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Sample records for tufted capuchin cebus

  1. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

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    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Mikkelsen, L F; Hau, J

    2010-01-01

    The authors provided different forms of environmental enrichment to six old laboratory male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and studied the behavior of the monkeys during a baseline period and during three enrichment periods. Each observation period lasted 5 d, with an interval of 6 d...... between periods. During the first enrichment period, the authors provided Buster cubes and wood cylinders with drilled holes filled with gum arabic. During the second enrichment period, monkeys were provided with a deep litter of bark shavings, and during the third enrichment period, they were given...... Buster cubes, wood cylinders and bark shavings. When provided with enrichment, the monkeys engaged in natural, species-specific activities and began to exhibit behavioral profiles that more closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. This suggests that their psychological well-being had...

  2. Throwing behavior and mass distribution of stone selection in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

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    Cleveland, A; Rocca, A R; Wendt, E L; Westergaard, G C

    2003-12-01

    Cannell [Journal of Archaeological Science 29:335-339, 2002] argued that sex-based differences among humans in terms of the mass of chosen throwing stones could be used to infer body mass and patterns of sexual dimorphism in early hominids from Olduvai and Koobi Fora by examining the mass distributions of unaltered stone tools at those sites. We examined this hypothesis in tufted capuchin monkeys using a comparative approach, by investigating the relationships among body mass, sex, stone weight preference, and accuracy in a throwing task. The subject sample consisted of nine monkeys trained to perform an aimed-throwing task in which a food reward could be obtained by throwing a stone into a bucket. We found that 1) the subjects showed a strong mean stone mass preference; 2) the females chose heavier stones than the males, in terms of absolute mean selected stone mass and selected stone mass relative to body mass; 3) subjects threw more accurately when they used stones of preferred mass vs. stones of nonpreferred mass; and 4) overall, the males were more accurate in the throwing task than the females. We conclude that capuchins are highly selective when choosing throwing stones, and that this confers an advantage for throwing accuracy. Our results indicate that the sexually dimorphic pattern in stone mass preference observed among humans does not generalize to Cebus apella. We suggest that researchers examining this pattern in humans in an attempt to explain early hominid patterns of dimorphism and behavior should take into account not only stone weight preference, but also its adaptive advantage. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Quantification of hair cortisol concentration in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

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    Phillips, Kimberley A; Tukan, Alyson N; Rigodanzo, Anna D; Reusch, Ryan T; Brasky, Kathleen M; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2018-06-04

    Quantifying cortisol concentration in hair is a non-invasive biomarker of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation, and thus can provide important information on laboratory animal health. Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and capuchins (Cebus apella) are New World primates increasingly used in biomedical and neuroscience research, yet published hair cortisol concentrations for these species are limited. Review of the existing published hair cortisol values from marmosets reveals highly discrepant values and the use of variable techniques for hair collection, processing, and cortisol extraction. In this investigation we utilized a well-established, standardized protocol to extract and quantify cortisol from marmoset (n = 12) and capuchin (n = 4) hair. Shaved hair samples were collected from the upper thigh during scheduled exams and analyzed via methanol extraction and enzyme immunoassay. In marmosets, hair cortisol concentration ranged from 2,710 to 6,267 pg/mg and averaged 4,070 ± 304 pg/mg. In capuchins, hair cortisol concentration ranged from 621 to 2,089 pg/mg and averaged 1,092 ± 338 pg/mg. Hair cortisol concentration was significantly different between marmosets and capuchins, with marmosets having higher concentrations than capuchins. The incorporation of hair cortisol analysis into research protocols provides a non-invasive measure of HPA axis activity over time, which offers insight into animal health. Utilization of standard protocols across laboratories is essential to obtaining valid measurements and allowing for valuable future cross-species comparisons. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Individual and seasonal variation in fecal testosterone and cortisol levels of wild male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella nigritus.

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    Lynch, Jessica W; Ziegler, Toni E; Strier, Karen B

    2002-05-01

    This study tested the "challenge hypothesis" and rank-based predictions for temporal steroid production in male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Fecal samples (n = 209) collected from six wild males were analyzed for testosterone and cortisol concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The temporal pattern in male steroid production was compared to female sexual activity and rates of male aggression. The top-ranking adult male did not differ from other adult males in testosterone or cortisol concentration. Mean adult testosterone was significantly higher than mean subadult testosterone throughout the year. There was a clear elevation of testosterone and cortisol in both adult and subadult males during the peak of adult female sexual activity after the birth season. In fact, the magnitude of increase in testosterone was higher than predicted for a species with low male-male aggression. However, there was no difference between nonbreeding baseline testosterone levels during the birth season, and the "breeding" baseline of testosterone in males found during asynchronous female sexual activity. Of all behavioral indices examined, the distribution of female-maintained consortships was the best predictor of mean adult male testosterone concentrations. Although in many species, elevated testosterone coincides with increased male-male aggression, in the present study, the sustained high-magnitude increase in steroids during the peak of adult female sexual activity was associated with a relatively low rate of male-male intragroup aggression. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  5. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite protozoan. A large percentage of animals presents specific antibodies caused by a previous exposition, resulting in a chronic infection. Felides are the definitive hosts and the other warm-blooded animals, including primates, are the intermediate hosts. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-living tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station located on Mata de Santa Teresa, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. T. gondii antibodies were analyzed by modified agglutination test (MAT in serum samples of 36 tufted capuchin monkeys, considering eight as cut-off titer. From the studied animals, 3/36 (8.33%; CI95% 3.0-21.9% presented T. gondii antibodies, all with titer 32. No significative difference was observed relating to the sex (1/3 male and 2/3 female, and to the age (1/3 young and 2/3 adult (P>0.05. Thus, these results demonstrate the presence of T. gondii antibodies in primates from São Paulo state.

  6. The relative use of proximity, shape similarity, and orientation as visual perceptual grouping cues in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and humans (Homo sapiens).

