technically feasible and predicts cervical metastases in patients with oral cavity cancer. This may be a useful diagnostic technique for identifying lymph node disease in staging lymph node dissection. (author)

  12. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the tongue base, its recurrence, and multiple lymph node metastases with imaging evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ho; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive and fast-growing malignant tumor. RMS predominantly arises in the head and neck of infancy and children. Metastasis is usually via the blood vessel. We report a case of a recurred RMS of the tongue base with the metastasis to multiple lymph nodes in a 37-year-old female. On the follow-up examination using advanced imaging modalities after surgical treatment of RMS, the lymph nodes should be carefully evaluated like in other malignancies, such as a carcinoma, showing frequent lymph node metastasis.

  13. Value and efficiency of sentinel lymph node diagnostics in patients with penile carcinoma with palpable inguinal lymph nodes as a new multimodal, minimally invasive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetzen, Ulf; Zuhayra, Maaz; Marx, Marlies; Zhao, Yi [University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Imaging Diagnostics and Therapy, Kiel (Germany); Colberg, Christian; Knuepfer, Stephanie; Juenemann, Klaus-Peter; Naumann, Carsten Maik [University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, Kiel (Germany); Baumann, Rene [University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Radio Oncology, Kiel (Germany); Kaehler, Katharina Charlotte [University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Kiel (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The international guidelines recommend sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for lymph node staging in penile cancer with non-palpable inguinal lymph nodes (LN) but it is not recommended with palpable inguinal LN. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and morbidity of SLNB in combination with an ultrasound-guided resection of suspect inguinal LNs as a new multimodal, minimally invasive staging approach in these patients. We performed SLNB in 26 penile cancer patients with 42 palpable inguinal LNs. Prior to the combined staging procedures the patients underwent an ultrasound examination of the groins as well as planar lymphatic drainage scintigraphy and SPECT/CT scans. During the surgical procedure, the radioactive-labelled sentinel lymph nodes and, in addition, sonographically suspect LNs, were resected under ultrasound guidance. Follow-up screening was done by ultrasound examination of the groins according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology. Nineteen groins of 42 preoperatively palpable inguinal findings were histologically tumor-positive. SLNB alone showed lymphogenic metastases in 14 groins. Sonography revealed five further metastatic groins, which would not have been detected during SLNB due to a tumor-related blockage of lymphatic drainage or a so-called re-routing of the tracer. During follow-up, none of the 28 groins with tumor-negative LN status showed any LN recurrence in this combined investigation technique. The median follow-up period was 46 (24 to 92) months. Morbidity of this procedure was low at 4.76 % in relation to the number of groins resp. 7.69 % in relation to the number of patients. The results show that this combined procedure is a reliable multimodal diagnostic approach for treatment of penile cancer patients with palpable inguinal LNs. It is associated with low morbidity rates. SLNB alone would lead to a significantly higher false-negative rate in these patients. The encouraging results of this work can

  14. Lymph node scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-rhenium colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhata, Naoki; Suyama, Bunzo; Matsumura, Yosuke; Ohmori, Hiroyuki

    1981-01-01

    Lymph node scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-rhenium colloid in evaluation of nodal involvement by urological malignancy were performed on twelve cases (4 bladder cancer, 3 prostatic cancer, 2 penile cancer and 3 testicular tumor). These cases had been examined the extent of disease on the basis of findings at pedal lymphangiography, urography, computed tomography or laparotomy. sup(99m)Tc-rhenium colloid in a volume of 0.2 ml (2 mCi) was injected into the first interdigital webs of each foot without local anesthesia. In one case of penile cancer radioactive colloid was directly injected into the glans penis and prepuce including tumor area. Our clinical experience reported here reveals that lymph node scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-rhenium colloid can provide a useful method of investigating the lymphatic system. This technique is reproducible and can be performed in poor risk patients or pediatric patients readily and safely. (author)

  15. Elastography in the assessment of sentinel lymph nodes prior to dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourasse, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.tourasse@radiologie-lyon.com [Radiology Department, Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, 55 avenue Jean Mermoz, 69008 Lyon (France); Denier, Jean Francois [Anatomopathology Department, Technipath, 41 allee des Cypres, 69760 Limonest (France); Awada, Azzam; Gratadour, Anne-Christel; Nessah-Bousquet, Karima [Gynaecological and Breast Surgery Department, Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, 69008 Lyon (France); Gay, Joeel [SuperSonic Imagine, Les Jardins de la Duranne - Bat. F, 510, rue Rene Descartes, 13857 Aix-en-Provence Cedex (France)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: Breast cancer starts as a local tumor but can become metastatic and spread via the lymph nodes. When the pre-operative assessment of the axillary lymph nodes is negative patients generally undergo sentinel node biopsy (SNB), followed by a secondary surgical axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) if the SNB is positive. The extemporaneous anatomo-pathological analysis of the sentinel lymph node enables metastases to be detected and an ALND at the same time of the SNB. The goal of this study was to evaluate the added value of ShearWave Elastography (SWE), compared with the conventional pre-operative assessment, in the screening of sentinel lymph nodes with a high metastatic risk, which could then benefit from an extemporaneous anatomo-pathological analysis. Patients and methods: Women undergoing breast surgery with SNB were prospectively enrolled. Before surgery, they underwent ultrasound and elastography imaging of axillary lymph nodes using the SuperSonic Imagine device and its ShearWave Trade-Mark-Sign elastography mode (SWE Trade-Mark-Sign ). The results obtained were compared to the immunohistochemical results for the removed lymph nodes. Results: 65 patients were enrolled. From the 103 lymph nodes examined by elastography and the 185 lymph nodes removed we were able to pair 81; 70 were healthy and 11 were malignant. The stiffness measurements (mean and maximal values) were significantly different between the healthy and metastatic lymph nodes, (p < 0.05). The areas under the ROC curves were 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94) and 0.75 (95%CI: 0.55-0.95) for the mean and the maximal stiffness, respectively. Conclusion: These encouraging results show a correlation between the metastatic risk of lymph nodes and their increased mean stiffness. Elasticity variables and potential thresholds that seem to predict the metastatic status of axillary lymph nodes were identified. If confirmed by further larger studies, these results could be useful in

  16. Support vector machine model for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer with multidetector computed tomography: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymph node metastasis (LNM of gastric cancer is an important prognostic factor regarding long-term survival. But several imaging techniques which are commonly used in stomach cannot satisfactorily assess the gastric cancer lymph node status. They can not achieve both high sensitivity and specificity. As a kind of machine-learning methods, Support Vector Machine has the potential to solve this complex issue. Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. 175 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent MDCT before surgery were included. We evaluated the tumor and lymph node indicators on CT images including serosal invasion, tumor classification, tumor maximum diameter, number of lymph nodes, maximum lymph node size and lymph nodes station, which reflected the biological behavior of gastric cancer. Univariate analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the six image indicators with LNM. A SVM model was built with these indicators above as input index. The output index was that lymph node metastasis of the patient was positive or negative. It was confirmed by the surgery and histopathology. A standard machine-learning technique called k-fold cross-validation (5-fold in our study was used to train and test SVM models. We evaluated the diagnostic capability of the SVM models in lymph node metastasis with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. And the radiologist classified the lymph node metastasis of patients by using maximum lymph node size on CT images as criterion. We compared the areas under ROC curves (AUC of the radiologist and SVM models. Results In 175 cases, the cases of lymph node metastasis were 134 and 41 cases were not. The six image indicators all had statistically significant differences between the LNM negative and positive groups. The means of the sensitivity, specificity and AUC of SVM models with 5-fold cross-validation were 88.5%, 78.5% and 0

  17. Interleukin-30: A novel microenvironmental hallmark of prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. We have recently discovered that IL-30 shapes the microenvironment of prostate cancer and tumor-draining lymph nodes to favor tumor progression. IL-30 supports tumor growth in vitro, and IL-30 expression in prostate cancer patients is associated with high tumor grade and metastatic stage of disease. Thus, IL-30 may constitute a valuable target for modern therapeutic approaches to hamper prostate cancer progression.

  18. MAdCAM-1 expressing sacral lymph node in the lymphotoxin beta-deficient mouse provides a site for immune generation following vaginal herpes simplex virus-2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, Kelly A; Linehan, Melissa M; Ruddle, Nancy H; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2004-08-01

    The members of the lymphotoxin (LT) family of molecules play a critical role in lymphoid organogenesis. Whereas LT alpha-deficient mice lack all lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, mice deficient in LT beta retain mesenteric lymph nodes and cervical lymph nodes, suggesting that an LT beta-independent pathway exists for the generation of mucosal lymph nodes. In this study, we describe the presence of a lymph node in LT beta-deficient mice responsible for draining the genital mucosa. In the majority of LT beta-deficient mice, a lymph node was found near the iliac artery, slightly misplaced from the site of the sacral lymph node in wild-type mice. The sacral lymph node of the LT beta-deficient mice, as well as that of the wild-type mice, expressed the mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 similar to the mesenteric lymph node. Following intravaginal infection with HSV type 2, activated dendritic cells capable of stimulating a Th1 response were found in this sacral lymph node. Furthermore, normal HSV-2-specific IgG responses were generated in the LT beta-deficient mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection even in the absence of the spleen. Therefore, an LT beta-independent pathway exists for the development of a lymph node associated with the genital mucosa, and such a lymph node serves to generate potent immune responses against viral challenge.

  19. Containment vessel drain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  20. Phospholipid ether analogs for the detection of colorectal tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin A Deming

    Full Text Available The treatment of localized colorectal cancer (CRC depends on resection of the primary tumor with adequate margins and sufficient lymph node sampling. A novel imaging agent that accumulates in CRCs and the associated lymph nodes is needed. Cellectar Biosciences has developed a phospholipid ether analog platform that is both diagnostic and therapeutic. CLR1502 is a near-infrared fluorescent molecule, whereas 124/131I-CLR1404 is under clinical investigation as a PET tracer/therapeutic agent imaged by SPECT. We investigated the use of CLR1502 for the detection of intestinal cancers in a murine model and 131I-CLR1404 in a patient with metastatic CRC. Mice that develop multiple intestinal tumors ranging from adenomas to locally advanced adenocarcinomas were utilized. After 96 hours post CLR1502 injection, the intestinal tumors were analyzed using a Spectrum IVIS (Perkin Elmer and a Fluobeam (Fluoptics. The intensity of the fluorescent signal was correlated with the histological characteristics for each tumor. Colon adenocarcinomas demonstrated increased accumulation of CLR1502 compared to non-invasive lesions (total radiant efficiency: 1.76×10(10 vs 3.27×10(9 respectively, p = 0.006. Metastatic mesenteric tumors and uninvolved lymph nodes were detected with CLR1502. In addition, SPECT imaging with 131I-CLR1404 was performed as part of a clinical trial in patients with advanced solid tumors. 131I-CLR1404 was shown to accumulate in metastatic tumors in a patient with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Together, these compounds might enhance our ability to properly resect CRCs through better localization of the primary tumor and improved lymph node identification as well as detect distant disease.

  1. Regulatory T cells in draining lymph nodes of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Andreasen, Elisa W.; Jungersen, Gregers

    Lawsonia intracellularis infection in pigs cause diarrhoea and poor performance in growing pigs and is an important contributor to the high antibiotic usage in pig production. Experimentally, a primary subclinical L. intracellularis infection can induce protection against a secondary challenge...... in the infected host. Four pigs were challenged twice with L. intracellularis infectious material, with four weeks interval. Lack of faecal shedding after the second challenge indicated the pigs were protected. The pigs developed L. intracellularis specific IgG responses and CMI responses in PBMCs confirmed TC...... cells (CD3+CD4- CD8β+) and memory TH cells (CD3+CD4+CD8α+) being main producers of IFN-γ. Pigs were slaughtered 8 week after the second challenge and ileocacal lymph node cells (iLNC) and PBMCs were prepared and frozen. With focus on identification and characterisation of Tregs, iLNC were co...

  2. Near-infrared-fluorescence imaging of lymph nodes by using liposomally formulated indocyanine green derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Taro; Fujito, Hiromichi; Suganami, Akiko; Ouchi, Tomoki; Ooishi, Aki; Aoki, Akira; Onoue, Kazutaka; Muraki, Yutaka; Madono, Tomoyuki; Fujinami, Masanori; Tamura, Yutaka; Hayashi, Hideki

    2014-01-15

    Liposomally formulated indocyanine green (LP-ICG) has drawn much attention as a highly sensitive near-infrared (NIR)-fluorescence probe for tumors or lymph nodes in vivo. We synthesized ICG derivatives tagged with alkyl chains (ICG-Cn), and we examined NIR-fluorescence imaging for lymph nodes in the lower extremities of mice by using liposomally formulated ICG-Cn (LP-ICG-Cn) as well as conventional liposomally formulated ICG (LP-ICG) and ICG. Analysis with a noninvasive preclinical NIR-fluorescence imaging system revealed that LP-ICG-Cn accumulates in only the popliteal lymph node 1h after injection into the footpad, whereas LP-ICG and ICG accumulate in the popliteal lymph node and other organs like the liver. This result indicates that LP-ICG-Cn is a useful NIR-fluorescence probe for noninvasive in vivo bioimaging, especially for the sentinel lymph node. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. EGFR and HER2 expression in primary cervical cancers and corresponding lymph node metastases: Implications for targeted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Li; Shui, Yongjie; Wang, Xiaojia; Sheng, Liming; Yang, Zhengyan; Xue, Danfeng; Wei, Qichun

    2008-01-01

    Proteins overexpressed on the surface of tumor cells can be selectively targeted. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are among the most often targeted proteins. The level and stability of expression in both primary tumors and corresponding metastases is crucial in the assessment of a receptor as target for imaging in nuclear medicine and for various forms of therapy. So far, the expression of EGFR and HER2 has only been determined in primary cervical cancers, and we have not found published data regarding the receptor status in corresponding metastatic lesions. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether any of these receptors are suitable as target for clinical diagnosis and therapy. Expression of EGFR and HER2 was investigated immunohistochemically in both lymph node metastases and corresponding primary cervical cancers (n = 53). HER2 and EGFR expression was scored using HercepTest criteria (0, 1+, 2+ or 3+). EGFR overexpression (2+ or 3+) was found in 64% (35/53) of the primary cervical tumors and 60% (32/53) of the corresponding lymph node metastases. There was a good concordance between the primary tumors and the paired metastases regarding EGFR expression. Only four patients who had 2+ or 3+ in the primary tumors changed to 0 or 1+ in lymph node metastases, and another two cases changed the other way around. None of the primary tumors or the lymph node metastases expressed HER2 protein. The EGFR expression seems to be common and stable during cervical cancer metastasis, which is encouraging for testing of EGFR targeted radiotherapy. HER2 appears to be of poor interest as a potential target in the treatment of cervical cancer

  4. The prognostic significance of extramural deposits and extracapsular lymph node invasion in colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al Sahaf, Osama

    2011-08-01

    The status of resected lymph nodes in colon cancer determines prognosis and further treatment. The American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system has designated extramural nodules as nonnodal disease and classified them as extensions of the T category in the sixth edition and as site-specific tumor deposits in the seventh edition. Extracapsular lymph node extension is an established poor prognostic indicator in many cancers. Its significance in colon cancer has not been extensively investigated.

  5. Thermochemoradiation Therapy Using Superselective Intra-arterial Infusion via Superficial Temporal and Occipital Arteries for Oral Cancer With N3 Cervical Lymph Node Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsudo, Kenji; Koizumi, Toshiyuki; Iida, Masaki; Iwai, Toshinori; Oguri, Senri; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Kioi, Mitomu; Hirota, Makoto; Tohnai, Iwai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results and histopathological effects of treatment with thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion via the superficial temporal and occipital arteries for N3 cervical lymph node metastases of advanced oral cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 2005 and September 2010, 9 patients with N3 cervical lymph node metastases of oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion with docetaxel (DOC) and cisplatin (CDDP). Treatment consisted of hyperthermia (2-8 sessions), superselective intra-arterial infusions (DOC, total 40-60 mg/m 2 ; CDDP, total 100-150 mg/m 2 ) and daily concurrent radiation therapy (total, 40-60 Gy) for 4-6 weeks. Results: Six of 9 patients underwent neck dissection 5-8 weeks after treatment. In four of these 6 patients, all metastatic lymph nodes, including those at N3, were grade 3 (non-viable tumor cells present) or grade 4 (no tumor cells present) tumors, as classified by the system by Shimosato et al (Shimosato et al Jpn J Clin Oncol 1971;1:19-35). In 2 of these 6 patients, the metastatic lymph nodes were grade 2b (destruction of tumor structures with a small amount of residual viable tumor cells). The other 3 patients did not undergo neck dissection due to distant metastasis after completion of thermochemoradiation therapy (n=2) and refusal (n=1). The patient who refused neck dissection underwent biopsy of the N3 lymph node and primary sites and showed grade 3 cancer. During follow-up, 5 patients were alive without disease, and 4 patients died due to pulmonary metastasis (n=3) and noncancer-related causes (n=1). Five-year survival and locoregional control rates were 51% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions: Thermochemoradiation therapy using intra-arterial infusion provided good histopathologic effects and locoregional control rates in patients with N3 metastatic lymph nodes. However, patients with N3 metastatic

  6. Thermochemoradiation Therapy Using Superselective Intra-arterial Infusion via Superficial Temporal and Occipital Arteries for Oral Cancer With N3 Cervical Lymph Node Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsudo, Kenji, E-mail: mitsudo@yokohama-cu.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Koizumi, Toshiyuki; Iida, Masaki; Iwai, Toshinori; Oguri, Senri [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Yamamoto, Noriyuki [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Yoshiyuki [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kioi, Mitomu; Hirota, Makoto; Tohnai, Iwai [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results and histopathological effects of treatment with thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion via the superficial temporal and occipital arteries for N3 cervical lymph node metastases of advanced oral cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 2005 and September 2010, 9 patients with N3 cervical lymph node metastases of oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent thermochemoradiation therapy using superselective intra-arterial infusion with docetaxel (DOC) and cisplatin (CDDP). Treatment consisted of hyperthermia (2-8 sessions), superselective intra-arterial infusions (DOC, total 40-60 mg/m{sup 2}; CDDP, total 100-150 mg/m{sup 2}) and daily concurrent radiation therapy (total, 40-60 Gy) for 4-6 weeks. Results: Six of 9 patients underwent neck dissection 5-8 weeks after treatment. In four of these 6 patients, all metastatic lymph nodes, including those at N3, were grade 3 (non-viable tumor cells present) or grade 4 (no tumor cells present) tumors, as classified by the system by Shimosato et al (Shimosato et al Jpn J Clin Oncol 1971;1:19-35). In 2 of these 6 patients, the metastatic lymph nodes were grade 2b (destruction of tumor structures with a small amount of residual viable tumor cells). The other 3 patients did not undergo neck dissection due to distant metastasis after completion of thermochemoradiation therapy (n=2) and refusal (n=1). The patient who refused neck dissection underwent biopsy of the N3 lymph node and primary sites and showed grade 3 cancer. During follow-up, 5 patients were alive without disease, and 4 patients died due to pulmonary metastasis (n=3) and noncancer-related causes (n=1). Five-year survival and locoregional control rates were 51% and 88%, respectively. Conclusions: Thermochemoradiation therapy using intra-arterial infusion provided good histopathologic effects and locoregional control rates in patients with N3 metastatic lymph nodes. However, patients with N3

  7. [Anatomy and histology characteristics of lymph node in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R; Gao, B; Guo, C B

    2017-10-18

    the nude mouse and lack of CD3-positive T lymphocytes would be useful for obtaining a better understanding of localized lymph node metastasis of oral transplant tumors.

  8. The prevalence of occult metastases in nonsentinel lymph nodes after step-serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry in cN0 oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders; Bilde, Anders; Therkildsen, Marianne H

    2011-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of isolated tumor cells (ITC) and micrometastases (MM) in nonsentinel lymph nodes (NSN) using additional step-serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry (IHC) as for sentinel lymph nodes (SN)....

  9. Expansion of lymph node metastasis in mixed-type submucosal invasive gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Koji; Hirano, Yukiko; Futami, Kitaro; Maekawa, Takafumi

    2017-07-18

    Mixed-type early gastric cancer (differentiated and undifferentiated components) incurs a higher risk of lymph node metastasis than pure-type early gastric cancer (only differentiated or only undifferentiated components). Therefore, we investigated the expansion of lymph node metastasis in mixed-type submucosal invasive gastric cancer in order to establish the most appropriate treatment for mixed-type cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 279 consecutive patients with submucosal invasive gastric cancer who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer between 1996 and 2015. We classified the patients into the mixed-type and pure-type groups according to histologic examination and evaluated the expansion of lymph node metastasis. The rate of lymph node metastasis was 23.7% (66/279) in the total patients, 36.4% (36/99) in the mixed-type group, and 16.6% (30/180) in the pure-type group. The significant independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis were tumor size ≥2.0 cm (P = 0.014), mixed-type gastric cancer (P mixed-type group. The rates of no. 7 lymph node metastasis in the total patients and mixed-type group were 2.9% (8/279) and 5.1% (5/99), respectively; the rates of no. 8a lymph node metastasis were 1.4% (4/279) and 4.0% (4/99), respectively. Mixed histological type is an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis. Lymph node metastasis in mixed-type gastric cancer involves expansion to the no. 7 and no. 8a lymph nodes. Therefore, lymphadenectomy for mixed-type submucosal invasive gastric cancer requires D1+ or D2 dissection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  10. Roles of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiao; Liu Juanjuan; Wang Yongsheng; Wang Lei; Yang Guoren; Zhou Zhengbo; Li Yongqing; Liu Yanbing; Li Taiyu

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate roles of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients. Five hundred and sixty-five consecutive breast cancer patients were prospectively randomized into groups with or without preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. In a group with lymphoscintigraphy, 238 patients had sentinel lymph nodes spotted in lymphoscintigram. The visualization of sentinel lymph nodes in lymphoscintigram was not associated with patients' age, primary tumor size and location, histopathologic type and time interval from injection of radiocolloid to lymphoscintigraphy. However, patients with axillary metastasis had a lower identification rate of sentinel lymph nodes by lymphoscintigraphy than those without metastasis (P=0.003). The identification rate of axillary sentinel lymph nodes was 99.3% in the group and the rate was similar whether there was sentinel lymph nodes spotted in axillary in lymphoscintigram or not (99.6% vs. 98.1%, P=0.327). The false-negative rate in this group was 4.2%. While in a group without lymphoscintigraphy, the identification rate and the false-negative rate were 99.6% and 4.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the identification rate of axillary sentinel lymph nodes (P=0.594) and in the false-negative rate (P=1.00). Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy could neither improve the identification rate nor reduce the false-negative rate of breast cancer sentinel lymph node biopsy, and it is not necessary for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients. (author)

  11. FDG uptake in cervical lymph nodes in children without head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Reza; Bakari, Alaa A; Marie, Eman; Kousha, Mahnaz; Charron, Martin; Shammas, Amer

    2017-06-01

    Reactive cervical lymphadenopathy is common in children and may demonstrate increased 18 F-fluoro-deoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). We sought to evaluate the frequency and significance of 18 F-FDG uptake by neck lymph nodes in children with no history of head and neck cancer. The charts of 244 patients (114 female, mean age: 10.4 years) with a variety of tumors such as lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (PTLD), but no head and neck cancers, who had undergone 18 F-FDG PET/CT were reviewed retrospectively. Using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), increased 18 F-FDG uptake by neck lymph nodes was recorded and compared with the final diagnosis based on follow-up studies or biopsy results. Neck lymph node uptake was identified in 70/244 (28.6%) of the patients. In 38 patients, the lymph nodes were benign. In eight patients, the lymph nodes were malignant (seven PTLD and one lymphoma). In 24 patients, we were not able to confirm the final diagnosis. Seven out of the eight malignant lymph nodes were positive for PTLD. The mean SUVmax was significantly higher in malignant lesions (4.2) compared with benign lesions (2.1) (P = 0.00049). 18 F-FDG uptake in neck lymph nodes is common in children and is frequently due to reactive lymph nodes, especially when the SUVmax is cervical lymph nodes is higher in PTLD patients compared with other groups.

  12. Usefulness of dynamic MR mammography for diagnosis of axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enya, Mayumi; Goto, Hiroo; Nandate, Yuka; Kiryu, Takuji; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate whether dynamic MR imaging is useful for the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases from breast cancer. Thirty-five patients with breast cancer were scanned and 147 lymph nodes were detected and compared with pathological nodal status. The parameters were the long axis dimension, the short axis dimension, the long-to-short axis (L/S) ratio, the shape, the contrast enhancement ratio (CER), the CER of lymph node-to-primary tumor (L/P) ratio. All parameters had significant differences between metastatic and normal nodes and there was a positive correlation between the CER of primary breast tumors and metastatic nodes. Multivariate analysis identified three parameters: the shape, the CER (1st phase), the L/P ratio (1st phase). ROC analysis revealed the shape and CER are superior in diagnostic performance to L/P ratio. If the shape and CER (1st phase) 60% and above are employed as criteria, the sensitivity, the specificity, the accuracy and the positive and negative predictive value were 86.0%, 78.4%, 81.0%, 67.2% and 91.6%, respectively. This method gives us useful information about the evaluation of axillary lymph node status preoperatively. (author)

  13. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of cervical lymph nodes in patients with oral cancer. Utility of the small region of interest method in evaluating the architecture of cervical lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomori, Miwako; Fukunari, Fumiko; Kagawa, Toyohiro; Okamura, Kazuhiko; Yuasa, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the utility of the small region of interest (ROI) method to detect the architecture of cervical lymph nodes and the specificity of time-intensity curves for tissue present in cervical lymph nodes. Specimens were taken from 17 lymph nodes of eight patients (ten sides of the neck) with oral squamous cell carcinoma who underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neck dissection between 2005 and 2007 at our hospital. Two methods of constructing time-intensity curves were compared: the conventional method that uses relatively large ROIs, and a new method that uses small ROIs. Curves made with the small ROI method were then compared to histopathological findings for dissected lymph nodes. The small ROI method allowed differences in signal intensity to be discerned at the tissue level, which was not possible with the conventional large ROI method. Curves for normal lymphoid tissue tended to be type I, those for tumor cells tended to be type II, and those for keratinization/necrosis tended to be types III and IV, indicating that time-intensity curves can be specific to tissue type within lymph nodes. The small ROI method was useful for evaluation of the architecture of cervical lymph nodes. (author)

  14. Breast and Axillary Lymph Nodes Metastasis five years after Radical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast is an uncommon and rare site for metastasis. Primary and secondary tumors of the breast need to be differentiated as management is different. We present a 67 year old female patient with two breast lumps and an axillary lymph node, 5 years after nephrectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC). Mammogram report ...

  15. Increased Rac1 activity and Pak1 overexpression are associated with lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis of upper urinary tract cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamai, Takao; Shirataki, Hiromichi; Nakanishi, Kimihiro; Furuya, Nobutaka; Kambara, Tsunehito; Abe, Hideyuki; Oyama, Tetsunari; Yoshida, Ken-Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and lymph node metastasis are conventional pathological factors associated with an unfavorable prognosis of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UC-UUT), but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying LVI and nodal metastasis in this disease. Rac1 small GTPase (Rac1) is essential for tumor metastasis. Activated GTP-bound Rac1 (Rac1 activity) plays a key role in activating downstream effectors known as Pak (21-activated kinase), which are key regulators of cytoskeletal remolding, cell motility, and cell proliferation, and thus have a role in both carcinogenesis and tumor invasion. We analyzed Rac1 activity and Pak1 protein expression in matched sets of tumor tissue, non-tumor tissue, and metastatic lymph node tissue obtained from the surgical specimens of 108 Japanese patients with UC-UUT. Rac1 activity and Pak1 protein levels were higher in tumor tissue and metastatic lymph node tissue than in non-tumor tissue (both P < 0.0001). A high level of Rac1 activity and Pak1 protein expression in the primary tumor was related to poor differentiation (P < 0.05), muscle invasion (P < 0.01), LVI (P < 0.0001), and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that an increase of Rac1 activity and Pak1 protein was associated with a shorter disease-free survival time (P < 0.01) and shorter overall survival (P < 0.001). Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that high Rac1 activity, Pak1 protein expression and LVI were independent prognostic factors for shorter overall and disease-free survival times (P < 0.01) on univariate analysis, although only Pak1 and LVI had an influence (P < 0.05) according to multivariate analysis. These findings suggest that Rac1 activity and Pak1 are involved in LVI and lymph node metastasis of UC-UUT, and may be prognostic markers for this disease

  16. Peritumoral interstitial double-nuclide double-compound lymphoscintigraphy (PIDDL) in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munz, D.L.; Jung, H.

    1985-01-01

    PIDDL is a new two-phase lymphoscintigraphic approach developed by MUNZ et al. for identification of lymph node drainage groups of primary tumors followed by direct visualization of metastases in the nodes. The present study was done to test the diagnostic usefulness of PIDDL in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. 58 patients of either sex, aged 31-86 years, were examined prior to surgery. In the first phase of PIDDL, lymph node groups draining the primary lesions were identified after peritumoral interstitial injection of 1.52.0 mCi Tc-99m antimony trisulfide colloid or Tc-99m human serum albumin microcolloid. In the second phase, metastases located in the draining lymph nodes were visualized following peritumoral interstitial injection of 200-300 μCi Ga-67 citrate. Ga-67 accumulated in 71% of lymph node drainage groups identified. No GA-67 uptake was observed in lymph nodes other than those identified by the radiocolloid. Based on the radiocolloid lymphoscintigraphic data, selective lymph node dissection was performed in 41 of the patients examined. The study concludes that PIDDL offers a promising approach for the noninvasive assessment of lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

  17. Initial afferent lymphatic vessels controlling outbound leukocyte traffic from skin to lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio eMelero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels, which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e: LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1 and VEGFR-3. Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid oedema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. Lymphatic vessels are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes. Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals. This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to lymph nodes is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behaviour of leukocytes and condition the lymphatic vessel for subsequent trans-migratory events.

  18. Comparison between hemosiderin and Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diogenes; Aquino, Ranniere Gurgel Furtado de; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; Torres, Roberto Vitor Almeida; Bezerra, Jose Lucas Martins; Brasileiro, Luis Porto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the safety and potential equivalence of the use of hemosiderin compared to the Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer. Methods: Non-random sample of 14 volunteer women diagnosed with breast cancer with primary tumors (T1/T2) and clinically tumor-free axilla were submitted to the identification of sentinel lymph node using hemosiderin obtained from autologous blood injected in the periareolar region 24h before surgery on an outpatient basis. Patients received preoperative subareolar intradermal injection of Technetium-99 in the immediate preoperative period. Patients were submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsy, with incision in the axillary fold guided by Gamma-Probe, dissection by planes until the identification of the point of maximum uptake of Technetium-99, identifying the marked nodes and their colors. All surgical specimens were sent for pathological and immunohistochemical study. Results: The results showed no evidence of side effects and/or allergic and non-allergic reactions in patients submitted to SLNB with hemosiderin. The SLN identification rate per patient was 100%. SLNB identification rate per patient with hemosiderin was the same as that of Technetium, with a concordance rate of 100% between the methods. Conclusion: Hemosiderin is a safe dye that is equivalent to Technetium in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. (author)

  19. Comparison between hemosiderin and Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diogenes; Aquino, Ranniere Gurgel Furtado de; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto, E-mail: luizgporto@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia; Alves, Mayara Maia [Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia (RENORBIO/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Torres, Roberto Vitor Almeida; Bezerra, Jose Lucas Martins [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Brasileiro, Luis Porto [Faculdades INTA, Sobral, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the safety and potential equivalence of the use of hemosiderin compared to the Technetium-99 in sentinel lymph node biopsy in human breast cancer. Methods: Non-random sample of 14 volunteer women diagnosed with breast cancer with primary tumors (T1/T2) and clinically tumor-free axilla were submitted to the identification of sentinel lymph node using hemosiderin obtained from autologous blood injected in the periareolar region 24h before surgery on an outpatient basis. Patients received preoperative subareolar intradermal injection of Technetium-99 in the immediate preoperative period. Patients were submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsy, with incision in the axillary fold guided by Gamma-Probe, dissection by planes until the identification of the point of maximum uptake of Technetium-99, identifying the marked nodes and their colors. All surgical specimens were sent for pathological and immunohistochemical study. Results: The results showed no evidence of side effects and/or allergic and non-allergic reactions in patients submitted to SLNB with hemosiderin. The SLN identification rate per patient was 100%. SLNB identification rate per patient with hemosiderin was the same as that of Technetium, with a concordance rate of 100% between the methods. Conclusion: Hemosiderin is a safe dye that is equivalent to Technetium in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. (author)

  20. DAP1 high expression increases risk of lymph node metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M; Maia, L L; Silva, C V M; Peterle, G T; Mercante, A M C; Nunes, F D; Carvalho, M B; Tajara, E H; Louro, I D; Silva-Conforti, A M A

    2015-09-08

    Death-associated protein 1 (DAP1) is a member of the DAP family. Its expression is associated with cell growth and normal death of the neoplastic cells, regulated by the mammalian target of the rapamycin protein. Activated DAP1 negatively regulates autophagy, which has been associated with the development and progression of several diseases, such as cancer, and with prognosis and survival of diverse tumor types. Therefore, in this study we analyzed DAP1 expression in 54 oral squamous cell carcinoma tumor samples and in 20 non-tumoral margins by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that DAP1 is more frequently expressed in tumor tissues compared with marginal non-tumoral cells. Additionally, high DAP1 expression is associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of lymph node metastases. Our results suggest that the DAP1 protein can be used as a potential marker of lymph node metastases predisposition, helping define the best therapy for each patient to minimize risk of developing metastases.

