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Sample records for tularemia outbreak utah

  1. Molecular Investigation of Tularemia Outbreaks, Spain, 1997–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Johansson, Anders; Fernández-Natal, María Isabel; Martínez-Nistal, Carmen; Orduña, Antonio; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F.; Hernández, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia outbreaks occurred in northwestern Spain in 1997–1998 and 2007–2008 and affected >1,000 persons. We assessed isolates involved in these outbreaks by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with 2 restriction enzymes and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 16 genomic loci of Francisella tularensis, the cause of this disease. Isolates were divided into 3 pulsotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 8 allelic profiles by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis. Isolates obtained from the second tularemia outbreak had the same genotypes as isolates obtained from the first outbreak. Both outbreaks were caused by genotypes of genetic subclade B.Br:FTNF002–00, which is widely distributed in countries in central and western Europe. Thus, reemergence of tularemia in Spain was not caused by the reintroduction of exotic strains, but probably by persistence of local reservoirs of infection. PMID:24750848

  2. Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease is found more often in Missouri, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. Although outbreaks can occur in the United States, they are rare. Some people may develop pneumonia after breathing in infected dirt ...

  3. [A water-borne tularemia outbreak caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica in Central Anatolia region].

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    Ulu Kılıç, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Selçuk; Sencan, Irfan; Ciçek Şentürk, Gönül; Gürbüz, Yunus; Tütüncü, Emin Ediz; Celebi, Bekir; Kıcıman, Özlem; Ergönül, Önder

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we investigated a waterborne tularemia outbreak occured in Kadiozu, a village of Cerkes county of Cankiri province (located in North-west part of central Anatolia, Turkey) between 18 November 2009-24 December 2009. Active surveillance was conducted to determine clinical characteristics and risk factors of cases after two patients from the same village had been diagnosed as oropharyngeal tularemia. All villagers were examined, and clinical specimens from cases and water samples which may be the source of outbreak in the field investigations were taken. Cases were in the form of oropharyngeal, glandular and pneumonic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cultures were conducted from lymph node aspirates, throat swabs taken from cases and samples from water sources of epidemic zone. All serum samples taken from the villagers were screened for F.tularensis antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT). Oropharyngeal tularemia was diagnosed in 11 patients, glandular form in 3 patients and pneumonic form in one patient according to clinical and laboratory results. Age of the patients ranged between 6-75 years old (mean age: 52.5 years) and thirty one of them (54.7%) were female. MAT titers ranged between 1/160 and 1/5120 in cases of tularemia. Causative agent was grown in the cultures of two patients (including a throat swab and a lymph node aspirate). F.tularensis DNA was shown by PCR in a throat swab and four lymph node aspirates. F.tularensis was also detected by PCR in the water sample obtained from one of the spring water commonly used by villagers. Only one of the lymph node samples obtained from two different patients, was positive by direct fluorescent antibody method. Causative agent was defined as F.tularensis subsp. holarctica by conventional and also molecular methods. Patients were treated with aminoglycoside (streptomycin, gentamicin, amikacin) or quinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) antibiotics. Treatment failure was observed in five

  4. Epidemiology of Tularemia

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    Şaban Gürcan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia is considered to have existed in Anatolia for several thousand years. There are suspicions regarding its use in biological warfare in the Neshite-Arzawan conflict. The causative agent of tularemia may have first been used as a biological weapon in 1320-1318 BC. The disease has recently become a significant re-emerging disease globally as well as in Turkey. In the period of 2001-2010, Kosovo had the highest annual incidence in Europe at a rate of 5.2 per 100,000. Sweden, Finland, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Norway, Serbia-Montenegro, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Croatia follow with rates of 2.80, 1.19, 1.0, 0.81, 0.42, 0.4, 0.36, 0.21, and 0.15 per 100,000 people, respectively. Tularemia in Turkey was first reported in the soldiers living in the region very close to the Kaynarca Stream of Thrace in 1936. It has started to gain more and more importance, especially in recent decades in Turkey, due to a very high number of cases and its spread throughout the country. A total of 431 tularemia cases were recorded in Turkey in 2005, but a significant reduction was observed in the number of the cases in the next three years; the number of patients decreased to 71 in 2008. The number of cases increased again in 2009 and continued in subsequent years. The number of cases reached 428, 1531, 2151, and 607 in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. The number of cases peaked in 2011 in Turkey, and was in fact higher than the total number of cases in all European Union countries. The number of cases is higher in females than males in Turkey. In Turkey, 52% of cases of tularemia diagnoses occur from December to March and the most common clinical presentation is the oropharyngeal form caused by contaminated water. Rodents are the most likely sources of tularemia outbreaks in Turkey as well as in Kosovo. Organisms such as ticks, flies and mosquitoes are vectors of tularemia transmission to mammals. Because ticks can carry the bacteria by both transovarial

  5. [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey].

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    Dikici, Nebahat; Ural, Onur; Sümer, Sua; Oztürk, Kayhan; Albayrak Yiğit, Ozgen; Katlanır, Eda; Keleş, Bahar

    2012-04-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated

  6. Key Facts about Tularemia

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    ... 14 days. What Should I Do if I Think I Have Tularemia? Consult your doctor at the ... using soap and warm water, especially after handling animal carcasses. Be sure to cook your food thoroughly ...

  7. Characteristics of Tularemia in Kosovo 2010

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    Mr.Sc. Izet Sadiku

    2011-12-01

    Conclusions: In this late decade in our country, tularemia continues to be a disease that represents a healthcare problem. Glandular forms of tularemia dominate in Kosovo. Treatment with gentamicin has had good effects. Incision and drainage of the inflamed glands has shown to be a good method in accelerating the recovery of patient. Prophylaxis has to be applied for prevention of the disease.

  8. Cluster of ulceroglandular tularemia cases in Slovenia.

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    Rojko, Tereza; Korva, Miša; Lotrič-Furlan, Stanka; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2016-10-01

    In Slovenia, a small Central European country, where tularemia cases are very rare and mostly sporadic, six cases of ulceroglandular tularemia were recognised in 2012-2013 in patients residing in or visiting a small geographical area of <6km 2 . Epidemiological data indicated transmission by a tick bite in at least 3/6 patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. [Tularemia: are hunters really a risk group?].

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    Yeşilyurt, Murat; Kılıç, Selçuk; Celebi, Bekir; Gül, Serdar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the tularemia seroprevalence among hunters mainly hunting in districts with emerging tularemia cases in Yozgat province located at the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. A total of 64 serum samples were collected from the subjects (all were male; age range: 18-67 years; mean age: 42.7 years) registered to Hunting and Shooting Clubs in Yozgat province and it's two districts, during January-April 2010 and anamnestic data were obtained using a questionnaire. The presence of Francisella tularensis antibodies in serum samples were screened by microagglutination test (MAT), and the positive samples were also confirmed by a commercial ELISA kit (Serazym, Germany). Four (6.3%) out of 64 were found to be seropositive for tularemia with titers of 1/160 in three cases, and 1/2560 in one case. All of the MAT positive samples yielded positive results with ELISA test and all seropositive cases had negative brucella agglutination result. No tularemia compatible clinical history were determined in two hunters with 1/160 antibody titer. However, one of the cases had defined symptoms consistent with oropharyngeal form. The hunter with 1/2560 antibody titer developed acute oropharyngeal tularemia and treated with 14 days of ciprofloxacin therapy. Evaluation of risk factors in seropositive cases revealed consumption of spring water as a risk factor. In conclusion, our results indicated a considerable exposure of hunters to F.tularensis in Yozgat province and reflected a high prevalence of the pathogen around Yozgat, which coincided with the high notification rate of tularemia in this region.

  10. Treatment-failure tularemia in children.

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    Karlı, Arzu; Şensoy, Gülnar; Paksu, Şule; Korkmaz, Muhammet Furkan; Ertuğrul, Ömer; Karlı, Rıfat

    2018-02-01

    Tularemia is an infection caused by Francisella tularensis . Its diagnosis and treatment may be difficult in many cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment modalities for pediatric tularemia patients who do not respond to medical treatment. A single-center, retrospective study was performed. A total of 19 children with oropharyngeal tularemia were included. Before diagnosis, the duration of symptoms in patients was 32.15±17.8 days. The most common lymph node localization was the cervical chain. All patients received medical treatment (e.g., streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline). Patients who had been given streptomycin, gentamicin, or doxycycline as initial therapy for 10-14 days showed no response to treatment, and recovery was only achieved after administration of oral ciprofloxacin. Response to treatment was delayed in 5 patients who had been given ciprofloxacin as initial therapy. Surgical incision and drainage were performed in 9 patients (47.5%) who were unresponsive to medical treatment and were experiencing abcess formation and suppuration. Five patients (26.3%) underwent total mass excision, and 2 patients (10.5%) underwent fine-needle aspiration to reach a conclusive differential diagnosis and inform treatment. The causes of treatment failure in tularemia include delay in effective treatment and the development of suppurating lymph nodes.

  11. [The epizootic characteristics of tularemia in the Crimea].

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    Alekseev, A F; Chirniĭ, V I; Bogatyreva, L M; Tovpinets, N N; Evstaf'ev, I L; Markeshin, S Ia; Kovin, V V; Evstratov, Iu V; Zakharova, T F; Galushko, V I

    1996-01-01

    Cases of tularemia were registered in the Crimea both before and after planned immunization. In 1981-1993 in 4.000 localities 35,100 mammals, 27,400 ectoparasites, 8,800 feces left by birds of prey and foxes and 900 environmental specimens were studied. 137 Francisella tularensis strains were isolated. Field mapping of the spread of F.tularensis and places of habitation of small mammals was carried out. The active polyhostal natural focus of tularemia was found to exist on the Kerch Peninsula, less affected by anthropogenic factors, where tularemia morbidity among humans, and tularemia epizootic coincided with the maximum rises in the number of myomorphs. The core of the focus constituted 2.4% of its area and were characterized by the stable complex of Ixodes ticks and the preservation of F. tularensis in the environment. In other regions of the flat part of the Crimea with considerable anthropogenic transformations of the landscape rises in tularemia epizootics and tularemia morbidity in humans were rare. In the mountainous part of the Crimea tularemia epizootics were registered only by the detection of specific antibodies and antigens.

  12. The first pediatric case of tularemia in Korea: manifested with pneumonia and possible infective endocarditis

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    Yeom, Jung Sook; Rhie, Kyuyol; Park, Ji Sook; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Youn, Hee-Shang

    2015-01-01

    Tularemia is a potentially severe zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis. A lack of awareness about tularemia can be embarrassing and could result in delayed treatment because of improper diagnosis. The diagnosis of tularemia is difficult, because the infections are rare and the clinical spectrum is broad. As only 1 adult case has been reported in Korea thus far, pediatricians in Korea may be unfamiliar with tularemia. We report our experience with a 14-year-old male adolescent with tularemia who presented with atypical pneumonia and possible infective endocarditis. Although the infectivity and mortality rates for tularemia are very high if left untreated, we did not suspect tularemia in this case until the incidental isolation of F. tularensis. The present case suggests that clinicians in Korea should be more aware of tularemia. This case also suggests that tularemia should be considered in undetermined cases of atypical pneumonia or acute febrile illness without local signs. PMID:26576185

  13. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

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    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  14. Respiratory Tularemia:Francisella Tularensisand Microarray Probe Designing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Reza; Behzadi, Payam; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis ( F. tularensis ) is the etiological microorganism for tularemia. There are different forms of tularemia such as respiratory tularemia. Respiratory tularemia is the most severe form of tularemia with a high rate of mortality; if not treated. Therefore, traditional microbiological tools and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) are not useful for a rapid, reliable, accurate, sensitive and specific diagnosis. But, DNA microarray technology does. DNA microarray technology needs to appropriate microarray probe designing. The main goal of this original article was to design suitable long oligo microarray probes for detection and identification of F. tularensis . For performing this research, the complete genomes of F. tularensis subsp. tularensis FSC198, F. tularensis subsp. holarctica LVS, F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica , F. tularensis subsp. novicida ( F. novicida U112), and F. philomiragia subsp. philomiragia ATCC 25017 were studied via NCBI BLAST tool, GView and PanSeq Servers and finally the microarray probes were produced and processed via AlleleID 7.7 software and Oligoanalyzer tool, respectively. In this in silico investigation, a number of long oligo microarray probes were designed for detecting and identifying F. tularensis . Among these probes, 15 probes were recognized as the best candidates for microarray chip designing. Calibrated microarray probes reduce the biasis of DNA microarray technology as an advanced, rapid, accurate and cost-effective molecular diagnostic tool with high specificity and sensitivity. Professional microarray probe designing provides us with much more facility and flexibility regarding preparation of a microarray diagnostic chip.

  15. Neutrophils: potential therapeutic targets in tularemia?

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    Lee-Ann H Allen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The central role of neutrophils in innate immunity and host defense has long been recognized, and the ability of these cells to efficiently engulf and kill invading bacteria has been extensively studied, as has the role of neutrophil apoptosis in resolution of the inflammatory response. In the past few years additional immunoregulatory properties of neutrophils were discovered, and it is now clear that these cells play a much greater role in control of the immune response than was previously appreciated. In this regard, it is noteworthy that Francisella tularensis is one of relatively few pathogens that can successfully parasitize neutrophils as well as macrophages, DC and epithelial cells. Herein we will review the mechanisms used by F. tularensis to evade elimination by neutrophils. We will also reprise effects of this pathogen on neutrophil migration and lifespan as compared with other infectious and inflammatory disease states. In addition, we will discuss the evidence which suggests that neutrophils contribute to disease progression rather than effective defense during tularemia, and consider whether manipulation of neutrophil migration or turnover may be suitable adjunctive therapeutic strategies.

  16. Tularemia in Children, Turkey, September 2009–November 2012

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    Tezer, Hasan; Aykan, Hakan; Erkocoglu, Mustafa; Gülhan, Belgin; Demir, Ahmet; Kanik-Yuksek, Saliha; Tapisiz, Anil; Polat, Meltem; Kara, Soner; Devrim, Ilker; Kilic, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    Tularemia, a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, is found throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere. It is not well known and is often misdiagnosed in children. Our aim with this study was to evaluate the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for 100 children with tularemia in Turkey. The mean patient age was 10.1 ± 3.5 years (range 3–18 years), and most (63%) patients were male. The most common physical signs and laboratory findings were cervical lymphadenopathy (92%) and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (89%). Treatment response was higher and rate of relapse lower for children 5–10 years of age than for those in other age groups. Associated with treatment failure were female sex, treatment delay of ≥16 days, and use of doxycycline. Tularemia is endemic to Turkey, and the number of cases has been increasing among children as well as adults. PMID:25529639

  17. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite

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    Bruno B. Chomel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin may have prolonged the typical two to three days’ incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child. Finally, it emphasizes again the importance of early and late serum samples for appropriate serodiagnostic.

  18. [Natural focus of tularemia on the Kerchen peninsula (Crimea)].

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    Golkovskiĭ, G M; Mitsevich, G F; Khaĭtovich, A B; Alekseev, E V; Korchevskiĭ, P G

    1981-10-01

    The study confirming the existence of the steppe-type natural focus of tularemia on the Kerch peninsula has been carried out. For the first time the cultures of Francisella tularensis have been isolated. Voles and house mice play the main role in the circulation of the infection. The parasitic system comprises ticks (Ixodidae and Nyalomma), as well as some species of fleas. In carrying out erizootological studies for detecting tularemia in the Crimea the use of low temperature (0 degrees C) for the preservation of specimens and preparations in recommended.

  19. Epidemiology and Ecology of Tularemia in Sweden, 1984–2012

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    Desvars, Amélie; Furberg, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vidman, Linda; Sjöstedt, Anders; Rydén, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The zoonotic disease tularemia is endemic in large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, but research is lacking on patterns of spatial distribution and connections with ecologic factors. To describe the spatial epidemiology of and identify ecologic risk factors for tularemia incidence in Sweden, we analyzed surveillance data collected over 29 years (1984–2012). A total of 4,830 cases were notified, of which 3,524 met all study inclusion criteria. From the first to the second half of the study period, mean incidence increased 10-fold, from 0.26/100,000 persons during 1984–1998 to 2.47/100,000 persons during 1999–2012 (pSweden and illustrate that incidence is higher in locations near lakes and rivers. PMID:25529978

  20. Tularemia in Germany—A Re-emerging Zoonosis

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    Mirko Faber

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia, also known as “rabbit fever,” is a zoonosis caused by the facultative intracellular, gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. Infection occurs through contact with infected animals (often hares, arthropod vectors (such as ticks or deer flies, inhalation of contaminated dust or through contaminated food and water. In this review, we would like to provide an overview of the current epidemiological situation in Germany using published studies and case reports, an analysis of recent surveillance data and our own experience from the laboratory diagnostics, and investigation of cases. While in Germany tularemia is a rarely reported disease, there is evidence of recent re-emergence. We also describe some peculiarities that were observed in Germany, such as a broad genetic diversity, and a recently discovered new genus of Francisella and protracted or severe clinical courses of infections with the subspecies holarctica. Because tularemia is a zoonosis, we also touch upon the situation in the animal reservoir and one-health aspects of this disease. Apparently, many pieces of the puzzle need to be found and put into place before the complex interaction between wildlife, the environment and humans are fully understood. Funding for investigations into rare diseases is scarce. Therefore, combining efforts in several countries in the framework of international projects may be necessary to advance further our understanding of this serious but also scientifically interesting disease.

  1. Severe glandular tularemia in a patient treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor for psoriatic arthritis

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    Ruxandra Calin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of severe glandular tularemia in a patient receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF therapy is reported here. The patient required prolonged treatment with doxycycline–ciprofloxacin due to early relapse after ciprofloxacin was stopped. Tularemia may have a more severe course in patients receiving anti-TNF. This may thus be an indication for more aggressive treatment.

  2. First case of severe pneumonic tularemia in an immunocompetent patient in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigaloff, K.C.E.; Chung, P.K.; Koopmans, J.; Notermans, D.W.; Rijckevorsel, Van G.G.C.; Koene, M.; Sprengers, R.W.; Gooskens, J.; Stalenhoef, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by different subspecies of the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. We report the first case in the Netherlands of pneumonic tularemia caused by the F. tularensis subspecies holarctica after probable occupational inhalation of contaminated aerosols.

  3. Tularemia on Martha’s Vineyard: Seroprevalence and Occupational Risk

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    Stiles-Enos, Donna; Julian, Kathleen; Matyas, Bela T.; Telford, Sam R.; Chu, May C.; Petersen, Lyle R.; Hayes, Edward B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a serosurvey of landscapers to determine if they were at increased risk for exposure to Francisella tularensis and to determine risk factors for infection. In Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, landscapers (n=132) were tested for anti–F. tularensis antibody and completed a questionnaire. For comparison, serum samples from three groups of nonlandscaper Martha’s Vineyard residents (n=103, 99, and 108) were tested. Twelve landscapers (9.1%) were seropositive, compared with one person total from the comparison groups (prevalence ratio 9.0; 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 68.1; p=0.02). Of landscapers who used a power blower, 15% were seropositive, compared to 2% who did not use a power blower (prevalence ratio 9.2; 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 69.0; p=0.02). Seropositive landscapers worked more hours per week mowing and weed-whacking and mowed more lawns per week than their seronegative counterparts. Health-care workers in tularemia-endemic areas should consider tularemia as a diagnosis for landscapers with a febrile illness. PMID:12643831

  4. [Cytopathic effect of the tularemia microbe on a culture of peritoneal macrophages].

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    Maslova, T N; Savel'eva, R A

    1977-10-01

    Morphological analysis of the process of interaction of tularemia microbe strains differing by virulence with macrophages demonstrated that all these strains produced a lethal effect on macrophages obtained from the animales sensitive to the infection. The macrophages obtained from the animals were but little sensitive to tularemia and were resistant to the action of the causative agent of this infection. The data obtained led to a supposition on the presence in the tularemia causative agent of a factor responsible for its lethal action on the macrophages.

  5. Women in Utah History

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    Scott, Patricia Lyn; Thatcher, Linda

    2005-01-01

    A project of the Utah Women's History Association and cosponsored by the Utah State Historical Society, Paradigm or Paradox provides the first thorough survey of the complicated history of all Utah women. Some of the finest historians studying Utah examine the spectrum of significant social and cultural topics in the state's history that particularly have involved or affected women. The contents are as follows: A Comparison of Utah Mormon Polygamous and Monogamous Women Jessie L. Embry and Lo...

  6. Epidemiological characteristics of tularemia in kosova in the period 2006-2011.

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    Zajmi, Drita; Berisha, Merita; Kalaveshi, Ariana; Begolli, Ilir; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxha, Rina

    2013-12-01

    Tularemia is an important zoonosis in Kosovo. The first cases of tularemia in Kosovo were reported in 1999 among civil population in the west part of Kosovo. Tularemia has become an important problem in Kosova after 1999. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and distribution of Tularemia in Kosovo in the period from 2006 to 2011, propose measures and activities for prevention and control of the disease. In this descriptive, retrospective study, we used official reports on infectious diseases from National Institute of Public Health of Kosova (NIPHK), as well as epidemiological surveys. The data collected were analyzed and the corresponding statistical parameters were tested with SPSS for the level of significance for P<0.01 and P<0.05. The morbidity rate over the study period ranged from 0.38 (2011) to 11.26 (2010) per 100000 inhabitants. We found statistical significance between years for the level of P<0.00001. (X(2)-test=387.5; DF=5; P<0.0001). The majority of tularemia cases occurred in female (59%) with statistical significance for P<0.001 (X(2)-test=16.07; DF=1; P<0.001) The peak of cases in age group 20-40 years, with 242 cases or 48%, with statistical significance for the level of P<0.0001 (X(2)-test=253.14; DF=3; P<0.001) The main route of human infection is consumption of no safety water from wells (50%). The majority of tularemia cases occurred in female in Kosovo with 59% of observed cases while in a study in Central Anatolia region 54.7% were female. Kosova is an endemic zone of this disease since 1954 where the first cases were registered. Tularemia is a zoonosis, so in order to avoid human infections it is very important to implement measures well as perform public health education activities.

  7. Study of toxic properties of prototypes of photo inactivated vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis by speckle microscopy

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    Ulianova, Onega V.; Ulyanov, Sergey

    2011-03-01

    Testing of prototypes of vaccines against extremely dangerous diseases, such as tularemia and brucellosis has been performed using speckle-microscopy. Changes of microcirculation caused by effect of toxins at applications of suspension of photoinactivated bacteria have been studied. Toxic properties of prototypes of vaccines against tularemia and brucellosis have been analyzed.

  8. Live attenuated tularemia vaccines: recent developments and future goals.

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    Marohn, Mark E; Barry, Eileen M

    2013-08-02

    In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax attacks in the U.S., numerous efforts were made to increase the level of preparedness against a biological attack both in the US and worldwide. As a result, there has been an increase in research interest in the development of vaccines and other countermeasures against a number of agents with the potential to be used as biological weapons. One such agent, Francisella tularensis, has been the subject of a surge in the level of research being performed, leading to a substantial increase in knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of the organism and the induced immune responses. This information has facilitated the development of multiple new Francisella vaccine candidates. Herein we review the latest live attenuated F. tularensis vaccine efforts. Historically, live attenuated vaccines have demonstrated the greatest degree of success in protection against tularemia and the greatest promise in recent efforts to develop of a fully protective vaccine. This review summarizes recent live attenuated Francisella vaccine candidates and the lessons learned from those studies, with the goal of collating known characteristics associated with successful attenuation, immunogenicity, and protection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. About three cases of ulceroglandular tularemia, is this the re-emergence of Francisella tularensis in Belgium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, E; Van Eeckhoudt, S; Thissen, X; Ausselet, N; Fretin, D; Stefanescu, I; Glupczynski, Y; Delaere, B

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by Francisella tularensis that can be transmitted by several ways to human being and cause different clinical manifestations. We report three clinical cases of tularemia with ulceroglandular presentation in young males acquired during outdoor activities in Southern Belgium. Confirmation of the diagnosis was established by serology. Only three cases of tularemia have been reported in Belgium between 1950 and 2012 by the National Reference Laboratory CODA-CERVA (Ref Lab CODA-CERVA) but re-emergence of tularemia is established in several European countries and F. tularensis is also well known to be present in animal reservoirs and vectors in Belgium. The diagnosis of tularemia has to be considered in case of suggestive clinical presentation associated with epidemiological risk factors.

  10. Utah's New Mathematics Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Utah has adopted more rigorous mathematics standards known as the Utah Mathematics Core Standards. They are the foundation of the mathematics curriculum for the State of Utah. The standards include the skills and understanding students need to succeed in college and careers. They include rigorous content and application of knowledge and reflect…

  11. Difficulty in the Clinical Diagnosis of Tularemia: Highlighting the Importance of a Physical Exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupin Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an 18-month-old male who presented with fever and nonspecific symptoms. He was evaluated for multiple differential diagnoses including Kawasaki disease and JIA and received treatment for them. After he was readmitted, tularemia was considered based on the physical exam finding of an ulcer on the scalp and enlarged lymph nodes. Tularemia titers were positive, and the patient was given the appropriate antibiotic and was discharged home. Follow-up of the patient showed complete resolution of symptoms. This is a case that demonstrates the importance of physical exam in identifying rare diseases presenting with common signs and symptoms.

  12. [Participation of murine rodents in circulation of agents of tularemia and hemorrhagic fever in Kola peninsula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, G D; Kuzovleva, N M; Bespiatova, L A

    2008-01-01

    Results of virological and bacteriological studies of wild mammals of 11 species from Rodentia and Cricetidae genuses during epizootic period (spring-autumn 2006-2007) in Murmansk region are presented. The number of red-baked mice (Clethrionomys) and common vole (Microtus) was rising. Antigen of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus as well as tularemia pathogen were found in background rodent species.

  13. Ten Utah Painters

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Andrew

    1984-01-01

    Today the art world is rich and diverse with regional as well as national art centers. As in the past, art is alive and well in Utah. The show Ten Utah Painters invites us to see and experiece what some of Utah's best contemporary artists are doing. Their paintings invite us to look and to enjoy but also to learn and open up our visual senses to a broader vista.

  14. Live Vaccine Strain Francisella tularensis is Detectable at the Inoculation Site but Not in Blood after Vaccination Against Tularemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hepburn, Matthew J; Purcell, Bret K; Lawler, James V; Coyne, Susan R; Petitt, Patricia L; Sellers, Karen D; Norwood, David A; Ulrich, Melanie P

    2006-01-01

    ...) for the detection of F. tularensis in human clinical samples. Methods. Blood and skin swab samples were prospectively collected from volunteers who received the LVS tularemia vaccine at baseline (negative controls...

  15. [Investigation of the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lymph node aspirates of the suspected tularemia lymphadenitis cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Nurhan; Celebi, Bekir; Kavas, Semra; Simşek, Hülya; Kılıç, Selçuk; Sezen, Figen; Arslantürk, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Recently reports of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis and oropharyngeal tularemia which are the most common infectious causes of granulomatous lymphadenitis, have been significantly increased in Turkey. The differentiation of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis and oropharyngeal tularemia is usually confusing on the basis of clinical and histopathological findings. Thus, in tularemia endemic areas, the patients are more commonly evaluated in terms of tularemia lymphadenitis leaving tuberculosis out. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cervical lymph node aspirates, obtained from tularemia suspected cases. A total of 105 oropharyngeal tularemia-suspected cases which were found negative for Francisella tularensis by bacteriological (culture), molecular (PCR) and serological (microagglutination) methods, were included in the study. The samples had been previously studied at National Tularemia Reference Laboratory, Turkish Public Health Institution, between 2009-2011. The study samples were evaluated in terms of M.tuberculosis by culture and real-time PCR (rtPCR) methods in the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory. Both Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and liquid-based MGIT (BD, USA) automated culture system were used for mycobacterial culture. Samples that yielded mycobacterial growth were identified as M.tuberculosis by immunochromotographic test (BD, USA). The lymph node aspirates of 65 patients who were F.tularensis PCR negative but antibody positive, were used as the control group. As a result, M.tuberculosis was found to be positive in 9 (8.6%) of 105 tularemia-negative lymph node aspirates, sent to our laboratory from different geographic regions for the investigation of tularemia. Six of the M.tuberculosis positive cases were male and the age range of the patients was 26-85 years. The presence of M.tuberculosis was detected only by culture in two samples, only by rtPCR in five samples and both by culture and

  16. [Seroprevalence of tularemia in risk groups of humans and animals in Van, eastern Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Yasemin; Özkaçmaz, Ayşe; Parlak, Mehmet; Başbuğan, Yıldıray; Kılıç, Selçuk; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia has become a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Turkey recently. The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of tularemia in humans and their animals living in rural risky areas of our region and to investigate the risk factors. Between January and July 2012, people living in rural areas of Van province (located at eastern part of Turkey) and their domestic animals were included in the study. The sample size was determined by using cluster sampling method like in an event with known prevalence and planned as a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Proportional random sampling method was used to determine which individuals will be included in the study. Presence of tularemia antibodies in the sera of a total 495 voluntary persons (343 female, 152 male; age range: 18-79 years, mean age: 40.61) and their 171 animals (40 cattle, 124 sheep and 7 goats) were screened by microagglutination test using safranin O-stained F.tularensis antigen (Public Health Agency of Turkey). For the evaluation of cross-reactivity between Brucella spp., tularemia positive serum samples were also tested with brucella microagglutination test. Among human and animal samples, 11.9% (59/495) and 44% (76/171) yielded positive results with the titers of ≥ 1:20 in F.tularensis microagglutination test, respectively. However, 69.5% (41/59) of human sera and 78.9% (60/76) of animal sera demonstrated equal or higher titers in the brucella test, so those sera were considered as cross-reactive. After exclusion of these sera, the seroprevalence for F.tularensis were calculated as 3.6% (18/495) for humans and 9.4% (16/171) for animals. Among the 16 animals with positive results, 12 were sheep, three were cattle and one was goat. The difference between seropositivity rates among the domestic animal species was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). In addition, no statistically significant differences were found between risk factors including insect bite, tick bite, contact with

  17. Tularemia Associated to Drinking Mountain Water Presenting with Lymphadenopathy: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sarlak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia is a zoonotic disease that can be passed to humans via the consumption of wild animal meat or inadequately cooked contaminated drinking water. There has been an increase in the number of observed cases in recent years. The clinical picture may vary from asymptomatic disease to septic shock. Oropharyngeal type of the disease is the most common clinical form and is associated with pharyngitis, fever and cervical lymphadenopathy (LAP. Here we present a 22-year-old female patient who developed cervical LAP after tonsillopharyngitis and was diagnosed with oropharyngeal tularemia that was determined to be related to drinking mountain water. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 245-247

  18. Border Patrol Gone Awry: Lung NKT Cell Activation by Francisella tularensis Exacerbates Tularemia-Like Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Timothy M; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Cicek, Basak B; Osina, Maria A; Boyd, Kelli L; Durrant, Douglas M; Metzger, Dennis W; Khanna, Kamal M; Joyce, Sebastian

    2015-06-01

    The respiratory mucosa is a major site for pathogen invasion and, hence, a site requiring constant immune surveillance. The type I, semi-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are enriched within the lung vasculature. Despite optimal positioning, the role of NKT cells in respiratory infectious diseases remains poorly understood. Hence, we assessed their function in a murine model of pulmonary tularemia--because tularemia is a sepsis-like proinflammatory disease and NKT cells are known to control the cellular and humoral responses underlying sepsis. Here we show for the first time that respiratory infection with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain resulted in rapid accumulation of NKT cells within the lung interstitium. Activated NKT cells produced interferon-γ and promoted both local and systemic proinflammatory responses. Consistent with these results, NKT cell-deficient mice showed reduced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response yet they survived the infection better than their wild type counterparts. Strikingly, NKT cell-deficient mice had increased lymphocytic infiltration in the lungs that organized into tertiary lymphoid structures resembling induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) at the peak of infection. Thus, NKT cell activation by F. tularensis infection hampers iBALT formation and promotes a systemic proinflammatory response, which exacerbates severe pulmonary tularemia-like disease in mice.

  19. Alfalfa Weevil in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Edward W.

    1989-01-01

    The alfalfa weevil is a major pest throughout Utah. It is a beetle with one generation per year. Eggs hatch in the spring, and the grub-like immature weevils (larvae) feed by chewing on the alfalfa foliage. In high numbers, alfalfa weevils can cause severe damage to Utah alfalfa. In any given year, however, the weevils are few enough in number in many fields to cause only minor damage.

  20. State summaries: Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, R.L.; Krahulec, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    The value of Utah's mineral production in 2005 was estimated to be a record $3.58 billion. This was $1.26 billion higher than the revised value of $2.32 billion for 2004. All major industry segments gained in value in 2005. In the value of nonfuel mineral production, Utah ranked fourth. The outlook for 2006 is cautiously optimistic. The value of mineral production is projected to increase slightly in 2006 due to increased production of most base and precious metals, coal and most major industrial minerals.

  1. An acarologic survey and Amblyomma americanum distribution map with implications for tularemia risk in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H.E.; Yates, K.F.; Dietrich, G.; MacMillan, K.; Graham, C.B.; Reese, S.M.; Helterbrand, Wm. S.; Nicholson, W.L.; Blount, K.; Mead, P.S.; Patrick, S.L.; Eisen, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, tickborne diseases occur focally. Missouri represents a major focus of several tickborne diseases that includes spotted fever rickettsiosis, tularemia, and ehrlichiosis. Our study sought to determine the potential risk of human exposure to human-biting vector ticks in this area. We collected ticks in 79 sites in southern Missouri during June 7-10, 2009, which yielded 1,047 adult and 3,585 nymphal Amblyomma americanum, 5 adult Amblyomma maculatum, 19 adult Dermacentor variabilis, and 5 nymphal Ixodes brunneus. Logistic regression analysis showed that areas posing an elevated risk of exposure to A. americanum nymphs or adults were more likely to be classified as forested than grassland, and the probability of being classified as elevated risk increased with increasing relative humidity during the month of June (30-year average). Overall accuracy of each of the two models was greater than 70% and showed that 20% and 30% of the state were classified as elevated risk for human exposure to nymphs and adults, respectively. We also found a significant positive association between heightened acarologic risk and counties reporting tularemia cases. Our study provides an updated distribution map for A. americanum in Missouri and suggests a wide-spread risk of human exposure to A. americanum and their associated pathogens in this region. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Tularemia in the Republic of Serbia during the period from 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia is an infective disease of zoonotic character, bacterial etiology, which occurs predominantly among rodents, but also in other species of domestic and wild mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, and humans. The cause of the disease is Francisella tularensis. Due to its epidemiological-epizootiological characteristics, the cause belongs to the group of biological agents and it has been used as a biological weapon. The disease is characterized by primary local ulcerous changes on the skin and mucosa, regional lymphadenitis, expressed general septicemia, and other changes. This disease is suspected on the grounds of epizootiological data on the incidence of the disease or the deaths of rabbits, sheep, or dogs, but also humans. During the observed period of twelve years, 317 cases of infected humans were recorded in the territory of the Republic of Serbia, without any mortal outcomes. The disease was confirmed in animals in only one case (2006.. In order to ensure full success in preventing the spreading and in the curbing of tularemia it is necessary to secure cooperation among a large number of professionals, in particular those engaged in the fields of human and veterinary medicine.

  3. Zoonotic occupational diseases in forestry workers - Lyme borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stéphanie; Oppliger, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Forestry workers and other people who come into close contact with wild animals, such as hunters, natural science researchers, game managers or mushroom/berry pickers, are at risk of contracting bacterial, parasitological or viral zoonotic diseases. Synthetic data on the incidence and prevalence of zoonotic diseases in both animals and humans in European forests do not exist. It is therefore difficult to promote appropriate preventive measures among workers or people who come into direct or indirect contact with forest animals. The objectives of this review are to synthesise existing knowledge on the prevalence of the three predominant bacterial zoonotic diseases in Europe, i.e. Lyme borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis, in order to draw up recommendations for occupational or public health. 88 papers published between 1995-2013 (33 on Lyme borreliosis, 30 on tularemia and 25 on leptospirosis) were analyzed. The prevalences of these three zoonotic diseases are not negligible and information targeting the public is needed. Moreover, the results highlight the lack of standardised surveys among different European countries. It was also noted that epidemiological data on leptospirosis are very scarce.

  4. Zoonotic occupational diseases in forestry workers – Lyme borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Richard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Forestry workers and other people who come into close contact with wild animals, such as hunters, natural science researchers, game managers or mushroom/berry pickers, are at risk of contracting bacterial, parasitological or viral zoonotic diseases. Synthetic data on the incidence and prevalence of zoonotic diseases in both animals and humans in European forests do not exist. It is therefore difficult to promote appropriate preventive measures among workers or people who come into direct or indirect contact with forest animals. [b]Objectives.[/b] The objectives of this review are to synthesise existing knowledge on the prevalence of the three predominant bacterial zoonotic diseases in Europe, i.e. Lyme borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis, in order to draw up recommendations for occupational or public health. [b]Methods[/b]. 88 papers published between 1995–2013 (33 on Lyme borreliosis, 30 on tularemia and 25 on leptospirosis were analyzed. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The prevalences of these three zoonotic diseases are not negligible and information targeting the public is needed. Moreover, the results highlight the lack of standardised surveys among different European countries. It was also noted that epidemiological data on leptospirosis are very scarce

  5. Seroprevalence of brucellosis, tularemia, and yersiniosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from north-eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K; Tomaso, H; Splettstoesser, W D; Jungersen, G; Riber, U; Petry, T; Hoffmann, D; Scholz, H C; Hensel, A; Neubauer, H

    2005-12-01

    Brucellosis and tularemia are classical zoonotic diseases transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonoses. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas systematic disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies in wild boars from North-Eastern Germany to assess public health risks. A total of 763 sera of wild boars from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania hunted in 1995/1996 were tested using a commercially available Brucella suis ELISA, an in-house lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based Francisella ELISA, and commercially available Western blot kits for the detection of anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies. The Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 LPS is able to induce serological cross-reactions indistinguishable from brucellosis due to a similar immunodominant epitope in the Brucella O-polysaccharide. The Yersinia Western blot assay was, therefore, based on five recombinant Yersinia outer proteins which have been proved to be specific for the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis. Anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies were detected in 22.0%, 3.1%, and 62.6% of the wild boars, respectively. The high seroprevalence of tularemia and brucellosis in wild boars indicates that natural foci of these zoonoses are present in wildlife in Germany. However, the impact of transmission of zoonotic pathogens from wildlife to livestock is unknown. Only careful and systematic monitoring will help to prevent the (re)emergence of these zoonotic diseases in domestic animals and consequently human infection.

  6. Tularemia induces different biochemical responses in BALB/c mice and common voles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitula Frantisek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both BALB/c mice and common voles (Microtus arvalis are considered highly susceptible to tularemia. However, the common vole is reported to harbour Francisella tularensis in European habitats as well as to survive longer with chronic shedding of the bacterium. The purpose of the present study was to compare the response of these two rodents to a wild Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica strain infection. Methods Rodents were evaluated for differences in the total antioxidant capacity derived from low-molecular-weight antioxidants, biochemistry including lipid metabolism, tissue bacterial burdens and histopathology following experimental intraperitoneal infection with 160 colony forming units (CFU pro toto. Results Bacterial burdens in common voles started to develop later post-exposure and amounted to lower levels than in BALB/c mice. Elevation of liver function enzymes was more pronounced in mice than common voles and there were marked differences in lipid metabolism in the course of tularemia in these two species. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia developed in mice, while physiologically higher levels of triglycerides and cholesterol showed a decreasing tendency in common voles. On the other hand, the total plasma antioxidant capacity gradually dropped to 81.5% in mice on day 5 post-infection, while it increased to 130% on day 6 post-infection in common voles. Significant correlations between tissue bacterial burdens and several biochemical parameters were found. Conclusion As differences in lipid metabolism and the total antioxidant capacity of highly susceptible rodent species were demonstrated, the role of triglycerides, cholesterol and antioxidants in tularemic sepsis should be further investigated.

  7. Generation of a convalescent model of virulent Francisella tularensis infection for assessment of host requirements for survival of tularemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah D Crane

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of tularemia. Development of novel vaccines and therapeutics for tularemia has been hampered by the lack of understanding of which immune components are required to survive infection. Defining these requirements for protection against virulent F. tularensis, such as strain SchuS4, has been difficult since experimentally infected animals typically die within 5 days after exposure to as few as 10 bacteria. Such a short mean time to death typically precludes development, and therefore assessment, of immune responses directed against virulent F. tularensis. To enable identification of the components of the immune system that are required for survival of virulent F. tularensis, we developed a convalescent model of tularemia in C57Bl/6 mice using low dose antibiotic therapy in which the host immune response is ultimately responsible for clearance of the bacterium. Using this model we demonstrate αβTCR(+ cells, γδTCR(+ cells, and B cells are necessary to survive primary SchuS4 infection. Analysis of mice deficient in specific soluble mediators shows that IL-12p40 and IL-12p35 are essential for survival of SchuS4 infection. We also show that IFN-γ is required for survival of SchuS4 infection since mice lacking IFN-γR succumb to disease during the course of antibiotic therapy. Finally, we found that both CD4(+ and CD8(+ cells are the primary producers of IFN-γand that γδTCR(+ cells and NK cells make a minimal contribution toward production of this cytokine throughout infection. Together these data provide a novel model that identifies key cells and cytokines required for survival or exacerbation of infection with virulent F. tularensis and provides evidence that this model will be a useful tool for better understanding the dynamics of tularemia infection.

  8. Neonatal mortality in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, F R; Schuman, K L; Lyon, J L

    1982-09-01

    A cohort study of neonatal mortality (N = 106) in white singleton births (N = 14,486) in Utah for January-June 1975 was conducted. Using membership and activity in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon) as a proxy for parental health practices, i.e., tobacco and alcohol abstinence, differential neonatal mortality rates were calculated. The influence of potential confounding factors was evaluated. Low activity LDS members were found to have an excess risk of neonatal death five times greater than high activity LDS, with an upper bound of a two-sided 95% confidence interval of 7.9. The data consistently indicate a lower neonatal mortality rate for active LDS members. Non-LDS were found to have a lower rate than either medium or low activity LDS.

  9. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  10. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Periasamy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection.

  11. Annotated geothermal bibliography of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budding, K.E.; Bugden, M.H. (comps.)

    1986-01-01

    The bibliography includes all the Utah geothermal references through 1984. Some 1985 citations are listed. Geological, geophysical, and tectonic maps and reports are included if they cover a high-temperature thermal area. The references are indexed geographically either under (1) United States (national studies), (2) regional - western United States or physiographic province, (3) Utah - statewide and regional, or (4) county. Reports concerning a particular hot spring or thermal area are listed under both the thermal area and the county names.

  12. Disease Outbreak News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MERS-CoV) Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza at the Human-Animal Interface (HAI) Related documents WHO outbreak communication guide 2008 WHO outbreak communications guidelines Outbreak communication: ...

  13. Botulism from drinking prison-made illicit alcohol - Utah 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    Foodborne botulism is a rare, potentially fatal paralytic illness caused by eating food contaminated by Clostridium botulinum toxin. It occurs most often as a single case not linked to others by a common food source. As a result of improvements in food canning, when outbreaks do occur, they typically involve fewer than five persons. During October 2-4 2011, eight maximum security inmates at the Utah State Prison in Salt Lake County were diagnosed with foodborne botulism. An investigation by Salt Lake Valley Heath Department, Utah Department of Health, and CDC identified pruno, an illicit alcoholic brew, as the vehicle. The principal ingredients in pruno are fruit, sugar, and water. Many additional ingredients, including root vegetables, are sometimes added, depending on the availability of foods in prison. A baked potato saved from a meal served weeks earlier and added to the pruno was the suspected source of C. botulinum spores. Many of the affected inmates suffered severe morbidity, and some required prolonged hospitalizations. Knowing the link between pruno and botulism might help public health and correctional authorities prevent future outbreaks, respond quickly with appropriate health-care to inmates with acute descending paralysis and/or other symptoms, and reduce associated treatment costs to states.

  14. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  15. Utah Delivers Opportunities for Career Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Kristine; Fischio, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    Providing information and resources to support career exploration is key to the mission of career and technical education (CTE) in Utah. Utah CTE has responded in a variety of ways to meet the career exploration needs of students of all ages. This article discusses how the career and technical education in Utah delivers opportunities for career…

  16. Population Genomics of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica and its Implication on the Eco-Epidemiology of Tularemia in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Matthias; Altpeter, Ekkehard; Pilo, Paola; Gygli, Sebastian M; Beuret, Christian; Foucault, Frederic; Ackermann-Gäumann, Rahel; Karrer, Urs; Jacob, Daniela; Grunow, Roland; Schürch, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) methods provide new possibilities in the field of molecular epidemiology. This is particularly true for monomorphic organisms where the discriminatory power of traditional methods (e.g., restriction enzyme length polymorphism typing, multi locus sequence typing etc.) is inadequate to elucidate complex disease transmission patterns, as well as resolving the phylogeny at high resolution on a micro-geographic scale. In this study, we present insights into the population structure of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica , the causative agent of tularemia in Switzerland. A total of 59 Fth isolates were obtained from castor bean ticks ( Ixodes ricinus) , animals and humans and a high resolution phylogeny was inferred using WGS methods. The majority of the Fth population in Switzerland belongs to the west European B.11 clade and shows an extraordinary genetic diversity underlining the old evolutionary history of the pathogen in the alpine region. Moreover, a new B.11 subclade was identified which was not described so far. The combined analysis of the epidemiological data of human tularemia cases with the whole genome sequences of the 59 isolates provide evidence that ticks play a pivotal role in transmitting Fth to humans and other vertebrates in Switzerland. This is further underlined by the correlation of disease risk estimates with climatic and ecological factors influencing the survival of ticks.

  17. Disneyland Measles Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Palladino, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This media information sheet analyzes print and online coverage of the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak. The frameworks that the media used to report on the outbreak presented vaccination as the only viable option from preventing the spread of measles. Reporting also failed to mention that the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak was smaller than U.S. measles outbreaks in 2013 and 2014.