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    Spinozzi, Giovanna; De Lillo, Carlo; Truppa, Valentina; Castorina, Giulia

    2009-02-01

    Recent experimental results suggest that human and nonhuman primates differ in how they process visual information to assemble component parts into global shapes. To assess whether some of the observed differences in perceptual grouping could be accounted for by the prevalence of different grouping factors in different species, we carried out 2 experiments designed to evaluate the relative use of proximity, similarity of shape, and orientation as grouping cues in humans (Homo sapiens) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Both species showed similarly high levels of accuracy using proximity as a cue. Moreover, for both species, grouping by orientation similarity produced a lower level of performance than grouping by proximity. Differences emerged with respect to the use of shape similarity as a cue. In humans, grouping by shape similarity also proved less effective than grouping by proximity but the same was not observed in capuchins. These results suggest that there may be subtle differences between humans and capuchin monkeys in the weighting assigned to different grouping cues that may affect the way in which they combine local features into global shapes. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Cardiothoracic ratio and vertebral heart size (VHS to standardize the heart size of the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella Linnaeus, 1758 in computerized radiographic images

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    Hermínio J. Rocha-Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The VHS and CTR were assessed using computerized thoracic radiographs of ten clinically healthy tufted capuchin monkeys (five males and five females from the Wild Animal Screening Center in São Luís (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de São Luís-MA-CETAS. Radiographs were taken in laterolateral and dorsoventral projections to calculate the cardiothoracic ratio (VHS and vertebral heart size (CTR. The VHS showed mean values of 9.34±0.32v (males and 9.16±0.34v (females and there was no statistical difference between males and females (p>0.05. The CTR showed mean values of 0.55±0.04 (males and 0.52±0.03 (females and there was no statistical difference between the sexes (p>0.05. There was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.78. The thoracic and heart diameters showed mean values of 5.70±0.48cm and 2.16±0.40cm in the males, respectively. In the females they measured 5.32±0.39cm and 2.94±0.32cm. There was no statistical difference between the sexes. Our results show that the high correlation found between VHS and CTR permitted the verification with similar clinical precision between the two methods to estimate alterations in the heart silhouette by radiographic examination of tufted capuchin, making it an easy technique to apply that can be considered in the investigation of heart problems for this wild species.

  8. Color discrimination in the tufted capuchin monkey, Sapajus spp.

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    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an "ML protanope." For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u'v' diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the "classic" protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the "classic" and "ML" protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats.

  9. Social facilitation of eating novel food in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): input provided by group members and responses affected in the observer.

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    Addessi, E; Visalberghi, E

    2001-11-01

    Learning about food palatability from watching what conspecifics eat might be one of the advantages of group living. A previous study investigated whether group members' presence or eating activity account for social facilitation of eating of foods never previously tasted. Capuchins encountered novel colored foods when (1) alone (Alone condition) or (2) with group members visible in the nearby cage (Group-present condition) or (3) with group members present and eating a familiar food that had not been colored (Group+food condition). Social facilitation of eating occurred when group members were eating, despite the difference in color between the familiar food eaten by them and the novel food presented to the experimental subject. To clarify what subjects learnt from group members when social facilitation occurred, we further analyze here the data from the previous study. The number of visual exposures to the colored novel food (as a group member) correlated with increased consumption of that novel food when encountered later (as experimental subject). In contrast, the number of times that an individual fed on the familiar food (as a group member) did not decrease its consumption of novel food (as experimental subject). Therefore, capuchins (1) habituated to the colors of the novel foods, and (2) did not take into account that seeing group members eating a food does not provide information about the palatability of a differently colored food. Since social facilitation of eating occurs when foods do not match in color, at least in capuchins, social facilitation of eating should not be considered as a way of learning about a safe diet, but rather as a way of overcoming neophobia.

  10. Jaw-muscle fiber architecture in tufted capuchins favors generating relatively large muscle forces without compromising jaw gape

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    Taylor, Andrea B.; Vinyard, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Cebus apella is renowned for its dietary flexibility and capacity to exploit hard and tough objects. Cebus apella differs from other capuchins in displaying a suite of craniodental features that have been functionally and adaptively linked to their feeding behavior, particularly the generation and dissipation of relatively large jaw forces. We compared fiber architecture of the masseter and temporalis muscles between the tufted capuchin (C. apella; n = 12 ) and two “untufted” capuchins (C. capuchinus, n = 3; C. albifrons, n = 5). These three species share broadly similar diets, but tufted capuchins occasionally exploit mechanically challenging tissues. We tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits architectural properties of their jaw muscles that facilitate relatively large forces, including relatively greater physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSA), more pinnate fibers, and lower ratios of mass to tetanic tension (Mass/P0). Results show some evidence supporting these predictions, as C. apella has relatively greater superficial masseter, whole masseter, and temporalis PCSAs, significantly so only for the temporalis following Bonferroni adjustment. Capuchins did not differ in pinnation angle or Mass/P0. As an architectural trade-off between maximizing muscle force and muscle excursion/contraction velocity, we also tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits relatively shorter muscle fibers. Contrary to our prediction, there are no significant differences in relative fiber lengths between tufted and untufted capuchins. Therefore, we attribute the relatively greater PCSAs in C. apella primarily to their larger muscle masses. These findings suggest that relatively large jaw-muscle PCSAs can be added to the suite of masticatory features that have been functionally linked to the exploitation of a more resistant diet by C. apella. By enlarging jaw-muscle mass to increase PCSA, rather than reducing fiber lengths and increasing pinnation, tufted capuchins appear

  11. Analogical reasoning in a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella).

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    Kennedy, Erica Hoy; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2008-05-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that analogical reasoning (recognizing similarities among object relations when the objects themselves are dissimilar) is limited to humans and apes. This study investigated whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) can use analogical reasoning to solve a 3-dimensional search task. The task involved hiding a food item under 1 of 2 or 3 plastic cups of different sizes and then allowing subjects to search for food hidden under the cup of analogous size in their own set of cups. Four monkeys were exposed to a series of relational matching tasks. If subjects reached criterion on these tasks, they were exposed to relational transfer tasks involving novel stimuli. Three of the monkeys failed to reach criterion on the basic relational matching tasks and therefore were not tested further. One monkey, however, revealed above-chance performance on a series of transfer tasks with 3 novel stimuli. This evidence suggests that contrary to previous arguments, a member of a New World monkey species can solve an analogical problem. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin.