  1. Sentinel lymph node detection with Tc-99m tin colloids in patients with esophagogastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Seiei; Shimada, Hideo; Chino, Osamu

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine by radioisotope use whether the sentinel lymph node concept is applicable to esophagogastric cancers. In addition, we examined radioactivities of hot nodes and compared them with the sensitivity of a gamma probe. The subjects were 44 patients, 23 with esophageal cancer and 21 with gastric cancer. The day before surgery, patients underwent endoscopic submucosal injection of 184 MBq of Tc-99m tin colloids into sites surrounding the tumor. Radioisotope activities of lymph nodes dissected at surgery were measured with a well-typed gamma detector and each lymph node was categorized as a hot or cold node. Histopathology of the lymph nodes was examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Radioisotope activities and histopathological results were compared to determine whether radioisotope flow reflects lymphatic flow to regional lymph nodes. The sensitivity of a gamma probe was measured in a laboratory study and the relation between the radioisotope activities of hot nodes and the detection sensitivity of the gamma probe was examined. Histopathological examination revealed lymph node metastasis in 18 of the 44 patients. In 15 of these 18 patients, metastatic foci were recognized in at least one hot node. Subsequent analysis was performed on the 36 patients in whom tumor invasion was confined to the muscle layer and in whom endoscopic clippings had not been applied. Lymph node metastases were observed in 12 of these 36 patients. In these 12 patients, at least one hot node was positive for metastasis. The laboratory study revealed that the gamma probe was able to detect radioisotope activities of ≥0.02μCi. Thirty-two of 63 (51%) esophageal cancer hot nodes and 16 of 86 (19%) gastric cancer hot nodes showed radioisotope activities below the detection sensitivity of the gamma probe. The sentinel lymph node concept is applicable to patients with esophageal and gastric cancers; however, further studies are necessary to identify hot nodes

  2. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  3. A mathematical prediction model incorporating molecular subtype for risk of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in sentinel lymph node-positive breast cancer patients: a retrospective analysis and nomogram development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na-Na; Yang, Zheng-Jun; Wang, Xue; Chen, Li-Xuan; Zhao, Hong-Meng; Cao, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Bin

    2018-04-25

    Molecular subtype of breast cancer is associated with sentinel lymph node status. We sought to establish a mathematical prediction model that included breast cancer molecular subtype for risk of positive non-sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis and further validate the model in a separate validation cohort. We reviewed the clinicopathologic data of breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis who underwent axillary lymph node dissection between June 16, 2014 and November 16, 2017 at our hospital. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed and patients with pathologically proven sentinel lymph node metastasis underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Independent risks for non-sentinel lymph node metastasis were assessed in a training cohort by multivariate analysis and incorporated into a mathematical prediction model. The model was further validated in a separate validation cohort, and a nomogram was developed and evaluated for diagnostic performance in predicting the risk of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. Moreover, we assessed the performance of five different models in predicting non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in training cohort. Totally, 495 cases were eligible for the study, including 291 patients in the training cohort and 204 in the validation cohort. Non-sentinel lymph node metastasis was observed in 33.3% (97/291) patients in the training cohort. The AUC of MSKCC, Tenon, MDA, Ljubljana, and Louisville models in training cohort were 0.7613, 0.7142, 0.7076, 0.7483, and 0.671, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that tumor size (OR = 1.439; 95% CI 1.025-2.021; P = 0.036), sentinel lymph node macro-metastasis versus micro-metastasis (OR = 5.063; 95% CI 1.111-23.074; P = 0.036), the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes (OR = 2.583, 95% CI 1.714-3.892; P model based on the results of multivariate analysis was established to predict the risk of non

  4. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira, G. Jr.; Bodanese, B.; Boff, M.F.; Espindola, M.B.; Haack, R.L.; Frigeri, C.D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Locally recurrent disease in patients with melanoma is usually defined as cutaneous or subcutaneous arising within 5 cm of the primary site after complete excision of the primary lesion. It may represent residual disease not excised with the primary tumor or the outgrowth of the satellite lesions, which are common with melanoma. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is highly accurate in staging nodal basins at risk of regional metastases in primary melanoma patients and identifies those who may benefit from earlier lymphadenectomy. Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy in local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma when the primary lesion was less than 1.0mm thick. Three patients with local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma underwent sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy. All patients underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy to identify the lymphatic basin and the site of the sentinel node. All patients subsequently underwent intra-operative lymphatic mapping and selective lymph node biopsy with vital blue dye and hand-held gamma probe. Excised SLN were analysed by conventional histological staining (H and E) and immunohistochemical staining. In all patients the lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy was successful. The SLN biopsy was negative in two patients and positive in one who underwent therapeutic lymph node dissection. Our results indicate that the SLN mapping and biopsy is also possible in patients having local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma. Although long-term results are not available, early results are promising. (author)

  5. Ex vivo sentinel lymph node investigation in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Hilário Alves Freitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, about 26,000 cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed per year. Pa- tients considered at the early stage of disease (without lymph node evolve with tumor relapse or recurrence in up to a quarter of cases, probably due to understaging. Objective: Research on ex vivo sentinel lymph node in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods: We studied 37 patients who underwent curative surgical resection. The marker used to identify lymph nodes was patent blue dye injected into the peritu- moral submucosa of the open surgical specimen immediately after its removal from the abdominal cavity. Results: Ex vivo identification of sentinel lymph node with marker occurred in 13 (35.1% patients. The sensitivity was 40% and 60% false negative. The detailed histological examina- tion of sentinel lymph nodes with multilevel section and immunohistochemistry showed metastasis in one (4.3% individual, considered ultra-staging. Conclusion: The ex vivo identification of sentinel lymph node had questionable benefits, and worse results when include patients with rectal cancer. Restaging of one patient was possible after multilevel section and immunohistochemistry of the sentinel lymph node, but more research is needed to evaluate the role of micrometastases in patients with colorectal cancer. Resumo: Introdução: No Brasil, a cada ano são diagnosticados cerca de 26.000 casos de câncer colorre- tal. Pacientes com estadiamento considerado inicial, sem linfonodo metastático, evoluem com recorrência ou recidiva do tumor em até um quarto dos casos, por provável subesta- diamento. Objetivo: pesquisar sobre linfonodo-sentinela ex vivo em pacientes com adeno- carcinoma colorretal. Objetivo: Foram estudados 37 pacientes, submetidos à cirurgia oncológica com ressecção caráter curativo. O marcador de linfonodos utilizado foi o corante azul patente, injetado na submucosa peritumoral da peça cirúrgica aberta imediatamente

  6. FDG uptake in cervical lymph nodes in children without head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vali, Reza; Bakari, Alaa A.; Marie, Eman; Kousha, Mahnaz; Shammas, Amer [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada); Charron, Martin [Brampton Nuclear Services, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-06-15

    Reactive cervical lymphadenopathy is common in children and may demonstrate increased {sup 18}F-fluoro-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). We sought to evaluate the frequency and significance of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by neck lymph nodes in children with no history of head and neck cancer. The charts of 244 patients (114 female, mean age: 10.4 years) with a variety of tumors such as lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (PTLD), but no head and neck cancers, who had undergone {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were reviewed retrospectively. Using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), increased {sup 18}F-FDG uptake by neck lymph nodes was recorded and compared with the final diagnosis based on follow-up studies or biopsy results. Neck lymph node uptake was identified in 70/244 (28.6%) of the patients. In 38 patients, the lymph nodes were benign. In eight patients, the lymph nodes were malignant (seven PTLD and one lymphoma). In 24 patients, we were not able to confirm the final diagnosis. Seven out of the eight malignant lymph nodes were positive for PTLD. The mean SUVmax was significantly higher in malignant lesions (4.2) compared with benign lesions (2.1) (P = 0.00049). {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in neck lymph nodes is common in children and is frequently due to reactive lymph nodes, especially when the SUVmax is <3.2. The frequency of malignant cervical lymph nodes is higher in PTLD patients compared with other groups. (orig.)

  7. Axillary Lymph Node Evaluation Utilizing Convolutional Neural Networks Using MRI Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Richard; Chang, Peter; Karcich, Jenika; Mutasa, Simukayi; Fardanesh, Reza; Wynn, Ralph T; Liu, Michael Z; Jambawalikar, Sachin

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of convolutional neural network (CNN) in predicting axillary lymph node metastasis, using a breast MRI dataset. An institutional review board (IRB)-approved retrospective review of our database from 1/2013 to 6/2016 identified 275 axillary lymph nodes for this study. Biopsy-proven 133 metastatic axillary lymph nodes and 142 negative control lymph nodes were identified based on benign biopsies (100) and from healthy MRI screening patients (42) with at least 3 years of negative follow-up. For each breast MRI, axillary lymph node was identified on first T1 post contrast dynamic images and underwent 3D segmentation using an open source software platform 3D Slicer. A 32 × 32 patch was then extracted from the center slice of the segmented tumor data. A CNN was designed for lymph node prediction based on each of these cropped images. The CNN consisted of seven convolutional layers and max-pooling layers with 50% dropout applied in the linear layer. In addition, data augmentation and L2 regularization were performed to limit overfitting. Training was implemented using the Adam optimizer, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. Code for this study was written in Python using the TensorFlow module (1.0.0). Experiments and CNN training were done on a Linux workstation with NVIDIA GTX 1070 Pascal GPU. Two class axillary lymph node metastasis prediction models were evaluated. For each lymph node, a final softmax score threshold of 0.5 was used for classification. Based on this, CNN achieved a mean five-fold cross-validation accuracy of 84.3%. It is feasible for current deep CNN architectures to be trained to predict likelihood of axillary lymph node metastasis. Larger dataset will likely improve our prediction model and can potentially be a non-invasive alternative to core needle biopsy and even sentinel lymph node

  8. Expression of COX-2, CD44v6 and CD147 and relationship with invasion and lymph node metastasis in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    Full Text Available To assess the expression of COX-2,CD44v6 and CD147 in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and the three biomarkers correlation with tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis of Chinese people. 101 cases of surgically excised primary tumor were included in this study, and 40 tissues of epithelium adjacent to carcinoma were used as controls. We characterized the immunohistochemical expression of COX-2, CD44v6, and CD147 in 141 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, and measured the mean optical density (OD of the positive area to identify the expression of the three bio-markers and relationship with tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis. Our study demonstrates that the expression of the COX-2 and CD147 were significantly increased in carcinoma tissues compared to the epithelium adjacent to carcinoma. We also observed that the expression of COX-2, CD44v6, and CD147 were significantly associated with T classification, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage. There was strong significant correlation among the three biomarkers as well. Additionally, we indicated that recurrence and ≥ P50 level of COX-2 expression had an independent prognostic effect on prognosis. In conclusion, the three biomarkers play important roles in tumor invasion and lymph node metastases and might be valuable indicators of tumor metastasis in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. Association between lymph node size and metastasis in dogs with oral malignant melanoma: 100 cases (1987-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laurel E; Packer, Rebecca A

    2003-05-01

    To determine the association between lymph node size and metastasis and to assess measurement of lymph node size as an accurate and reliable means of tumor staging in dogs with oral malignant melanoma. Retrospective study. 100 dogs with histologically confirmed oral malignant melanoma. Clinical records for dogs with oral malignant melanoma were reviewed. Data regarding size and results of cytologic or histologic examination of lymph nodes were evaluated. The association between lymph node size and metastasis was determined. Forty-seven (47%) dogs, of which 23 (49%) had enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, had no cytologic or histologic evidence of metastasis. Of 53 (53%) dogs with cytologic or histologic evidence of mandibular lymph node metastasis, 37 (70%) had enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, and 16 (30%) had mandibular lymph nodes of normal size. Overall, 16 of the 40 (40%) dogs with normal-sized lymph nodes had microscopic evidence of metastatic disease. Sensitivity and specificity of lymph node size as a predictor of metastasis were 70 and 51%, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 62 and 60%, respectively. Although a significant relationship was identified between lymph node size and metastasis to the lymph node, this association did not appear strong enough to be clinically relevant. Results suggest that lymph node size alone is insufficient for accurate clinical staging of oral malignant melanoma in dogs; cytologic or histologic examination of regional lymph nodes should routinely be performed, regardless of size of those nodes.

  10. An European inter-laboratory validation of alternative endpoints of the murine local lymph node assay: first round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling, G; Hecht, M; Heusener, A; Huesler, J; Gamer, A O; van Loveren, H; Maurer, Th; Riecke, K; Ullmann, L; Ulrich, P; Vandebriel, R; Vohr, H-W

    2005-08-15

    The new OECD guideline 429 (skin sensitization: local lymph node assay) is based upon a protocol, which utilises the incorporation of radioactivity into DNA as a measure for cell proliferation in vivo. The guideline also enables the use of alternative endpoints in order to assess draining lymph node (LN) cell proliferation. Here we describe the first round of an inter-laboratory validation of alternative endpoints in the LLNA conducted in seven laboratories. The validation study was managed and supervised by the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products, Swissmedic. Statistical analyses of all data were performed by an independent centre at the University of Bern, Department of Statistics. Ear-draining, LN weight and cell count were used to assess proliferation instead of radioactive labeling of lymph node cells. In addition, the acute inflammatory skin reaction was measured by ear swelling and weight of circular biopsies of the ears to identify skin irritating properties of the test items. Hexylcinnamaldehyde (HCA) and three blinded test items were applied to female, 8--10 weeks old NMRI and BALB/c mice. Results were sent via the independent study coordinator to the statistician. The results of this first round showed that the alternative endpoints of the LLNA are sensitive and robust parameters. The use of ear weights added an important parameter assessing the skin irritation potential, which supports the differentiation of pure irritative from contact allergenic potential. There were absolute no discrepancies between the categorisation of the three test substances A--C determined by each single participating laboratories. The results highlighted also that many parameters do have an impact on the strength of the responses. Therefore, such parameters have to be taken into consideration for the categorisation of compounds due to their relative sensitizing potencies.

  11. An European inter-laboratory validation of alternative endpoints of the murine local lymph node assay: First round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehling, G.; Hecht, M.; Heusener, A.; Huesler, J.; Gamer, A.O.; Loveren, H. van; Maurer, Th.; Riecke, K.; Ullmann, L.; Ulrich, P.; Vandebriel, R.; Vohr, H.-W.

    2005-01-01

    The new OECD guideline 429 (skin sensitization: local lymph node assay) is based upon a protocol, which utilises the incorporation of radioactivity into DNA as a measure for cell proliferation in vivo. The guideline also enables the use of alternative endpoints in order to assess draining lymph node (LN) cell proliferation. Here we describe the first round of an inter-laboratory validation of alternative endpoints in the LLNA conducted in seven laboratories. The validation study was managed and supervised by the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products, Swissmedic. Statistical analyses of all data were performed by an independent centre at the University of Bern, Department of Statistics. Ear-draining, LN weight and cell count were used to assess proliferation instead of radioactive labeling of lymph node cells. In addition, the acute inflammatory skin reaction was measured by ear swelling and weight of circular biopsies of the ears to identify skin irritating properties of the test items. Hexylcinnamaldehyde (HCA) and three blinded test items were applied to female, 8-10 weeks old NMRI and BALB/c mice. Results were sent via the independent study coordinator to the statistician. The results of this first round showed that the alternative endpoints of the LLNA are sensitive and robust parameters. The use of ear weights added an important parameter assessing the skin irritation potential, which supports the differentiation of pure irritative from contact allergenic potential. There were absolute no discrepancies between the categorisation of the three test substances A-C determined by each single participating laboratories. The results highlighted also that many parameters do have an impact on the strength of the responses. Therefore, such parameters have to be taken into consideration for the categorisation of compounds due to their relative sensitizing potencies

  12. Laparoscopic Technique for Serial Collection of Para-Colonic, Left Colic, and Inferior Mesenteric Lymph Nodes in Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Smedley

    Full Text Available Unlike peripheral lymph nodes (PLN, the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN draining the gastrointestinal (GI tract are exposed to microbes and microbial products from the intestines and as such, are immunologically distinct. GI draining (MLN have also been shown to be sites of early viral replication and likely impact early events that determine the course of HIV infection. They also are important reservoir sites that harbor latently-infected cells and from which the virus can emerge even after prolonged combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. Changes in the microbial flora and increased permeability of the GI epithelium associated with lentiviral infection can impact the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT and induce changes to secondary lymphoid organs limiting immune reconstitution with cART. Nonhuman primate models for AIDS closely model HIV infection in humans and serial sampling of the GALT and associated secondary lymphoid organs in this model is crucial to gain a better understanding of the critical early events in infection, pathogenesis, and the role of immune responses or drugs in controlling virus at these sites. However, current techniques to sample GI draining (MLN involve major surgery and/or necropsy, which have, to date, limited the ability to investigate mechanisms mediating the initiation, persistence and control of infection in this compartment. Here, we describe a minimally invasive laparoscopic technique for serial sampling of these sites that can be used with increased sampling frequency, yields greater cell numbers and immune cell subsets than current non-invasive techniques of the GALT and reduces the potential for surgical complications that could complicate interpretation of the results. This procedure has potential to facilitate studies of pathogenesis and evaluation of preventive and treatment interventions, reducing sampling variables that can influence experimental results, and improving animal welfare.

  13. Histopathological studies of lymph node metastasis in patients preoperatively irradiated for gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, T [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1978-09-01

    Irradiated 197 cases of progressive gastric cancer were compared with non-irradiated 290 cases of progressive gastric cancer as controls. Irradiated cases showed decreases in the rate of metastasis by 13.1%, in the degree of metastasis by 9.1, and in remote metastasis beyond the range of the second lymph node group. Concerning the site of involvement, the cases whose involvement restricted to upper C, middle M, or lower A region showed a decrease in the metastatic rate. In complete extirpation of the regional lymph nodes, irradiated cases showed a decrease in the rate of metastasis into the first and second lymph node groups. In the type, I, II, and III according to Borrmann's classification, the metastatic rate decreased. Concerning the tissue type, the metastatic rate decreased in adenomatous carcinoma and remarkably decreased in simple carcinoma. As regards the size of tumors, the metastatic rate decreased in the tumors smaller than 6.0 cm in diameter and in those larger than 6.0 cm as well. Concerning the depth of the x-ray irradiation, s/sub 1/ and s/sub 2/ decreased the rate of metastasis. The metastatic rate and 5-year survival rate increased in n/sub 1/(+) by 4.5%, in n/sub 2/(+) by 8.4%, and in all the irradiated cases by 12.5%. The degree of x in lesions metastasized into the lymph node increased according to an increase in irradiated dose, although it tended to be slightly milder than that in main lesions. Metachromasia of cancerous lesions metastasized into the lymph node by pH 4.1 TBM staining was negative(-)-slightly positive(+-) in random interstice and strongly positive(+++) in the cancerous interstice.

  14. Predicting biochemical recurrence-free survival for patients with positive pelvic lymph nodes at radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bodman, Christian; Godoy, Guilherme; Chade, Daher C; Cronin, Angel; Tafe, Laura J; Fine, Samson W; Laudone, Vincent; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated predictors of freedom from biochemical recurrence in patients with pelvic lymph node metastasis at radical prostatectomy. Of 207 patients with lymph node metastasis treated with radical prostatectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection 45 received adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy and 162 did not. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate predictors of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Recurrence probability was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A median of 13 lymph nodes were removed. Of the patients 122 had 1, 44 had 2 and 41 had 3 or greater positive lymph nodes. Of patients without androgen deprivation therapy 103 had 1, 35 had 2 and 24 had 3 or greater positive lymph nodes while 69 experienced biochemical recurrence. Median time to recurrence in patients with 1, 2 and 3 or greater lymph nodes was 59, 13 and 3 months, respectively. Only specimen Gleason score and the number of positive lymph nodes were independent predictors of biochemical recurrence. Recurrence-free probability 2 years after prostatectomy in men without androgen deprivation with 1 positive lymph node and a prostatectomy Gleason score of 7 or less was 79% vs 29% in those with Gleason score 8 or greater and 2 or more positive lymph nodes. Prognosis in patients with lymph node metastasis depends on the number of positive lymph nodes and primary tumor Gleason grade. Of all patients with lymph node metastasis 80% had 1 or 2 positive nodes. A large subset of those patients had a favorable prognosis. Full bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection should be done in patients with intermediate and high risk cancer to identify those likely to benefit from metastatic node removal. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Integration of Oncogenes via Sleeping Beauty as a Mouse Model of HPV16+ Oral Tumors and Immunologic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Yang, Ming-Chieh; Tseng, Ssu-Hsueh; Jiang, Rosie; Yang, Andrew; Farmer, Emily; Peng, Shiwen; Henkle, Talia; Chang, Yung-Nien; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2018-01-23

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the etiologic factor for cervical cancer and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. Although several prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, no effective therapeutic strategies to control active HPV diseases exist. Tumor implantation models are traditionally used to study HPV-associated buccal tumors. However, they fail to address precancerous phases of disease progression and display tumor microenvironments distinct from those observed in patients. Previously, K14-E6/E7 transgenic mouse models have been used to generate spontaneous tumors. However, the rate of tumor formation is inconsistent, and the host often develops immune tolerance to the viral oncoproteins. We developed a preclinical, spontaneous, HPV16 + buccal tumor model using submucosal injection of oncogenic plasmids expressing HPV16-E6/E7, NRas G12V , luciferase, and sleeping beauty (SB) transposase, followed by electroporation in the buccal mucosa. We evaluated responses to immunization with a pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine and tumor cell migration to distant locations. Mice transfected with plasmids encoding HPV16-E6/E7, NRas G12V , luciferase, and SB transposase developed tumors within 3 weeks. We also found transient anti-CD3 administration is required to generate tumors in immunocompetent mice. Bioluminescence signals from luciferase correlated strongly with tumor growth, and tumors expressed HPV16-associated markers. We showed that pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) administration resulted in antitumor immunity in tumor-bearing mice. Lastly, we demonstrated that the generated tumor could migrate to tumor-draining lymph nodes. Our model provides an efficient method to induce spontaneous HPV + tumor formation, which can be used to identify effective therapeutic interventions, analyze tumor migration, and conduct tumor biology research. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(3); 1-15. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. [Role of sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic mapping of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, K; Kolev, N; Ignatov, V; Temelkov, T; Madzhov, R

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of staging of colorectal cancer is dependable of number of lymph nodes, colected and investegated from the pathologist. Moreover 50% of newfounded cases with colorectal cancer are diagnosed as I or II stage of the desease. Between 15% and 20% of these patients develop regional or distant metastases around 5 years after the examination, despite of the radical surgery. This may be due to pathological "understaging" (decrease of the stage), becouse of missed micrometastases, which size often is smaller than 5 mm. High accurate and specific pathologoanatomical methods for "ultrastaging" are cost-expensive, therefore their selective application to labeled sentinel lymph nodes has a economical benefit and saves a time. Moreover it is decreasing the understaging effect, assosiated with convectional pathologoanatomical investigaton. In the future, the technical progress will develop the intensive competiton between the sentinel lymph node mapping and the improved imaging diagnostic techniques as flurodeoxyglucose (18FDG), positron emision tomography (PET), or the other molecular imaging techniques. Unfortunately, the limited spatial resolution of these techniques, do not allow to be used for tumor staging as sentinel lymph node techniques. Therefore the sentinel lymphnode mapping become the choice of the lymphnode staging technique.

  17. Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Nguyen, Freddy T; Zysk, Adam M; Ralston, Tyler S; Brockenbrough, John; Marks, Daniel L; Oldenburg, Amy L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2005-10-01

    Optical diagnostic imaging techniques are increasingly being used in the clinical environment, allowing for improved screening and diagnosis while minimizing the number of invasive procedures. Diffuse optical tomography, for example, is capable of whole-breast imaging and is being developed as an alternative to traditional X-ray mammography. While this may eventually be a very effective screening method, other optical techniques are better suited for imaging on the cellular and molecular scale. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), for instance, is capable of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue morphology. In a manner analogous to ultrasound imaging except using optics, pulses of near-infrared light are sent into the tissue while coherence-gated reflections are measured interferometrically to form a cross-sectional image of tissue. In this paper we apply OCT techniques for the high-resolution three-dimensional visualization of lymph node morphology. We present the first reported OCT images showing detailed morphological structure and corresponding histological features of lymph nodes from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor model, as well as from a human lymph node containing late stage metastatic disease. The results illustrate the potential for OCT to visualize detailed lymph node structures on the scale of micrometastases and the potential for the detection of metastatic nodal disease intraoperatively.

  18. Warthin's tumor: an unknown pathogenesis: a neoplasm or a reactive hyperplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Arpaci Bozdogan; Ebru, Linke Serınsoz; Tuba, Kara; Didar, Gursoy; Gulhan, Orekici; Cengiz, Ozcan

    2015-01-01

    To examine the probable role of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the pathogenesis of Warthin's tumor. Sixty-one patients with Warthin's tumor (n = 40), branchial cysts (n = 6), thymic cysts (n = 3), or tonsillar lymphoepithelial cysts (n = 12) were included. Forty Warthin's tumors were used as the lesion group, and 21 lymphoepithelial cysts were used as a control group. 29 lymph nodes around the Warthin's tumor, four of which showed salivary duct inclusions, were also evaluated. Blood vessel density was defined as an indicator of angiogenesis by examining CD31 and FVIII Ag expression, and lymphatic vascular density was defined as an indicator of lymphangiogenesis by evaluating LYVE-1 and podoplanin expression by immunohistochemical analysis. Data are expressed with descriptive statistics. Comparative analysis was performed using Shapiro-Wilks, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. A P < 0.005 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Statistical analysis was performed using the MedCalc ® v.10.3.0 software. The lesion group had higher mean values of age (58 vs. 11 years, P = 0.001), smoking rate (92.3% vs. 19%, P < 0.001), stromal degeneration (100% vs. 42.9%, P < 0.001), lymph node involvement around the lesion (87.9% vs. 12.1%, P < 0.001), salivary duct inclusion (25% vs. 0%, P = 0.0001), than those of lymphoepithelial cysts. Blood vessel density (51.92 ± 25.64 vs. 8 ± 5.35, number/5 high power fields (HPF), P < 0.001) and lymphatic vascular density (68.95 ± 21.32 vs. 21.10 ± 4.05 number/5 HPF, P < 0.001) were higher in Warthin's tumors than lymphoepithelial cysts. Warthin's tumors, and lymph nodes with inclusions had similar levels of blood and lymphatic vascular density, which was higher than those of lymph nodes (P < 0.0001). Warthin's tumor is a true neoplastic epithelial proliferation associated with increased angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and induces reactive lymph node hyperplasia.

  19. Immunosuppressive cytokines in the regional lymph node of a dog suffering from oral malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, B; Gould, S M; Kellett-Gregory, L M; Dobson, J M

    2002-10-01

    A 10-year-old male cross-breed dog was referred for investigation of oral malignant melanoma. Fine-needle aspirates were taken from the draining submandibular lymph node. The presence of metastatic melanoma cells was confirmed by cytological examination and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers for the melanoma-associated antigens: tyrosinase and mart-1/melan A. Cytokine expression in the lymph node was evaluated by multiplex RT-PCR, which demonstrated the presence of mRNA for IL-10 and TGF-beta1. However, IL-2, IL-4 and IFNgamma mRNA could not be detected, suggesting a lack of immune activation. Thoracic radiographs showed a lesion within the caudal lung fields suggestive of pulmonary metastasis. The dog developed signs of dyspnoea and collapse and was euthanased four days later. This case illustrates that molecular techniques can be used to aid clinical staging of canine oral malignant melanoma, and suggests that immunosuppressive cytokines could be involved in the pathogenesis of disease.

  20. Lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node navigation surgery for breast cancer under local anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Fujiwara, Ikuya; Mizuta, Naruhiko; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Hachimine, Yasushi; Nakatsukasa, Katsuhiro; Kobayashi, Aya

    2007-01-01

    We studied and analyzed therapeutic outcomes of a radical surgery under local anesthesia for breast cancer in our department. Subjects were 53 patients with breast cancer whose diagnoses were definitely made before surgery. Indications were: localized ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) diagnosed preoperatively; invasive carcinoma less than 3 cm in tumor diameter on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scan; and clinically tumors with negative axillary lymph nodes. Operative procedures included microdochectomy or lumpectomy associated with sentinel lymph node navigation biopsy (SLNB). We could perform the operation under local anesthesia in all the 53 patients, and were not demanded to shift from local to general anesthesia. Surgical stumps were positive in 10 patients (18.9%). Of the ten patients, additional resection was performed in one, and irradiation was added to the remaining nine patients. SLNB was performed in a total of 39 patients, six (15.4%) patients of them had metastasis and two out of the six patients underwent additional axillary lymph node dissection. None of serious complications were encountered. Local recurrence and hepatic metastasis occurred in each one patient in an averaged observation period of 15.1 months. This day's radical operation under local anesthesia for breast cancer is a useful procedure as minimally invasive surgery as for the indications employed in this study. (author)

  1. Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood vascular tumors form from cells that make blood vessels or lymph vessels. They can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Get information about the symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, and treatment of the most common type of vascular tumor, infantile hemangioma, and other vascular tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  2. A population-based study of tumor gene expression and risk of breast cancer death among lymph node-negative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Laurel A; Shak, Steven; Jacobs, Marlena K; Capra, Angela; Alexander, Claire; Pho, Mylan; Baker, Joffre; Walker, Michael; Watson, Drew; Hackett, James; Blick, Noelle T; Greenberg, Deborah; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Langholz, Bryan; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2006-01-01

    The Oncotype DX assay was recently reported to predict risk for distant recurrence among a clinical trial population of tamoxifen-treated patients with lymph node-negative, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. To confirm and extend these findings, we evaluated the performance of this 21-gene assay among node-negative patients from a community hospital setting. A case-control study was conducted among 4,964 Kaiser Permanente patients diagnosed with node-negative invasive breast cancer from 1985 to 1994 and not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Cases (n = 220) were patients who died from breast cancer. Controls (n = 570) were breast cancer patients who were individually matched to cases with respect to age, race, adjuvant tamoxifen, medical facility and diagnosis year, and were alive at the date of death of their matched case. Using an RT-PCR assay, archived tumor tissues were analyzed for expression levels of 16 cancer-related and five reference genes, and a summary risk score (the Recurrence Score) was calculated for each patient. Conditional logistic regression methods were used to estimate the association between risk of breast cancer death and Recurrence Score. After adjusting for tumor size and grade, the Recurrence Score was associated with risk of breast cancer death in ER-positive, tamoxifen-treated and -untreated patients (P = 0.003 and P = 0.03, respectively). At 10 years, the risks for breast cancer death in ER-positive, tamoxifen-treated patients were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-3.9%), 10.7% (95% CI 6.3-14.9%), and 15.5% (95% CI 7.6-22.8%) for those in the low, intermediate and high risk Recurrence Score groups, respectively. They were 6.2% (95% CI 4.5-7.9%), 17.8% (95% CI 11.8-23.3%), and 19.9% (95% CI 14.2-25.2%) for ER-positive patients not treated with tamoxifen. In both the tamoxifen-treated and -untreated groups, approximately 50% of patients had low risk Recurrence Score values. In this large, population-based study of lymph

  3. How Do CD4+ T Cells Detect and Eliminate Tumor Cells That Either Lack or Express MHC Class II Molecules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haabeth, Ole Audun Werner; Tveita, Anders Aune; Fauskanger, Marte; Schjesvold, Fredrik; Lorvik, Kristina Berg; Hofgaard, Peter O.; Omholt, Hilde; Munthe, Ludvig A.; Dembic, Zlatko; Corthay, Alexandre; Bogen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    CD4+ T cells contribute to tumor eradication, even in the absence of CD8+ T cells. Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells can directly kill MHC class II positive tumor cells. More surprisingly, CD4+ T cells can indirectly eliminate tumor cells that lack MHC class II expression. Here, we review the mechanisms of direct and indirect CD4+ T cell-mediated elimination of tumor cells. An emphasis is put on T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic models, where anti-tumor responses of naïve CD4+ T cells of defined specificity can be tracked. Some generalizations can tentatively be made. For both MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumors, presentation of tumor-specific antigen by host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) appears to be required for CD4+ T cell priming. This has been extensively studied in a myeloma model (MOPC315), where host APCs in tumor-draining lymph nodes are primed with secreted tumor antigen. Upon antigen recognition, naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into Th1 cells and migrate to the tumor. At the tumor site, the mechanisms for elimination of MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumor cells differ. In a TCR-transgenic B16 melanoma model, MHCIIPOS melanoma cells are directly killed by cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in a perforin/granzyme B-dependent manner. By contrast, MHCIINEG myeloma cells are killed by IFN-γ stimulated M1-like macrophages. In summary, while the priming phase of CD4+ T cells appears similar for MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumors, the killing mechanisms are different. Unresolved issues and directions for future research are addressed. PMID:24782871

  4. How do CD4+ T cells detect and eliminate tumor cells that either lack or express MHC class II molecules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Audun Werner Haabeth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cells contribute to tumor eradication, even in the absence of CD8+ T cells. Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells can directly kill MHC class II positive tumor cells. More surprisingly, CD4+ T cells can indirectly eliminate tumor cells that lack MHC class II expression. Here, we review the mechanisms of direct and indirect CD4+ T cell-mediated elimination of tumor cells. An emphasis is put on T cell receptor (TCR transgenic models, where anti-tumor responses of naïve CD4+ T cells of defined specificity can be tracked. Some generalizations can tentatively be made. For both MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumors, presentation of tumor specific antigen by host antigen presenting cells (APCs appears to be required for CD4+ T cell priming. This has been extensively studied in a myeloma model (MOPC315, where host APCs in tumor-draining lymph nodes are primed with secreted tumor antigen. Upon antigen recognition, naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into Th1 cells and migrate to the tumor. At the tumor site, the mechanisms for elimination of MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumor cells differ. In a TCR transgenic B16 melanoma model, MHCIIPOS melanoma cells are directly killed by cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in a perforin/granzyme B-dependent manner. By contrast, MHCIINEG myeloma cells are killed by IFN-g stimulated M1-like macrophages. In summary, while the priming phase of CD4+ T cells appears similar for MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumors, the killing mechanisms are different. Unresolved issues and directions for future research are addressed.