  18. Utah Public Library Trustee Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Library, Salt Lake City.

    Designed to answer basic questions and to assist the Utah public library trustee in the performance of his duties, this handbook's brief, informative sections cover efficiency guidelines, policies and procedures, standards, money, personnel services, travel costs, operations, capital outlay, trustee checklist, job description for librarian,…

  19. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Utah single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  20. Utah's uranium mines operated by new company as merger requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    When Utah International became a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Electric Company on December 20, 1976, a special provision of the merger was that Utah and General Electric would divest themselves of Utah's uranium operations. A new wholly-owned subsidiary of Utah was established, Lucky McUranium Corporation, to manage and operate Utah's uranium properties. The article briefly describes the operations

  1. Clinical Characteristics of Ulceroglandular Tularemia in Two Bulgarian Regions, 2014-2015: a Report of Five Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekova Liliya M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present here the first five human cases with tularemia from two regions in South Bulgaria in which there had been no previous report of the infection. The cases occurred over a period of 8 months (December 2014 - August 2015. They were treated at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Stara Zagora University Hospital, Bulgaria. We present the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data for four men and one woman (age range 52 to 73 years. Three men were hunters, four patients took part in handling, preparing/skinning and cooking the game animals. One man marked agricultural work and contact with straw stems. After a mean incubation period of 4.8±1.4 days ulcers appeared, followed by local painful lymphadenitis. All patients presented with liver enlargement and elevation in acute phase reactants. The etiological diagnosis was made by tube agglutination test in all cases, PCR positive result was found in one. The administered antibacterial treatment was a combination of aminoglycosides and 4-quinolones with the outcome being favorable for all patients. The current report suggests presence of Francisella tularensis in South Bulgaria.

  2. Seismic retrofit guidelines for Utah highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Much of Utahs population dwells in a seismically active region, and many of the bridges connecting transportation lifelines predate the rigorous seismic design standards that have been developed in the past 10-20 years. Seismic retrofitting method...

  3. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  4. Outbreaks of nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Geeta; Parrish, Nikki

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the emerging literature on nontuberculous mycobacteria outbreaks in healthcare settings. As our ability to identify mycobacterial species develops, we are better able to recognize epidemiologic connections and better understand the prevalence and importance of these outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks in healthcare settings. The number of outbreaks related to nontuberculous outbreaks is increasing because of heightened awareness and better diagnostic tests for species level identification of mycobacteria. Outbreaks in healthcare settings have been related to cardiac surgery, plastic surgery, including medical tourism, colonized humidifiers and heater-cooler devices, imperfect disinfection, and hospital water sources. Mycobacteria have a predilection to form biofilms, are resistant to disinfection and are prevalent in hospital water systems. Patients with structural lung disease like cystic fibrosis patients are at particularly high risk for mycobacterial infection. It has been thought that acquisition in this patient population is from common environmental exposure; however, there is increasing evidence that transmission in this patient population can occur through either direct or indirect patient-to-patient spread. Mycobacteria outbreaks in healthcare settings have been underrecognized. As we identify additional clusters of infection with better diagnostic tools and heightened awareness, we will likely need better infection control practices to prevent infections in healthcare settings.

  5. Biosurveillance in outbreak investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydos-Daniels, S Cornelia; Rojas Smith, Lucia; Farris, Tonya R

    2013-03-01

    Following the terrorist attacks of September 11 and the anthrax attacks in 2001, public health entities implemented automated surveillance systems based on disease syndromes for early detection of bioterror events and to increase timeliness of responses. Despite widespread adoption, syndromic surveillance systems' ability to provide early notification of outbreaks is unproven, and there is little documentation on their role in outbreak response. We hypothesized that biosurveillance is used in practice to augment classical outbreak investigations, and we used case studies conducted in 2007-08 to determine (1) which steps in outbreak investigations were best served by biosurveillance, and (2) which steps presented the greatest opportunities for improvement. The systems used in the case studies varied in how they functioned, and there were examples in which syndromic systems had identified outbreaks before other methods. Biosurveillance was used successfully for all steps of outbreak investigations. Key advantages of syndromic systems were sensitivity, timeliness, and flexibility and as a source of data for situational awareness. Limitations of biosurveillance were a lack of specificity, reliance on chief complaint data, and a lack of formal training for users. Linking syndromic data to triage notes and medical chart data would substantially increase the value of biosurveillance in the conduct of outbreak investigations and reduce the burden on health department staff.

  6. Diversity of Francisella tularensis Schu4 antigens recognized by T lymphocytes after natural infections in humans: identification of candidate epitopes for inclusion in a rationally designed tularemia vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurry, Julie A; Gregory, Stephen H; Moise, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    The T lymphocyte antigens, which may have a role in protection against tularemia, were predicted by immunoinformatics analysis of Francisella tularensis Schu4. Twenty-seven class II putative promiscuous epitopes and 125 putative class I supertype epitopes were chosen for synthesis; peptides were...... tested in vitro for their ability to bind HLA and to induce immune responses from PBMCs of 23 previously infected subjects. While the immune responses of individual subjects showed heterogeneity, 95% of the subjects responded strongly to a pool of 27 promiscuous peptides; 25%, 33%, and 44% of subjects...

  7. National Outbreak Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) is a web-based platform designed to support reporting to CDC by local, state, and territorial health departments in the...

  8. Outbreaks and Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Gets Fungal Infections? People living with HIV/AIDS Organ Transplant Patients Cancer Patients Hospitalized Patients Stem Cell Transplant Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal Meningitis ...

  9. Environmental Assessment Proposed Demolition Plan Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Administrative Code UDAQ Utah Department of Air Quality UDEQ Utah Department of Environmental Quality UPDES Utah Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...storm water is discharged into a collection point then drained off base. Hill AFB does not have a Utah Pollutant Discharge Elimination System ( UPDES ...to accept friable asbestos. Loose flakes of LBP (confirmed to contain lead by on-site inspections using a portable X -ray fluorescence analyzer

  10. Utah Article Delivery: A New Model for Consortial Resource Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Carol A.; Lee, Daniel R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the UTAD (Utah Article Delivery) Pilot Project, an innovative resource-sharing service that provides journal articles to the Utah higher education community, developed by the Utah Academic Library Consortium (UALC) in partnership with EBSCO Document Services. Highlights include goals, options considered, challenges, and evaluation. The…

  11. 77 FR 6141 - Notice of Utah's Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Hotel (Wyoming meeting room), 500 South Main Street, Salt Lake City, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... issues associated with public land management in Utah. Planned agenda topics include a welcome and... councils; issues and concerns in BLM Utah; recreation fee refresher and fee proposals on the Buckeye...

  12. Revisiting Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Causative Agent of Tularemia in Germany With Bioinformatics: New Insights in Genome Structure, DNA Methylation and Comparative Phylogenetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Busch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Francisella (F. tularensis is a highly virulent, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. Here, we generated, analyzed and characterized a high quality circular genome sequence of the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain 12T0050 that caused fatal tularemia in a hare. Besides the genomic structure, we focused on the analysis of oriC, unique to the Francisella genus and regulating replication in and outside hosts and the first report on genomic DNA methylation of a Francisella strain. The high quality genome was used to establish and evaluate a diagnostic whole genome sequencing pipeline. A genotyping strategy for F. tularensis was developed using various bioinformatics tools for genotyping. Additionally, whole genome sequences of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates isolated in the years 2008–2015 in Germany were generated. A phylogenetic analysis allowed to determine the genetic relatedness of these isolates and confirmed the highly conserved nature of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica.

  13. 76 FR 69296 - University of Utah, University of Utah TRIGA Nuclear Reactor, Notice of Issuance of Renewed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION University of Utah, University of Utah TRIGA Nuclear Reactor, Notice of Issuance of Renewed... University of Utah (UU, the licensee), which authorizes continued operation of the UU TRIGA Nuclear Reactor...

  14. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  15. 1999 ESH&Q Liability Assessment Report of Envirocare of Utah, Inc. Clive, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, D. E. [INEEL; Vilord, C. E.

    1999-07-01

    This report contains the results of an environment, safety, health, and quality (ESH&Q) assessment of the treatment technologies and treatment-related operations that was conducted of Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (EOU). EOU is a lowlevel radioactive and mixed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)- regulated haz.ardous low-level radioactive waste (mixed low-level waste) treatment/disposal facility located near Clive, Utah. An ESH&Q assessment of the EOU Clive, Utah facility treatment technologies and related treatment operations was conducted in mid-April 1999. The assessment was required as part of the technical evaluation of proposals received by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) for modification of a mixed low-level radioactive waste disposal subcontract (No.K79-180572). The EOU Clive, Utah facility is proposed as a potential treatment/disposal facility for mixed low-level radioactive waste regulated under the RCRA and the Atomic Energy Act

  16. Bibliography of Utah radioactive occurrences. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doelling, H.H.

    1983-07-01

    The references in this bibliography were assembled by reviewing published bibliographies of Utah geology, unpublished reports of the US Geological Survey and the Department of Energy, and various university theses. Each of the listings is cross-referenced by location and subject matter. This report is published in two volumes

  17. Utah Youth Suicide Study: Psychological Autopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskos, Michelle; Olson, Lenora; Halbern, Sarah; Keller, Trisha; Gray, Doug

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a psychological autopsy study to further understand youth suicide in Utah. While traditional psychological autopsy studies primarily focus on the administration of psychometric measures to identify any underlying diagnosis of mental illness for the suicide decedent, we focused our interviews to identify which contacts in the…

  18. Bibliography of Utah radioactive occurrences. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doelling, H.H.

    1983-07-01

    The references in this bibliography were assembled by reviewing published bibliographies of Utah geology, unpublished reports of the US Geological Survey and the Department of Energy, and various university theses. Each of the listings is cross-referenced by location and subject matter. This report is published in two volumes

  19. Utah's forest resources, 2003-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Werstak; John D. Shaw; Sara A. Goeking; Christopher Witt; James Menlove; Mike T. Thompson; R. Justin DeRose; Michael C. Amacher; Sarah Jovan; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson; Steven W. Hayes; Chelsea P. McIver

    2016-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the most recent inventory of Utah’s forests based on field data collected from 2003 through 2012. The report includes descriptive highlights and tables of area, numbers of trees, biomass, volume, growth, mortality, and removals. Most sections and tables are organized by forest type or forest-type group, species group, diameter class,...

  20. 78 FR 9807 - Utah Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... prohibition on coal mining and reclamation operations within the buffer zone of a public road. Utah proposed... the prohibition on coal mining and reclamation operations within the buffer zone of a public road as... buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. [[Page 9809

  1. The American Pika in Southern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Ethan; Frey, S. Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the American pika, the smallest member of the rabbit and hare family. It discusses concerns for the American pika populations, its presence in the Cedar Breaks National Monument, and how individuals can help monitor the pika at Cedar Breaks and throughout Utah.

  2. Bibliography of Utah radioactive occurrences. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelling, H.H. (comp.)

    1983-07-01

    The references in this bibliography were assembled by reviewing published bibliographies of Utah geology, unpublished reports of the US Geological Survey and the Department of Energy, and various university theses. Each of the listings is cross-referenced by location and subject matter. This report is published in two volumes.

  3. Bibliography of Utah radioactive occurrences. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelling, H.H. (comp.)

    1983-07-01

    The references in this bibliography were assembled by reviewing published bibliographies of Utah geology, unpublished reports of the US Geological Survey and the Department of Energy, and various university theses. Each of the listings is cross-referenced by location and subject matter. This report is published in two volumes.

  4. Responding to Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-27

    In this podcast, a team of CDC specialists travels to Uganda and tracks the source of an Ebola outbreak where CDC scientists are studying bats for clues to the Ebola mystery.  Created: 4/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/27/2009.

  5. Swimming Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabelli, V. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of recreational waterborne outbreaks and cases of disease, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies; (2) predictive models of the risk of recreational waterborn disease. A list of 35 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Investigating Listeria Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-04

    Dr. Emily Cartwright, Infectious Disease fellow at Emory University and former EIS Officer with CDC’s Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases discusses foodborne Listeria outbreaks.  Created: 1/4/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/8/2013.

  7. Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-17

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in noroviruses, discusses foodborne norovirus outbreaks.  Created: 9/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/17/2012.

  8. Forecasting rodent outbreaks in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Verhagen, Ron; Verheyen, Walter

    1996-01-01

    1. Rainfall data were collated for years preceding historical outbreaks of Mastomys rats in East Africa in order to test the hypothesis that such outbreaks occur after long dry periods. 2. Rodent outbreaks were generally not preceded by long dry periods. 3. Population dynamics of Mastomys...

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Utah. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 Utah State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Utah.

  10. 75 FR 64741 - Notice of Utah's Resource Advisory Council (RAC) Subcommittee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...: The UDAF is located at 350 North Redwood Road, Salt Lake City, Utah 84114. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... 45155, Salt Lake City, Utah 84145-0155; phone (801) 539-4195. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Utah RAC...

  11. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  12. Measles outbreak--California, December 2014-February 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipprich, Jennifer; Winter, Kathleen; Hacker, Jill; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James; Harriman, Kathleen

    2015-02-20

    On January 5, 2015, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified about a suspected measles case. The patient was a hospitalized, unvaccinated child, aged 11 years with rash onset on December 28. The only notable travel history during the exposure period was a visit to one of two adjacent Disney theme parks located in Orange County, California. On the same day, CDPH received reports of four additional suspected measles cases in California residents and two in Utah residents, all of whom reported visiting one or both Disney theme parks during December 17-20. By January 7,seven California measles cases had been confirmed, and CDPH issued a press release and an Epidemic Information Exchange (Epi-X) notification to other states regarding this outbreak. Measles transmission is ongoing.

  13. Environmental Report Utah State Prison Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    This environmental report assesses the potential impact of developing a geothermal resource for space heating at the Utah State Prison. Wells will be drilled on prison property for production and for injection to minimize reservoir depletion and provide for convenient disposal of cooled fluid. The most significant environmental concerns are the proper handling of drilling muds during well drilling and the disposal of produced water during well testing. These problems will be handled by following currently accepted practices to reduce the potential risks.

  14. Reconnaissance of the hydrothermal resources of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic factors in the Basin and Range province in Utah are more favorable for the occurrence of geothermal resources than in other areas on the Colorado Plateaus or in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These geologic factors are principally crustal extension and crustal thinning during the last 17 million years. Basalts as young as 10,000 years have been mapped in the area. High-silica volcanic and intrusive rocks of Quaternary age can be used to locate hydrothermal convection systems. Drilling for hot, high-silica, buried rock bodies is most promising in the areas of recent volcanic activity. Southwestern Utah has more geothermal potential than other parts of the Basin and Range province in Utah. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area, the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale area, and the area to the north as far as 60 kilometers from them probably have the best potential for geothermal development for generation of electricity. Other areas with estimated reservoir temperatures greater than 150/sup 0/C are Thermo, Monroe, Red Hill (in the Monroe-Joseph Known Geothermal Resource Area), Joseph Hot Springs, and the Newcastle area. The rates of heat and water discharge are high at Crater, Meadow, and Hatton Hot Springs, but estimated reservoir temperatures there are less than 150/sup 0/C. Additional exploration is needed to define the potential in three additional areas in the Escalante Desert. 28 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. A Spontaneous Mutation in kdsD, a Biosynthesis Gene for 3-Deoxy-D-manno-Octulosonic Acid, Occurred in a Ciprofloxacin Resistant Strain of Francisella tularensis and Causes a High Level of Attenuation in Murine Models of Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    with AMPure PB beads. The P4 613 polymerase in combination with the C2 sequencing kit and we collected 240-minute movies. 614 Raw reads were quality... combined with a gene 637 specific primer, and intron insertion of the targeted gene was determined using gene-specific 638 primers that amplified across...Schildt R, Raisainen S. In vitro susceptibility of Francisella tularensis to 929 fluoroquinolones and treatment of tularemia with norfloxacin and

  16. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Morgan, Craig D.; Bon, Roger L.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m 3 ). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m 3 ) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the third quarter of the first project year (January 1 through March 31, 2003). This work included gathering field data and analyzing best practices in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, and the Colorado portion of the Paradox Basin. Best practices used in oil fields of the eastern Uinta Basin consist of conversion of all geophysical well logs into digital form, running small fracture treatments, fingerprinting oil samples from each producing zone, running spinner surveys biannually, mapping each producing zone, and drilling on 80-acre (32 ha) spacing. These practices ensure that induced fractures do not extend vertically out of the intended zone, determine the percentage each zone contributes to the overall production of

  17. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Grant C. Willis

    2003-09-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to

  18. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C.; Morgan, Craig D.; McClure, Kevin; Willis, Grant C.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m 3 ). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m 3 ) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to Arizona. Outcrop analogs are

  19. Incentives for reporting disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Reif, Julian; Malani, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Countries face conflicting incentives to report infectious disease outbreaks. Reports of outbreaks can prompt other countries to impose trade and travel restrictions, which has the potential to discourage reporting. However, reports can also bring medical assistance to contain the outbreak, including access to vaccines. We compiled data on reports of meningococcal meningitis to the World Health Organization (WHO) from 54 African countries between 1966 and 2002, a period is marked by two events: first, a large outbreak reported from many countries in 1987 associated with the Hajj that resulted in more stringent requirements for meningitis vaccination among pilgrims; and second, another large outbreak in Sub-Saharan Africa in 1996 that led to a new international mechanism to supply vaccines to countries reporting a meningitis outbreak. We used fixed-effects regression modeling to statistically estimate the effect of external forcing events on the number of countries reporting cases of meningitis to WHO. We find that the Hajj vaccination requirements started in 1988 were associated with reduced reporting, especially among countries with relatively fewer cases reported between 1966 and 1979. After the vaccine provision mechanism was in place in 1996, reporting among countries that had previously not reported meningitis outbreaks increased. These results indicate that countries may respond to changing incentives to report outbreaks when they can do so. In the long term, these incentives are likely to be more important than surveillance assistance in prompt reporting of outbreaks.

  20. The Money Mentors Program: Increasing Financial Literacy in Utah Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Zurishaddai A.; Francis, Dave; Christensen, Amanda; MacArthur, Stacey S.; Memmott, Margie; Hill, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Utah 4-H and Fidelity Investments collaborated on a program for increasing the financial literacy of teens and children. The collaboration resulted in positive impacts for both Extension and Utah youths. Extension benefited through partnership with a corporation that provided content expertise, volunteers, and funding for a financial literacy…

  1. Homeless Children and Youth in Utah. 1993 Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    The Utah State Office of Education has conducted surveys of homeless shelters throughout Utah for the past 4 years. Data show that, during 1993, 32 shelter providers reported sheltering 4,680 homeless children. Each year, however, the shelter providers report turning away an increasing number of families because of a lack of space. Budget…

  2. Cancer mortality and radioactive fallout in southwestern Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, S.G.; Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer mortality was compared between a three-county region in southwestern Utah and the remainder of Utah in an investigation of reported excess cancer risks associated with residence in southwestern Utah during the period of above-ground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Because most of the fallout in southwestern Utah was deposited during 1953-1957, comparisons were limited to persons born before 1958, and deaths from leukemia and bone cancer during 1955-1980 and from other cancers during 1964-1980. There was no excess risk of cancer mortality in southwestern Utah, for single or grouped sites, with the single exception of leukemia which showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.45 based on 62 deaths at all ages, and 2.84 based on nine deaths at ages 0-14. The finding for childhood leukemia was based on different time periods and geographic comparisons from those of two earlier studies in which no such excess was found. Mortality from all cancer sites combined was significantly lower in southwestern Utah than in the remainder of the state, even after adjustment for the higher proportion of (lower risk) Mormons in southwestern Utah. The present results, including the positive association for leukemia, are inconsistent with the high excess risks reported by Johnson (JAMA 1984;251:230-6) based on an interview survey of cancer incidence among long-term Mormon residents of southwestern Utah

  3. Three-Dimensional Utah: 100 Years of Sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Eccles Harrison Museum of Art

    1996-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Utah: 100 Years of Sculpture began as a series of conversations about sculptors and sculpture nearly six years ago. Specific development of the exhibition began three years ago during the process of creating a national inventory of outdoor sculpture for a program called Save Outdoor Sculpture (SOS)! Utah is home to more than 200 pieces of outdoor sculpture.

  4. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively

  5. Utah Guidance and Toolkit for Student Learning Objectives: Instructions and Materials. Utah SLOs. Updated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document is intended to help teachers understand and create Student Learning Objectives (SLOs). This resource is a practical guide intended to provide clarity to a complex but worthwhile task. This resource may also be used by administrators for professional learning. As Utah moves toward providing a "Model for Measuring Educator…

  6. Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Gunther F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Gastroenteritis outbreaks on cruise ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Verykouki, Eleni; Zamfir, Dumitru

    2017-01-01

    When an increased number of acute gastroenteritis (AG) cases is detected among tourists staying at the same accommodation, outbreak management plans must be activated in a timely manner to prevent large outbreaks. Syndromic surveillance data collected between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013...

  8. Comparison of MIDI Sherlock system and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in characterizing strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a recent hospital outbreak.

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, R B; Mayer, J; Sasser, M; Woods, M L; Mooney, B R; Brinton, B G; Newcomb-Gayman, P L; Carroll, K C

    1995-01-01

    An outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections at the University of Utah Health Sciences Center occurred over a 7-month period. While the isolates phenotypically appeared to be similar in gross morphology and have similar Vitek antibiotic susceptibility patterns, two additional methods of strain characterization were evaluated to enhance the epidemiological investigation: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and gas chromatography with the MIDI Sherlock system. Sherlock use...

  9. Cerebrovascular disease in Utah, 1968--1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J L; Bishop, C T; Nielsen, N S

    1981-01-01

    Utah mortality rates for cerebrovascular disease (ICD numbers 430--438) are 13% below U.S. rates. About 70% of Utahns are members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, commonly called Mormons of LDS, which proscribes use of tobacco and alcohol. Other studies on this group have found significantly lower occurrence of many cancers and ischemic heart disease. We tested the hypothesis that Utah's lower cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) mortality was contributed by the LDS population. We classified by religion all CBVD deaths (2,521) (except subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral embolism) occurring in the state in 1968--1971. No significant difference was found between LDS and non-LDS, but both groups had mortality rates below U.S. expectation. Although recent studies have reported smoking to be a risk factor for CBVD, we found no consistent difference between the LDS and non-LDS, even in the younger age groups. The results do not support the hypothesis that tobacco is an important etiologic agent in CBVD mortality.

  10. 76 FR 18245 - West Tavaputs Plateau Road Restriction Order, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Road Salt Lake Meridian, Utah T. 11 S., R. 18 E., sec. 27, SE\\1/4\\SE\\1/4\\; sec. 33, S\\1/2\\SE\\1/4\\; sec... Road Salt Lake Meridian, Utah T. 13 S., R. 17 E., sec. 8, S\\1/2\\SW\\1/4\\; sec. 17, NW\\1/4\\NW\\1/4\\; sec...\\. Jack Ridge Road Salt Lake Meridian, Utah T. 13 S., R. 16 E., sec. 8, NE\\1/4\\; sec. 9, SE\\1/4\\NE\\1/4...

  11. Air pollution and gastrointestinal diseases in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestas, Melissa May

    The valleys of northern Utah, where most of Utah's population resides, experience episodic air pollution events well in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Most of the events are due to an accumulation of particulate matter during persistent cold air pools in winter from both direct emissions and secondary chemical reactions in the atmosphere. High wintertime ozone concentrations are occasionally observed in the Uintah Basin, in addition to particulate matter. At other times of the year, blowing dust, wildland fires, fireworks, and summertime ozone formation contribute to local air pollution. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate one facet of the health effects of Utah's air pollution on its residents: the acute impacts of air pollution on gastrointestinal (GI) disease. To study the health effects of these episodic pollution events, some measure of air pollution exposure must be matched to the health data. Time and place are used to link the health data for a person with the pollution data. This dissertation describes the method of kriging data from the sparse pollution monitoring network to estimate personal air pollution history based on the zip code of residence. This dissertation then describes the application of these exposure estimates to a health study on GI disease. The purpose of the GI study is to retrospectively look at two groups of patients during 2000-2014: those with autoimmune disease of the GI tract (inflammatory bowel disease, IBD) and those with allergic disease of the GI tract (eosinophilic esophagitis, EoE) to determine whether disease exacerbations occur more commonly during and following periods of poor air quality compared to periods of good air quality. The primary analysis method is case crossover design. In addition to using the kriged air pollution estimates, the analysis was repeated using simpler empirical estimation methods to assess whether the odds ratios are sensitive to the air pollution estimation

  12. 76 FR 39434 - Notice of Utah's Resource Advisory Council (RAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...-N-Ride, Exit 405 (South Weber Drive), from Highway 89 (South Ogden). The South Weber Park & Ride is... held at the BLM's Utah State Office, 440 West 200 South, fifth floor Monument Conference Room, Salt...

  13. Deicer usage on concrete and asphalt pavements in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) compile winter maintenance data for the Utah Department of : Transportation (UDOT) to directly compare concrete and asphalt pavements with regards to deicer usage and 2) : determine if there is a statistical...

  14. Pliocene diatoms from the Bryce Canyon Area, Utah

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    The diatomite deposits were collected at 6,650 foot elevation near Hillsdale (vicinity of Bryce Canyon National Park), Utah, Preliminary investigation showed that the deposits were of pliocene age and probably equivalent to the Salt Lake group...

  15. Prioritizing High-Temperature Geothermal Resources in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackett, R.E.; Brill, T.C.; Sowards, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Utah Geological Survey and the Utah Energy Office recently released geothermal resource information for Utah as a "digital atlas." We are now expanding this project to include economic analyses of selected geothermal sites and previously unavailable resource information. The enhancements to the digital atlas will include new resource, demographic, regulatory, economic, and other information to allow analyses of economic factors for comparing and ranking geothermal resource sites in Utah for potential electric power development. New resource information includes temperature gradient and fluid chemistry data, which was previously proprietary. Economic analyses are based upon a project evaluation model to assess capital and operating expenses for a variety of geothermal powerplant configuration scenarios. A review of legal and institutional issues regarding geothermal development coupled with water development will also be included.

  16. Irrigation drainage: Green River basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, Jerry B.

    1988-01-01

    A reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah during 1986-87 determined that concentrations of selenium in water and biological tissues were potentially harmful to wildlife at the Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and in the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Concentations of selenium in irrigation drainage entering Stewart Lake ranged from 14 to 140 micrograms per liter; liver tissue from coots collected from the lake contained selenium concentrations of as much as 26 micrograms per gram and samples of tissue from carp contained as much as 31 micrograms per gram. Concentrations of selenium in a pond at the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, which receives irrigation water and shallow ground water, were as much as 93 micrograms per liter. Liver tissue from coots collected from this pond contained selenium concentrations of as much as 43 micrograms per gram; eggs of water birds contained as much as 120 micrograms per gram.

  17. Environmental assessment overview, Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs

  18. Thermal Water of Utah Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goode, Harry D.

    1978-11-01

    Western and central Utah has 16 areas whose wells or springs yield hot water (35 C or higher), warm water (20-34.5 C), and slightly warm water (15.5-19.5 C). These areas and the highest recorded water temperature for each are: Lower Bear River Area, 105 C; Bonneville Salt Flats, 88 C; Cove Fort-Sulphurdale, 77 C; Curlew Valley, 43 C; East Shore Area, 60 C; Escalante Desert, 149 C; Escalante Valley (Roosevelt, 269 C, and Thermo, 85C); Fish Springs, 60.5 C; Grouse Creek Valley, 42 C; Heber Valley (Midway, 45 C); Jordan Valley, 58.5 C; Pavant Valley-Black Rock Desert, 67 C; Sevier Desert ( Abraham-Crater Hot Springs, 82 C); Sevier Valley (Monroe-Red Hill, 76.5 C, and Joseph Hot Spring, 64 C); Utah Valley, 46 C; and Central Virgin River Basin, 42 C. The only hot water in eastern Utah comes from the oil wells of the Ashley Valley Oil Field, which in 1977 yielded 4400 acre-feet of water at 43 C to 55 C. Many other areas yield warm water (20 to 34.5 C) and slightly warm water (15.5 to 19.5 C). With the possible exception of the Roosevelt KGRA, Crater Hot Springs in the Sevier Desert, Escalante Desert, Pavant-Black Rock, Cove Fort-Sulphurdale, and Coyote Spring in Curlew Valley, which may derive their heat from buried igneous bodies, the heat that warms the thermal water is derived from the geothermal gradient. Meteoric water circulates through fractures or permeable rocks deep within the earth, where it is warmed; it then rises by convection or artesian pressure and issues at the surface as springs or is tapped by wells. Most thermal springs thus rise along faults, but some thermal water is trapped in confined aquifers so that it spreads laterally as it mixes with and warms cooler near-surface water. This spreading of thermal waters is evident in Cache Valley, in Jordan Valley, and in southern Utah Valley; likely the spreading occurs in many other artesian basins where it has not yet been recognized. In the East Shore Area thermal water trapped in confined aquifers warms

  19. 78 FR 2424 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... receipt requested to the Cashier, BLM Utah State Office, P. O. Box 45155, Salt Lake City, Utah 84145-0155... volatile matter, 49.83 percent fixed carbon and 0.49 percent sulfur; (2) Kenilworth: 13,287 Btu/lb., 2.06 percent moisture, 6.91 percent ash, 42.88 percent volatile matter, 48.26 percent fixed carbon and 0.72...

  20. Hydrologic reconnaissance of Rush Valley, Tooele County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, James W.; Price, Don; Waddell, K.M.

    1969-01-01

    This report is the third in a series by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, which describes the water resources of the western basins of Utah. Its purpose is to present available hydrologic data for Rush Valley, to provide an evaluation of the potential water-resources development of the valley, and to identify needed studies that would help provide an understanding of the valley's water supply.

  1. Hydrologic reconnaissance of Skull Valley, Tooele County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, James W.; Waddell, K.M.

    1968-01-01

    This report is the second in a series by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, which describes the water resources of the western basins of Utah. Its purpose is to present available hydrologic data on Skull Valley, to provide an evaluation of the potential water-resource development of the valley, and to identify needed studies that would help provide an understandingof the valley's water supply.

  2. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in

  3. Assessment and use of drug information references in Utah pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Krystal L; Macdonald, Elyse A; Trovato, Anthony; Tak, Casey R

    2017-01-01

    To determine which drug references Utah pharmacists use most frequently. To determine which types of drug information questions are most commonly asked, and whether Utah pharmacists have access to adequate references to respond to these questions. A 19-question survey was created using Qualtrics, LLC (Provo, Utah) software. An electronic survey link was sent to 1,431 pharmacists with a valid e-mail address listed in the Department of Professional Licensing database. Questions focused on available references in the participant's pharmacy, how current the references are, and the participant's use of the references. Surveys were analyzed for participants practicing in either community or hospital pharmacies in the state of Utah. A total of 147 responses were included in the analysis. Approximately 44% of respondents practiced in the community, and 56% practiced in a hospital setting. The most commonly used references by Utah pharmacists are Micromedex, Lexicomp, UpToDate, Clinical Pharmacology, and Drug Facts & Comparisons. Pharmacists in the community frequently receive questions related to adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, and over-the-counter medications. Pharmacists in the hospital frequently receive questions relating to dosage and administration, drug interactions, and adverse drug reactions. About 89% of community pharmacists and 96% of hospital pharmacists feel available references are adequate to answer the questions they receive. Utah pharmacists generally use large reference suites to answer drug information questions. The majority of pharmacists consider the references available to them to be adequate to answer the questions they receive.

  4. University of Utah, Energy Commercialization Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-01-17

    During the Energy Commercialization Center’s (ECC) three years in operation, the only thing constant was change. The world of commercialization and cleantech evolved significantly during the time the ECC was formed and operating, including: the availability of cleantech funding lessoned, the growth of incubators and accelerators skyrocketed, the State of Utah created an office dedicated to energy development, the University of Utah was both praised and criticized for its success in commercialization, and the Federal government temporarily shut down. During the three-year grant there were three principle investigators on the grant, as well as three directors for the University’s Commercialization Office. Change can be hard for an organization,but as we instruct the companies we support, “Fail fast and fail often, because it is the fastest path to success.” Although there were some unanticipated challenges along the way, the local ecosystem is stronger because of the ECC’s efforts. Perhaps the greatest lesson learned was the importance of aligned incentives between key stakeholders in the commercialization process and the need for resources at the company and individual entrepreneur levels. The universities have systems and incentives to commercialize technologies, but creating value and companies generally rest with the individuals and entrepreneurs. Unfortunately the ECC was unable to create a viable mechanism to transfer the commercialization process that successfully aligned incentives and achieve a more effective ecosystem within the Rocky Mountain West. However, the ECC was successful in adding value to the individual ecosystems, and connecting national resources to regional and local needs. Regarding the ECC’s effectiveness in developing a cleantech commercialization ecosystem, initial inroads and relationships were established with key stakeholders. However, incentives, perceived or real competition, differences in commercialization processes, and

  5. Floods of December 1966 in southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Elmer; Mundorff, J.C.

    1970-01-01

    Severe floods occurred in parts of southwestern Utah on December 5-6, 1966, as a result of precipitation of about 1 inch to more than 12 inches during December 3-6. The flood on the Virgin River was the greatest since the first settlers arrived in 1860.The peak discharge of the Virgin River at Virgin, Utah, was 22,830 cubic feet per second on December 6; this exceeded the previous maximum discharge of 13,500 cubic feet per second on March 3, 1938, and September 17, 1961, and probably has a recurrence interval of 100 years. At eight other gage sites in the flood area, the peak discharge in December 1966 was the highest of record; the recurrence intervals of some of the peak discharges may be 100 years. The flood peaks were generally of short duration and most streams receded to near base flow within 24 hours.The dissolved-solids content was significantly lower in the Virgin River at Virgin than at St. George, about 25 miles downstream; the water was of the calcium sulfate type at both sites. Data for the Santa Clara River above Winsor Dam and the Santa Clara River near Santa Clara show a significant increase in dissolved solids between the two sites. The water above Winsor Dam was of the calcium bicarbonate type, and the water near Santa Clara was of the calcium bicarbonate sulfate type.The suspended-sediment discharge, during the period December 5-8, 1966, at Santa Clara River above Winsor Dam, near Santa Clara was about foyer times greater than all the suspended-sediment discharge during the preceding 3 years ; the suspended-sediment discharge of the Virgin River at Virgin was greater during the 4-day period than during any one of the preceding 3 years.Nearly all the flood damage in the area occurred in the Virgin River basin. According to the Soil Conservation Service, total damage in the Dixie Soil Conservation District in Washington County was about $835,000; 60 percent of the damage was caused by floodwater and 40 percent by deposited sediment.

  6. Ground-water data, Sevier Desert, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Reed W.; Feltis, Richard D.

    1964-01-01

    This report is intended to serve two purposes: (1) to make available to the public basic ground-water data useful in planning and studying development of water resources, and (2) to supplement an interpretive report that will be published later.Records were collected during the period 1935-64 by the U.S. Geological survey in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer as part of the investigation of ground-water conditions in the Sevier Desert, in Juab and Millard Counties, Utah. The interpretive material will be published in a companion report by R. W. Mower and R. D. Feltis.This report is most useful in predicting conditions likely to be found in areas that are being considered as well sites. The person considering the new well can spot the proposed site on plate 1 and examine the records of nearby wells as shown in the tables and figures. From table 1 he can note such things as depth, diameter, water level, yield, use of water, temperature of water, and depth of perforations. By comparing the depth of perforations with the drillers' logs in table 3 he can note the type of material that yields water to the wells. Table 2 and figure 2 show the historic fluctuations and trends of water levels in the vicinity. From table 4 he can note the chemical quality of the water from wells in the vicinity. Table 5 shows the amount of water discharged during 1951-63 from the pumped irrigation, public supply, and industrial wells. If the reader decides from his examination that conditions are favorable, he can place an application to drill a well with the state Engineer. If the State Engineer believes unappropriated water is available, the application may be approved after minimum statutory requirements have been satisfied.The report is also useful when planning large-scale developments of water supply. This and other uses of the report will be helped by use of the interpretive report upon its release.

  7. Hydrogeology of the Markagunt Plateau, Southwestern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    The Markagunt Plateau, in southwestern Utah, lies at an altitude of about 9,500 feet and is capped primarily by Quaternary-age basalt that overlies Eocene-age freshwater limestone of the Claron Formation. Over large parts of the Markagunt Plateau, dissolution of the Claron limestone and subsequent collapse of the overlying basalt have produced a terrain characterized by sinkholes as much as 1,000 feet across and 100 feet deep. Numerous large springs discharge from the basalt and underlying limestone on the plateau, including Mammoth Spring, one of the largest springs in Utah, with a discharge that can exceed 300 cubic feet per second. Discharge from Mammoth Spring is from the Claron Formation; however, recharge to the spring largely takes place by both focused and diffuse infiltration through the basalt that caps the limestone. Results of dye tracing to Mammoth Spring indicate that recharge originates largely southwest of the spring outside of the Mammoth Creek watershed, as well as from losing reaches along Mammoth Creek. Maximum groundwater travel time to the spring from dye-tracer tests during the snowmelt runoff period was about 1 week. Specific conductance and water temperature data from the spring show an inverse relation to discharge during snowmelt runoff and rainfall events, also indicating short groundwater residence times. Results of major-ion analyses for samples collected from Mammoth and other springs on the plateau indicate calcium-bicarbonate type water containing low (less than 200 mg/L) dissolved-solids concentrations. Investigations in the Navajo Lake area along the southern margin of the plateau have shown that water losing to sinkholes bifurcates and discharges to both Cascade and Duck Creek Springs, which subsequently flow into the Virgin and Sevier River basins, respectively. Groundwater travel times to these springs, on the basis of dye tracing, were about 8.5 and 53 hours, respectively. Similarly, groundwater travel time from Duck Creek

  8. Impact of high efficiency vehicles on future fuel tax revenues in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Utah Department of Transportation Research Division has analyzed the potential impact of : high-efficiency motor vehicles on future State of Utah motor fuel tax revenues used to construct and maintain the : highway network. High-efficiency motor ...

  9. iUTAH Summer Research: Analyzing diel variations of MeHg in the Provo River, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G. L.; Packer, B. N.; Carling, G. T.; Checketts, H. N.; Shepherd Barkdull, N.

    2016-12-01

    iUTAH is an interdisciplinary research program aimed at strengthening science for Utah's water future and funded by the National Science Foundation. iUTAH is comprised of three research areas with an overarching goal of understanding how Utah's water system operates as an integrated physical, chemical, biological, and social system. During the Summer of 2016, I participated in the iUTAH (Innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydro-sustainability) iFellows undergraduate research program. iUTAH provided the opportunity to conduct research at Brigham Young University with graduate students studying trace metal dynamics in the Provo River, Utah, USA. This report presents the chemical system evaluation of methylmercury (MeHg) during diurnal variations from snowmelt runoff. Water samples were collected during peak discharge from Soapstone Basin, a site along the Upper Provo River watershed, every hour over a 24-hour (diel) period. Sampling began at 1200 hours on June 1 and ended at 1100 hours on June 2, 2016. The results of the Provo River MeHg analysis showed dissolved MeHg had a concentration variance of 0.027 ng/L and particulate MeHg had a concentration variance of 0.056 ng/L. The variances during the diel cycle represent more than a two-fold change in concentration. The hourly MeHg concentration levels demonstrated an inverse relationship with gage height indicative of dilution. The purpose of the study is to develop a more thorough understanding of short-term variances over time and the potential affect on long-term interpretations of MeHg fluctuations in the river. The Provo River flows through Jordanelle Reservoir where there is a mercury advisory for two fish species. MeHg is a bioaccumulative neurotoxin that humans are primarily exposed to by the consumption of contaminated fish. The strong correlation between the levels of MeHg in water and fish make the river concentrations an important factor.

  10. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization

  11. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

  12. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization

  13. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  14. Are bark beetle outbreaks less synchronous than forest Lepidoptera outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Okland; Andrew M. Liebhold; Ottar N. Bjornstad; Nadir Erbilgin; Paal Krokene; Paal Krokene

    2005-01-01

    Comparisons of intraspecific spatial synchrony across multiple epidemic insect species can be useful for generating hypotheses about major determinants of population patterns at larger scales. The present study compares patterns of spatial synchrony in outbreaks of six epidemic bark beetle species in North America and Europe. Spatial synchrony among populations of the...

  15. Inocybe section Rimosae in Utah: phylogenetic affinities and new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Bradley R; Matheny, P Brandon; Hutchison, Leonard J

    2013-01-01

    Results of a study on species of Inocybe section Rimosae sensu lato in Utah are presented. Eight species, seven from the Pseudosperma clade (section Rimosae sensu stricto) and one from the Inosperma clade (section Rimosae pro parte), are documented morphologically and phylogenetically. Five of the eight species, I. aestiva, I. breviterincarnata, I. cercocarpi, I. niveivelata and I. occidentalis-all members of the Pseudosperma clade-are described as new from Utah and other western states. Two European species, I. spuria and I. obsoleta, are confirmed from Utah. Inocybe aurora, originally described from Nova Scotia, is synonymized with I. obsoleta. The only member of the Inosperma clade recorded from Utah is I. lanatodisca, a widely distributed species for which three geographical clusters were detected. The phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Pseudosperma clade includes 53 clusters or species worldwide and that the Inosperma clade includes 47 such clusters. Many of these probably correspond to undescribed species. A key to species of section Rimosae sensu lato from Utah is provided together with illustrations of the eight species found in the state.

  16. Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program CDC Feature: Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks Top ...

  17. A foodborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Vestergaard, L. S.

    2009-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis are uncommon. In Denmark human cases are generally infrequently diagnosed. In 2005 an outbreak of diarrhoea affected company employees near Copenhagen. In all 99 employees were reported ill; 13 were positive for Cryptosporidium hominis infection. Two...

  18. Selection tool for foodborne norovirus outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Linda P B; Kroneman, Annelies; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; Boshuizen, Hendriek; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Koopmans, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Detection of pathogens in the food chain is limited mainly to bacteria, and the globalization of the food industry enables international viral foodborne outbreaks to occur. Outbreaks from 2002 through 2006 recorded in a European norovirus surveillance database were investigated for virologic and epidemiologic indicators of food relatedness. The resulting validated multivariate logistic regression model comparing foodborne (n = 224) and person-to-person (n = 654) outbreaks was used to create a practical web-based tool that can be limited to epidemiologic parameters for nongenotyping countries. Non-genogroup-II.4 outbreaks, higher numbers of cases, and outbreaks in restaurants or households characterized (sensitivity = 0.80, specificity = 0.86) foodborne outbreaks and reduced the percentage of outbreaks requiring source-tracing to 31%. The selection tool enabled prospectively focused follow-up. Use of this tool is likely to improve data quality and strain typing in current surveillance systems, which is necessary for identification of potential international foodborne outbreaks.

  19. Larval outbreaks in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Magnus; Raundrup, Katrine; Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    effects of a larval outbreak in 2011 on vegetation productivity and CO2 exchange. We estimate a decreased carbon (C) sink strength in the order of 118–143 g C m−2, corresponding to 1210–1470 tonnes C at the Kobbefjord catchment scale. The decreased C sink was, however, counteracted the following years...

  20. Controlling viral outbreaks: Quantitative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummert, Anna; Weiss, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Preparing for and responding to outbreaks of serious livestock infectious diseases are critical measures to safeguard animal health, public health, and food supply. Almost all of the current control strategies are empirical, and mass culling or "stamping out" is frequently the principal strategy for controlling epidemics. However, there are ethical, ecological, and economic reasons to consider less drastic control strategies. Here we use modeling to quantitatively study the efficacy of different control measures for viral outbreaks, where the infectiousness, transmissibility and death rate of animals commonly depends on their viral load. We develop a broad theoretical framework for exploring and understanding this heterogeneity. The model includes both direct transmission from infectious animals and indirect transmission from an environmental reservoir. We then incorporate a large variety of control measures, including vaccination, antivirals, isolation, environmental disinfection, and several forms of culling, which may result in fewer culled animals. We provide explicit formulae for the basic reproduction number, R0, for each intervention and for combinations. We evaluate the control methods for a realistic simulated outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza on a mid-sized turkey farm. In this simulated outbreak, culling results in more total dead birds and dramatically more when culling all of the infected birds.

  1. Chikungunya fever outbreak, Bhutan, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Sonam; Chinnawirotpisan, Piyawan; Dorji, Tshering; Tobgay, Tashi; Dorji, Tandin; Yoon, In-Kyu; Fernandez, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was reported for the first time in Bhutan. IgM ELISA results were positive for 36/210 patient samples; PCR was positive for 32/81. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that Bhutan CHIKV belongs to the East/Central/South African genotype. Appropriate responses to future outbreaks require a system of surveillance and improved laboratory capacity.

  2. Measles (Rubeola) Cases and Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What’s this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Measles Cases and Outbreaks Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... Español: Casos y brotes de sarampión Number of measles cases by year since 2010 Measles cases per ...

  3. [Water-borne disease outbreaks in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Karin; Gondrosen, Bjørn; Lund, Vidar

    2003-12-04

    The drinking water in Norway has traditionally been considered being of good quality. However, outbreaks related to drinking water are reported every year. We review waterborne outbreaks in Norway over the last 15 years, and describe the aetiology of and contributory factors in these outbreaks. We compiled data on waterborne outbreaks reported to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Norwegian Food Control Authority during 1988-2002. We included all events in which two or more people fell ill and water was the suspected source of infection. Over the 15-year period. 72 outbreaks were reported, affecting a total of 10 616 persons. Campylobacter was the cause in 26% (19/72) of the outbreaks, norovirus in 18% (13/72). The causative organism was unknown in 46% (33/72). The water came from public waterworks in 32 of the 54 outbreaks for which this information was available (59%); from a private supply in the remaining 22. For 62% (16/26) of the outbreaks related to waterworks, the water was not disinfected before distribution. None of the private water supplies were disinfected. Over the last five years, there were more outbreaks related to private supplies. The most important contributory factor to waterborne outbreaks in Norway is contamination of the raw water combined with missing or faulty disinfecting procedures. To prevent future outbreaks, a continuous upgrading of small and private water supplies is needed. Reporting of outbreaks is important for the implementation of targeted and effective preventive measures.