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    Saito, M; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, N; Hirasawa, M; Takada, K

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism was isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin (Cebus apella). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of the organism within the genus Streptococcus. Strain M8T was related most closely to Streptococcus oralis ATCC 35037T (96.17 % similarity) followed by Streptococcus massiliensis CCUG 49690T (95.90 %) based on the 16S rRNA gene. Strain M8T was related most closely to S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (86.58 %) based on the RNA polymerase β subunit-encoding gene (rpoB), and to Streptococcus tigurinus AZ_3aT (81.26 %) followed by S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (80.45 %) based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA, rpoB and groEL gene sequences showed that strain M8T was most closely related to S. massiliensis. Based on phenotypic characterization as well as 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping gene (rpoB and groEL) sequence data, a novel taxon, Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov. (type strain M8T = JCM 30719T = DSM 100101T), is proposed.

  13. The effect of dietary adaption on cranial morphological integration in capuchins (order Primates, genus Cebus.

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    Jana Makedonska

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C. apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C. albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback

  14. The Development of the Basal Ganglia in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

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    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Sobieski, Courtney A.; Gilbert, Valerie R.; Chiappini-Williamson, Christine; Sherwood, Chet C.; Strick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are subcortical structures involved in the planning, initiation and regulation of movement as well as a variety of non-motor, cognitive and affective functions. Capuchin monkeys share several important characteristics of development with humans, including a prolonged infancy and juvenile period, a long lifespan, and complex manipulative abilities. This makes capuchins important comparative models for understanding age-related neuroanatomical changes in these structures. Here we report developmental volumetric data on the three subdivisions of the basal ganglia, the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Based on a cross-sectional sample, we describe brain development in 28 brown capuchin monkeys (male n = 17, female n = 11; age range = 2 months – 20 years) using high-resolution structural MRI. We found that the raw volumes of the putamen and caudate varied significantly with age, decreasing in volume from birth through early adulthood. Notably, developmental changes did not differ between sexes. Because these observed developmental patterns are similar to humans, our results suggest that capuchin monkeys may be useful animal models for investigating neurodevelopmental disorders of the basal ganglia. PMID:20227397

  15. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

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    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  16. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

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    Jack, Katharine M; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sheller, Claire R; Rich, Catherine I; Klingelhofer, Peter P; Ziegler, Toni E; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp) learning how to crack nuts: does variability decline throughout development?

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    Resende, Briseida Dogo; Nagy-Reis, Mariana Baldy; Lacerda, Fernanda Neves; Pagnotta, Murillo; Savalli, Carine

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the process of nut-cracking acquisition in a semi-free population of tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp) in São Paulo, Brazil. We analyzed the cracking episodes from monkeys of different ages and found that variability of actions related to cracking declined. Inept movements were more frequent in juveniles, which also showed an improvement on efficient striking. The most effective behavioral sequence for cracking was more frequently used by the most experienced monkeys, which also used non-optimal sequences. Variability in behavior sequences and actions may allow adaptive changes to behavior under changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Histochemistry profile of the biceps brachii muscle fibres of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1758).

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    Bortoluci, C H F; Simionato, L H; Rosa Junior, G M; Oliveira, J A; Lauris, J R P; Moraes, L H R; Rodrigues, A C; Andreo, J C

    2014-08-01

    A general analysis of the behaviour of "Cebus" shows that when this primate moves position to feed or perform another activity, it presents different ways of locomotion. This information shows that the brachial biceps muscle of this animal is frequently used in their locomotion activities, but it should also be remembered that this muscle is also used for other development activities like hiding, searching for objects, searching out in the woods, and digging in the soil. Considering the above, it was decided to research the histoenzimologic characteristics of the brachial biceps muscle to observe whether it is better adpted to postural or phasic function. To that end, samples were taken from the superficial and deep regions, the inserts proximal (medial and lateral) and distal brachial biceps six capuchin monkeys male and adult, which were subjected to the reactions of m-ATPase, NADH-Tr. Based on the results of these reactions fibres were classified as in Fast Twitch Glycolitic (FG), Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolitic (FOG) and Slow Twitc (SO). In general, the results, considering the muscle as a whole, show a trend of frequency FOG> FG> SO. The data on the frequency were studied on three superficial regions FOG=FG>SO; the deep regions of the inserts proximal FOG=FG=SO and inserting the distal FOG>FG=SO. In conclusion, the biceps brachii of the capuchin monkey is well adapted for both postural and phasic activities.

  19. Experimental field study of problem-solving using tools in free-ranging capuchins (Sapajus nigritus, formerly Cebus nigritus).

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    Garber, P A; Gomes, D F; Bicca-Marques, J C

    2012-04-01

    Some populations of capuchins are reported to use tools to solve foraging problems in the wild. In most cases, this involves the act of pounding and digging. The use of probing tools by wild capuchins is considerably less common. Here we report on the results of an experimental field study conducted in southern Brazil designed to examine the ability of wild black-horned capuchins (Sapajus nigritus) to use a wooden dowel as a lever or a probe to obtain an embedded food reward. A group of eight capuchins was presented with two experimental platforms, each housing a clear Plexiglas box containing two bananas on a shelf and four inserted dowels. Depending on the conditions of the experiment, the capuchins were required either to pull (Condition I) or push (Conditions II and III) the dowels, in order to dislodge the food reward from the shelf so that it could be manually retrieved. In Condition I, four individuals spontaneously solved the foraging problem by pulling the dowels in 25% (72/291) of visits. In Conditions II and III, however, no capuchin successfully pushed the dowels forward to obtain the food reward. During these latter two experimental conditions, the capuchins continued to pull the dowels (41/151 or 27% of visits), even though this behavior did not result in foraging success. The results of these field experiments are consistent with an identical study conducted on wild Cebus capucinus in Costa Rica, and suggest that when using an external object as a probe to solve a foraging problem, individual capuchins were able to rapidly learn an association between the tool and the food reward, but failed to understand exactly how the tool functioned in accomplishing the task. The results also suggest that once a capuchin learned to solve this tool-mediated foraging problem, the individual persisted in using the same solution even in the face of repeated failure (slow rate of learning extinction). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), Brazil.