  5. Lymph Node Metastases and Prognosis in Left Upper Division Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers: The Impact of Interlobar Lymph Node Metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kuroda

    Full Text Available Left upper division segmentectomy is one of the major pulmonary procedures; however, it is sometimes difficult to completely dissect interlobar lymph nodes. We attempted to clarify the prognostic importance of hilar and mediastinal nodes, especially of interlobar lymph nodes, in patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC located in the left upper division.We retrospectively studied patients with primary left upper lobe NSCLC undergoing surgical pulmonary resection (at least lobectomy with radical lymphadenectomy. The representative evaluation of therapeutic value from the lymph node dissection was determined using Sasako's method. This analysis was calculated by multiplying the frequency of metastasis to the station and the 5-year survival rate of the patients with metastasis to the station.We enrolled 417 patients (237 men, 180 women. Tumors were located in the lingular lobe and at the upper division of left upper lobe in 69 and 348 patients, respectively. The pathological nodal statuses were pN0 in 263 patients, pN1 in 70 patients, and pN2 in 84 patients. Lymph nodes #11 and #7 were significantly correlated with differences in node involvement in patients with left upper lobe NSCLC. Among those with left upper division NSCLC, the 5-year overall survival in pN1 was 31.5% for #10, 39.3% for #11, and 50.4% for #12U. The involvement of node #11 was 1.89-fold higher in the anterior segment than that in the apicoposterior segment. The therapeutic index of estimated benefit from lymph node dissection for #11 was 3.38, #4L was 1.93, and the aortopulmonary window was 4.86 in primary left upper division NSCLC.Interlobar node involvement is not rare in left upper division NSCLC, occurring in >20% cases. Furthermore, dissection of interlobar nodes was found to be beneficial in patients with left upper division NSCLC.

  6. Combination immunotherapy with radiation and CpG-based tumor vaccination for the eradication of radio- and immuno-resistant lung carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamoto, Kenji; Wakita, Daiko; Takeshima, Tsuguhide

    2009-01-01

    Unmethylated cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) is known as a ligand of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which selectively activates type-1 immunity. We have already reported that the vaccination of tumor-bearing mice with liposome-CpG coencapsulated with model-tumor antigen, ovalbumin (OVA) (CpG+OVA-liposome) caused complete cure of the mice bearing OVA-expressing EG-7 lymphoma cells. However, the same therapy was not effective to eradicate Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-OVA-carcinoma. To overcome the refractoriness of LLC-OVA, we tried the combination therapy of radiation with CpG-based tumor vaccination. When LLC-OVA-carcinoma intradermally (i.d.) injected into C57BL/6 became palpable (7-8 mm), the mice were irradiated twice with a dose of 14 Gy at intervals of 24 h. After the second radiation, CpG+OVA-liposome was i.d. administered near the draining lymph node (DLN) of the tumor mass. The tumor growth of mice treated with radiation plus CpG+OVA-liposome was greatly inhibited and approximately 60% of mice treated were completely cured. Moreover, the combined therapy with radiation and CpG+OVA-liposome allowed the augmented induction of OVA-tetramer + LLC-OVA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) in DLN of tumor-bearing mice. These results indicate that the combined therapy of radiation with CpG-based tumor vaccine is a useful strategy to eradicate intractable carcinoma. (author)

  7. The importance of lymph node biopsy in diagnosis on lymphadenopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, P.; Mubarik, A.; Zahir, N.

    2000-01-01

    A study of 826 consecutive lymph node biopsies received during the period of four year from 1993-1996 was conducted to determine its role in arriving at a diagnosis and to see the pattern of diseases with which patient presented. These biopsies was interpreted. In the Department of Pathology, PNS Shifa Naval Hospital, a tertiary care center for the armed forces personnel in the southern part of Pakistan. The age of the patients varied from 10 months to 88 years. The commonest pathology encountered was tuberculosis (50.9%), followed by reactive hyperplasia (33.2%), malignant lymphomas (5.8%) and metastatic tumors (4.9%). Miscellaneous conditions like necrotizing lymphadenitis, infections mononucleosis, sarcoidosis, castle man's disease and lepromatous leprosy comprised 0.3% each. Cases of lymphadenopathy can now be diagnosed by other means such as fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the palpable lymph node but still lymph node biopsy plays an important role in typing of lymphomas and helps in those cases which cannot be diagnosed definitely by fine needle aspiration cytology. (author)

  8. Lymphatic transport of exosomes as a rapid route of information dissemination to the lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Swetha; Vannberg, Fredrik O; Dixon, J Brandon

    2016-04-18

    It is well documented that cells secrete exosomes, which can transfer biomolecules that impact recipient cells' functionality in a variety of physiologic and disease processes. The role of lymphatic drainage and transport of exosomes is as yet unknown, although the lymphatics play critical roles in immunity and exosomes are in the ideal size-range for lymphatic transport. Through in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging we have shown that exosomes are rapidly transported within minutes from the periphery to the lymph node by lymphatics. Using an in vitro model of lymphatic uptake, we have shown that lymphatic endothelial cells actively enhanced lymphatic uptake and transport of exosomes to the luminal side of the vessel. Furthermore, we have demonstrated a differential distribution of exosomes in the draining lymph nodes that is dependent on the lymphatic flow. Lastly, through endpoint analysis of cellular distribution of exosomes in the node, we identified macrophages and B-cells as key players in exosome uptake. Together these results suggest that exosome transfer by lymphatic flow from the periphery to the lymph node could provide a mechanism for rapid exchange of infection-specific information that precedes the arrival of migrating cells, thus priming the node for a more effective immune response.

  9. Evaluation of sonography and CT in detecting lymph node metastases in malignancies of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robatscher, P.A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Imaging methods are, compared to anamnesis and clinical investigation, of importance in the praetherapeutic diagnosis of head and neck tumors. Sonography and CT are used routinely in staging of the primary and in staging of the cervical lymph nodes. A MRI-investigation is possible, too. The main interest is concentrated upon the status of the lymph nodes, because it takes strong influence on the therapeutic management and of course on the prognosis. Methods: each lymph node level of the 203 patients with untreated head and neck tumors will be analyzed, if the staging procedure (imaging methods and histological examination) is complete. Further two statistical hypotheses are defined: 1. Lymph nodes, which are 'probably metastatic' are classed with the 'metastatic'. 2. In the second hypothesis the 'probably metastatic' nodes are counted with the 'unsuspicious' ones. Results: The sensitivity rate of US is 66,67 % and CT 30,16 %. The difference of specifity between these two methods is small (US: 87,1 %; CT: 96,13 %). The reason for the decrease of the sensitivity of US and CT (50,79 %/26.98 %) in the second hypothesis and the increase of the specifity (94,84 %/96,45 %) could be explained with the definition of the hypothesis. Therefore the number of false negative is higher. These results suggest that US versus CT is a more useful diagnostic tool in detecting cervical lymph node metastases. Hence the operative procedure should depend on the accurate diagnosis made by US. (author)

  10. Investigation of cervical lymph node metastasis from primary unknown carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Kosuke; Terada, Tomonori; Saeki, Nobuo; Uwa, Nobuhiro; Mohri, Takeshi; Sakagami, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated 41 patients with metastatic cervical tumors from unknown primary sites at the Hyogo College of Medicine between 1997 and 2007. The N stage classification of cervical lymph nodes was: N1 in 3 cases, N2a in 10 cases, N2b in 10 cases, N2c in 4 cases, and N3 in 14 cases. The histopathological diagnoses of cervical lymph node were: squamous cell carcinoma in 33 cases, adenocarcinoma in 5 cases, undifferentiated carcinoma in 2 cases, and papillary carcinoma in 1 cases. Primary tumor sites were: tonsil in 5 cases, esophaguses in 2 cases, hypopharynxies in 2 cases, and thyroid, oral floor, submandibular gland, lung, gastric and colon in 1 case each. The useful tests were gastric endoscope, positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and blind biopsy of tonsil. We treated 24 of the 41 patients. Therapies were: neck dissection with postoperative radiation therapy in 11 cases, neck dissection alone in 1 case, only radiation or chemoradiation therapy alone in 8 cases, and chemotherapy alone in 4 cases. The 5-year survival rate was 40.1% in all cases and 81.5% in cases who underwent neck dissection. (author)

  11. Globalization, Brain Drain, and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Docquier, Frédéric; Rapoport, Hillel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews four decades of economics research on the brain drain, with a focus on recent contributions and on development issues. We first assess the magnitude, intensity, and determinants of the brain drain, showing that brain drain (or high-skill) migration is becoming a dominant pattern of international migration and a major aspect of globalization. We then use a stylized growth model to analyze the various channels through which a brain drain affects the sending countries and revi...

  12. Evaluation of an ex vivo murine local lymph node assay: multiple endpoint comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccotti, Joseph R; Knight, Stephanie A; Gillhouse, Kimberly; Lagattuta, Mark S; Bleavins, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used to assess the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the standard assay, mice are treated topically on the dorsum of both ears with test substance for 3 days. Following 2 days of rest, the initiation of the hypersensitivity response is evaluated by injecting (3)H-thymidine into a tail vein, and then measuring the levels of radioisotope incorporated into the DNA of lymph node cells draining the ears. In the current study, BALB/c mice were treated with the contact sensitizers hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA) and oxazolone, and the nonsensitizer methyl salicylate. The proliferative response of lymph node cells was evaluated in an ex vivo assay, in which isolated cells were cultured in vitro with (3)H-thymidine. Treatment of mice with HCA at 5-50% resulted in concentration-related increases in (3)H-thymidine incorporation, with stimulation indices ranging from 3 to 14. Low animal-to-animal variability was seen in three replicate assays testing HCA at 25%. As anticipated, the proliferative response induced by the potent sensitizer oxazolone at 0.25% was greater than HCA at all concentrations tested. Stimulation indices of 1.5 and 3 were seen in two independent experiments with methyl salicylate. These equivocal findings were likely due to the irritancy properties of the compound. Importantly, measuring ex vivo (3)H-thymidine incorporation was more sensitive than evaluating lymph node weight and cellularity, and in vitro bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Furthermore, the results of the ex vivo LLNA were comparable to the standard assay. This study provided evidence that supports the use of an ex vivo LLNA for hazard assessment of contact hypersensitivity. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Lymph Nodes and Cancer Metastasis: New Perspectives on the Role of Intranodal Lymphatic Sinuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Cheng Ji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic system is essential for transporting interstitial fluid, soluble antigen, and immune cells from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes (LNs. Functional integrity of LNs is dependent on intact lymphatics and effective lymph drainage. Molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between tumor cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs during tumor progression still remain to be identified. The cellular and molecular structures of LNs are optimized to trigger a rapid and efficient immune response, and to participate in the process of tumor metastasis by stimulating lymphangiogenesis and establishing a premetastatic niche in LNs. Several molecules, e.g., S1P, CCR7-CCL19/CCL21, CXCL12/CXCR4, IL-7, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and integrin α4β1 play an important role in controlling the activity of LN stromal cells including LECs, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs and follicular dendritic cells (DCs. The functional stromal cells are critical for reconstruction and remodeling of the LN that creates a unique microenvironment of tumor cells and LECs for cancer metastasis. LN metastasis is a major determinant for the prognosis of most human cancers and clinical management. Ongoing work to elucidate the function and molecular regulation of LN lymphatic sinuses will provide insight into cancer development mechanisms and improve therapeutic approaches for human malignancy.

  14. Aberrant methylation of GCNT2 is tightly related to lymph node metastasis of primary CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazunori; Yamashita, Keishi; Sawaki, Hiromichi; Waraya, Mina; Katoh, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Nobukazu; Kawamata, Hiroshi; Nishimiya, Hiroshi; Ema, Akira; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-03-01

    Glycoprotein expression profile is dramatically altered in human cancers; however, specific glycogenes have not been fully identified. A comprehensive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system for glycogenes (CRPS-G) identified several outstanding glycogenes. GCNT2 was of particular interest after GCNT2 expression and epigenetics were rigorously investigated in primary colorectal cancer (CRC). The highlights of this work can be summarized as follows: (i) Expression of GCNT2 was remarkably suppressed. (ii) Silenced expression of GCNT2 was reactivated by combined demethylating agents. (iii) Promoter DNA methylation of GCNT2 was silenced in CRC cell lines and tissues. Hypomethylation of GCNT2 variant 2 is tightly associated with lymph node metastasis in primary CRC. (iv) GCNT2 methylation level in the normal tissues also showed a close association with that in the tumor tissues and reflected lymph node metastasis. We identified aberrant expression of GCNT2, which can be explained by promoter DNA hypermethylation. Hypomethylation of the GCNT2 variant 2 reflected lymph node metastasis of CRC in the tumor and normal tissues. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Warthin′s tumor: An unknown pathogenesis: A neoplasm or a reactive hyperplasia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpaci Bozdogan Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: To examine the probable role of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the pathogenesis of Warthin′s tumor. Materials and Methods: Sixty-one patients with Warthin′s tumor (n = 40, branchial cysts (n = 6, thymic cysts (n = 3, or tonsillar lymphoepithelial cysts (n = 12 were included. Forty Warthin′s tumors were used as the lesion group, and 21 lymphoepithelial cysts were used as a control group. 29 lymph nodes around the Warthin′s tumor, four of which showed salivary duct inclusions, were also evaluated. Blood vessel density was defined as an indicator of angiogenesis by examining CD31 and FVIII Ag expression, and lymphatic vascular density was defined as an indicator of lymphangiogenesis by evaluating LYVE-1 and podoplanin expression by immunohistochemical analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are expressed with descriptive statistics. Comparative analysis was performed using Shapiro-Wilks, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. A P < 0.005 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Statistical analysis was performed using the MedCalc ® v.10.3.0 software. Results: The lesion group had higher mean values of age (58 vs. 11 years, P = 0.001, smoking rate (92.3% vs. 19%, P < 0.001, stromal degeneration (100% vs. 42.9%, P < 0.001, lymph node involvement around the lesion (87.9% vs. 12.1%, P < 0.001, salivary duct inclusion (25% vs. 0%, P = 0.0001, than those of lymphoepithelial cysts. Blood vessel density (51.92 ± 25.64 vs. 8 ± 5.35, number/5 high power fields (HPF, P < 0.001 and lymphatic vascular density (68.95 ± 21.32 vs. 21.10 ± 4.05 number/5 HPF, P < 0.001 were higher in Warthin′s tumors than lymphoepithelial cysts. Warthin′s tumors, and lymph nodes with inclusions had similar levels of blood and lymphatic vascular density, which was higher than those of lymph nodes (P < 0.0001. Conclusions: Warthin′s tumor is a true neoplastic epithelial proliferation associated with increased angiogenesis

  16. Metastatic lymph node in gastric cancer; Is it a real distant metastasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noh Jae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, the TNM staging system is a widely accepted method for assessing the prognosis of the disease and planning therapeutic strategies for cancer. Of the TNM system, the extent of lymph node involvement is the most important independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer. The aim of our study is to evaluate the survival and prognosis of gastric cancer patients with LN#12 or #13 involvement only and to assess the impact of anatomic regions of primary gastric tumor on survival in this particular subset of patients. Methods Among data of 1,008 stage IV gastric cancer patients who received curative R0 gastrectomy, a total of 79 patients with LN#12 (n = 68 and/or #13 (n = 11 were identified. All patients performed gastrectomy with D2 or D3 lymph node dissection. Results In 79 patients with LN#12/13 involvement, the estimated one-, three- and five-year survival rate was 77.2%, 41.8% and 26.6% respectively. When we compared the patients with LN#12/13 involvement to those without involvement, there was no significant difference in OS (21.0 months vs. 25.0 months, respectively; P = 0.140. However, OS was significantly longer in patients with LN#12/13 involvement only than in those with M1 lymph node involvement (14.3 months; P = 0.001. There was a significant difference in survival according to anatomic locations of the primary tumor (lower to mid-body vs. high body or whole stomach: 26.5 vs. 9.2 months (P = 0.009. In Cox proportional hazard analysis, only N stage (p = 0.002 had significance to predict poor survival. Conclusion In this study we found that curatively resected gastric cancer patients with pathologic involvement of LN #12 and/or LN #13 had favorable survival outcome, especially those with primary tumor location of mid-body to antrum. Prospective analysis of survival in gastric cancer patients with L N#12 or #13 metastasis is warranted especially with regards to primary tumor location.

  17. Using Smoke Injection in Drains to Identify Potential Preferential Pathways in a Drained Arable Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M. H.; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores forming a continuous pathway between the soil surface and subsurface drains favour the transport of many contaminants from agricultural fields to surface waters. The smoke injection method presented by Shipitalo and Gibbs (2000) used for demonstrating and quantifying such pathways has been further developed and used on a drained Danish sandy loam. In order to identify the preferential pathways to drains, smoke was injected in three 1.15 m deep tile drains (total drain length 93 m), and smoke emitting macropores (SEMP) at the soil surface were counted and characterized as producing either strong or weak plumes compared to reference plumes from 3 and 6 mm wide tubes. In the two situations investigated in the present study - an early spring and an autumn situation, smoke only penetrated the soil surface layer via earthworm burrows located in a 1.0 m wide belt directly above the drain lines. However, it is known from previous studies that desiccation fractures in a dry summer situation also can contribute to the smoke pattern. The distance between SEMP measured along the drain lines was on average 0.46 m whereas the average spacing between SEMP with strong plumes was 2.3 m. Ponded water was applied in 6 cm wide rings placed above 52 burrows including 17 reference burrows which did not emit smoke. Thirteen pathways in the soil were examined using dye tracer and profile excavation. SEMP with strong plumes marked the entrance of highly efficient transport pathways conducting surface applied water and dye tracer into the drain. However, no single burrow was traced all the way from the surface into the drain, the dye patterns branched off in a network of other macropores. Water infiltration rates were significantly higher (P drains and surface waters, pathways being associated primarily with unevenly distributed SEMP producing strong smoke plumes.

  18. Tumor tissue levels of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and outcome following adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive breast cancer patients: A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrohl, Anne-Sofie; Look, Maxime P; Meijer-van Gelder, Marion E; Foekens, John A; Brünner, Nils

    2009-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that high tumor tissue levels of TIMP-1 are associated with no or limited clinical benefit from chemotherapy with CMF and anthracyclines in metastatic breast cancer patients. Here, we extend our investigations to the adjuvant setting studying outcome after adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal lymph node-positive patients. We hypothesize that TIMP-1 high tumors are less sensitive to chemotherapy and accordingly that high tumor tissue levels are associated with shorter survival. From our original retrospectively collected tumor samples we selected a group of 525 pre-menopausal lymph node-positive patients (adjuvant treatment: CMF, 324 patients; anthracycline-based, 99 patients; no adjuvant chemotherapy, 102 patients). TIMP-1 levels were measured using ELISA in cytosolic extracts of frozen primary tumors. TIMP-1 was analyzed as a continuous variable and as a dichotomized one using the median TIMP-1 concentration as a cut point between high and low TIMP-1 groups. We analyzed the benefit of adjuvant CMF and anthracyclines in univariate and multivariable survival models; endpoints were disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In this selected cohort of high-risk patients, and in the subgroup of patients receiving no adjuvant therapy, TIMP-1 was not associated with prognosis. In the subgroup of patients treated with anthracyclines, when analyzed as a continuous variable we observed a tendency for increasing TIMP-1 levels to be associated with shorter DFS (multivariable analysis, HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.00-3.07, P = 0.05) and a significant association between increasing TIMP-1 and shorter OS in both univariate (HR 3.52, 95% CI 1.54-8.06, P = 0.003) and multivariable analyses (HR 4.19, 95% CI 1.67-10.51, P = 0.002). No statistically significant association between TIMP-1 and DFS was observed in the CMF-treated patients although high TIMP-1 was associated with shorter OS when analyzed as a dichotomized variable (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.02-2.65, P

  19. New models and online calculator for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Denise L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs, although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. Methods We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC, boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART, and multivariate logistic regression (MLR informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. Results 285 patients had positive SLNs, of which 213 had known angiolymphatic invasion status and 171 had complete pathologic data including hormone receptor status. 264 (93% patients had limited SLN disease (micrometastasis, 70%, or isolated tumor cells, 23%. 101 (35% of all SLN-positive patients had tumor-involved NSLNs. Three variables (tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and SLN metastasis size predicted risk in all our models. RP-ROC and boosted CART stratified patients into four risk levels. MLR informed by CART was most accurate. Using two composite predictors calculated from three variables, MLR informed by CART was more accurate than the Nomogram computed using eight predictors. In our dataset, area under ROC curve (AUC was 0.83/0.85 for MLR (n = 213/n = 171 and 0.77 for Nomogram (n = 171. When applied to an independent dataset (n = 77, AUC was 0.74 for our model and 0.62 for Nomogram. The composite predictors in our model were the product of

  20. Sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy in breast cancer - facts and unanswered questions; Waechterlymphknotendetektion und -Biopsie beim Mammakarzinom - Fakten und unbeantwortete Fragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, N. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The concept of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer patients is rapidly becoming the standard of care [1]. The fast assent of this technique in clinical practise is the result of multiple factors, including accuracy of the technique, decreased morbidity, and supplying the pathologist with only few nodes which allows a more focused and sensitive histopathologic evaluation. The sentinel nodes are those most likely to contain tumour cells that have spread from the tumour. Histopathological evaluation of these nodes therefore can be an accurate predictor for metastases in the respective lymph node basin and can guide regional and systemic treatment. The SLN-biopsy concerns the identification and subsequent resection of the initial lymph nodes (SLN) which are draining the primary tumour. These nodes can be identified by radioguided lymphatic mapping and/or by visualisation of the nodes with vital blue dyes. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and its morbidity can be avoided in patients with negative SLN. Despite the success and acceptance of lymphatic mapping, some controversies and questions remain unanswered. In this review, some of the most relevant clinical issues will be discussed. (orig.)

  1. Pattern of Colon Cancer Lymph Node Metastases in Patients Undergoing Central Mesocolic Lymph Node Excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus A; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Anders; Nielsen, Mingyuan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extended mesocolic lymph node dissection in colon cancer surgery seems to improve oncological outcome. A possible reason might be related to metastases in the central mesocolic lymph nodes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of mesocolic lymph node...... metastases, particularly in central lymph nodes, and the risk of skip, aberrant, and gastrocolic ligament metastases as the argument for performing extended lymph node dissection. DATA SOURCES: EMBASE and PubMed were searched using the terms colon or colorectal with sentinel node, lymph node mapping, or skip...... node; lymph node resection colon; and complete or total and mesocolic excision. STUDY SELECTION: Studies describing the risk of metastases in central, skip, aberrant, and gastrocolic ligament lymph node metastases from colon adenocarcinomas in 10 or more patients were included. No languages were...

  2. Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy in Women with T1-T2 Tumors and 1 to 3 Positive Lymph Nodes: Analysis of the Breast International Group 02-98 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Youssef H; Habib, Joyce G; Ameye, Lieveke; Paesmans, Marianne; de Azambuja, Evandro; Gelber, Richard D; Campbell, Ian; Nordenskjöld, Bo; Gutiérez, Jorge; Anderson, Michael; Lluch, Ana; Gnant, Michael; Goldhirsch, Aron; Di Leo, Angelo; Joseph, David J; Crown, John; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine; Francis, Prudence A

    2018-06-01

    To analyze the impact of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) for patients with T1-T2 tumors and 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes enrolled on the Breast International Group (BIG) 02-98 trial. The BIG 02-98 trial randomized patients to receive adjuvant anthracycline with or without taxane chemotherapy. Delivery of PMRT was nonrandomized and performed according to institutional preferences. The present analysis was performed on participants with T1-T2 breast cancer and 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes who had undergone mastectomy and axillary nodal dissection. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the effect of PMRT on risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR), breast cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. We identified 684 patients who met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis, of whom 337 (49%) had received PMRT. At 10 years, LRR risk was 2.5% in the PMRT group and 6.5% in the no-PMRT group (hazard ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.73; P = .005). Lower LRR after PMRT was noted for patients randomized to receive adjuvant chemotherapy with no taxane (10-year LRR: 3.4% vs 9.1%; P = .02). No significant differences in breast cancer-specific survival (84.3% vs 83.9%) or overall survival (81.7% vs 78.3%) were observed according to receipt of PMRT. Our analysis of the BIG 02-98 trial shows excellent outcomes in women with T1-T2 tumors and 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes found in axillary dissection. Although PMRT improved LRR in this cohort, the number of events remained low at 10 years. In all groups, 10-year rates of LRR were relatively low compared with historical studies. As such, the use of PMRT in women with 1 to 3 positive nodes should be tailored to individual patient risks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. RADIONUCLIDE INDICATION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODES IN LARYNX AND LARYNGOPHARYNX CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Sinilkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to determine the possibility of radionuclide methods in the identification of "sentinel" lymph node (SLN in larynx and laryngopharynx cancer patients.Material and methods: 17 patients with larynx and laryngopharynx cancer were included in research. In all patients for SLN visualization nanocolloid radiopharmaceutical was injection around tumor into mucous coat with the subsequent SPECT and radioguided study.Results: Sensitivity and specificity of SPECT and radioguided study for SLN identification were 100%. We found 22 SLN in 17 patients (from 1 to 2 per patient, on average 1.3. Most often SLN were located in the III level of a neck (lymph nodes around of carotid arteries – 12 SLN (54.5% and IIA level (under lower jaw lymph nodes – 6 (27.2%. One SLN (4.5% was localized in IV level and 3 nodes (13.6% in VI level. In 2 patients (11.8% metastasis in SLN were found. In these patients within 2 years cancer progressing was revealed. Fifteen patients (88.2% had no metastatic in SLN and had no progressing of a cancer.Conclusions: Sensitivity and specificity of SPECT and radioguided study for SLN identification are 100%. In patients with metastatic SLN radical surgery with lymph node dissection is helpful.

  4. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Markus; Molls, Christoph; Luers, Jan C; Beutner, Dirk; Klussmann, Jens P; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors in therapy and prognosis for patients with parotid gland cancer. Nevertheless, the extent of the primary tumor resection and the necessity of a neck dissection still is a common issue. Since little is known about lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymph node metastases in T1 and T2 carcinomas and its impact on local control and survival. We retrospectively analyzed 70 patients with early-stage (T1 and T2) primary parotid gland cancer. All patients were treated with parotidectomy and an ipsilateral neck dissection from 1987 to 2009. Clinicopathological and survival parameters were calculated. The median follow-up time was 51.7 months. A positive pathological lymph node stage (pN+) was found in 21.4% of patients with a significant correlation to the clinical lymph node stage (cN) (p = 0.061). There were no differences in the clinical and histopathological data between pN- and pN+ patients. In 73.3% of pN+ patients, the metastases were located intraparotideal. The incidence of occult metastases (pN+/cN-) was 17.2%. Of all patients with occult metastases, 30.0% had extraparotideal lymphatic spread. A positive lymph node stage significantly indicated a poorer 5-year overall as well as 5-year disease-free survival rate compared to pN- patients (p = 0.048; p = 0.011). We propose total parotidectomy in combination with at least a level II-III selective neck dissection in any case of early-stage parotid gland cancer.

  5. Preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis and deep stromal invasion in women with invasive cervical cancer: prospective multicenter study using 2D and 3D ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálsdóttir, K; Fischerova, D; Franchi, D; Testa, A; Di Legge, A; Epstein, E

    2015-04-01

    To determine how various objective two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound parameters allow prediction of deep stromal tumor invasion and lymph node involvement, in comparison to subjective ultrasound assessment, in women scheduled for surgery for cervical cancer. This was a prospective multicenter trial including 104 women with cervical cancer at FIGO Stages IA2-IIB, verified histologically. Patients scheduled for surgery underwent a preoperative ultrasound examination. The value of various 2D (size, color score) and 3D (volume, vascular indices) ultrasound parameters was compared to that of subjective assessment in the prediction of deep stromal tumor invasion and lymph node involvement. Histology obtained from radical hysterectomy or trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy was considered as the gold standard for assessment. All women underwent pelvic lymphadenectomy, with 99 (95%) undergoing subsequent radical surgery; five underwent only pelvic lymphadenectomy because of the presence of a positive sentinel lymph node. Women with deep stromal invasion or lymph node involvement had significantly larger tumors (diameter and volume) but there was no correlation with vascular indices measured on 3D ultrasound. Subjective evaluation was superior (AUC, 0.93; sensitivity, 90.5%; specificity, 97.2%) in the prediction of deep stromal invasion when compared to any objective measurement technique, with maximal tumor diameter at 20.5-mm cut-off (AUC, 0.83; sensitivity, 90.5%; specificity, 61.1%) and 3D tumor volume at 9.1-mm(3) cut-off (AUC, 0.85; sensitivity, 79.4%; specificity, 83.3%) providing the best performance among the objective parameters. Both subjective assessment and objective measurements were poorly predictive of lymph node involvement. In women with cervical cancer, subjective ultrasound evaluation allowed better prediction of deep stromal invasion than did objective measurements; however, neither subjective evaluation nor objective

  6. Does negative retroperitoneal CT in adolescents with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma preclude the need of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damazio, Eulalio; Caran, Eliana; Ortiz, Valdemar; Macedo Junior, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We report on a 16-year-old male with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma who underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection due to a stage I tumor (normal retroperitoneal computed tomography). The surgical finding was three enlarged nodes, positive for metastatic disease. Patient was referred to adjuvant chemotherapy. This case suggests that the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group IV protocol is subject to questions regarding adolescents with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma, and that negative retroperitoneal CT does not preclude the need of lymph node dissection. (author)

  7. Radiation Use and Long-Term Survival in Breast Cancer Patients With T1, T2 Primary Tumors and One to Three Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Thomas A.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Duan Zhigang; Fang Shenying; Oh, Julia L.; Tereffe, Welela; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Yu, T.-K.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Giordano, Sharon H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: For patients with Stage II breast cancer with one to three positive lymph nodes, controversy exists about whether radiation as a component of treatment provides a survival benefit. Methods and Materials: We analyzed data from patients with Stage II breast cancer with one to three positive lymph nodes diagnosed from 1988-2002 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry and compared the outcome of 12,693 patients treated with breast-conservation therapy with radiation (BCT + XRT) with the 18,902 patients treated with mastectomy without radiation (MRM w/o XRT). Results: Patients treated with BCT + XRT were younger, were more likely to be treated in recent years of the study period, more commonly had T1 primary tumors, and had fewer involved nodes compared with those treated with MRM w/o XRT (p < 0.001 for all differences). The 15-year breast cancer-specific survival rate for the BCT + XRT group was 80% vs. 72% for the MRM w/o XRT group (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis showed that MRM w/o XRT was associated with a hazard ratio for breast cancer death of 1.19 (p < 0.001) and for overall death of 1.25 (p < 0.001). The survival benefit in the BCT + XRT group was not limited to subgroups with high-risk disease features. Conclusions: Radiation use was independently associated with improved survival for patients with Stage II breast cancer with one to three positive lymph nodes. Because multivariate analyses of retrospective data cannot account for all potential biases, these data require confirmation in randomized clinical trials

  8. The added value of a portable gamma camera for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, M; Paredes, P; Sieira, R; Vidal-Sicart, S; Marti, C; Pons, F

    2014-01-01

    The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is still subject to debate although some studies have reported its feasibility. The main reason for this debate is probably due to the high false-negative rate for floor-of-mouth tumors per se. We report the case of a 54-year-old man with a T1N0 floor-of-mouth squamous cell carcinoma who underwent the sentinel lymph node procedure. Lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT imaging were performed for lymphatic mapping with a conventional gamma camera. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified at right Ib, left IIa and Ia levels. However, these sentinel lymph nodes were difficult to detect intraoperatively with a gamma probe owing to the activity originating from the injection site. The use of a portable gamma camera made it possible to localize and excise all the sentinel lymph nodes. This case demonstrates the usefulness of this tool to improve sentinel lymph node detecting in floor-of-mouth tumors, especially those close to the injection area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  9. A prospective randomized study of use of drain versus no drain after burr-hole evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Suryanarayanan, Bhaskar; Choudhary, Ajay; Prasad, Akhila; Singh, Sachin; Gupta, Laxmi Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) recurs after surgical evacuation in 5-30% of patients. Inserting subdural drain might reduce the recurrence rate, but is not commonly practiced. There are few prospective studies to evaluate the effect of subdural drains. A prospective randomized study to investigate the effect of subdural drains in the on recurrence rates and clinical outcome following burr-hole drainage (BHD) of CSDH was undertaken. During the study period, 246 patients with CSDH were assessed for eligibility. Among 200 patients fulfilling the eligibility criteria, 100 each were assigned to "drain group" (drain inserted into the subdural space following BHD) and "without drain group" (subdural drain was not inserted following BHD) using random allocation software. The primary end point was recurrence needing re-drainage up to a period of 6 months from surgery. Recurrence occurred in 9 of 100 patients with a drain, and 26 of 100 patients in without drain group (P = 0.002). The mortality was 5% in patients with drain and 4% in patients without drain group (P = 0.744). The medical and surgical complications were comparable between the two study groups. Use of a subdural drain after burr-hole evacuation of a CSDH reduces the recurrence rate and is not associated with increased complications.