  4. 78 FR 6832 - Notice of Mailing Address Change for the Utah State Office, Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Mailing Address Change for the Utah State Office, Salt Lake City, UT... of Land Management (BLM), Utah State Office, in Salt Lake City, Utah, will be changing from P.O. Box 45155-0155 to 440 West 200 South, Suite 500, Salt Lake City, Utah 84101-1345. The proposed date will be...

  5. Stereo Pair, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This image pair provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  6. The Newcastle geothermal system, Iron County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackett, R.E.; Shubat, M.A.; Bishop, C.E. (Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Chapman, D.S.; Forster, C.B.; Schlinger, C.M. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1990-03-01

    Geological, geophysical and geochemical studies contributed to conceptual hydrologic model of the blind'' (no surface expression), moderate-temperature (greater than 130{degree}C) Newcastle geothermal system, located in the Basin and Range-Colorado Plateau transition zone of southwestern Utah. Temperature gradient measurements define a thermal anomaly centered near the surface trace of the range-bounding Antelope Range fault with and elongate dissipative plume extending north into the adjacent Escalante Valley. Spontaneous potential and resistivity surveys sharply define the geometry of the dominant upflow zone (not yet explored), indicating that most of the thermal fluid issues form a short segment along the Antelope Range fault and discharges into a gently-dipping aquifer. Production wells show that this aquifer lies at a depth between 85 and 95 meter. Electrical surveys also show that some leakage of thermal fluid occurs over a 1.5 km (minimum) interval along the trace of the Antelope Range fault. Major element, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analyses of water samples indicate that the thermal fluid is a mixture of meteoric water derived from recharge areas in the Pine Valley Mountains and cold, shallow groundwater. A northwest-southeast trending system of faults, encompassing a zone of increased fracture permeability, collects meteoric water from the recharge area, allows circulation to a depth of 3 to 5 kilometers, and intersects the northeast-striking Antelope Range fault. We postulate that mineral precipitates form a seal along the Antelope Range fault, preventing the discharge of thermal fluids into basin-fill sediments at depth, and allowing heated fluid to approach the surface. Eventually, continued mineral deposition could result in the development of hot springs at the ground surface.

  7. The Chuar Petroleum System, Arizona and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    The Neoproterozoic Chuar Group consists of marine mudstone, sandstone and dolomitic strata divided into the Galeros and Kwagunt Formations, and is exposed only in the eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona. Research by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the late 1980s identified strata within the group to be possible petroleum source rocks, and in particular the Walcott Member of the Kwagunt Formation. Industry interest in a Chuar oil play led to several exploratory wells drilled in the 1990s in southern Utah and northern Arizona to test the overlying Cambrian Tapeats Sandstone reservoir, and confirm the existence of the Chuar in subcrop. USGS geochemical analyses of Tapeats oil shows in two wells have been tentatively correlated to Chuar bitumen extracts. Distribution of the Chuar in the subsurface is poorly constrained with only five well penetrations, but recently published gravity/aeromagnetic interpretations provide further insight into the Chuar subcrop distribution. The Chuar petroleum system was reexamined as part of the USGS Paradox Basin resource assessment in 2011. A map was constructed to delineate the Chuar petroleum system that encompasses the projected Chuar source rock distribution and all oil shows in the Tapeats Sandstone, assuming that the Chuar is the most likely source for such oil shows. Two hypothetical plays were recognized but not assessed: (1) a conventional play with a Chuar source and Tapeats reservoir, and (2) an unconventional play with a Chuar source and reservoir. The conventional play has been discouraging because most surface structures have been tested by drilling with minimal petroleum shows, and there is some evidence that petroleum may have been flushed by CO2 from Tertiary volcanism. The unconventional play is untested and remains promising even though the subcrop distribution of source facies within the Chuar Group is largely unknown.

  8. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs

  9. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs.

  10. Geochemical, biogeochemical, and sedimentological studies of the Green River Formation. Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The report contains the following sections: Introduction; Sulfur geochemistry and isotopy of the Green River Formation, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado; A preliminary study of the carbon and nitrogen isotopic biogeochemistry of lacustrine sedimentary rocks from the Green River Formation, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado; Trace elements in pyrites of the Green River Formation oil shales, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado; An experimental study of goethite sulfidization--Relationships to the diagenesis of iron and sulfur; Effects of source, depositional environment, and diagenesis on characteristics of organic matter in oil shale from the Green River Formation, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado; Petrography of iron sulfide minerals in the Green River Formation of Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado.

  11. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Utah. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  12. Geothermal studies at the University of Utah Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-07-01

    The University of Utah Research Institute (WRI) is a self-supporting corporation organized in December 1972 under the Utah Non-Profit Corporation Association Act. Under its charter, the Institute is separate in its operations and receives no direct financial support from either the University of Utah or the State of Utah. The charter includes provisions for WRI to conduct both public and proprietary scientific work for governmental agencies, academic institutions, private industry, and individuals. WRI is composed of five divisions, shown in Figure 1: the Earth Science Laboratory (ESL), the Environmental Studies Laboratory (EVSL), the Center for Remote Sensing and Cartography (CRSC), the Engineering Technology Laboratory (ETL) and the Atmospheric Physics Laboratory (APL). The Earth Science Laboratory has a staff of geologists, geochemists and geophysicists who have a broad range of experience in geothermal research and field projects as well as in mineral and petroleum exploration. The Environmental Studies Laboratory offers a variety of technical services and research capabilities in the areas of air quality and visibility, acid precipitation, surface and groundwater contamination, and environmentally caused stress in vegetation. The Center for Remote Sensing and Cartography offers applied research and services with a full range of remote sensing and mapping capability, including satellite and airborne imagery processing and interpretation. The Engineering Technology Laboratory is currently studying the interaction of the human body with electromagnetic radiation. The Atmospheric Physics Laboratory is developing hygroscopic droplet growth theory and orographic seeding models for dispersal of fog.

  13. Meteorological Observations Available for the State of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The National Weather Service’s Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS) contains a large number of station networks of surface and upper air meteorological observations for the state of Utah. In addition to MADIS, observations from individual station networks may also be available. It has been confirmed that LLNL has access to the data sources listed below.

  14. A Schoolmarm All My Life: Personal Narratives from Frontier Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkead, Joyce, Ed.

    This book presents edited versions of the personal narratives of 24 Mormon women who taught school in frontier Utah. Drawn primarily from the archives of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, the accounts detail the women's lives as Mormons, as pioneers, and as teachers and have been edited to focus on the education of women,…

  15. Factors affecting Bromus tectorum seed bank carryover in western Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane C. Smith; Susan E. Meyer; V. J. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is a winter annual weed that presents a serious obstacle to rangeland restoration in the Intermountain West. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors regulating the size and persistence of cheatgrass carryover seed banks on semiarid sites in western Utah. We prevented current-year seed production in each of...

  16. Utah System of Higher Education 2015-16 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah System of Higher Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This annual report describes Utah System of Higher Education's progress in the 2015-2016 academic year in the following areas: (1) Strategic plan; (2) Enrollment and completion; (3) Paying for college; (4) Funding higher education; (5) College preparation; (6) Concurrent enrollment and math; (7) Outreach and access; and (8) Industry and the…

  17. Parental Attitudes Regarding School-Based Sexuality Education in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Mindy; Crookston, Benjamin; Page, Randy; Hall, Cougar

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education programs can be broadly categorized as either risk-avoidance or risk-reduction approaches. Health educators in Utah public schools must teach a state mandated risk-avoidance curriculum which prohibits the advocacy or encouragement of contraception. Multiple national surveys indicate that parents prefer a risk-reduction approach…

  18. Utah Science Vol. 54 No. 2, Summer 1993

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    38 The Utah Climate Center 48 Program Provides Information About Benefits of Pesticide Use 49 Research in Brief 24 Gender and Housework: Traditional Roles Persist 60 Families Still Share Some Meals 62 The Role of the Land Grant University in Management of Public Lands-Land Grant Days 1993

  19. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  20. Dengue disease outbreak definitions are implicitly variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. Brady

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases rarely exhibit simple dynamics. Outbreaks (defined as excess cases beyond response capabilities have the potential to cause a disproportionately high burden due to overwhelming health care systems. The recommendations of international policy guidelines and research agendas are based on a perceived standardised definition of an outbreak characterised by a prolonged, high-caseload, extra-seasonal surge. In this analysis we apply multiple candidate outbreak definitions to reported dengue case data from Brazil to test this assumption. The methods identify highly heterogeneous outbreak characteristics in terms of frequency, duration and case burden. All definitions identify outbreaks with characteristics that vary over time and space. Further, definitions differ in their timeliness of outbreak onset, and thus may be more or less suitable for early intervention. This raises concerns about the application of current outbreak guidelines for early warning/identification systems. It is clear that quantitatively defining the characteristics of an outbreak is an essential prerequisite for effective reactive response. More work is needed so that definitions of disease outbreaks can take into account the baseline capacities of treatment, surveillance and control. This is essential if outbreak guidelines are to be effective and generalisable across a range of epidemiologically different settings.

  1. Utah ski patrol: assessing training types and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagalyn, Emily B; McDevitt, Marion C; Ernst, Ryan

    2014-12-01

    Skiers and snowboarders incur a variety of injuries and medical emergencies each year at ski resorts. The ski patrol is primarily responsible for initial triage, assessment and stabilization of these problems. The purpose of this study was to subjectively evaluate the type of training, resources, and equipment available to local ski patrols within Utah. Ski patrol directors at ski resorts in Utah were asked to complete a voluntary computerized survey. Of the 14 ski areas in Utah, ski patrol directors representing 8 resorts responded. The majority of patrols in Utah use Outdoor Emergency Care (OEC) as their primary education and certification source. Most programs also include site-specific training in addition to basic certification. All responding resorts had basic first responder equipment, including splinting devices, basic airway management, and hemorrhage control. Six of 8 responding resorts had affiliated clinics, and all had access to aeromedical transport. All of the responding ski patrol directors believed the current training level was adequate. Utah area ski patrollers frequently see trauma-related injuries and have the resources to assess and provide initial immobilization techniques. Many resorts have affiliated clinics with advanced providers, and all have access to aeromedical support to rapidly transfer patients to trauma centers. Medical directors may be of use for training as well as developing extended scope of practice protocols for advanced airway use or medication administration. Patrols may benefit from additional resort-specific training that addresses other frequently seen injuries or illnesses. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Educational Issues in Utah: Governance, Legislation, Technology, and Finance. 1994-95 Conditions of Education in Utah Yearbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Patrick F., Ed.; Johnson, Bob L., Jr., Ed.

    This document is the third edition of "Conditions of Education in Utah," covering the 1994-95 academic year. The first three chapters analyze issues relative to distance education and the Internet. Chapters 1 and 2 examine the pros and cons of distance education, and chapter 3 describes the construction, maintenance, and staffing costs…

  3. Association of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection and increased hospitalization with parapneumonic empyema in children in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, Krow; Herbener, Amy; Blaschke, Anne J; Heyrend, Caroline; Poritz, Mark; Korgenski, Kent; Rolfs, Robert; Jain, Seema; Carvalho, Maria da Glória; Pimenta, Fabiana C; Daly, Judy; Mason, Edward O; Byington, Carrie L; Pavia, Andrew T

    2010-10-01

    During previous influenza pandemics, many deaths were associated with secondary bacterial infection. In April 2009, a previously unknown 2009 influenza A virus (2009 H1N1) emerged, causing a global influenza pandemic. We examined the relationship between circulating 2009 H1N1 and the occurrence of secondary bacterial parapneumonic empyema in children. Children hospitalized with parapneumonic empyema from August 2004 to July 2009, including a period when the 2009 H1N1 circulated in Utah, were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. We compared the average number of children diagnosed with influenza A and the number of admissions for empyema per month for the previous 4 seasons to rates of empyema during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak. We identified causative bacteria using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We observed an increase in hospitalization of children with pneumonia complicated by empyema during a severe outbreak of 2009 H1N1 during the spring and summer of 2009, compared with historical data for the previous 4 seasons. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes were the predominant bacteria identified. Similar to previous pandemics, secondary bacterial infection with S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes were associated with the 2009 H1N1 outbreak. There is an urgent need to better understand bacterial complications of pandemic influenza. In the interim, influenza vaccines, antiviral agents, and pneumococcal vaccines should be used to prevent cases of secondary bacterial pneumonia whenever possible.

  4. The evolution of Ebola virus disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałas, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents general information regarding descriptive epidemiology of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. Some observations have shown the decrease in case fatality ratio after several generations of patient-to-patient passage. An increase in the frequency of EVD outbreaks across decades was also noticed. The knowledge about the past outbreaks may provide crucial information about the evolution of EVD epidemic, which may be useful for future preventions.

  5. Outbreak of ocular toxoplasmosis in Coimbatore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Manikandan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects up to a third of the world′s population. Infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of food that is contaminated with oocysts. We report an outbreak of ocular toxoplasmosis, which is an acute acquired type rather than reactivation of congenital toxoplasmosis. Our preliminary investigation points to municipal water contamination. This outbreak only proves the need of an effective public health system and health education in curtailing any outbreak.

  6. Global rise in human infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine F; Goldberg, Michael; Rosenthal, Samantha; Carlson, Lynn; Chen, Jane; Chen, Cici; Ramachandran, Sohini

    2014-12-06

    To characterize the change in frequency of infectious disease outbreaks over time worldwide, we encoded and analysed a novel 33-year dataset (1980-2013) of 12,102 outbreaks of 215 human infectious diseases, comprising more than 44 million cases occuring in 219 nations. We merged these records with ecological characteristics of the causal pathogens to examine global temporal trends in the total number of outbreaks, disease richness (number of unique diseases), disease diversity (richness and outbreak evenness) and per capita cases. Bacteria, viruses, zoonotic diseases (originating in animals) and those caused by pathogens transmitted by vector hosts were responsible for the majority of outbreaks in our dataset. After controlling for disease surveillance, communications, geography and host availability, we find the total number and diversity of outbreaks, and richness of causal diseases increased significantly since 1980 (p outbreaks (starting 1990), the overall number of outbreaks and disease richness still increase significantly with time (p outbreaks differ based on the causal pathogen's taxonomy, host requirements and transmission mode. We discuss our preliminary findings in the context of global disease emergence and surveillance.

  7. Urban Agriculture and Small Farm Irrigation: Case Studies from Cache Valley, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    The landscape of water in Utah is changing due to population growth, conversion of agricultural land to urban development, and increasing awareness of water scarcity. The Utah Division of Water Resources forecasts that the currently developed water supplies will not be enough to provide for Utah’s future population, and is pursuing conservation and new development to meet the state’s anticipated needs. Along with the urban growth Utah is experiencing a growing urban and small farm agricult...

  8. Outbreak investigation: Salmonella food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, R; Singh, Harpreet; Mangla, Vipra; Hiremath, R

    2013-10-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning was reported from a Military establishment on 29 May 2011 when 43 cases of food poisoning reported sick in a span of few hours. A retrospective-prospective study was conducted. Data regarding the onset of symptoms, presenting features and history of food items consumed was collected. A detailed inspection of the mess for hygiene and sanitary status, cooking and storage procedure, and rodent nuisance was also carried out. A total of 53 cases of food poisoning occurred between 29 and 31 May 2011. All cases had symptoms of diarrohea followed by fever (96.2%), headache (84.9%), abdominal pain (50.1%), nausea and vomiting (49.1%) and bodyache (39.6%) respectively. Based on the Attributable Risk (AR = 46.67%) and Relative Risk (RR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.22-16.54) Potato-bitter gourd vegetable served during dinner on 28 May 2011 was incriminated as the food item responsible for outbreak. Symptomatology, incubation period and presence of rodent nuisance suggested contamination of Potato-bitter gourd vegetable with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp.

  9. Technical analysis of prospective photovoltaic systems in Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Cameron, Christopher P.

    2012-02-01

    This report explores the technical feasibility of prospective utility-scale photovoltaic system (PV) deployments in Utah. Sandia National Laboratories worked with Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), a division of PacifiCorp operating in Utah, to evaluate prospective 2-megawatt (MW) PV plants in different locations with respect to energy production and possible impact on the RMP system and customers. The study focused on 2-MW{sub AC} nameplate PV systems of different PV technologies and different tracking configurations. Technical feasibility was evaluated at three different potential locations in the RMP distribution system. An advanced distribution simulation tool was used to conduct detailed time-series analysis on each feeder and provide results on the impacts on voltage, demand, voltage regulation equipment operations, and flicker. Annual energy performance was estimated.

  10. Evaluation of Vaccination Policies Among Utah Pediatric Clinic Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E; Peterson, Tia B; Macintosh, Janelle L B; Eden, Lacey M; Beckstrand, Renea L; Wiley, Nathan H

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric health care settings are high-risk environments for spreading communicable and vaccine-preventable diseases from health care workers to susceptible patients. All managers of pediatric clinics operating in the state of Utah were included. Participants were invited to complete a two-page questionnaire regarding their clinic vaccination policies. Half (n = 23) of Utah pediatric outpatient clinic managers recommend employee vaccinations, although employee refusal was allowed without consequence. Of all adult vaccines, influenza was most often included by managers as part of the employee vaccination policy. Some managers required unvaccinated employees to wear masks in the event of illness, but many had no additional requirements for unvaccinated and ill employees. Vaccination of health care workers is an effective approach to reduce disease transmission. Mandatory vaccination policies can significantly improve vaccination rates among health care workers. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hospital administrators in a market environment: the case of Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwore, R B; Murray, B P

    1987-11-01

    This study describes selected characteristics of hospital administrators in Utah, who are implementing a market strategy of cost containment. A mail survey was used to query hospital administrators concerning their personal backgrounds, professional practice patterns, and perceived role performance. The questionnaire elicited a 75.6 percent return from a limited universe sample. Analytical results disclose that Utah hospital administrators are relatively young, professionally dynamic, well educated, and subject to frequent career-motivated moves. Using Mintzberg's ten administrative roles, respondents identified two as key: "Leader" ranks as the role performed best, the role second most critical to survival, second best prepared for, second most time-consuming, and second most satisfying. "Entrepreneur" ranks as the role most critical to survival, most satisfying, most deserving of improvement, second least prepared for, and second best performed. Suggestions for innovative ways in which administrators can develop their skills to be better prepared to meet future challenges are listed.

  12. Folklore in Utah: A History and Guide to Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, David

    2004-01-01

    Over thirty scholars examine the development of folklore studies through the lens of over one hundred years of significant activity in a state that has provided grist for the mills of many prominent folklorists. In the past the Folklore Society of Utah has examined the work of such scholars in biographical and other essays published in its newsletters. This book incorporates those essays and goes well beyond them to include many other topices, offering a thorough history of folklore studies a...

  13. 76 FR 63951 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... sent by certified mail, return receipt requested to the Cashier, BLM Utah State Office, P.O. Box 45155..., 49.83 percent fixed carbon and 0.49 percent sulfur; (2) Kenilworth: 13,287 Btu/lb., 2.06 percent moisture, 6.91 percent ash, 42.88 percent fixed carbon and 0.72 percent sulfur; (3) D: 12,470 Btu/lb., 6.00...

  14. Justice and Immigrant Latino Recreation Geography in Cache Valley, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Jodie; Radel, Claudia; Endter-Wada, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Latinos are the largest U.S. non-mainstreamed ethnic group, and social and environmental justice considerations dictate recreation professionals and researchers meet their recreation needs. This study reconceptualizes this diverse group’s recreation patterns, looking at where immigrant Latino individuals in Cache Valley, Utah do recreate rather than where they do not. Through qualitative interviews and interactive mapping, thirty participants discussed what recreation means to them and explai...

  15. Climate effects on historical fires (1630-1900) in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Brown; Emily K. Heyerdahl; Stanley G. Kitchen; Marc H. Weber

    2008-01-01

    We inferred climate effects on fire occurrence from 1630 to 1900 for a new set of crossdated fire-scar chronologies from 18 forested sites in Utah and one site in eastern Nevada. Years with regionally synchronous fires (31 years with fire at ≥20% of sites) occurred during drier than average summers and years with no fires at any site (100 years) were wetter...

  16. Incentives for Reporting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malani, Anup; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2011-01-01

    The global spread of diseases such as swine flu and SARS highlights the difficult decision governments face when presented with evidence of a local outbreak. Reporting the outbreak may bring medical assistance but is also likely to trigger trade sanctions by countries hoping to contain the disease. Suppressing the information may avoid trade…

  17. Molecular Subtyping in Cholera Outbreak, Laos, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithivong, Noikaseumsy; Morita-Ishihara, Tomoko; Vongdouangchanh, Arounnapha; Phouthavane, Traykhouane; Chomlasak, Khampheng; Sisavath, Lay; Khamphaphongphane, Bouaphanh; Sengkeopraseuth, Bounthanom; Vongprachanh, Phengta; Keosavanh, Onechanh; Southalack, Kongmany; Jiyoung, Lee; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    A cholera outbreak in Laos in July 2010 involved 237 cases, including 4 deaths. Molecular subtyping indicated relatedness between the Vibrio cholerae isolates in this and in a 2007 outbreak, uncovering a clonal group of V. cholerae circulating in the Mekong basin. Our finding suggests the subtyping methods will affect this relatedness. PMID:22099098

  18. Unexpected Rift Valley fever outbreak, northern Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mamy, Ahmed B O; Baba, Mohamed Ould; Barry, Yahya; Isselmou, Katia; Dia, Mamadou L; El Kory, Mohamed O B; Diop, Mariam; Lo, Modou Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Bengoumi, Mohammed; Puech, Lilian; Plee, Ludovic; Claes, Filip; de La Rocque, Stephane; Doumbia, Baba

    2011-10-01

    During September-October 2010, an unprecedented outbreak of Rift Valley fever was reported in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania after exceptionally heavy rainfall. Camels probably played a central role in the local amplification of the virus. We describe the main clinical signs (hemorrhagic fever, icterus, and nervous symptoms) observed during the outbreak.

  19. Uncommon mixed outbreak of pneumococcal and meningococcal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The Jirapa District in Ghana falls within the African meningitis belt where over 500 million people are at risk of epidemic meningitis. The district suffered an outbreak of Neisseria meningitides, W (NMW) in 2012 and a mixed outbreak of Streptococcus pneumonia and NMW in early 2016. We investigated the ...

  20. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Clayton O.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Sow, Abdourahmane; Swanepoel, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, an outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic fever, caused by yellow fever virus, occurred in southern Sudan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the East African genotype, which supports the contention that yellow fever is endemic in East Africa with the potential to cause large outbreaks in humans. PMID:15498174

  1. MRSA outbreak at a transplantation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RMC Romanelli

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections frequently complicate the post-operative course of transplant recipients, and despite nasal carriage and endemic colonization, MRSA outbreaks are not commonly described. This study reports a case of MRSA outbreak and discusses infection control measures and recommendations for this situation.

  2. Measles Outbreak among Unvaccinated Children in Bajura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sitaula

    2010-12-01

    CFR of this outbreak is higher than the national CFR. Vaccine efficacy of 50% points towards the need for investigation of vaccine logistics and cold chain system. Moreover, this laboratory test confirmed an outbreak showing that the measles virus could be imported from an endemic region and rapidly spread through a susceptible population who were previously not immunized.

  3. Molecular Diagnostic Analysis of Outbreak Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsink, M. C.; Dekter, H. E.; Dirks-Mulder, A.; van Leeuwen, W. B.

    2012-01-01

    In the current laboratory assignment, technical aspects of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are integrated in the context of six different bacterial outbreak scenarios. The "Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Sequence" (ERIC) PCR was used to analyze different outbreak scenarios. First, groups of 2-4 students determined optimal…

  4. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. Part I. Gravity survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.A.; Cook, K.L.

    1983-04-01

    During 1980 and 1981 a total of 569 new gravity stations were taken in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. The new stations were combined with 530 other gravity stations taken in previous surveys which resulted in a compilation of 1099 stations which were used in this study. The additional surveys were undertaken to assist in the evaluation of the area for the possible development of geothermal resources by providing an interpreted structural framework by delineating faults, structural trends, intrusions, thickness of valley fill, and increased density of host rock. The gravity data are presented as (1) a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map with a 2 mgal contour interval on a scale of 1:100,000 and (2) five generally east-trending gravity profiles. A geologic interpretation of the study area was made from the gravity map and from the interpretive geologic cross sections which were modeled along the gravity profiles.

  5. [Foodborne disease outbreaks surveillance in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Andrea; Díaz, Janepsy; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Vaquero, Alejandra; García, Maritza

    2012-10-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are one of the main health problems globally, having an extensive impact on human welfare. The World Health Organization considers them as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and responsible for high levels of loss of productivity in developed countries. To describe the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks according to data contained in an automated surveillance system. Descriptive observational study of notified outbreaks from the surveillance system, between 2005 and 2010 in Chile. The information was based on etiology, temporal and spatial distribution, and epidemiologic description of outbreaks during this period. There were 5,689 notified outbreaks. Most of them occurred during 2006 (1,106 outbreaks, rate 6.7 per 100,000 inhabitants) and 2008 (1,316 outbreaks, rate 7.9 per 100, 000 inhabitants) with an increase during summer. Fifty four percent occurred in the Metropolitan region. The group aged 15 to 44 years old, was the most affected one. Sixty four percent of the outbreaks had the food involved registered, of which fish and fishery products reached 42%. An 81% of the outbreaks did not have a precise etiologic diagnosis. Of all patients involved, 97% were outpatients, 3,2% were hospitalized patients, and 0,1% died. Only 49% of the outbreaks had information about the lack of food safety, with a 34,1% related to food handling procedures. Through the information on the epidemiology of foodborne diseases obtained by the Chilean surveillance system, appropriate control measures could be taken.

  6. Patterns of Kingella kingae Disease Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Houmami, Nawal; Minodier, Philippe; Dubourg, Grégory; Mirand, Audrey; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Basmaci, Romain; Charrel, Rémi; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Yagupsky, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2016-03-01

    Kingella kingae outbreaks occur sporadically in childcare centers but remain poorly understood and difficult to identify. To provide the basis of a better knowledge of K. kingae outbreaks patterns that may help to guide identification and management strategies, we collected epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data from all reported K. kingae outbreaks, and those from 2 new Israel outbreaks in 2014. Nine outbreaks were identified in the USA, Israel and France from 2003 to 2014. Twenty-seven children with a median age of 14 ± 4.1 months were affected, male:female ratio of 1.4:1. Outbreaks demonstrated seasonal patterns from the 10th to the 45th weeks, a mean duration of 13.1 ± 8.4 days, a mean attack rate of 17.3 ± 5.1% and a case-fatality rate of 3.7% (1/27). Seventy-four percentage of children had fever (20/27), and the mean values of white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level were 14.6 ± 4.5 × 10/L and 23.8 ± 24.1 mg/L, respectively. Osteoarticular infections accounted for 88.9% of cases (24/27), bacteremia 7.4% (2/27), endocarditis 3.7% (1/27) and meningitis 3.7% (1/27). Specific real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated higher performance than culture methods in the diagnosis of case patients and investigations of oropharyngeal K. kingae carriage among close contacts, and multilocus sequence typing methods revealed that ST-6 and ST-25 invasive strains were responsible for multiple country-dependent outbreaks. Coviral infections were identified in the majority of K. kingae outbreaks, notably those causing oral ulcers. K. kingae outbreaks displayed severe K. kingae diseases that were poorly confirmed with culture methods. We argue for the use of genomic technologies to investigate further K. kingae outbreaks.

  7. Outbreak of trichinosis near Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourée, P; Bouvier, J B; Passeron, J; Galanaud, P; Dormont, J

    1979-01-01

    A localised outbreak of trichinosis occurred in January 1976 in the southern suburbs of Paris. A total fo 125 cases was recorded including 30 children. The prominent symptoms were oedema of the face or eyelids, fever, and myalgia; diarrhoea was unusual and constipation common. An increased blood eosinophil count and raised serum concentrations of muscular enzymes strongly indicated trichinosis. This diagnosis was confirmed later immunologically. The parasite was found in only three out of 32 muscle biopsy specimens but this investigation was made relatively early in the disease. No deaths occurred. In all cases clinical recovery was fast and serum antibody titres were maximum during the first month and decreased slowly. The disease was milder and the recovery faster in children than adults. Epidemiological study suggested that horse meat was responsible for the infection, though no meat could be examined. PMID:444915

  8. Tularemia vaccine: Safety, reactogenicity, "Take" skin reactions, and antibody responses following vaccination with a new lot of the Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain - A phase 2 randomized clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Mark J; Stapleton, Jack T; Keitel, Wendy A; Frey, Sharon E; Chen, Wilbur H; Rouphael, Nadine; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Beck, Allison; Winokur, Patricia L; El Sahly, Hana M; Patel, Shital M; Atmar, Robert L; Graham, Irene; Anderson, Edwin; El-Kamary, Samer S; Pasetti, Marcela F; Sztein, Marcelo B; Hill, Heather; Goll, Johannes B

    2017-08-24

    Tularemia is caused by Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative bacterium that has been weaponized as an aerosol. For protection of personnel conducting biodefense research, the United States Army required clinical evaluation of a new lot of tularemia live vaccine strain manufactured in accordance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices. A phase 2 randomized clinical trial compared the new lot (DVC-LVS) to the existing vaccine that has been in use for decades (USAMRIID-LVS). The vaccines were delivered by scarification to 228 participants. Safety, reactogenicity, take and/or antibody levels were assessed on days 0, 1, 2, 8, 14, 28, 56, and 180. Both vaccines were safe and had acceptable reactogenicity profiles during six months of follow-up. There were no serious or grade 3 and 4 laboratory adverse events. Moderate systemic reactogenicity (mostly headache or feeling tired) was reported by ∼23% of participants receiving either vaccine. Injection site reactogenicity was mostly mild itchiness and pain. The frequencies of vaccine take skin reactions were 73% (95% CI, 64, 81) for DVC-LVS and 80% (95% CI, 71, 87) for USAMRIID-LVS. The 90% CI for the difference in proportions was -6.9% (-16.4, 2.6). The rates of seroconversion measured by microagglutination assay on days 28 or 56 were 94% (95% CI, 88, 98; n=98/104) for DVC-LVS and 94% (95% CI, 87, 97; n=103/110) for USAMRIID-LVS (p=1.00). Day 14 sera revealed more rapid seroconversion for DVC-LVS relative to USAMRIID-LVS: 82% (95% CI, 73, 89) versus 55% (95% CI, 45, 65), respectively (pvaccine had similar safety, reactogenicity, take and antibody responses compared to the older USAMRIID vaccine, and was superior for early (day 14) antibody production. Vaccination take was not a sensitive surrogate for seroconversion in a multi-center study where personnel at five research clinics performed assessments. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01150695. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  9. 75 FR 57055 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Utah Prairie Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Utah Prairie Dog AGENCY: Fish... recovery plan for the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens). This species is federally listed as threatened... and peer reviewers in an appendix to the approved recovery plan. The Utah prairie dog (Cynomys...

  10. 77 FR 24975 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Recovery Plan for the Utah Prairie Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...-FF06E00000] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Recovery Plan for the Utah Prairie Dog... Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens). This species is federally listed as threatened under the... recovery plan for the Utah prairie dog. The Service and other Federal agencies also will take these...

  11. 76 FR 28074 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake City, UT... inventory of human remains in the possession and control of the Utah Museum of Natural History, Salt Lake... Natural History, 1390 E. Presidents Circle, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, telephone (801) 581-3876, before...

  12. The Relevance of Campus Outdoor Recreation Programs to Higher Education: A University of Utah Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Daniel; Furman, Nate; Bricker, Nate; Cederquist, John; Schumann, Scott

    2017-01-01

    This paper illustrates the relevance of campus recreation to higher education through a University of Utah case study. Offering Utah's Experiential Learning and Outdoor Recreation Education (U-EXPLORE) program as our exemplar, we advance four lines of thought. First, we establish the relationship between an active body and an active mind. Second,…

  13. 78 FR 2434 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Duncan Metcalfe, Natural History Museum of Utah, 301 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, UT... lot of horse tack, a metal punch, 1 piece of worked wood, gunshot, two mirrors, a harness ring, an awl...

  14. 78 FR 2430 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: National Park Service...: Duncan Metcalfe, Natural History Museum of Utah, 301 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, telephone (801... fragments, 13 pieces of horse tack, 3 saddle fragments, 1 knife sheath, 1 rifle and barrel, 1 lot of bullet...

  15. Knowledge Assessment of Food Safety Managers in Utah and Its Implications on the Exam and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummer, Brian A.; Guy, Stanley M.; Bentley, Joanne P. H.

    2010-01-01

    Food Safety Manager's Certification is offered through a state-local Extension partnership in Utah using an online course management system. Exams and course materials were created by an Extension Specialist at Utah State Univ. Extension Agents provide exam and curriculum facilitation in each county. This form of distance education enables access…

  16. 78 FR 17748 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Engineer, Region 4, FHWA Utah Division, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, Utah 84129... configuration; and improving the SR-9 Interchange by improving the southbound exit deceleration coming into the loop ramp, upgrading the loop ramp geometry, creating a three lane exit ramp northbound, creating a two...

  17. 78 FR 34160 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 33 (Sub-No. 283X)] Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Iron County, Utah Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP... Cedar City, a total distance of 1.03 miles in Iron County, Utah (the Line). The Line traverses United...

  18. 76 FR 46805 - Notice of Utah Adoption by Reference of the Pesticide Container Containment Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9447-8] Notice of Utah Adoption by Reference of the Pesticide Container Containment Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... Pesticide Container Containment (PCC) Rule regulations. In accordance with State of Utah Agricultural Code...

  19. 75 FR 52551 - Notice of Utah's Resource Advisory Council (RAC) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... public land management in Utah. Planned agenda topics include a welcome and introduction by the BLM's new... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLUT91000-L10400000-PH0000-24-1A] Notice of Utah's Resource Advisory Council (RAC) Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION...

  20. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks. PMID:27783632

  1. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  2. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Lerch

    Full Text Available Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug. and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  3. Radon-hazard potential the Beaver basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Indoor-radon levels in the Beaver basin of southwestern Utah are the highest recorded to date in Utah, ranging from 17.5 to 495 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Because the U.S. Environment Protection Agency considers indoor-radon levels above 4 pCi/L to represent a risk of lung cancer from long-term exposure, the Utah Geological Survey is preparing a radon-hazard-potential map for the area to help prioritize indoor testing and evaluate the need for radon-resistant construction. Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium-238, which is commonly found in rocks and soils. Soil permeability, depth to ground water, and uranium/thorium content of source materials control the mobility and concentration of radon in the soil. Once formed, radon diffuses into the pore space of the soil and then to the atmosphere or into buildings by pressure-driven flow of air or additional diffusion. The Beaver basin has been a topographic and structural depression since late Miocene time. Paleocene to Miocene volcanic and igneous rocks border the basin. Uraniferous alluvial-fan, piedmont-slope, flood-plain, and lacustrine sediments derived from the surrounding volcanic rocks fill the basin. A soil-gas radon and ground radioactivity survey in the Beaver basin shows that soils have high levels of radon gas. In this survey, uranium concentrations range from 3 to 13 parts per million (ppm) and thorium concentrations range from 10 to 48 ppm. Radon concentrations in the soil gas ranged from 85 to 3,500 pCi/L. The highest concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radon gas and the highest radon-hazard-potential are in the well-drained permeable soils in the lower flood- plain deposits that underlie the city of Beaver

  4. Paleomagnetic dating of burial diagenesis in Mississippian carbonates, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Angela M.; Elmore, R. Douglas; Engel, Michael H.; Elliot, Crawford; Basu, Ankan

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study is to test models for the origin of widespread secondary magnetizations in the Mississippian Deseret Limestone. The Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone is a source rock for hydrocarbons, and modeling studies indicate that it entered the oil window in the Early Cretaceous during the Sevier orogeny. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from the Deseret Limestone and the stratigraphically equivalent Chainman Shale in central and western Utah indicate that the units contain two ancient magnetizations residing in magnetite. Burial temperatures are too low for the magnetizations to be thermoviscous in origin, and they are interpreted to be chemical remanent magnetizations (CRMs). Fold tests from western Utah indicate the presence of a prefolding Triassic to Jurassic CRM. Geochemical (87Sr/86Sr, δ13C, and δ18O) and petrographic analyses suggest that externally derived fluids did not alter these rocks. This CRM was acquired at the beginning of the oil window and is interpreted to be the result of burial diagenesis of organic matter. A second younger CRM in western central Utah is apparently postfolding and is probably Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary in age. On the basis of the thermal modeling, the timing overlaps with the oil window. These results are consistent with a connection between organic matter maturation and remagnetization. Modeling of the smectite-to-illite transformation in the Deseret Limestone suggests a mean age prior to acquisition of both CRMs, although the range for illitization overlaps with the Triassic to Jurassic CRM. The results of this study support the hypothesis that pervasive CRMs can be related to burial diagenetic processes. In addition, paleomagnetism can be used to determine the timing of such processes, which can benefit hydrocarbon exploration efforts.

  5. Infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Raabe Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website.

  6. Norovirus: U.S. Trends and Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients compared with otherwise healthy people. Norovirus in Restaurants and Catered Events Most norovirus outbreaks from contaminated food occur in food service settings like restaurants. Infected food workers are frequently the source of ...

  7. University of Utah Oil Sand Research and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the Oil Sand Research and Development Program at the University of Utah will be presented. It will include resource characterization of the Uinta Basin oils and deposits and bitumens and bitumen-derived liquid recovery and upgrading technology and product utilization. The characterization studies will include the Whiterocks and Asphalt Ridge oil sands. The discussion of recovery and upgrading technologies will include aqueous separation, thermal recovery processes; solvent extraction, and thermal and catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen-derived heavy oils. Product evaluation studies will include jet fuels, diesel fuel, asphalt and specialty chemicals. Plans for the future of the project will be discussed.

  8. Utah Science Vol. 46 No. 1, Spring 1985

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    1 POISON-IVY IN UTAH R. J. Shaw and M. C. Williams Conditions seem to favor the spread of this plant, now found in 17 of the state's 29 counties. 7 TRICHOMES: A POTENTIAL DEFENSE AGAINST GRASS BUGS W. F. Campbell and Y. H. Ling Insect-resistant grasses may be a practical method of controlling range pests and serve as the foundation for an integrated system of pest control. 10 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR POTATOES T. W. Helms and J. L. Bushnell Better irrigation scheduling and disease ...

  9. Visual aesthetics study: Gibson Dome area, Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    The Visual Aesthetics study was performed as an initial assessment of concerns regarding impacts to visual resources that might be associated with the construction of a geologic nuclear waste repository and associated rail routes in the Gibson Dome location of southeastern Utah. Potential impacts to visual resources were evaluated by predicting visibility of the facility and railway routes using the US Forest Service (USFS) computer program, VIEWIT, and by applying the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Visual Resource Management (VRM) methodology. Five proposed facility sites in the Gibson Dome area and three proposed railway routes were evaluated for visual impact. 10 references, 19 figures, 5 tables

  10. Foodborne outbreaks in Canada linked to produce: 2001 through 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, G K; MacDonald, D; Landry, L; Farber, J M

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables have been increasing in occurrence worldwide. Canada has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of fresh fruits and vegetables in the world. In this article, we review the foodborne disease outbreaks linked to produce consumption in Canada from 2001 through 2009. The 27 produce-related outbreaks included an estimated 1,549 cases of illness. Bacterial infection outbreaks represented 66% of the total. Among these, Salmonella was the most frequent agent (50% of outbreaks) followed by Escherichia coli (33%) and Shigella (17%). Cyclospora cayetanensis was the only parasite detected and was associated with seven outbreaks. Among the foodborne viruses, only hepatitis A was implicated in two outbreaks. The food vehicles most commonly implicated in outbreaks were leafy greens and herbs (26% of outbreaks), followed by seed sprouts (11%). Contamination sources and issues related to the future control of fresh produce-related foodborne disease outbreaks also are discussed.

  11. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ravn, P; Lundgren, J D; Kjaeldgaard, P; Holten-Anderson, W; Højlyng, N; Nielsen, J O; Gaub, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe a nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during four months after June 1989. SETTING--A department of infectious diseases in Copenhagen, seeing about half the patients with AIDS in Denmark. SUBJECTS--73 HIV antibody negative subjects and 60 antibody positive subjects admitted as inpatients during the transmission period of the outbreak (20 June-14 August), of whom 18 (17 with AIDS, one with AIDS related complex), developed cryptosporidiosis. Two further HIV negative s...

  12. Giardiasis in Bergen. Outbreak and clinical consequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Wensaas, Knut-Arne

    2011-01-01

    Background Giardia lamblia is a common cause of waterborne disease. It is endemic in many parts of the world, especially where sanitation is poor, but in Europe and North America it is most often encountered in outbreaks following contamination of drinking water. The first registered outbreak of giardiasis affecting a large community in Norway happened in Bergen in the autumn of 2004. The reservoir “Svartediket” was the source, and the water probably held Giardia cysts for s...

  13. Drug Poisoning Deaths according to Ethnicity in Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray M. Merrill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes drug-related deaths according to ethnicity in Utah during 2005–2010, based on data from the Utah Violent Death Reporting System (UTVDRS. Hispanics made up 12.1% (12.5% male and 11.7% female of deaths. The most frequently identified drugs among decedents were opiates, then illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, over-the-counter medication, and antidepressants. Death rates for each drug were significantly greater in non-Hispanics than Hispanics. Most decedents used a combination of drugs. For each combination, rates were significantly greater for non-Hispanics than Hispanics, with an exception for opiates and illicit drugs combined, where there was no significant difference. Approximately 79% of non-Hispanics and 65% of Hispanics had one or more of the selected problems (e.g., mental, physical, or crisis related. Rates for each combination of problems were significantly greater in non-Hispanics, with the exception of crisis. Hispanics were less affected by the rise in prescription drug abuse. Hispanic decedents had a greater proportion of illegal drugs, consistent with it being more difficult to obtain prescription drugs. Hispanic decedents were less likely to have physical and mental health problems, which may be related to a smaller chance of diagnosis of such problems through the healthcare system.

  14. Measles & rubella outbreaks in Maharashtra State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Kamble, Madhukar B; Chowdhury, Deepika T; Kumbhar, Neelakshi S

    2016-02-01

    Under the outbreak-based measles surveillance in Maharashtra State the National Institute of Virology at Pune receives 3-5 serum samples from each outbreak and samples from the local hospitals in Pune for laboratory diagnosis. This report describes one year data on the measles and rubella serology, virus isolation and genotyping. Maharashtra State Health Agencies investigated 98 suspected outbreaks between January-December 2013 in the 20 districts. Altogether, 491 serum samples were received from 20 districts and 126 suspected cases from local hospitals. Samples were tested for the measles and rubella IgM antibodies by commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). To understand the diagnostic utility, a subset of serum samples (n=53) was tested by measles focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Further, 37 throat swabs and 32 urine specimens were tested by measles reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and positive products were sequenced. Virus isolation was performed in Vero hSLAM cells. Of the 98 suspected measles outbreaks, 61 were confirmed as measles, 12 as rubella and 21 confirmed as the mixed outbreaks. Four outbreaks remained unconfirmed. Of the 126 cases from the local hospitals, 91 were confirmed for measles and three for rubella. Overall, 93.6 per cent (383/409) confirmed measles cases were in the age group of 0-15 yr. Measles virus was detected in 18 of 38 specimens obtained from the suspected cases. Sequencing of PCR products revealed circulation of D4 (n=9) and D8 (n=9) strains. Four measles viruses (three D4 & one D8) were isolated. Altogether, 94 measles and rubella outbreaks were confirmed in 2013 in the State of Maharasthra indicating the necessity to increase measles vaccine coverage in the State.

  15. Measles & rubella outbreaks in Maharashtra State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R.; Kamble, Madhukar B.; Chowdhury, Deepika T.; Kumbhar, Neelakshi S.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Under the outbreak-based measles surveillance in Maharashtra State the National Institute of Virology at Pune receives 3-5 serum samples from each outbreak and samples from the local hospitals in Pune for laboratory diagnosis. This report describes one year data on the measles and rubella serology, virus isolation and genotyping. Methods: Maharashtra State Health Agencies investigated 98 suspected outbreaks between January-December 2013 in the 20 districts. Altogether, 491 serum samples were received from 20 districts and 126 suspected cases from local hospitals. Samples were tested for the measles and rubella IgM antibodies by commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). To understand the diagnostic utility, a subset of serum samples (n=53) was tested by measles focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Further, 37 throat swabs and 32 urine specimens were tested by measles reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and positive products were sequenced. Virus isolation was performed in Vero hSLAM cells. Results: Of the 98 suspected measles outbreaks, 61 were confirmed as measles, 12 as rubella and 21 confirmed as the mixed outbreaks. Four outbreaks remained unconfirmed. Of the 126 cases from the local hospitals, 91 were confirmed for measles and three for rubella. Overall, 93.6 per cent (383/409) confirmed measles cases were in the age group of 0-15 yr. Measles virus was detected in 18 of 38 specimens obtained from the suspected cases. Sequencing of PCR products revealed circulation of D4 (n=9) and D8 (n=9) strains. Four measles viruses (three D4 & one D8) were isolated. Interpretation & conclusions: Altogether, 94 measles and rubella outbreaks were confirmed in 2013 in the State of Maharasthra indicating the necessity to increase measles vaccine coverage in the State. PMID:27121521

  16. Rolling epidemic of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks in small geographic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, C Raina; Dyda, Amalie; Bui, Chau Minh; Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad

    2018-03-21

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) is reported from many parts of the world, mostly linked to drinking water sources or cooling towers. We reviewed two unusual rolling outbreaks in Sydney and New York, each clustered in time and space. Data on these outbreaks were collected from public sources and compared to previous outbreaks in Australia and the US. While recurrent outbreaks of LD over time linked to an identified single source have been described, multiple unrelated outbreaks clustered in time and geography have not been previously described. We describe unusual geographic and temporal clustering of Legionella outbreaks in two cities, each of which experienced multiple different outbreaks within a small geographic area and within a short timeframe. The explanation for this temporal and spatial clustering of LD outbreaks in two cities is not clear, but climate variation and deteriorating water sanitation are two possible explanations. There is a need to critically analyse LD outbreaks and better understand changing trends to effectively prevent disease.

  17. Wintertime Ambient Ammonia Concentrations in Northern Utah's Urban Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, I. A.; Martin, R. S.; Silva, P.; Baasandorj, M.