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    Ishizaki, Mirian Naomi; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Scalercio, Sarah Raphaella Rocha de Azevedo; Benigno, Raimundo Nonato Moraes; Pereira, Washington Luiz Assunção; Cunha Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2010-10-29

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1762) encysted in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) coming from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Brazil. The animal was sent to the Veterinary Clinic sector with an increase in abdominal volume and no occurrence of any other clinical signs. Upon palpation, a movable circular mass with a diameter of approximately 10 cm was found. Urinalysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed without revealing any alterations. The animal was then submitted to an abdominal ultrasound exam. The cyst was punctured and a surgical removal procedure was performed, revealing a brownish-colored cylindrical structure that was already deteriorated, making it impossible to perform morphological analysis and classification. In the sediment of the liquid found, eggs were encountered that had morphological characteristics compatible with D. renale. The objective of this paper is to report the first case of parasitism by D. renale in C. apella (Linnaeus, 1758). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

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    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  2. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S; Swing, S P; Gross, T S; Davis, J K

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box & toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box & toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n=16) found that plasma cortisol

  3. Influence of fruit and invertebrate consumption on the gut microbiota of wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallott, Elizabeth K; Amato, Katherine R; Garber, Paul A; Malhi, Ripan S

    2018-03-01

    Invertebrate consumption is thought to be an integral part of early hominin diets, and many modern human populations regularly consume insects and other arthropods. This study examines the response of gut microbial community structure and function to changes in diet in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus), a primate that incorporates a large proportion of invertebrates in its diet. The goal of the study is to better understand the role of both fruit and invertebrate prey consumption on shaping primate gut microbiomes. Fecal samples (n = 169) and dietary data were collected over 12 months. The V3-V5 region of microbial 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. The IM-TORNADO pipeline was used to analyze sequences. White-faced capuchin gut bacterial communities were characterized primarily by Firmicutes (41.6%) and Proteobacteria (39.2%). There was a significant relationship between the invertebrate diet composition of individual capuchins and their gut microbiome composition. However, there was no relationship between the fruit diet composition of individual capuchins and their gut microbiome composition, even when examining multiple timescales. The results of our study indicate that there is a stronger relationship between gut microbial community structure and invertebrate diet composition than between gut microbial community structure and fruit consumption. As invertebrates and other animal prey play an important role in the diet of many primates, these results give important insight into the role of faunivory in shaping the evolution of host-microbe interactions in primates. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Shasta E; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20 yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinos), highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR), located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin popula- tions at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8 wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each) of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa Rica. It is critical that the consequences of habituation be studied more carefully, primarily in areas where ecotourism operations draw visitors to wildlife habitats.

  5. Self-control depletion in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): does delay of gratification rely on a limited resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Francesca De; Micucci, Antonia; Gori, Emanuele; Truppa, Valentina; Ariely, Dan; Addessi, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Self-control failure has enormous personal and societal consequences. One of the most debated models explaining why self-control breaks down is the Strength Model, according to which self-control depends on a limited resource. Either previous acts of self-control or taking part in highly demanding cognitive tasks have been shown to reduce self-control, possibly due to a reduction in blood glucose levels. However, several studies yielded negative findings, and recent meta-analyses questioned the robustness of the depletion effect in humans. We investigated, for the first time, whether the Strength Model applies to a non-human primate species, the tufted capuchin monkey. We tested five capuchins in a self-control task (the Accumulation task) in which food items were accumulated within individual's reach for as long as the subject refrained from taking them. We evaluated whether capuchins' performance decreases: (i) when tested before receiving their daily meal rather than after consuming it (Energy Depletion Experiment), and (ii) after being tested in two tasks with different levels of cognitive complexity (Cognitive Depletion Experiment). We also tested, in both experiments, how implementing self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task affected this capacity within each session and/or across consecutive sessions. Repeated acts of self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task progressively reduced this capacity within each session, as predicted by the Strength Model. However, neither experiencing a reduction in energy level nor taking part in a highly demanding cognitive task decreased performance in the subsequent Accumulation task. Thus, whereas capuchins seem to be vulnerable to within-session depletion effects, to other extents our findings are in line with the growing body of studies that failed to find a depletion effect in humans. Methodological issues potentially affecting the lack of depletion effects in capuchins are discussed.

  6. Social modulation of risky decision-making in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratto, F; Oddi, G; Gori, E; Micucci, A; De Petrillo, F; Paglieri, F; Adriani, W; Laviola, G; Addessi, E

    2018-02-24

    Both human and non-human animals frequently deal with risky decisions in a social environment. Nevertheless, the influence of the social context on decision-making has been scarcely investigated. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether the presence of a conspecific influences risk preferences in rats and in tufted capuchin monkeys. Subjects received a series of choices between a constant, safe option and a variable, risky option, both alone (Alone condition) and when paired with a conspecific (Paired condition). The average payoff of the risky option was always lower than that of the safe option. Overall, the two species differed in their attitude towards risk: whereas rats were indifferent between options, capuchins exhibited a preference for the safe option. In both species, risk preferences changed in the Paired condition compared to the Alone condition, although in an opposite way. Whereas rats increased their risk preferences over time when paired with a conspecific, capuchins chose the risky option less in the Paired condition than in the Alone condition. Moreover, whereas anxiety-like behaviours decreased across sessions in rats, these behaviours where more represented in the Paired condition than in the Alone condition in capuchins. Thus, our findings extends to two distantly-related non-human species the evidence, so far available for human beings, that a decrease in anxiety corresponds to an increase in risk preferences, and vice versa. This suggests that the modulation of risk preferences by social influences observed in rats and capuchin monkeys may rely on a common, evolutionarily ancient, mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Older, sociable capuchins (Cebus capucinus) invent more social behaviors, but younger monkeys innovate more in other contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Susan E.; Godoy, Irene

    2017-01-01

    An important extension to our understanding of evolutionary processes has been the discovery of the roles that individual and social learning play in creating recurring phenotypes on which selection can act. Cultural change occurs chiefly through invention of new behavioral variants combined with social transmission of the novel behaviors to new practitioners. Therefore, understanding what makes some individuals more likely to innovate and/or transmit new behaviors is critical for creating realistic models of culture change. The difficulty in identifying what behaviors qualify as new in wild animal populations has inhibited researchers from understanding the characteristics of behavioral innovations and innovators. Here, we present the findings of a long-term, systematic study of innovation (10 y, 10 groups, and 234 individuals) in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica. Our methodology explicitly seeks novel behaviors, requiring their absence during the first 5 y of the study to qualify as novel in the second 5 y of the study. Only about 20% of 187 innovations identified were retained in innovators’ individual behavioral repertoires, and 22% were subsequently seen in other group members. Older, more social monkeys were more likely to invent new forms of social interaction, whereas younger monkeys were more likely to innovate in other behavioral domains (foraging, investigative, and self-directed behaviors). Sex and rank had little effect on innovative tendencies. Relative to apes, capuchins devote more of their innovations repertoire to investigative behaviors and social bonding behaviors and less to foraging and comfort behaviors. PMID:28739946