  10. Americium/curium bushing melter drain tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Hardy, B.J.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Americium and curium were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. They have been stored in a nitric acid solution in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of the americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution will allow the material to be safely stored or transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Oak Ridge is responsible for marketing radionuclides for research and medical applications. The bushing melter technology being used in the Am/Cm vitrification research work is also under consideration for the stabilization of other actinides such as neptunium and plutonium. A series of melter drain tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center to determine the relationship between the drain tube assembly operating variables and the resulting pour initiation times, glass flowrates, drain tube temperatures, and stop pour times. Performance criteria such as ability to start and stop pours in a controlled manner were also evaluated. The tests were also intended to provide support of oil modeling of drain tube performance predictions and thermal modeling of the drain tube and drain tube heater assembly. These drain tests were instrumental in the design of subsequent melter drain tube and drain tube heaters for the Am/Cm bushing melter, and therefore in the success of the Am/Cm vitrification and plutonium immobilization programs

  11. Detection of Metastatic Breast and Thyroid Cancer in Lymph Nodes by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialing; Feider, Clara L.; Nagi, Chandandeep; Yu, Wendong; Carter, Stacey A.; Suliburk, James; Cao, Hop S. Tran; Eberlin, Livia S.

    2017-06-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry has been widely applied to image lipids and metabolites in primary cancer tissues with the purpose of detecting and understanding metabolic changes associated with cancer development and progression. Here, we report the use of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to image metastatic breast and thyroid cancer in human lymph node tissues. Our results show clear alterations in lipid and metabolite distributions detected in the mass spectra profiles from 42 samples of metastatic thyroid tumors, metastatic breast tumors, and normal lymph node tissues. 2D DESI-MS ion images of selected molecular species allowed discrimination and visualization of specific histologic features within tissue sections, including regions of metastatic cancer, adjacent normal lymph node, and fibrosis or adipose tissues, which strongly correlated with pathologic findings. In thyroid cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of ceramides and glycerophosphoinisitols were observed. In breast cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of various fatty acids and specific glycerophospholipids were seen. Trends in the alterations in fatty acyl chain composition of lipid species were also observed through detailed mass spectra evaluation and chemical identification of molecular species. The results obtained demonstrate DESI-MSI as a potential clinical tool for the detection of breast and thyroid cancer metastasis in lymph nodes, although further validation is needed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. A high density of tertiary lymphoid structure B cells in lung tumors is associated with increased CD4+ T cell receptor repertoire clonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Germain, Claire; Liu, Zheng; Sebastian, Yinong; Devi, Priyanka; Knockaert, Samantha; Brohawn, Philip; Lehmann, Kim; Damotte, Diane; Validire, Pierre; Yao, Yihong; Valge-Archer, Viia; Hammond, Scott A; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline; Higgs, Brandon W

    2015-12-01

    T and B cell receptor (TCR and BCR, respectively) Vβ or immunoglobulin heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 sequencing allows monitoring of repertoire changes through recognition, clonal expansion, affinity maturation, and T or B cell activation in response to antigen. TCR and BCR repertoire analysis can advance understanding of antitumor immune responses in the tumor microenvironment. TCR and BCR repertoires of sorted CD4 + , CD8 + or CD19 + cells in tumor, non-tumoral distant tissue (NT), and peripheral compartments (blood/draining lymph node [P]) from 47 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (age median = 68 y) were sequenced. The clonotype spectra were assessed among different tissues and correlated with clinical and immunological parameters. In all tissues, CD4 + and CD8 + TCR repertoires had greater clonality relative to CD19 + BCR. CD4 + T cells exhibited greater clonality in NT compared to tumor ( p = 0.002) and P ( p 68). Younger patients exhibited greater CD4 + T cell diversity in P compared to older patients ( p = 0.05), and greater CD4 + T cell clonality in tumor relative to P ( p cell clonality in tumor and P, respectively (both p = 0.05), correlated with high density of tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structure (TLS) B cells, a biomarker of higher overall survival in NSCLC. Results indicate distinct adaptive immune responses in NSCLC, where peripheral T cell diversity is modulated by age, and tumor T cell clonal expansion is favored by the presence of TLSs in the tumor microenvironment.

  13. Sentinel-lymph node procedure in breast, uterine cervix, prostate, vulva and penile cancers: Practical methodology; La pratique de la technique du ganglion sentinelle dans diverses indications: sein, col uterin, prostate, vulve et verge. Methodologie pratique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot-Rossi, I. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2008-08-15

    The nodal status is the strongest prognostic factor in early stage cancers. The sentinel-lymph node (S.L.N.) is defined as the first draining lymph node of an organ; the lymph node status is determined by the histological results of S.L.N.. The lymphadenectomy, with high morbidity, is realised only in case of metastatic S.L.N.. The S.L.N. identification, in most of cases, is performed using the combination of blue dye and radiocolloid {sup 99m}Tc injections. The purpose of this article is to give some practical details about the S.L.N. isotopic procedure in breast cancer, vulva and penile cancer, uterine cervix and prostate cancer. (author)

  14. Correlation of FDG-PET and MRI/CT with histopathology in primary diagnosis, lymph node staging and diagnosis of recurrency of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poepperl, G.; Tiling, R.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K.; Lang, S.; Dagdelen, O.; Jaeger, L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Correct staging of head and neck cancer is important for the patient's prognosis and further therapeutic strategies. Aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic value of FDG-PET regarding the pre-surgical diagnosis of primary tumor and cervical lymph node metastases, the diagnosis of tumour recurrence, and the localisation of unknown primary, further to compare the results to those of morphological imaging modalities (CT/MRI) and to correlate the results of both methods with histopathological findings. Patients/Methods: 115 patients (pts) (72 x primary diagnosis, 37 x recurrence, and 6 x unknown primary) underwent FDG-PET (ECAT EXACT HR+) and CT or MRI. Results were correlated with histopathological findings in terms of detection of primary and recurrent tumors as well as lymph node metastases. Results: Regarding the pre-surgical diagnosis, sensitivity and specificity for identifying primary tumors were 85% and 100% for PET and 88% and 75% for CT/MRI, respectively. Accuracy was 86% for PET and 87% for CT/MRI. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting primary lymph node envolvement were 71%/86% for PET and 68% with morphological imaging. In 23 pts histopathology revealed pT1 stages with tumor diameters [de

  15. The value of N staging with the positive lymph node ratio, and splenectomy, for remnant gastric cancer: A multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Yong; Kong, Seong-Ho; Ahn, Hye Seong; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Park, Do Joong; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2017-12-01

    Surgery for remnant gastric cancer (RGC) frequently fails to obtain the >15 lymph nodes necessary for tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging. We aimed to evaluate the utility of the recently developed tumor-ratio-metastasis (TRM) staging system. We also examined the pattern of lymph node metastasis and the role of prophylactic splenectomy in RGC. Between May 2003 and December 2012, data from 170 patients who underwent surgery for RGC were retrospectively analyzed. RGC arising after previous benign disease (n = 46) was associated with retrieval of more lymph nodes (27.3 vs 10.0; P splenectomy and non-splenectomy groups at each stage (P = 0.751, 0.723, 0.151, and 0.706 for stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively). The analyses did not identify a survival benefit from prophylactic splenectomy or show an improvement in staging with the TRM system for RGC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Application of subserosal injection of carbon nanoparticles via infusion needle to label lymph nodes in laparoscopic radical gastrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyuan; Wang, Yanan; Xue, Fangqin; Yu, Jiang; Hu, Yanfeng; Liu, Hao; Yan, Jun; Li, Guoxin

    2014-05-01

    To explore the feasibility of subserosal injection of carbon nanoparticle via venous infusion needle to label lymph node and its application value in laparoscopic radical gastrectomy. Forty patients with gastric cancer were randomly divided into two groups (carbon nanoparticle group and control group). Subserosal injection of carbon nanoparticle around the tumor was performed via venous infusion needle laparoscopically at the beginning of surgery in carbon nanoparticles group, while the patients routinely underwent laparoscopic radical gastrectomy in control group. Results of harvested lymph nodes were compared between the two groups. The perioperative complications and the side effect of carbon nanoparticle were also evaluated. The average number of harvested lymph node in carbon nanoparticle group (31.7±7.6) was significantly higher than that in control group (19.8±6.1, Pinjection of carbon nanoparticle via venous infusion needle to label lymph nodes during laparoscopic radical gastrectomy is safe and feasible. It can increase the number of harvested lymph node, especially the small node.

  17. Current opinion on PET for gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederichs, C.G.; Schirrmeister, H.; Staib, L.

    2000-01-01

    The benefit of FDG-PET for restaging of colorectal carcinoma and for the differentiation of indeterminate hepatic lesions is well-documented. Accuracies of FDG-PET for recurrence, lymph node status and the detection of distant metastases are higher compared with computed tomography, for example. For other epithelial gastrointestinal tumors similar results have also been demonstrated in smaller trials or case presentations. The differentiation of recurrent rectal carcinoma from scar and PET for endocrine tumors are described elsewhere (Der Nuklearmediziner PET II, in preparation). Almost no data exist for rare tumors like anal carcinoma or tumors of the small intestines. For hepatocellular carcinoma, FDG-PET has a high positive predictive value, and the intensity of the uptake correlates well with grading. However, FDG-PET is not suitable for the exclusion of hepatocellular carcinoma due to insufficient sensitivity. The differentiation of benign and malignant pancreatic masses works well for selected patients. FDG-PET for lymph node staging is at least as accurate as conventional staging, and for the detection of distant metastases FDG-PET is superior compared with conventional staging. Few data exist on therapy control of gastrointestinal tumors. (orig.) [de

  18. Surgical results of lung cancer with sarcoid reaction in regional lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimaru, Yoshito; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Okami, Jiro; Oda, Kazuyuki; Takami, Koji; Kodama, Ken; Tsukamoto, Yoshitane

    2007-01-01

    There have been few reports of sarcoid reaction in the regional lymph nodes associated with lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical results of lung cancer with sarcoid reaction. Of 1733 lung cancer patients undergoing surgical treatment in our institute from 1990 to 2004, we reviewed 22 patients (1.3%) with sarcoid reaction in the regional lymph nodes of lung cancer. On pre-operative computed tomography (CT), mediastinal lymph node swelling was detected in 19 patients (86%) as clinical N3 disease (c-N3) in six or as c-N2 in 13, while three patients were classified as c-N0. To these 19 patients, lymph node status was histologically checked by mediastinoscopy in four patients, sternotomy approach in two and open mini-thoracotomy in 13. Because the sampling-biopsy nodes showed no tumor metastasis, radical surgery was promptly performed. However, four patients (18%) were finally judged to have pathological lymph node positive disease. Five patients were in pathological stage (p-stage) IA, nine in p-stage IB, five in p-stage IIB, two in p-stage IIIA, and one in stage IIIB. The overall 3-, and 5-year survival rates of these patients were 85.2 and 77.7%, respectively, with no significant difference compared to those of the remaining patients without sarcoid reaction. Because lung cancer patients with sarcoid reaction in the regional lymph nodes frequently show mediastinal lymph node swelling on CT, radical resection should be performed after confirming the node status by appropriate sampling biopsy. It seems that surgical results of lung cancers with sarcoid reaction in the regional nodes are not prognostically different from those without sarcoid reaction. (author)

  19. Lymph node metastasis in the biliary tract carcinoma: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Ah Ra; Kim, Kie Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Chin, Soo Yil

    1994-01-01

    The primary biliary carcinoma is usually unresectable at presentation, because of early lymphatic spread. To determine the incidence and the spread pattern of lymph node metastases according to the location of the primary tumor, we analyzed the CT scans of the patients with primary biliary adenocarcinoma. We reviewed the CT scans of 92 patients with pathologically proven primary biliary adenocacinima, including 45 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas, 22 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 18 gallbladder carcinomas, and 7 common bile duct carcinomas. Positive adenopathy was diagnosed when the node exceeded 10 mm in short axis. The overall incidence of nodal metastases was 59.8% (55/92); 66.7% in peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, 54.5% in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, 55.6% in gallbladder carcinoma, and 42.9% in common bile duct carcinoma. The most commonly involved nodal group was the lesser omentum, followed by the celiac, periaortic, and peripancreatic group. The phrenic node group was only involved in the cases with the peripheral or hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The primary biliary carcinoma has a high incidence of lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis, and shows different nodal spread pattern according to the location of the primary tumor. Involvement of the phrenic node was limited to the peripheral and hilar cholangiocarcinoma

  20. Lymph node metastasis in the biliary tract carcinoma: CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Ah Ra; Kim, Kie Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Chin, Soo Yil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    The primary biliary carcinoma is usually unresectable at presentation, because of early lymphatic spread. To determine the incidence and the spread pattern of lymph node metastases according to the location of the primary tumor, we analyzed the CT scans of the patients with primary biliary adenocarcinoma. We reviewed the CT scans of 92 patients with pathologically proven primary biliary adenocacinima, including 45 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas, 22 hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 18 gallbladder carcinomas, and 7 common bile duct carcinomas. Positive adenopathy was diagnosed when the node exceeded 10 mm in short axis. The overall incidence of nodal metastases was 59.8% (55/92); 66.7% in peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, 54.5% in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, 55.6% in gallbladder carcinoma, and 42.9% in common bile duct carcinoma. The most commonly involved nodal group was the lesser omentum, followed by the celiac, periaortic, and peripancreatic group. The phrenic node group was only involved in the cases with the peripheral or hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The primary biliary carcinoma has a high incidence of lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis, and shows different nodal spread pattern according to the location of the primary tumor. Involvement of the phrenic node was limited to the peripheral and hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  1. The usefulness of MRI and PET imaging for the detection of parametrial involvement and lymph node metastasis in patients with cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won; Park, Young-Je; Huh, Seung-Jae

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) for the detection of parametrial involvement and lymph node metastasis in patients with cervical cancer. Thirty-six patients with cervical cancer were retrospectively enrolled. MRI and PET scans were performed for all patients within a week before radical surgery. The criterion for malignancy on MRI was >1 cm short axis diameter of the suspected lymph node. On PET, only fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake was significantly higher than the background and, if this FDG uptake showed on at least two consecutive axial slices, then the lesion was considered as a malignancy. We compared the extent of tumor on the surgical findings with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging, MRI and PET scans. The accuracy of FIGO and MRI staging was 67 and 84.4%, respectively. The accuracy for detecting pelvic lymph node metastasis was better for PET than for MRI (78 versus 67%, respectively). All FDG uptake lymph nodes were confirmed as metastatic lymph nodes by pathological evaluation; this included five lymph nodes <1 cm in diameter. MRI provides an improved evaluation of local tumor extension, but PET is more useful for the evaluation of pelvic lymph nodes than MRI; however, PET still misses microscopic disease. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the usefulness of PET/computed tomography (CT) for the accuracy of the disease extension and the cost-effectiveness of MRI, PET or PET/CT in patients with cervical cancer. (author)

  2. The relationship between lymph node metastasis and some clinicopathologic variables in mucinous and non mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawhar T. Omer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Involvement of lymph nodes is an important prognostic factor in most cancers, including colorectal cancer in which lymph node status is the strongest pathologic predictor of patient outcome. This study aimed to find any relationship between lymph node metastasis and associated clinicopathologic variables in colorectal carcinoma. Methods: In this retrospective study, 136 cases of colorectal cancer were reviewed from Rizgary Teaching Hospital and some private labs in Erbil, Kurdistan region, Iraq during the period between August 2010 and December 2015. All cases were surgically treated with total colectomy or hemi colectomy. Results: A total of 136 cases of colorectal cancer were included in this study; 53% presented with one or more lymph node metastasis, 47% were between 40 and 60 years of age and 68% were male. There was no statistically significant relationship between lymph node status and any of the studied clinicopathologic variables. Conclusion: In colorectal adenocarcinoma, there was no statistically significant correlation between lymph node involvement and any of the studied clinicopathologic variables including tumor size, anatomic location, differentiation and histologic type, depth of invasion or patient gender and age.

  3. Treatment of cervical lymph node metastasis from an unknown primary tumor, with a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planken, H.J.M. van der; Tiwari, R.M.; Karim, A.B.M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Background: The results of treatment at the Free University Hospital of 44 patients with cervical lymph node metastasis of an unknown primary tumor were reviewed in order to establish an optimal treatment policy and to look for prognostic parameters. These results were compared with results of other treatment policies known from the literature. Patients and Method: Thirty-three out of the 44 patients received a treatment with curative intent; 22 cases received a unilateral neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy, 7 were irradiated after an excisional biopsy and 4 received radical radiotherapy alone. Results: For the whole group 5- and 10-year overall survival was 50% and 44%, respectively, and for the group treated with curative intent 68% and 56%, respectively. Disease-free survival at 5 and 10 years after treatment for the whole group was 48% and 32%, respectively, and for the group treated with curative intent 63% and 37%, respectively. Conclusions: Multivariate analysis showed only treatment with intent and histology as significant independent prognostic factors for the whole group. For the patients treated with curative intent no significant influences of variables were found. (orig.) [de

  4. The Prognostic Significance of Metastasis to Lymph Nodes in Aortopulmonary Zone (Stations 5 and 6) in Completely Resected Left Upper Lobe Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Necati; Sayar, Adnan; Metin, Muzaffer; Büyükkale, Songül; Kök, Abdulaziz; Solak, Okan; Yurt, Sibel; Gürses, Atilla

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the prognostic effect of lymph nodes metastasis in aortopulmonary (AP) zone in resected non-small cell lung cancer of the left upper lobe (LUL). Between 1998 and 2010, 181 patients with LUL carcinoma underwent complete resection and were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into four groups according to N status: N0 (n = 68, 37.6%), N1 (n = 64, 35.3%), N2(5,6+) (only metastasized to stations 5 and/or 6, n = 36, 19.9%), and N2(7+) (only metastasized to stations 7, n = 13, 7.2%). N1 were divided according to single and multiple (N1(single) n = 49, N1(multiple) n = 15) or peripheral and hilar (N1(peripheral) n = 39, N1(hilar) n = 25). Overall 5-year survival rate was 55.1%. Five-year survivals were 76.1% for N0, 54.3% for N1, and 20.7% for N2. N1(peripheral) had a better survival than N1(hilar) (60.3 vs. 29.4%, p = 0.09). Five-year survival of N1(single) was 60.1%, whereas it was 36.6% for N1(multiple) (p = 0.02). Five-year survival rate was 24.6% for N2(5,6+). Skip metastasis for lymph nodes in AP zone (n = 13) was a factor of better prognosis as compared to nonskip metastasis (n = 23) (29.9 vs. 19.2%). There was no statistically significant difference between the N2(5,6+) and N1(hilar) (p = 0.772), although N1(peripheral) had a significantly better survival than N2(5,6+) (p = 0.02). AP zone metastases alone had a significantly worse survival than N1(single) (p = 0.008), whereas there was no statistically significant difference between the N1(multiple) and N2(5,6+) (p = 0.248). N2(7+) was not expected to survive 3 years after operation. They had a significantly worse prognosis than N2(5,6+) (p = 0.02). LUL tumors with metastasis in the AP zone lymph nodes, especially skip metastasis, were associated with a more favorable prognosis than other mediastinal lymph nodes. However, the therapy of choice for lung cancer with N2(5,6+) has not been clarified yet. Georg Thieme

  5. Lymph Node Metastases and Prognosis in Left Upper Division Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers: The Impact of Interlobar Lymph Node Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hiroaki; Sakao, Yukinori; Mun, Mingyon; Uehara, Hirofumi; Nakao, Masayuki; Matsuura, Yousuke; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Sakakura, Noriaki; Motoi, Noriko; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Ken; Okumura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Background Left upper division segmentectomy is one of the major pulmonary procedures; however, it is sometimes difficult to completely dissect interlobar lymph nodes. We attempted to clarify the prognostic importance of hilar and mediastinal nodes, especially of interlobar lymph nodes, in patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) located in the left upper division. Methods We retrospectively studied patients with primary left upper lobe NSCLC undergoing surgical pulmonary resection (at least lobectomy) with radical lymphadenectomy. The representative evaluation of therapeutic value from the lymph node dissection was determined using Sasako’s method. This analysis was calculated by multiplying the frequency of metastasis to the station and the 5-year survival rate of the patients with metastasis to the station. Results We enrolled 417 patients (237 men, 180 women). Tumors were located in the lingular lobe and at the upper division of left upper lobe in 69 and 348 patients, respectively. The pathological nodal statuses were pN0 in 263 patients, pN1 in 70 patients, and pN2 in 84 patients. Lymph nodes #11 and #7 were significantly correlated with differences in node involvement in patients with left upper lobe NSCLC. Among those with left upper division NSCLC, the 5-year overall survival in pN1 was 31.5% for #10, 39.3% for #11, and 50.4% for #12U. The involvement of node #11 was 1.89-fold higher in the anterior segment than that in the apicoposterior segment. The therapeutic index of estimated benefit from lymph node dissection for #11 was 3.38, #4L was 1.93, and the aortopulmonary window was 4.86 in primary left upper division NSCLC. Conclusions Interlobar node involvement is not rare in left upper division NSCLC, occurring in >20% cases. Furthermore, dissection of interlobar nodes was found to be beneficial in patients with left upper division NSCLC. PMID:26247881

  6. The Addition of SPECT/CT Lymphoscintigraphy to Breast Cancer Radiation Planning Spares Lymph Nodes Critical for Arm Drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheville, Andrea L., E-mail: Cheville.andrea@mayo.edu [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Brinkmann, Debra H.; Ward, Shelly B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Durski, Jolanta [Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Laack, Nadia N.; Yan, Elizabeth; Schomberg, Paula J.; Garces, Yolanda I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Suman, Vera J. [Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Background: This prospective cohort study was designed to determine whether the amount of radiation delivered to the nonpathological lymph nodes (LNs) that drain the arm can be significantly reduced by integrating single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scans into radiation treatment planning. Methods: SPECT-CT scans were acquired for the 28 patients with stage I or II breast cancer and fused with the routinely obtained radiation oncology planning CT scans. Arm-draining LNs were contoured with 0.5-cm margins automatically using a threshold of 50% maximum intensity. Two treatment plans were generated: 1 per routine clinical practice (standard; STD) and the second (modified; MOD) with treatment fields modified to minimize dose to the arm-draining LNs visible on SPECT/CT images without interfering with the dosage delivered to target tissues. Participants were treated per the MOD plans. Arm volumes were measured prior to radiation and thereafter at least three subsequent 6-month intervals. Results: Sixty-eight level I-III arm-draining LNs were identified, 57% of which were inside the STD plan fields but could be blocked in the MOD plan fields. Sixty-five percent of arm-draining LNs in the STD versus 16% in the MOD plans received a mean of ≥10 Gy, and 26% in the STD versus 4% in the MOD plans received a mean of ≥40 Gy. Mean LN radiation exposure was 23.6 Gy (standard deviation 18.2) with the STD and 7.7 Gy (standard deviation 11.3) with the MOD plans (P<.001). No participant developed lymphedema. Conclusions: The integration of SPECT/CT scans into breast cancer radiation treatment planning reduces unnecessary arm-draining LN radiation exposure and may lessen the risk of lymphedema.

  7. The addition of SPECT/CT lymphoscintigraphy to breast cancer radiation planning spares lymph nodes critical for arm drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheville, Andrea L; Brinkmann, Debra H; Ward, Shelly B; Durski, Jolanta; Laack, Nadia N; Yan, Elizabeth; Schomberg, Paula J; Garces, Yolanda I; Suman, Vera J; Petersen, Ivy A

    2013-03-15

    This prospective cohort study was designed to determine whether the amount of radiation delivered to the nonpathological lymph nodes (LNs) that drain the arm can be significantly reduced by integrating single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scans into radiation treatment planning. SPECT-CT scans were acquired for the 28 patients with stage I or II breast cancer and fused with the routinely obtained radiation oncology planning CT scans. Arm-draining LNs were contoured with 0.5-cm margins automatically using a threshold of 50% maximum intensity. Two treatment plans were generated: 1 per routine clinical practice (standard; STD) and the second (modified; MOD) with treatment fields modified to minimize dose to the arm-draining LNs visible on SPECT/CT images without interfering with the dosage delivered to target tissues. Participants were treated per the MOD plans. Arm volumes were measured prior to radiation and thereafter at least three subsequent 6-month intervals. Sixty-eight level I-III arm-draining LNs were identified, 57% of which were inside the STD plan fields but could be blocked in the MOD plan fields. Sixty-five percent of arm-draining LNs in the STD versus 16% in the MOD plans received a mean of ≥10 Gy, and 26% in the STD versus 4% in the MOD plans received a mean of ≥40 Gy. Mean LN radiation exposure was 23.6 Gy (standard deviation 18.2) with the STD and 7.7 Gy (standard deviation 11.3) with the MOD plans (P<.001). No participant developed lymphedema. The integration of SPECT/CT scans into breast cancer radiation treatment planning reduces unnecessary arm-draining LN radiation exposure and may lessen the risk of lymphedema. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical value and indication for the dissection of lymph nodes posterior to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ding-Cun; Xu, Xiao-Cheng; Ding, Jin-Wang; Zhang, Yu; Peng, You; Pan, Gang; Zhang, Wo

    2017-10-03

    Lymph nodes posterior to the right recurrent laryngeal nerve (LN-prRLN) are common sites of nodal recurrence after the resection of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the indication for LN-prRLN dissection remains debatable. We therefore studied the relationships between LN-prRLN metastasis and the clinicopathological characteristics in 306 patients with right or bilateral PTC who underwent LN-prRLN dissection. We found that LN-prRLN metastasis occurred in 16.67% of PTC and was associated with a number of the clinicopathological features. The receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the areas under the ROC curves for the prediction of LN-prRLN metastasis by the risk factors age right tumor size > 0.85 cm, lymph node (right cervical central VI-1) number > 1.5, metastatic lymph node (right cervical central VI-1) size > 0.45 cm, and lymph node number in the right cervical lateral compartment > 0.5 were 0.601, 0.815, 0.813, 0.725, and 0.743, respectively. In conclusion, the risk factors for LN-prRLN metastasis in patients suffering right thyroid lobe or bilateral PTC include age ≤ 35.5 years, right tumor size ≥ 0.85 cm, capsular invasion, metastatic lymph node (right cervical central VI-1) number ≥ 2, metastatic lymph node (right cervical central VI-1) size ≥ 0.45 cm, and metastatic lymph node number in the right cervical lateral compartment ≥ 1. In patients whose risk factors can be identified pre-operatively or intraoperatively, the dissection of LN-pr-RLN should be considered during right cervical central compartment dissection.

  9. Differential expression of hMLH1 in sporadic human colorectal cancer tumors and distant metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolai Balle; Heiberg Engel, Peter Johan; Rasmussen, Merete

    2009-01-01

    in expression between the tumor transition zone and the invasive front. Expression of hMSH2, hMLH1, and hPMS2 was screened immunohistochemically in 92 stage IV tumors and derived liver metastases. In cases with loss of mismatch repair protein expression, lymph node metastases were also examined....... Clinicopathological parameters and Ki-67 staining indexes were evaluated and compared. Four tumors displayed a complete loss of hMLH1/hPMS2 expression at the transition zone; however, three of these expressed both proteins at the invasive front and in liver and lymph node metastases. A further four were predominantly...... hMLH1/hPMS2 negative at the transition zone, but with distinct subclones of hMLH1/hPMS2-expressing cells at the transition zone. All of these tumors expressed hMLH1/hPMS2 at the invasive front and in liver metastases, with three also expressing hMLH/hPMS2 in lymph node metastases. No significant...

  10. Mammographic density and histopathologic characteristics of screen-detected tumors in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshina, Nataliia; Ursin, Giske; Hoff, Solveig Roth; Akslen, Lars A; Roman, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Hofvind, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    High mammographic density might mask breast tumors, resulting in delayed diagnosis or missed cancers. To investigate the association between mammographic density and histopathologic tumor characteristics (histologic type, size, grade, and lymph node status) among women screened in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Information about 1760 screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 7366 invasive breast cancers diagnosed among women aged 50–69 years, 1996–2010, was analyzed. The screening mammograms were classified subjectively according to the amount of fibroglandular tissue into fatty, medium dense, and dense by breast radiologists. Chi-square test was used to compare the distribution of tumor characteristics by mammographic density. Odds ratio (OR) of tumor characteristics by density was estimated by means of logistic regression, adjusting for screening mode (screen-film and full-field digital mammography), and age. Mean and median tumor size of invasive breast cancers was 13.8 and 12 mm, respectively, for women with fatty breasts, and 16.2 and 14 mm for those with dense breasts. Lymph node positive tumors were identified among 20.6% of women with fatty breasts compared with 27.2% of those with dense breasts (P < 0.001). The proportion of DCIS was significantly lower for women with fatty (15.8%) compared with dense breasts (22.0%). Women with dense breasts had an increased risk of large (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18–1.73) and lymph node positive tumors (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05–1.51) compared with women with fatty and medium dense breasts. High mammographic density was positively associated with tumor size and lymph node positive tumors

  11. Interleukin-24 is correlated with differentiation and lymph node numbers in rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngmin; Roh, Mee-Sook; Hong, Young-Seoub; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Hur, Won-Joo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the significance of interleukin (IL)-24 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in lymph-node-positive rectal cancer. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2005, 90 rectal adenocarcinoma patients with lymph node involvement were enrolled. All patients received radical surgery and postoperative pelvic chemoradiotherapy of 50.4-54.0 Gy. Chemotherapy of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin or levamisole was given intravenously during the first and last week of radiotherapy, and then monthly for about 6 mo. Expression of IL-24 and VEGF was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of surgical specimens, and their relations with patient characteristics and survival were analyzed. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 73 mo (range: 52-122 mo). RESULTS: IL-24 expression was found in 81 out of 90 patients; 31 showed weak intensity and 50 showed strong intensity. VEGF expression was found in 64 out of 90 patients. Negative and weak intensities of IL-24 expression were classified as negative expression for analysis. IL-24 expression was significantly reduced in poorly differentiated tumors in comparison with well or moderately differentiated tumors (P = 0.004), N2b to earlier N stages (P = 0.016), and stage IIIc to stage IIIa or IIIb (P = 0.028). The number of involved lymph nodes was also significantly reduced in IL-24-positive patients in comparison with IL-24-negative ones.There was no correlation between VEGF expression and patient characteristics. Expression of IL-24 and VEGF was not correlated with survival, but N stage and stages were significantly correlated with survival. CONCLUSION: IL-24 expression was significantly correlated with histological differentiation, and inversely correlated with the degree of lymph node involvement in stage III rectal cancer. PMID:21448421

  12. Association between US features of primary tumor and axillary lymph node metastasis in patients with clinical T1-T2N0 breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Min Sun; Shin, Sung Ui; Song, Sung Eun; Ryu, Han Suk; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2018-04-01

    Background Most patients with early-stage breast cancer have clinically negative lymph nodes (LNs). However, 15-20% of patients have axillary nodal metastasis based on the sentinel LN biopsy. Purpose To assess whether ultrasound (US) features of a primary tumor are associated with axillary LN metastasis in patients with clinical T1-T2N0 breast cancer. Material and Methods This retrospective study included 138 consecutive patients (median age = 51 years; age range = 27-78 years) who underwent breast surgery with axillary LN evaluation for clinically node-negative T1-T2 breast cancer. Three radiologists blinded to the axillary surgery results independently reviewed the US images. Tumor distance from the skin and distance from the nipple were determined based on the US report. Association between US features of a breast tumor and axillary LN metastasis was assessed using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for clinicopathologic variables. Results Of the 138 patients, 28 (20.3%) had nodal metastasis. At univariate analysis, tumor distance from the skin ( P = 0.019), tumor size on US ( P = 0.023), calcifications ( P = 0.036), architectural distortion ( P = 0.001), and lymphovascular invasion ( P = 0.049) were associated with axillary LN metastasis. At multivariate analysis, shorter skin-to-tumor distance (odds ratio [OR] = 4.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-16.19; P = 0.040) and masses with associated architectural distortion (OR = 3.80; 95% CI = 1.57-9.19; P = 0.003) were independent predictors of axillary LN metastasis. Conclusion US features of breast cancer can be promising factors associated with axillary LN metastasis in patients with clinically node-negative early-stage breast cancer.

  13. Micrometastatic cancer cells in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and blood: Clinical significance and biologic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Stanley P L; Tseng, William W

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis may be regarded as a progressive process from its inception in the primary tumor microenvironment to distant sites by way of the lymphovascular system. Although this type of tumor dissemination often occurs in an orderly fashion via the sentinel lymph node (SLN), acting as a possible gateway to the regional lymph nodes, bone marrow, and peripheral blood and ultimately to distant metastatic sites, this is not a general rule as tumor cells may enter the blood and spread to distant sites, bypassing the SLN. Methods of detecting micrometastatic cancer cells in the SLN, bone marrow, and peripheral blood of patients have been established. Patients with cancer cells in their SLN, bone marrow, or peripheral blood have worse clinical outcomes than patients with no evidence of spread to these compartments. The presence of these cells also has important biologic implications for disease progression and the clinician's understanding of the process of cancer metastasis. Further characterization of these micrometastatic cancer cells at each stage and site of metastasis is needed to design novel selective therapies for a more "personalized" treatment. © 2014 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  14. Technological evolution of axillary lymph nodes: Radiological visualisation in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglitis, J.; Krumins, V.; Stengrevics, A.; Berzins, A.; Vevere, I.; Storozenko, G.