    2017-12-01

    Many of the population centers in northern Utah are currently classified as non-attainment or serious non-attainment, Wasatch Front, for PM2.5 and previous studies have shown ammonium nitrate to often be the largest contributor to the particulate mass. Furthermore, measurements have shown several of the Wasatch Front cities and Cache Valley (UT/ID) consistently recorded some of the highest ambient ammonia (NH3) concentrations in the continental United States. As a part of the multi-organization 2017 Utah Winter Fine Particulate Study real-time NH3 concentrations were monitored in the Cache Valley at the Logan, UT site, collocated at an EPA sampling trailer near the Utah State University (USU) campus. A Picarro model G2508 was to used collect 5-sec averaged concentrations of NH3, carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) from January 16th to February 14th, 2017. Parts of three inversion events, wherein the PM2.5 concentrations approached or exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, were captured during the sampling period, including a 10-day event from January 25th to February 4th. Concentrations of all three of the observed species showed significant accumulation during the events, with NH3 concentrations ranging from below the detection limit (70 ppb. Preliminary analysis suggested the temporal NH3 changes tracked the increase in PM2.5 throughout the inversion events; however, a one-day period of NH3 depletion during the main inversion event was observed while PM2.5 continued to increase. Additionally, a network of passive NH3 samplers (Ogawa Model 3300) were arrayed at 25 sites throughout the Cache Valley and at 11 sites located along the Wasatch Front. These networks sampled for three 7-day periods, during the same study time frame. Ion chromatographic (IC) analyses of the sample pads are not yet finalized; however, preliminary results show concentrations in the tens of ppb and seemingly spatially correlate with previous studies showing elevated

  18. Space Radar Image of Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Salt Lake City, Utah, illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in the Utah Valley. Salt Lake City lies between the shores of the Great Salt Lake (the dark area on the left side of the image) and the Wasatch Front Range (the mountains in the upper half of the image). The Salt Lake City area is of great interest to urban planners because of the combination of lake, valley and alpine environments that coexist in the region. Much of the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake is a waterfowl management area. The green grid pattern in the right center of the image is Salt Lake City and its surrounding communities. The Salt Lake City airport is visible as the brown rectangle near the center of the image. Interstate Highway 15 runs from the middle right edge to the upper left of the image. The bright white patch east of Interstate 15 is the downtown area, including Temple Square and the state capitol. The University of Utah campus is the yellowish area that lies at the base of the mountains, east of Temple Square. The large reservoir in the lower left center is a mine tailings pond. The semi-circular feature in the mountains at the bottom edge of the image is the Kennecott Copper Mine. The area shown is 60 kilometers by 40 kilometers (37 miles by 25 miles) and is centered at 40.6 degrees north latitude, 112.0 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994. The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  19. An Outbreak of Foodborne Botulism in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona R Loutfy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a rare paralytic illness resulting from a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in Canada is predominately due to C botulinum type E and affects mainly the First Nations and Inuit populations. The most recent outbreak of botulism in Ontario was in Ottawa in 1991 and was caused by C botulinum type A. We report an outbreak of foodborne type B botulism in Ontario, which implicated home-canned tomatoes. The outbreak was characterized by mild symptoms in two cases and moderately severe illness in one case. The investigation shows the importance of considering the diagnosis of botulism in patients presenting with cranial nerve and autonomic dysfunction, especially when combined with gastrointestinal complaints; it also highlights the importance of proper home canning technique.

  20. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Kjaeldgaard, P

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe a nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during four months after June 1989. SETTING--A department of infectious diseases in Copenhagen, seeing about half the patients with AIDS in Denmark. SUBJECTS--73 HIV antibody negative subjects and 60 antibody positive subjects...... admitted as inpatients during the transmission period of the outbreak (20 June-14 August), of whom 18 (17 with AIDS, one with AIDS related complex), developed cryptosporidiosis. Two further HIV negative subjects (one departmental secretary, one visiting relative) developed cryptosporidiosis. MAIN OUTCOME...... MEASURES--Cryptosporidia in stool samples, clinical symptoms, CD4 cell count, HIV antigen concentration, chemotherapeutic treatment. RESULTS--The source of the outbreak was identified as ice from an ice machine in the ward, contaminated by an incontinent, psychotic patient with cryptosporidiosis picking...

  1. Simple visit behavior unifies complex Zika outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Manrique

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New outbreaks of Zika in the U.S. are imminent. Human nature dictates that many individuals will continue to revisit affected ‘Ground Zero’ patches, whether out of choice, work or family reasons − yet this feature is missing from traditional epidemiological analyses. Here we show that this missing visit-revisit mechanism is by itself capable of explaining quantitatively the 2016 human Zika outbreaks in all three Ground Zero patches. Our findings reveal counterintuitive ways in which this human flow can be managed to tailor any future outbreak’s duration, severity and time-to-peak. Effective public health planning can leverage these results to impact the evolution of future outbreaks via soft control of the overall human flow, as well as to suggest best-practice visitation behavior for local residents.

  2. Potential for Waterborne and Invertebrate Transmission of West Nile Virus in the Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Dusek, Robert J; Shivers, Jan; Hofmeister, Erik

    2017-07-15

    In November and December of 2013, a large mortality event involving 15,000 to 20,000 eared grebes ( Podiceps nigricollis ) occurred at the Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The onset of the outbreak in grebes was followed by a mortality event in >86 bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ). During the die-off, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) or viral culture in the carcasses of grebes and eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center. However, no activity of mosquitoes, the primary vectors of WNV, was detected by the State of Utah's WNV monitoring program. The transmission of WNV has rarely been reported during the winter in North America in the absence of known mosquito activity; however, the size of this die-off, the habitat in which it occurred, and the species involved are unique. We experimentally investigated whether WNV could survive in water with a high salt content, as found at the GSL, and whether brine shrimp, the primary food of migrating eared grebes on the GSL, could have played a role in the transmission of WNV to feeding birds. We found that WNV can survive up to 72 h at 4°C in water containing 30 to 150 ppt NaCl, and brine shrimp incubated with WNV in 30 ppt NaCl may adsorb WNV to their cuticle and, through feeding, infect epithelial cells of their gut. Both mechanisms may have potentiated the WNV die-off in migrating eared grebes on the GSL. IMPORTANCE Following a major West Nile virus die-off of eared grebes and bald eagles at the Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT, in November to December 2013, this study assessed the survival of West Nile virus (WNV) in water as saline as that of the GSL and whether brine shrimp, the major food for migrating grebes, could have played a role as a vector for the virus. While mosquitoes are the major vector of WNV, under certain circumstances, transmission may occur through contaminated water and invertebrates as food. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Utah State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Utah State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Utah. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Utah. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Utah

  4. Utah Marbles and Mars Blueberries: Comparitive Terrestrial Analogs for Hematite Concretions on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M. A.; Beitler, B.; Parry, W. T.; Ormö, J.; Komatsu, G.

    2005-03-01

    Compelling comparisons show why Utah iron oxide-cemented "marbles" are a good analog for Mars hematite "blueberries". Terrestrial examples offer valuable models for interpreting the diagenetic history and importance of water on Mars.

  5. Outbreak of Mysterious Illness Among Hospital Staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospitals are rarely reported as settings for mass psychogenic illness (MPI). The present report scrutinizes an outbreak of probable MPI among hospital staff, with medical intervention reinforcing the course of the illness. CASE REPORT: Four of seven staff members in an emergency...... the following 9 days, 14 possible poisoning victims were identified, 6 of whom were transferred for HBO. After hospital stays with repeated HBO treatment and examinations without identification of significant physical disease, the majority of the 10 HBO-treated victims remained symptomatic, some on prolonged....... Outbreaks of illness in a group of symptomatic victims without indication of significant physical disease should be managed by observation and limited intervention....

  6. WKB calculation of an epidemic outbreak distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Andrew J; McKane, Alan J

    2011-01-01

    We calculate both the exponential and prefactor contributions in a WKB approximation of the master equation for a stochastic SIR model with highly oscillatory dynamics. Fixing the basic parameters of the model, we investigate how the outbreak distribution changes with the population size. We show that this distribution rapidly becomes highly non-Gaussian, acquiring large tails, indicating the presence of rare but large outbreaks, as the population is made smaller. The analytic results are found to be in excellent agreement with simulations until the systems become so small that the dynamics are dominated by fade-out of the disease

  7. Salmonellosis outbreak due to chicken contact leading to a foodborne outbreak associated with infected delicatessen workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedican, Erin; Miller, Ben; Ziemer, Brian; LeMaster, Pam; Jawahir, Selina; Leano, Fe; Smith, Kirk

    2010-08-01

    Salmonella is the most common bacterial cause of foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Starting in June 2007, investigation of a cluster of Salmonella Montevideo cases with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns resulted in the identification of an outbreak associated with contact with chickens purchased from a single hatchery. Nine Minnesota cases from May through August 2007 were part of this outbreak. Cases with the outbreak PFGE pattern of Salmonella Montevideo continued to occur in Minnesota after August, but none of these cases reported chicken contact. The majority of these cases resided in the same town in rural Minnesota. Routine interviews revealed that all cases from these counties purchased groceries from the same local grocery store, with two specifically reporting consuming items from the grocery store delicatessen in the week before illness. As a result, an investigation into the delicatessen was initiated. Illness histories and stool samples were collected from all delicatessen employees, and food and environmental samples were collected. None of the employees reported experiencing recent gastrointestinal symptoms, but the outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella Montevideo was identified from stool from two food workers. Food and environmental samples collected tested negative for Salmonella. One of the positive employees reported having chickens at home, but the animals did not test positive for Salmonella. The positive food workers were excluded from work until they had two consecutive negative stool cultures for Salmonella. There was no evidence of ongoing transmission thereafter. This was an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infections that began as an animal-contact-associated outbreak which subsequently resulted in a foodborne outbreak associated with infected food workers. These outbreaks illustrate the complex epidemiology of salmonellosis.

  8. Socioeconomic data base report for the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report is published as a product of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program. The objective of this program is to develop terminal waste storage facilities in deep, stable geologic formations for high-level nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements from commercial power reactors and transuranic nuclear waste for which the Federal Government is responsible. The Socioeconomic Analysis Report for the Paradox Basin in Utah is part of the CRWM Program described above. This report presents baseline data on the demography, economics, community facilities, government and fiscal structure, and social structure characteristics in San Juan and Grand Counties, the socioeconomic study area. The technical criteria upon which a repository site(s) will be selected, evaluated, and licensed for high-level waste disposal will be partially based on the data in this report

  9. The Monticello, Utah, uranium mill tailings site: A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Kearl, P.M.; Sewell, J.M.; Fleischhauer, H.L.; Abramiuk, I.N.

    1984-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study was conducted to characterize the potential for contamination from the inactive millsite in Monticello, Utah. Emphasis was given to site geology, hydrology, and geochemistry for two reasons: (1) a perennial stream flows through the tailings area, and (2) a culinary aquifer is overlain by an alluvial aquifer contaminated by the tailings area. Study results indicate that surface-water contamination attributable to the piles exists for approximately 6 km downstream from the site. Contamination also exists in the alluvial aquifer underlying the millsite. Hydrologic studies indicate an active alluvial system, with recharge to the gravels by infiltration through the trailings. Fortunately, water-level and water-quality data, together with the results of a 51-hour pump test, indicate that the Dakota Formation is an effective aquitard, restricting the downward movement of contaminated water to the underlying culinary aquifer

  10. Shocked materials from the Dutch Peak diamictite, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerz, F.; Bunch, T. E.; Oberbeck, V. R.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence of shock metamorphism in the Dutch Peak diamictite in the Sheeprock Mountains, Utah, is reported. The Dutch Peak diamictite is of Proterozoic age and is a minor part of the Dutch Peak formation. A shocked sample, specimen A250, was collected during a brief visit of the Harker Canyon area of the Sheeprock Mountains. This sample consists of equant, anhedral grains of quartz, K-feldspar, and plagioclase. The crystallographic orientation of 244 lamellae systems in 106 grains was measured. It is presently difficult to evaluate the significance of this single specimen. Without additional and substantial field work, and petrographic characterization of this formation, a number of scenarios for the presence of a shocked clast and the emplacement of the entire formation remain viable.

  11. It's About Time for Autism Reform Legislation in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Brian J

    2015-05-01

    On 3 April 2014, Governor Gary Herbert signed into law a health insurance reform bill that requires private insurers to cover autism therapy. Specifically, SB57 requires state-regulated health plans to cover applied behavior analysis (ABA) therapy. While early diagnosis and intervention can reduce the long-term cost of autism, families are finding themselves bankrupt in order to pay for ABA therapy. Currently, 37 states, and the District of Columbia have enacted insurance reform laws. Ensuring that children with autism receive proper therapy is a serious public health issue. Utah was right to pass reform legislation because it properly benefits and safeguards the interests of affected children in promoting their well-being and participation in society.

  12. Nevada Test Site fallout in the area of Enterprise, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, P.W.; Hardy, E.P.; Heit, M.

    1980-04-01

    The analysis of a sediment core from the Enterprise reservoir in southwestern Utah has provided a record of fallout in the area dating to 1945. Assming that all the 137 Cs fallout that occurred at Enterprise reservoir between 1951 and 1957 came exclusively from the Nevada tests, an upper limit of the integrated deposit from this source is 18 mCi/km 2 of 137 Cs decay corrected to 1979 out of a total of 101 measured in 1979. The maximum infinity dose from the external radiation caused by this Nevada Test Site fallout is estimated to be 1700 mrad. This maximum dose is only a factor of two higher than the cumulative estimated dose in Enterprise derived from the radiological surveys conducted after each test. This indicates that the region around Enterprise reservoir did not experience an intrusion of fallout from NTS greatly in excess of what had been deduced from the post-shot external radiation surveys

  13. Final report for Utah State's SciDAC CEMM contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This document represents a summary of work carried out at Utah State University in conjunction with the Center for Extended Magnetohyrodynamic Modeling (CEMM). The principal investigator, Dr. Eric Held, was aided in this work by two former graduate students, Drs. John James and Michael Addae-Kagyah, who completed their PhD's while being partially funded by CEMM monies. In addtion, Dr. Jeong-Young Ji, a postdoctoral researcher and Mukta Sharma, a graduate student were supported. The work associated with this grant focused on developing an efficient, hybrid fluid/kinetic model for fusion plasmas. Specifically, expressions for the parallel heat fluxes and stresses in magnetized plasmas were implemented and exercised in the NIMROD plasma fluid code.

  14. Estimating pinyon and juniper cover across Utah using NAIP imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell B. Roundy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of Pinus L. (pinyon and Juniperus L. (juniper (P-J trees into sagebrush (Artemisia L. steppe communities can lead to negative effects on hydrology, loss of wildlife habitat, and a decrease in desirable understory vegetation. Tree reduction treatments are often implemented to mitigate these negative effects. In order to prioritize and effectively plan these treatments, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods are needed to estimate tree canopy cover at the landscape scale. We used object based image analysis (OBIA software (Feature AnalystTM for ArcMap 10.1®, ENVI Feature Extraction®, and Trimble eCognition Developer 8.2® to extract tree canopy cover using NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program imagery. We then compared our extractions with ground measured tree canopy cover (crown diameter and line point intercept on 309 plots across 44 sites in Utah. Extraction methods did not consistently over- or under-estimate ground measured P-J canopy cover except where tree cover was >45%. Estimates of tree canopy cover using OBIA techniques were strongly correlated with estimates using the crown diameter method (r = 0.93 for ENVI, 0.91 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.92 for eCognition. Tree cover estimates using OBIA techniques had lower correlations with tree cover measurements using the line-point intercept method (r = 0.85 for ENVI, 0.83 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.83 for eCognition. All software packages accurately and inexpensively extracted P-J canopy cover from NAIP imagery when the imagery was not blurred, and when P-J cover was not mixed with Amelanchier alnifolia (Utah serviceberry and Quercus gambelii (Gambel’s oak, which had similar spectral values as P-J.

  15. The University of Utah Urban Undertaking (U4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Bares, R.; Mendoza, D. L.; Fasoli, B.; Bowling, D. R.; Garcia, M. A.; Buchert, M.; Pataki, D. E.; Crosman, E.; Horel, J.; Catharine, D.; Strong, C.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Utah is leading efforts to understand the spatiotemporal patterns in both emissions and concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) and criteria pollutants within urban systems. The urbanized corridor in northern Utah along the Wasatch Front, anchored by Salt Lake City, is undergoing rapid population growth that is projected to double in the next few decades. The Wasatch Front offers multiple advantages as an unique "urban laboratory": urban regions in multiple valleys spanning numerous orders of magnitude in population, each with unique airsheds, well-defined boundary conditions along deserts and tall mountains, strong signals during cold air pool events, seasonal contrasts in pollution, and a legacy of productive partnerships with local stakeholders and governments. We will show results from GHG measurements from the Wasatch Front, including one of the longest running continuous CO2 records in urban areas. Complementing this record are comprehensive meteorological observations and GHG/pollutant concentrations on mobile platforms: light rail, helicopter, and research vans. Variations in the GHG and pollutant observations illustrate human behavior and the resulting "urban metabolism" taking place on hourly, weekly, and seasonal cycles, resulting in a coupling between GHG and criteria pollutants. Moreover, these observations illustrate systematic spatial gradients in GHG and pollutant distributions between and within urban areas, traced to underlying gradients in population, energy use, terrain, and land use. Over decadal time scales the observations reveal growth of the "urban dome" due to expanding urban development. Using numerical models of the atmosphere, we further link concentrations of GHG and air quality-relevant pollutants to underlying emissions at the neighborhood scale as well as urban planning considerations.

  16. Observational and Synoptic Analyses of the Winter Precipitation Regime Change over Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Gillies, Robert R.; Wang, Shih-Yu; Booth, Marty R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a widespread decline in snowpack over Utah accompanied by a decline in the snow–precipitation ratio while anecdotal evidence claims have been put forward that measured changes in Utah’s snowpack are spurious and do not reflect actual change. Using two distinct lines of investigation, this paper further analyzes the winter precipitation regime in the state of Utah. First, by means of observation-based, gridded daily temperature, precipitation, and remotely sense...

  17. Longitudinal Growth of VEX Robotic Competitions in Utah and the Rocky Mountain Region

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Trevor P.

    2013-01-01

    The Utah State University VEX Robotics Team (USUVRT) is in its fifth year of promoting the VEX Robotics Competition in the Utah and Rocky Mountain Region. The Robotics Education and Competition Foundation (RECF) annually hosts the VEX World Championships to identify and award the best middle school, high school, and college robotics teams. The USUVRT has partnered with the Rocky Mountain NASA Space Grant Consortium to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) activities...

  18. The Growth of VEX Robotics Competitions in Utah and the Rocky Mountain Region

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Trevor P.; Stewardson, Gary

    2012-01-01

    During the 2008-2009 school year, the Utah State University (USU) VEX Robotics team competed for the first time in the VEX Robotics World Championship. VEX annually hosts this championship to identify and award the best middle school, high school, and college robotics teams. A major goal of the USU VEX Robotics Team, through a partnership with the Rocky Mountain NASA Space Grant Consortium (RMNSPC) is to promote middle and high school students in Utah and the Rocky Mountain Region to develop ...

  19. Pattern of the meningococcal meningitis outbreak in Northern Nigeria, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey Enya Bassey

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The testing of CSF samples during meningitis outbreaks is recommended in order to monitor the occurrence of the multiple meningitis serotypes during these outbreaks and to direct serotype-specific vaccination response activities.

  20. Analysis of epidemiological data of foodborne outbreak reported in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: The knowledge of bacterial agent of foodborne diseases and determination of antimicrobial resistance pattern are helpful to reduce the rate of foodborne outbreaks, the cost of treatment. The prevention control of outbreaks is also very important.

  1. Coccidioidomycosis Outbreaks, United States and Worldwide, 1940-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Michael; Jackson, Brendan R; McCotter, Orion; Benedict, Kaitlin

    2018-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial illness and death in the United States each year. Although most cases are sporadic, outbreaks provide insight into the clinical and environmental features of coccidioidomycosis, high-risk activities, and the geographic range of Coccidioides fungi. We identified reports published in English of 47 coccidioidomycosis outbreaks worldwide that resulted in 1,464 cases during 1940-2015. Most (85%) outbreaks were associated with environmental exposures; the 2 largest outbreaks resulted from an earthquake and a large dust storm. More than one third of outbreaks occurred in areas where the fungus was not previously known to be endemic, and more than half of outbreaks involved occupational exposures. Coccidioidomycosis outbreaks can be difficult to detect and challenging to prevent given the unknown effectiveness of environmental control methods and personal protective equipment; therefore, increased awareness of coccidioidomycosis outbreaks is needed among public health professionals, healthcare providers, and the public.

  2. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  3. Transmission Models of Historical Ebola Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, John M.; Bakach, Iurii; Just, Matthew R.; O?Regan, Suzanne M.; Gambhir, Manoj; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai

    2015-01-01

    To guide the collection of data under emergent epidemic conditions, we reviewed compartmental models of historical Ebola outbreaks to determine their implications and limitations. We identified future modeling directions and propose that the minimal epidemiologic dataset for Ebola model construction comprises duration of incubation period and symptomatic period, distribution of secondary cases by infection setting, and compliance with intervention recommendations.

  4. E. Coli: Preventing Outbreaks at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Mary D.

    1996-01-01

    One strain of E. coli is not usually found in foods, but has been related to consumption of undercooked ground beef. Symptoms are stomach cramps and diarrhea, and 2-7% of infections lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is life threatening. Camps can prevent outbreaks by avoiding uncooked meat on overnight campouts and requiring appropriate…

  5. the first outbreak of somali piracy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    represented a significant change from previous years, when pirate attacks had been sporadic and opportunistic. ... Previous studies addressing the outbreak have linked it to the stability of central. Somalia in 2005.2 ...... the ICU polity.k Concurrent with the organisation's territorial control evaporating followed a steady uptake ...

  6. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain. PMID:21801646

  7. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; Kamal, A. H. M.; Ali, K. S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  8. Lessons in Outbreak a Consumer perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Lessons in Outbreak a Consumer perspective. Arnout Fischer Consumer risk perceptions is not necessarily the same as an economic weighing of risks and benefits. Consumers tend to be risk averse, tend to estimate catastrophic, unnatural or involuntary risks as larger, while personal lifestyle risks

  9. Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemics and outbreaks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemic of acute conjunctivitis in Dar es Salaam in 2010 demonstrated the importance of a strong infectious diseases epidemiological surveillance network to minimise disease outbreaks. Misunderstanding of the causes and management of diseases explains the repetitive nature of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis ...

  10. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Eco-Evolutionary Theory and Insect Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, David J; Dukic, Vanja; Dushoff, Jonathan; Fleming-Davies, Arietta; Dwyer, Greg

    2017-06-01

    Eco-evolutionary theory argues that population cycles in consumer-resource interactions are partly driven by natural selection, such that changes in densities and changes in trait values are mutually reinforcing. Evidence that the theory explains cycles in nature, however, is almost nonexistent. Experimental tests of model assumptions are logistically impractical for most organisms, while for others, evidence that population cycles occur in nature is lacking. For insect baculoviruses in contrast, tests of model assumptions are straightforward, and there is strong evidence that baculoviruses help drive population cycles in many insects, including the gypsy moth that we study here. We therefore used field experiments with the gypsy moth baculovirus to test two key assumptions of eco-evolutionary models of host-pathogen population cycles: that reduced host infection risk is heritable and that it is costly. Our experiments confirm both assumptions, and inserting parameters estimated from our data into eco-evolutionary insect-outbreak models gives cycles closely resembling gypsy moth outbreak cycles in North America, whereas standard models predict unrealistic stable equilibria. Our work shows that eco-evolutionary models are useful for explaining outbreaks of forest insect defoliators, while widespread observations of intense selection on defoliators in nature and of heritable and costly resistance in defoliators in the lab together suggest that eco-evolutionary dynamics may play a general role in defoliator outbreaks.

  12. Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-02-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas.

  13. Outbreak of Zika Virus Infections, Dominica, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sadie J; Carlson, Colin J; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J; Romero, Moory M; Cox, Shelly-Ann; Mahon, Roché; Trotman, Adrian; St Ville, Sylvester; Ahmed, Shalauddin

    2017-11-01

    In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the pandemic of Zika virus a public health emergency. On March 4, 2016, Dominica reported its first autochthonous Zika virus disease case; subsequently, 1,263 cases were reported. We describe the outbreak through November 2016, when the last known case was reported.

  14. Outbreak of Zika Virus Infections, Dominica, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Sadie J.; Carlson, Colin J.; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Romero, Moory M.; Cox, Shelly-Ann; Mahon, Roché; Trotman, Adrian; St. Ville, Sylvester; Ahmed, Shalauddin

    2017-01-01

    In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the pandemic of Zika virus a public health emergency. On March 4, 2016, Dominica reported its first autochthonous Zika virus disease case; subsequently, 1,263 cases were reported. We describe the outbreak through November 2016, when the last known case was reported.

  15. Quantifying reporting timeliness to improve outbreak control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonačić Marinović, Axel; Swaan, Corien; van Steenbergen, Jim; Kretzschmar, MEE

    The extent to which reporting delays should be reduced to gain substantial improvement in outbreak control is unclear. We developed a model to quantitatively assess reporting timeliness. Using reporting speed data for 6 infectious diseases in the notification system in the Netherlands, we calculated

  16. How Will Climate Change Impact Cholera Outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Azadani, F.; Jutla, A.; Rahimikolu, J.; Akanda, A. S.; Huq, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental parameters associated with cholera are well documented. However, cholera continues to be a global public health threat. Uncertainty in defining environmental processes affecting growth and multiplication of the cholera bacteria can be affected significantly by changing climate at different temporal and spatial scales, either through amplification of the hydroclimatic cycle or by enhanced variability of large scale geophysical processes. Endemic cholera in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia has a unique pattern of two seasonal peaks and there are associated with asymmetric and episodic variability in river discharge. The first cholera outbreak in spring is related with intrusion of bacteria laden coastal seawater during low river discharge. Cholera occurring during the fall season is hypothesized to be associated with high river discharge related to a cross-contamination of water resources and, therefore, a second wave of disease, a phenomenon characteristic primarily in the inland regions. Because of difficulties in establishing linkage between coarse resolutions of the Global Climate Model (GCM) output and localized disease outbreaks, the impact of climate change on diarrheal disease has not been explored. Here using the downscaling method of Support Vector Machines from HADCM3 and ECHAM models, we show how cholera outbreak patterns are changing in the Bengal Delta. Our preliminary results indicate statistically significant changes in both seasonality and magnitude in the occurrence of cholera over the next century. Endemic cholera is likely to transform into epidemic forms and new geographical areas will be at risk for cholera outbreaks.

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHOLERA OUTBREAK IN KAMPALA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    The occurrence of cases concentrated in the slums where the overcrowding and the environmental conditions resembled a refugee camp situation. Conclusion: The explosive development of the cholera outbreak in Kampala, followed by a rapid decrease of the number of cases reported is unusual in a large urban setting.

  18. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishers. Ovarian tumour in a calf . Abortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herd. Parasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheep. Outbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheep. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  19. Preparing for a Pandemic Flu Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittbenner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the things college leaders should know and do in case of a pandemic influenza outbreak. The author talks about four principles that will guide college leaders in developing a pandemic influenza plan and presents the 10 elements of an effective college pandemic planning process.

  20. [Epidemic and control strategy on nosocomial outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian

    2008-10-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in human beings and frequently cause the outbreaks of nosocomial infections. Based on the pathogenic characteristics of noroviruses, this article describes the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak in hospital and explores the measures to prevent and control the nosocomial outbreak.

  1. Management of Nosocomial Scabies, an Outbreak of Occupational Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbauer, Frank H. W.; Veenstra-Kyuchukova, Yanka K.; Koeze, Jacqueline; KruijtSpanjer, Martijn R.; Kardaun, Sylvia H.

    Background The optimal approach to managing institutional scabies outbreaks has yet to be defined. We report on outbreak managements are needed. Methods We report on a large outbreak of scabies in three acute care wards in a tertiary university teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Results The

  2. Nanopore Sequencing as a Rapidly Deployable Ebola Outbreak Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Rosenke, Kyle; Fischer, Robert J; Hoenen, Andreas; Judson, Seth D; Martellaro, Cynthia; Falzarano, Darryl; Marzi, Andrea; Squires, R Burke; Wollenberg, Kurt R; de Wit, Emmie; Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Bushmaker, Trenton; Feldmann, Friederike; McNally, Kristin; Bolay, Fatorma K; Fields, Barry; Sealy, Tara; Rayfield, Mark; Nichol, Stuart T; Zoon, Kathryn C; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J; Feldmann, Heinz

    2016-02-01

    Rapid sequencing of RNA/DNA from pathogen samples obtained during disease outbreaks provides critical scientific and public health information. However, challenges exist for exporting samples to laboratories or establishing conventional sequencers in remote outbreak regions. We successfully used a novel, pocket-sized nanopore sequencer at a field diagnostic laboratory in Liberia during the current Ebola virus outbreak.

  3. EDITORIAL Listeriosis outbreak in South Africa: Are we winning the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outbreak has topped the charts as the largest outbreak in history. The first reported case of the current outbreak of listeriosis was in January. 2017. On 27 Feb 2018, the ... in the processed meat sections of food retailers and butcheries, should be ... antibiotics, primarily ampicillin and gentamicin, to which the organism is ...

  4. Cholera outbreak in districts around Lake Chilwa, Malawi: Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholera is endemic in Malawi with seasonal outbreaks during the wet season. People living around Lake Chilwa rely on the lake for their water supply. From May 2009 to May 2010, a cholera outbreak occurred in fishing communities around Lake Chilwa. This paper describes the outbreak response and lessons learned for ...

  5. Outbreak of Rift Valley fever affecting veterinarians and farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. During 2008, Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus re-emerged in South Africa as focal outbreaks in several provinces. Aims. To investigate an outbreak affecting cattle farmers and farm workers, and the staff and students of a veterinary school, assess the prevalence of infection during the outbreak, document the clinical ...

  6. A study of the 2006 Chikungunya epidemic outbreak in Mauritius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chikungunya epidemic outbreaks have affected more than 1 million people in 2005-2006 in many Indian Ocean islands and in India. Mauritius experienced a major outbreak in February/March 2006 following a minor outbreak in April/May 2005. No cases have been registered on the island since August 2006.

  7. Grasshopper species composition shifts following a severe rangeland grasshopper outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about how grasshopper species abundances shift during and following severe outbreaks, as sampling efforts usually end when outbreaks subside. Grasshopper densities, species composition and vegetation have infrequently been sampled during and after a severe outbreak in the western U.S...

  8. Quality of life on the Colorado Plateau: A report to camera-survey collaborators in southeast Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Reis-Ruehrwein, Jessica B.; Sexton, Natalie R.; Blahna, Dale J.

    1999-01-01

    What constitutes quality of life among community residents in southeastern and central Utah? What critical areas, elements, and special outdoor places are essential to quality of life in those areas? Answering these questions was the goal of this "quality-of-life" research collaboration in the Colorado Plateau region. Collaborators include the Utah Travel Council (UTC), Canyon Country Partnership, Utah State University, and the county governments of Carbon, Emery, Grand, San Juan, and Wayne counties.

  9. Measles outbreak linked to European B3 outbreaks, Wales, United Kingdom, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Jonny; Davies, Llion; McCarthy, Joanne; Perry, Malorie; Moore, Catherine; Cottrell, Simon; Bowley, Mererid; Williams, Chris; Shankar, Ananda Giri; Stiff, Rhianwen

    2017-10-01

    The United Kingdom achieved interrupted endemic measles transmission for 36 months in 2016. Despite this, ongoing challenges from sporadic measles cases typically imported from abroad remain. We summarise a B3 measles genotype outbreak in south-east Wales occurring between May and September 2017, linked with other European outbreaks, and lessons learnt. Seventeen confirmed cases and one probable case occurred principally in education and healthcare-settings. Six confirmed cases attended healthcare settings when infectious, without being isolated.

  10. Human angiostrongyliasis outbreak in Dali, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several angiostrongyliasis outbreaks have been reported in recent years but the disease continues to be neglected in public health circles. We describe an outbreak in Dali, southwest China in order to highlight some key problems for the control of this helminth infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All available medical records of suspected angiostrongyliasis patients visiting hospitals in Dali in the period 1 October 2007-31 March 2008 were reviewed, and tentative diagnoses of varying strengths were reached according to given sets of criteria. Snails collected from local markets, restaurants and natural habitats were also screened for the presence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. A total of 33 patients met criteria for infection, and 11 among them were classified as clinically confirmed. An additional eight patients were identified through a surveillance system put in operation in response to the outbreak. The epidemic lasted for 8 months with its peak in February 2008. Of the 33 patients, 97.0% complained of severe headache. 84.8% patients had high eosinophil cell counts either in the peripheral blood or in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Three-quarters of the patients were treated with a combination of albendazole and corticosteroids, resulting in significantly improved overall conditions. Twenty-two patients reported the consumption of raw or undercooked snails prior to the onset of the symptoms, and approximately 1.0% of the Pomacea canaliculata snails on sale were found to be infected with A. cantonensis. The snails were also found in certain habitats around Dali but no parasites were detected in these populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The import and sale of infected P. canaliculata is the likely trigger for this angiostrongyliasis outbreak. Awareness of angiostrongyliasis must be raised, and standardized diagnosis and treatment are needed in order to provide clinicians with a guide to address this disease. Health education

  11. Human Angiostrongyliasis Outbreak in Dali, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Shao-Rong; Wang, Li-Bo; Fang, Wen; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Li, Yuan-Lin; Du, Zun-Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2009-01-01

    Background Several angiostrongyliasis outbreaks have been reported in recent years but the disease continues to be neglected in public health circles. We describe an outbreak in Dali, southwest China in order to highlight some key problems for the control of this helminth infection. Methodology/Principal Findings All available medical records of suspected angiostrongyliasis patients visiting hospitals in Dali in the period 1 October 2007–31 March 2008 were reviewed, and tentative diagnoses of varying strengths were reached according to given sets of criteria. Snails collected from local markets, restaurants and natural habitats were also screened for the presence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. A total of 33 patients met criteria for infection, and 11 among them were classified as clinically confirmed. An additional eight patients were identified through a surveillance system put in operation in response to the outbreak. The epidemic lasted for 8 months with its peak in February 2008. Of the 33 patients, 97.0% complained of severe headache. 84.8% patients had high eosinophil cell counts either in the peripheral blood or in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Three-quarters of the patients were treated with a combination of albendazole and corticosteroids, resulting in significantly improved overall conditions. Twenty-two patients reported the consumption of raw or undercooked snails prior to the onset of the symptoms, and approximately 1.0% of the Pomacea canaliculata snails on sale were found to be infected with A. cantonensis. The snails were also found in certain habitats around Dali but no parasites were detected in these populations. Conclusions/Significance The import and sale of infected P. canaliculata is the likely trigger for this angiostrongyliasis outbreak. Awareness of angiostrongyliasis must be raised, and standardized diagnosis and treatment are needed in order to provide clinicians with a guide to address this disease. Health education campaigns could

  12. outbreak of hepatitis 'E' in risalpur garrison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, T.B.; Tariq, W.U.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus is an RNA virus. It results in epidemics/outbreaks in geographical areas lacking clean water and sanitation. It is excreted in stools and is enterically transmitted (faeco-oral route). The clinical picture resembles other acute hepatitis and diagnosis is clinched by detecting anti-HEV IgM in infected individuals. It is a self-limiting disease and does not progress to chronicity. There is no vaccine available so far, to confer immunity against HEV infection. HEV is endemic in many parts of the world and has resulted in many epidemics / outbreaks worldwide. It is also endemic in Pakistan and epidemics / outbreaks have generally been under reported. To establish the cause of outbreak Blood samples of the patients (n=195), admitted in isolation ward were collected aseptically for routine baseline investigations and hepatitis screening. Separate blood samples were sent to Armed Forces Institute of pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi for detection of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (Anti HEV IgM). Water samples collected during the outbreak were tested by multiple tube technique. MPN (Most Probable Number) method was used to determine faecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml of water sample. All the patients (n=195) on admission had raised ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) levels along with hyperbilirubinemia, 37% had raised TLC with polymorphonuclear response. None had HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antign) or anti-HCV (antibodies to hepatitis C virus), 23% had prolonged PT (Prothrombin Time). Samples despatched to AFIP Rawalpindi confirmed the presence of anti-HEV IgM. Follow up analysis revealed many fold increase in ALT levels. Average stay in the Hospital was 23.6 days per patient. All the water samples were declared unfit for drinking due to high coliform count. At present, no vaccine is available to protect against HEV infection. Mainstay for prevention and occurrence is to formulate cost-effective strategies for improvement of self/environmental hygiene and

  13. Measles outbreak in Qassim, Saudi Arabia 2007: epidemiology and evaluation of outbreak response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Saulat; Al Saigul, Abdullah Mohammed; Abu Baker, Mohammed Ahmad Mohammed; Alataya, Ayman Osman; Hamed, Shamandy Abdul Rahim

    2008-12-01

    Worldwide efforts for measles elimination are made possible due to the availability of a highly effective measles vaccine. In spite of highly vaccinated population, a measles outbreak occurred in Qassim province of Saudi Arabia, during January-August 2007. An outbreak investigation was conducted to describe the epidemiology of outbreak. An audit of performance of control measures taken by the Primary Health Care team was done according to World Health Organization standards. Of 230 cases reported, more than one-third (37.8%) patients were 0-4 years of age. Children aged 6-11 months accounted for 51.7% cases amongst 0-4 years age group. The performance indicator targets of >or=80% for outbreak control measures were achieved regarding investigation of cases within 48 hours, and blood sample extraction within the optimal period. However, 66.8% cases reported within 48 hours of rash onset and only 16.4% of laboratory test results were received within 7 days of receipt of the specimen in laboratory. This outbreak demonstrates the increased susceptibility of unvaccinated children aged 6-11 months. To prevent future outbreaks, community awareness, review of measles vaccination schedule, enhanced surveillance and measles 'catch-up' mass immunization campaign to interrupt chains of transmission, are required.

  14. Mumps outbreaks in vaccinated populations: are available mumps vaccines effective enough to prevent outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Gustavo H; Rubin, Steven

    2008-12-01

    Increased reports of mumps in vaccinated populations prompted a review of the performance of mumps vaccines. The effectiveness of prior vaccination with 1 dose of vaccine ranged from 72.8% to 91% for the Jeryl Lynn strain, from 54.4% to 93% for the Urabe strain, and from 0% to 33% for the Rubini strain. Vaccine effectiveness after 2 doses of mumps vaccine was reported in 3 outbreaks and ranged from 91% to 94.6%. There was evidence of waning immunity, which is a likely factor in mumps outbreaks, aggravated by possible antigenic differences between the vaccine strain and outbreak strains. Inadequate vaccine coverage or use of the Rubini vaccine strain accounted for the majority of outbreaks reviewed; however, some outbreaks could not be prevented, despite high vaccination coverage with 2 doses of the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strain. Our findings indicate the need for more-effective mumps vaccines and/or for review of current vaccination policies to prevent future outbreaks.

  15. Management of nosocomial scabies, an outbreak of occupational disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Frank H W; Veenstra-Kyuchukova, Yanka K; Koeze, Jacqueline; KruijtSpanjer, Martijn R; Kardaun, Sylvia H

    2015-05-01

    The optimal approach to managing institutional scabies outbreaks has yet to be defined. We report on outbreak managements are needed. We report on a large outbreak of scabies in three acute care wards in a tertiary university teaching hospital in the Netherlands. The outbreak potentially effected 460 patients and 185 health care workers who had been exposed to the index patient. Containment of an outbreak relies on a quick and strict implementation of appropriate infection control measures and should include simultaneous treatment of all infested persons and exposed contacts to prevent secondary spread and prolonged post-intervention surveillance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks--United States, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    Foodborne agents cause an estimated 48 million illnesses annually in the United States, including 9.4 million illnesses from known pathogens. CDC collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks submitted from all states and territories through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. During 2008, the most recent year for which data are finalized, 1,034 foodborne disease outbreaks were reported, which resulted in 23,152 cases of illness, 1,276 hospitalizations, and 22 deaths. Among the 479 outbreaks with a laboratory-confirmed single etiologic agent reported, norovirus was the most common, accounting for 49% of outbreaks and 46% of illnesses. Salmonella was the second most common, accounting for 23% of outbreaks and 31% of illnesses. Among the 218 outbreaks attributed to a food vehicle with ingredients from only one of 17 defined food commodities, the top commodities to which outbreaks were attributed were poultry (15%), beef (14%), and finfish (14%), whereas the top commodities to which outbreak-related illnesses were attributed were fruits and nuts (24%), vine-stalk vegetables (23%), and beef (13%). Outbreak surveillance provides insights into the agents that cause foodborne illness, types of implicated foods, and settings where transmission occurs. Public health, regulatory, and food industry professionals can use this information to target prevention efforts against pathogens and foods that cause the most foodborne disease outbreaks.

  17. Conservation planning for the Colorado River in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Rasmussen,; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2016-01-01

    Strategic planning is increasingly recognized as necessary for providing the greatest possible conservation benefits for restoration efforts. Rigorous, science-based resource assessment, combined with acknowledgement of broader basin trends, provides a solid foundation for determining effective projects. It is equally important that methods used to prioritize conservation investments are simple and practical enough that they can be implemented in a timely manner and by a variety of resource managers. With the help of local and regional natural resource professionals, we have developed a broad-scale, spatially-explicit assessment of 146 miles (~20,000 acres) of the Colorado River mainstem in Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah that will function as the basis for a systematic, practical approach to conservation planning and riparian restoration prioritization. For the assessment we have: 1) acquired, modified or created spatial datasets of Colorado River bottomland conditions; 2) synthesized those datasets into habitat suitability models and estimates of natural recovery potential, fire risk and relative cost; 3) investigated and described dominant ecosystem trends and human uses, and; 4) suggested site selection and prioritization approaches. Partner organizations (The Nature Conservancy, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management and Utah Forestry Fire and State Lands) are using the assessment and datasets to identify and prioritize a suite of restoration actions to increase ecosystem resilience and improve habitat for bottomland species. Primary datasets include maps of bottomland cover types, bottomland extent, maps of areas inundated during high and low flow events, as well as locations of campgrounds, roads, fires, invasive vegetation treatment areas and other features. Assessment of conditions and trends in the project area entailed: 1) assemblage of existing data on geology, changes in stream flow, and predictions of future conditions; 2) identification

  18. A review of critical care nursing and disease outbreak preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makamure, Miranda; Makamure, Muriel; Mendiola, Williane; Renteria, Daisy; Repp, Melissa; Willden, Azshwee

    2013-01-01

    The impact of disease outbreaks continues to increase globally. As frontline staff, critical care nurses (CCNs) are more likely to be confronted with the need to care for affected patients. With different pathological diseases emerging, CCNs play an integral role in disease outbreaks. The advanced skill set of CCNs is pivotal in the management and care of patients during an outbreak. Lack of planning and preparation before disease outbreaks leads to detrimental patient outcomes. Panic, chaos, and fear for personal safety cause stress and anxiety for unprepared nurses. However, this problem can be resolved. Comprehensive planning, training, and education can better prepare intensive care unit nurses for disease outbreaks. This article reviews some of the current literature on intensive care unit nurse preparedness for disease outbreaks in the United States. This article also offers strategies that may be used to better prepare CCNs for disease outbreaks.

  19. Faster Detection of Poliomyelitis Outbreaks to Support Polio Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Isobel M; Chenoweth, Paul; Okayasu, Hiro; Donnelly, Christl A; Aylward, R Bruce; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2016-03-01

    As the global eradication of poliomyelitis approaches the final stages, prompt detection of new outbreaks is critical to enable a fast and effective outbreak response. Surveillance relies on reporting of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and laboratory confirmation through isolation of poliovirus from stool. However, delayed sample collection and testing can delay outbreak detection. We investigated whether weekly testing for clusters of AFP by location and time, using the Kulldorff scan statistic, could provide an early warning for outbreaks in 20 countries. A mixed-effects regression model was used to predict background rates of nonpolio AFP at the district level. In Tajikistan and Congo, testing for AFP clusters would have resulted in an outbreak warning 39 and 11 days, respectively, before official confirmation of large outbreaks. This method has relatively high specificity and could be integrated into the current polio information system to support rapid outbreak response activities.

  20. GHOST: global hepatitis outbreak and surveillance technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, Atkinson G; Sims, Seth; Rytsareva, Inna; Campo, David S; Skums, Pavel; Dimitrova, Zoya; Ramachandran, Sumathi; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Thai, Hong; Ganova-Raeva, Lilia; Lin, Yulin; Punkova, Lili T; Sue, Amanda; Mirabito, Massimo; Wang, Silver; Tracy, Robin; Bolet, Victor; Sukalac, Thom; Lynberg, Chris; Khudyakov, Yury

    2017-12-06

    Hepatitis C is a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections associated with unsafe injection practices, drug diversion, and other exposures to blood are difficult to detect and investigate. Effective HCV outbreak investigation requires comprehensive surveillance and robust case investigation. We previously developed and validated a methodology for the rapid and cost-effective identification of HCV transmission clusters. Global Hepatitis Outbreak and Surveillance Technology (GHOST) is a cloud-based system enabling users, regardless of computational expertise, to analyze and visualize transmission clusters in an independent, accurate and reproducible way. We present and explore performance of several GHOST implemented algorithms using next-generation sequencing data experimentally obtained from hypervariable region 1 of genetically related and unrelated HCV strains. GHOST processes data from an entire MiSeq run in approximately 3 h. A panel of seven specimens was used for preparation of six repeats of MiSeq libraries. Testing sequence data from these libraries by GHOST showed a consistent transmission linkage detection, testifying to high reproducibility of the system. Lack of linkage among genetically unrelated HCV strains and constant detection of genetic linkage between HCV strains from known transmission pairs and from follow-up specimens at different levels of MiSeq-read sampling indicate high specificity and sensitivity of GHOST in accurate detection of HCV transmission. GHOST enables automatic extraction of timely and relevant public health information suitable for guiding effective intervention measures. It is designed as a virtual diagnostic system intended for use in molecular surveillance and outbreak investigations rather than in research. The system produces accurate and reproducible information on HCV transmission clusters for all users, irrespective of their level of bioinformatics

  1. Rubella outbreak and outbreak management in a school setting, China, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Caiyun; Ma, Huilai; Liang, Wenjia; Hu, Pei; Mo, Xianghuan; An, Zhijie; Zheng, Huizhen

    2017-04-03

    An active response to a rubella outbreak may interrupt disease transmission, and outbreak response immunization (ORI) can increase immunity among persons who might otherwise not be protected. On March 17, 2014, a rubella outbreak was reported in a middle school in Guangzhou city, China. We conducted an investigation to assess impact of a policy of exclusion of cases from school and of ORI. Active surveillance was used to find cases of rubella. Investigators interviewed teachers and reviewed the absentee records to determine implementation details of school exclusion. ORI was recommended on 2 occasions during the outbreak, one small-scale and one large-scale. Laboratory confirmation tests included serum IgM and IgG measurements to distinguish between acute infection and immunity. A serological survey in 4 classes was used to determine immunity status and identify symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. From February 17 to May 23, 2014, 162 rubella cases (24 laboratory-confirmed and 138 epidemiologically linked) were detected among 1,621 students. Cases ultimately occurred in 27 classes (72.97%) across 37 classes. In 11 classes in which exclusion from school was delayed by 1 or more days, the secondary attack rate was 12.30%, compared with 2.35% in 15 classes with immediate exclusion. ORI increased vaccine coverage from 25.83 % to 86.92%, and the final case of the epidemic was reported one month later. A serological survey of 91 students in 4 classes identified 15 cases, 6 of which were asymptomatic. The outbreak happened in school with low rubella-containing vaccination coverage. Exclusion from school upon rash/fever onset was associated with lowering the secondary attack rate, but school exclusion alone was not able to stop this outbreak - a large ORI was needed. Assuring complete vaccination upon entry to school is likely to be necessary to ensure coverage is above the herd immunity threshold and prevent outbreaks from happening.