  8. Insights into Intraspecies Variation in Primate Prosocial Behavior: Capuchins (Cebus apella Fail to Show Prosociality on a Touchscreen Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey A. Drayton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, many researchers have used food donation tasks to test whether nonhuman primates show human-like patterns of prosocial behavior in experimental settings. Although these tasks are elegant in their simplicity, performance within and across species is difficult to explain under a unified theoretical framework. Here, we attempt to better understand variation in prosociality by examining the circumstances that promote and hinder the expression of prosocial preferences. To this end, we tested whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella—a species that has previously demonstrated prosocial preferences—would behave prosocially using a novel touchscreen task. In contrast to previous studies, we found that capuchins as a group did not prosocially deliver food to a partner. Importantly however, data from control conditions revealed that subjects demonstrated limited understanding of the reward contingencies of the task. We also compared individuals’ performance in the current study with their performance in a previously published prosociality study. We conclude by discussing how continuing to explore intraspecies variation in performance on prosocial tasks may help inform debates regarding the existence of other-regarding preferences in nonhuman species.

  9. Effects of gut passage, feces, and seed handling on latency and rate of germination in seeds consumed by capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Kim; Fedigan, Linda M

    2009-04-01

    One of the key measures of the effectiveness of primary seed dispersal by animals is the quality of seed dispersal (Schupp: Plant Ecol 107/108 [1993] 15-29). We present data on quality of seed dispersal by two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica to test the hypothesis that capuchin seed handling results in effective primary dispersal for some fruit species they consume. We examined seed handling for 27 plant species, and germination rates of 18 species consumed by capuchins. For five of the most commonly swallowed seed species, we determined germination rates and average time to germination (latency) for seeds ingested and defecated by capuchins and compared these to seeds removed directly from fruit and planted. For the same five species, we compared germination rates and latency for passed seeds planted in capuchin feces to those cleaned of feces and planted in soil. For three of five species, differences in proportion of germinated seeds were significantly higher for gut passed seeds than for controls. For four of five species, germination latency was significantly faster for gut passed seeds than for controls. Feces had either no effect on seed germination rate or precluded germination. Data presented here support the hypothesis that white-faced capuchins are effective primary dispersers.

  10. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasta E. Webb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus, highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR, located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin populations at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p<0.0001 than the non-habituated group, and spent significantly more time eating and foraging (p<0.0001. While the habituated monkeys at CWR may not be over-habituated, they could become that way as development, especially ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa

  11. Self-control depletion in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): does delay of gratification rely on a limited resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Francesca De; Gori, Emanuele; Truppa, Valentina; Ariely, Dan; Addessi, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Self-control failure has enormous personal and societal consequences. One of the most debated models explaining why self-control breaks down is the Strength Model, according to which self-control depends on a limited resource. Either previous acts of self-control or taking part in highly demanding cognitive tasks have been shown to reduce self-control, possibly due to a reduction in blood glucose levels. However, several studies yielded negative findings, and recent meta-analyses questioned the robustness of the depletion effect in humans. We investigated, for the first time, whether the Strength Model applies to a non-human primate species, the tufted capuchin monkey. We tested five capuchins in a self-control task (the Accumulation task) in which food items were accumulated within individual’s reach for as long as the subject refrained from taking them. We evaluated whether capuchins’ performance decreases: (i) when tested before receiving their daily meal rather than after consuming it (Energy Depletion Experiment), and (ii) after being tested in two tasks with different levels of cognitive complexity (Cognitive Depletion Experiment). We also tested, in both experiments, how implementing self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task affected this capacity within each session and/or across consecutive sessions. Repeated acts of self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task progressively reduced this capacity within each session, as predicted by the Strength Model. However, neither experiencing a reduction in energy level nor taking part in a highly demanding cognitive task decreased performance in the subsequent Accumulation task. Thus, whereas capuchins seem to be vulnerable to within-session depletion effects, to other extents our findings are in line with the growing body of studies that failed to find a depletion effect in humans. Methodological issues potentially affecting the lack of depletion effects in capuchins are discussed. PMID

  12. Quantifying seasonal fallback on invertebrates, pith, and bromeliad leaves by white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosdossy, Krisztina N; Melin, Amanda D; Fedigan, Linda M

    2015-09-01

    Fallback foods (FBFs) are hypothesized to shape the ecology, morphology, and behavior of primates, including hominins. Identifying FBFs is therefore critical for revealing past and present foraging adaptations. Recent research suggests invertebrates act as seasonal FBFs for many primate species and human populations. Yet, studies measuring the consumption of invertebrates relative to ecological variation are widely lacking. We address this gap by examining food abundance and entomophagy by primates in a seasonal forest. We study foraging behavior of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus)-a species renowned for its intelligence and propensity for extractive foraging-along with the abundance of invertebrates, dietary ripe fruits, pith, and bromeliads. Consumption events and processing time are recorded during focal animal samples. We determine abundance of vegetative foods through phenological and density records. Invertebrates are collected in malaise, pan, and terrestrial traps; caterpillar abundance is inferred from frass traps. Invertebrates are abundant throughout the year and capuchins consume invertebrates-including caterpillars-frequently when fruit is abundant. However, capuchins spend significantly more time processing protected invertebrates when fruit and caterpillars are low in abundance. Invertebrate foraging patterns are not uniform. Caterpillar consumption is consistent with a preferred strategy, whereas capuchins appear to fallback on invertebrates requiring high handling time. Capuchins are convergent with hominins in possessing large brains and high levels of sensorimotor intelligence, thus our research has broad implications for primate evolution, including factors shaping cognitive innovations, brain size, and the role of entomophagy in the human diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Male dominance and reproductive success in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) at Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Laura; Perry, Susan; Manson, Joseph H; Gilkenson, Hannah; Gros-Louis, Julie; Vigilant, Linda