    2004-01-01

    hands of a skilled professional. The next stage saw the use of radioactive tracers, dynamic scintigraphy and objective documentation. The method is sensitive and specific. Nowadays, combination of both methods, radioactive as well as colour contrast is the method of choice for SN detection. In the clinic of LOC, the SN mapping procedure was introduced in the middle of 2000. Since then procedure has been performed in 142-breast cancer patients (age between 29-70 years) with tumor about 2cm and non-palpable axillary lymph nodes. 40-60MBq of Tc-99m nanocolloid in 0.5-1ml solution was injected around the tumor one day before surgery. Scintigraphy was performed 2-3 hours later, using Millennium VG gamma camera. Gamma probe (Navigator GPS) was used for detection of the SN. Dissected lymph nodes were sent for frozen section examination. In 131 of the 142 breast cancer patients, a total of 236 SN, 212 nodes (114 patients) in axilla, 24 SN (17 patients) in the parasternal area, were found. 230 SN were radio-positive (sensitivity 97%) In 4 cases histologically proven metastatic axillary nodes were not detected by this method (3% false negative). We conclude that this method of SN mapping is highly sensitive and prevents unnecessary lymphadenectomy in a number of patients. It is our first experience of the SN mapping in surgical department. (author)

  15. Variabilities of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-, Computed Tomography-, and Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography-Based Tumor and Lymph Node Delineations for Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Kishor; Saraiya, Siddharth; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Jan, Nuzhat; Schuster, Jessica; Schutzer, Matthew; Fahrner, Lester; Groves, Robert; Olsen, Kathryn M; Ford, John C; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2017-09-01

    To investigate interobserver delineation variability for gross tumor volumes of primary lung tumors and associated pathologic lymph nodes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to compare the results with computed tomography (CT) alone- and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT-based delineations. Seven physicians delineated the tumor volumes of 10 patients for the following scenarios: (1) CT only, (2) PET-CT fusion images registered to CT ("clinical standard"), and (3) postcontrast T1-weighted MRI registered with diffusion-weighted MRI. To compute interobserver variability, the median surface was generated from all observers' contours and used as the reference surface. A physician labeled the interface types (tumor to lung, atelectasis (collapsed lung), hilum, mediastinum, or chest wall) on the median surface. Contoured volumes and bidirectional local distances between individual observers' contours and the reference contour were analyzed. Computed tomography- and MRI-based tumor volumes normalized relative to PET-CT-based volumes were 1.62 ± 0.76 (mean ± standard deviation) and 1.38 ± 0.44, respectively. Volume differences between the imaging modalities were not significant. Between observers, the mean normalized volumes per patient averaged over all patients varied significantly by a factor of 1.6 (MRI) and 2.0 (CT and PET-CT) (P=4.10 × 10 -5 to 3.82 × 10 -9 ). The tumor-atelectasis interface had a significantly higher variability than other interfaces for all modalities combined (P=.0006). The interfaces with the smallest uncertainties were tumor-lung (on CT) and tumor-mediastinum (on PET-CT and MRI). Although MRI-based contouring showed overall larger variability than PET-CT, contouring variability depended on the interface type and was not significantly different between modalities, despite the limited observer experience with MRI. Multimodality imaging and combining different imaging characteristics might be the best approach to define

  16. External radiotherapy for bone and lymph-node metastases from thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niunoya, Koichiro; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Obara, Takao; Ito, Yukio; Fujimoto, Yoshihide

    2002-01-01

    The therapeutic effects of external beam radiation to bone or lymph-node metastatic lesions of thyroid cancer were evaluated in 11 patients. These 11 cases included four male and seven female patients ranging in age from 44 to 69 years (mean age 54 years), were treated by 4MV-Xray irradiation. Thyroid surgery had been performed in all patients. The thyroid tumors were classified histologically as papillary carcinoma in 3 patients and follicular carcinoma in 8. Following surgical total thyroidectomy, thyroid ablation and/or therapy with I-131 was performed in 8 patients with follicular carcinoma. Using a 4MV-Xray external beam, a total dose of 54 to 68 Gy (mean dose 62 Gy) was delivered to 28 metastatic lesions including 2 lymph nodes and 26 bones, although an 82-Gy total dose was used for one lymph node. All patients underwent follow-up for more than 8 years. Ten of the 11 patients died, 6 of thyroid cancer and 4 of other diseases. Two of them suffered anaplastic transformation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and died. The survival term was 0.2 to 8.6 years (mean 4.9 years) after initial external radiotherapy. Local irradiation with a curative dose was able to control most of the lesions in the 11 patients (29 lesions with the exception of 2 cases showing anaplastic transformation). In some patients, pain relief was obtained although tumor size measured by CT did not reveal marked regression. External beam radiation therapy with a curative dose was thought to be beneficial for patients with metastatic lesions of thyroid cancer as slow-growing and having relatively long survival period of patients. (author)

  17. [Coexistence of two germinal cell tumors, seminomatous and nonseminomatous, with an uncommon clinical presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano Sarrió, Pilar; Chirivella, Isabel; Navarro Fos, Samuel

    2008-06-01

    The existence of non seminomatous mixed germ cell tumors of the testis is a frequent event in urologic oncology. Nevertheless, the presence of both components, seminomatous and non seminomatous, in a germ cell tumor is unusual. We present a case of pure classic seminoma of the testis with a lymph node metastasis of pure embryonal carcinoma, with confirmatory immuohistochemical study and clinical outcome of the patient. A 34-year-old man presented with 3 cm supraclavicular tumor. CT scan also revealed multiple metastases in lymph nodes, liver, kidney and left adrenal gland. Tumor markers were negative and the biopsy performed discovered a lymph node metastasis of embryonal carcinoma of probable testicular origin. Ultrasound revealed a 6 mm hypoechoic nodule in the right testis. Orchyectomy was performed and pathologic analysis demonstrated a tumor, 1 cm of diameter, histopathologically compatible with classical seminoma with pagetoid extension to rete testis. Albuginea and spermatic cord did not present neoplastic involvement. Currently the patient is being treated with chemotherapy. The interest of the case is to remark an unusual aggressive clinical presentation as well as to perform a bibliographic review with emphasis in the theories regarding heterogeneous differentiation and spontaneous regression of germ cell tumors of the testis.

  18. Paired-agent fluorescent imaging to detect micrometastases in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy: experiment design and protocol development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyue; Xu, Xiaochun; Basheer, Yusairah; He, Yusheng; Sattar, Husain A.; Brankov, Jovan G.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2018-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node status is a critical prognostic factor in breast cancer treatment and is essential to guide future adjuvant treatment. The estimation that 20-60% of micrometastases are missed by conventional pathology has created a demand for the development of more accurate approaches. Here, a paired-agent imaging approach is presented that employs a control imaging agent to allow rapid, quantitative mapping of microscopic populations of tumor cells in lymph nodes to guide pathology sectioning. To test the feasibility of this approach to identify micrometastases, healthy pig lymph nodes were stained with targeted and control imaging agent solution to evaluate the potential for the agents to diffuse into and out of intact nodes. Aby-029, an anti-EGFR affibody was labeled with IRDye 800CW (LICOR) as targeted agent and IRDye 700DX was hydrolyzed as a control agent. Lymph nodes were stained and rinsed by directly injecting the agents into the lymph nodes after immobilization in agarose gel. Subsequently, lymph nodes were frozen-sectioned and imaged under an 80-um resolution fluorescence imaging system (Pearl, LICOR) to confirm equivalence of spatial distribution of both agents in the entire node. The binding potentials were acquired by a pixel-by-pixel calculation and was found to be 0.02 +/- 0.06 along the lymph node in the absence of binding. The results demonstrate this approach's potential to enhance the sensitivity of lymph node pathology by detecting fewer than 1000 cell in a whole human lymph node.

  19. Prediction of breast cancer recurrence using lymph node metabolic and volumetric parameters from {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in operable triple-negative breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-il [CHA University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joong [Veterans Health Service Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paeng, Jin Chul; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June-Key [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Triple-negative breast cancer has a poor prognosis. We evaluated several metabolic and volumetric parameters from preoperative {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer and compared them with current clinicopathologic parameters. A total of 228 patients with triple-negative breast cancer (mean age 47.0 ± 10.8 years, all women) who had undergone preoperative PET/CT were included. The PET/CT metabolic parameters evaluated included maximum, peak, and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax, SUVpeak, and SUVmean, respectively). The volumetric parameters evaluated included metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Metabolic and volumetric parameters were evaluated separately for tumor (T) and lymph nodes (N). The prognostic value of these parameters was compared with that of clinicopathologic parameters. All lymph node metabolic and volumetric parameters showed significant differences between patients with and without recurrence. However, tumor metabolic and volumetric parameters showed no significant differences. In a univariate survival analysis, all lymph node metabolic and volumetric parameters (SUVmax-N, SUVpeak-N, SUVmean-N, MTV-N, and TLG-N; all P < 0.001), T stage (P = 0.010), N stage (P < 0.001), and TNM stage (P < 0.001) were significant parameters. In a multivariate survival analysis, SUVmax-N (P = 0.005), MTV (P = 0.008), and TLG (P = 0.006) with TNM stage (all P < 0.001) were significant parameters. Lymph node metabolic and volumetric parameters were significant predictors of recurrence in patients with triple-negative breast cancer after surgery. Lymph node metabolic and volumetric parameters were useful parameters for evaluating prognosis in patients with triple-negative breast cancer by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, rather than tumor parameters. (orig.)

  20. Metastatic lymph-node clearance from head and neck-epidermoid carcinomas following radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Kurosaki, Yoshihisa; Fuji, Hiroshi; Myo-Min; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Hara, Akira; Kusakari, Jun [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Otolaryngology; Ogata, Takesaburo [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine]|[Ibaraki Prefectural Univ. of Health Sciences (Japan). Dept. of Pathology

    1999-08-01

    Although tumor clearance is a common criterion in assessing the impact of radiotherapy (RT), it is not always reliable. Patterns of tumor clearance were determined using 91 metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) from 51 patients with head and neck tumors treated by definitive RT (61-80 Gy) or preoperative RT (43-65 Gy). Clearance rate (CR) was estimated as a daily volume decrement expressed as a ratio to the pre-RT LN volume. CR was greater for the so-called radioresponsive nasopharyngeal subgroups and more poorly differentiated than those of oral cavity and well-differentiated, respectively. Histologically, LNs that were removed following RT consisted mainly of fibrous tissues, necrotic tissues, and few cancer cells. There was no difference in CR between the cancer-cell-positive group (n=21) and the cancer-cell-negative groups (n=31). Although the CR may reflect inherent radiosensitivity of tumor cells, tumor persistence predicts the amount of oncologically inactive materials rather than that of remaining cancer cells. (orig.)

  1. Metastatic lymph-node clearance from head and neck-epidermoid carcinomas following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Kurosaki, Yoshihisa; Fuji, Hiroshi; Myo-Min; Itai, Yuji; Hara, Akira; Kusakari, Jun; Ogata, Takesaburo; Ibaraki Prefectural Univ. of Health Sciences

    1999-01-01

    Although tumor clearance is a common criterion in assessing the impact of radiotherapy (RT), it is not always reliable. Patterns of tumor clearance were determined using 91 metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) from 51 patients with head and neck tumors treated by definitive RT (61-80 Gy) or preoperative RT (43-65 Gy). Clearance rate (CR) was estimated as a daily volume decrement expressed as a ratio to the pre-RT LN volume. CR was greater for the so-called radioresponsive nasopharyngeal subgroups and more poorly differentiated than those of oral cavity and well-differentiated, respectively. Histologically, LNs that were removed following RT consisted mainly of fibrous tissues, necrotic tissues, and few cancer cells. There was no difference in CR between the cancer-cell-positive group (n=21) and the cancer-cell-negative groups (n=31). Although the CR may reflect inherent radiosensitivity of tumor cells, tumor persistence predicts the amount of oncologically inactive materials rather than that of remaining cancer cells. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of microvascular densityby CD34 in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and its relationship with cervical lymph node metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshghyar N.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Angiogenesis plays a central role for development and progression of malignant tumors.It is considered as an important factor for predicting of malignant tumor's behavior such as metastasis to lymph nodes and other clinicopathologic factors. However , it is still a controversial factor especially in oral squamous cell carcinoma.The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between angiogenesis and clinicopathologic parameters such as presence of metastatic cervical lymph node in the tongue squamous cell carcinoma. "nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were selected from the archive of cancer institute of Tehran University of Medical Science. Sections were prepared from paraffin blocks and immunohistochemically stained with antibody against CD34. Stained vessels were counted in 4 fields ,the most vascular areas at low magnification, in each areas of intratumoral ,peritumoral and nontumoral adjacent tissue in two groups with metastatic lymphnodes (N+ and without (N-. The average counts from the four most vascular areas were recorded as the mean microvascular density (MVD. Data were analyzed by 3wayANOVA and Independent T- test with p<0.05 as the level of significance. "nResults: High mean MVD-CD34 was significantly correlate with positive cervical lymph node metastasis in intra tumoral and peritumoral areas but there was no significant correlation between mean MVD-CD34 and age, gender, and differentiation of tumor. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, CD34 can help us to determine the presence of cervical lymph node metastasis and may also determine the outcome of a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.

  3. A Longitudinal Comparison of Arm Morbidity in Stage I-II Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy, Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Followed by Completion Lymph Node Dissection, or Axillary Lymph Node Dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Jan J.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Rietman, Johan S.; de Vries, Jakob; Baas, Peter C.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    Background. Long-term shoulder and arm function following sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) may surpass that following complete axillary lymph node dissection (CLND) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We objectively examined the morbidity and compared outcomes after SLNB, SLNB + CLND, and

  4. A longitudinal comparison of arm morbidity in stage I-II breast cancer patients treated with sentinel lymph node biopsy, sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by completion lymph node dissection, or axillary lymph node dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Jan J.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E.; Rietman, Johan Swanik; de Vries, Jakob; Baas, Peter C.; Geertzen, Jan H.B.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Long-term shoulder and arm function following sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) may surpass that following complete axillary lymph node dissection (CLND) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). We objectively examined the morbidity and compared outcomes after SLNB, SLNB + CLND, and

  5. Lymph flux rates from various lymph sacs in the cane toad Rhinella marina: an experimental evaluation of the roles of compliance, skeletal muscles and the lungs in the movement of lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hedrick, Michael S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2010-09-15

    A new method for quantitatively determining lymph flux from various lymphatic sacs of an anuran, the cane toad, was developed. This method used the dye dilution principle of C(i)V(i)=C(f)V(f) following injection of Evans Blue into specific lymph sacs and measuring its appearance in the venous circulation. The apparent lymph volume was 57 ml kg(-1). The greatest rate of lymph return (0.5-0.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and best linear fit of Evans Blue appearance in the circulation with time followed injections into the subvertebral lymph sac, which has direct connections to both the anterior and posterior pairs of lymphatic hearts. Rate of lymph flux from the pair of posterior lymph hearts was three times greater than the anterior pair. Rates of lymph flux were only influenced by injection volume in the crural lymph sacs, implicating lymph sac compliance as the source of the pressure for lymph movement from these sacs. Femoral lymph sac fluxes were decreased by 60% following ablation of the tendons of the sphincter ani cloacalis, abdominal crenators and piriformis. This supports a role for these muscles in generating the pressure for vertical lymph movement. Femoral lymph sac fluxes were also decreased by 70% by the insertion of a coil in the subvertebral lymph sac, preventing normal compression and expansion of this sac by the lungs. This supports a role for lung ventilation in generating the pressure for vertical movement of lymph. Contrary to previous hypotheses, fluxes from the brachial sac were not influenced by insertion of the coil into the subvertebral sac. A haemorrhage equivalent to 50% of the blood volume did not change lymph flux rates from the femoral lymph sacs. These data provide the first experimental evidence that actual lymph fluxes in the cane toad Rhinella marina depend on lymph sac compliance, contraction of specific skeletal muscles and lung ventilation to move lymph laterally and vertically to the dorsally located lymphatic hearts.

  6. Biological behavior of oral and perioral mast cell tumors in dogs: 44 cases (1996-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Lorin A; Garrett, Laura D; de Lorimier, Louis-Philippe; Charney, Sarah C; Borst, Luke B; Fan, Timothy M

    2010-10-15

    To describe clinical outcome of dogs with mast cell tumors (MCTs) arising from the oral mucosa, oral mucocutaneous junction, or perioral region of the muzzle and evaluate the potential role of the chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) in the biological behavior of these tumors. Retrospective case series. 44 dogs with MCTs of the oral mucosa (n=14), oral mucocutaneous junction (19), or perioral region of the muzzle (11). Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, regional metastasis, treatments, cause of death, and survival time. Twenty of the 44 cases had stored histologic samples available for immunohistochemical staining for CCR7 For all dogs, median survival time was 52 months. Twenty-six (59%) dogs had regional lymph node metastasis on admission. Median survival time for dogs with lymph node metastasis was 14 months, whereas median survival time was not reached for dogs without lymph node metastasis. Intensity of staining for CCR7 was not significantly associated with the presence of regional lymph node metastasis or survival time. Results suggested that in dogs with MCTs arising from the oral mucosa, oral mucocutaneous junction, or perioral region of the muzzle, the presence of regional lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis was a negative prognostic factor. However, prolonged survival times could be achieved with treatment. In addition, CCR7 expression in the primary tumor was not significantly associated with the presence of regional lymph node metastasis or survival time.

  7. [Application of lymph node labeling with carbon nanoparticles by preoperative endoscopic subserosal injection in laparoscopic radical gastrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Q; Wang, Y; Wang, J J; Hu, C G; Fang, Y J; Fan, X X; Liu, T; Tong, Q

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To evaluate the application value of carbon lymph node tracing technique by preoperative endoscopic subserosal injection in laparoscopic radical gastrectomy. Methods: From June 2013 to February 2015, seventy eight patients with gastric cancer were enrolled and randomly divided into trial group and control group. Subserosal injection of carbon nanoparticles around the tumor was performed by preoperative endoscopic subserosal injection one day before the operation in trial group, while the patients routinely underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy in control group. Results of harvested lymph nodes, postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Carbon nanoparticle-related side effect was also evaluated. Results: The average number of harvested lymph node in trial group was significantly higher than that in control group (35.5±8.5 vs 29.5±6.5, P 0.05), and no carbon nanoparticle-related side effect was observed. Conclusion: Given a higher harvested lymph node number and a similar rate of complications, preoperative endoscopic subserosal injection of carbon nanoparticles was safe and feasible.

  8. Predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in poorly differentiated early gastric cancer and their impact on the surgical strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Lu, Ping; Lu, Yang; Liu, Cai-Gang; Xu, Hui-Mian; Wang, Shu-Bao; Chen, Jun-Qing

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To identify the predictive clinicopathological factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in poorly differentiated early gastric cancer (EGC) and to further expand the possibility of using endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for the treatment of poorly differentiated EGC. METHODS: Data were collected from 85 poorly-differentiated EGC patients who were surgically treated. Association between the clinicopathological factors and the presence of LNM was retrospectively analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that tumor size (OR = 5.814, 95% CI = 1.050 - 32.172, P = 0.044), depth of invasion (OR = 10.763, 95% CI = 1.259 - 92.026, P = 0.030) and lymphatic vessel involvement (OR = 61.697, 95% CI = 2.144 - 175.485, P = 0.007) were the significant and independent risk factors for LNM. The LNM rate was 5.4%, 42.9% and 50%, respectively, in poorly differentiated EGC patients with one, two and three of the risk factors, respectively. No LNM was found in 25 patients without the three risk factors. Forty-four lymph nodes were found to have metastasis, 29 (65.9%) and 15 (34.1%) of the lymph nodes involved were within N1 and beyond N1, respectively, in 12 patients with LNM. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic mucosal resection alone may be sufficient to treat poorly differentiated intramucosal EGC (≤ 2.0 cm in diameter) with no histologically-confirmed lymphatic vessel involvement. When lymphatic vessels are involved, lymph node dissection beyond limited (D1) dissection or D1+ lymph node dissection should be performed depending on the tumor location. PMID:18636670

  9. CXCR4 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: induction by nitric oxide and correlation with lymph node metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Hironao; Kodama, Rieko; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Takamura, Yuuki; Miyauchi, Akira; Sanke, Tokio; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    Metastasis to regional lymph nodes is a common step in the progression of cancer. Recent evidence suggests that tumor production of CXCR4 promotes lymph node metastasis. Nitric oxide (NO) may also increase metastatic ability in human cancers. Nitrite/nitrate levels and functional CXCR4 expression were assessed in K1 and B-CPAP papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells after induction and/or inhibition of NO synthesis. CXCR4 expression was also analyzed in primary human PTC. The relationship between nitrotyrosine levels, which are a biomarker for peroxynitrate formation from NO in vivo, CXCR4 expression, and lymph node status was also analyzed. Production of nitrite/nitrate and functional CXCR4 expression in both cell lines was increased by treatment with the NO donor DETA NONOate. The NOS inhibitor L-NAME eliminated this increase. Positive CXCR4 immunostaining was observed in 60.7% (34/56) of PTCs. CXCR4 expression was significantly correlated with nitrotyrosine levels and lymph node metastasis in human PTC. Our data indicate that NO stimulates CXCR4 expression in vitro. Formation of the NO biomarker nitrotyrosine was also correlated with CXCR4 expression and lymph node metastasis in human PTC. NO may induce lymph node metastasis via CXCR4 induction in papillary thyroid carcinoma

  10. Applicability of preoperative nuclear morphometry to evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Karino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously reported the utility of preoperative nuclear morphometry for evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastases in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma, however, is known to differ depending on the anatomical site of the primary tumor, such as the tongue, gingiva, mouth floor, and buccal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of this morphometric technique to evaluating the risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: A digital image system was used to measure the mean nuclear area, mean nuclear perimeter, nuclear circular rate, ratio of nuclear length to width (aspect ratio, and nuclear area coefficient of variation (NACV. Relationships between these parameters and nodal status were evaluated by t-test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma (52 of the tongue, 25 of the gingiva, 4 of the buccal mucosa, and 7 of the mouth floor were included: 46 with positive node classification and 42 with negative node classification. Nuclear area and perimeter were significantly larger in node-positive cases than in node-negative cases; however, there were no significant differences in circular rate, aspect ratio, or NACV. We derived two risk models based on the results of multivariate analysis: Model 1, which identified age and mean nuclear area and Model 2, which identified age and mean nuclear perimeter. It should be noted that primary tumor site was not associated the pN-positive status. There were no significant differences in pathological nodal status by aspect ratio, NACV, or primary tumor site. CONCLUSION: Our method of preoperative nuclear morphometry may contribute valuable information to evaluations of the risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-08-30

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T(-1)), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device.

  12. Detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with nodal prostate cancer relapse using (18)F/(11)C-choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilg, Cordula A; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Drendel, Vanessa; Vach, Werner; Wieser, Gesche; Krauss, Tobias; Jandausch, Anett; Hölz, Stefanie; Henne, Karl; Reske, Sven N; Grosu, Anca-L; Weber, Wolfgang A; Rischke, H Christian

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography for nodal relapse of prostate cancer according to topographical site and tumor infiltration size in lymph nodes. A total of 72 patients with nodal prostate cancer relapse after primary therapy underwent pelvic and/or retroperitoneal salvage lymph node dissection. Salvage was done after whole body positron emission tomography/computerized tomography with (11)C-choline or (18)F-fluoroethylcholine showed positron emission tomography positive lymph nodes but no other detectable metastasis. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated in 160 dissected lymph node regions (pelvic left/right and retroperitoneal), 498 subregions (common, external and internal iliac, obturator, presacral, aortic bifurcation, aortal, vena caval and interaortocaval) and 2,122 lymph nodes. Lymph node metastasis was present in 32% of resected lymph nodes (681 of 2,122), resulting in 238 positive subregions and 111 positive regions. Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography was positive for 110 regions and 209 subregions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 91.9%, 83.7%, 92.7%, 82.0% and 89.4% (region based), 80.7%, 93.5%, 91.9%, 84.1% and 87.3% (subregion based), and 57.0%, 98.4%, 94.5%, 82.6% and 84.9% (lesion based), respectively. Of 393 positive lymph node metastases detected by this method 278 (70.7%) were in lymph nodes with a less than 10 mm short axis diameter. Imaging sensitivity was 13.3%, 57.4% and 82.8% for a tumor infiltration depth of 2 or greater to less than 3 mm, 5 or greater to less than 6 mm and 10 or greater to less than 11 mm, respectively. Lymph node metastasis site and the radiotracer ((11)C-choline/(18)F-fluoroethylcholine) had no substantial impact on diagnostic accuracy. Choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography detects affected lymph node regions (pelvic left/right and retroperitoneal) in patients with

  13. Influence of quartz exposure on lung cancer types in cases of lymph node-only silicosis and lung silicosis in German uranium miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Stefan; Taeger, Dirk; Weitmann, Kerstin; Brüning, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2018-05-04

    Inhaled crystalline quartz is a carcinogen. Analyses show differences in the distribution of lung cancer types depending on the status of silicosis. Using 2,524 lung tumor cases from the WISMUT autopsy repository database, silicosis was differentiated into cases without silicosis in lung parenchyma and its lymph nodes, with lymph node-only silicosis, or with lung silicosis including lymph node silicosis. The proportions of adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small-cell lung carcinoma mortality for increasing quartz exposures were estimated in a multinomial logistic regression model. The relative proportions of the lung cancer subtypes in lymph node-only silicosis were more similar to lung silicosis than without any silicosis. The results support the hypothesis that quartz-related carcinogenesis in case of lymph node-only silicosis is more similar to that in lung silicosis than in without silicosis.

  14. Irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with an adaptive algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, A. B.; Chen, J.; Nguyen, T. B.; Gottschalk, A. G.; Roach, M. R. III; Pouliot, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The simultaneous treatment of pelvic lymph nodes and the prostate in radiotherapy for prostate cancer is complicated by the independent motion of these two target volumes. In this work, the authors study a method to adapt intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans so as to compensate for this motion by adaptively morphing the multileaf collimator apertures and adjusting the segment weights. Methods: The study used CT images, tumor volumes, and normal tissue contours from patients treated in our institution. An IMRT treatment plan was then created using direct aperture optimization to deliver 45 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes and 50 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The prostate target volume was then shifted in either the anterior-posterior direction or in the superior-inferior direction. The treatment plan was adapted by adjusting the aperture shapes with or without re-optimizing the segment weighting. The dose to the target volumes was then determined for the adapted plan. Results: Without compensation for prostate motion, 1 cm shifts of the prostate resulted in an average decrease of 14% in D-95%. If the isocenter is simply shifted to match the prostate motion, the prostate receives the correct dose but the pelvic lymph nodes are underdosed by 14% ± 6%. The use of adaptive morphing (with or without segment weight optimization) reduces the average change in D-95% to less than 5% for both the pelvic lymph nodes and the prostate. Conclusions: Adaptive morphing with and without segment weight optimization can be used to compensate for the independent motion of the prostate and lymph nodes when combined with daily imaging or other methods to track the prostate motion. This method allows the delivery of the correct dose to both the prostate and lymph nodes with only small changes to the dose delivered to the target volumes.

  15. Artificial neural networks as classification and diagnostic tools for lymph node-negative breast cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eswari J, Satya; Chandrakar, Neha [National Institute of Technology Raipur, Raipur (India)

    2016-04-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used to develop a technique to classify lymph node negative breast cancer that is prone to distant metastases based on gene expression signatures. The neural network used is a multilayered feed forward network that employs back propagation algorithm. Once trained with DNA microarraybased gene expression profiles of genes that were predictive of distant metastasis recurrence of lymph node negative breast cancer, the ANNs became capable of correctly classifying all samples and recognizing the genes most appropriate to the classification. To test the ability of the trained ANN models in recognizing lymph node negative breast cancer, we analyzed additional idle samples that were not used beforehand for the training procedure and obtained the correctly classified result in the validation set. For more substantial result, bootstrapping of training and testing dataset was performed as external validation. This study illustrates the potential application of ANN for breast tumor diagnosis and the identification of candidate targets in patients for therapy.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide in posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates kidney injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.M.; Li, S.G.; Niu, C.Y. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Hebei Zhangjiakou (China)

    2015-04-28

    Posthemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) is a key factor in multiple organ injury following hemorrhagic shock. We investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in PHSML drainage in alleviating acute kidney injury (AKI) by administering D,L-propargylglycine (PPG) and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) to 12 specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats with PHSML drainage. A hemorrhagic shock model was established in 4 experimental groups: shock, shock+drainage, shock+drainage+PPG (45 mg/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage), and shock+drainage+NaHS (28 µmol/kg, 0.5 h prehemorrhage). Fluid resuscitation was performed after 1 h of hypotension, and PHMSL was drained in the last three groups for 3 h after resuscitation. Renal function and histomorphology were assessed along with levels of H{sub 2}S, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in renal tissue. Hemorrhagic shock induced AKI with increased urea and creatinine levels in plasma and higher H{sub 2}S, CSE, TLR4, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels in renal tissue. PHSML drainage significantly reduced urea, creatinine, H{sub 2}S, CSE, and TNF-α but not TLR4, IL-10, or IL-12. PPG decreased creatinine, H{sub 2}S, IL-10, and TNF-α levels, but this effect was reversed by NaHS administration. In conclusion, PHSML drainage alleviated AKI following hemorrhagic shock by preventing increases in H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}S-mediated inflammation.

  17. MUC2 Expression Is Correlated with Tumor Differentiation and Inhibits Tumor Invasion in Gastric Carcinomas: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Soo Pyo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: While MUC2 is expressed in intestinal metaplasia and malignant lesions, the clinicopathological significance of MUC2 expression is not fully elucidated in gastric carcinoma (GC. Methods: The present study investigated the correlation between MUC2 expression and clinicopathological parameters in 167 human GCs. In addition, to confirm the clinicopathological significance of MUC2 expression, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in 1,832 GCs. Results: MUC2 expression was found in 58 of 167 GCs (34.7%. MUC2-expressing GC showed lower primary tumor (T, regional lymph node (N, and tumor node metastasis (TNM stages compared with GCs without MUC2 expression (p=.001, p=.001, and p=.011, respectively. However, MUC2 expression was not correlated with Lauren’s classification and tumor differentiation. In meta-analysis, MUC2 expression was significantly correlated with differentiation and lower tumor stage (odds ratio [OR], 1.303; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.020 to 1.664; p = .034 and OR, 1.352; 95% CI, 1.055 to 1.734; p = .017, respectively but not with Lauren’s classification, pN stage, or pTNM stage. Conclusions: MUC2 expression was correlated with a lower tumor depth and lower lymph node metastasis in our study; the meta-analysis showed a correlation of MUC2 expression with tumor differentiation and lower tumor depth.

  18. A study on the cellular stromal reaction and immunologic response of regional lymph nodes in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyokoh, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to find a correlation between background factors and prognosis, cellular stromal reaction and PHA blastformation in the regional lymph nodes in gastric cancer were investigated in a total of 234 cases with advanced gastric cancer consisting of 104 patients who had undergone preoperative radiaiton therapy and 130 non-irradiated patients. The following results were obtained: 1) Interstitial matrix and fibrotic components around the gastric cancer cells proliferate. In addition, cellular components consisting mainly of lymphocytes appear in varied degrees. 2) In both non-irradiated and irradiated groups, there was no remarkable difference in the cellular stromal reaction among any major cancer sites. 3) In non-irradiated patients, no correlation existed between tumor diameters and cellular stromal reaction, while, in the irradiated cases, there were increases in the cellular stromal reaction where the tumor size is 5 cm or less. 4) In both non-irradiated and irradiated groups, cellular stromal reaction was more remarkable in highly differentiated carcinoma. 5) There were decreases in the cellular stromal reaction in ps(+) cases, of both non-irradiated and irradiated groups. 6) The cellular stromal reaction was remarkable in non-irradiated and irradiated patients who were found to be histologically negative in lymph node metastasis. 7) With the advance in staging, the cellular stromal reaction decreased in both irradiated and non-irradiated patients. 8) In both non-irradiated and irradiated groups, the cellular stromal reaction decreased in the patients who had shown vascular invasion. 9) PHA blastformation of the lymphocytes in lymph nodes of non-metastatic cases was more remarkable than that of metastatic cases, retaining high degrees of immunity. 10) In the non-metastatic patients in the lymph nodes outside the irradiated area, the lymphocytes in the lymph nodes demonstrated high degrees of PHA blastformation. (J.P.N.)

  19. High Intra- and Inter-Tumoral Heterogeneity of RAS Mutations in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Jeantet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of patients with wild type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer are non-responders to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies (anti-EGFR mAbs, possibly due to undetected tumoral subclones harboring RAS mutations. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of RAS mutations in different areas of the primary tumor, metastatic lymph nodes and distant metastasis. A retrospective cohort of 18 patients with a colorectal cancer (CRC was included in the study. Multiregion analysis was performed in 60 spatially separated tumor areas according to the pathological tumor node metastasis (pTNM staging and KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations were tested using pyrosequencing. In primary tumors, intra-tumoral heterogeneity for RAS mutation was found in 33% of cases. Inter-tumoral heterogeneity for RAS mutation between primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes or distant metastasis was found in 36% of cases. Moreover, 28% of tumors had multiple RAS mutated subclones in the same tumor. A high proportion of CRCs presented intra- and/or inter-tumoral heterogeneity, which has relevant clinical implications for anti-EGFR mAbs prescription. These results suggest the need for multiple RAS testing in different parts of the same tumor and/or more sensitive techniques.