  2. Severe Dengue Fever Outbreak in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Ko; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease caused by dengue viruses (DENVs). Epidemic dengue occurs intermittently in Taiwan. In 2014, Taiwan experienced its largest DF outbreak. There were 15,732 DF cases reported. There were a total of 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, of which 20 resulted in death. Most DF cases were reported in southern Taiwan. A total of 15,043 (96%) cases were from Kaohsiung, a modern city in southern Taiwan. This report reviews DF epidemics in Taiwan during 2005–2014. The correlation between DF and DHF along with temperature and precipitation were conjointly examined. We conclude that most dengue epidemics in Taiwan resulted from imported DF cases. Results indicate three main factors that may have been associated with this DF outbreak in Kaohsiung: an underground pipeline explosion combined with subsequent rainfall and higher temperature. These factors may have enhanced mosquito breeding activity, facilitating DENV transmission. PMID:26572871

  3. A Short Overview of Ebola Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Saeidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available   Ebola virus disease (formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever is a severe, often fatal illness, with a death rate of up to 90%. The illness affects humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees. Ebola first appeared in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks, one in a village near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the other in a remote area of Sudan. The origin of the virus is unknown but fruit bats (Pteropodidae are considered the likely host of the Ebola virus, based on available evidence. In the current outbreak in West Africa, the majority of cases in humans have occurred as a result of human-to-human transmission. Infection occurs from direct contact through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, or other bodily fluids or secretions (stool, urine, saliva, semen of infected people.

  4. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Imatong, Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofula, Victor O.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Konongoi, Samson L.; Sow, Abdourahmane; De Cock, Kevin M.; Tukei, Peter M.; Okoth, Fredrick A.; Swanepoel, Robert; Burt, Felicity J.; Waters, Norman C.; Coldren, Rodney L.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, the World Health Organization received reports about a possible outbreak of a hemorrhagic disease of unknown cause in the Imatong Mountains of southern Sudan. Laboratory investigations were conducted on 28 serum samples collected from patients in the Imatong region. Serum samples from 13 patients were positive for immunoglobulin M antibody to flavivirus, and serum samples from 5 patients were positive by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction with both the genus Flavivirus–reactive primers and yellow fever virus–specific primers. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons obtained with the genus Flavivirus oligonucleotide primers confirmed yellow fever virus as the etiologic agent. Isolation attempts in newborn mice and Vero cells from the samples yielded virus isolates from five patients. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis enabled an interagency emergency task force to initiate a targeted vaccination campaign to control the outbreak. PMID:15207058

  5. Severe Dengue Fever Outbreak in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chang, Ko; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease caused by dengue viruses (DENVs). Epidemic dengue occurs intermittently in Taiwan. In 2014, Taiwan experienced its largest DF outbreak. There were 15,732 DF cases reported. There were a total of 136 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, of which 20 resulted in death. Most DF cases were reported in southern Taiwan. A total of 15,043 (96%) cases were from Kaohsiung, a modern city in southern Taiwan. This report reviews DF epidemics in Taiwan during 2005-2014. The correlation between DF and DHF along with temperature and precipitation were conjointly examined. We conclude that most dengue epidemics in Taiwan resulted from imported DF cases. Results indicate three main factors that may have been associated with this DF outbreak in Kaohsiung: an underground pipeline explosion combined with subsequent rainfall and higher temperature. These factors may have enhanced mosquito breeding activity, facilitating DENV transmission. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Quasi-Neutral Theory of Epidemic Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Oscar A.; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Some epidemics have been empirically observed to exhibit outbreaks of all possible sizes, i.e., to be scale-free or scale-invariant. Different explanations for this finding have been put forward; among them there is a model for “accidental pathogens” which leads to power-law distributed outbreaks without apparent need of parameter fine tuning. This model has been claimed to be related to self-organized criticality, and its critical properties have been conjectured to be related to directed percolation. Instead, we show that this is a (quasi) neutral model, analogous to those used in Population Genetics and Ecology, with the same critical behavior as the voter-model, i.e. the theory of accidental pathogens is a (quasi)-neutral theory. This analogy allows us to explain all the system phenomenology, including generic scale invariance and the associated scaling exponents, in a parsimonious and simple way. PMID:21760930

  7. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Kjaeldgaard, P

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe a nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during four months after June 1989. SETTING--A department of infectious diseases in Copenhagen, seeing about half the patients with AIDS in Denmark. SUBJECTS--73 HIV antibody negative subjects and 60 antibody positive subjects...... admitted as inpatients during the transmission period of the outbreak (20 June-14 August), of whom 18 (17 with AIDS, one with AIDS related complex), developed cryptosporidiosis. Two further HIV negative subjects (one departmental secretary, one visiting relative) developed cryptosporidiosis. MAIN OUTCOME...... out ice for cold drinks. The mean incubation time was at least 13 days-that is, twice that in HIV-negative patients. Of the 18 patients with AIDS who developed cryptosporidiosis, five recovered, two were symptomless carriers, three died of unrelated causes, and eight died after prolonged diarrhoea...

  8. Emerging Drug Threats and Perils Facing Utah's Youth. Hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Salt Lake City and Cedar City, Utah, July 6-7, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This report documents the proceedings of a two-day hearing held in Utah to begin a public dialogue on how professionals can work together to combat the dangers of substance abuse problems among adolescents. The introductory comments by the presiding chairman, Senator Orin Hatch, spell out the present problem in Utah. The senator points out how…

  9. Geology of the central Mineral Mountains, Beaver County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.

    1980-03-01

    The Mineral Mountains are located in Beaver and Millard Counties, southwestern Utah. The range is a horst located in the transition zone between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau geologic provinces. A multiple-phase Tertiary pluton forms most of the range, with Paleozoic rocks exposed on the north and south and Precambrian metamorphic rocks on the west in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area). Precambrian banded gneiss and Cambrian carbonate rocks have been intruded by foliated granodioritic to monzonitic rocks of uncertain age. The Tertiary pluton consists of six major phases of quartz monzonitic to leucocratic granitic rocks, two diorite stocks, and several more mafic units that form dikes. During uplift of the mountain block, overlying rocks and the upper part of the pluton were partially removed by denudation faulting to the west. The interplay of these low-angle faults and younger northerly trending Basin and Range faults is responsible for the structural control of the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system. The structural complexity of the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA is unique within the range, although the same tectonic style continues throughout the range. During the Quaternary, rhyolite volcanism was active in the central part of the range and basaltic volcanism occurred in the northern portion of the map area. The heat source for the geothermal system is probably related to the Quaternary rhyolite volcanic activity.

  10. Possible Halo Depictions in the Prehistoric Rock Art of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    In western American rock art the concentric circle symbol, which is widely regarded as a sun symbol, is ubiquitous. We provide evidence from Archaic and Fremont Indian rock art sites in northwestern Utah that at least one depiction was motivated by an observation of a complex halo display. Cirrus cloud optical displays are linked in both folklore and meteorology to precipitation-producing weather situations, which, in combination with an abundance of weather-related rock art symbolism, indicate that such images reflected the ceremonial concerns of the indigenous cultures for ensuring adequate precipitation. As has been shown to be the case with rock art rainbows, conventionalization of the halo image may have resulted in simple patterns that lacked recognizable details of atmospheric optical phenomena. However, in one case in which an Archaic-style petroglyph (probably 1500 yr or more old) satisfactorily reproduced a complicated halo display that contained parhelia and tangent arcs, sufficient geometric information is rendered to indicate a solar elevation angle of approx. 40 deg. at the time of observation.

  11. Genetic distances between the Utah Mormons and related populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, T; Jorde, L B; Skolnick, M H

    1984-01-01

    Gene frequency data, consisting of six red cell antigen loci, nine electrophoretic systems, and HLA-A and -B are reported for the Utah Mormon population. These are compared statistically to gene frequencies from at U.S. population, 13 European populations, and seven populations from three religious isolates. The Mormon gene frequencies are similar to those of their northern European ancestors. This is explained by the large founding size of the Mormon population and high rates of gene flow. In contrast, the religious isolates (Amish, Hutterites, and Mennonites) show marked divergence from their ancestral populations and each other, due to isolation and random genetic drift. The HLA loci and electrophoretic loci presented here yield sets of genetic distances that are highly correlated (r = .734) and that both correspond closely to the actual geographic distances among the European populations. The genetic distances based on red cell antigen loci correspond less closely to the geographic distances and exhibit lower correlations with both the HLA and electrophoretic loci (r = .524 and r = .565, respectively). PMID:6591796

  12. Data flows and water woes: The Utah Data Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mél Hogan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a new materialist line of questioning that looks at the agential potentialities of water and its entanglements with Big Data and surveillance, this article explores how the recent Snowden revelations about the National Security Agency (NSA have reignited media scholars to engage with the infrastructures that enable intercepting, hosting, and processing immeasurable amounts of data. Focusing on the expansive architecture, location, and resource dependence of the NSA’s Utah Data Center, I demonstrate how surveillance and privacy can never be disconnected from the material infrastructures that allow and render natural the epistemological state of mass surveillance. Specifically, I explore the NSA’s infrastructure and the million of gallons of water it requires daily to cool its servers, while located in one of the driest states in the US. Complicating surveillance beyond the NSA, as also already imbricated with various social media companies, this article questions the emplacement and impact of corporate data centers more generally, and the changes they are causing to the landscape and local economies. I look at how water is an intriguing and politically relevant part of the surveillance infrastructure and how it has been constructed as the main tool for activism in this case, and how it may eventually help transform the public’s conceptualization of Big Data, as deeply material.

  13. Geochemistry of spring water, southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Briant A.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical quality of water in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado, is important to the future development of the abundant oil-shale resources of the area. This report examines the observed changes in chemistry as water circulates in both shallow and deep ground-water systems. Mass-balance and mass- transfer calculations are used to define reactions that simulate the observed water chemistry in the mixed sandstone, siltstone, and carbonate lithology of the Green River Formation of Tertiary age.The mass-transfer calculations determine a reaction path particular to this system. The early dominance of calcite dissolution produces a calcium carbonate water. After calcite saturation, deeper circulation and further rock-water interaction cause the reprecipitation of calcite, the dissolution of dolomite and plagioclase, and the oxidation of pyrite; all combining to produce a calcium magnesium sodium bicarbonate sulfate water. The calculations suggest that silica concentrations are controlled by a kaolinite-Ca-montmorillonite phase boundary. Close agreement of mineral-saturation indices calculated by both an aqueous-equilibrium model and the mass-transfer model support the selection of reactions from the mass-transfer calculations.

  14. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  15. VTEC: lessons learned from British outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, T H

    2000-01-01

    Important Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks in England and Scotland since 1982-83 are reviewed. The scientific lessons learned from them are described and their legal consequences outlined. The light shed by them on relationships between law and science is discussed, and questions of blame are analysed in the context of Reason's 'resident pathogen' metaphor and Vaughan's study of the 1986 Challenger Space Shuttle disaster.

  16. Factors determining dengue outbreak in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rohani; Suzilah, Ismail; Wan Najdah, Wan Mohamad Ali; Topek, Omar; Mustafakamal, Ibrahim; Lee, Han Lim

    2018-01-01

    A large scale study was conducted to elucidate the true relationship among entomological, epidemiological and environmental factors that contributed to dengue outbreak in Malaysia. Two large areas (Selayang and Bandar Baru Bangi) were selected in this study based on five consecutive years of high dengue cases. Entomological data were collected using ovitraps where the number of larvae was used to reflect Aedes mosquito population size; followed by RT-PCR screening to detect and serotype dengue virus in mosquitoes. Notified cases, date of disease onset, and number and type of the interventions were used as epidemiological endpoint, while rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and air pollution index (API) were indicators for environmental data. The field study was conducted during 81 weeks of data collection. Correlation and Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model were used to determine the relationship. The study showed that, notified cases were indirectly related with the environmental data, but shifted one week, i.e. last 3 weeks positive PCR; last 4 weeks rainfall; last 3 weeks maximum relative humidity; last 3 weeks minimum and maximum temperature; and last 4 weeks air pollution index (API), respectively. Notified cases were also related with next week intervention, while conventional intervention only happened 4 weeks after larvae were found, indicating ample time for dengue transmission. Based on a significant relationship among the three factors (epidemiological, entomological and environmental), estimated Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) model for both locations produced high accuracy 84.9% for Selayang and 84.1% for Bandar Baru Bangi in predicting the actual notified cases. Hence, such model can be used in forestalling dengue outbreak and acts as an early warning system. The existence of relationships among the entomological, epidemiological and environmental factors can be used to build an early warning system for the prediction of dengue outbreak so

  17. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Kjaeldgaard, P

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe a nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during four months after June 1989. SETTING--A department of infectious diseases in Copenhagen, seeing about half the patients with AIDS in Denmark. SUBJECTS--73 HIV antibody negative subjects and 60 antibody positive subjects.......05). CONCLUSIONS--The clinical and epidemiological findings indicate that infection was the consequence of very small inocula. Increased sensitivity to cryptosporidiosis may be an unrecognised side effect of oral sulphonamide treatment in patients with AIDS....

  18. The San Juan Canyon, southeastern Utah: A geographic and hydrographic reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miser, Hugh D.

    1924-01-01

    This report, which describes the San Juan Canyon, San Juan River and the tributary streams and the geography and to some extent the geology of the region, presents information obtained by me during the descent of the river with the Trimble party in 1921. The exploration of the canyon, which was financed jointly by the United States Geological Survey and the Southern California Edison Co., had as its primary object the mapping and study of the San Juan in connection with proposed power and storage projects along this and Colorado rivers.1 The exploration party was headed by K. W. Thimble, topographic engineer of the United States Geological Survey. Other members of the party were Robert N. Allen, Los Angeles, Calif., recorder; H. E. Blake, jr., Monticello, Utah, and Hugh Hyde, Salt Lake City, Utah, rodmen; Bert Loper, Green River, Utah, boatman; Heber Christensen, Moab, Utah, cook; and H. D. Miser, geologist. Wesley Oliver, of Mexican Hat, Utah, served as packer for the party and brought mail and provisions by pack train twice a month to specified accessible places west of Goodridge.

  19. Seepage study of six canals in Salt Lake County, Utah, 1982-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, L.R.; Cruff, R.W.; Waddell, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study of selected reaches of the Utah and Salt Lake, Utah Lake Distributing, Provo Reservoir, Draper Irrigation, East Jordan, and Jordan and Salt Lake City Canals in Salt Lake County, Utah, was made to determine gains or losses of flow in those reaches. Three to five sets of seepage measurements were made on each canal during 1982 or 1983. Adjustments for fluctuations in flow were made from information obtained from water-stage recorders operated at selected locations during the time of each seepage run.The study showed an overall net loss of about 9.5 cubic feet per second in the Utah and Salt Lake Canal, 11.0 cubic feet per second in the Utah Lake Distributing canal, 20.5 cubic feet per second in the Provo Reservoir canal, 1.5 cubic feet per second in the Draper Irrigation Canal, and 4.0 cubic feet per second in the East Jordan canal. It also showed a net gain of about 6.0 cubic feet per second in the Jordan and Salt Lake City Canal. The gains and losses are attributed primarily to the relation of the canals to the depth of the water table near the canals.

  20. Salmonella outbreak in a nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M; Yoshikawa, T T; Bridge, J; Schlaifer, A; Osterweil, D; Reid, D; Norman, D C

    1990-05-01

    We performed a retrospective review of an outbreak of Salmonella gastroenteritis that occurred in a community nursing home in 1987. Forty-four of 199 residents had a diarrheal illness; Salmonella heidelberg was isolated from the stool in 19 cases. Although the distribution of cases suggested a common source for the outbreak, no common source of infection could be demonstrated, despite extensive investigation. The clinical presentation of symptomatic individuals ranged from mild diarrhea to a severe gastrointestinal illness, and 26% of symptomatic, culture-positive patients required hospitalization. The median duration of pathogen excretion during convalescence in untreated residents was six weeks, but six patients who were treated with antibiotics shed S. heidelberg for a median duration of 14.5 weeks. We conclude that (1) the clinical spectrum of Salmonella gastroenteritis in nursing-home patients is variable, ranging from mild to severe illness; and (2) nursing-home Salmonella outbreaks impose a high economic burden because of expense of epidemiologic investigation, prolonged isolation measures, hospitalization for severely ill residents, and potential institutional closure.

  1. Nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, P; Lundgren, J D; Kjaeldgaard, P; Holten-Anderson, W; Højlyng, N; Nielsen, J O; Gaub, J

    1991-02-02

    To describe a nosocomial outbreak of cryptosporidiosis during four months after June 1989. A department of infectious diseases in Copenhagen, seeing about half the patients with AIDS in Denmark. 73 HIV antibody negative subjects and 60 antibody positive subjects admitted as inpatients during the transmission period of the outbreak (20 June-14 August), of whom 18 (17 with AIDS, one with AIDS related complex), developed cryptosporidiosis. Two further HIV negative subjects (one departmental secretary, one visiting relative) developed cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidia in stool samples, clinical symptoms, CD4 cell count, HIV antigen concentration, chemotherapeutic treatment. The source of the outbreak was identified as ice from an ice machine in the ward, contaminated by an incontinent, psychotic patient with cryptosporidiosis picking out ice for cold drinks. The mean incubation time was at least 13 days-that is, twice that in HIV-negative patients. Of the 18 patients with AIDS who developed cryptosporidiosis, five recovered, two were symptomless carriers, three died of unrelated causes, and eight died after prolonged diarrhoea. Among the 57 exposed HIV antibody positive inpatients (excluding two patients and the index case with cryptosporidiosis diagnosed elsewhere), significantly more of those who developed symptomatic cryptosporidiosis received oral sulphonamides than those who did not (91%, 10/11 v 48%, 21/44, p less than 0.05). The clinical and epidemiological findings indicate that infection was the consequence of very small inocula. Increased sensitivity to cryptosporidiosis may be an unrecognised side effect of oral sulphonamide treatment in patients with AIDS.

  2. Outbreak of Enterovirus - 71 Meningitis in Calicut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Sasidharan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enterovirus 71(EV 71 causes wide spectrum of infections ranging from asymptomatic conditions to clinical syndromes like diarrhea, rash, hand-foot-and mouth disease (HFMD, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, acute flaccid paralysis, bulbar and brainstem encephalitis Guillain Barre syndrome, pulmonary haemorrhage. This study deals with an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in children caused by EV 71 virus. Methods: The authors report an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in children in and around Calicut in June 2008. Clinical and laboratory study was done in collaboration with National Centre for Disease Control, New Delhi. 149 children with aseptic meningitis were studied and followed up from June 2008 to May 2009. Result: All children had clinical features suggestive of aseptic meningitis and serology showed the rising antibody titre against EV 71 virus infection. CSF analysis also showed four fold rise in antibodies in one and ≥ 1:2 neutralising antibodies titer against EV- 71 in four samples indicating meningitis due to EV-71. Conclusion: EV 71 was identified as the causative agent of the outbreak of aseptic meningitis in the study and the fact that the EV 71 infection has evolved from minor illness like HFMD to major illness like aseptic meningitis from the same locality is truly alarming.

  3. Sverdlovsk Anthrax Outbreak: An Educational Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, S. J.; van der Vink, G.

    2002-05-01

    In April and May of 1979 an Anthrax epidemic broke out in the city of Sverdlovsk (now Ekaterinburg) in the former Soviet Union. Sixty-four people were reported to have died from the outbreak, although there is still debate concerning the actual number of victims. While Soviet officials initially attributed this outbreak to contaminated meat, the US Government maintained that the outbreak was due to a leakage from a biological weapons facility. We have created and implemented an undergraduate educational exercise based on the forensic analysis of this event. Students were provided case data of the victims, area satellite images and meteorological data. One goal of the exercise was for students to reconstruct the most probable scenario of events through valid inference based on the limited information and uncertainties associated with the data set. Another goal was to make students sensitive to issues of biological weapons and bioterrorism. The exercise was highly rated by students even before the events of September 11. There is a clear need to educate students, particularly in the sciences, to be aware of the signatures of terrorist activities. Evidence of terrorist activities is more likely to appear from unintended discoveries than from active intelligence gathering. We believe our national security can be enhanced by sensitizing those that monitor the natural environment to the signatures of terrorist activities through the types of educational exercises that we have developed.

  4. Biology and outbreaks of Microdiprion pallipes (Hymenoptera; Diprionidae) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, E. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Entomology)

    1994-01-01

    During outbreaks, Microdiprion pallipes (Fall.) is the most destructive of the pine sawflies in Sweden. Its distribution includes most provinces, but damaging outbreaks have until recently occurred only in two inland areas in northern Sweden. These areas are characterised by high elevation, a harsh climate, and slow tree growth. The four recorded outbreak periods showed a 10 year periodicity. Outside these areas, a lesser outbreak occurred in 1988 to 1990, on the east coast (province of Uppland). Outbreak patterns, life history variation, and mortality factors were studied. Factors that may explain the distribution of outbreaks and the population patterns were identified.Experimental and observational evidence on the potential of various factors to influence fecundity, dispersal, and survival was evaluated. In the outbreak areas, there were few major population factors. Parasitism by Rhorus substitutor (Thunb.) was the largest cause of larval mortality and the only important density-dependent mortality factor. The different diapause strategies of M. pallipes and R. substitutor may contribute to stabilize this system. Different flight periods of the host and the parasitoid may explain a possible correlation between weather and outbreaks. Elsewhere in Sweden, where low population densities prevail, there may be similarities in population processes between M. pallipes and the other widely distributed diprionids with solitary larvae, which never have attained outbreak densities in Sweden. Interactions with other diprionids through shared natural enemies may be an important population process and may influence the distribution of outbreaks. 37 refs, 4 figs, 11 tabs

  5. Bacteria and nematodes in the conjunctiva of mule deer from Wyoming and Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubay, S A; Williams, E S; Mills, K; Boerger-Fields, A M

    2000-10-01

    Swabs of conjunctiva were collected from 44 live and 226 hunter-harvested mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Wyoming and Utah (USA). We identified 29 gram negative and 22 gram positive bacterial taxonomic categories, but many isolates from hunter-harvested animals were environmental contaminants. Staphylococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp. were the most common gram positive bacteria isolated, and Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas spp. were common gram negative bacteria isolated. Thelazia californiensis were found in 15% of hunter-harvested deer in Utah in 1994 and in 8% in 1995. Nematodes were found in 40% of live deer in 1995 and 66% in 1996. Three live animals showed clinical signs of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) in 1996, but pathogenic bacteria were not isolated from these individuals. Hemolytic, non-piliated Moraxella ovis was isolated from two clinically normal live deer in 1996 and isolates were similar to those cultured from IKC cases from Wyoming and Utah.

  6. Outbreaks Attributed to Cheese: Differences Between Outbreaks Caused by Unpasteurized and Pasteurized Dairy Products, United States, 1998–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L. Hannah; Mungai, Elisabeth; Behravesh, Casey Barton

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The interstate commerce of unpasteurized fluid milk, also known as raw milk, is illegal in the United States, and intrastate sales are regulated independently by each state. However, U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations allow the interstate sale of certain types of cheeses made from unpasteurized milk if specific aging requirements are met. We describe characteristics of these outbreaks, including differences between outbreaks linked to cheese made from pasteurized or unpasteurized milk. Methods We reviewed reports of outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System during 1998–2011 in which cheese was implicated as the vehicle. We describe characteristics of these outbreaks, including differences between outbreaks linked to cheese made from pasteurized versus unpasteurized milk. Results During 1998–2011, 90 outbreaks attributed to cheese were reported; 38 (42%) were due to cheese made with unpasteurized milk, 44 (49%) to cheese made with pasteurized milk, and the pasteurization status was not reported for the other eight (9%). The most common cheese–pathogen pairs were unpasteurized queso fresco or other Mexican-style cheese and Salmonella (10 outbreaks), and pasteurized queso fresco or other Mexican-style cheese and Listeria (6 outbreaks). The cheese was imported from Mexico in 38% of outbreaks caused by cheese made with unpasteurized milk. In at least five outbreaks, all due to cheese made from unpasteurized milk, the outbreak report noted that the cheese was produced or sold illegally. Outbreaks caused by cheese made from pasteurized milk occurred most commonly (64%) in restaurant, delis, or banquet settings where cross-contamination was the most common contributing factor. Conclusions In addition to using pasteurized milk to make cheese, interventions to improve the safety of cheese include limiting illegal importation of cheese, strict sanitation and microbiologic monitoring in cheese-making facilities, and

  7. Infectious disease outbreaks in competitive sports, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cathal James; O'Connell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Old, evolving, and new infectious agents continually threaten the participation of competitors in sports. To provide an update of the medical literature on infectious disease outbreaks in sport for the last 5 years (May 2005-November 2010). A total of 21 outbreaks or clusters were identified. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n = 7, 33%; mainly community acquired) and tinea (trichophytosis: n = 6, 29%) were the most common pathogens responsible for outbreaks. Skin and soft tissue was the most common site of infection (n = 15, 71%). The majority of outbreaks reported occurred in close-contact sports, mainly combat sports (ie, wrestling, judo) and American football. Twelve outbreaks (57%) involved high school or collegiate competitors. Common community outbreak pathogens, such as influenza virus and norovirus, have received little attention.

  8. Viruses in recreational water-borne disease outbreaks: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R G; Jones, E L; Gerba, C P

    2009-12-01

    Viruses are believed to be a significant cause of recreationally associated water-borne disease. However, they have been difficult to document because of the wide variety of illnesses that they cause and the limitations in previous detection methods. Noroviruses are believed to be the single largest cause of outbreaks, which have been documented in the published literature 45% (n = 25), followed by adenovirus (24%), echovirus (18%), hepatitis A virus (7%) and coxsackieviruses (5%). Just under half of the outbreaks occurred in swimming pools (49%), while the second largest outbreak occurred in lakes or ponds (40%). The number of reported outbreaks associated with noroviruses has increased significantly in recent years probably because of better methods for virus detection. Inadequate disinfection was related to 69% (n = 18) of swimming pool outbreaks. A lack of required reporting and nonuniform water quality and chlorination/disinfection standards continues to contribute to water-borne recreational disease outbreaks.

  9. Epidemiology of Histoplasmosis Outbreaks, United States, 1938–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Rajal K.

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasmosis has been described as the most common endemic mycosis in the United States. However, histoplasmosis is not nationally notifiable. Its presumed geographic distribution is largely derived from skin test surveys performed during the 1940s, and information about its local features comes primarily from outbreak investigations. We conducted a literature review to assess epidemiologic features of histoplasmosis outbreaks in the United States. During 1938–2013, a total of 105 outbreaks involving 2,850 cases were reported in 26 states and the territory of Puerto Rico. Common exposure settings were chicken coops and buildings or other structures undergoing renovation or demolition. Birds, bats, or their droppings were reported to be present in 77% of outbreak settings, and workplace exposures were reported in 41% of outbreaks. The continued occurrence of histoplasmosis outbreaks, particularly work-related ones involving known disturbance of bird or bat droppings, highlights the need to increase awareness of the disease. PMID:26890817

  10. Epidemiology of Histoplasmosis Outbreaks, United States, 1938-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Mody, Rajal K

    2016-03-01

    Histoplasmosis has been described as the most common endemic mycosis in the United States. However, histoplasmosis is not nationally notifiable. Its presumed geographic distribution is largely derived from skin test surveys performed during the 1940s, and information about its local features comes primarily from outbreak investigations. We conducted a literature review to assess epidemiologic features of histoplasmosis outbreaks in the United States. During 1938-2013, a total of 105 outbreaks involving 2,850 cases were reported in 26 states and the territory of Puerto Rico. Common exposure settings were chicken coops and buildings or other structures undergoing renovation or demolition. Birds, bats, or their droppings were reported to be present in 77% of outbreak settings, and workplace exposures were reported in 41% of outbreaks. The continued occurrence of histoplasmosis outbreaks, particularly work-related ones involving known disturbance of bird or bat droppings, highlights the need to increase awareness of the disease.

  11. The Basin and Range Province in Utah, Nevada, and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Thomas B.

    1943-01-01

    In this report an attempt has been made to summarize and in places to interpret the published information that was available through 1938 on the geology of those parts of Nevada, California, and Utah that are included in the geologic province known as the Basin and Range province. This region includes most of the Great Basin, from which no water flows to the sea, as well as part of the drainage basin of the lower Colorado River. It is characterized by numerous parallel, linear mountain ranges that are separated from one another by wide valleys or topographic basins. All the major divisions of geologic time are represented by the rocks exposed in this region. The oldest are of pre-Cambrian age and crop out chiefly along the eastern and southern borders. They have been carefully studied at only a few localities, and the correlation and extent of the subdivision so far recognized is uncertain. There appear to be at least three series of pre-Cambrian rocks which are probably separated from one another by profound unconformities. Large masses of intrusive igneous rocks have been recognized only in the oldest series. During the Paleozoic era the region was a part of the Cordilleran geosyncline, and sediments were deposited during all of the major and most of the minor subdivisions of the era. There are thick and widespread accumulations of Cambrian and Ordovician strata, the maximum aggregate thickness possibly exceeding 23,000 feet. The eastern and western boundaries of the province were approximately those of the area of rapid subsidence within the geosyncline, though the axes of maximum subsidence oscillated back and forth during the two periods. The Silurian and Devonian seas, on the other hand, extended beyond the province and, possibly as a consequence, are represented by much thinner sections - of the order of 6,000 feet. At the end of the Devonian period the geosyncline was split by the emergence of a geanticline in western Nevada, and Mississippian and

  12. Utah Governor blacks out data on state-wide energy outage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The Governor of Utah squelched information linking a six-hour blackout on January 8 to a trash fire and explosion at the Utah State Prison. Ionizing gases from the explosion allegedly caused a phase fault on the penitentiary grounds that triggered the nearly state-wide outage. The Attorney General recommended a freeze on public information on the grounds that further discussion would be detrimental in the event of lawsuits and evidence from an independent investigation would be more admissable. The Public Service Commission disagreed with efforts to prevent an internal investigation. (DCK)

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Cortez quadrangle, Colorado and Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    Six stratigraphic units are recognized as favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits that meet the minimum size and grade requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy in the Cortez 1 0 x 2 0 Quadrangle, Utah and Colorado. These units include the Jurassic Salt Wash, Recapture, and Brushy Basin Members of the Morrison Formation and the Entrada Sandstone, the Late Triassic Chinle Formation, and the Permian Cutler Formation. Four areas are judged favorable for the Morrison members which include the Slick Rock, Montezuma Canyon, Cottonwood Wash and Hatch districts. The criteria used to determine favorability include the presence of the following (1) fluvial sandstone beds deposited by low-energy streams; (2) actively moving major and minor structures such as the Paradox Basin and the many folds within it; (3) paleostream transport directions approximately perpendicular to the trend of many of the paleofolds; (4) presence of favorable gray lacustrine mudstone beds; and (5) known uranium occurrences associated with the favorable gray mudstones. Two areas of favorability are recognized for the Chinle Formation. These areas include the Abajo Mountain and Aneth-Ute Mountain areas. The criteria used to determine favorability include the sandstone-to-mudstone ratio for the Chinle Formation and the geographic distribution of the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation. Two favorable areas are recognized for the Cutler Formation. Both of these areas are along the northern border of the quadrangle between the Abajo Mountains and the Dolores River Canyon area. Two areas are judged favorable for the Entrada Sandstone. One area is in the northeast corner of the quadrangle in the Placerville district and the second is along the eastern border of the quadrangle on the southeast flank of the La Plata Mountains

  14. Sills of the San Rafael Volcanic Field, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, E.; Connor, C.; Connor, L.; Richardson, J. A.; Wetmore, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    Substantial populations, such as Mexico City, Auckland, and Portland, are built within or near monogenetic fields, so it is important to understand both eruption precursors and magma plumbing systems in such areas. Directly observing the plumbing systems of this rarely witnessed eruption style provides valuable insight into the nature of magmatic transport and storage within the shallow crust, as well as the associated monogenetic eruptive processes. Within the San Rafael Desert of Central Utah is an exposed Pliocene complex of approximately 2000 mapped dikes, 12 sills, and 60 conduits eroded to a depth of 800 m below the paleosurface. A combination of airborne LiDAR (ALS), provided by NCALM, and terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) surveys are used to map the dip of 5 major sills within a 35 sq km area. The ALS provides a 1 m aerial resolution of exposed volcanic features and the TLS gives vertical measurements to cm accuracy. From these data we determine that the 5-25 m thick sills in this area dip approximately 1 to 6 degrees. Field observations show that steps in sills and related fabrics indicate flow direction in sills during emplacement and that sills normally propagate down dip in the Entrada sandstone host rock away from apparent feeder dikes and conduits. Some sills have foundered roofs, especially near conduits, suggesting that nearly neutrally buoyant magmas emplaced into sills along bed partings in the Entrada, differentiated, and in some cases flowed back into conduits. By volume, at 800 m depth in the San Rafael, nearly all igneous rock (approximately 90 percent) is located in sills rather than in dikes or conduits. These observations are consistent with geochemical models that suggest differentiation in shallow sills explains geochemical trends observed in single monogenetic volcanoes in some active fields. Deformation associated with sill inflation and deflation may be a significant precursor to eruptive activity in monogenetic volcanic fields.

  15. Hydrothermal uranium vein deposits in Marysvale volcanic field, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J.D.; Cunningham, C.G.; Steven, T.A.; Rye, R.O.; Romberger, S.B.

    1984-07-01

    Hydrothermal uranium veins are exposed over a 300 m (980 ft) vertical range in mines of the Central Mining area, near Marysvale, Utah. They cut 23 Ma quartz monzonite, 21 Ma granite, and 19 Ma rhyolite ash-flow tuff. The veins formed 18-19 Ma, in an area 1 km (0.6 mi) across, above the center of a composite magma chamber at least 12 x 6 km across that fed a sequence of 21-14 Ma hypabyssal granitic stocks, and rhyolitic lava flows, ash-flow tuffs, and volcanic domes. Intrusive pressure uplifted and fractured the roof; molybdenite-bearing, uranium-rich glassy dikes were intruded; and a breccia pipe and uranium-bearing veins were formed. The veins appear to have been deposited near the surface above a concealed rhyolite stock, where they filled high-angle fault zones and flat-lying to concave-downward pull-apart fractures. Low pH and fO/sub 2/ hydrothermal fluids at temperatures near 200/sup 0/ C (392/sup 0/ F) permeated the fractured rocks; these fluids were rich in fluorine and potassium, and contained uranium as uranous-fluoride complexes. Fluid-wall rock interaction increased fluid pH, causing precipitation of uranium minerals. At the deepest exposed levels, wall rocks were altered to kaolinite and sericite, and uraninite, coffinite, jordisite, fluorite, molybdenite, quartz, and pyrite (with delta/sup 34/S near zero per mil) were deposited. The fluids were progressively oxidized higher in the system; iron in the wall rocks was oxidized to hematite, and sooty uraninite and umohoite were deposited.

  16. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters

  17. Integrated wireless neural interface based on the Utah electrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Bhandari, R; Klein, M; Negi, S; Rieth, L; Tathireddy, P; Toepper, M; Oppermann, H; Solzbacher, F

    2009-04-01

    This report presents results from research towards a fully integrated, wireless neural interface consisting of a 100-channel microelectrode array, a custom-designed signal processing and telemetry IC, an inductive power receiving coil, and SMD capacitors. An integration concept for such a device was developed, and the materials and methods used to implement this concept were investigated. We developed a multi-level hybrid assembly process that used the Utah Electrode Array (UEA) as a circuit board. The signal processing IC was flip-chip bonded to the UEA using Au/Sn reflow soldering, and included amplifiers for up to 100 channels, signal processing units, an RF transmitter, and a power receiving and clock recovery module. An under bump metallization (UBM) using potentially biocompatible materials was developed and optimized, which consisted of a sputter deposited Ti/Pt/Au thin film stack with layer thicknesses of 50/150/150 nm, respectively. After flip-chip bonding, an underfiller was applied between the IC and the UEA to improve mechanical stability and prevent fluid ingress in in vivo conditions. A planar power receiving coil fabricated by patterning electroplated gold films on polyimide substrates was connected to the IC by using a custom metallized ceramic spacer and SnCu reflow soldering. The SnCu soldering was also used to assemble SMD capacitors on the UEA. The mechanical properties and stability of the optimized interconnections between the UEA and the IC and SMD components were measured. Measurements included the tape tests to evaluate UBM adhesion, shear testing between the Au/Sn solder bumps and the substrate, and accelerated lifetime testing of the long-term stability for the underfiller material coated with a a-SiC(x):H by PECVD, which was intended as a device encapsulation layer. The materials and processes used to generate the integrated neural interface device were found to yield a robust and reliable integrated package.

  18. Processes of paleoarroyo aggradation in Kanab Creek, southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, K. F.; Rittenour, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Many alluvial valleys in the southwest United States have experienced repeated periods of arroyo entrenchment and re-aggradation during the Holocene. Previous research suggests arroyo dynamics were regionally synchronous, implying that climate fluctuations are the dominant drivers. However, intrinsic reach- or catchment-specific geomorphic thresholds to entrenchment are also hypothesized to partially control the timing of arroyo processes. This study focuses on the Holocene alluvial history of three entrenched reaches of Kanab Creek, southern Utah, to explore these competing hypotheses. Episodes of prehistoric arroyo cutting and filling are reconstructed by recognition of buttress unconformable contacts in the arroyo-wall stratigraphy and age control derived from optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating. A combined dataset of 47 OSL and 47 radiocarbon ages is produced, and results indicate at least five periods of aggradation occurred since ~6.0 ka, each interrupted by an episode of arroyo entrenchment. Comparison of this record to recently completed chronologies from arroyo systems in the region indicates near-synchronous arroyo processes over the last ~1.5 ka; however, beyond 1.5 ka correlations are less clear. Broadly contemporaneous alluviation suggests a climatic driver, and comparison to paleoclimate records suggests that arroyo entrenchment events may be driven by transitions from periods of multi-year drought to wetter periods. However, the detailed alluvial chronology indicates that the initiation of aggradation is transient, with each period of paleoarroyo aggradation beginning downstream and propagating upstream, which suggests that potentially regionally synchronous, climate-driven events may not appear as such in the stratigraphic record.

  19. Water resources of Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    Dinosaur National Monument, partly in the Rocky Mountain System and partly in the Colorado Plateaus physiographic province, covers an area of 322 square miles (834 square kilometres) in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah. The climate is generally cool and pleasant in May, early June, September, and October; winters are cold. Normal annual precipitation ranges from less than 8 to more than 16 inches (203 to 406 millimetres).Geologic formations in the monument range in age from upper Precambrian to Holocene, but not all ages are represented. The monument is on the south limb of the east-trending regional fold representing the Uinta Mountains. Faults and subsidary folds on the south slope of the Uinta Mountains complicate the geology and hydrology of the area.None of the surface streams in the monument are diverted for public supply, but the Green and Yampa Rivers are a recreational resource for boaters. The flow of the Green River is regulated by Flaming Gorge Reservoir; however, flood potentials are estimated for the Yampa River and three smaller streams. Facilities in the monument are not endangered by probable mean annual floods, but may sustain some damage to facilities by the 25- or 50-year floods.Major aquifers in the monument are sandstone and limestone formations, but these formations are drained in the higher areas. Alluvium along the major stream channels yields small amounts of water to wells, but some of the water is not of suitable chemical quality for public supply. All public water supplies in 1971 were obtained from wells, and the use of water during 1970 was estimated to be 15 million gallons (46 acre-feet or 0.057 cubic hectometres). Most of the ground water obtained from sandstone and limestone is of suitable chemical quality for public supply.

  20. Emissions from Produced Water Treatment Ponds, Uintah Basin, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; Tran, H.; O'Neil, T.; Anderson, R.

    2015-12-01

    An aqueous phase, known as "produced water," usually accompanies the hydrocarbon fluid phases that are extracted from Earth's crust during oil and natural gas extraction. Produced water contains dissolved and suspended organics and other contaminants and hence cannot be discharged directly into the hydrosphere. One common disposal method is to discharge produced water into open-pit evaporation ponds. Spent hydraulic fracturing fluids are also often discharged into the same ponds. It is obvious to anyone with a healthy olfactory system that such ponds emit volatile organics to the atmosphere, but very little work has been done to characterize such emissions. Because oil, gas, and water phases are often in contact in geologic formations, we can expect that more highly soluble compounds (e.g., salts, alcohols, carbonyls, carboxyls, BTEX, etc.) partition preferentially into produced water. However, as the water in the ponds age, many physical, chemical, and biological processes alter the composition of the water, and therefore the composition and strength of volatile organic emissions. For example, some ponds are aerated to hasten evaporation, which also promotes oxidation of organics dissolved in the water. Some ponds are treated with microbes to promote bio-oxidation. In other words, emissions from ponds are expected to be a complex function of the composition of the water as it first enters the pond, and also of the age of the water and of its treatment history. We have conducted many measurements of emissions from produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, both by flux chamber and by evacuated canister sampling with inverse modeling. These measurements include fluxes of CO2, CH4, methanol, and many other volatile organic gases. We have also measured chemical compositions and microbial content of water in the ponds. Results of these measurements will be reported.

  1. Microbial mat mineralization in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACE, Aurélie; Bouton, Anthony; Bourillot, Raphaël; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Visscher, Pieter; Dupraz, Christophe; Thomazo, Christophe; Serge, Galaup; Sophie, Leleu; Anna, Kwasniewski; Léa, Pigot; Michel, Franceschi

    2015-04-01

    Great Salt Lake is located in the Basin and Range province of Utah (USA). Its average surface is 4480 Km2 and its maximum depth is of about 15m. It is a partly rainfed endorheic hypersaline lake (average salinity: 140g/L). Due to the high salinity, little or no grazing organisms are present, favoring the development of microbialites that cover the margin of the lake. This work aims to understand the products and processes of mineralization in recent and modern microbialites on the western margin of Antelope Island. The distribution of microbialites and their morphology has been studied along lakeshore to center transects, showing a contrasting spatial distribution in bay versus headland. Fossil microbialites show a great diversity of macro- and microfabrics, some microbialites being essentially built by microbial-mediated carbonate precipitation, while other show the predominance of trapping and binding processes. The nature and composition of the microbial carbonates have been determined through polarizing, cathodoluminescence, reflected fluorescence microscopy, X-Ray diffractometry and isotope geochemistry (δ 18O and δ13C) in order to investigate the preservation of environmental signals in microbialites. Petrophysics analysis such as permeability and porosimetry, have been done to observe the structure of the microbialite. Microprobe and silver foils method have been used respectively to characterize oxygen production and sulfate reduction in living microbial mats. Mineralization zones seem to coincide with sulfate reduction hotspots. This mineralization results in mixed clotted-laminated fabric at the macro- and microscale. Several analysis such as Cryo-SEM, environmental SEM and raman spectroscopy three phases of mineralization allowed us to distinguish three type of minerals inside the mat: (1) a Mg and Si-rich clay developing on the organic matrix; (2) an intracellular Al-rich clay. (3) aragonite clots replacing the organic matrixes and embedding bacteria

  2. A Methanol Intoxication Outbreak From Recreational Ingestion of Fracking Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, David; Duff, Graham; Palatnick, Wesley; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Hingwala, Jay

    2017-05-01

    Single-patient methanol intoxications are a common clinical presentation, but outbreaks are rare and usually occur in settings in which there is limited access to ethanol and methanol is consumed as a substitute. In this case report, we describe an outbreak of methanol intoxications that was challenging from a public health perspective and discuss strategies for managing such an outbreak. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Consecutive salmonella outbreaks traced to the same bakery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. R.; Tromans, J. P.; Dexter, E. L.; Ribeiro, C. D.; Gardner, D.

    1996-01-01

    Two consecutive community outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4) traced to the same bakery occurred in Cardiff, Wales during August-September 1992. In the first outbreak, illness was associated with eating custard slices (odds ratio 23.8, 95% confidence interval 6.5-94.4, P bakery. This incident illustrates the hazard of widespread environmental contamination with salmonella and the need for thorough environmental cleansing for any premises implicated in an outbreak of food poisoning. PMID:8620907

  4. Chimpanzee adenoviral vectors as vaccines for outbreak pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ewer, Katie; Sebastian, Sarah; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Gilbert, Sarah; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Lambe, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 2014–15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the potential for large disease outbreaks caused by emerging pathogens and has generated considerable focus on preparedness for future epidemics. Here we discuss drivers, strategies and practical considerations for developing vaccines against outbreak pathogens. Chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd) vectors have been developed as vaccine candidates for multiple infectious diseases and prostate cancer. ChAd vectors are safe and induce antig...