    2010-12-01

    Theory and a growing body of empirical evidence suggest that higher ranking males experience reproductive advantages in group-living mammals. White-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) exhibit an interesting social system for investigating the relationship between dominance and reproductive success (RS) because they live in multimale multifemale social groups, in which the alpha males can have extraordinarily long tenures (i.e. they coreside with daughters of reproductive age). Genetic paternity was determined from fecal samples for 120 infants born into three social groups of wild C. capucinus at Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. Alpha males produced far more offspring than expected by chance, and significantly high Nonac's B indices (a measure of deviation from a random distribution of RS among potentially breeding individuals) were a feature of six out of eight male tenures. The likelihood of the alpha male siring a particular offspring was predicted by the kin relationship between the mother and the alpha male, as well as the total number of males and females in the group. The almost complete lack of father-daughter inbreeding [Muniz et al., 2006] constitutes an impediment to alpha male reproductive monopolization in this population, particularly toward the end of long alpha male tenures. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, V.; Lefevre, C. E.; Morton, F. B.; Brosnan, S. F.; Paukner, A.; Bates, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one’s personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but also in capuchin monkeys. Here we test the association of personality (assertiveness, openness, attentiveness, neuroticism, and sociability) with fWHR, face width/lower-face height, and lower face/face height ratio in 64 capuchins (Sapajus apella). In a structural model of personality and facial metrics, fWHR was associated with assertiveness, while lower face/face height ratio was associated with neuroticism (erratic vs. stable behaviour) and attentiveness (helpfulness vs. distractibility). Facial morphology thus appears to associate with three personality domains, which may act as a signal of status in capuchins. PMID:24347756

  15. Histochemistry profile of the biceps brachii muscle fibres of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHF Bortoluci

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the behaviour of “Cebus” shows that when this primate moves position to feed or perform another activity, it presents different ways of locomotion. This information shows that the brachial biceps muscle of this animal is frequently used in their locomotion activities, but it should also be remembered that this muscle is also used for other development activities like hiding, searching for objects, searching out in the woods, and digging in the soil. Considering the above, it was decided to research the histoenzimologic characteristics of the brachial biceps muscle to observe whether it is better adpted to postural or phasic function. To that end, samples were taken from the superficial and deep regions, the inserts proximal (medial and lateral and distal brachial biceps six capuchin monkeys male and adult, which were subjected to the reactions of m-ATPase, NADH-Tr. Based on the results of these reactions fibres were classified as in Fast Twitch Glycolitic (FG, Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolitic (FOG and Slow Twitc (SO. In general, the results, considering the muscle as a whole, show a trend of frequency FOG> FG> SO. The data on the frequency were studied on three superficial regions FOG=FG>SO; the deep regions of the inserts proximal FOG=FG=SO and inserting the distal FOG>FG=SO. In conclusion, the biceps brachii of the capuchin monkey is well adapted for both postural and phasic activities.

  16. Give what you get: capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and 4-year-old children pay forward positive and negative outcomes to conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Leimgruber

    Full Text Available The breadth of human generosity is unparalleled in the natural world, and much research has explored the mechanisms underlying and motivating human prosocial behavior. Recent work has focused on the spread of prosocial behavior within groups through paying-it-forward, a case of human prosociality in which a recipient of generosity pays a good deed forward to a third individual, rather than back to the original source of generosity. While research shows that human adults do indeed pay forward generosity, little is known about the origins of this behavior. Here, we show that both capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and 4-year-old children pay forward positive and negative outcomes in an identical testing paradigm. These results suggest that a cognitively simple mechanism present early in phylogeny and ontogeny leads to paying forward positive, as well as negative, outcomes.

  17. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Integrating feeding behavior, ecological data, and DNA barcoding to identify developmental differences in invertebrate foraging strategies in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallott, Elizabeth K; Garber, Paul A; Malhi, Ripan S

    2017-02-01

    Invertebrate foraging strategies in nonhuman primates often require complex extractive foraging or prey detection techniques. As these skills take time to master, juveniles may have reduced foraging efficiency or concentrate their foraging efforts on easier to acquire prey than adults. We use DNA barcoding, behavioral observations, and ecological data to assess age-based differences in invertebrate prey foraging strategies in a group of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in northeastern Costa Rica. Invertebrate availability was monitored using canopy traps and sweep netting. Fecal samples were collected from adult female, adult male, and juvenile white-faced capuchins (n = 225). COI mtDNA sequences were compared with known sequences in GenBank and the Barcode of Life Database. Frequencies of Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera consumption were higher in juveniles than in adults. A significantly smaller proportion of juvenile fecal samples contained Gryllidae and Cercopidae sequences, compared with adults (0% and 4.2% vs. 4.6% and 12.5%), and a significantly larger proportion contained Tenthredinidae, Culicidae, and Crambidae (5.6%, 9.7%, and 5.6% vs. 1.3%, 0.7%, and 1.3%). Juveniles spent significantly more time feeding and foraging than adults, and focused their foraging efforts on prey that require different skills to capture or extract. Arthropod availability was not correlated with foraging efficiency, and the rate of consumption of specific orders of invertebrates was not correlated with the availability of those same taxa. Our data support the hypothesis that juveniles are concentrating their foraging efforts on different prey than adults, potentially focusing their foraging efforts on more easily acquired types of prey. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Ontogeny of Foraging Competence in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus capucinus for Easy versus Difficult to Acquire Fruits: A Test of the Needing to Learn Hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Christine Eadie

    Full Text Available Which factors select for long juvenile periods in some species is not well understood. One potential reason to delay the onset of reproduction is slow food acquisition rates, either due to competition (part of the ecological risk avoidance hypothesis, or due to a decreased foraging efficiency (a version of the needing to learn hypothesis. Capuchins provide a useful genus to test the needing to learn hypothesis because they are known for having long juvenile periods and a difficult-to-acquire diet. Generalized, linear, mixed models with data from 609 fruit forage focal follows on 49, habituated, wild Cebus capucinus were used to test two predictions from the needing-to-learn hypothesis as it applies to fruit foraging skills: 1 capuchin monkeys do not achieve adult foraging return rates for difficult-to-acquire fruits before late in the juvenile period; and 2 variance in return rates for these fruits is at least partially associated with differences in foraging skill. In support of the first prediction, adults, compared with all younger age classes, had significantly higher foraging return rates when foraging for fruits that were ranked as difficult-to-acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.30-0.41, p-value range 0.008-0.016, indicating that the individuals in the group who have the most foraging experience also achieve the highest return rates. In contrast, and in support of the second prediction, there were no significant differences between age classes for fruits that were ranked as easy to acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.97-1.42, p-value range 0.086-0.896, indicating that strength and/or skill are likely to affect return rates. In addition, fruits that were difficult to acquire were foraged at nearly identical rates by adult males and significantly smaller (and presumably weaker adult females (males relative to females: 1.01, p = 0.978, while subadult females had much lower foraging efficiency than the similarly-sized but more