  20. SERPINE2 is a possible candidate promotor for lymph node metastasis in testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahara, Akira; Nakayama, Masashi; Oka, Daizo; Tsuchiya, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Atsunari; Mukai, Masatoshi; Nakai, Yasutomo; Takayama, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Kazuo; Jo, Yoshimasa; Nagai, Atsushi; Okuyama, Akihiko; Nonomura, Norio

    2010-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) commonly metastasize to the lymph node or lung. However, it remains unclear which genes are associated with TGCT metastasis. The aim of this study was to identify gene(s) that promoted human TGCT metastasis. We intraperitoneally administered conditioned medium (CM) from JKT-1, a cell-line from a human testicular seminoma, or JKT-HM, a JKT-1 cell sub-line with high metastatic potential, into mice with JKT-1 xenografts. Administration of CM from JKT-HM significantly promoted lymph node metastasis. A cDNA microarray analysis showed that JKT-HM cells highly expressed the Serpine peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2), which encodes a secreted protein. Administration of CM from SERPINE2-silenced JKT-HM cells inhibited lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model, compared with administration of CM from JKT-HM cells. There was no significant difference in xenograft volume. Moreover, administration of CM from SERPINE2-over-expressing JKT-1 was likely to promote lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model. There was no difference in the in vitro proliferation or migration of JKT-1 cells cultured with CM from JKT-HM cells, compared to that with CM from JKT-1. There was no promotion of proliferation or lymphangiogenesis in the xenografts, as measured by Ki-67 and LYVE-1 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Although we could not clarify how SERPINE2 promoted lymph node metastasis, it may be a promoter in the development of lymph node metastasis in the human seminoma cells in a mouse xenograft model.

  1. SERPINE2 is a possible candidate promotor for lymph node metastasis in testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahara, Akira; Nakayama, Masashi; Oka, Daizo; Tsuchiya, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Atsunari; Mukai, Masatoshi; Nakai, Yasutomo; Takayama, Hitoshi [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishimura, Kazuo [Department of Urology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, 1-3-3 Nakamachi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka, 537-8511 (Japan); Jo, Yoshimasa; Nagai, Atsushi [Department of Urology, Kawasaki Medical University, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki-City, Okayama 701-0192 (Japan); Okuyama, Akihiko [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nonomura, Norio, E-mail: nono@uro.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-01-22

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) commonly metastasize to the lymph node or lung. However, it remains unclear which genes are associated with TGCT metastasis. The aim of this study was to identify gene(s) that promoted human TGCT metastasis. We intraperitoneally administered conditioned medium (CM) from JKT-1, a cell-line from a human testicular seminoma, or JKT-HM, a JKT-1 cell sub-line with high metastatic potential, into mice with JKT-1 xenografts. Administration of CM from JKT-HM significantly promoted lymph node metastasis. A cDNA microarray analysis showed that JKT-HM cells highly expressed the Serpine peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2), which encodes a secreted protein. Administration of CM from SERPINE2-silenced JKT-HM cells inhibited lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model, compared with administration of CM from JKT-HM cells. There was no significant difference in xenograft volume. Moreover, administration of CM from SERPINE2-over-expressing JKT-1 was likely to promote lymph node metastasis in the xenograft model. There was no difference in the in vitro proliferation or migration of JKT-1 cells cultured with CM from JKT-HM cells, compared to that with CM from JKT-1. There was no promotion of proliferation or lymphangiogenesis in the xenografts, as measured by Ki-67 and LYVE-1 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Although we could not clarify how SERPINE2 promoted lymph node metastasis, it may be a promoter in the development of lymph node metastasis in the human seminoma cells in a mouse xenograft model.

  2. Handy-type gamma probe-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer under ambulatory local anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Ikuya; Nagata, Hiroaki; Takaki, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Prior to surgery for clinically node-negative breast cancer, we diagnosed metastases on the basis of permanent sections and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) using the combined radio isotope (RI)/blue dye method with a hand-type gamma probe under ambulatory local anesthesia. SNB was performed for 99 patients with 103 lesions, including 4 patients with bilateral breast cancer. We achieved an identification rate of 100%, in which the identification pattern included detection by RI and blue-dye in 65 patients (63.1%), detection by RI alone in 37 patients (35.9%), and blue-dye alone in one patient (1.0%). Sentinel lymph node metastasis was macrometastasis in 21 patients (20.4%), micrometastasis in 8 patients (7.8%), and isolated tumor cells in patients (4.9%). In the 80 patients who did not undergo post-SNB axillary lymph node dissection, the median observation period was 33 months and there were no recurrences in the axillary lymph nodes observed. Although the present procedure requires two surgeries, it is a useful method that enables metastasis detection and highly accurate SNB. (author)

  3. Penile Cancer: Contemporary Lymph Node Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jonathan S; Perera, Marlon; Manning, Todd; Bozin, Mike; Cabarkapa, Sonja; Chen, Emily; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    In penile cancer, the optimal diagnostics and management of metastatic lymph nodes are not clear. Advances in minimally invasive staging, including dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy, have widened the diagnostic repertoire of the urologist. We aimed to provide an objective update of the recent trends in the management of penile squamous cell carcinoma, and inguinal and pelvic lymph node metastases. We systematically reviewed several medical databases, including the Web of Science® (with MEDLINE®), Embase® and Cochrane databases, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The search terms used were penile cancer, lymph node, sentinel node, minimally invasive, surgery and outcomes, alone and in combination. Articles pertaining to the management of lymph nodes in penile cancer were reviewed, including original research, reviews and clinical guidelines published between 1980 and 2016. Accurate and minimally invasive lymph node staging is of the utmost importance in the surgical management of penile squamous cell carcinoma. In patients with clinically node negative disease, a growing body of evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsies. Dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy exposes the patient to minimal risk, and results in superior sensitivity and specificity profiles compared to alternate nodal staging techniques. In the presence of locoregional disease, improvements in inguinal or pelvic lymphadenectomy have reduced morbidity and improved oncologic outcomes. A multimodal approach of chemotherapy and surgery has demonstrated a survival benefit for patients with advanced disease. Recent developments in lymph node management have occurred in penile cancer, such as minimally invasive lymph node diagnosis and intervention strategies. These advances have been met with a degree of controversy in the contemporary literature. Current data suggest that dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy provides excellent

  4. Therapeutic T cells induce tumor-directed chemotaxis of innate immune cells through tumor-specific secretion of chemokines and stimulation of B16BL6 melanoma to secrete chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Bernard A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms by which tumor-specific T cells induce regression of established metastases are not fully characterized. In using the poorly immunogenic B16BL6-D5 (D5 melanoma model we reported that T cell-mediated tumor regression can occur independently of perforin, IFN-γ or the combination of both. Characterization of regressing pulmonary metastases identified macrophages as a major component of the cells infiltrating the tumor after adoptive transfer of effector T cells. This led us to hypothesize that macrophages played a central role in tumor regression following T-cell transfer. Here, we sought to determine the factors responsible for the infiltration of macrophages at the tumor site. Methods These studies used the poorly immunogenic D5 melanoma model. Tumor-specific effector T cells, generated from tumor vaccine-draining lymph nodes (TVDLN, were used for adoptive immunotherapy and in vitro analysis of chemokine expression. Cellular infiltrates into pulmonary metastases were determined by immunohistochemistry. Chemokine expression by the D5 melanoma following co-culture with T cells, IFN-γ or TNF-α was determined by RT-PCR and ELISA. Functional activity of chemokines was confirmed using a macrophage migration assay. T cell activation of macrophages to release nitric oxide (NO was determined using GRIES reagent. Results We observed that tumor-specific T cells with a type 1 cytokine profile also expressed message for and secreted RANTES, MIP-1α and MIP-1β following stimulation with specific tumor. Unexpectedly, D5 melanoma cells cultured with IFN-γ or TNF-α, two type 1 cytokines expressed by therapeutic T cells, secreted Keratinocyte Chemoattractant (KC, MCP-1, IP-10 and RANTES and expressed mRNA for MIG. The chemokines released by T cells and cytokine-stimulated tumor cells were functional and induced migration of the DJ2PM macrophage cell line. Additionally, tumor-specific stimulation of wt or perforin

  5. A Rare Complication of Abdominal Drain: Fallopian Tube Herniation Through the Drain Site

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Uygur; Seval Erdinç; Hülya Dede; Ümit Taşdemir; Oktay Kaymak; Nuri Danışman

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic drainage of the peritoneal cavity after obstetrical and gynecological surgery is widely practiced. The idea of “when in doubt, drain” is accepted and applied clinically by many surgeons. However, surgically placed drains are not without risk. The present case describes herniation of fallopian tube during the removal of a surgical drain placed after a cesarean section.

  6. Lymph node metastasis in maxillary sinus carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Q.-T.; Fu, Karen K.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Terris, David J.; Fee, Willard E.; Goffinet, Don R.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and prognostic significance of lymph node metastasis in maxillary sinus carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 97 patients treated for maxillary sinus carcinoma with radiotherapy at Stanford University and at the University of California, San Francisco between 1959 and 1996. Fifty-eight patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 4 had adenocarcinoma (ADE), 16 had undifferentiated carcinoma (UC), and 19 had adenoid cystic carcinoma (AC). Eight patients had T2, 36 had T3, and 53 had T4 tumors according to the 1997 AJCC staging system. Eleven patients had nodal involvement at diagnosis: 9 with SCC, 1 with UC, and 1 with AC. The most common sites of nodal involvement were ipsilateral level 1 and 2 lymph nodes. Thirty-six patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy alone, and 61 received a combination of surgical and radiation treatment. Thirty-six patients had neck irradiation, 25 of whom received elective neck irradiation (ENI) for N0 necks. The median follow-up for alive patients was 78 months. Results: The median survival for all patients was 22 months (range: 2.4-356 months). The 5- and 10-year actuarial survivals were 34% and 31%, respectively. Ten patients relapsed in the neck, with a 5-year actuarial risk of nodal relapse of 12%. The 5-year risk of neck relapse was 14% for SCC, 25% for ADE, and 7% for both UC and ACC. The overall risk of nodal involvement at either diagnosis or on follow-up was 28% for SCC, 25% for ADE, 12% for UC, and 10% for AC. All patients with nodal involvement had T3-4, and none had T2 tumors. ENI effectively prevented nodal relapse in patients with SCC and N0 neck; the 5-year actuarial risk of nodal relapse was 20% for patients without ENI and 0% for those with elective neck therapy. There was no correlation between neck relapse and primary tumor control or tumor extension into areas containing a rich lymphatic network. The most common sites of nodal relapse were in the

  7. Two photon microscopy intravital study of DC-mediated anti-tumor response of NK cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Michele; Gorletta, Tatiana; Sironi, Laura; Zanoni, Ivan; Salvetti, Cristina; Collini, Maddalena; Granucci, Francesca; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in the activation of Natural Killer cells (NKs) that are responsible for anti-tumor innate immune responses. The focus of this report is on the role of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) activated-DCs in inducing NK cell-mediated anti-tumor responses. Mice transplanted sub-cute (s.c.) with AK7 cells, a mesothelioma cell line sensitive to NK cell responses, are injected with fluorescent NK cells and DC activation is then induced by s.c. injection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using 4 dimensional tracking we follow the kinetic behavior of NK cells at the Draining Lymph-Node (DLN). As control, noninflammatory conditions are also evaluated. Our data suggest that NK cells are recruited to the DLN where they can interact with activated-DCs with a peculiar kinetic behavior: short lived interactions interleaved by rarer longer ones. We also found that the changes in the NK dynamic behavior in inflammatory conditions clearly affect relevant motility parameters such as the instantaneous and average velocity and the effective diffusion coefficient. This observation suggests that NK cells and activated-DCs might efficiently interact in the DLN, where cells could be activated. Therefore the interaction between activated-DCs and NK cells in DLN is not only a reality but it may be also crucial for the start of the immune response of the NKs.

  8. Judgement of the effectivity of radiotherapy on the basis of volume change by lymph node metastasis of head and neck tumors; Volumenveraenderung der Halslymphknotenmetastasen bei Kopf-Hals-Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liszka, G. [Staatliches Onkologisches Inst., Budapest (Hungary). Roentgendiagnostische Abt.; Thalacker, U. [Staatliches Onkologisches Inst., Budapest (Hungary). Roentgendiagnostische Abt.; Somogyi, A. [Imre-Haynal-Universitaet fuer Gesundheitswissenschaften, Budapest (Hungary). Strahlentherapeutischer Lehrstuhl; Nemeth, G. [Imre-Haynal-Universitaet fuer Gesundheitswissenschaften, Budapest (Hungary). Strahlentherapeutischer Lehrstuhl

    1997-08-01

    Aim: This work is engaged with the volume change of neck lymph node metastasis of malignant tumors in the head-neck region during radiotherapy. Patients and Method: In 54 patients with head and neck tumors, the volume of neck lymph nodes before and after radiation was measured. The volumetry was done with CT planimetry. The total dose was 66 Gy (2 Gy/d) telecobalt from 2 lateral opponated fields. The time of volume change could be defined with measuring of the half-time and the doubling-time by the help of Schwartz formula. Results: After 10 Gy the volume diminution was about 20% and half-time 24 to 26 days. Afterwards the time of volume diminution picked up speed and finally achieved 60 to 72%. Meanwhile the half-time decreased to the half value. The result was independent of the site of primary tumor, the patient`s sex and age. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Diese Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit der Volumenveraenderung von Halslymphknotenmetastasen maligner Tumoren im Kopf-Hals-Bereich waehrend einer strahlentherapeutischen Behandlung. Patienten und Methode: Bei 54 Patienten mit Kopf-Hals-Tumoren wurde das Volumen der Halslymphknotenmetastasen vor und nach Strahlenbehandlung (bei sieben Patienten auch nach 10 Gy) bestimmt. Der Primaertumor war in allen Faellen ein Plattenepithelkarzinom. Zur Bestimmung des Volumens der Lymphknotenmetastasen bietet sich als genauestes bildgebendes Verfahren die CT-Planimetrie an. Jeder Patient wurde mit Telekobalt ueber zwei opponierende laterale Felder bis zu einer Gesamtdosis von 66 Gy (taegliche Einzeldosis 2 Gy) bestrahlt. Die Dynamik der durch die Bestrahlung hervorgerufenen Volumenveraenderung wurde mit Hilfe der Halbwerts- bzw. Verdoppelungszeit nach der Formel von Schwartz berechnet. Ergebnisse: Nach 10 Gy betrug die Volumenverkleinerung etwa 20%, die Halbwertszeit 24 bis 26 Tage. Danach beschleunigte sich die Volumenverkleinerung und erreichte zuletzt 60 bis 72%. Die Halbwertszeit verringerte sich auf etwa die Haelfte. Das Ausmass

  9. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy and Isolated Tumor Cells in Invasive Lobular Versus Ductal Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, Wilfred; Roumen, Rudi M.; Siesling, Sabine; van der Heiden-van der Loo, Margriet; Lobbezoo, Dorien J.; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C.G.; Voogd, Adri C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in invasive breast cancer. The introduction of SLN biopsy with an extensive pathology examination, in addition to the introduction of the 2002 TNM classification, led to different axillary classification

  10. Lymph scintigraphy and pre- and intraoperative gamma probe measurements for localization of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in breast cancer; Lymphszintigraphie sowie prae- und intraoperative Sondenmessung zur Darstellung des Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) beim Mammakarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, W.; Czech, N.; Felde, U. zum; Kampen, W.U.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Ostertag, H. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Gynaekologie und Geburtshilfe; Klutmann, S.; Bohuslavizki, K.H. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Luettges, J.; Sprenger, A. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine und Pathologische Anatomie

    2000-05-01

    Aim of this study was to prove the clinical value of nuclear medicine procedures to detect the sentinel lymph node (SLN) for SLN biopsy. Methods: In 132 patients with breast cancer we performed lymph scintigraphy of the breast as well as both pre- and intraoperative gamma probe measurements correlating the results with the findings of histopathology. Results: SLN were detectable in 62 of 110 patients according to a sensitivity of 56% when scanning was performed only at 1-2 h p.i. while the sensitivity increased to 86% (19 of 22 pts.) if sequential images were acquired up to 2 h p.i. One or more SLN were identified by a handheld gamma probe transcutaneously prior to surgery in 96% (113 of 118 pts.) of the patients who showed up with no clinically suspected lymph node metastases. Intraoperatively, in additionally 2 patients the SLN could be found resulting in a sensitivity of 97% (115 of 118 pts.). In only 3 patients with clinically no tumor spread to axillary lymph nodes no SLN could be identified by the probe. Skip lesions, i.e. lymph node metastases in patients with tumorfree SLN, occurred in 2 cases: Due to SLN biopsy in these patients lymph node staging was false negative compared to conventional staging by means of axillary lymph node dissection. Conclusion: The results demonstrate a high preoperative detection rate of SLN in patients with breast cancer using lymph scintigraphy and gamma probe measurements. Thus, nuclear medicine is capable of providing the basic requirements for SLN biopsy in the daily routine. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit im Vorfeld einer geplanten Multicenterstudie zur Wertigkeit der Sentinel-Lymphknoten (SLN) Biopsie war, die Zuverlaessigkeit der SLN-Detektion mit nuklearmedizinischen Methoden im klinischen Routinebetrieb zu ueberpruefen. Methoden: Bei 132 Patientinnen mit stanzbioptisch gesichertem Mammakarzinom fuehrten wir eine Lymphszintigraphie der Brust sowie eine prae- und intraoperative Gammasondenmessung durch und

  11. Prognostic significance of classified extramural tumor deposits and extracapsular lymph node invasion in T3–4 colorectal cancer: a retrospective single-center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Tomoki; Semba, Shuho; Noda, Masafumi; Yoshimura, Mie; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Hamanaka, Michiko; Beppu, Naohito; Yano, Aya; Tsukamoto, Kiyoshi; Matsubara, Nagahide; Tomita, Naohiro

    2015-01-01

    Extramural tumor deposits (TDs) and extracapsular lymph node involvement (ECLNI) are considered to be poor prognostic factors in patients with T3–4, N0–2, M0 colorectal cancer (CRC). Although TDs are known to have multiple origins and pleomorphic features, the prognostic significances of the different type of TDs have not yet been established. We performed a retrospective review of 385 consecutive patients with T3–4, N0–2, M0 CRC who received curative resection at our institution between 2006 and 2012. We classified the TDs into two groups: invasive-type TD (iTD), which is characterized by the presence of lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, or undefined cancer cell clusters and nodular-type TD (nTD), which is characterized by a smooth or irregular-shaped tumor nodule other than an iTD. ECLNI was defined as invasion of cancer cells into capsular collagen tissues or adipose tissues beyond the capsular collagen. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the prognostic significance of iTD, ND, and ECLNI for relapse-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and sites of recurrence. In patients without lymph node (LN) metastasis, the incidences of iTD and nTD were both in the range of 2–3 %. Conversely, in patients with LN metastasis, the incidences of iTD, nTD, and ECLNI were 31, 22, and 34 %, respectively. iTD, nTD, and ECLNI were all significant independent adverse factors for RFS in rectal cancer, and were all associated with pT, pN, and LN ratio. iTD was a significant independent adverse prognostic factor for DSS in rectal cancer, metastasis to the liver in colorectal cancer, and distant LN metastasis in colon cancer. ECLNI was a significant independent prognostic factor for RFS in colon cancer. Classifying TDs and assessing ECLNI may help establish significant prognostic factors for patients with T3–4, N0–2, M0 CRC

  12. CT perfusion study of neck lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Liu Jun; Hua Rui; Qiao Hui; Gong Yi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT perfusion features of various lymph nodes in the neck. Methods: Dynamic perfusion CT scanning was performed in 83 neck lymph nodes proved by pathology, including tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes. The shapes, blood flow modes, and perfusion parameters of these lymph nodes were compared among 3 groups. Statistical analysis of L/T and CT perfusion parameters was performed by one-way ANOVA and LSD test. Results: The values of MTT of tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes were (28.13±5.08), (31.08±5.82), and (11.24±5.31) s, respectively. The MTT of metastatic lymph nodes was statistically lower than that of tuberculosis lymph nodes and lymphoma (P -1 · 100 g -1 , respectively. The values of BV were (24.68±2.84), (25.30±3.16), and (25.15± 8.81) ml·100 g -1 respectively. The values of TTP were (40.90±8.85), (40.67±6.45), and (40.98±6.62) s, respectively. There were no significant differences in L/T, BF, BV and TTP among tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes (P>0.05). Conclusion: CT perfusion, especially combination functional imaging with perfusion images may be helpful in judging the nature of neck lymph nodes. (authors)

  13. Clinical evaluation of esophageal lymph flow system based on the RI uptake of removed regional lymph nodes following lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Gen; Baba, Masamichi; Kuroshima, Kazunao; Natugoe, Shouji; Yoshinaka, Heiji; Aikou, Takashi; Kajisa, Takashi

    1986-01-01

    For surgical treatment of esophageal cancer, the importance of evaluating lymph node metastasis and the lymph flow of the esophagus can not be overemphasized. In order to investigate the lymph flow of the esophagus, we preoperatively performed lymphoscintigraphy by endoscopic local injection of 99m Tc Renium Colloid into the esophageal wall in 42 esophageal cancer cases and 4 gastric cancer cases. Postoperatively, the RI uptake of each dissected regional lymph nodes was examined by a Scintillation Counter. The findings were as follows. 1. From the upper third of the thoracic esophagus, the main lymph flow was ascending to the neck and upper mediastinum. 2. From the middle third, the lymph flow was ascending to the neck and upper mediastinum and descending into the abdomen. 3. From the lower third, the main lymph flow was descending to the abdomen. In some cases, the lymph flow to the tracheal bifurcation nodes or to the lymph nodes around the left renal vein was observed. 4. In 61 % of the esophageal cancer cases with a partial bilateral neck dissection, the lymph flow to the bilateral supraclavicular lymph nodes was predominant compared to the upper mediastinum nodes. (author)

  14. PROSTATE CANCER TOPOGRAPHY AND PATTERNS OF LYMPH NODE METASTASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yuji; Carlino, Lauren J.; Gopalan, Anuradha; Tickoo, Satish K.; Kaag, Matthew G.; Guillonneau, Bertrand; Eastham, James A.; Scher, Howard I.; Scardino, Peter T.; Reuter, Victor E.; Fine, Samson W.

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis is a well-recognized route of prostate cancer spread. However, the relationship between topography and pathologic features of primary prostatic cancers and patterns of pelvic LN metastasis has not been well studied. We reviewed original slides of radical prostatectomies and pelvic LN dissections from 125 patients with LN metastasis and recorded total # of LN excised / laterality of positive LN, as well as localization, staging parameters, lymphovascular invasion and tumor volume of primary tumors. LN Quantity and Distribution 14.6 (mean) and 13 (median) LN were resected. 76 (61%), 33 (26%) and 16 (13%) cases had 1, 2 and > 2 positive LN, while 58, 44 and 20 cases had LN metastasis on the right (R), left (L), and bilaterally. Pathologic Features 86% (108/125) and 37% (46/125) demonstrated extraprostatic extension and seminal vesicle invasion, while 64% showed lymphovascular invasion. Mean and median total tumor volume was 6.39 and 3.92 cc, with ≥ 50% and ≥ 90% Gleason patterns 4/5 in 105 (84%) and 73 (58%) cases, respectively. Correlation with Dominant Tumor Location Dominant lesions on RP: 50 R lobe, 44 L lobe, 31 bilateral. 15/50 (30%) R lobe and 18/44 (41%) L lobe dominant tumors had LN metastasis on the contralateral side. Only 4% (5/125) of cases were associated with anterior dominant tumors. 30–40% of LN metastases occur contralateral to the dominant tumor. LN metastasis is overwhelmingly associated with high grade, high stage and large volume disease. LN positivity is rarely associated with anterior dominant tumors. PMID:21107093

  15. Prognostic value of tumor burden measurement using the number of tumors in non-surgical patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Wroblewski, Kristen; Pu, Yonglin

    2012-01-01

    Background: No study to test the feasibility and prognostic value of the number of primary tumors, the number of positive lymph nodes, and the total number of tumors in the whole body as tumor burden measurements on FDG PET/CT imaging has been reported. Purpose: To determine whether the number of tumors seen in 18F-FDG PET scans can be a prognostic factor in non-surgical patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and Methods: One hundred and forty patients with histologically proven NSCLC and baseline 18F-FDG PET scan before therapy were identified in this retrospective analysis. The total number of tumors (TTn) in the whole body, the number of primary tumors (Tn), positive lymph nodes (Nn), and distant metastases (Mn), along with the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the tumors were measured. Inter-observer variability of the total number of tumors, counted by two radiologists, was assessed. Survival analyses were performed to determine the prognostic value of the number of tumors. Results: Concordance correlation coefficients for the TTn, Tn, Nn, and Mn were all greater than 0.85. TTn and Nn were strong prognostic factors of NSCLC patients' overall survival (OS). In univariate Cox regression models, gender, stage, TTn, Nn, and Mn were statistically significant factors (P = 0.016, 0.032, 4. Conclusion: Measuring the number of tumors on FDG PET imaging is easy to perform with minimal inter-observer variability. The total number of tumors and number of nodal metastases, as metabolic tumor burden measurements in 18F-FDG PET/CT, are prognostic markers independent of clinical stage, age, gender, and SUV measurement in non-surgical patients with NSCLC

  16. A Rare Complication of Abdominal Drain: Fallopian Tube Herniation Through the Drain Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Uygur

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic drainage of the peritoneal cavity after obstetrical and gynecological surgery is widely practiced. The idea of “when in doubt, drain” is accepted and applied clinically by many surgeons. However, surgically placed drains are not without risk. The present case describes herniation of fallopian tube during the removal of a surgical drain placed after a cesarean section.

  17. Tumor deposit is a poor prognostic indicator in patients who underwent simultaneous resection for synchronous colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Q

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Qi Lin,# Ye Wei,# Li Ren,# Yunshi Zhong,# Chunzhi Qin, Peng Zheng, Pingping Xu, Dexiang Zhu, Meiling Ji, Jianmin XuDepartment of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China#These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Tumor deposits are one of the important influencing factors among the different editions of Tumor, Node, Metastasis classification. Incidence and prognosis of tumor deposits in stage I, II, and III colorectal cancer patients has been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of tumor deposits in stage IV colorectal cancer patients who underwent simultaneous resection for synchronous colorectal liver metastases (SCRLM.Methods: Clinicopathological and outcome data of 146 consecutive SCRLM patients who underwent simultaneous R0 resection between July 2003 and July 2013 were collected from our prospectively established SCRLM database. The prognostic value of tumor deposits was evaluated by Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analysis.Results: Tumor deposits were detected in 41.8% (61/146 of these SCRLM patients. Tumor deposits were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and nerve invasion of the primary tumors (P=0.002, P=0.041; respectively. The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS of SCRLM patients with tumor deposits were significantly poorer than those with no tumor deposits (P=0.039, P=0.001; respectively. And with multivariate analysis, we found that positive tumor deposits were significantly associated with shorter DFS independent of lymph node status (P=0.002. Subgroup analysis found that of the 57 SCRLM patients with negative lymph node status, the OS and DFS of patients with positive tumor deposits were significantly shorter than those with negative tumor deposits (P=0.002 and P=0.031, respectively. Of the 89 patients with positive lymph node status, the OS of

  18. The use of combined radiation therapy and hormonal therapy in the management of lymph node-positive prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, Richard; Malkowicz, S Bruce; Machtay, Mitchell; Van Arsdalen, Keith; Barnes, Margaret M; Broderick, Gregory A; Wein, Alan J

    1997-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of tumor response and patterns of relapse following combined hormonal-radiation therapy of adenocarcinoma of the prostate and to measure the survival in a group of men with tumor metastatic to pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: 66 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate with pathologically confirmed pelvic lymph node involvement were treated with combined radiation therapy and hormonal therapy. An additional five patients declined hormonal therapy. The patients treated with combined therapy represented a group with locally advanced disease including 44 patients (67%) with T3 or T4 tumors and 51 patients (80%) had N2 or N3 lymph node metastases. The pelvic lymph nodes were treated to a dose of 45 Gy and the prostate was boosted to a dose of 65 to 71 Gy. Hormonal therapy began up to 2 months before radiation and continued indefinitely. Patients were allowed to select their hormonal therapy and could choose DES (2 patients), orchiectomy (21 patients), LHRH agonist (7 patients) or combined androgen blockade (34 patients). Results: Median follow-up is 49 months (range 12 to 131 months) and 21 patients have been followed for longer than 5 years. There have been 15 recurrences the entire group including three local recurrences in the prostate, seven patients with distant metastases, four patients with biochemical recurrences without clinical evidence of disease, and one patient where the location was unknown. Two of the PSA recurrences occurred in patients who elected to discontinue hormones after less than 3 years of therapy. The overall survival at 5 and 8 years is 94 and 84%, the clinical disease free survival is 85 and 67%, and the biochemical disease-free survival is 78 and 47%. There was no increased toxicity of the combined modality regimen compared to the expected effects of radiation and hormonal therapy. Conclusion: Combined hormonal and radiation therapy represents an effective treatment option for patients with

  19. The use of combined radiation therapy and hormonal therapy in the management of lymph node-positive prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittington, Richard; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Machtay, Mitchell; Van Arsdalen, Keith; Barnes, Margaret M.; Broderick, Gregory A.; Wein, Alan J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of tumor response and patterns of relapse following combined hormonal-radiation therapy of adenocarcinoma of the prostate and to measure the survival in a group of men with tumor metastatic to pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: 66 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate with pathologically confirmed pelvic lymph node involvement were treated with combined radiation therapy and hormonal therapy. An additional five patients declined hormonal therapy. The patients treated with combined therapy represented a group with locally advanced disease including 44 patients (67%) with T3 or T4 tumors and 51 patients (80%) had N2 or N3 lymph node metastases. The pelvic lymph nodes were treated to a dose of 45 Gy and the prostate was boosted to a dose of 65 to 71 Gy. Hormonal therapy began up to 2 months before radiation and continued indefinitely. Patients were allowed to select their hormonal therapy and could choose DES (2 patients), orchiectomy (21 patients), LHRH agonist (7 patients) or combined androgen blockade (34 patients). Results: Median follow-up is 49 months (range 12 to 131 months) and 21 patients have been followed for longer than 5 years. There have been 15 recurrences the entire group including three local recurrences in the prostate, seven patients with distant metastases, four patients with biochemical recurrences without clinical evidence of disease, and one patient where the location was unknown. Two of the PSA recurrences occurred in patients who elected to discontinue hormones after less than 3 years of therapy. The overall survival at 5 and 8 years is 94 and 84%, the clinical disease free survival is 85 and 67%, and the biochemical disease-free survival is 78 and 47%. There was no increased toxicity of the combined modality regimen compared to the expected effects of radiation and hormonal therapy. Conclusion: Combined hormonal and radiation therapy represents an effective treatment option for patients with

  20. Development of a New Outcome Prediction Model in Early-stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Based on Histopathologic Parameters With Multivariate Analysis: The Aditi-Nuzhat Lymph-node Prediction Score (ANLPS) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Aditi; Husain, Nuzhat; Bansal, Ankur; Neyaz, Azfar; Jaiswal, Ritika; Jain, Kavitha; Chaturvedi, Arun; Anand, Nidhi; Malhotra, Kiranpreet; Shukla, Saumya

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathologic parameters that predict lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to design a new assessment score on the basis of these parameters that could ultimately allow for changes in treatment decisions or aid clinicians in deciding whether there is a need for close follow-up or to perform early lymph node dissection. Histopathologic parameters of 336 cases of OSCC with stage cT1/T2 N0M0 disease were analyzed. The location of the tumor and the type of surgery used for the management of the tumor were recorded for all patients. The parameters, including T stage, grading of tumor, tumor budding, tumor thickness, depth of invasion, shape of tumor nest, lymphoid response at tumor-host interface and pattern of invasion, eosinophilic reaction, foreign-body giant cell reaction, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion, were examined. Ninety-two patients had metastasis in lymph nodes. On univariate and multivariate analysis, independent variables for predicting lymph node metastasis in descending order were depth of invasion (P=0.003), pattern of invasion (P=0.007), perineural invasion (P=0.014), grade (P=0.028), lymphovascular invasion (P=0.038), lymphoid response (P=0.037), and tumor budding (P=0.039). We designed a scoring system on the basis of these statistical results and tested it. Cases with scores ranging from 7 to 11, 12 to 16, and ≥17 points showed LN metastasis in 6.4%, 22.8%, and 77.1% of cases, respectively. The difference between these 3 groups in relation to nodal metastasis was very significant (P<0.0001). A patient at low risk for lymph node metastasis (score, 7 to 11) had a 5-year survival of 93%, moderate-risk patients (score, 12 to 16) had a 5-year survival of 67%, and high-risk patients (score, 17 to 21) had a 5-year survival of 39%. The risk of lymph node metastasis in OSCC is influenced by many histologic parameters that are not routinely analyzed in

  1. Shikonin enhances efficacy of a gene-based cancer vaccine via induction of RANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hui-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shikonin, a phytochemical purified from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been shown to confer diverse pharmacological activities, including accelerating granuloma formation, wound healing, anti-inflammation and others, and is explored for immune-modifier activities for vaccination in this study. Transdermal gene-based vaccine is an attractive approach for delivery of DNA transgenes encoding specific tumor antigens to host skin tissues. Skin dendritic cells (DCs, a potent antigen-presenting cell type, is known to play a critical role in transmitting and orchestrating tumor antigen-specific immunities against cancers. The present study hence employs these various components for experimentation. Method The mRNA and protein expression of RANTES were detected by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The regional expression of RANTES and tissue damage in test skin were evaluated via immunohistochemistry assay. Fluorescein isothiocyanate sensitization assay was performed to trace the trafficking of DCs from the skin vaccination site to draining lymph nodes. Adjuvantic effect of shikonin on gene gun-delivered human gp100 (hgp100 DNA cancer vaccine was studied in a human gp100-transfected B16 (B16/hgp100 tumor model. Results Among various phytochemicals tested, shikonin induced the highest level of expression of RANTES in normal skin tissues. In comparison, mouse RANTES cDNA gene transfection induced a higher level of mRANTES expression for a longer period, but caused more extensive skin damage. Topical application of shikonin onto the immunization site before gene gun-mediated vaccination augmented the population of skin DCs migrating into the draining lymph nodes. A hgp100 cDNA gene vaccination regimen with shikonin pretreatment as an adjuvant in a B16/hgp100 tumor model increased cytotoxic T lymphocyte activities in splenocytes and lymph node cells on target tumor cells. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that shikonin can

  2. Transcriptional profile of fibroblasts obtained from the primary site, lymph node and bone marrow of breast cancer patients

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    Paulo Roberto Del Valle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF influence tumor development at primary as well as in metastatic sites, but there have been no direct comparisons of the transcriptional profiles of stromal cells from different tumor sites. In this study, we used customized cDNA microarrays to compare the gene expression profile of stromal cells from primary tumor (CAF, n = 4, lymph node metastasis (N+, n = 3 and bone marrow (BM, n = 4 obtained from breast cancer patients. Biological validation was done in another 16 samples by RT-qPCR. Differences between CAF vs N+, CAF vs BM and N+ vs BM were represented by 20, 235 and 245 genes, respectively (SAM test, FDR < 0.01. Functional analysis revealed that genes related to development and morphogenesis were overrepresented. In a biological validation set, NOTCH2 was confirmed to be more expressed in N+ (vs CAF and ADCY2, HECTD1, HNMT, LOX, MACF1, SLC1A3 and USP16 more expressed in BM (vs CAF. Only small differences were observed in the transcriptional profiles of fibroblasts from the primary tumor and lymph node of breast cancer patients, whereas greater differences were observed between bone marrow stromal cells and the other two sites. These differences may reflect the activities of distinct differentiation programs.