  5. Review of enteric outbreaks in prisons: effective infection control interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, J D; Lee, M B; Harris, J E

    2011-04-01

    To identify documented outbreaks, worldwide, of enteric illness in correctional facilities over the last 10 years to understand the epidemiology of the outbreaks and explicitly identify effective infection control measures. Review of literature and outbreak investigation reports. Computer-aided searches of literature databases and systematic searches of government websites were completed to identify relevant outbreak reports. Reference lists were hand-searched to validate the electronic search methodology. Reports identified through personal communications with public health officials were also included. Of the 72 outbreaks meeting the inclusion criteria, 76% and 21% were associated with bacterial agents and viral agents, respectively. The majority of outbreaks were associated with Salmonella (n=20), Clostridium perfringens (n=14), norovirus (n=14), pathogenic Escherichia coli (n=10) and Campylobacter spp. (n=5). Transmission was primarily foodborne (67%). During an outbreak, the most common control measures included limiting movements of ill inmates and staff, and their exclusion from kitchen duty. The most common retrospectively reported preventative recommendations included monitoring food temperatures and effective infection control procedures. It is essential to monitor food temperatures to prevent enteric outbreaks in prisons. Training in safe food handling should be offered to inmates who work in the kitchen. Enteric outbreaks are best controlled by effective infection control practices, while active surveillance and early diagnosis may prevent further spread of illness. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Occurrence, significance & molecular epidemiology of cholera outbreaks in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Dipika; Dutta, Shanta; Sarkar, B L; Manna, B; Bhattacharya, M K; Datta, K K; Saha, A; Dutta, B; Pazhani, G P; Choudhuri, A Ray; Bhattacharya, S K

    2007-06-01

    Diarrhoeal disease outbreaks are causes of major public health emergencies in India. We carried out investigation of two cholera outbreaks, for identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, phage typing and molecular characterization of isolated Vibrio cholerae O1, and to suggest prevention and control measures. A total of 22 rectal swabs and 20 stool samples were collected from the two outbreak sites. The V. cholerae isolates were serotyped and antimicrobial susceptibility determined. Pulsed- field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to identify the clonality of the V. cholerae strains which elucidated better understanding of the epidemiology of the cholera outbreaks. Both the outbreaks were caused by V. cholerae O1 (one was caused by serotype Ogawa and the other by serotype Inaba). Clinically the cases presented with profuse watery diarrhoea and dehydration. All the tested V. cholerae isolates were sensitive to tetracycline, gentamycin and azithromycin but resistance for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, and furazolidone. PFGE pattern of the isolates from the two outbreaks revealed that they were clonal in origin. Stoppage of the source of water contamination and chlorination of drinking water resulted in terminating the two outbreaks. The two diarrhoeal outbreaks were caused by V. cholerae O1 (Inaba/Ogawa). Such outbreaks are frequently seen in cholera endemic areas in many parts of the world. Vaccination is an attractive disease (cholera) prevention strategy although long-term measures like improvement of sanitation and personal hygiene, and provision of safe water supply are important, but require time and are expensive.

  7. Typhoid outbreak investigation in Dzivaresekwa, suburb of Harare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typhoid outbreak investigation in Dzivaresekwa, suburb of Harare City, Zimbabwe, 2011. Monica Muti, Notion Gombe, Mufuta Tshimanga, Lucia Takundwa, Donewell Bangure, Stanley Mungofa, Prosper Chonzi ...

  8. Two listeria outbreaks caused by smoked fish consumption-using whole-genome sequencing for outbreak investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillesberg Lassen, S.; Ethelberg, S.; Björkman, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    low-intensity, extended time-period outbreaks and link them to food products from two different contaminated production facilities with sufficient strength for food authorities to intervene on. Cold smoked and gravad fish constitute risk products and may be responsible for more listeriosis cases than......Listeria monocytogenes may contaminate and persist in food production facilities and cause repeated, seemingly sporadic, illnesses over extended periods of time. We report on the investigation of two such concurrent outbreaks. We compared patient isolates and available isolates from foods and food...... polymorphism differences. We performed routine food consumption interviews of L. monocytogenes patients and compared outbreak cases with sporadic cases. Two outbreaks were defined, each consisting of ten outbreak cases in the period 2013-15. Seven outbreak cases and a fetus in gestational week 38 died...

  9. Outbreak or Epidemic? How Obama's Language Choice Transformed the Ebola Outbreak Into an Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shir-Raz, Yaffa; Bar-Lev, Oshrat Sassoni; James, James J; Green, Manfred S

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to examine in what terms leading newspapers' online sites described the current Ebola crisis. We employed a quantitative content analysis of terms attributed to Ebola. We found and analyzed 582 articles published between March 23 and September 30, 2014, on the online websites of 3 newspapers: The New York Times, Daily Mail, and Ynet. Our theoretical framework drew from the fields of health communication and emerging infectious disease communication, including such concepts as framing media literacy, risk signatures, and mental models. We found that outbreak and epidemic were used interchangeably in the articles. From September 16, 2014, onward, epidemic predominated, corresponding to when President Barack Obama explicitly referred to Ebola as an epidemic. Prior to Obama's speech, 86.8% of the articles (323) used the term outbreak and only 8.6% (32) used the term epidemic. Subsequently, both terms were used almost the same amount: 53.8% of the articles (113) used the term outbreak and 53.3% (112) used the term epidemic. Effective communication is crucial during public health emergencies such as Ebola, because language framing affects the decision-making process of social judgments and actions. The choice of one term (outbreak) over another (epidemic) can create different conceptualizations of the disease, thereby influencing the risk signature. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:669-673).

  10. Infectious disease exposures and outbreaks at a South African neonatal unit with review of neonatal outbreak epidemiology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dramowski, A; Aucamp, M; Bekker, A; Mehtar, S

    2017-04-01

    Hospitalized neonates are vulnerable to infection, with pathogen exposures occurring in utero, intrapartum, and postnatally. African neonatal units are at high risk of outbreaks owing to overcrowding, understaffing, and shared equipment. Neonatal outbreaks attended by the paediatric infectious diseases and infection prevention (IP) teams at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town (May 1, 2008 to April 30, 2016) are described, pathogens, outbreak size, mortality, source, and outbreak control measures. Neonatal outbreaks reported from Africa (January 1, 1996 to January 1, 2016) were reviewed to contextualize the authors' experience within the published literature from the region. Thirteen outbreaks affecting 148 babies (11 deaths; 7% mortality) over an 8-year period were documented, with pathogens including rotavirus, influenza virus, measles virus, and multidrug-resistant bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci). Although the infection source was seldom identified, most outbreaks were associated with breaches in IP practices. Stringent transmission-based precautions, staff/parent education, and changes to clinical practices contained the outbreaks. From the African neonatal literature, 20 outbreaks affecting 524 babies (177 deaths; 34% mortality) were identified; 50% of outbreaks were caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Outbreaks in hospitalized African neonates are frequent but under-reported, with high mortality and a predominance of Gram-negative bacteria. Breaches in IP practice are commonly implicated, with the outbreak source confirmed in less than 50% of cases. Programmes to improve IP practice and address antimicrobial resistance in African neonatal units are urgently required. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A structured framework for improving outbreak investigation audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durrheim David N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreak investigation is a core function of public health agencies. Suboptimal outbreak investigation endangers both public health and agency reputations. While audits of clinical medical and nursing practice are conducted as part of continuous quality improvement, public health agencies rarely make systematic use of structured audits to ensure best practice for outbreak responses, and there is limited guidance or policy to guide outbreak audit. Methods A framework for prioritising which outbreak investigations to audit, an approach for conducting a successful audit, and a template for audit trigger questions was developed and trialled in four foodborne outbreaks and a respiratory disease outbreak in Australia. Results The following issues were identified across several structured audits: the need for clear definitions of roles and responsibilities both within and between agencies, improved communication between agencies and with external stakeholders involved in outbreaks, and the need for development of performance standards in outbreak investigations - particularly in relation to timeliness of response. Participants considered the audit process and methodology to be clear, useful, and non-threatening. Most audits can be conducted within two to three hours, however, some participants felt this limited the scope of the audit. Conclusion The framework was acceptable to participants, provided an opportunity for clarifying perceptions and enhancing partnership approaches, and provided useful recommendations for approaching future outbreaks. Future challenges include incorporating feedback from broader stakeholder groups, for example those of affected cases, institutions and businesses; assessing the quality of a specific audit; developing training for both participants and facilitators; and building a central capacity to support jurisdictions embarking on an audit. The incorporation of measurable performance criteria or

  12. Characteristics of pertussis outbreaks in Catalonia, Spain, 1997 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Inma; Broner, Sonia; Soldevila, Núria; Martínez, Ana; Godoy, Pere; Sala-Farré, Maria-Rosa; Company, Maria; Rius, Cristina; Domínguez, Angela; Group Of Catalonia, The Pertussis Working

    2015-01-01

    In Catalonia, pertussis outbreaks must be reported to the Department of Health. This study analyzed pertussis outbreaks between 1997 and 2010 in general and according to the characteristics of the index cases. The outbreak rate, hospitalization rate and incidence of associated cases and their 95%CI were calculated. Index cases were classified in two groups according to age (<15 years and ≥15 years) and the vaccine type received: whole cell vaccine (DTwP) or acellular vaccine (DTaP). During the study period, 230 outbreaks were reported. The outbreak rate was 2.43 × 10(-6) persons-year, and outbreaks ranged from 2 to 32 cases, with a median duration of 18 days. There were 771 associated cases, with an incidence rate of 0.8 × 10(-5) persons-year.   After classifying outbreaks according to the age of the index case, 126 outbreaks (1.3 × 10(-6) persons-year) had an index case aged <15 y and 87 (0.87 × 10(-6) person-year) had an index case aged ≥15 y (RR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.10-1.90; P = 0.007). Between 2003 and 2010, after the introduction of the acellular vaccine, the index case was vaccinated with DTwP vaccine in 25 outbreaks (0.43 × 10(-6) persons-year) and with DTaP vaccine in 32 outbreaks (0.55 × 10(-6) person-year) (RR = 0.78, 95%CI 0.46-1.31; P = 0.35). Of cases, 37.2% were correctly vaccinated, suggesting waning immunity of pertussis vaccine protection and endogenous circulation of pertussis. A greater number of outbreaks had an index case aged <15 y. No changes in the disease incidence, associated cases and hospitalization rate were observed after the introduction of DTaP.

  13. Identifying outbreaks of sexually transmitted infection: who cares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Dirk; Evans, Meirion R; Rh Thomas, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Background Current routine surveillance schemes for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United Kingdom (UK) are not designed for outbreak identification. Recognising STI outbreaks, therefore, depends almost entirely on the alertness of health professionals. The objective of this study was to explore health professionals' knowledge of, and attitudes towards, identification and investigation of STI outbreaks in Wales. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Wales in June 2005, and sent a questionnaire to consultants of genitourinary medicine (GUM, n = 11), a consultant microbiologist from each laboratory (n = 14), all consultants in communicable disease control (n = 5), and to epidemiologists of the National Public Health Service (n = 4). Results 26 (76%) of 34 survey recipients responded. Of these, 17 (65%) ranked the investigation of STI outbreaks as important or very important, and 19 (73%) perceived participation in the investigation of an STI outbreak as part of their responsibility. Only six (25%) respondents had actively searched their computer system or patient records for a possible STI outbreak in the previous twelve months, and 15 (63%) had never looked for an outbreak. Of seven GUM physicians who said they had identified at least one STI outbreak, three had never informed public health authorities. Conclusion Prompt identification and coordinated investigation of outbreaks, usually through a multidisciplinary outbreak control team, is central to the control of many infectious diseases. This does not appear to be the case for STIs, which we believe represents a lost opportunity to reduce transmission. Besides improved surveillance methods, a change in culture towards STI outbreaks is needed among health professionals in Wales. PMID:17062138

  14. Landscape, Climate and Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prist, Paula Ribeiro; D Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2017-09-01

    We performed a literature review in order to improve our understanding of how landscape and climate drivers affect HCPS outbreaks. Anthropogenic landscape changes such as forest loss, fragmentation and agricultural land uses are related with a boost in hantavirus reservoir species abundance and hantavirus prevalence in tropical areas, increasing HCPS risk. Additionally, higher precipitation, especially in arid regions, favors an increase in vegetational biomass, which augments the resources for reservoir rodents, also increasing HCPS risk. Although these relationships were observed, few studies described it so far, and the ones that did it are concentrated in few places. To guide future research on this issue, we build a conceptual model relating landscape and climate variables with HCPS outbreaks and identified research opportunities. We point out the need for studies addressing the effects of landscape configuration, temperature and the interaction between climate and landscape variables. Critical landscape thresholds are also highly relevant, once HCPS risk transmission can increase rapidly above a certain degree of landscape degradation. These studies could be relevant to implement preventive measures, creating landscapes that can mitigate disease spread risk.

  15. The Legacy of Utah's Country Schools, 1847-1896. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, Scott B.

    This section of the Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier Project, funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and sponsored by the Mountain Plains Library Association, traces the development of schools in Utah during the Territorial Period (1847-1896). Following a discussion of the influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of…

  16. Simulation of quaking aspen potential fire behavior in Northern Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; A. Joshua Leffler

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of aspen fire ecology in western North America includes the paradoxical characterization that aspen-dominated stands, although often regenerated following fire, are “fire-proof”. We tested this idea by predicting potential fire behavior across a gradient of aspen dominance in northern Utah using the Forest Vegetation Simulator and the Fire and...

  17. Estimated medical cost savings in Utah by implementation of a primary seat belt law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report examines 2007 hospital discharge data reporting cases where the external cause of injury to : a vehicle occupant was a motor vehicle crash to predict the estimated savings to Utah if a primary seat : belt law is implemented. The savings a...

  18. Agribusiness Standards: A Comparison of the Choices of Utah Agriscience and Technology Teachers and Agribusiness Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerger, Richard M.; Andreasen, Randall

    2000-01-01

    Secondary agriscience teachers (n=13) and agribusiness leaders (n=12) validated standards and objectives for agribusiness education in Utah, recommending a core of 12 standards. Written and oral communication skills and technologies for agricultural management and quality control were most important. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  19. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed White Elk Military Operations Area, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    in 1872 Name Location Chief Population Source Pagayuats Otter Creek, Utah Ti-av’-um-pi-a 107 John Wesley Powell 1873 in Fowler and Fowler...100 feet high racing toward senior citizen communities, where elderly residents grabbed their pets and ran. "It was as close to hell on Earth as you’ll

  20. Limited Groundwater Investigation of The Atlas Corporation Moab Mill, Moab, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, CE

    2001-11-05

    The project described in this report was conducted by personnel from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Grand Junction Office (ORNL/GJ). The purpose was to refine information regarding groundwater contamination emanating from the Atlas Corporation's former uranium mill in Moab, Utah.

  1. Assessment of leukemia and thyroid disease in relation to fallout in Utah: Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains the results of one year's work on the effects of fallout on the development of leukemia and thyroid disease in humans residing in Utah. Divided into 37 subphases, this report evaluates the development of predictive models, the use of dosimetry, and various cohort studies. (FI)

  2. Fire ecology and management of the major ecosystems of southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon M. Hood; Melanie Miller

    2007-01-01

    This document provides managers with a literature synthesis of the historical conditions, current conditions, fire regime condition classes (FRCC), and recommended treatments for the major ecosystems in southern Utah. Sections are by ecosystems and include: 1) coniferous forests (ponderosa pine, mixed conifer, and Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir), 2) aspen, 3) pinyon-...

  3. Lithosequence of soils and associated vegetation on subalpine range of the Wasatch Plateau, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James O. Klemmedson; Arthur R. Tiedemann

    1998-01-01

    On degraded subalpine range in Utah, the authors examined the role of soil and parent material nutrients and organic carbon (Corg) in the development of soil and plants on a transect across six strata that formed visible concentric alternating bands of high and low productivity. Relations for soil and parent material phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) were of particular...

  4. Evolution of anuran assemblages in the Late Cretaceous of Utah, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Eaton, J. G.; Gardner, J.; Přikryl, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 4 (2010), s. 341-393 ISSN 1867-1594 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * evolution * Late Cretaceous * fossil frogs * stratigraphy * Utah Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  5. 75 FR 70888 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Utah State Implementation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ..., he said he was aware that Colorado was in the process of revising its malfunction rule, that he would... the effort to adopt a new rule in Utah. Mr. Sprott also said that while he wanted to complete a rule... entitled ``Contingency Plan for FGD Systems During Downtime as a Function of PSD,'' from Edward E. Reich to...

  6. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site

  7. Study of a conceptual nuclear-energy center at Green River, Utah: site-specific transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The objective of the following report is to assess the adequacy of the local and regional transportation network for handling traffic, logistics, and the transport of major power plant components to the Utah Nuclear Energy Center (UNEC) Horse Bench site. The discussion is divided into four parts: (1) system requirements; (2) description of the existing transportation network; (3) evaluation; (4) summary and conclusions

  8. Chemical quality of ground water in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1969-85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Seiler, R.L.; Solomon, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    During 1979-84, 35 wells completed in the principal aquifer in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, that had been sampled during 1962-67 were resampled to determine if water-quality changes had occurred. The dissolved-solids concentration of the water from 13 of the wells has increased by more than 10 percent since 1962-67.

  9. Palaeoecology of fossil diatoms (the thermometers of salinity) of lake Bonneville, Utah, USA

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    and is presently the Great Salt Lake of Utah, having a salinity of 276 ppt. It is estimated that the saline content changed at the rate of 1 ppt per foot in stages, which is due to variation in the balance between precipitation and inflow evaporation and outflow...

  10. Data for the geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    This report contains the geochemical data and the methods of data collection from the former tailings site at Green River, Utah. Data are from a one-time sampling of waters and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. The water samples were analyzed for selected major and trace elements. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Golden eagle indifference to heli-skiing and military helicopters in northern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; David K. Delaney; William W. Bowerman; Michael R. Wierda

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-2007, during Wasatch Powderbird Guides (WPG) permit renewal for heli-skiing in the Tri-Canyon Area (TCA) of the Wasatch Mountains, Utah, USA, we recorded 303 helicopter passes between 0 m and 3,000 m (horizontal distance) near >30 individual golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in 22 nesting territories, through passive observation and active experimentation...

  12. Use of saltcedar and Utah juniper as fillers in wood–plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons; Nicole Stark

    2007-01-01

    Invasive and small-diameter species have become more prevalent, creating numerous environmental and ecological problems. One potential method to control and eliminate invasive species and thereby promote natural rangeland restoration is developing new, value-added uses for them. Saltcedar (Tamarisk ramosissima) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) were investigated...

  13. Plant recruitment and soil microbial characteristics of rehabilitation seedings following wildfire in northern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan M. Taylor; Ann L. Hild; Nancy L. Shaw; Urszula Norton; Timothy R. Collier

    2014-01-01

    One goal of post-fire native species seeding is to increase plant community resistance to exotic weed invasions, yet few studies address the impacts of seeding on exotic annual establishment and persistence. In 2010 and 2011, we investigated the influence of seedings on exotic annuals and the underlying microbial communities. The wildfire site in northern Utah was...

  14. The Effectiveness of Substitute Teacher Training: The Results of a Utah Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Peter W.; Tippetts, Zachary; Smith, Geoffrey G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines effectiveness of substitute-teacher training in 40 Utah school districts. Finds that 40 percent of districts provide more than 3 hours of training and that principals in these districts rated substitutes' overall performance significantly higher than did principals in districts that provide no training (25 percent) or less than 3 hours…

  15. A Descriptive Analysis of Vocational Rehabilitation and Training Programs and Techniques at the Utah State Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Von H.

    At the Utah State Prison philosophy and purpose have changed from incarceration and punishment to education and rehabilitation. Where funds and personnel are available, inmates have opportunity for therapy, counseling, schooling, vocational training, and work release employment. Twenty-two rehabilitation factors have been identified and described.…

  16. Job Satisfaction of Faculty and Staff at the College of Eastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Jesse F.

    Faculty and staff at the College of Eastern Utah were surveyed in order to ascertain the level of job satisfaction of the college's personnel. Over 90% of the faculty completed a 94-item job satisfaction questionnaire which was based on Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene theory of motivation. College staff completed a slightly modified form of the…

  17. The Impartial Hearing Officer: A Procedural Safeguards Training Manual for Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Univ., Salt Lake City. Intermountain Plains Regional Resource Center.

    The manual for due process hearing officers in Utah provides information on prehearing activities, hearing activities, decision making processes, and final reporting on hearings regarding conflicts or disagreements between the parents and the school district concerning the most appropriate educational program for the handicapped child. An…

  18. 1980 Environmental monitoring report: US Department of Energy Facilities, Grand Junction, Colorado, and Monticello, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The effect the Grand Junction, Colorado and Monticello, Utah facilities have on the environment is reflected by the analyses of air, water, and sediment samples. The off-site water and sediment samples were taken to determine what effect the tailings and contaminated equipment buried on the sites may have on the air, water, and adjacent properties

  19. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Garbett Homes, Herriman, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    As the first net zero-energy production home certified in Utah, this house incorporates two 94% efficient tankless water heaters and two roof-mounted solar panels that preheat the home's water supply. This home won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the production builder category.

  20. Final Environmental Assessment: Proposed Fire Crash Rescue Station, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-02

    Utah Pollutant Discharge Elimination System ( UPDES ) General Permit for Discharges from Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s), permit...to contain lead by on-site inspections using a portable X -ray fluorescence analyzer) would be scraped, collected, and properly disposed at a

  1. Environmental assessment: Geokinetics, Inc. oil shale research project, Uintah County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Geokinetics, Inc. (GKI) proposes to complete the remaining experimental program to develop the LOFRECO modified horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. This Environmental Assessment Report addresses the impacts of the project, located in a remote area of east-central Utah, about 70 miles south of both Vernal and Roosevelt.

  2. Investigating potential effects of heli-skiing on golden eagles in the Wasatch Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; David K. Delaney; William W. Bowerman

    2007-01-01

    Implementing further research was beyond the scope of the U.S. Forest Service's 2004 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and 2005 Wasatch Powderbird Guides (WPG) Special Use Permit Renewal process for heli-skiing in the Tri-Canyon Area in the Wasatch Mountains, just east of Salt Lake City, Utah. However, in their Record of Decision the Wasaatch-Cache (WCNF...

  3. Repeats, returns, and estimated flight ranges of neotropical migratory birds in Utah riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan A. Roberts; Jimmie R. Parrish; Frank P. Howe

    2005-01-01

    We present data on capture and recapture of neotropical migrants at constant-effort mist net sampling locations in Utah between 1994 and 2002. Data were collected in accordance with MAPS (Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship) protocols. Since 1994, a total of 23,789 birds have been captured (i.e., total captures include new captures, recaptures, and unbanded...

  4. Identification of resistance and virulence factors in an epidemic Enterobacter hormaechei outbreak strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paauw, A.; Caspers, M.P.M.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Verhoef, J.; Fluit, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial strains differ in their ability to cause hospital outbreaks. Using comparative genomic hybridization, Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates were studied to identify genetic markers specific for Enterobacter cloacae complex outbreak strains. No outbreak-specific genes were found that were

  5. Surveillance for Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water, United States 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advancements in water management and sanitation, waterborne disease outbreaks continue to occur in the United States. CDC collects data on waterborne disease outbreaks submitted from all states and territories* through the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance Syst...

  6. Geoinformatics and Data Fusion in the Southwestern Utah Mineral Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, T.; Enright, R.

    2012-12-01

    Data Fusion is a technique in remote sensing that combines separate geophysical data sets from different platforms to yield the maximum information of each set. Data fusion was employed on multiple sources of data for the purposes of investigating an area of the Utah Mineral Belt known as the San Francisco Mining District. In the past many mineral deposits were expressed in or on the immediate surface and therefore relatively easy to locate. More modern methods of investigation look for evidence beyond the visible spectrum to find patterns that predict the presence of deeply buried mineral deposits. The methods used in this study employed measurements of reflectivity or emissivity features in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum for different materials, elevation data collected from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and indirect measurement of the magnetic or mass properties of deposits. The measurements were collected by various spaceborne remote sensing instruments like Landsat TM, ASTER and Hyperion and ground-based statewide geophysical surveys. ASTER's shortwave infrared bands, that have been calibrated to surface reflectance using the atmospheric correction tool FLAASH, can be used to identify products of hydrothermal alteration like kaolinite, alunite, limonite and pyrophyllite using image spectroscopy. The thermal infrared bands once calibrated to emissivity can be used to differentiate between felsic, mafic and carbonate rock units for the purposes of lithologic mapping. To validate results from the extracted spectral profiles existing geological reports were used for ground truth data. Measurements of electromagnetic spectra can only reveal the composition of surface features. Gravimetric and magnetic information were utilized to reveal subsurface features. Using Bouguer anomaly data provided by the USGS an interpreted geological cross section can be created that indicates the shape of local igneous intrusions and the depth of

  7. Bioaccumulation of PCB Contaminants in Five Fish Species in Utah Lake as Affected by Carp Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjinez-Guzmán, V. A.; Cadet, E. L.; Crandall, T.; Chamberlain, T.; Rakotoarisaona, H.; Morris, P.

    2017-12-01

    State reports published by the Utah Department of Health (2005) and the Utah Department of Water Quality (2008) determined that there were elevated levels of PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls) that exceeded the EPA's cancer (0.02 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) and non-cancer screening levels (0.08 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) in two fish species from Utah Lake, the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fish consumption advisories were issued for both of these fish species due to their health effects of PCBs. The Common Carp is a non-native predatory species that comprise 90% of the biomass in Utah Lake. As of September 2009, an extensive carp removal program was instituted by the Department of Natural Resources and began the removal of 75% of the carp population. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of carp removal on PCB levels in five sport fish species consumed by Utah citizens. The fish being analyzed are the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Black Bullhead (Ameiurus melas), Walleye (Sander vitreus), and White Bass (Morone chrysops). One-hundred twenty (120) fish were collected from Utah Lake and subcategorized by their gender, tissue type (fillet and offal), weight, and size: small (under 33 cm), medium (33 cm - 43 cm), and large (greater than 43 cm). This was done in order to determine the variation of contaminant levels in each subcategory. PCB analysis was performed by Utility Testing Laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah. Results show there has been a significant increase in PCB levels in all fish species in comparison with the state reports (2008). All fish species have exceeded the EPA cancer screening level, except for the fillet tissue of the White Bass species. In Common Carp fillet, and offal decreased concentrations of 11.80% and 23.72%, respectively. In Channel catfish: the PCB levels in the fillet increase by 87.93%, however, the offal levels

  8. Remedial Action Plan and final design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, M.L.; Alkema, K.

    1991-03-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities that are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site located near Green River, Utah. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the site. It also serves to document the concurrence of the state of Utah and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state of Utah, and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix 8 of the Cooperative Agreement

  9. Outbreaks of aflatoxicoses in India | Reddy | African Journal of Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the outbreaks of aflatoxicoses described here are a consequence of ingestion of food that is contaminated with aflatoxins. Disease outbreaks due to aflatoxins continue to be problems of significant public health concern in India as long as people will consume contaminated food. The strict control of food quality is ...

  10. Tuberculosis Outbreak Investigations in the U.S.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-22

    In this podcast, Dr Kiren Mitruka, medical officer with CDC's Tuberculosis Outbreak Investigations team, discusses tuberculosis outbreak investigations in the U.S. from 2002-2008.  Created: 2/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/22/2011.

  11. Measles outbreak in Simada District, South Gondar Zone, Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2mikitser

    2009-06-27

    Jun 27, 2009 ... Abstract. Background: Recently measles outbreaks have been occurring in several areas of Ethiopia. Methods: Desk review of outbreak surveillance data was conducted to identify the susceptible subjects and highly affected groups of the community in Simada District, Amhara Region, May and June, 2009.

  12. The 2010 - 2011 measles outbreak in Zambia: Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The key objective of the report was to document response and epidemiological factors surrounding the 2010 to 2011 Measles outbreak in Zambia and to share the challenges and lessons learnt for control and prevention of future outbreaks. Methods: Between January 2010 and September 2011, Measles line ...

  13. Epidemiology of the 2016 Cholera Outbreak of Chibombo District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cholera outbreaks, such as those seen in Haiti, Vietnam and Zimbabwe in recent years, can occur. Industrialized ... Demographic information on suspected cases was reviewed. These included age, sex, people with ... Twalumba Rural Health Centre was the focus for the outbreak with a catchment area population of 5,688.

  14. Timely Response and Containment of 2016 Cholera Outbreak in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A prospective study where a team was put in place to investigate an outbreak of diarrhoeal disease of undetermined cause. The team comprising of surveillance, medical, environmental and laboratory staff was formed to investigate this outbreak within the context of cholera an on-going cholera epidemic Lusaka ...

  15. Teachers' Risk Perception and Needs in Addressing Infectious Disease Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emmy M. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.; Lo, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The outbreak of the Influenza A (H1N1) virus has led to numerous precautionary school closures in several countries. No research is available on the school teachers' perceptions as a health protective resource in controlling communicable disease outbreaks. The purposes of this study were to examine the risk perception, the perceived understanding…

  16. Emerging issues, challenges, and changing epidemiology of fungal disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Richardson, Malcolm; Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Jackson, Brendan R; Chiller, Tom

    2017-12-01

    Several high-profile outbreaks have drawn attention to invasive fungal infections (IFIs) as an increasingly important public health problem. IFI outbreaks are caused by many different fungal pathogens and are associated with numerous settings and sources. In the community, IFI outbreaks often occur among people without predisposing medical conditions and are frequently precipitated by environmental disruption. Health-care-associated IFI outbreaks have been linked to suboptimal hospital environmental conditions, transmission via health-care workers' hands, contaminated medical products, and transplantation of infected organs. Outbreak investigations provide important insights into the epidemiology of IFIs, uncover risk factors for infection, and identify opportunities for preventing similar events in the future. Well recognised challenges with IFI outbreak recognition, response, and prevention include the need for improved rapid diagnostic methods, the absence of routine surveillance for most IFIs, adherence to infection control practices, and health-care provider awareness. Additionally, IFI outbreak investigations have revealed several emerging issues, including new populations at risk because of travel or relocation, occupation, or immunosuppression; fungal pathogens appearing in geographical areas in which they have not been previously recognised; and contaminated compounded medications. This report highlights notable IFI outbreaks in the past decade, with an emphasis on these emerging challenges in the USA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Case Series: Outbreak of Conversion Disorder among Amish Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Joslyn D.; Kirschke, David L.; Jones, Timothy F.; Craig, Allen S.; Bermudez, Ovidio B.; Schaffner, William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Outbreak investigations are challenging in a cross-cultural context, and outbreaks of psychiatric disease are rare in any community. We investigated a cluster of unexplained debilitating illness among Amish girls. Method: We reviewed the medical records of cases, consulted with health care providers, performed active case finding,…

  18. An outbreak of food poisoning among children attending an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe an outbreak of food. poisoning at a major international sports event in Johannesburg and to determine the likely cause and source of the outbreak. Design. A descriptive, case-control study. Setting. An international sports event in Johannesburg. Methods. A questionnaire survey of involved children ...

  19. Outbreaks associated with duodenoscopes: new challenges and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Zachary A; Murthy, Rekha K

    2016-08-01

    Recent outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae related to duodenoscopes in the United States and Europe have gained international attention and resulted in new regulations, especially in the United States, affecting healthcare facilities. In this review, we summarize findings from recent duodenoscope-related outbreaks, highlight what is known about the risk of transmission from these devices and discuss controversies about current recommendations to prevent transmission. Between 2013 and 2015, several US and European healthcare facilities reported outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae associated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures. Unlike prior outbreaks (attributed to lapses in cleaning and reprocessing), the recent outbreaks occurred in spite of adherence to current reprocessing guidelines. Factors associated with infection transmission include a low margin of safety for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures and complex design features of duodenoscopes. Outbreaks were halted with enhanced cleaning and surveillance measures or by adopting gas sterilization methods. New guidance from manufacturers and federal agencies has been issued as a result of these recent outbreaks; however, concerns remain that the new measures may not eliminate risks to patients. Recent duodenoscope-related outbreaks have highlighted the need for a reassessment of current guidelines for endoscope reprocessing and for new design of duodenoscope components. Although we summarize the US experience, this review has global implications for the safe cleaning and disinfection of these instruments.

  20. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the Measles outbreak in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Measles is a public health problem especially in South Asia and Africa. Nylon Health District has experienced two measles outbreaks over a period of three years. We hereby describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the outbreak of February 2011. Methods: A retrospective descriptive cross ...

  1. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the Measles outbreak in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-11-26

    Nov 26, 2012 ... Abstract. Introduction. Measles is a public health problem especially in South Asia and Africa. Nylon Health District has experienced two measles outbreaks over a period of three years. We hereby describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the outbreak of February 2011. Methods.

  2. An outbreak of food poisoning among children attending an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe an outbreak of food poisoning at a major international sports event in Johannesburg and to determine the likely cause and source of the outbreak. Design. A descriptive, case-control study. Setting. An international sports event in Johannesburg. Methods. A questionnaire survey of involved children ...

  3. Large outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in Denmark in 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Wingstrand, Anne; Jensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type U292 has been ongoing in Denmark since 1 April, with 1,054 cases registered until 23 October 2008. Extensive investigations including hypothesis-generating interviews, matched case-control studies, cohort studies in embedded outbreaks, shopping list...

  4. Effects of gypsy moth outbreaks on North American woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of the introduced gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) on seven species of North American woodpeckers by matching spatially explicit data on gypsy moth outbreaks with data on breeding and wintering populations. In general, we detected modest effects during outbreaks: during the breeding season one species, the Red-headed Woodpecker...

  5. High case fatality cholera outbreak in Western Kenya, August 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cholera is a disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera and has been an important public health problem since its first pandemic in 1817. Kenya has had numerous outbreaks of cholera ever since it was first detected there during 1971. In August 2010 an outbreak of cholera occurred in Kuria West District ...

  6. High case fatality cholera outbreak in Western Kenya, August 2010

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Abstract. Introduction: Cholera is a disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera and has been an important public health problem since its first pandemic in 1817. Kenya has had numerous outbreaks of cholera ever since it was first detected there during 1971. In August 2010 an outbreak of cholera occurred in Kuria ...

  7. Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in West Africa- Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Several factors have contributed to the successful quick containment of Ebola outbreaks in Uganda. West African countries experiencing Ebola outbreaks could draw some lessons from the Uganda experience and adapt them to contain the Ebola epidemic. Key words: Ebola, viral hemorrhagic fever, West Africa ...

  8. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to lettuce, Denmark, January 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Bottiger, B.

    2010-01-01

    At least 11 linked outbreaks of gastroenteritis with a total of 260 cases have occurred in Denmark in mid January 2010. Investigations showed that the outbreaks were caused by norovirus of several genotypes and by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Lettuce of the lollo bionda type grown in France...

  9. of discourse: Online legitimations on the outbreak of Ebola Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working within the tenets of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and insights from Stanley Cohen's sociological concept of Moral Panic (MP), this study examined the motivations behind some of the online reactions to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. News of the outbreak of the dreaded disease in some countries like ...

  10. Outbreak of serotype W135 Neisseria meningitidis in central river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Meningitis still accounts for many deaths in children especially during epidemics in countries within the African meningitis belt. Between February and May 2012, the Gambia witnessed an outbreak of meningitis in two of its six regions. This study presents a clinical perspective of this outbreak in central river ...

  11. A study of the 2006 Chikungunya epidemic outbreak in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. V. Pydiah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya epidemic outbreaks have affected more than 1 million people in 2005-2006 in many Indian Ocean islands and in India. Mauritius experienced a major outbreak in February/March 2006 following a minor outbreak in April/May 2005. No cases have been registered on the island since August 2006. The objectives of this study were to understand the timing and development of the 2006-outbreak in Mauritius, to investigate the possibility of a future outbreak, and to propose measures to prevent the recurrence of an epidemic in Mauritius. Mauritius rainfall, temperature and humidity data were analyzed. A door-to-door household census-type survey was carried out in a study locality on the island. A compartmental human-mosquito interaction model was integrated to understand outbreak evolutions in the surveyed locality and in a theoretical locality. It was observed that the onset of the 2006-outbreak in February followed an abnormally high rainfall in the third week of January 2006. 51% of the surveyed population was found to be suspected Chikungunya cases. Computer simulations indicated that a small number of infected humans and mosquitoes existed in the surveyed locality at the outbreak onset. From simulations in the theoretical locality, it was deduced that the level of infectivity in some localities may be below a herd immunity threshold and that the additional percentage of infected inhabitants in a follow-up epidemic would be significantly reduced with the case-reactive control of infected adult mosquitoes.

  12. Measles Cases during Ebola Outbreak, West Africa, 2013-2106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavita, Francesca; Biava, Mirella; Castilletti, Concetta; Quartu, Serena; Vairo, Francesco; Caglioti, Claudia; Agrati, Chiara; Lalle, Eleonora; Bordi, Licia; Lanini, Simone; Guanti, Michela Delli; Miccio, Rossella; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Capobianchi, Maria R; Di Caro, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    The recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa caused breakdowns in public health systems, which might have caused outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. We tested 80 patients admitted to an Ebola treatment center in Freetown, Sierra Leone, for measles. These patients were negative for Ebola virus. Measles virus IgM was detected in 13 (16%) of the patients.

  13. Outbreak of Peste Des Petits Ruminant in an Unvaccinated Sahel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outbreak of Peste Des Petits Ruminant in an Unvaccinated Sahel Goat Farm in Maiduguri, Nigeria. AD El-Yuguda, MB Abubakar, AB Nabi, A Andrew, SS Baba. Abstract. An outbreak of peste des petits ruminant (PPR) among unvaccinated Sahel goats was investigated in a farm in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The morbidity rate of ...

  14. Food-borne disease outbreaks due to bacteria in Taiwan, 1986 to 1995.

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, T M; Wang, T K; Lee, C L; Chien, S W; Horng, C B

    1997-01-01

    Between 1986 and 1995, 852 outbreaks of food-borne disease involving 26,173 cases and 20 deaths were reported in Taiwan. About 80% of the outbreaks occurred in the warmer months, i.e., between April and October. Of the 852 reported outbreaks, 555 (65%) were caused by bacterial pathogens. The three most common bacteria involved were Vibrio parahaemolyticus (35%, 197 of 555 outbreaks), Staphylococcus aureus (30%, 169 of 555 outbreaks), and Bacillus cereus (18%, 104 of 555 outbreaks).

  15. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Hans-Christian; Butenschoen, Vicki Marie; Tran, Hien Tinh; Gozzer, Ernesto; Skewes, Ronald; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Kroeger, Axel; Farlow, Andrew

    2013-11-06

    Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save--through early response activities--resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems.The country case studies--conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the different cost components (vector control

  16. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  17. Chimpanzee adenoviral vectors as vaccines for outbreak pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewer, Katie; Sebastian, Sarah; Spencer, Alexandra J; Gilbert, Sarah; Hill, Adrian V S; Lambe, Teresa

    2017-12-02

    The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the potential for large disease outbreaks caused by emerging pathogens and has generated considerable focus on preparedness for future epidemics. Here we discuss drivers, strategies and practical considerations for developing vaccines against outbreak pathogens. Chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd) vectors have been developed as vaccine candidates for multiple infectious diseases and prostate cancer. ChAd vectors are safe and induce antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity in all age groups, as well as circumventing the problem of pre-existing immunity encountered with human Ad vectors. For these reasons, such viral vectors provide an attractive platform for stockpiling vaccines for emergency deployment in response to a threatened outbreak of an emerging pathogen. Work is already underway to develop vaccines against a number of other outbreak pathogens and we will also review progress on these approaches here, particularly for Lassa fever, Nipah and MERS.

  18. Resilient information networks for coordination of foodborne disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Liaquat; Hassan, Muhammad Rabiul; Wigand, Rolf T

    2015-04-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are increasingly being seen as a greater concern by public health authorities. It has also become a global research agenda to identify improved pathways to coordinating outbreak detection. Furthermore, a significant need exists for timely coordination of the detection of potential foodborne disease outbreaks to reduce the number of infected individuals and the overall impact on public health security. This study aimed to offer an effective approach for coordinating foodborne disease outbreaks. First, we identify current coordination processes, complexities, and challenges. We then explore social media surveillance strategies, usage, and the power of these strategies to influence decision-making. Finally, based on informal (social media) and formal (organizational) surveillance approaches, we propose a hybrid information network model for improving the coordination of outbreak detection.

  19. The Methanol Poisoning Outbreaks in Libya 2013 and Kenya 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostrup, Morten; Edwards, Jeffrey K; Abukalish, Mohamed; Ezzabi, Masoud; Some, David; Ritter, Helga; Menge, Tom; Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Rootwelt, Rebecca; Janssens, Bart; Lind, Kyrre; Paasma, Raido; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of methanol poisoning occur frequently on a global basis, affecting poor and vulnerable populations. Knowledge regarding methanol is limited, likely many cases and even outbreaks go unnoticed, with patients dying unnecessarily. We describe findings from the first three large outbreaks of methanol poisoning where Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) responded, and evaluate the benefits of a possible future collaboration between local health authorities, a Non-Governmental Organisation and international expertise. Retrospective study of three major methanol outbreaks in Libya (2013) and Kenya (May and July 2014). Data were collected from MSF field personnel, local health personnel, hospital files, and media reports. In Tripoli, Libya, over 1,000 patients were poisoned with a reported case fatality rate of 10% (101/1,066). In Kenya, two outbreaks resulted in approximately 341 and 126 patients, with case fatality rates of 29% (100/341) and 21% (26/126), respectively. MSF launched an emergency team with international experts, medications and equipment, however, the outbreaks were resolving by the time of arrival. Recognition of an outbreak of methanol poisoning and diagnosis seem to be the most challenging tasks, with significant delay from time of first presentations to public health warnings being issued. In spite of the rapid response from an emergency team, the outbreaks were nearly concluded by the time of arrival. A major impact on the outcome was not seen, but large educational trainings were conducted to increase awareness and knowledge about methanol poisoning. Based on this training, MSF was able to send a local emergency team during the second outbreak, supporting that such an approach could improve outcomes. Basic training, simplified treatment protocols, point-of-care diagnostic tools, and early support when needed, are likely the most important components to impact the consequences of methanol poisoning outbreaks in these challenging contexts.

  20. Estimated Cost to a Restaurant of a Foodborne Illness Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Asti, Lindsey; Nyathi, Sindiso; Spiker, Marie L; Lee, Bruce Y

    2018-01-01

    Although outbreaks of restaurant-associated foodborne illness occur periodically and make the news, a restaurant may not be aware of the cost of an outbreak. We estimated this cost under varying circumstances. We developed a computational simulation model; scenarios varied outbreak size (5 to 250 people affected), pathogen (n = 15), type of dining establishment (fast food, fast casual, casual dining, and fine dining), lost revenue (ie, meals lost per illness), cost of lawsuits and legal fees, fines, and insurance premium increases. We estimated that the cost of a single foodborne illness outbreak ranged from $3968 to $1.9 million for a fast-food restaurant, $6330 to $2.1 million for a fast-casual restaurant, $8030 to $2.2 million for a casual-dining restaurant, and $8273 to $2.6 million for a fine-dining restaurant, varying from a 5-person outbreak, with no lost revenue, lawsuits, legal fees, or fines, to a 250-person outbreak, with high lost revenue (100 meals lost per illness), and a high amount of lawsuits and legal fees ($1 656 569) and fines ($100 000). This cost amounts to 10% to 5790% of a restaurant's annual marketing costs and 0.3% to 101% of annual profits and revenue. The biggest cost drivers were lawsuits and legal fees, outbreak size, and lost revenue. Pathogen type affected the cost by a maximum of $337 000, the difference between a Bacillus cereus outbreak (least costly) and a listeria outbreak (most costly). The cost of a single foodborne illness outbreak to a restaurant can be substantial and outweigh the typical costs of prevention and control measures. Our study can help decision makers determine investment and motivate research for infection-control measures in restaurant settings.

  1. The Methanol Poisoning Outbreaks in Libya 2013 and Kenya 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Rostrup

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of methanol poisoning occur frequently on a global basis, affecting poor and vulnerable populations. Knowledge regarding methanol is limited, likely many cases and even outbreaks go unnoticed, with patients dying unnecessarily. We describe findings from the first three large outbreaks of methanol poisoning where Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF responded, and evaluate the benefits of a possible future collaboration between local health authorities, a Non-Governmental Organisation and international expertise.Retrospective study of three major methanol outbreaks in Libya (2013 and Kenya (May and July 2014. Data were collected from MSF field personnel, local health personnel, hospital files, and media reports.In Tripoli, Libya, over 1,000 patients were poisoned with a reported case fatality rate of 10% (101/1,066. In Kenya, two outbreaks resulted in approximately 341 and 126 patients, with case fatality rates of 29% (100/341 and 21% (26/126, respectively. MSF launched an emergency team with international experts, medications and equipment, however, the outbreaks were resolving by the time of arrival.Recognition of an outbreak of methanol poisoning and diagnosis seem to be the most challenging tasks, with significant delay from time of first presentations to public health warnings being issued. In spite of the rapid response from an emergency team, the outbreaks were nearly concluded by the time of arrival. A major impact on the outcome was not seen, but large educational trainings were conducted to increase awareness and knowledge about methanol poisoning. Based on this training, MSF was able to send a local emergency team during the second outbreak, supporting that such an approach could improve outcomes. Basic training, simplified treatment protocols, point-of-care diagnostic tools, and early support when needed, are likely the most important components to impact the consequences of methanol poisoning outbreaks in these challenging

  2. Infectious disease exposures and outbreaks at a South African neonatal unit with review of neonatal outbreak epidemiology in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dramowski

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Outbreaks in hospitalized African neonates are frequent but under-reported, with high mortality and a predominance of Gram-negative bacteria. Breaches in IP practice are commonly implicated, with the outbreak source confirmed in less than 50% of cases. Programmes to improve IP practice and address antimicrobial resistance in African neonatal units are urgently required.