  20. Ontogeny of Foraging Competence in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus capucinus) for Easy versus Difficult to Acquire Fruits: A Test of the Needing to Learn Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Elizabeth Christine

    2015-01-01

    Which factors select for long juvenile periods in some species is not well understood. One potential reason to delay the onset of reproduction is slow food acquisition rates, either due to competition (part of the ecological risk avoidance hypothesis), or due to a decreased foraging efficiency (a version of the needing to learn hypothesis). Capuchins provide a useful genus to test the needing to learn hypothesis because they are known for having long juvenile periods and a difficult-to-acquire diet. Generalized, linear, mixed models with data from 609 fruit forage focal follows on 49, habituated, wild Cebus capucinus were used to test two predictions from the needing-to-learn hypothesis as it applies to fruit foraging skills: 1) capuchin monkeys do not achieve adult foraging return rates for difficult-to-acquire fruits before late in the juvenile period; and 2) variance in return rates for these fruits is at least partially associated with differences in foraging skill. In support of the first prediction, adults, compared with all younger age classes, had significantly higher foraging return rates when foraging for fruits that were ranked as difficult-to-acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.30-0.41, p-value range 0.008-0.016), indicating that the individuals in the group who have the most foraging experience also achieve the highest return rates. In contrast, and in support of the second prediction, there were no significant differences between age classes for fruits that were ranked as easy to acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.97-1.42, p-value range 0.086-0.896), indicating that strength and/or skill are likely to affect return rates. In addition, fruits that were difficult to acquire were foraged at nearly identical rates by adult males and significantly smaller (and presumably weaker) adult females (males relative to females: 1.01, p = 0.978), while subadult females had much lower foraging efficiency than the similarly-sized but more experienced

  1. The effects of ecology and evolutionary history on robust capuchin morphological diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kristin A; Wright, Barth W; Ford, Susan M; Fragaszy, Dorothy; Izar, Patricia; Norconk, Marilyn; Masterson, Thomas; Hobbs, David G; Alfaro, Michael E; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular work has confirmed the long-standing morphological hypothesis that capuchins are comprised of two distinct clades, the gracile (untufted) capuchins (genus Cebus, Erxleben, 1777) and the robust (tufted) capuchins (genus Sapajus Kerr, 1792). In the past, the robust group was treated as a single, undifferentiated and cosmopolitan species, with data from all populations lumped together in morphological and ecological studies, obscuring morphological differences that might exist across this radiation. Genetic evidence suggests that the modern radiation of robust capuchins began diversifying ∼2.5 Ma, with significant subsequent geographic expansion into new habitat types. In this study we use a morphological sample of gracile and robust capuchin craniofacial and postcranial characters to examine how ecology and evolutionary history have contributed to morphological diversity within the robust capuchins. We predicted that if ecology is driving robust capuchin variation, three distinct robust morphotypes would be identified: (1) the Atlantic Forest species (Sapajus xanthosternos, S. robustus, and S. nigritus), (2) the Amazonian rainforest species (S. apella, S. cay and S. macrocephalus), and (3) the Cerrado-Caatinga species (S. libidinosus). Alternatively, if diversification time between species pairs predicts degree of morphological difference, we predicted that the recently diverged S. apella, S. macrocephalus, S. libidinosus, and S. cay would be morphologically comparable, with greater variation among the more ancient lineages of S. nigritus, S. xanthosternos, and S. robustus. Our analyses suggest that S. libidinosus has the most derived craniofacial and postcranial features, indicative of inhabiting a more terrestrial niche that includes a dependence on tool use for the extraction of imbedded foods. We also suggest that the cranial robusticity of S. macrocephalus and S. apella are indicative of recent competition with sympatric gracile capuchin

  2. Effects of whole-body X-radiation on the neutrophils of the peripheral blood of the primate Cebus apella (weeping capuchin); Acao dos raios X corpo total sobre os neutrofilos do sangue periferico em primata Cebus apella (macaco prego)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egami, Mizue Imoto; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Paiva, Elias Rodrigues de; Segreto, Camilo [Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Diniz, Lilian Munao [Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the neutrophils of Primate Cebus apella were studied after whole-body x-radiation to a single exposure of 25.8 m C/kg (100 R 0), Wright`s stained preparations showed changes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of neutrophils at 1,3 and 6 days after irradiation. during this period of time, the cytochemical methods revealed a considerable variation in the pattern of distribution of glycogen, sudanophilic and myeloperoxidase positive granules. Under these same experimental conditions the number of caryoschizes increased on the first and third day. On the ninetieth day post exposure, the morphological and cytochemical appearances of neutrophils as well as the number of caryoschized were similar to the controls. (author) 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Effects of whole-body X-radiation on the neutrophils of the peripheral blood of the primate Cebus apella (weeping capuchin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egami, Mizue Imoto; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Paiva, Elias Rodrigues de; Segreto, Camilo; Diniz, Lilian Munao

    1994-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on the neutrophils of Primate Cebus apella were studied after whole-body x-radiation to a single exposure of 25.8 m C/kg (100 R 0, Wright's stained preparations showed changes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of neutrophils at 1,3 and 6 days after irradiation. during this period of time, the cytochemical methods revealed a considerable variation in the pattern of distribution of glycogen, sudanophilic and myeloperoxidase positive granules. Under these same experimental conditions the number of caryoschizes increased on the first and third day. On the ninetieth day post exposure, the morphological and cytochemical appearances of neutrophils as well as the number of caryoschized were similar to the controls. (author)

  4. Same/different concept learning by capuchin monkeys in matching-to-sample tasks.

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    Valentina Truppa

    Full Text Available The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions.