  3. Lymphatic-targeted therapy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a promising strategy for lymph node-positive breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianghao; Yao, Qing; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Juliang; Wang, Ting; Lv, Yonggang; Han, Zenghui; Wang, Ling

    2015-07-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been increasingly used to downstage breast cancer prior to surgery recently. However, in some cases, it was observed that despite sufficient regression of primary tumors, the metastatic lymph nodes remained nonresponsive. In this study, we applied lymphatic-targeted strategy to evaluate its efficacy and safety for patients presenting refractory nodes following systemic chemotherapy. A total of 318 breast cancer patients were demonstrated with lymph node metastasis by needle biopsy and given neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Two cycles later, 72 patients were observed with responsive tumors but stable nodes, 42 of which received a subcutaneous injection of lymphatic-targeted pegylated liposomal doxorubicin during the third cycle, while the remaining 30 patients were continued with former neoadjuvant therapeutic pattern and regarded as the control. Lymphatic-targeted treatment substantially increased both clinical and pathological node response rate [62 % (26/42) vs. 13 % (4/30) and 12 % (5/42) vs. 0 (0/30), respectively], and induced a higher apoptosis level of metastatic cells (median, 41 vs. 6 %), compared with the control. Moreover, a higher disease-free survival was observed after a median follow-up of 4 years (69 vs. 56 %). Inflammatory reaction surrounding injection sites was the most common side effect. Lymphatic chemotherapy has reliable efficacy and well-tolerated toxicity for breast cancer patients presenting refractory lymph nodes following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  4. Necessity of suction drains in gynecomastia surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Sutcu, Mustafa; Cigsar, Bulent; Karacaoglan, Naci

    2014-05-01

    The aim of gynecomastia surgery is to restore a normal chest contour with minimal signs of breast surgery. The authors examine the rate of complications in gynecomastia surgery when no closed-suction drains are placed. One hundred thirty-eight consecutive male patients who underwent gynecomastia surgery without drains were retrospectively analyzed to determine whether the absence of drains adversely affected patient outcomes. Patients were managed by ultrasonic-assisted liposuction both with and without the pull-through technique. The mean age of the patients was 29 years, and the mean volume of breast tissue aspirated was 350 mL per beast. Pull-through was needed in 23 cases. There was only 1 postoperative hematoma. These results are comparable with previously published data for gynecomastia surgery in which drains were placed, suggesting that the absence of drains does not adversely affect postoperative recovery. Routine closed-suction drainage after gynecomastia surgery is unnecessary, and it may be appropriate to omit drains after gynecomastia surgery.

  5. Clinical impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with thick (>4 mm) melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ian; Fortino, Jeanine; Curti, Brendan; Vetto, John

    2014-05-01

    The role of sentinel lymph node status (SLNS) in thick melanoma is evolving. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic value of SLNS in thick melanoma. A retrospective analysis of 120 prospectively collected clinically node-negative thick melanomas over 5 years was performed. Patient (age/sex) and tumor (thickness, ulceration, SLNS, mitoses, metastases, and recurrence) features were collected. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard model. Factors predictive of positive SLN included male sex, ulceration, and high mitoses. Factors associated with positive SLN had higher local-regional recurrence and metastases than negative SLN. SLNS and tumor thickness impacted 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Positive SLN, ulceration, age, and mitoses were independent predictors of DFS/OS. Nonulcerated/lower mitoses thick melanomas had lower positive SLN rates. Positive SLN develop recurrence and metastases and have worse OS/DFS. SLNS is an important prognosticator for OS/DFS. Sentinel lymph node biopsy delineates prognostic groups in thick melanomas and can impact management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prognostic impact of the number of resected lymph node on survival in Colorectal Cancer

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    Katia M. Ladeira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal Cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of death in Western countries. In Portugal, in the North, emerges as the second most common cancer. The presence of lymph node metastasis is an important predictor of overall and disease-free survival and several studies recommend the evaluation of at least 12–14 regional lymph nodes, as it contributes to improve cancer staging and patient outcomes. Aims: Epidemiological characterization of the studied population and identify a possible relationship between the number of lymph nodes evaluated in the surgical specimen and survival. Methods: We preceded to the study of 1065 CCR patients, submitted to surgical resection between 1 January 2000 and 31 August 2012, in Braga Hospital. Discussion/Conclusion: The results of the epidemiological characterization of this population are coincident with those described in the literature. It was observed a significant correlation between age, tumor size, serosal invasion, differentiation, tumor penetration, venous and lymphatic invasion, metastasis, TNM stage and the number of lymph nodes evaluated. However, we did not observe a statistically significant correlation between patient survival and number of lymph nodes evaluated (p > 0.05. A possible explanation is the practice of oncologists, addressing patients with less than 12 nodes identified in the surgical specimen as “N-positive” and undergoing adjuvant therapy. A better harvest and careful analysis of lymph nodes would lead to more accurate staging, avoiding overtreatment and side effects associated, and allow better economic management of hospital resources, in real N0 patients. Resumo: Introdução: O câncer colorretal (CCR ocupa o terceiro lugar em termos de frequência e, além disso, é a segunda causa principal de morte nos países ocidentais. Em Portugal, no norte, CCR surge como o segundo câncer mais comum. A presença de metástase aos

  7. Bioluminescent human breast cancer cell lines that permit rapid and sensitive in vivo detection of mammary tumors and multiple metastases in immune deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Darlene E; Hornig, Yvette S; Oei, Yoko; Dusich, Joan; Purchio, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Our goal was to generate xenograft mouse models of human breast cancer based on luciferase-expressing MDA-MB-231 tumor cells that would provide rapid mammary tumor growth; produce metastasis to clinically relevant tissues such as lymph nodes, lung, and bone; and permit sensitive in vivo detection of both primary and secondary tumor sites by bioluminescent imaging. Two clonal cell sublines of human MDA-MB-231 cells that stably expressed firefly luciferase were isolated following transfection of the parental cells with luciferase cDNA. Each subline was passaged once or twice in vivo to enhance primary tumor growth and to increase metastasis. The resulting luciferase-expressing D3H1 and D3H2LN cells were analyzed for long-term bioluminescent stability, primary tumor growth, and distal metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bone and soft tissues by bioluminescent imaging. Cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of nude and nude-beige mice or were delivered systemically via intracardiac injection. Metastasis was also evaluated by ex vivo imaging and histologic analysis postmortem. The D3H1 and D3H2LN cell lines exhibited long-term stable luciferase expression for up to 4–6 months of accumulative tumor growth time in vivo. Bioluminescent imaging quantified primary mammary fat pad tumor development and detected early spontaneous lymph node metastasis in vivo. Increased frequency of spontaneous lymph node metastasis was observed with D3H2LN tumors as compared with D3H1 tumors. With postmortem ex vivo imaging, we detected additional lung micrometastasis in mice with D3H2LN mammary tumors. Subsequent histologic evaluation of tissue sections from lymph nodes and lung lobes confirmed spontaneous tumor metastasis at these sites. Following intracardiac injection of the MDA-MB-231-luc tumor cells, early metastasis to skeletal tissues, lymph nodes, brain and various visceral organs was detected. Weekly in vivo imaging data permitted longitudinal analysis of metastasis at

  8. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in ventilator...

  9. FDG uptake heterogeneity in FIGO IIb cervical carcinoma does not predict pelvic lymph node involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Frank J; Grigsby, Perry W

    2013-12-23

    Many types of cancer are located and assessed via positron emission tomography (PET) using the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) radiotracer of glucose uptake. There is rapidly increasing interest in exploiting the intra-tumor heterogeneity observed in these FDG-PET images as an indicator of disease outcome. If this image heterogeneity is of genuine prognostic value, then it either correlates to known prognostic factors, such as tumor stage, or it indicates some as yet unknown tumor quality. Therefore, the first step in demonstrating the clinical usefulness of image heterogeneity is to explore the dependence of image heterogeneity metrics upon established prognostic indicators and other clinically interesting factors. If it is shown that image heterogeneity is merely a surrogate for other important tumor properties or variations in patient populations, then the theoretical value of quantified biological heterogeneity may not yet translate into the clinic given current imaging technology. We explore the relation between pelvic lymph node status at diagnosis and the visually evident uptake heterogeneity often observed in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) images of cervical carcinomas. We retrospectively studied the FDG-PET images of 47 node negative and 38 node positive patients, each having FIGO stage IIb tumors with squamous cell histology. Imaged tumors were segmented using 40% of the maximum tumor uptake as the tumor-defining threshold and then converted into sets of three-dimensional coordinates. We employed the sphericity, extent, Shannon entropy (S) and the accrued deviation from smoothest gradients (ζ) as image heterogeneity metrics. We analyze these metrics within tumor volume strata via: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, principal component analysis and contingency tables. We found no statistically significant difference between the positive and negative lymph node groups for any one metric or plausible combinations thereof. Additionally

  10. FDG uptake heterogeneity in FIGO IIb cervical carcinoma does not predict pelvic lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Frank J; Grigsby, Perry W

    2013-01-01

    Many types of cancer are located and assessed via positron emission tomography (PET) using the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) radiotracer of glucose uptake. There is rapidly increasing interest in exploiting the intra-tumor heterogeneity observed in these FDG-PET images as an indicator of disease outcome. If this image heterogeneity is of genuine prognostic value, then it either correlates to known prognostic factors, such as tumor stage, or it indicates some as yet unknown tumor quality. Therefore, the first step in demonstrating the clinical usefulness of image heterogeneity is to explore the dependence of image heterogeneity metrics upon established prognostic indicators and other clinically interesting factors. If it is shown that image heterogeneity is merely a surrogate for other important tumor properties or variations in patient populations, then the theoretical value of quantified biological heterogeneity may not yet translate into the clinic given current imaging technology. We explore the relation between pelvic lymph node status at diagnosis and the visually evident uptake heterogeneity often observed in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) images of cervical carcinomas. We retrospectively studied the FDG-PET images of 47 node negative and 38 node positive patients, each having FIGO stage IIb tumors with squamous cell histology. Imaged tumors were segmented using 40% of the maximum tumor uptake as the tumor-defining threshold and then converted into sets of three-dimensional coordinates. We employed the sphericity, extent, Shannon entropy (S) and the accrued deviation from smoothest gradients (ζ) as image heterogeneity metrics. We analyze these metrics within tumor volume strata via: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, principal component analysis and contingency tables. We found no statistically significant difference between the positive and negative lymph node groups for any one metric or plausible combinations thereof. Additionally

  11. Development of rationalized system treating floor drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Serizawa, Kenichi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Shimizu, Takayuki

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes generated at BWR plants are collected and treated as required. These days, however, generation of floor drain has deceased and HFF (Hollow Fiber Filter) has experienced a wide applicability to several kinds of liquid wastes. We should consider that the floor drain can be mixed and diluted with equipment drain and be purified by HFF. That enables some of the sumps and long priming pipes to be combined. From this point of view, we have developed a highly rationalized waste liquid system. We have evaluated the applicability of this system after an investigation into the generation and properties of floor drain and equipment drain at the latest BWR'S and an on-site test at a typical BWR. (author)

  12. Tumor macroenvironment and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoughbi, Wael; Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%-20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient's outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. How to remove a chest drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allibone, Elizabeth

    2015-10-07

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to undertake the removal of a chest drain in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. This procedure requires two practitioners. The chest drain will have been inserted aseptically to remove air, blood, fluid or pus from the pleural cavity. ▶ Chest drains may be small or wide bore depending on the underlying condition and clinical setting. They may be secured with a mattress suture and/or an anchor suture. ▶ Chest drains are usually removed under medical instructions when the patient's lung has inflated, the underlying condition has resolved, there is no evidence of respiratory compromise or failure, and their anticoagulation status has been assessed as satisfactory. ▶ Chest drains secured with a mattress suture should be removed by two practitioners. One practitioner is required to remove the tube and the other to tie the mattress suture (if present) and secure the site. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. How this article could be used to educate patients with chest drains. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .

  14. The local lymph node assay and the assessment of relative potency: status of validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Gerberick, Frank; Kimber, Ian

    2007-08-01

    For the prediction of skin sensitization potential, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a fully validated alternative to guinea-pig tests. More recently, information from LLNA dose-response analyses has been used to assess the relative potency of skin sensitizing chemicals. These data are then deployed for risk assessment and risk management. In this commentary, the utility and validity of these relative potency measurements are reviewed. It is concluded that the LLNA does provide a valuable assessment of relative sensitizing potency in the form of the estimated concentration of a chemical required to produce a threefold stimulation of draining lymph node cell proliferation compared with concurrent controls (EC3 value) and that all reasonable validation requirements have been addressed successfully. EC3 measurements are reproducible in both intra- and interlaboratory evaluations and are stable over time. It has been shown also, by several independent groups, that EC3 values correlate closely with data on relative human skin sensitization potency. Consequently, the recommendation made here is that LLNA EC3 measurements should now be regarded as a validated method for the determination of the relative potency of skin sensitizing chemicals, a conclusion that has already been reached by a number of independent expert groups.

  15. Accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for lymph node staging in non-small-cell lung cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-jun; DONG Jing-cheng; XU Chang-qing; ZUO Chuan-tao; LE Jing-jing; GUAN Yi-hui; ZHAO Jun; WU Jin-feng; DUAN Xiao-hong; CAO Yu-xue

    2009-01-01

    Background This retrospective study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of 2-(F18)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography(18F-FDG-PET)/COmputed tomography(PET/CT)in the preoperative diagnosis of metastatic mediastinal and hilar lymph node in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC).Methods A total of 39 patients received preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT and the postoperative biopsy.We compared preoperative PET/CT scan results with corresponding intraoperative histopathalogic findings in 39 NSCLC patients.The sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,positive and negative predictive value of 18F-FDG PET/CT were assessed.Results Histopathologic examination confirmed metastasis in 57 out of the 208 excised lymph nodes;23 of the 57 nodes were mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes.The sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PET/CT in the preoperative diagnosis of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in NSCLC patients were 65%,96.8%,92%,78.5%and 90%,respectively.Conclusions PET/CT scan showed good accuracy in the preoperative diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar lymph node metastasis in the patients with NSCLC.We recommend that PET/CT scanning be used as a first-line evaluation tool for tumor diagnosis,therapy evaluation and follow-up.

  16. Axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer utilizing Harmonic Focus®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldrem Amy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with axillary lymph node metastases from breast cancer, performance of a complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND is the standard approach. Due to the rich lymphatic network in the axilla, it is necessary to carefully dissect and identify all lymphatic channels. Traditionally, these lymphatics are sealed with titanium clips or individually sutured. Recently, the Harmonic Focus®, a hand-held ultrasonic dissector, allows lymphatics to be sealed without the utilization of clips or ties. We hypothesize that ALND performed with the Harmonic Focus® will decrease operative time and reduce post-operative complications. Methods Retrospective review identified all patients who underwent ALND at a teaching hospital between January of 2005 and December of 2009. Patient demographics, presenting pathology, treatment course, operative time, days to drain removal, and surgical complications were recorded. Comparisons were made to a selected control group of patients who underwent similar surgical procedures along with an ALND performed utilizing hemostatic clips and electrocautery. A total of 41 patients were included in this study. Results Operative time was not improved with the use of ultrasonic dissection, however, there was a decrease in the total number of days that closed suction drainage was required, although this was not statistically significant. Complication rates were similar between the two groups. Conclusion In this case-matched retrospective review, there were fewer required days of closed suction drainage when ALND was performed with ultrasonic dissection versus clips and electrocautery.

  17. 216-Z-8 French drain characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marratt, M.C.; Kasper, R.B.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1984-09-01

    The 216-Z-8 French drain study is one of a series of studies examining historical transuranic waste facilities no longer in use at the Hanford Site. The 216-Z-8 French drain underground disposal system consisted of a large settling tank that overflowed into a French drain. The French drain consisted of two large-diameter, gravel filled, vitrified clay pipes placed on end, end-to-end, over a gravel-filled excavation. The top of the drain was sealed with concrete to prevent the upward flow of waste solution. The waste solution discharged to the 216-Z-8 waste disposal system was a neutralized, transuranic recovery process, filter cake, backflush slurry. The primary objective of this study was to determine the distribution of plutonium and americium beneath the French drain. Transuranic activity under the French drain did not exceed 5 nCi/g in the soil samples obtained from a well within 1 m of the drain structure. Conservative estimates indicated that 4 to 5 m 3 of radioactive contaminated sediments, 10 nCi/g may lie directly under the 216-Z-8 French drain. The secondary objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of a leak in the settling tank. Results from the analysis of soil samples from wells drilled around the settling tank indicated the presence of low-level transuranic contamination (on the order of 0.001 nci/g) in the soil surrounding the tank. However, the distribution of the contamination does not support a leak as a plausible mechanism to account for the observed activity surrounding the tank. The bulk of the plutonium was confirmed to be in the sludge that remained in the tank; thus, no significant environmental impact would be expected even if there has been a leak

  18. Drain site evisceration of fallopian tube, another reason to discourage abdominal drain: report of a case and brief review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Pradeep; Faridi, M S; Agarwal, Nitin; Gupta, Arun; Kaur, Navneet

    2012-04-01

    Placement of a drain following abdominal surgery is common despite a lack of convincing evidence in the current literature to support this practice. The use of intra-abdominal drain is associated with many potential and serious complications. We report a drain site evisceration of the right fallopian tube after the removal of an intra-abdominal drain. The drain was placed in the right iliac fossa in a patient who underwent a lower segment Caesarean section (LSCS) for meconium liquor with fetal distress. The Pfannenstiel incision made for LSCS was reopened and the protruding inflamed fimbrial end of the right fallopian tube was excised. The patient made an uneventful recovery. Routine intra-abdominal prophylactic drain following an abdominal surgery including LSCS should be discouraged.

  19. Estimation of tumor volume and its prognostic significance to study the biological behavior of carcinoma of cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelavathi Dawson

    2016-01-01

    Results: The median age of the patients in this group was 47.5 years, with a range of 30–80 years. The major histological type of carcinoma among 40 cases is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (in 90% of cases, and 10% had adenocarcinoma. Pathological staging of the carcinoma cervix showed stage Ib, IIa, IIb, and IVa (35%, 20%, 40%, and 5%. Tumor volume estimated on pathological specimens of 40 cases ranged from 230 cumm to 49,760 cumm with a mean of 14,844 cumm. 12 (30% cases had tumor volume more than 15,000 cumm, 12 (30% cases had tumor volume <5000 cumm and 16 (40% cases had tumor volume between 5000 and 15,000 cumm. 17% of the tumors with tumor volume <5000 cumm showed lymph node metastases, whereas 67% (out of 12cases of cases with tumor volume more than 15,000 cumm showed lymph node metastases. 67% of the tumors with tumor volume <5000 cumm showed 0/4 organs involvement, whereas all cases with tumor volume more than 15,000 cumm showed more than one organ involvement among vagina, uterus, parametrium or bladder/rectum. Fibronectin positivity was seen in 22 out of 44 cases (55%. Macrophages were seen surrounding the group of tumor cells by LN5 immunostaining. Conclusion: Tumor volume can be considered as an independent prognostic factor to assess the spread of the tumor. Cases with tumor volume <5000 cumm show low risk in terms of parametrial involvement and lymph node metastasis and those with tumor volume more than 15,000 cumm showed more organ spread. Fibronectin positivity carries some importance in low-risk cases. For macrophages, further detailed study needs to be carried out.

  20. Use of an ex vivo local lymph node assay to assess contact hypersensitivity potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccotti, Joseph R; Kawabata, Thomas T

    2008-07-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used to assess the contact hypersensitivity potential of compounds. In the standard assay, mice are treated topically with test compound to the dorsum of both ears on Days 1-3. The induction of a hypersensitivity response is assessed on Day 6 by injecting [(3)H]-thymidine into a tail vein and measuring thymidine incorporation into DNA of lymph node cells draining the ears. The ex vivo LLNA is conducted similarly except lymphocyte proliferation is assessed after in vitro incubation of lymph node cells with [(3)H]-thymidine, which significantly reduces the amount of radioactive waste. The current study tested the use of this approach for hazard assessment of contact hypersensitivity and to estimate allergenic potency. Female BALB/c mice were treated on Days 1-3 with two nonsensitizers (4' -methoxyacetophenone, diethyl phthalate), three weak sensitizers (hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, citral), one weak-to-moderate sensitizer (hexylcinnamic aldehyde), two moderate sensitizers (isoeugenol, phenyl benzoate), and one strong sensitizer (dinitrochlorobenzene). On Day 6, isolated lymph node cells were incubated overnight with [(3)H]-thymidine and thymidine incorporation was measured by liquid scintillation spectrophotometry. The ex vivo LLNA accurately distinguished the contact sensitizers from the nonsensitizing chemicals, and correctly ranked the relative potency of the compounds tested. The EC3 values, i.e., the effective concentration of test substance needed to induce a stimulation index of 3, were as follows: 4' -methoxyacetophenone (> 50%), diethyl phthalate (> 50%), hydroxycitronellal (20.4%), eugenol (13.6%), citral (8.9%), isoeugenol (3.8%), hexylcinnamic aldehyde (2.7%), phenyl benzoate (2%), and dinitrochlorobenzene (0.02%). In addition, low inter-animal and inter-experiment variability was seen with 25% hexyl-cinnamic aldehyde (assay positive control). The results of the ex vivo LLNA in the current study were consistent with

  1. Mesenteric lymph reperfusion exacerbates spleen injury caused by superior mesenteric artery occlusion shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.L.; Zhang, C.H.; Liu, J.C.; Yang, L.N.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhao, Z.G. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei, China, Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei (China)

    2014-04-15

    The intestinal lymph pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of organ injury following superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) shock. We hypothesized that mesenteric lymph reperfusion (MLR) is a major cause of spleen injury after SMAO shock. To test this hypothesis, SMAO shock was induced in Wistar rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. Similarly, MLR was performed by clamping the mesenteric lymph duct (MLD) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. In the MLR+SMAO group rats, both the SMA and MLD were clamped and then released for reperfusion for 2 h. SMAO shock alone elicited: 1) splenic structure injury, 2) increased levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide (NO), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide receptor (CD14), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α, 3) enhanced activities of NO synthase and myeloperoxidase, and 4) decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and ATPase. MLR following SMAO shock further aggravated these deleterious effects. We conclude that MLR exacerbates spleen injury caused by SMAO shock, which itself is associated with oxidative stress, excessive release of NO, recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, endotoxin translocation, and enhanced inflammatory responses.

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To validate lymphatic mapping combined with sentinel lymph node biopsy as a staging procedure, and to evaluate the possible clinical implications of added oblique lymphoscintigraphy and/or tomography and test the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of lymphoscintigraphy. MATERIAL......: Eleven (28%) patients were upstaged. The sentinel lymph node identification rate was 97.5%. Sentinel lymph node biopsy significantly differentiated between patients with or without lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). Lymphatic mapping revealed 124 hotspots and 144 hot lymph nodes were removed by sentinel...

  3. Lymph node metastases in the gastrocolic ligament in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus A; Bols, Birgitte; Ingeholm, Peter

    2014-01-01

    in the proximity of the flexures or in the transverse colon. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to present our findings of metastases in the gastrocolic ligament in a consecutive series of patients. DESIGN: This was a single-center retrospective study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted in a colorectal cancer...... of the flexures or in the transverse colon was measured. RESULTS: Gastrocolic resection was performed in 130 patients. Thirty-two patients were excluded because of a lack of information about gastrocolic lymph node status in the pathology reports. Median age of the remaining 98 patients was 70 years (range, 30....... CONCLUSIONS: Metastases in the gastroepiploic or infrapyloric lymph nodes can be found in patients with tumors located in the proximity of the flexures or in the transverse colon. Further studies are needed to reveal the clinical relevance of this finding, with special focus on recurrence risk and long...

  4. Penrose Drain Migration After Laparoscopic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazouki AbdolReza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopy has made a revolution in surgical procedures and treatment of various diseases but its complications are still under investigation. Intra-abdominal visceral and vessel injuries, trocar site hernia, and leaving foreign bodies into the peritoneal cavity are among some laparoscopic surgery complications. This is a rare report of Penrose drain migration following incomplete laparoscopic Fundoplication surgery. The patient was a 47- year- old woman, who was a candidate for Touplet Fundoplication via laparoscopic approach due to refractory gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD. While wrapping a Penrose drain around the esophagus, the patient had a cardiorespiratory arrest. Attempts to remove the Penrose drain were unsuccessful and the surgical procedure was terminated due to patient's condition. Four months later, after a long period of dysphagia and abdominal pain, the Penrose drain was defecated via rectum.

  5. False Positive 18F-FDG Uptake in Mediastinal Lymph Nodes Detected with Positron Emission Tomography in Breast Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Uğurluer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females. It is accepted that lymph node involvement with metastatic tumor and the presence of distant metastasis are the most important prognostic factors. Accurate staging is important in determining prognosis and appropriate treatment. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography detects malignancies using 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG PET CT with high accuracy and they contribute to decisions regarding diagnosis, staging, recurrence, and treatment response. Here, we report a case of false positive metastatic mediastinal lymph nodes that were diagnosed by 18F-FDG PET CT in a 40-year-old breast cancer patient who had undergone preoperative evaluation. Right paratracheal, prevascular, aorticopulmonary, precarinal, subcarinal, hilar, and subhilar multiple conglomerated mediastinal lymph nodes were revealed in addition to left breast mass and axillary lymph nodes. Mediastinoscopy was performed with biopsy and pathology was reported as granulomatous lymphadenitis. In conclusion, any abnormal FDG accumulation in unusual lymph nodes must be evaluated carefully and confirmed histopathologically.

  6. Correlation of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 subcellular localization and lymph node metastases of colorectal neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yan [Medical Research Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250014 (China); Lv, Liyang [Department of Health, Jinan Military Area Command, Jinan 250022 (China); Du, Juan; Yue, Longtao [Medical Research Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250014 (China); Cao, Lili, E-mail: cllly22@163.com [Medical Research Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •We clarified NDRG1 subcellular location in colorectal cancer. •We found the changes of NDRG1 distribution during colorectal cancer progression. •We clarified the correlation between NDRG1 distribution and lymph node metastasis. •It is possible that NDRG1 subcellular localization may determine its function. •Maybe NDRG1 is valuable early diagnostic markers for metastasis. -- Abstract: In colorectal neoplasms, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a primarily cytoplasmic protein, but it is also expressed on the cell membrane and in the nucleus. NDRG1 is involved in various stages of tumor development in colorectal cancer, and it is possible that the different subcellular localizations may determine the function of NDRG1 protein. Here, we attempt to clarify the characteristics of NDRG1 protein subcellular localization during the progression of colorectal cancer. We examined NDRG1 expression in 49 colorectal cancer patients in cancerous, non-cancerous, and corresponding lymph node tissues. Cytoplasmic and membrane NDRG1 expression was higher in the lymph nodes with metastases than in those without metastases (P < 0.01). Nuclear NDRG1 expression in colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher than in the normal colorectal mucosa, and yet the normal colorectal mucosa showed no nuclear expression. Furthermore, our results showed higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression was better for differentiation, and higher membrane NDRG1 expression resulted in a greater possibility of lymph node metastasis. These data indicate that a certain relationship between the cytoplasmic and membrane expression of NDRG1 in lymph nodes exists with lymph node metastasis. NDRG1 expression may translocate from the membrane of the colorectal cancer cells to the nucleus, where it is involved in lymph node metastasis. Combination analysis of NDRG1 subcellular expression and clinical variables will help predict the incidence of lymph node metastasis.

  7. Correlation of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 subcellular localization and lymph node metastases of colorectal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yan; Lv, Liyang; Du, Juan; Yue, Longtao; Cao, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We clarified NDRG1 subcellular location in colorectal cancer. •We found the changes of NDRG1 distribution during colorectal cancer progression. •We clarified the correlation between NDRG1 distribution and lymph node metastasis. •It is possible that NDRG1 subcellular localization may determine its function. •Maybe NDRG1 is valuable early diagnostic markers for metastasis. -- Abstract: In colorectal neoplasms, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a primarily cytoplasmic protein, but it is also expressed on the cell membrane and in the nucleus. NDRG1 is involved in various stages of tumor development in colorectal cancer, and it is possible that the different subcellular localizations may determine the function of NDRG1 protein. Here, we attempt to clarify the characteristics of NDRG1 protein subcellular localization during the progression of colorectal cancer. We examined NDRG1 expression in 49 colorectal cancer patients in cancerous, non-cancerous, and corresponding lymph node tissues. Cytoplasmic and membrane NDRG1 expression was higher in the lymph nodes with metastases than in those without metastases (P < 0.01). Nuclear NDRG1 expression in colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher than in the normal colorectal mucosa, and yet the normal colorectal mucosa showed no nuclear expression. Furthermore, our results showed higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression was better for differentiation, and higher membrane NDRG1 expression resulted in a greater possibility of lymph node metastasis. These data indicate that a certain relationship between the cytoplasmic and membrane expression of NDRG1 in lymph nodes exists with lymph node metastasis. NDRG1 expression may translocate from the membrane of the colorectal cancer cells to the nucleus, where it is involved in lymph node metastasis. Combination analysis of NDRG1 subcellular expression and clinical variables will help predict the incidence of lymph node metastasis

  8. Neck lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor. Retrospective study and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, H.; Hermann, R.M.; Nitsche, M.; Schmidberger, H.; Pradier, O.; Martin, A.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: up to 10% of all neck lymph node metastases present without a known primary site. The optimal treatment strategy for these patients is still undefined. The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to assess the outcome in patients with neck metastases from an unknown primary tumor (CUP). Furthermore, prognostic factors and treatment modalities are discussed. Patients and methods: from 1984 to 2003, 28 patients with squamous cell neck metastases from a CUP were treated at the authors' institution. In 17 patients, neck dissection (twelve radical, five modified radical) was performed. In that case, adjuvant radiotherapy was carried out with a mean of 56.7 Gy. In eleven patients, only biopsies were done. These patients received definitive radiotherapy with a mean of 66.8 Gy. In summary, 25 patients received extended radiotherapy including both sides of the neck and potential mucosal primary sites. Additional chemotherapy was administered to five patients. Results: the duration of follow-up was 4.1-189.5 months (median 45.1 months). After this period of time, ten patients (36%) remained alive. 5-year overall survival was 40.1%, neck control rate 72.7%. No subsequent primary could be detected. Extracapsular extension and surgery had significant influence on prognosis. Grade 3 toxicity (mucositis or skin reactions) was seen in three patients; no hematologic toxicity > grade 2 was observed. 19 patients suffered from grade 2 xerostomia. Conclusion: with radical surgery followed by radiotherapy good survival rates in patients with neck metastases from a CUP can be obtained. Whether limited radiotherapy might be equal to extended irradiation and can reduce side effects, must be shown in ongoing clinical trials. (orig.)