  3. Waves and synchrony in Epirrita autumnata/Operophtera brumata outbreaks. II. Sunspot activity cannot explain cyclic outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilssen, A C; Tenow, O; Bylund, H

    2007-03-01

    1. In recent studies, it has been argued that sunspot activity forces the Epirrita autumnata 9-10-year outbreak periodicity in the mountain birch forest of Fennoscandia. For the following reasons, we challenge this conclusion. 2. With a 10-year outbreak cycle of E. autumnata and the 11-year sunspot cycle, it is expected that the cycles will run in-phase, out-of-phase and in-phase within 10 x 11 years. Hence, given such cycle lengths, sunspot activity should not affect outbreak periods. For a test, the E. autumnata series should be at least 110 years in length. 3. A well-documented E. autumnata outbreak series of 81 years (1888-1968; outbreak periods IV-XII) exists. This series is here lengthened to 114 years by adding outbreak frequencies for three decades (1969-2001). 4. By lengthening the series, three more E. autumnata/Operophtera brumata periods (XIII, XIV, XV) are identified. Period XV, like several earlier periods, was of the moving type, i.e. outbreaks moved in a wavelike manner from northern Fennoscandia to southern Norway. 5. As with several earlier outbreak periods in central northern Fennoscandia, the main timing of periods XIII-XV centred at the middle of the decades. In contrast, outbreaks at the extreme north-western coast of Norway centred at the decadal shifts, i.e. about 1979, 1989 and 1999. Supported by historical documents, we explain the 1979 and 1999 outbreaks as the final expressions of east-west outbreak waves that branched off from the main waves which moved southward during periods XIII and XV. These side-waves in the north are new observations. Outbreaks at the decadal shift 1989/1990 may have been of a more complex nature. 6. We find that sunspot activity does not explain outbreak waves. Furthermore, a test of our 114-year long E. autumnata series against the contemporaneous sunspot series shows that the two series run in-phase and out-of-phase. The observed interval between the two cycles coming in-phase agrees with the expected interval

  4. BCG protects toddlers during a tuberculosis outbreak.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaensbauer, J T

    2009-05-01

    In 2007, an outbreak of tuberculosis occurred in a toddler population attending two child care centres in Cork, Ireland. Of 268 children exposed, 18 were eventually diagnosed with active tuberculosis. We present the initial clinical and radiographic characteristics of the active disease group. Mantoux testing was positive in only 66% of cases. All cases were either pulmonary or involved hilar adenopathy on chest radiograph; there were no cases of disseminated disease or meningitis. 24% of the exposed children had been previously vaccinated with BCG, and no case of active disease was found in this group (p = 0.016), suggesting a profound protective effect of BCG in this population. Our experience provides evidence supporting a protective effect of BCG against pulmonary disease in young children.

  5. An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okware, S I; Omaswa, F G; Zaramba, S; Opio, A; Lutwama, J J; Kamugisha, J; Rwaguma, E B; Kagwa, P; Lamunu, M

    2002-12-01

    An outbreak of Ebola disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on 8 October 2000. The outbreak was characterized by fever and haemorrhagic manifestations, and affected health workers and the general population of Rwot-Obillo, a village 14 km north of Gulu town. Later, the outbreak spread to other parts of the country including Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilization, case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: National Task Force (NTF), a District Task Force (DTF) and an Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were responsible for coordination and follow-up of implementation of activities at the national and district levels, respectively, while the IMTF provided political direction and handled sensitive issues related to stigma, trade, tourism and international relations. The international response was coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) under the umbrella organization of the Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network. A WHO/CDC case definition for Ebola was adapted and used to capture four categories of cases, namely, the 'alert', 'suspected', 'probable' and 'confirmed cases'. Guidelines for identification and management of cases were developed and disseminated to all persons responsible for surveillance, case management, contact tracing and Information Education Communication (IEC). For the duration of the epidemic that lasted up to 16 January 2001, a total of 425 cases with 224 deaths were reported countrywide. The case fatality rate was 53%. The attack rate (AR) was highest in women. The average AR for Gulu district was 12.6 cases/10 000 inhabitants when the contacts of all cases were considered and was 4.5 cases/10 000 if limited only to contacts of laboratory confirmed cases. The secondary AR was 2.5% when nearly 5000 contacts were followed up for 21 days. Uganda was finally declared Ebola free on 27 February 2001, 42 days after the last case

  6. Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak Associated With a Single Hotel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Mary-Margaret A; Lloyd, Jennifer; Chakraverty, Tamal; Sweat, David; Manners, Judy; Garman, Katie; Hlavsa, Michele C; Roellig, Dawn M; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F

    2017-05-01

    We investigated a gastrointestinal illness cluster among persons who attended a baseball tournament (>200 teams) during July 2015. We interviewed representatives of 19 teams; illness was reported among only the 9 (47%) teams that stayed at Hotel A (p Hotel A was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio: 7.3; 95% confidence interval: 3.6, 15.2). Eight out of nine (89%) stool specimens tested were positive for Cryptosporidium, with C. hominis IfA12G1 subtype identified in two specimens. The environmental health assessment detected a low free available chlorine level, and pool water tested positive for E. coli and total coliforms. A possible diarrheal contamination event, substantial hotel pool use, and use of cyanuric acid might have contributed to this outbreak and magnitude. Aquatic facilities practicing proper operation and maintenance (e.g., following the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Model Aquatic Health Code) can protect the public’s health.

  7. Metagenomic Detection Methods in Biopreparedness Outbreak Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Oskar Erik; Hansen, Trine; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    In the field of diagnostic microbiology, rapid molecular methods are critically important for detecting pathogens. With rapid and accurate detection, preventive measures can be put in place early, thereby preventing loss of life and further spread of a disease. From a preparedness perspective...... of a clinical sample, creating a metagenome, in a single week of laboratory work. As new technologies emerge, their dissemination and capacity building must be facilitated, and criteria for use, as well as guidelines on how to report results, must be established. This article focuses on the use of metagenomics......, from sample collection to data analysis and to some extent NGS, for the detection of pathogens, the integration of the technique in outbreak response systems, and the risk-based evaluation of sample processing in routine diagnostics labs. The article covers recent advances in the field, current debate...

  8. An outbreak of suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghana: lessons learnt and preparation for future outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boakye

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL has previously been reported in West Africa, but more recently, sporadic reports of CL have increased. Leishmania major has been identified from Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, and Burkina Faso. Three zymodemes (MON-26, MON-117, and MON-74, the most frequent have been found. The geographic range of leishmaniasis is limited by the sand fly vector, its feeding preferences, and its capacity to support internal development of specific species of Leishmania. The risk of acquiring CL has been reported to increase considerably with human activity and epidemics of CL have been associated with deforestation, road construction, wars, or other activities where humans intrude the habitat of the vector. In the Ho Municipality in the Volta Region of Ghana, a localised outbreak of skin ulcers, possibly CL, was noted in 2003 without any such documented activity. This outbreak was consistent with CL as evidenced using various methods including parasite identification, albeit, in a small number of patients with ulcers.This paper reports the outbreak in Ghana. The report does not address a single planned study but rather a compilation of data from a number of ad-hoc investigations in response to the outbreak plus observations and findings made by the authors. It acknowledges that a number of the observations need to be further clarified. What is the detailed epidemiology of the disease? What sparked the epidemic? Can it happen again? What was the causative agent of the disease, L. major or some other Leishmania spp.? What were the main vectors and animal reservoirs? What are the consequences for surveillance of the disease and the prevention of its reoccurrence when the communities see a self-healing disease and may not think it is important?

  9. Interim Report: Field Demonstration Of Permeable Reactive Barriers To Remove Dissolved Uranium From Groundwater, Fry Canyon, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fry Canyon site in southeastern Utah was selected in 1996 as a long-term field demonstration site to assess the performance of selected permeable reactive barriers for the removal of uranium (U) from groundwater.

  10. Design and evaluation of expanded polystyrene geofoam embankments for the I-15 reconstruction project, Salt Lake City, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The report discusses the design and 10-year performance evaluations of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Geofoam embankment constructed for the I-15 Reconstruction Project in Salt Lake City, Utah between 1998 and 2002. It contains methods to evaluate the al...

  11. Planning Documents Known Releases SWMUs Tooele Army Depot Tooele, Utah. Volume 1: Corrective Measures Study Work Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...) at Tooele Army Depot (TEAD; formerly the North Area), Tooele, Utah. The CMS Work Plan addresses seven of the nine SWMUs that were identified in the Phase II Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA...

  12. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    Parowan Valley, in Iron County, Utah, covers about 160 square miles west of the Red Cliffs and includes the towns of Parowan, Paragonah, and Summit. The valley is a structural depression formed by northwest-trending faults and is, essentially, a closed surface-water basin although a small part of the valley at the southwestern end drains into the adjacent Cedar Valley. Groundwater occurs in and has been developed mainly from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer. Long-term downward trends in groundwater levels have been documented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the mid-1950s. The water resources of Parowan Valley were assessed during 2012 to 2014 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems and updating the groundwater budget.Surface-water discharge of five perennial mountain streams that enter Parowan Valley was measured from 2013 to 2014. The total annual surface-water discharge of the five streams during 2013 to 2014 was about 18,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) compared to the average annual streamflow of about 22,000 acre-ft from USGS streamgages operated on the three largest of these streams from the 1940s to the 1980s. The largest stream, Parowan Creek, contributes more than 50 percent of the annual surface-water discharge to the valley, with smaller amounts contributed by Red, Summit, Little, and Cottonwood Creeks.Average annual recharge to the Parowan Valley groundwater system was estimated to be about 25,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall on the Markagunt Plateau east of the valley. Smaller amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water near the east side of the valley on alluvial fans associated with mountain streams at the foot of the Red Cliffs. Subsurface flow from the mountain block to the east of the valley is a significant source of groundwater recharge to the basin-fill aquifer

  13. Cretaceous sedimentation and tectonism in the southeastern Kaiparowits region, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Fred

    1969-01-01

    Upper Cretaceous strata in the southeastern Kaiparowits region of south-central Utah consist of approximately 3,500 feet of interfingering sandstone, mudstone, shale, and coal in the Dakota Formation (oldest), Tropic Shale, Straight Cliffs Formation, and Wahweap Formation (youngest). The formations consist of several depositional facies that can be recognized by characteristic lithologies bedding structures, and fossils; these are the alluvial plain, deltaic plain, lagoonal-paludal, barrier sandstone, and offshore marine facies. The distribution of facies clearly defines the paleogeography of the region during several cycles of marine transgression and regression. The nonmarine beds were deposited on a broad alluvial coastal plain that was bordered on the west and southwest by highlands and on the east and northeast by the Western Interior seaway. The marine beds were deposited whenever the seaway advanced into or across the region. The Dakota Formation and the lower part of the Tropic Shale were deposited in nonmarine and marine environments, while the shoreline advanced generally westward across the region. The middle and upper part of the Tropic Shale and the Tibbet Canyon and Smoky Hollow Members of the Straight Cliffs Formation were deposited in marine and nonmarine environments when the seaway had reached its greatest areal extent and began a gradual northeastward withdrawal. An unconformity at the top of the Smoky Hollow represents a period of erosion and possibly nondeposition before deposition of the John Henry Member of the Straight Cliffs. The John Henry Member grades from nonmarine in the southwest to predominantly marine in the northeast, and was deposited during two relatively minor cycles of transgression and regression. The Drip Tank Member at the top of the Straight Cliffs Formation is a widespread sandstone unit deposited mainly in fluvial environments. Some of the beds in the northeastern part of the region were probably deposited in marine

  14. Ground-water hydrology of the Sevier Desert, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.; Feltis, R.D.

    1968-01-01

    The Sevier Desert, as used in this report, comprises the main part of the Sevier Desert, the Tintic Valley, and the southeastern part of the Old River Bed. It covers an area of about 3,000 square miles and occupies a large basin in the eastern part of the Basin and Range physiographic province.Large alluvial fans extend from the mountain fronts into the basin where they interfinger with eolian and lacustrine deposits and with fluvial deposits of the Sevier River. These unconsolidated deposits form a multiaquifer artesian system that is more than 1,000 feet thick and that extends from near the area of main recharge along the east side of the basin to Sevier Lake.Most of the recharge to the ground-water reservoir results from water entering alluvial fans as percolation from streams, irrigation ditches, and irrigated fields. Another important source may be water in the limestone, quartzite, and other consolidated rocks in the mountains that border the basin. Leakage from the Central Utah Canal is a major source of recharge to the water-table aquifer.Flowing wells are common in the central lowland part of the Sevier Desert, but as a result of below-normal precipitation and an increase in withdrawals from wells during 1950-64, the area of flowing wells has decreased. The quantity of ground water being wasted from flowing wells is not more than a few hundred acre-feet a year.The amount of water discharged by withdrawal from wells has increased nearly 15 times since 1950 (from 2,000 acre-feet in 1950 to 30,000 acre-feet in 1964). As a result of this increasing withdrawal, the water levels in observation wells have declined 4 feet in areas of small withdrawals to more than 7 feet near centers of pumping for public supplies and irrigation.An estimated 135,000-175,000 acre-feet of ground water is consumed by evapotranspiration each year in the 440,000 acres of desert that mainly support phreatophytes. This rate of discharge has changed little since 1950. The consumptive

  15. Hydrologic reconnaissance of Deep Creek valley, Tooele and Juab Counties, Utah and Elko and White Pine Counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, James W.; Waddell, K.M.

    1969-01-01

    This report, the fourth in a series by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, describes water resources of the western basins of Utah. Its purpose is to present available hydrologic data on Deep Creek valley, to provide an evaluation of the potential water-resource development of the valley, and to identify needed studies that would help provide an understanding of the valley's water supply.

  16. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States: A Historical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy F; Yackley, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) is important for informing investigation, control, and prevention methods. We examined annual summary FBDO data in the United States from 1938 to 2015, to help understand the epidemiology of outbreaks over time. Due to changes in reporting procedures, before 1998, the mean number of annual outbreaks was 378, and after that, it was 1062. A mean of 42% had a known etiology during 1961-1998; since then the etiology has been identified in ∼65%, with a marked increase in the number of norovirus outbreaks. From 1967 to 1997, a mean of 41% of FBDOs occurred in restaurant settings, increasing to 60% in 1998-2015. Concurrently, the proportion of outbreaks occurring at a home decreased from 25% to 8%. The mean size of outbreaks has decreased over time, and the number of multistate outbreaks has increased. Many social, economic, environmental, technological, and regulatory changes have dramatically affected the epidemiology of foodborne disease over time.

  17. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks - United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L Hannah; Walsh, Kelly A; Vieira, Antonio R; Herman, Karen; Williams, Ian T; Hall, Aron J; Cole, Dana

    2013-06-28

    Foodborne diseases cause an estimated 48 million illnesses each year in the United States, including 9.4 million caused by known pathogens. Foodborne disease outbreak surveillance provides valuable insights into the agents and foods that cause illness and the settings in which transmission occurs. CDC maintains a surveillance program for collection and periodic reporting of data on the occurrence and causes of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States. This surveillance system is the primary source of national data describing the numbers of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths; etiologic agents; implicated foods; contributing factors; and settings of food preparation and consumption associated with recognized foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States. 1998-2008. The Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks, defined as the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food. Public health agencies in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories, and Freely Associated States have primary responsibility for identifying and investigating outbreaks and use a standard form to report outbreaks voluntarily to CDC. During 1998-2008, reporting was made through the electronic Foodborne Outbreak Reporting System (eFORS). During 1998-2008, CDC received reports of 13,405 foodborne disease outbreaks, which resulted in 273,120 reported cases of illness, 9,109 hospitalizations, and 200 deaths. Of the 7,998 outbreaks with a known etiology, 3,633 (45%) were caused by viruses, 3,613 (45%) were caused by bacteria, 685 (5%) were caused by chemical and toxic agents, and 67 (1%) were caused by parasites. Among the 7,724 (58%) outbreaks with an implicated food or contaminated ingredient reported, 3,264 (42%) could be assigned to one of 17 predefined commodity categories: fish, crustaceans, mollusks, dairy, eggs, beef, game, pork, poultry, grains/beans, oils

  18. Pre-outbreak forest conditions mediate the effects of spruce beetle outbreaks on fuels in subalpine forests of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik; Veblen, Thomas T

    2018-03-01

    Over the past 30 years, forest disturbances have increased in size, intensity, and frequency globally, and are predicted to continue increasing due to climate change, potentially relaxing the constraints of vegetation properties on disturbance regimes. However, the consequences of the potentially declining importance of vegetation in determining future disturbance regimes are not well understood. Historically, bark beetles preferentially attack older trees and stands in later stages of development. However, as climate warming intensifies outbreaks by promoting growth of beetle populations and compromising tree defenses, smaller diameter trees and stands in early stages of development now are being affected by outbreaks. To date, no study has considered how stand age and other pre-outbreak forest conditions mediate the effects of outbreaks on surface and aerial fuel arrangements. We collected fuels data across a chronosequence of post-outbreak sites affected by spruce beetle (SB) between the 1940s and the 2010s, stratified by young (130 yr) post-fire stands. Canopy and surface fuel loads were calculated for each tree and stand, and available crown fuel load, crown bulk density, and canopy bulk densities were estimated. Canopy bulk density and density of live canopy individuals were reduced in all stands affected by SB, though foliage loss was proportionally greater in old stands as compared to young stands. Fine surface fuel loads in young stands were three times greater shortly (fuels decreased to below endemic (i.e., non-outbreak) levels. In both young and old stands, the net effect of SB outbreaks during the 20th and 21st centuries reduced total canopy fuels and increased stand-scale spatial heterogeneity of canopy fuels following outbreak. Importantly, the decrease in canopy fuels following outbreaks was greater in young post-fire stands than in older stands, suggesting that SB outbreaks may more substantially reduce risk of active crown fire when they affect

  19. Characterizing the Fate and Mobility of Phosphorus in Utah Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, G. T.; Randall, M.; Nelson, S.; Rey, K.; Hansen, N.; Bickmore, B.; Miller, T.

    2017-12-01

    An increasing number of lakes worldwide are impacted by eutrophication and harmful algal blooms due to anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Utah Lake is a unique eutrophic freshwater lake that is naturally shallow, turbid, and alkaline with high dissolved oxygen levels that has experienced severe algal blooms in recent years. Recently, the Utah Division of Water Quality has proposed a new limitation of phosphorus (P) loading to Utah Lake from wastewater treatment plants in an effort to mitigate eutrophication. However, reducing external P loads may not lead to immediate improvements in water quality due to the legacy pool of nutrients in lake sediments. The purpose of this study was to characterize the fate and mobility of P in Utah Lake sediments to better understand P cycling in this unique system. We analyzed P speciation, mineralogy, and binding capacity in lake sediment samples collected from 15 locations across Utah Lake. P concentrations in sediment ranged from 615 to 1894 ppm, with highest concentrations in Provo Bay near the major metropolitan area. Sequential leach tests indicate that 25-50% of P is associated with Ca (CaCO₃/ Ca10(PO4)6(OH,F,Cl)2 ≈ P) and 40-60% is associated with Fe (Fe(OOH) ≈ P). Ca-associated P was confirmed by SEM images, which showed the highest P concentrations correlating with Ca (carbonate minerals/apatite). The Ca-associated P fraction is likely immobile, but the Fe-bound P is potentially bioavailable under changing redox conditions. Batch sorption results indicate that lake sediments have a high capacity to absorb and remove P from the water column, with an average uptake of 70-96% removal over the range of 1-10 mg/L P. Mineral precipitation and sorption to bottom sediments is an efficient removal mechanism of P in Utah Lake, but a significant portion of P may be temporarily available for resuspension and cycling in surface waters. Mitigating lake eutrophication is a complex problem that goes beyond decreasing external nutrient

  20. Building test data from real outbreaks for evaluating detection algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetan Texier

    Full Text Available Benchmarking surveillance systems requires realistic simulations of disease outbreaks. However, obtaining these data in sufficient quantity, with a realistic shape and covering a sufficient range of agents, size and duration, is known to be very difficult. The dataset of outbreak signals generated should reflect the likely distribution of authentic situations faced by the surveillance system, including very unlikely outbreak signals. We propose and evaluate a new approach based on the use of historical outbreak data to simulate tailored outbreak signals. The method relies on a homothetic transformation of the historical distribution followed by resampling processes (Binomial, Inverse Transform Sampling Method-ITSM, Metropolis-Hasting Random Walk, Metropolis-Hasting Independent, Gibbs Sampler, Hybrid Gibbs Sampler. We carried out an analysis to identify the most important input parameters for simulation quality and to evaluate performance for each of the resampling algorithms. Our analysis confirms the influence of the type of algorithm used and simulation parameters (i.e. days, number of cases, outbreak shape, overall scale factor on the results. We show that, regardless of the outbreaks, algorithms and metrics chosen for the evaluation, simulation quality decreased with the increase in the number of days simulated and increased with the number of cases simulated. Simulating outbreaks with fewer cases than days of duration (i.e. overall scale factor less than 1 resulted in an important loss of information during the simulation. We found that Gibbs sampling with a shrinkage procedure provides a good balance between accuracy and data dependency. If dependency is of little importance, binomial and ITSM methods are accurate. Given the constraint of keeping the simulation within a range of plausible epidemiological curves faced by the surveillance system, our study confirms that our approach can be used to generate a large spectrum of outbreak

  1. Contributing factors to disease outbreaks associated with untreated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallender, Erika K; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Yoder, Jonathan S; Roberts, Virginia A; Brunkard, Joan M

    2014-01-01

    Disease outbreaks associated with drinking water drawn from untreated groundwater sources represent a substantial proportion (30.3%) of the 818 drinking water outbreaks reported to CDC's Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) during 1971 to 2008. The objectives of this study were to identify underlying contributing factors, suggest improvements for data collection during outbreaks, and inform outbreak prevention efforts. Two researchers independently reviewed all qualifying outbreak reports (1971 to 2008), assigned contributing factors and abstracted additional information (e.g., cases, etiology, and water system attributes). The 248 outbreaks resulted in at least 23,478 cases of illness, 390 hospitalizations, and 13 deaths. The majority of outbreaks had an unidentified etiology (n = 135, 54.4%). When identified, the primary etiologies were hepatitis A virus (n = 21, 8.5%), Shigella spp. (n = 20, 8.1%), and Giardia intestinalis (n = 14, 5.7%). Among the 172 (69.4%) outbreaks with contributing factor data available, the leading contamination sources included human sewage (n = 57, 33.1%), animal contamination (n = 16, 9.3%), and contamination entering via the distribution system (n = 12, 7.0%). Groundwater contamination was most often facilitated by improper design, maintenance or location of the water source or nearby waste water disposal system (i.e., septic tank; n = 116, 67.4%). Other contributing factors included rapid pathogen transport through hydrogeologic formations (e.g., karst limestone; n = 45, 26.2%) and preceding heavy rainfall or flooding (n = 36, 20.9%). This analysis underscores the importance of identifying untreated groundwater system vulnerabilities through frequent inspection and routine maintenance, as recommended by protective regulations such as Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Groundwater Rule, and the need for special consideration of the local hydrogeology. Published

  2. Does disease cause vaccination? Disease outbreaks and vaccination response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Emily

    2017-11-02

    Parental fear of vaccines has limited vaccination rates in the United States. I test whether disease outbreaks increase vaccination using a new dataset of county-level disease and vaccination data. I find that pertussis (whooping cough) outbreaks in a county decrease the share of unvaccinated children entering kindergarten. These responses do not reflect changes in the future disease risk. I argue that these facts are best fit by a model in which individuals are both myopic and irrational. This suggests that better promotion of information about outbreaks could enhance the response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measles outbreak investigation in Guji zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Ketema; Tegegne, Ayesheshem Ademe; Mersha, Amare Mengistu; Bayenessagne, Mekonnen Getahun; Hussein, Ibrahim; Bezabeh, Belay

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increase of immunization coverage (administrative) of measles in the country, there are widespread outbreaks of measles. In this respect, we investigated one of the outbreaks that occurred in hard to reach kebeles of Guji Zone, Oromia region, to identify the contributing factors that lead to the protracted outbreak of measles. We used a cross-sectional study design to investigate a measles outbreak in Guji zone, Oromia region. Data entry and analysis was performed using EPI-Info version 7.1.0.6 and MS-Microsoft Excel. In three months' time a total of 1059 suspected cases and two deaths were reported from 9 woredas affected by a measles outbreak in Guji zone. The cumulative attack rate of 81/100,000 population and case fatality ratio of 0.2% was recorded. Of these, 821 (77.5%) cases were measles vaccine. Although, all age groups were affected under five years old were more affected 495 (48%) than any other age groups. In response to the outbreak, an outbreak response immunization was organized at the 11th week of the epidemic, when the epidemic curve started to decline. 6 months to14 years old were targeted for outbreak response immunization and the overall coverage was 97 % (range: 90-103%). Case management with vitamin A supplementation, active case search, and health education was some of the activities carried out to curb the outbreak. We conclude that low routine immunization coverage in conjunction with low access to routine immunization in hard to reach areas, low community awareness in utilization of immunization service, inadequate cold chain management and delivery of a potent vaccine in hard to reach woredas/kebeles were likely contributed to the outbreak that's triggered a broad spread epidemic affecting mostly children without any vaccination. We also figured that the case-based surveillance lacks sensitivity and timely confirmation of the outbreak, which as a result outbreak response immunization were delayed. We recommend establishing

  4. Should outbreak response immunization be recommended for measles outbreaks in middle- and low-income countries? An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, K Lisa; Perry, Robert T; Ryman, Tove K; Nandy, Robin K; Grais, Rebecca F

    2011-07-01

    Measles caused mortality in >164,000 children in 2008, with most deaths occurring during outbreaks. Nonetheless, the impact and desirability of conducting measles outbreak response immunization (ORI) in middle- and low-income countries has been controversial. World Health Organization guidelines published in 1999 recommended against ORI in such settings, although recently these guidelines have been reversed for countries with measles mortality reduction goals. We searched literature published during 1995-2009 for papers reporting on measles outbreaks. Papers identified were reviewed by 2 reviewers to select those that mentioned ORI. World Bank classification of country income was used to identify reports of outbreaks in middle- and low-income countries. We identified a total of 485 articles, of which 461 (95%) were available. Thirty-eight of these papers reported on a total of 38 outbreaks in which ORI was used. ORI had a clear impact in 16 (42%) of these outbreaks. In the remaining outbreaks, we were unable to independently assess the impact of ORI. These findings generally support ORI in middle- and low-income countries. However, the decision to conduct ORI and the nature and extent of the vaccination response need to be made on a case-by-case basis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost of a measles outbreak in a remote island economy: 2014 Federated States of Micronesia measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Jamison; Tippins, Ashley; Nyaku, Mawuli; Eckert, Maribeth; Helgenberger, Louisa; Underwood, J Michael

    2017-10-13

    After 20years with no reported measles cases, on May 15, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was notified of two cases testing positive for measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Under the Compact of Free Association, FSM receives immunization funding and technical support from the United States (US) domestic vaccination program managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In a collaborative effort, public health officials and volunteers from FSM and the US government worked to respond and contain the measles outbreak through an emergency mass vaccination campaign, contact tracing, and other outbreak investigation activities. Contributions were also made by United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO). Total costs incurred as a result of the outbreak were nearly $4,000,000; approximately $10,000 per case. Direct medical costs (≈$141,000) were incurred in the treatment of those individuals infected, as well as lost productivity of the infected and informal caregivers (≈$250,000) and costs to contain the outbreak (≈$3.5 million). We assessed the economic burden of the 2014 measles outbreak to FSM, as well as the economic responsibilities of the US. Although the US paid the majority of total costs of the outbreak (≈67%), examining each country's costs relative to their respective economy illustrates a far greater burden to FSM. We demonstrate that while FSM was heavily assisted by the US in responding to the 2014 Measles Outbreak, the outbreak significantly impacted their economy. FSM's economic burden from the outbreak is approximately equivalent to their entire 2016 Fiscal Year budget dedicated to education. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Epidemiology of restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, United States, 1998-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, K M; Nisler, A L; Hall, A J; Brown, L G; Gould, L H

    2017-02-01

    Although contamination of food can occur at any point from farm to table, restaurant food workers are a common source of foodborne illness. We describe the characteristics of restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks and explore the role of food workers by analysing outbreaks associated with restaurants from 1998 to 2013 reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. We identified 9788 restaurant-associated outbreaks. The median annual number of outbreaks was 620 (interquartile range 618-629). In 3072 outbreaks with a single confirmed aetiology reported, norovirus caused the largest number of outbreaks (1425, 46%). Of outbreaks with a single food reported and a confirmed aetiology, fish (254 outbreaks, 34%) was most commonly implicated, and these outbreaks were commonly caused by scombroid toxin (219 outbreaks, 86% of fish outbreaks). Most outbreaks (79%) occurred at sit-down establishments. The most commonly reported contributing factors were those related to food handling and preparation practices in the restaurant (2955 outbreaks, 61%). Food workers contributed to 2415 (25%) outbreaks. Knowledge of the foods, aetiologies, and contributing factors that result in foodborne disease restaurant outbreaks can help guide efforts to prevent foodborne illness.

  7. Earthquake hazards to domestic water distribution systems in Salt Lake County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Lynn M.

    1985-01-01

    A magnitude-7. 5 earthquake occurring along the central portion of the Wasatch Fault, Utah, may cause significant damage to Salt Lake County's domestic water system. This system is composed of water treatment plants, aqueducts, distribution mains, and other facilities that are vulnerable to ground shaking, liquefaction, fault movement, and slope failures. Recent investigations into surface faulting, landslide potential, and earthquake intensity provide basic data for evaluating the potential earthquake hazards to water-distribution systems in the event of a large earthquake. Water supply system components may be vulnerable to one or more earthquake-related effects, depending on site geology and topography. Case studies of water-system damage by recent large earthquakes in Utah and in other regions of the United States offer valuable insights in evaluating water system vulnerability to earthquakes.

  8. Childhood Asthma Utilization Rates in a Nonsmoking Population of Utah Compared to State and National Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gren, Lisa H.; Taylor, Brooke; Lyon, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors, such as parental smoking, are commonly associated with increased asthma symptoms and hospitalizations of children. Deseret Mutual Benefits Administrators (DMBA) is the health insurer for employees of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and their families. Due to religious proscription, employees abstain from alcohol and tobacco use, creating a cohort of children not exposed to parental smoking. Calculation of hospitalization rates for DMBA, Utah, and the US were made in children to compare rates between a nonsmoking population and general populations. Compared to DMBA, rate ratios for asthma hospitalization and emergency department asthma visits were higher for the US and Utah. The incidence of hospital outpatient department and physician office visits was significantly greater for the US population compared to the DMBA. This study demonstrates a decreased need for health services used by children not exposed to second-hand smoke. PMID:22389787

  9. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Utah Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Utah Consumer's Guide provides Utah consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  10. Strengthening Partnerships along the Informatics Innovation Stages and Spaces: Research and Practice Collaboration in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wu; Pettey, Warren; Livnat, Yarden; Gesteland, Per; Rajeev, Deepthi; Reid, Jonathan; Samore, Matthew; Evans, R. Scott; Rolfs, Robert T.; Staes, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Collaborate, translate, and impact are key concepts describing the roles and purposes of the research Centers of Excellence (COE) in Public Health Informatics (PHI). Rocky Mountain COE integrated these concepts into a framework of PHI Innovation Space and Stage to guide their collaboration between the University of Utah, Intermountain Healthcare, and Utah Department of Health. Seven research projects are introduced that illustrate the framework and demonstrate how to effectively manage multiple innovations among multiple organizations over a five-year period. A COE is more than an aggregation of distinct research projects over a short time period. The people, partnership, shared vision, and mutual understanding and appreciation developed over a long period of time form the core and foundation for ongoing collaborative innovations and its successes. PMID:23569614

  11. Evolution of the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease among Utah children through the vaccine era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, Krow; Pavia, Andrew T; Stockmann, Chris R; Blaschke, Anne J; Weng, Hsin Yi Cindy; Korgenski, Kent E; Daly, Judy; Byington, Carrie L

    2011-12-01

    From 1996 to 2009, we analyzed changes in pneumococcal disease (PD) in Utah children aged <18 years using International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision coded hospital discharges. We observed a sustained decrease in the incidence of PD among children <5 years in 2001-2004 (-36%) and 2005-2009 (-34%) compared with 1996-2000 (pre-7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine). Decreases were primarily in bacteremia, uncomplicated pneumonia, and meningitis. In contrast, significant increases in complicated pneumonia/empyema were noted in children <5 years (+95% and +85%) and 5 to 17 years (+2% and +70%). Despite decreases in PD among Utah children, complicated pneumonia/empyema has increased during the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era.

  12. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: water allocation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, N.J.

    1982-04-01

    According to preliminary studies, operation of a nine-reactor Nuclear Energy Center near Green River, Utah would require the acquisition of 126,630 acre-feet per year. Groundwater aquifers are a potential source of supply but do not present a viable option at this time due to insufficient data on aquifer characteristics. Surface supplies are available from the nearby Green and San Rafael Rivers, tributaries of the Colorado River, but are subject to important constraints. Because of these constraints, the demand for a dependable water supply for a Nuclear Energy Center could best be met by the acquisition of vested water rights from senior appropriators in either the Green or San Rafael Rivers. The Utah Water Code provides a set of procedures to accomplish such a transfer of water rights

  13. Principal Locations of Metal Loading from Flood-Plain Tailings, Lower Silver Creek, Utah, April 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Because of the historical deposition of mill tailings in flood plains, the process of determining total maximum daily loads for streams in an area like the Park City mining district of Utah is complicated. Understanding the locations of metal loading to Silver Creek and the relative importance of these locations is necessary to make science-based decisions. Application of tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling techniques provided a means to quantify and rank the many possible source areas. A mass-loading study was conducted along a 10,000-meter reach of Silver Creek, Utah, in April 2004. Mass-loading profiles based on spatially detailed discharge and chemical data indicated five principal locations of metal loading. These five locations contributed more than 60 percent of the cadmium and zinc loads to Silver Creek along the study reach and can be considered locations where remediation efforts could have the greatest effect upon improvement of water quality in Silver Creek.

  14. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  15. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Green River site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  17. BENEFIT COST FOR BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION: CASE OF UTAH, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Keun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy making regarding biomass co-firing is difficult. The article provides a benefit-cost analysis for decision makers to facilitate policy making process to implement efficient biomass co-firing policy. The additional cost is the sum of cost of the biomass procurement and biomass transportation. Co-benefits are sales of greenhouse gas emission credits and health benefit from reducing harmful air pollutants, especially particulate matter. The benefit-cost analysis is constructed for semi-arid U.S. region, Utah, where biomass supply is limited. Results show that biomass co-firing is not economically feasible in Utah but would be feasible when co-benefits are considered. Benefit-cost ratio is critically dependent upon biomass and carbon credit prices. The procedure to build the benefit-cost ratio can be applied for any region with other scenarios suggested in this study.

  18. Primary oil-shale resources of the Green River Formation in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudell, L.G.; Smith, J.W.; Beard, T.N.; Mason, G.M.

    1983-04-01

    Resources of potential oil in place in the Green River Formation are measured and estimated for the primary oil-shale resource area east of the Green River in Utah's Uinta Basin. The area evaluated (Ts 7-14 S, Rs 19-25 E) includes most of, and certainly the best of Utah's oil-shale resource. For resource evaluation the principal oil-shale section is divided into ten stratigraphic units which are equivalent to units previously evaluated in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado. Detailed evaluation of individual oil-shale units sampled by cores, plus estimates by extrapolation into uncored areas indicate a total resource of 214 billion barrels of shale oil in place in the eastern Uinta Basin.

  19. The History of Dengue Outbreaks in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite Dick, Olivia; San Martín, José L.; Montoya, Romeo H.; del Diego, Jorge; Zambrano, Betzana; Dayan, Gustavo H.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a viral disease usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue outbreaks in the Americas reported in medical literature and to the Pan American Health Organization are described. The outbreak history from 1600 to 2010 was categorized into four phases: Introduction of dengue in the Americas (1600–1946); Continental plan for the eradication of the Ae. aegypti (1947–1970) marked by a successful eradication of the mosquito in 18 continental countries by 1962; Ae. aegypti reinfestation (1971–1999) caused by the failure of the mosquito eradication program; Increased dispersion of Ae. aegypti and dengue virus circulation (2000–2010) characterized by a marked increase in the number of outbreaks. During 2010 > 1.7 million dengue cases were reported, with 50,235 severe cases and 1,185 deaths. A dramatic increase in the number of outbreaks has been reported in recent years. Urgent global action is needed to avoid further disease spread. PMID:23042846

  20. The effect of opinion clustering on disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salathé, Marcel; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2008-12-06

    Many high-income countries currently experience large outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles despite the availability of highly effective vaccines. This phenomenon lacks an explanation in countries where vaccination rates are rising on an already high level. Here, we build on the growing evidence that belief systems, rather than access to vaccines, are the primary barrier to vaccination in high-income countries, and show how a simple opinion formation process can lead to clusters of unvaccinated individuals, leading to a dramatic increase in disease outbreak probability. In particular, the effect of clustering on outbreak probabilities is strongest when the vaccination coverage is close to the level required to provide herd immunity under the assumption of random mixing. Our results based on computer simulations suggest that the current estimates of vaccination coverage necessary to avoid outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases might be too low.

  1. Incidence of foot and mouth disease outbreaks in Ilesha Baruba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria. ... NSP-ELISA confirmed these infected cattle as non-vaccinated which have being exposed to infection days especially amongst young white Fulani cows as observed. This reported incidence confirmed increasing FMD outbreaks ...

  2. Mitigating measles outbreaks in West Africa post-Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Shaun A; Moss, William J; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak in 2014-2015 devastated the populations, economies and healthcare systems of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. With this devastation comes the impending threat of outbreaks of other infectious diseases like measles. Strategies for mitigating these risks must include both prevention, through vaccination, and case detection and management, focused on surveillance, diagnosis and appropriate clinical care and case management. With the high transmissibility of measles virus, small-scale reactive vaccinations will be essential to extinguish focal outbreaks, while national vaccination campaigns are needed to guarantee vaccination coverage targets are reached in the long term. Rapid and multifaceted strategies should carefully navigate challenges present in the wake of Ebola, while also taking advantage of current Ebola-related activities and international attention. Above all, resources and focus currently aimed at these countries must be utilized to build up the deficit in infrastructure and healthcare systems that contributed to the extent of the Ebola outbreak.

  3. An isolated outbreak of diphtheria in South Africa, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, S; Archary, M; Mutevedzi, P; Mahabeer, Y; Govender, P; Ntshoe, G; Kuhn, W; Thomas, J; Olowolagba, A; Blumberg, L; McCarthy, K; Mlisana, K; DU Plessis, M; VON Gottberg, A; Moodley, P

    2017-07-01

    An outbreak of respiratory diphtheria occurred in two health districts in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa in 2015. A multidisciplinary outbreak response team was involved in the investigation and management of the outbreak. Fifteen cases of diphtheria were identified, with ages ranging from 4 to 41 years. Of the 12 cases that were under the age of 18 years, 9 (75%) were not fully immunized for diphtheria. The case fatality was 27%. Ninety-three household contacts, 981 school or work contacts and 595 healthcare worker contacts were identified and given prophylaxis against Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection. A targeted vaccination campaign for children aged 6-15 years was carried out at schools in the two districts. The outbreak highlighted the need to improve diphtheria vaccination coverage in the province and to investigate the feasibility of offering diphtheria vaccines to healthcare workers.

  4. The dynamics, causes and possible prevention of Hepatitis E outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Nannyonga

    Full Text Available Rapidly spreading infectious diseases are a serious risk to public health. The dynamics and the factors causing outbreaks of these diseases can be better understood using mathematical models, which are fit to data. Here we investigate the dynamics of a Hepatitis E outbreak in the Kitgum region of northern Uganda during 2007 to 2009. First, we use the data to determine that R0 is approximately 2.25 for the outbreak. Secondly, we use a model to estimate that the critical level of latrine and bore hole coverages needed to eradicate the epidemic is at least 16% and 17% respectively. Lastly, we further investigate the relationship between the co-infection factor for malaria and Hepatitis E on the value of R0 for Hepatitis E. Taken together, these results provide us with a better understanding of the dynamics and possible causes of Hepatitis E outbreaks.

  5. A cholera outbreak associated with drinking contaminated well water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Reza; Rahbar, Mohammad; Naghoni, Ali; Farshad, Shohreh; Davari, Amin; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh

    2011-09-01

    Cholera has been a significant public health challenge in many communities. An outbreak of acute diarrheal illness occurred among participants in a wedding ceremony in a village in Qazvin, Iran, in 2008. We conducted an epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigation to determine the causative agent, source and extent of this outbreak. Clinical and environmental samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of diarrhea-causing bacterial organisms, which included Vibrio cholera. The relationship between the strains was determined using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). The attack rate was 21.8%. Clinical and environmental samples were positive for V. cholerae serotype Inaba. All tested isolates had a similar ERIC-PCR pattern, which indicated that a single clone of V. cholerae was responsible for this outbreak. Our findings demonstrated that well water was the source of this outbreak.

  6. Tailings Pile Seepage Model The Atlas Corporation Moab Mill Moab, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, CE

    2001-11-05

    The project described in this report was conducted by personnel from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Grand Junction Office (ORNL/GJ). This report has been prepared as a companion report to the Limited Groundwater Investigation of the Atlas Corporation Moab Mill, Moab, Utah. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the tailings pile seepage modeling effort tasked by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  7. A millennium-length reconstruction of Bear River stream flow, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. DeRose; M. F. Bekker; S.-Y. Wang; B. M. Buckley; R. K. Kjelgren; T. Bardsley; T. M. Rittenour; E. B. Allen

    2015-01-01

    The Bear River contributes more water to the eastern Great Basin than any other river system. It is also the most significant source of water for the burgeoning Wasatch Front metropolitan area in northern Utah. Despite its importance for water resources for the region’s agricultural, urban, and wildlife needs, our understanding of the variability of Bear River’s stream...

  8. Gardening guide for high-desert urban landscapes of Great Basin regions in Nevada and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Kratsch; Rick Heflebower

    2013-01-01

    Some Great Basin urban areas in Utah and Nevada exhibit climatic conditions that make it difficult for all but the toughest landscape plants to thrive without providing supplemental water. These areas are found at elevations from 4,000 feet to 6,000 feet in USDA cold-hardiness zones 6 and 7. Soils are often poor and gravelly, containing less than 1 percent organic...

  9. Social Marketing Campaign for the National Eating Disorder Awareness Week among Utah State University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Despain, Kelsey; Miyairi, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As one of the Healthy Campus 2020 initiatives, college campuses nationwide are encouraged to focus on reducing the proportion of students who report experiencing an eating disorder/problem within the last 12 months from 5.3% to 4.8% (American College Health Association, 2015). In a survey of 639 Utah State University (USU) students, 0.6% of respondents reported an eating disorder/problem having a negative impact on their academic performance (American College Health Association, 2015). Althou...

  10. Balanced Cross-Section Across The Southern Utah Overthrust Belt (Otb)

    OpenAIRE

    Nowir, M. Atef [محمد عاطف نوير; Grant, Sheldon K.; Grant, Sheldon K.

    1995-01-01

    Balanced cross-sections are offering the chance of better understanding of areas of complex geological structures that are insufficiently understood. Detailed field study and structural analysis by employing geometric balancing techniques is used to construct cross-sections along the major fold, the Virgin - Kanarra anticline, over a distance of 70 miles in the southern part of the Utah OTB. Two models were used to construct the cross sections: a) A computer modeling program, used to draw ...

  11. A search for iridium abundance anomalies at two Late Cambrian biomere boundaries in western Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, C. J.; Knight, J. D.; Quintana, L. R.; Gilmore, J. S.; Palmer, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Iridium concentrations have been measured in samples taken across two Late Cambrian biomere boundaries (crisis zones) in search of evidence for possible elemental abundance anomalies similar to the one observed at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Sampling was performed in uplifted marine limestone deposits in the House Range of western Utah. Although the two trilobite-brachiopod extinction boundaries could be assigned to + or - 4 millimeters of vertical section by laboratory examination of the rocks, only background amounts of iridium were observed.

  12. Environmental Assessment (EA): Proposed Missile Storage Improvements, Utah Test and Training Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    801) 451 -7872 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Hill Air Force Base, Utah Final Environmental Assessment...motors were monitored to determine their functional capability when stored in prescribed temperatures varying between -65 degrees Fahrenheit to 200...degrees Fahrenheit . One of these structures (Building 30260) was used for cryogenic or deep-freeze testing. They were hardened structures meant to

  13. Quality of surface water in the Bear River basin, Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Price, Don

    1972-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, began a reconnaissance in 1967 to obtain essential water-quality information for the Bear River basin. The reconnaissance was directed toward defining the chemical quality of the basin’s surface waters, including suitability for specific uses, geology, and general basin hydrology. Emphasis was given to those areas where water-development projects are proposed or being considered.

  14. The effects of restricted circulation on the salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Bolke, E.L.

    1973-01-01

    During the 1970-1972 water years a net load of dissolved solids of 0.26 billion tons moved from the south to north part of Great Salt Lake, Utah, through the causeway of the Southern Pacific Transportation Co. The load loss from the south part during the 1972 water year was only 0.01 billion tons, thus indicating that the salt balance between the two parts of the lake was near equilibrium for inflow conditions such as those of 1972.

  15. Discriminant of validity the Wender Utah rating scale in Iranian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Farokhzadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the normalization of the Wender Utah rating scale which is used to detect adults with Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD as compared to 200 parents of normal children. Wender Utah rating scale, which has been designed to diagnose ADHD in adults, is filled out by each of the parents to most accurately diagnose of ADHD in parents. Wender Utah rating scale was divided into 6 sub scales which consist of dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder; school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, and ADHD were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis method. The value of (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin KMO was 86.5% for dysthymia, 86.9% for oppositional defiant disorder, 77.5% for school related problems, 90.9% for conduct disorder, 79.6% for anxiety and 93.5% for Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, also the chi square value based on Bartlett's Test was 2242.947 for dysthymia, 2239.112 for oppositional defiant disorder, 1221.917 for school work problems, 5031.511 for conduct, 1421.1 for anxiety, and 7644.122 for ADHD. Since mentioned values were larger than the chi square critical values (P<0.05, it found that the factor correlation matrix is appropriate for factor analysis. Based on the findings, we can conclude that Wender Utah rating scale can be appropriately used for predicting dysthymia, oppositional defiant disorder, school work problems, conduct disorder, anxiety, in adults with ADHD.

  16. 2014 Reassessment of Floodplain Wetland Connections in the Middle Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, L. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, C. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2014 at six priority floodplain wetland sites along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river’s main channel with the floodplain wetlands.

  17. 2012 Reassessment of Floodplain Wetland Connections in the Middle Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, Kirk E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, Leroy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, Cory C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2012 at eight priority floodplain wetlands along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river's main channel with the floodplain wetlands.

  18. Comparison of agriculture biology and general biology testing outcomes in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despain, Deric Walter

    Agriculture education can take scientific topics to higher levels, emphasize scientific concepts, involve hands-on learning, and develop interrelationships with the other sciences, thus making the living and non-living world around them relevant for students. Prior to 1996, agriculture education was not considered adequate to prepare Utah high school students to meet state biology requirements. The appropriateness of making that equalizing decision in 1996 was not tested until this 2014 study, comparing student test scores on the state biology test for general biology and agriculture biology students. The 2008-2012 data were collected from the Utah Department of Education Data and Statistics, utilizing a descriptive comparative post-test only analysis. As seen in this study, not only did B/AS students tend to score lower than their General Biology counterparts, in multiple cases this difference was significant (p ≤ .05). This contrary finding challenges the theoretical foundation of this study. As a result of this study three implications were made; (a) the Utah CRT-Biology test is not a reliable gauge of academic achievement in agriculture biology, (b) agriculture students in the sample population have not been taught with rigorous biology standards, and (c) biology standards taught in agricultural biology classes are not aligned with content tested by the biology portion of the Utah CRT-Biology test standards. The results of this study indicate to stakeholders that there is a gap occurring within the B/AS education, and the need to reevaluate the biology curriculum delivery to its population may possibly be in need of immediate action.

  19. Environmental Assessment (EA): Proposed Dormitories and Dining Hall, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-09

    Administrative Code UPDES Utah Pollutant Discharge Elimination System USAF United States Air Force USC United States Code VOC Volatile Organic Compound...Pollutant Discharge Elimination System ( UPDES ) General Permit for Discharges from Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s), permit number...based paint (confirmed to contain lead by on-site inspections using a portable X -ray fluorescence analyzer) would be scraped, collected, and properly

  20. Final Environmental Assessment: Proposed Composite Aircraft Inspection Facilities, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-02

    composite aircraft. An NDI facility using robotic x -ray technology is essential in accomplishing this mission. A facility is needed to enable Hill AFB...Administrative Code UBC Uniform Building Code UPDES Utah Pollutant Discharge Elimination System USAF United States Air Force USC United States Code VOC...NDI facility using robotic x -ray technology is essential in accomplishing 1 this mission. A facility is needed to enable Hill AFB to inspect the

  1. Common source outbreaks of Campylobacter infection in the USA, 1997-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E V; Herman, K M; Ailes, E C; Fitzgerald, C; Yoder, J S; Mahon, B E; Tauxe, R V

    2013-05-01

    Campylobacter is a common but decreasing cause of foodborne infections in the USA. Outbreaks are uncommon and have historically differed from sporadic cases in seasonality and contamination source. We reviewed reported outbreaks of campylobacteriosis. From 1997 to 2008, 262 outbreaks were reported, with 9135 illnesses, 159 hospitalizations, and three deaths. The annual mean was 16 outbreaks for 1997-2002, and 28 outbreaks for 2003-2008. Almost half occurred in warmer months. Foodborne transmission was reported in 225 (86%) outbreaks, water in 24 (9%), and animal contact in seven (3%). Dairy products were implicated in 65 (29%) foodborne outbreaks, poultry in 25 (11%), and produce in 12 (5%). Reported outbreaks increased during a period of declining overall incidence, and seasonality of outbreaks resembled that of sporadic infections. Unlike sporadic illnesses, which are primarily attributed to poultry, dairy products are the most common vehicle identified for outbreaks.

  2. Investigation of a Canine Parvovirus Outbreak using Next Generation Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Jayme; Murphy, Molly; Hueffer, Karsten; Chen, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) outbreaks can have a devastating effect in communities with dense dog populations. The interior region of Alaska experienced a CPV outbreak in the winter of 2016 leading to the further investigation of the virus due to reports of increased morbidity and mortality occurring at dog mushing kennels in the area. Twelve rectal-swab specimens from dogs displaying clinical signs consistent with parvoviral-associated disease were processed using next-generation sequencing (NGS...

  3. Pertussis outbreak in northwest Ireland, January - June 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2010-09-02

    We report a community pertussis outbreak that occurred in a small town located in the northwest of Ireland. Epidemiological investigations suggest that waning immunity and the absence of a booster dose during the second year of life could have contributed to the outbreak. The report also highlights the need to reinforce the surveillance of pertussis in Ireland and especially to improve the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of cases.

  4. An empirical comparison of spatial scan statistics for outbreak detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neill Daniel B

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spatial scan statistic is a widely used statistical method for the automatic detection of disease clusters from syndromic data. Recent work in the disease surveillance community has proposed many variants of Kulldorff's original spatial scan statistic, including expectation-based Poisson and Gaussian statistics, and incorporates a variety of time series analysis methods to obtain expected counts. We evaluate the detection performance of twelve variants of spatial scan, using synthetic outbreaks injected into four real-world public health datasets. Results The relative performance of methods varies substantially depending on the size of the injected outbreak, the average daily count of the background data, and whether seasonal and day-of-week trends are present. The expectation-based Poisson (EBP method achieves high performance across a wide range of datasets and outbreak sizes, making it useful in typical detection scenarios where the outbreak characteristics are not known. Kulldorff's statistic outperforms EBP for small outbreaks in datasets with high average daily counts, but has extremely poor detection power for outbreaks affecting more than of the monitored locations. Randomization testing did not improve detection power for the four datasets considered, is computationally expensive, and can lead to high false positive rates. Conclusion Our results suggest four main conclusions. First, spatial scan methods should be evaluated for a variety of different datasets and outbreak characteristics, since focusing only on a single scenario may give a misleading picture of which methods perform best. Second, we recommend the use of the expectation-based Poisson statistic rather than the traditional Kulldorff statistic when large outbreaks are of potential interest, or when average daily counts are low. Third, adjusting for seasonal and day-of-week trends can significantly improve performance in datasets where these trends are

  5. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks - United States, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Foodborne illnesses are a major health burden in the United States. Most of these illnesses are preventable, and analysis of outbreaks helps identify control measures. Although most cases are sporadic, investigation of the portion that occur as part of recognized outbreaks can provide insights into the pathogens, food vehicles, and food-handling practices associated with foodborne infections. CDC collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) from all states and territories through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FBDSS). This report summarizes epidemiologic data on FBDOs reported during 2006 (the most recent year for which data have been analyzed). A total of 1,270 FBDOs were reported, resulting in 27,634 cases and 11 deaths. Among the 624 FBDOs with a confirmed etiology, norovirus was the most common cause, accounting for 54% of outbreaks and 11,879 cases, followed by Salmonella (18% of outbreaks and 3,252 cases). Among the 11 reported deaths, 10 were attributed to bacterial etiologies (six Escherichia coli O157:H7, two Listeria monocytogenes, one Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, and one Clostridium botulinum), and one was attributed to a chemical (mushroom toxin). Among outbreaks caused by a single food vehicle, the most common food commodities to which outbreak-related cases were attributed were poultry (21%), leafy vegetables (17%), and fruits/nuts (16%). Public health professionals can use this information to 1) target control strategies for specific pathogens in particular foods along the farm-to-table continuum and 2) support good food-handling practices among restaurant workers and the public.

  6. Research Reactor Utilization at the University of Utah for Nuclear Education, Training and Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevremovic, T.; Choe, D.O.

    2013-01-01

    In the years of nuclear renaissance we all recognize a need for modernizing the approaches in fostering nuclear engineering and science knowledge, in strengthening disciplinary depth in students’ education for their preparation for workforce, and in helping them learn how to extend range of skills, develop habits of mind and subject matter knowledge. The education infrastructure at the University of Utah has been recently revised to incorporate the experiential learning using our research reactor as integral part of curriculum, helping therefore that all of our students build sufficient level of nuclear engineering literacy in order to be able to contribute productively to nuclear engineering work force or continue their education toward doctoral degrees. The University of Utah TRIGA Reactor built 35 years ago represents a university wide facility to promote research, education and training, as well as is used for various applications of nuclear engineering, radiation science and health physics. Our curriculum includes two consecutive classes for preparation of our students for research reactor operating license. Every year the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s representatives hold the final exam for our students. Our activities serve the academic community of the University of Utah, commercial and government entities, other universities and national laboratories as well. (author)

  7. Individual external exposures from Nevada Test Site fallout for Utah leukemia cases and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Gren, D.C.; Simon, S.L.; Wrenn, M.E.; Hawthorne, H.A.; Lotz, T.M.; Stevens, W.; Till, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    External gamma-ray exposures from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been assigned to 6,507 individual subjects (1,177 leukemia cases and 5,330 control subjects) who died as Utah residents between 1952 and 1981. Leukemia cases were identified, confirmed, and classified by cell type from the Utah Cancer Registry, Utah State vital records, and medical records. Residential histories were obtained from the Deceased Membership File (DMF) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), supplemented by information from the LDS Church Census Records that were taken in 1950, 1955, and 1960-62. Control subjects were selected randomly within age strata from the DMF and were frequency-matched to the cases by age at death and for sex. Individual radiation exposures were assigned as a function of residence location and time interval for each residence during the fallout period (1951-1958) using geographic exposure data taken from the literature. Temporal distribution of exposure for subjects who resided in more than one locality or who were born or died during the fallout period was determined from data of other investigators. Calculated gamma-ray exposures for each place of residence were summed for each subject to yield the exposure to fallout from the NTS

  8. Completion report for the UMTRA project Vitro processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This completion report provides evidence that the final Salt Lake City, Utah, processing site property conditions are in accordance with the approval design and that all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been satisfied. Included as appendixes to support the stated conclusions are the record drawings; a summary of grid test results; contract specifications and construction drawing and the EPA standards; the audit, inspection, and surveillance summary; the permit information; and project photographs. The principal objectives of remedial action at Salt Lake City were to remove the tailings from the former processing site, render the site free of contamination to EPA standards, and restore the site to the final design grade elevations. The final remedial action plan, which is approved by the U.S. Department of Energy and concurred upon by the U.S. Nuclear Regulator Commission and the state of Utah, contains the conceptual design used to develop the final approved design. During remedial action construction operations, conditions were encountered that required design features that differed form the conceptual design. These conditions and the associated design changes are noted in the record drawings. All remedial action activities were completed in conformance with the specifications and drawings. In the opinion of the state of Utah, the record drawings accurately reflect existing property conditions at the processing site

  9. Cancer incidence in Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah during 1967--75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J L; Gardner, J W; West, D W

    1980-11-01

    Data from the Utah Cancer Registry were used to compare cancer incidence in Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah for the period 1967--75. Church membership was identified for 97.8% of the 20,379 cases in Utah by a search of the central membership files of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (or Mormon Church). Sites associated with smoking (lung, larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, esophagus, and urinary bladder) showed an incidence in Mormons at about one-half that of non-Mormons. Rates of cancers of the breast, cervix, and ovary were low in Mormon women; the rate for cervical cancer was about one-half of that observed in non-Mormons. Cancers of the stomach, colon-rectum, and pancreas were about one-third lower in Mormons than in others who are not members of this religious group. Most of the differences seen in cancer incidence can be explained by Mormon teachings regarding sexual activity and alcohol and tobacco use, but some differences (e.g., colon and stomach) remain unexplained.

  10. Cancer incidence among Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah (United States) 1971-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J L; Gardner, K; Gress, R E

    1994-03-01

    We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 by religion (Mormon, non-Mormon) for Utah (United States) using the 49,182 cancer cases occurring between 1971-85. For all causes of cancer, the rate in Utah for male members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons) was about 24 percent less than the comparable US rate. There was a 50-percent lower rate of cancers associated with cigarette smoking among LDS men. Non-LDS (NLDS) men in Utah experienced an incidence of smoking-associated cancers slightly higher than other US men. LDS men had an incidence of those cancers not associated with smoking slightly lower than US men, and NLDS men had a 40-percent higher rate than US men because of higher rates of melanoma and cancers of the lip and prostate gland. LDS women had an all-sites cancer rate 24 percent below the comparable US rate, and a 60-percent lower rate of smoking-associated cancers. The incidence of cancer not associated with smoking was 20 percent lower for LDS women compared with US women and was the result of lower rates of cancers of the colon, breast, and uterine cervix. NLDS women had a 13-percent higher incidence of cancers not associated with smoking because of higher rates of cancers of the lip and breast.

  11. Overcoming the toxic influence of subtle messaging: Utah women who persist in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Susan L.

    It is important to train more females to support the needs of a national and global economy workforce. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the proposition of the effect subtle messaging has on a Utah young woman's future career choice. The literature review will approach the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) subjects with historical, psychological, and cultural vantage points. An examination of three interconnected topics of research will include a history of women in the workforce and identified barriers to STEM education and careers to identify what types of messages are delivered to women as it relates to STEM and how it influences their career interest decisions. While there are historical barriers towards women in training for and entering STEM careers, no strong evidence is identified for sustained improvement. The changing concepts of social cognitive career theory can potentially provide a framework for constructivist assumptions regarding the topic of what can focus Utah young women learners to influence their own career development and surroundings to persist into STEM careers. Interpretative Phenomenology Analysis (IPA) provides increased understanding of the experiences of how Utah young women come to their decision and what role their environment contributes to that experience. Preliminary research outcomes demonstrate that the participants describe feelings of self-efficacy along with cultural expectations that do not align with their personal goals to enter into STEM education and careers.

  12. Identification and characterization of Francisella species from natural warm springs in Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, C A; Kesterson, K E; Duncan, D D; Eshoo, M W; Wolcott, M

    2012-04-01

    To characterize Francisella isolated from two natural warm springs in Utah and compare them to a strain isolated from a patient with probable exposure to one of the springs in 2001. A total of 39 presumptive Francisella isolates were obtained from two springs, Wasatch Hot Spring and Hobo Warm Spring, just north of Salt Lake City, Utah. All isolates were characterized by a combination of biochemical and molecular analyses, including novel PCR/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) typing assays. Thirty-one were identified as F. philomiragia, while the remaining eight were identified as F. tularensis ssp. novicida. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences revealed 27 isolates, which clustered with F. philomiragia, albeit into two distinct clades. The remaining isolates clustered along with other F. tularensis strains including the Utah clinical isolate. Testing with the PCR/ESI-MS assays confirmed the identities of the isolates, but both yielded DNA signatures distinct from that of the clinical isolate. We were successful in isolating several Francisella strains from natural warm springs; however, none appeared to genetically match the original 2001 clinical isolate. This work highlights the presence of viable, potentially pathogenic Franscisella species living in the unique environmental niche of natural warm springs. © No claim to US Government works. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Uranium deposits at the Jomac mine, White Canyon area, San Juan County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trites, A.F.; Hadd, G.A.

    1955-01-01

    The Jomac mine is in the White Canyon area. San Juan County, Utah, about 13 miles northeast of the town of White Canyon, Utah. The mine is owned by the Ellihill Mining Company, White Canyon, Utah. Mine workings consist pf two adits connected by a crosscut. Two hundred feet of exploratory drifting and 2,983.5 feet of exploratory core drilling were completed during 1953 by the owners with Defense Minerals Exploration Administration assistance. Sedimentary rocks exposed in the area of the Jomac mine are of Permian to Late Triassic age, having a combined thickness of more than 1,700 feet. An ancient channel, from 200 to 400 feet wide and about 4 feet deep, enters the mine area from the southwest, swinging abruptly northwest near the mine workings and continuing to the northern tip of the Jomac Hillo This channel was cut into the upper beds of the Moenkopi formation and filled in part by Chinle and in part by Shinarump sediments. This channel is marked by depressions that apparently were scoured into its floor; a tributary channel may have joined it from the southeast at a point near the mine workings. Chinle beds Intertongue with Shinarump beds along the southwestern part of the channel. After the main channel was partly filled by siltstone of the Chinle formation, the stream was apparently diverted into the tributary channel, and scours were cut into

  14. Completion report for the UMTRA project Vitro processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This completion report provides evidence that the final Salt Lake City, Utah, processing site property conditions are in accordance with the approval design and that all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been satisfied. Included as appendixes to support the stated conclusions are the record drawings; a summary of grid test results; contract specifications and construction drawing and the EPA standards; the audit, inspection, and surveillance summary; the permit information; and project photographs. The principal objectives of remedial action at Salt Lake City were to remove the tailings from the former processing site, render the site free of contamination to EPA standards, and restore the site to the final design grade elevations. The final remedial action plan, which is approved by the U.S. Department of Energy and concurred upon by the U.S. Nuclear Regulator Commission and the state of Utah, contains the conceptual design used to develop the final approved design. During remedial action construction operations, conditions were encountered that required design features that differed form the conceptual design. These conditions and the associated design changes are noted in the record drawings. All remedial action activities were completed in conformance with the specifications and drawings. In the opinion of the state of Utah, the record drawings accurately reflect existing property conditions at the processing site.

  15. Male suspected suicide decedents in Utah: A comparison of Veterans and nonveterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Erin; Bakian, Amanda; Coon, Hilary; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Callor, W Brandon; Byrd, Josh; Gray, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    There has been significant debate regarding suicide risk in Veterans compared to nonveterans. However, few studies have examined similarities and differences between Veteran and nonveteran suicide decedents using a combination of next of kin psychological autopsy and data from a state Office of the Medical Examiner (OME). For the current study, next of kin of a one-year cohort of male suspected suicide decedents in Utah completed psychological autopsy interviews with trained research staff. Next of kin of 70 Veterans and 356 nonveterans completed the interviews, which included demographic, behavioral, psychosocial, and clinical variables. The psychological autopsy data then were combined with OME data for the presented analyses. Results showed that Veteran and nonveteran suicide decedents differed on multiple factors, including age at death. Specifically, male nonveteran suicide decedents were younger at age of death compared to Utah Veterans and to a national sample. Veteran decedents also were more likely to have a history of suicide attempts and more likely to have access to firearms compared to nonveterans. Other between-group differences, including Veterans being more likely to have lived alone and method of death (e.g., gunshot, hanging, etc.), were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for age at death. these findings have significant clinical and practical importance, as they highlight the risk for suicide in younger nonveterans and older Veterans in Utah. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Bacillus cereus infection outbreak in captive psittacines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, S N; Matushima, E R; Chaves, J Q; Cavados, C F G; Rabinovitch, L; Teixeira, R H F; Nunes, A L V; Melville, P; Gattamorta, M A; Vivoni, A M

    2012-12-28

    This study reports an uncommon epizootic outbreak of Bacillus cereus that caused the sudden death of 12 psittacines belonging to the species Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1 individual), Diopsittaca nobilis (1 individual), Ara severa (1 individual) and Ara ararauna (9 individuals) in a Brazilian zoo. Post-mortem examination of the animals reveled extensive areas of lung hemorrhage, hepatic congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and cardiac congestion. Histopathological examination of the organs showed the presence of multiple foci of vegetative cells of Gram-positive bacilli associated with discrete and moderate mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate. Seventeen B. cereus strains isolated from blood and sterile organs of nine A. ararauna were analyzed in order to investigate the genetic diversity (assessed by Rep-PCR) and toxigenic profiles (presence of hblA, hblC and hblD; nheA, nheB and nheC as well as cytK, ces and entFM genes) of such strains. Amplification of genomic DNA by Rep-PCR of B. cereus strains generated two closely related profiles (Rep-PCR types A and B) with three bands of difference. All strains were classified as belonging to the toxigenic profile I which contained HBL and NHE gene complexes, entFM and cytK genes. Altogether, microbiological and histopathological findings and the evidence provided by the success of the antibiotic prophylaxis, corroborate that B. cereus was the causative agent of the infection that killed the birds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep EEG of Microcephaly in Zika Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Paulo Afonso Medeiros; Aguiar, Aline de Almeida Xavier; Miranda, Jose Lucivan; Falcao, Alexandre Loverde; Andrade, Claudia Suenia; Reis, Luigi Neves Dos Santos; Almeida, Ellen White R Bacelar; Bello, Yanes Brum; Monfredinho, Arthur; Kanda, Rafael Guimaraes

    2018-01-01

    Microcephaly (MC), previously considered rare, is now a health emergency of international concern because of the devastating Zika virus pandemic outbreak of 2015. The authors describe the electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in sleep EEG of epileptic children who were born with microcephaly in areas of Brazil with active Zika virus transmission between 2014 and 2017. The authors reviewed EEGs from 23 children. Nine were females (39.2%), and the age distribution varied from 4 to 48 months. MC was associated with mother positive serology to toxoplasmosis (toxo), rubella (rub), herpes, and dengue (1 case); toxo (1 case); chikungunya virus (CHIKV) (1 case); syphilis (1 case); and Zika virus (ZIKV) (10 cases). In addition, 1 case was associated with perinatal hypoxia and causes of 9 cases remain unknown. The main background EEG abnormality was diffuse slowing (10 cases), followed by classic (3 cases) and modified (5 cases) hypsarrhythmia. A distinct EEG pattern was seen in ZIKV (5 cases), toxo (2 cases), and undetermined cause (1 case). It was characterized by runs of frontocentrotemporal 4.5-13 Hz activity (7 cases) or diffuse and bilateral runs of 18-24 Hz (1 case). In ZIKV, this rhythmic activity was associated with hypsarrhythmia or slow background. Further studies are necessary to determine if this association is suggestive of ZIKV infection. The authors believe that EEG should be included in the investigation of all newly diagnosed congenital MC, especially those occurring in areas of autochthonous transmission of ZIKV.

  18. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  19. Ebola virus disease outbreak: what's going on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    The current West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in March, 2014, and after months of slow, fragmented responses, the EVD has been recognized as a public health emergency of international concern. The early diagnosis of the disease is difficult without laboratory testing, because its symptoms can be seen in many other infections. In the wake of international agencies advices, the Italian Ministry of Health, on October 1, 2014, released to the Healthcare Professional Workers (HPWs) the Protocol about the management of cases and contacts within the national territory. Due to the increasing number of humanitarian groups and HPWs involved in the field, the probability to have new cases of contamination is higher than ever. Proven specific treatments against EVD are not yet available, however, a variety of compounds have been under testing. The most effective are select monoclonal antibodies that have a high neutralizing potential against epitopes of Ebola Virus. For facing the matter, it is important a comprehensive approach according to the recommendations proposed by the international agencies because no single institution or country has all the capacities to respond to a new and emerging infectious disease.

  20. An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Lin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comfrey (Symphytum officinale leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged “comfrey” herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40–80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning.

  2. A diphtheria outbreak in Buri Ram, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantukosit, Pantavee; Arpornsuwan, Manote; Sookananta, Kanokporn

    2008-07-01

    In May 1996 there was an outbreak of diphtheria in Buri Ram, Thailand which infected 31 patients, 8 males and 23 females. The mean age of the patients was 8 +/- 5 years. Seventy-four percent had a history of childhood vaccinations. Common signs and symptoms included fever (100%) which was low grade in 61%, sore throat (90%), upper airway obstruction (3%), and hoarseness (10%). Pseudomembranes (seen in 100%) were located on the tonsils (71%), pharynx (22%), larynx (9.6%), and uvula (6%). The mean duration of symptoms prior to admission was 2 days with a range of 1 to 5 days. Complications included upper airway obstruction (10%) and cardiac complications (10%). There were no neurological complication or deaths. There were negative associations between cardiac complications, severity of disease and previous diphtheria vaccination. The ages varied from children to adults. Early recognition and prompt treatment decreased complications and mortality in this group of patients when compared with Chiang Mai and Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH) studies.

  3. Potential for large outbreaks of Ebola virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Camacho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of Ebola virus can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in affected regions. The largest outbreak of Ebola to date is currently underway in West Africa, with 3944 cases reported as of 5th September 2014. To develop a better understanding of Ebola transmission dynamics, we revisited data from the first known Ebola outbreak, which occurred in 1976 in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo. By fitting a mathematical model to time series stratified by disease onset, outcome and source of infection, we were able to estimate several epidemiological quantities that have previously proved challenging to measure, including the contribution of hospital and community infection to transmission. We found evidence that transmission decreased considerably before the closure of the hospital, suggesting that the decline of the outbreak was most likely the result of changes in host behaviour. Our analysis suggests that the person-to-person reproduction number was 1.34 (95% CI: 0.92–2.11 in the early part of the outbreak. Using stochastic simulations we demonstrate that the same epidemiological conditions that were present in 1976 could have generated a large outbreak purely by chance. At the same time, the relatively high person-to-person basic reproduction number suggests that Ebola would have been difficult to control through hospital-based infection control measures alone.

  4. Predicting Dengue Fever Outbreaks in French Guiana Using Climate Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adde, Antoine; Roucou, Pascal; Mangeas, Morgan; Ardillon, Vanessa; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Rousset, Dominique; Girod, Romain; Briolant, Sébastien; Quenel, Philippe; Flamand, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue fever epidemic dynamics are driven by complex interactions between hosts, vectors and viruses. Associations between climate and dengue have been studied around the world, but the results have shown that the impact of the climate can vary widely from one study site to another. In French Guiana, climate-based models are not available to assist in developing an early warning system. This study aims to evaluate the potential of using oceanic and atmospheric conditions to help predict dengue fever outbreaks in French Guiana. Methodology/Principal Findings Lagged correlations and composite analyses were performed to identify the climatic conditions that characterized a typical epidemic year and to define the best indices for predicting dengue fever outbreaks during the period 1991–2013. A logistic regression was then performed to build a forecast model. We demonstrate that a model based on summer Equatorial Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures and Azores High sea-level pressure had predictive value and was able to predict 80% of the outbreaks while incorrectly predicting only 15% of the non-epidemic years. Predictions for 2014–2015 were consistent with the observed non-epidemic conditions, and an outbreak in early 2016 was predicted. Conclusions/Significance These findings indicate that outbreak resurgence can be modeled using a simple combination of climate indicators. This might be useful for anticipating public health actions to mitigate the effects of major outbreaks, particularly in areas where resources are limited and medical infrastructures are generally insufficient. PMID:27128312

  5. Inferring rubella outbreak risk from seroprevalence data in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven; Kourkouni, Eleni; Sabbe, Martine; Beutels, Philippe; Hens, Niel

    2016-12-07

    Rubella is usually a mild disease for which infections often pass by unnoticed. In approximately 50% of the cases, there are no or only few clinical symptoms. However, rubella contracted during early pregnancy could lead to spontaneous abortion, to central nervous system defects, or to one of a range of other serious and debilitating conditions in a newborn such as the congenital rubella syndrome. Before the introduction of mass vaccination, rubella was a common childhood infection occurring all over the world. However, since the introduction of rubella antigen-containing vaccines, the incidence of rubella has declined dramatically in high-income countries. Recent large-scale mumps outbreaks, one of the components in the combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, occurring in countries throughout Europe with high vaccination coverage, provide evidence of pathogen-specific waning of vaccine-induced immunity and primary vaccine failure. In addition, recent measles outbreaks affecting populations with suboptimal vaccination coverages stress the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverages. In this paper, we focus on the assessment of rubella outbreak risk using a previously developed method to identify geographic regions of high outbreak potential. The methodology relies on 2006 rubella seroprevalence data and vaccination coverage data from Belgium and information on primary and secondary vaccine failure obtained from extensive literature reviews. We estimated the rubella outbreak risk in Belgium to be low, however maintaining high levels of immunisation and surveillance are of utmost importance to avoid future outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thallium poisoning: Clinical observations through two outbreaks in Basrah

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    Ahmed A. Al-Mohammadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Thallium is one of the most suitable agentsfor criminal poisoning of human as it is tasteless andodorless. The aim of this study was to report clinical featuresof thallium poisoning in two outbreaks.Materials and methods: This case descriptive study wasconducted in Basrah Teaching Hospital from January2009 to February 2010, where a total of 32 patients withthallium poisoning were enrolled. At the first outbreak,poisoning occurred due to ingestion of cake, while thesecond outbreak was due to accidental ingestion of ratpoisons. A detailed history was taken and complete clinicalexamination was performed. Thallium in urine wasmeasured using the colorimetric method and was foundas positive in all patients.Results: Thirty two patients were evaluated. The firstoutbreak included 17 patients (mean age 24 years, andthe second outbreak included 15 patients (mean age15years. Among both outbreaks the dermatological findingswere mainly hair loss in diffuse and patchy patternaffected the scalp and limbs. Also dusky ecchymotic reddermatitis like rash was observed on the face, especiallyperioral region and dorsum of hands and legs. Neurologicmanifestations, mainly of peripheral neuropathy,were seen in 50% patients of the second group. Patientserroneously had received zinc-sulphate before correctdiagnosis. Thirty patients were improved and two died.Conclusion: Outbreak of thallium poisoning may be resultof accidental ingestion or criminal purposes. It givescharacteristic cutaneous, neurological and psychologicalfeatures that can lead to the definite diagnosis. J Clin ExpInvest 2010; 2 (1: 11-15

  7. A Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Noroviruses in Greece

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    Yiannis Alamanos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants, triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study, a virological characterization of the viral agent identified from cases as well as a phylogenetic analysis was performed. From June 5 to September 3, 2006 (weeks 23–44, 1,640 cases of gastroenteritis (45.2% male and 54.8% female, aged 3 months to 89 years were reported. The overall attack rate for the period was 16.3 cases/1,000 inhabitants. About 57% of cases observed were under the age of 15 years. Αnalysis of faecal samples identified Norovirus GII strains. Fifteen different Norovirus GII strains were recorded, presenting a homology of 94.8% (86–97% to GII strains obtained from GenBank. The long duration of the outbreak suggests an important role of person-to-person transmission, while the emergence of the outbreak was possibly due to contaminated potable water, although no viruses were detected in any tested water samples. This outbreak underscores the need for a national surveillance system for acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  8. An outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis at an outpatient ophthalmology clinic

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    Timothy J Doyle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC is an acute eye infection caused by adenovirus. We investigated an outbreak of EKC at an outpatient ophthalmology practice in the context of a suspected community wide increase in EKC activity. A site visit was made to the facility reporting the outbreak. A line list was created of patients clinically diagnosed with EKC at the practice during the previous 5 months. A questionnaire was faxed to all other licensed ophthalmologists in the county regarding recent EKC activity in their facility. Descriptive data analyses were conducted. The outbreak facility reported 37 patients clinically diagnosed with EKC during the previous 5 months. In addition, the single ophthalmologist at the practice also had symptoms compatible with EKC during the outbreak period. Specimens were collected on 4 patients and all were positive for adenovirus serotype 8. Forty percent of ophthalmologists surveyed in the county saw at least one EKC patient in the previous 3 months, and 20% reported a perceived increase in EKC activity in recent months over normal seasonal patterns. The outbreak at the facility likely began as part of a widespread community increase in EKC that may have been amplified at the facility through nosocomial transmission. Medical providers experiencing increases in EKC activity above seasonally expected norms should contact their public health department for assistance with etiologic diagnoses and outbreak control.

  9. Feline dermatophytosis: steps for investigation of a suspected shelter outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Sandra; Moriello, Karen A

    2014-05-01

    Dermatophytosis (ringworm) is the most important infectious and contagious skin disease of cats in shelters. Its importance relates to the fact that it can affect all cats, but tends to affect those which would otherwise have good chances for adoption. Although many diseases in shelters fit this description, dermatophytosis is of particular significance because of associated public health concerns. Disease management in animal shelters is challenging because new animals are frequently entering the population, numerous animals are often housed together, and resources are almost always limited. GLOBAL RELEVANCE: Outbreaks of dermatophytosis occur worldwide and no animal shelter is completely shielded from possible introduction of the disease into the population. This article offers a flexible stepwise approach to dealing with a known or suspected outbreak of dermatophytosis in an animal shelter. It is based on the authors' experiences spanning more than a decade of responses and/or consultations. While primarily aimed at veterinarians involved in shelter medicine, the principles largely apply to other group-housing situations, such as catteries and breeding establishments. The goals in dealing with a potential dermatophytosis outbreak are to ascertain if the 'outbreak' is actually an outbreak, to develop a shelter-specific outbreak management plan and to implement a long-term plan to prevent recurrences.

  10. Outbreaks of virulent diarrheagenic Escherichia coli - are we in control?

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    Werber Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are the most virulent diarrheagenic E. coli known to date. They can be spread with alarming ease via food as exemplified by a large sprout-borne outbreak of STEC O104:H4 in 2011 that was centered in northern Germany and affected several countries. Effective control of such outbreaks is an important public health task and necessitates early outbreak detection, fast identification of the outbreak vehicle and immediate removal of the suspected food from the market, flanked by consumer advice and measures to prevent secondary spread. In our view, opportunities to improve control of STEC outbreaks lie in early clinical suspicion for STEC infection, timely diagnosis of all STEC at the serotype-level and integrating molecular subtyping information into surveillance systems. Furthermore, conducting analytical studies that supplement patients' imperfect food history recall and performing, as an investigative element, product tracebacks, are pivotal but underutilized tools for successful epidemiologic identification of the suspected vehicle in foodborne outbreaks. As a corollary, these tools are amenable to tailor microbiological testing of suspected food. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/12

  11. A Classification System for Hospital-Based Infection Outbreaks

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    Paul S. Ganney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of infection within semi-closed environments such as hospitals, whether inherent in the environment (such as Clostridium difficile (C.Diff or Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA or imported from the wider community (such as Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs, are difficult to manage. As part of our work on modelling such outbreaks, we have developed a classification system to describe the impact of a particular outbreak upon an organization. This classification system may then be used in comparing appropriate computer models to real outbreaks, as well as in comparing different real outbreaks in, for example, the comparison of differing management and containment techniques and strategies. Data from NLV outbreaks in the Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust (the Trust over several previous years are analysed and classified, both for infection within staff (where the end of infection date may not be known and within patients (where it generally is known. A classification system consisting of seven elements is described, along with a goodness-of-fit method for comparing a new classification to previously known ones, for use in evaluating a simulation against history and thereby determining how ‘realistic’ (or otherwise it is.

  12. A classification system for hospital-based infection outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganney, Paul S; Madeo, Maurice; Phillips, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Outbreaks of infection within semi-closed environments such as hospitals, whether inherent in the environment (such as Clostridium difficile (C.Diff) or Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or imported from the wider community (such as Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs)), are difficult to manage. As part of our work on modelling such outbreaks, we have developed a classification system to describe the impact of a particular outbreak upon an organization. This classification system may then be used in comparing appropriate computer models to real outbreaks, as well as in comparing different real outbreaks in, for example, the comparison of differing management and containment techniques and strategies. Data from NLV outbreaks in the Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust (the Trust) over several previous years are analysed and classified, both for infection within staff (where the end of infection date may not be known) and within patients (where it generally is known). A classification system consisting of seven elements is described, along with a goodness-of-fit method for comparing a new classification to previously known ones, for use in evaluating a simulation against history and thereby determining how 'realistic' (or otherwise) it is.

  13. Increase in Multistate Foodborne Disease Outbreaks-United States, 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Von D; Bennett, Sarah D; Mungai, Elisabeth; Gieraltowski, Laura; Hise, Kelley; Gould, L Hannah

    2015-11-01

    Changes in food production and distribution have increased opportunities for foods contaminated early in the supply chain to be distributed widely, increasing the possibility of multistate outbreaks. In recent decades, surveillance systems for foodborne disease have been improved, allowing officials to more effectively identify related cases and to trace and identify an outbreak's source. We reviewed multistate foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System during 1973-2010. We calculated the percentage of multistate foodborne disease outbreaks relative to all foodborne disease outbreaks and described characteristics of multistate outbreaks, including the etiologic agents and implicated foods. Multistate outbreaks accounted for 234 (0.8%) of 27,755 foodborne disease outbreaks, 24,003 (3%) of 700,600 outbreak-associated illnesses, 2839 (10%) of 29,756 outbreak-associated hospitalizations, and 99 (16%) of 628 outbreak-associated deaths. The median annual number of multistate outbreaks increased from 2.5 during 1973-1980 to 13.5 during 2001-2010; the number of multistate outbreak-associated illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths also increased. Most multistate outbreaks were caused by Salmonella (47%) and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (26%). Foods most commonly implicated were beef (22%), fruits (13%), and leafy vegetables (13%). The number of identified and reported multistate foodborne disease outbreaks has increased. Improvements in detection, investigation, and reporting of foodborne disease outbreaks help explain the increasing number of reported multistate outbreaks and the increasing percentage of outbreaks that were multistate. Knowing the etiologic agents and foods responsible for multistate outbreaks can help to identify sources of food contamination so that the safety of the food supply can be improved.

  14. Viral outbreaks involve destabilized evolutionary networks: evidence from Ebola, Influenza and Zika

    OpenAIRE

    Noël, Jessica; Ibeh, Neke; Aris-Brosou, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    Recent history has provided us with one pandemic (Influenza A/H1N1) and two severe viral outbreaks (Ebola and Zika). In all three cases, post-hoc analyses have given us deep insights into what triggered these outbreaks, their timing, evolutionary dynamics, and phylogeography, but the genomic characteristics of outbreak viruses are still unclear. To address this outstanding question, we searched for a common denominator between these recent outbreaks, positing that the genome of outbreak virus...

  15. Discrimination of tornadic and non-tornadic severe weather outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Andrew Edward

    Outbreaks of severe weather affect the majority of the conterminous United States. An outbreak is characterized by multiple severe weather occurrences within a single synoptic system. Outbreaks can be categorized by whether or not they produce tornadoes. It is hypothesized that the antecedent synoptic signal contains important information about outbreak type. Accordingly, the scope of this research is to determine the extent that the synoptic signal can be utilized to classify outbreak type at various lead times. Outbreak types are classified using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, which are arranged on a global 2.5° latitude-longitude grid, include 17 vertical pressure levels, and span from 1948 to the present (2008). Fifty major tornado outbreak (TO) cases and fifty major non-tornadic severe weather outbreak (NTO) cases are selected for this work. Two types of analyses are performed on these cases to assess discrimination ability. One analysis involves outbreak classification using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model initialized with the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset. Meteorological covariates are computed from the WRF output and used in training and testing of statistical classification models. The covariate fields are depicted on a 21 X 21 gridpoint field with an 18 km grid spacing centered on the outbreak. Covariates with large discrimination potential are determined using permutation testing. A P-mode principal component analysis (PCA) is used on the subset of covariates determined by permutation testing to reduce data dimensionality, since numerous redundancies exist in the initial covariate set. Three statistical classification models are trained and tested with the resulting PC scores: a support vector machine (SVM), a logistic regression model (LogR), and a multiple linear regression model (LR). Promising results emerge from these methods, as a probability of detection (POD) of 0.89 and a false alarm ratio (FAR) of 0.13 are obtained from the

  16. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Walter F.; Kimball, Briant A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for developing oil-shale resources in the southeastern Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado has created the need for information on the quantity and quality of water available in the area. This report describes the availability and chemical quality of ground water, which might provide a source or supplement of water supply for an oil-shale industry. Ground water in the southeastern Uinta Basin occurs in three major aquifers. Alluvial aquifers of small areal extent are present i n val ley-f i 11 deposits of six major drainages. Consolidated-rock aquifers include the birds's-nest aquifer i n the Parachute Creek Member of the G reen River Formation, which is limited to the central part of the study area; and the Douglas Creek aquifer, which includes parts of the Douglas Creek Member of the Green River Formation and parts of the intertonguing Renegade Tongue of the Wasatch Formation; this aquifer underlies most of the study area.The alluvial aquifers are recharged by infiltration of streamflow and leakage from consolidated-rock aquifers. Recharge is estimated to average about 32,000 acre-feet per year. Discharge from alluvial aquifers, primarily by evapotranspiration, also averages about 32,000 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in alluvial aquifers is about 200,000 acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells are less than 1,000 gallons per minute.Recharge to the bird's-nest aquifer, primarily from stream infiltration and downward leakage from the overlying Uinta Formation, is estimated to average 670 acre-feet per year. Discharge from the bird's-nest aquifer, which is primarily by seepage to Bitter Creek and the White River, is estimated to be at 670 acre-feet per year. The estimated volume of recoverable water in storage in the bird's-nest aquifer is 1.9 million acre-feet. Maximum yields to individual wells in some areas may be as much as 5,000 gallons per minute. A digital-computer model of the flow system was used

  17. Female breast cancer incidence and survival in Utah according to religious preference, 1985–1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Folsom, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    Background Female breast cancer incidence rates in Utah are among the lowest in the U.S. The influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon) religion on these rates, as well as on disease-specific survival, will be explored for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Methods Population-based records for incident female breast cancer patients were linked with membership records from the LDS Church to determine religious affiliation and, for LDS Church members, level of religiosity. Incidence rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population using the direct method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare survival among religiously active LDS, less religiously active LDS, and non-LDS with simultaneous adjustment for prognostic factors. Results Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rates were consistently lower for LDS than non-LDS in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Rates were lower among LDS compared with non-LDS across the age span. In 1995–99, the age-adjusted incidence rates were 107.6 (95% CI: 103.9 – 111.3) for LDS women and 130.5 (123.2 – 137.9) for non-LDS women. If non-LDS women in Utah had the same breast cancer risk profile as LDS women, an estimated 214 (4.8%) fewer malignant breast cancer cases would have occurred during 1995–99. With religiously active LDS serving as the reference group, the adjusted death hazard ratio for religiously less active LDS was 1.09 (0.94 – 1.27) and for non-LDS was 0.86 (0.75 – 0.98). Conclusion In Utah, LDS lifestyle is associated with lower incidence rates of female breast cancer. However, LDS experience poorer survivability from breast cancer than their non-LDS counterparts. Parity and breastfeeding, while protective factors against breast cancer, may contribute to poorer prognosis of female breast cancer in LDS women. PMID:15904509

  18. Female breast cancer incidence and survival in Utah according to religious preference, 1985-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Folsom, Jeffrey A

    2005-05-18

    Female breast cancer incidence rates in Utah are among the lowest in the U.S. The influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon) religion on these rates, as well as on disease-specific survival, will be explored for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Population-based records for incident female breast cancer patients were linked with membership records from the LDS Church to determine religious affiliation and, for LDS Church members, level of religiosity. Incidence rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population using the direct method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare survival among religiously active LDS, less religiously active LDS, and non-LDS with simultaneous adjustment for prognostic factors. Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rates were consistently lower for LDS than non-LDS in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Rates were lower among LDS compared with non-LDS across the age span. In 1995-99, the age-adjusted incidence rates were 107.6 (95% CI: 103.9 - 111.3) for LDS women and 130.5 (123.2 - 137.9) for non-LDS women. If non-LDS women in Utah had the same breast cancer risk profile as LDS women, an estimated 214 (4.8%) fewer malignant breast cancer cases would have occurred during 1995-99. With religiously active LDS serving as the reference group, the adjusted death hazard ratio for religiously less active LDS was 1.09 (0.94 - 1.27) and for non-LDS was 0.86 (0.75 - 0.98). In Utah, LDS lifestyle is associated with lower incidence rates of female breast cancer. However, LDS experience poorer survivability from breast cancer than their non-LDS counterparts. Parity and breastfeeding, while protective factors against breast cancer, may contribute to poorer prognosis of female breast cancer in LDS women.

  19. Aeromagnetic map of northwest Utah and adjacent parts of Nevada and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Two aeromagnetic surveys were flown to promote further understanding of the geology and structure in northwest Utah and adjacent parts of Nevada and Idaho by serving as a basis for geophysical interpretations and by supporting geological mapping, water and mineral resource investigations, and other topical studies. Although this area is in general sparsely populated, (except for cities and towns along the Wasatch Front such as Ogden and Brigham City), it encompasses metamorphic core complexes in the Grouse Creek and Raft River Mountains (figure 1) of interest to earth scientists studying Cenozoic extension. The region was shaken in 1909 and 1934 by M6+ earthquakes east of the Hansel Mountains (Doser, 1989; Arabasz and others, 1994); damage from the 1934 earthquake occurred as far east as Logan, Utah (http:// www.seis.utah.edu/lqthreat/nehrp_htm/1934hans/n1934ha1. shtml#urbse). The presence of Quaternary shield volcanoes and bimodal Pleistocene volcanism in Curlew Valley (Miller and others, 1995; Felger and others, 2016) as well as relatively high temperature gradients encountered in the Indian Cove drillhole in the north arm of Great Salt Lake (Blackett and others, 2014) may indicate some potential for geothermal energy development in the area (Miller and others, 1995). The area also hosts four significant mining districts, in the northern Pilot Range, the Goose Creek Mountains in the northwest corner of the map, the southern end of the Promontory Mountains, and the southwest part of the Raft River Mountains, although production notably waned after World War II (Doelling, 1980). Other prospects of interest include those in the southern Grouse Creek Mountains, Silver Island, and the northern Newfoundland Mountains.Large areas of northwest Utah are covered by young, surficial deposits or by Great Salt Lake or are down-dropped into deep Cenozoic basins, making extrapolation of bedrock geology from widely spaced exposures difficult or tenuous (figure 1). Local spatial

  20. Longevity and fecundity of Dichroplus maculipennis (Orthoptera, Acrididae at non-outbreaking and outbreaking situations

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    Yanina Mariottini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dichroplus maculipennis is one of the most characteristic and damaging grasshopper species of Argentina, mainly in areas of the Pampas and Patagonia regions. We estimated and compared the longevity and fecundity of adult female D. maculipennis under controlled conditions (30ºC, 14L:10D, 40% RH from individuals collected as last instar nymphs (VI in the field and with a known recent history of low and high density conditions. Densities of D. maculipennis at the collecting sites were 0.95 individuals per m² in 2006 and 46 ind/m² in 2009, representing non-outbreaking and outbreaking situations, respectively. Adult female longevity in 2006 (67.96 ± 3.2 days was significantly higher (p 0.05. The fecundity curves showed that the highest values were at weeks 11 and 13 for the 2006 females, and at week 6 for those of 2009. Since the daily oviposition rate at low and high densities was not significantly different, the diminished fecundity rate at high density is attributable to their reduced longevity.