  9. Staging of primary head and neck tumors and detection of recurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.; Baum, R.P.; Knecht, R.; Hoer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas represent the vast majority of all malignant tumors of the head and neck region. Lymph node involvement is the most important prognostic factor affecting survival of patients with head and neck cancer. The effectiveness of surgical treatment depends on the complete excision of all tumor tissue and an accurate preoperative diagnosis. Tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging is therefore mandatory. In comparison to positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET), morphological imaging modalities (CT, MRI) have been applied for the localization of primary head and neck tumors because of their better anatomical resolution. Metabolic tumor imaging using FDG PET is superior to morphological imaging by CT and MRI in the detection of small cervical lymph node metastases (Class 1a indication). Increased FDG uptake has also been observed in benign inflammatory lesions after radiation therapy, therefore detection of local recurrence with FDG PET can be problematic. To ensure a high diagnostic accuracy it is been suggested to perform FDG PET not earlier than 3 months after radiation therapy (Class 1a indication for the diagnosis of local recurrence). (orig.) [de

  10. Discrimination of benign and malignant lymph nodes at 7.0T compared to 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging using ultrasmall particles of iron oxide: a feasibility preclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Sonja; Maderwald, Stefan; Albert, Juliane; Parohl, Nina; Corot, Claire; Robert, Philippe; Baba, Hideo A; Barkhausen, Jörg

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility and performance of 7T magnetic resonance imaging compared to 1.5T imaging to discriminate benign (normal and inflammatory changed) from tumor-bearing lymph nodes in rabbits using ultrasmall particles of iron oxide (USPIO)-based contrast agents. Six New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with either complete Freund's adjuvant cell suspension (n = 3) to induce reactively enlarged lymph nodes or with VX2 tumor cells to produce metastatic lymph nodes (n = 3). Image acquisition was performed before and 24 hours after bolus injection of an USPIO contrast agent at 1.5T and afterward at 7T using T1-weighted and T2*-weighted sequences. Sensitivities, specificities, and negative and positive predictive values for the detection of lymph node metastases were calculated for both field strengths with histopathology serving as reference standard. Sizes of lymph nodes with no, inflammatory, and malignant changes were compared using a Mann-Whitney U-test. All 24 lymph nodes were detected at 1.5T as well as at 7T. At 1.5T, sensitivity amounted to 0.67, while specificity reached a value of 1. At the higher field strength (7T), imaging was able to reach sensitivity and specificity values of 1. No statistical differences were detected concerning lymph node sizes. Magnetic resonance lymphography with USPIO contrast agents allows for differentiation of normal and reactively enlarged lymph nodes compared to metastatic nodes. First experiments at 7T show promising results compared to 1.5T, which have to be evaluated in further trials. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Development of radiolabeled mannose-dextran conjugates for sentinel lymph node detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Nunez, Eutimio Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Early diagnosis of tumors and metastasis is the current cornerstone in public health policies directed towards the fights against cancer. In breast cancer and melanoma, the sentinel lymph node biopsy has been widely used for diagnoses of metastasis. The minor impact in patient of this technique compared with total nodes dissection and the accurate definition of therapeutic strategies have powered its spreading. The aim of this work was the development of radiolabeled dextran-mannose conjugates for diagnosis using the stable technetium core [ 99m Tc(CO)3] + . Cysteine, a trident ligand, was attached to the conjugates backbone, as a chelate for 99m Tc labeling. Radiolabeling conditions established for all products considered in this study showed high radiochemical purities (> 90%) and specific activities (>59,9 MBq/nmol) as well and high stability obtained through in vitro tests. The lymphatic node uptake increased significantly (4-folds) when mannose units were added to the conjugates compared with those without this monosaccharide. The radiolabeled cysteine-mannose-dextran conjugate with 30 kDa ( 99m Tc - DCM2) showed the best performance at different injected activities among the studied tracers. Concentrations of this radio complex higher than 1 M demonstrated an improvement of lymph node uptakes. Comparisons of 99m Tc - DCM2 performance with commercial radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil market for lymph node detection showed its upper profile. (author)

  12. Inguinal lymph node as the only evidence of progressive lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Kocak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstact: Tumours that metastasise to groin nodes most frequently originate in genital and reproductive organs, skin, rectum or anus, or urinary bladder1,2. However, rare cases of inguinal metastases from tumours above the diaphragm have been reported2-5 and only three of them had an inguinal metastasis which was recognised antemortem and reported in detail in the English medical literature3-5. The primary tumours of these cases were malignant mesothelioma, salivary duct and breast carcinoma. In this paper, we report a case of carcinoma of the lung metastatic to an inguinal lymph node as the only evidence of progressive lung cancer. Resumo: Os tumores que metastizam para os gânglios inguinais têm frequentemente origem nos órgãos genitais e reprodutores, na pele, no recto ou ânus, ou na bexiga1,2. Há, no entanto, algumas descrições de casos raros de metástases inguinais de tumores localizados acima do diafragma2-5, e apenas três destes apresentavam uma metástase inguinal reconhecida antes da morte. Estes casos estão detalhadamente descritos na literatura médica de língua inglesa3-5. Os tumores primários destes casos eram mesotelioma maligno e carcinomas do conduto salivar e da mama. Descrevemos um caso de carcinoma do pulmão que metastizou para gânglio inguinal, como única evidência de cancro do pulmão progressivo. Key-words: Non-small cell lung carcinoma, inguinal lymph node, metastasis, disease progression, Palavras-chave: Carcinoma do pulmão de não pequenas células, gânglio inguinal, metástase, progressão da doença

  13. [Is radiotherapy of the lymph node stages useful after the conservative treatment of the initial stage of breast carcinoma?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gava, A; Coghetto, F

    1989-05-01

    Twenty-four lectures were reviewed of the XXXIII SIRMN National Congress (Rome, October 1988) on the conservative radiosurgical treatment of breast cancer. A whole of 3462 cases were divided into 2 groups: group A--2824 patients who underwent targeted radiotherapy after conservative surgery (mostly quadrantectomy)--and group B--638 patients where, in case of N+ and internal quadrant tumors, irradiation was extended to lymph nodes. No significant differences were demonstrated between group A and group B as far as loco-regional relapses were concerned. Thus, no significant advantage seems to be yielded by lymph node irradiation in the early treatment of breast cancer.

  14. The health workforce crisis: the brain drain scourge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Samuel O

    2007-01-01

    The magnitude of the health workforce crisis engendered by brain drain particularly in Africa, and nay more especially Nigeria, has been assuming increasingly alarming proportions in the past three decades. The challenge it poses in meeting the manpower needs in the healthcare sector as well as in the larger economy of the sending countries is enormous. This paper thus sets out to highlight the scope of this brain drain, its effects and the reasons sustaining it, as well as makes concrete suggestions to help stern the tide. A review of the literature on brain drain with particular emphasis on the health workforce sector was done, with focus on Africa, and specifically Nigeria. Literature search was done using mainly the Medline, as well as local journals. The historical perspectives, with the scope of external and internal brain drain are explored. The glaring effects of brain drain both in the global workforce terrain and specifically in the health sectors are portrayed. The countries affected most and the reasons for brain drain are outlined. Strategic steps to redress the brain drain crisis are proffered in this paper. The health workforce crisis resulting from brain drain must be brought to the front-burner of strategic policy decisions leading to paradigm shift in political, social and economic conditions that would serve as incentives to curb the scourge.

  15. B220 analysis with the local lymph node assay: proposal for a more flexible prediction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Catherine J; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian; Ryan, Cindy A; Gerberick, G Frank; Lalko, Jon; Api, Anne Marie

    2007-01-01

    The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been developed and validated for the identification of chemicals that have the potential to induce skin sensitisation. In common with other predictive test methods the accuracy of the LLNA is not absolute and experience has revealed that a few chemicals, including for instance a minority of skin irritants, may elicit false-positive reactions in the assay. To improve further the performance of the LLNA, and to eliminate or reduce false-positives, there has been interest in an adjunct method in which the ability of chemicals to cause increases in the frequency of B220(+) lymphocytes in skin-draining lymph nodes is measured. Previous studies suggest that the use of B220 analyses aligned with the standard LLNA may serve to distinguish further between contact allergens and skin irritants. In the original predictive model, chemicals were regarded as being skin sensitisers if they were able to induce a 1.25-fold or greater increase in the percentage of B220(+) cells within lymph nodes compared with concurrent vehicle controls. Although this first prediction model has proven useful, in the light of more recent experience, and specifically as a consequence of some variability observed in the frequency of B220(+) lymphocytes in nodes taken from vehicle control-treated animals, it is timely now to reconsider and refine the model. As a result a new prediction model is proposed in which reliance on the use of absolute thresholds is reduced, and in which small changes in control values can be better accommodated. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Avid 18F-FDG Uptake in Idiopathic Tumoral Calcinosis Mimicking Lymph Node Metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, Jesper; Zacho, Helle D

    2017-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a benign condition characterized by periarticular calcified lesions that is frequently observed in patients with chronic renal failure. Tumoral calcinosis often presents with subcutaneous masses and joint swelling. We present a case of tumoral calcinosis with dramatically in...

  17. A new specifically designed forceps for chest drain insertion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, Emmet

    2012-02-03

    Insertion of a chest drain can be associated with serious complications. It is recommended that the drain is inserted with blunt dissection through the chest wall but there is no specific instrument to aid this task. We describe a new reusable forceps that has been designed specifically to facilitate the insertion of chest drains.A feasibility study of its use in patients who required a chest drain as part of elective cardiothoracic operations was undertaken. The primary end-point was successful and accurate placement of the drain. The operators also completed a questionnaire rating defined aspects of the procedure. The new instrument was used to insert the chest drain in 30 patients (19 male, 11 female; median age 61.5 years (range 16-81 years)). The drain was inserted successfully without the trocar in all cases and there were no complications. Use of the instrument rated as significantly easier relative to experience of previous techniques in all specified aspects. The new device can be used to insert intercostal chest drains safely and efficiently without using the trocar or any other instrument.

  18. Device for discharging drain in a control rod driving apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Tadasu; Ikuta, Takuzo; Yoshida, Tomiji; Tsukahara, Katsumi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To efficiently and safely collect and discharge drain by a simple construction in which a drain cover and a drain tank in a control rod driving apparatus are integrally formed, and an overhauling wrench of said apparatus and a drain hose are mounted on the drain tank. Structure: When a mounting bolt is untightened by a torque wrench so as to be removed from a flange surface of the control rod driving apparatus in a nuclear reactor, axial movement of said apparatus is absorbed by a spring so that drain containing a radioactive material is discharged into a drain tank through the flange surface of said apparatus and is then guided into a collecting tank through a drain hose. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Does the suction drain diameter matter? Bleeding analysis after total knee replacement comparing different suction drain gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos George de Souza Leao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To evaluate bleeding and the estimated blood loss in patients who underwent total knee replacement (TKR with different closed suction drains (3.2-mm and 4.8-mm gauge. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial with 22 patients who underwent TKR and were divided into two groups: Group I, with 11 patients in whom the 3.2-mm suction drain was used, and Group II, with 11 patients in whom the 4.8-mm suction drain was used. The hematocrit was measured after 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery in order to calculate the estimated blood loss. The drained volume was measured 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after TKR, and thereafter both groups were compared. RESULTS: Regarding the hematocrit, there were no differences between groups in measured periods (24, 48, and 72 h after surgery. The total bleeding measured at the suction drains within 48 h was higher in Group II, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.005; in the first 24 h, there was major bleeding in Group II (mean 893 mL, with a significant difference (p = 0.004. Between 24 and 48 h, there was no statistically significant difference in both groups (p = 0.710. The total estimated bleeding was higher in Group I, with mean of 463 mL, versus 409 mL in Group II, with no statistical significance (p = 0.394. CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding was higher in the group that used the 4.8 mm gauge suction drain, with no differences in hematocrit and estimated blood loss.

  20. Comparative study of various grading systems in oral squamous cell carcinoma and their value in predicting lymph node metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Jamadar

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The histopathological parameters that could help in predicting lymph node metastases (LNM are keratinization, nuclear pleomorphism (NP, and the pattern of invasion (POI when assessed at the invasive front. When the whole tumor was considered, histopathological parameters like NP and POI were significant in predicting LNM.

  1. Contemporary management of lymph node metastases from an unknown primary to the neck : I. A review of diagnostic approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strojan, Primoz; Ferlito, Alfio; Medina, Jesus E.; Woolgar, Julia A.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Robbins, K. Thomas; Fagan, Johannes J.; Mendenhall, William M.; Paleri, Vinidh; Silver, Carl E.; Olsen, Kerry D.; Corry, June; Suarez, Carlos; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Devaney, Kenneth O.; Kowalski, Luiz P.; Hartl, Dana M.; Haigentz, Missak; Werner, Jochen A.; Pellitteri, Phillip K.; de Bree, Remco; Wolf, Gregory T.; Takes, Robert P.; Genden, Eric M.; Hinni, Michael L.; Mondin, Vanni; Shaha, Ashok R.; Barnes, Leon

    In an era of advanced diagnostics, metastasis to cervical lymph nodes from an occult primary tumor is a rare clinical entity and accounts for approximately 3% of head and neck malignancies. Histologically, two thirds of cases are squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), with other tissue types less common

  2. Contemporary management of lymph node metastases from an unknown primary to the neck: I. A review of diagnostic approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strojan, P.; Ferlito, A.; Medina, J.E.; Woolgar, J.A.; Rinaldo, A.; Robbins, K.T.; Fagan, J.J.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Paleri, V.; Silver, C.E.; Olsen, K.D.; Corry, J.; Suarez, C.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Langendijk, J.A.; Devaney, K.O.; Kowalski, L.P.; Hartl, D.M.; Haigentz Jr., M.; Werner, J.A.; Pellitteri, P.K.; Bree, R. de; Wolf, G.T.; Takes, R.P.; Genden, E.M.; Hinni, M.L.; Mondin, V.; Shaha, A.R.; Barnes, L.

    2013-01-01

    In an era of advanced diagnostics, metastasis to cervical lymph nodes from an occult primary tumor is a rare clinical entity and accounts for approximately 3% of head and neck malignancies. Histologically, two thirds of cases are squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), with other tissue types less common

  3. Timing of Re-Transfusion Drain Removal Following Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, MF; Costa, ML; Costello, E; Edwards, D

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of postoperative drains following total knee replacement (TKR) has recently been modified by the use of re-transfusion drains. The aim of our study was to investigate the optimal time for removal of re-transfusion drains following TKR. PATIENTS AND METHODS The medical records of 66 patients who had a TKR performed between October 2003 and October 2004 were reviewed; blood drained before 6 h and the total volume of blood drained was recorded. RESULTS A total of 56 patients had complete records of postoperative drainage. The mean volume of blood collected in the drain in the first 6 h was 442 ml. The mean total volume of blood in the drain was 595 ml. Therefore, of the blood drained, 78% was available for transfusion. CONCLUSION Re-transfusion drains should be removed after 6 h, when no further re-transfusion is permissible. PMID:16551400

  4. A foreign body reaction to Surgicel® in a lymph node diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Badenes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgicel ® (Ethicon, North Ryde, NSW, Australia is an absorbable sheet of oxidized cellulose polyanhydroglucuronic acid polymer used as an hemostatic in cardiovascular and thoracic surgery. In some cases, the retained material may cause foreign body granulomatous reactions and simulate tumor recurrence, an abscess, an hematoma, or an infection. We report the case of a 55-year-old patient who was operated of a lung adenocarcinoma. In the thoracic computed tomography scan 1 year after the surgery, a right paratracheal lymph node was detected, so endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA was performed suspecting recurrence of the tumor. The cytology results of the lymph node showed a nonnecrotizing granulomatous reaction secondary to Surgicel ® , used as an hemostatic during the surgery. The objective of presenting this case is to consider foreign body reaction to Surgicel ® in the differential diagnosis of postoperative suspicion of neoplastic recurrence, and on the other hand, to note that EBUS-TBNA enables diagnosis.

  5. Long-Term Results of Radiochemotherapy for Solitary Lymph Node Metastasis After Curative Resection of Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jingu, Keiichi; Ariga, Hisanori; Nemoto, Kenji; Narazaki, Kakutaro; Umezawa, Rei; Takeda, Ken; Koto, Masashi; Sugawara, Toshiyuki; Kubozono, Masaki; Miyata, Go; Onodera, Ko; Yamada, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and toxicity of definitive radiochemotherapy for solitary lymph node metastasis after curative surgery of esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 35 patients who underwent definitive radiochemotherapy at Tohoku University Hospital between 2000 and 2009 for solitary lymph node metastasis after curative esophagectomy with lymph node dissection for esophageal cancer. Radiotherapy doses ranged from 60 to 66 Gy (median, 60 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy was platinum based in all patients. The endpoints of the present study were overall survival, cause-specific survival, progression-free survival, irradiated-field control, overall tumor response, and prognostic factors. Results: The median observation period for survivors was 70.0 months. The 5-year overall survival was 39.2% (median survival, 39.0 months). The 5-year cause-specific survival, progression-free survival, and irradiated-field control were 43.3%, 31.0% and 59.9%, respectively. Metastatic lesion, size of the metastatic lymph node, and performance status before radiochemotherapy were significantly correlated with prognosis. Complete response and partial response were observed in 22.9% and 57.1% of the patients, respectively. There was no Grade 3 or higher adverse effect based on theCommon Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v3.0) in the late phase. Conclusions: Based on our study findings, approximately 40% of patients with solitary lymph node metastasis after curative resection for esophageal cancer have a chance of long-term survival with definitive radiochemotherapy.

  6. Hemosiderin: a new marker for sentinel lymph node identification Hemossiderina: um novo marcador para identificação do linfonodo sentinela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Porto Pinheiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate and present our initial results of a new marker (hemosiderin for mammary sentinel lymph node identification in an experimental model. METHODS: Skins mapped like a lymphatic duct draining to the axilla in patients submitted to breast biopsy, in our mastology service, stimulated us to try it in an animal model (female dogs. Our theory was that some blood derivate (hemosiderin was captured by macrophages and accessed the lymphatic ducts in direction to the axilla. Six female dogs of no defined race were studied. We injected 0,2 ml of technetium on both superior mammary glands. After ten minutes, a 2,5 ml solution of hemolized blood (hemosiderin from the own animal was injected in the subareolar lymphatic plexus on the left superior mammary gland and 2,5 ml of patent blue concomitantly and equally on the contralateral gland. Ten minutes after, incisions on both axilas were made to search, through the lymphatic mapping and a gamma probe, the sentinel lymph nodes. RESULTS: Seven brown sentinel lymph nodes were indentified and also radiomarked on the left axilla. Six blue sentinel lymph nodes were identified and also radiomarked on the right axilla. CONCLUSION: Preliminary studies of a potential new dye for sentinel lymph node identification are presented. It may be the change of the current use of the blue dyes and their severe side-effects on patients submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsies.OBJETIVO: Avaliar e apresentar resultados preliminares de um novo marcador (hemossiderina para a identificação de linfonodos sentinela mamários em um modelo experimental. MÉTODOS: Durante acompanhamento de dois casos de biópsias excisionais de tumores da mama, no nosso serviço de mastologia, observou-se trajeto pigmentado no quadrante inferior externo daquelas mamas, sugerindo ser marcação cutânea do ducto de drenagem linfática a partir da papila mamária em direção a axila homolateral. Levantamos a hipótese que um derivado

  7. Correlation of Slug gene expression with lymph node metastasis and invasion molecule expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ming Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of Slug gene expression with lymph node metastasis and invasion molecule expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue. Methods: Oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue surgical removed in Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Nanjing Medical University between March 2015 and April 2017 was selected and divided into the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with neck lymph node metastasis and the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues without lymph node metastasis according to the condition of lymph node metastasis. The expression of Slug, epithelial-mesenchymal transition molecules and invasion molecules in the oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue were detected. Results: Slug, N-cadherin, Vimentin, CD147, OPN, GRP78, SDF-1 and CXCR4 protein expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with neck lymph node metastasis were significantly higher than those in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue without lymph node metastasis while E-cadherin, P120ctn and ZO-1 protein expression were significantly lower than those in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue without lymph node metastasis; N-cadherin, Vimentin, CD147, OPN, GRP78, SDF-1 and CXCR4 protein expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with high Slug expression were significantly higher than those in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with low Slug expression while E-cadherin, P120ctn and ZO-1 protein expression were significantly lower than those in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue with low Slug expression. Conclusion: The highly expressed Slug in oral squamous cell carcinoma tissue can promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion of the cells to participate in the lymph node metastasis of tumor cells.

  8. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from spaces...

  9. Metastatic Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis: Clinical Presentation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs of the testis are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that are present in both juvenile and adult subtypes. While most adult GCTs are benign, those that present with distant metastases manifest a grave prognosis. Treatments for aggressive GCTs are not well established. Options that have been employed in previous cases include retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination thereof. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a painless left testicular mass and painful gynecomastia. Serum tumor markers (alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase and computed tomography of the chest and abdomen were negative. The patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. Immunohistochemical staining was consistent with a testicular GCT. He underwent a left-template laparoscopic RPLND which revealed 2/19 positive lymph nodes. Final pathological stage was IIA. He remains free of disease 32 months after surgery.

  10. An European inter-laboratory validation of alternative endpoints of the murine local lymph node assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehling, G.; Hecht, M.; Heusener, A.; Huesler, J.; Gamer, A.O.; Loveren, H. van; Maurer, Th.; Riecke, K.; Ullmann, L.; Ulrich, P.; Vandebriel, R.; Vohr, H.-W.

    2005-01-01

    The original local lymph node assay (LLNA) is based on the use of radioactive labelling to measure cell proliferation. Other endpoints for the assessment of proliferation are also authorized by the OECD Guideline 429 provided there is appropriate scientific support, including full citations and description of the methodology (OECD, 2002. OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals; Skin Sensitization: Local Lymph Node Assay, Guideline 429. Paris, adopted 24th April 2002.). Here, we describe the outcome of the second round of an inter-laboratory validation of alternative endpoints in the LLNA conducted in nine laboratories in Europe. The validation study was managed and supervised by the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products (Swissmedic) in Bern. Ear-draining lymph node (LN) weight and cell counts were used to assess LN cell proliferation instead of [3H]TdR incorporation. In addition, the acute inflammatory skin reaction was measured by ear weight determination of circular biopsies of the ears to identify skin irritation properties of the test items. The statistical analysis was performed in the department of statistics at the university of Bern. Similar to the EC 3 values defined for the radioactive method, threshold values were calculated for the endpoints measured in this modification of the LLNA. It was concluded that all parameters measured have to be taken into consideration for the categorisation of compounds due to their sensitising potencies. Therefore, an assessment scheme has been developed which turned out to be of great importance to consistently assess sensitisation versus irritancy based on the data of the different parameters. In contrast to the radioactive method, irritants have been picked up by all the laboratories applying this assessment scheme

  11. Role of prostate dose escalation in patients with greater than 15% risk of pelvic lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Rojymon; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Movsas, Benjamin; Uzzo, Robert G.; Pollack, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the radiation dose is a determinant of clinical outcome in patients with a lymph node risk of >15% treated using whole pelvic (WP), partial pelvic (PP), or prostate only (PO) fields. Methods and materials: A total of 420 patients with prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with or without short-term androgen deprivation (STAD) between June 1989 and July 2000 were included in this study. Patients had an initial pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 15% in the patient population studied. These data suggest that the primary tumor takes precedence over lymph node coverage or the use of STAD. Doses >70 Gy are of paramount importance in such intermediate- and high-risk patients

  12. The Role of Central Neck Lymph Node Dissection in the Management of Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Lawrence A; Jones, Natalie B; Phay, John E

    2017-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy, and cervical nodal metastases are frequent at presentation. The most common site for nodal metastases from PTC is the central compartment of the ipsilateral neck in the paratracheal and pretracheal regions. The decision to resect these lymph nodes at the time of thyroidectomy often depends on if nodes with suspected malignancy can be identified preoperatively. If nodal spread to the central neck nodes is known, then the consensus is to remove all nodes in this area. However, there remains significant controversy regarding the utility of removing central neck lymph nodes for prophylactic reasons. Herein, we review the potential utility of central neck lymph node dissection as well as the risks of performing this procedure. As well, we review the potential of molecular testing to stratify patients who would most benefit from this procedure. We advocate a selective approach in which patients undergo clinical neck examination coupled with ultrasound to detect any concerning lymph nodes that warrant additional evaluation with either fine needle aspiration or excisional biopsy in the operating room. In lieu of clinical lymphadenopathy, we suggest the use of patient and disease characteristics as identified by multiple groups, such as the American Thyroid Association and European Society of Endocrine Surgeons, which include extremes of ages, large primary tumor size, and male gender, when deciding to perform central neck lymph node dissection. Patients should be educated on the potential long-terms risks versus the lack of known long-term benefits.

  13. The Role of Central Neck Lymph Node Dissection in the Management of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Shirley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC is the most common thyroid malignancy, and cervical nodal metastases are frequent at presentation. The most common site for nodal metastases from PTC is the central compartment of the ipsilateral neck in the paratracheal and pretracheal regions. The decision to resect these lymph nodes at the time of thyroidectomy often depends on if nodes with suspected malignancy can be identified preoperatively. If nodal spread to the central neck nodes is known, then the consensus is to remove all nodes in this area. However, there remains significant controversy regarding the utility of removing central neck lymph nodes for prophylactic reasons. Herein, we review the potential utility of central neck lymph node dissection as well as the risks of performing this procedure. As well, we review the potential of molecular testing to stratify patients who would most benefit from this procedure. We advocate a selective approach in which patients undergo clinical neck examination coupled with ultrasound to detect any concerning lymph nodes that warrant additional evaluation with either fine needle aspiration or excisional biopsy in the operating room. In lieu of clinical lymphadenopathy, we suggest the use of patient and disease characteristics as identified by multiple groups, such as the American Thyroid Association and European Society of Endocrine Surgeons, which include extremes of ages, large primary tumor size, and male gender, when deciding to perform central neck lymph node dissection. Patients should be educated on the potential long-terms risks versus the lack of known long-term benefits.

  14. Current practice patterns of drain usage amongst UK and Irish surgeons performing bilateral breast reductions: Evidence down the drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrue, Conor M; McInerney, Niall; Joyce, Cormac W; Jones, Deidre; Hussey, Alan J; Kelly, Jack L; Kerin, Michael J; Regan, Padraic J

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral breast reduction (BBR) is one of the most frequently performed female breast operations. Despite no evidence supporting efficacy of drain usage in BBRs, postoperative insertion is common. Recent high quality evidence demonstrating potential harm from drain use has subsequently challenged this traditional practice. The aim of this study is to assess the current practice patterns of drains usage by Plastic & Reconstructive and Breast Surgeons in UK and Ireland performing BBRs. An 18 question survey was created evaluating various aspects of BBR practice. UK and Irish Plastic & Reconstructive and Breast Surgeons were invited to participate by an email containing a link to a web-based survey. Statistical analysis was performed with student t-test and chi-square test. Two hundred and eleven responding surgeons were analysed, including 80.1% (171/211) Plastic Surgeons and 18.9% (40/211) Breast Surgeons. Of the responding surgeons, 71.6% (151/211) routinely inserted postoperative drains, for a mean of 1.32 days. Drains were used significantly less by surgeons performing ≥20 BBRs (p = 0.02). With the majority of BBRs performed as an inpatient procedure, there was a trend towards less drain usage in surgeons performing this procedure as an outpatient; however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). Even with the high level of evidence demonstrating the safety of BBR without drains, they are still routinely utilised. In an era of evidence- based medicine, surgeons performing breast reductions must adopt the results from scientific research into their clinical practice.

  15. QUALIFIED VERSION OF MIGRATION: BRAIN DRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan GENCLER

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Though globalization suggests an international exchange of people besides goods and capital, developed countries often tended to put forward some restrictions on the migration of workers from developed countries. However, there has been an increase in skilled international migration especially during the last two decades. Skilled international migration or brain drain points out the emigration of educated and highly skilled workers. It seems that, in general, developing or underdeveloped countries experience the negative consequences of the brain drain and suffer from the decreases in their human capital. The paper explains the phenomenon of skilled international migration, or brain drain, and summarizes the main global trends in this area.

  16. The management of vacuum neck drains in head and neck surgery and the comparison of two different practice protocols for drain removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbekar, A V; Davies, F; Upile, N; Ho, M W; Roland, N J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of vacuum neck drains in head and neck surgery is varied. We aimed to improve early drain removal and therefore patient discharge in a safe and effective manner. Methods The postoperative management of head and neck surgical patients with vacuum neck drains was reviewed retrospectively. A new policy was then implemented to measure drainage three times daily (midnight, 6am, midday). The decision for drain removal was based on the most recent drainage period (at Measuring drainage volumes three times daily allows for more accurate assessment of wound drainage, and this can lead to earlier removal of neck drains and safe discharge.

  17. Outcome Analysis of Patients With Oral Cavity Cancer and Extracapsular Spread in Neck Lymph Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chen, I-How; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Extracapsular spread (ECS) in neck lymph nodes is a major adverse prognostic factor in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We conducted a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors in this patient group and tried to identify a subset of patients with a worse prognosis suitable for more aggressive therapeutic interventions. Methods and Materials: Enrolled in the study were 255 OSCC patients with ECS in neck nodes and without evidence of distant metastasis. All participants were followed-up for at least 2 years or censored at last follow-up. The 5-year rates of control, distant metastasis, and survival were the main outcome measures. Results: Level IV/V lymph node metastases and tumor depth ≥12 mm were independent predictors of 5-year survival and identified three prognostic groups. In the low-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth <12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 60%, 66%, and 50%, respectively. In the intermediate-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth ≥12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 39%, 41%, and 28%, respectively. In the high-risk group (evidence of level IV/V metastases), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 14%, 12%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusions: Among OSCC patients with ECS, those with level IV/V metastases appear to have the worst prognosis followed by without level IV/V metastases and tumor depth ≥12 mm. An aggressive therapeutic approach may be suitable for intermediate- and high-risk patients.

  18. SOME ASPECTS OF THE ANATOMY OF AXILLARY LYMPH NODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Shvedavchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concisely reviews the classifications of axillary lymph nodes (LN and considers various approaches to their formation. The authors identify the axillary lymph chain consisting of lateral, central, and apical groups of nodes through which lymph outflows into the overlying lymph collectors, as well as of subscapular and medial groups of nodes from where lymph makes its way into the auxil- lary lymph chain.

  19. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product.

  20. Successful resection of metachronous para-aortic, Virchow lymph node and liver metastatic recurrence of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Fukunaga, Toru; Kimura, Masayuki; Sugamoto, Yuji; Tasaki, Kentaro; Hoshino, Isamu; Ota, Takumi; Maruyama, Tetsuro; Tamachi, Tomohide; Hosokawa, Takashi; Asai, Yo; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-11-28

    A 66-year-old female presented with the main complaint of defecation trouble and abdominal distention. With diagnosis of rectal cancer, cSS, cN0, cH0, cP0, cM0 cStage II, Hartmann's operation with D3 lymph node dissection was performed and a para-aortic lymph node and a disseminated node near the primary tumor were resected. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, pSS, pN3, pH0, pP1, pM1 (para-aortic lymph node, dissemination) fStage IV. After the operation, the patient received chemotherapy with FOLFIRI regimen. After 12 cycles of FOLFIRI regimen, computed tomography (CT) detected an 11 mm of liver metastasis in the postero-inferior segment of right hepatic lobe. With diagnosis of liver metastatic recurrence, we performed partial hepatectomy. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer with cut end microscopically positive. After the second operation, the patient received chemotherapy with TS1 alone for 2 years. Ten months after the break, CT detected a 20 mm of para-aortic lymph node metastasis and a 10 mm of lymph node metastasis at the hepato-duodenal ligament. With diagnosis of lymph node metastatic recurrences, we performed lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as metastatic rectal cancer in para-aortic and hepato-duodenal ligament areas. After the third operation, we started chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX6 regimen. After 2 cycles of modified FOLFOX6 regimen, due to the onset of neutropenia and liver dysfunction, we switched to capecitabine alone and continued it for 6 mo and then stopped. Eleven months after the break, CT detected two swelling 12 mm of lymph nodes at the left supraclavicular region. With diagnosis of Virchow lymph node metastatic recurrence, we started chemotherapy with capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen. Due to the onset of neutropenia and hand foot syndrome (Grade 3), we managed to

  1. Radiologic findings of submucosal tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Ahn, In Oak; You, Jin Jong [College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Gastrointestinal submucosal tumors originate from submucosal histologic structures such as muscles, lymph nodes, nerves, fibers and vessels. Most patients are asymptomatic. Lesions that are large or ulcerated may cause abdominal pain or upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and those that grow intraluminally sometimes become pedunculated and occasionally prolapse to cause intussusception. Adenocarcinoma is the most common primary gastrointestinal tumor, accounting for approximately 90-95% of such lesions, while submucosal tumors account for approximately 2-6% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Because their overlying mucosa appears normal, submucosal tumors age after difficult to visualize endoscopically, and for this reason, barium studies or CT scans are helpful for diagnosis. In this paper, variable CT and barium study findings of the different types of gastrointestinal submucosal tumor are demonstrated, and a brief discussion of the respective disease entities is included. (author)

  2. Radiologic findings of submucosal tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Ahn, In Oak; You, Jin Jong

    2000-01-01

    Gastrointestinal submucosal tumors originate from submucosal histologic structures such as muscles, lymph nodes, nerves, fibers and vessels. Most patients are asymptomatic. Lesions that are large or ulcerated may cause abdomi