  5. Same/Different Concept Learning by Capuchin Monkeys in Matching-to-Sample Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truppa, Valentina; Piano Mortari, Eva; Garofoli, Duilio; Privitera, Sara; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i) the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii) the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions. PMID:21858225

  6. Figs Are More Than Fallback Foods: The Relationship between Ficus and Cebus in a Tropical Dry Forest

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    Nigel A. Parr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many studies on primate feeding ecology, figs (Ficus spp. are characterized as fallback foods, utilized only when preferred sources of food are unavailable. However, for white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus living in northwestern Costa Rica, figs are a consistently important resource and may increase groupwide energy intake. We investigated whether visits to figs affect ranging and behavioural patterns of capuchins. Although daily range length and average travel speed do not differ on days when fig trees are visited, capuchins spend more time in directed travel and more time stationary on “fig days”. Capuchins also increase time spent foraging for fruit and decrease time spent foraging for invertebrates on days when figs trees are visited. Capuchins experience higher energy intake and lower energy output on “fig” days. Thus, the patterns of foraging for figs support an energy-maximization strategy and constitute an important nutritional resource for capuchins.

  7. Comparative Anatomical Analyses of the Forearm Muscles of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al. 2000): Manipulatory Behavior and Tool Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Maior, Rafael Souto; Carneiro-e-Silva, Frederico O.; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A. G. M. F.; Tavares, Maria Clotilde; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the flexor and extensor muscles in Cebus libidinosus' forearm and compares them with those from humans, chimpanzees and baboons. The data is presented in quantitative anatomical indices for similarity. The capuchin forearm muscles showed important similarities with chimpanzees and humans, particularly those that act on thumb motion and allow certain degree of independence from other hand structures, even though their configuration does not enable a true opposable thumb. The characteristics of Cebus' forearm muscles corroborate the evolutionary convergence towards an adaptive behavior (tool use) between Cebus genus and apes. PMID:21789230

  8. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling. PMID:25520677

  9. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhia eCatapano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good’s price can have irrational effects on people’s preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased, we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human price effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  10. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  11. Cyto-, myelo- and chemoarchitecture of the prefrontal cortex of the Cebus monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background According to several lines of evidence, the great expansion observed in the primate prefrontal cortex (PfC) was accompanied by the emergence of new cortical areas during phylogenetic development. As a consequence, the structural heterogeneity noted in this region of the primate frontal lobe has been associated with diverse behavioral and cognitive functions described in human and non-human primates. A substantial part of this evidence was obtained using Old World monkeys as experimental model; while the PfC of New World monkeys has been poorly studied. In this study, the architecture of the PfC in five capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) was analyzed based on four different architectonic tools, Nissl and myelin staining, histochemistry using the lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin and immunohistochemistry using SMI-32 antibody. Results Twenty-two architectonic areas in the Cebus PfC were distinguished: areas 8v, 8d, 9d, 12l, 45, 46v, 46d, 46vr and 46dr in the lateral PfC; areas 11l, 11m, 12o, 13l, 13m, 13i, 14r and 14c in the orbitofrontal cortex, with areas 14r and 14c occupying the ventromedial corner; areas 32r, 32c, 25 and 9m in the medial PfC, and area 10 in the frontal pole. This number is significantly higher than the four cytoarchitectonic areas previously recognized in the same species. However, the number and distribution of these areas in Cebus were to a large extent similar to those described in Old World monkeys PfC in more recent studies. Conclusions The present parcellation of the Cebus PfC considerably modifies the scheme initially proposed for this species but is in line with previous studies on Old World monkeys. Thus, it was observed that the remarkable anatomical similarity between the brains of genera Macaca and Cebus may extend to architectonic aspects. Since monkeys of both genera evolved independently over a long period of time facing different environmental pressures, the similarities in the architectonic maps of PfC in both genera

  12. Development of manipulation in capuchin monkeys during the first 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Curtis, L E; Fragaszy, D M

    1994-03-01

    This study describes the orderly changes in manipulation over the first 6 months in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). By 6 months of age, all the basic forms of manipulation seen in adults have appeared. Actions that occur frequently in the first 8 weeks are gentle and involve sustained visual orientation and aimed reaching. Later actions are more vigorous, and involve grasping. Large increases in the rate of activity are evident over the period of development studied. The increase from the first 8 weeks to the second may be due to (a) an increase in the amount of time spent alert and active, (b) a decrease in the amount of time spent in a ventral position, (c) improvements in postural control and stamina and (d) the onset of independent locomotion. Changes in form can be attributed primarily to postural factors and to neuromuscular development (precisely aimed and controlled movements appearing in the 5th and 6th months).

  13. "Unwilling" versus "Unable": Capuchin Monkeys' ("Cebus Apella") Understanding of Human Intentional Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Webb; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Mahajan, Neha; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) lends credence to the…

  14. Gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-ranging Cebus albifrons in the Western Amazon, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Martin-Solano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a lack of surveys that report the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in the white-headed capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons. We therefore assessed the presence and richness (= number of different parasite genera of parasites in C. albifrons in wildlife refuges (n = 11 and in a free-ranging group near a human village (n = 15 in the Ecuadorian Amazon. In the 78 samples collected (median of 3 samples per animal, we identified a total of 6 genera of gastrointestinal parasites, representing protozoa, nematodes, acanthocephalans and cestodes. We observed a high prevalence (84% across the 26 individuals, with the most prevalent parasite being Strongyloides sp. (76.9%, followed by Hymenolepis sp. (38.5% and Prosthenorchis elegans (11.5%. We found Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moskovskii/nuttalli and Capillaria sp. in only a minority of the animals (3.8%. In addition, we observed unidentified strongyles in approximately one-third of the animals (34.6%. We found a total of 6 parasite genera for the adult age group, which showed higher parasite richness than the subadult age group (5 and the juvenile age group (3. Faecal egg/cyst counts were not significantly different between captive and free-ranging individuals or between sexes or age groups. The free-ranging group had a higher prevalence than the captive group; however, this difference was not significant. The only genus common to captive and free-ranging individuals was Strongyloides sp. The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and the presence of Strongyloides in both populations support results from previous studies in Cebus species. This high prevalence could be related to the high degree of humidity in the region. For the free-ranging group, additional studies are required to gain insights into the differences in parasite prevalence and intensity between age and sex groups. Additionally, our study demonstrated that a serial sampling of each individual increases

  15. Effects of brief time delays on matching-to-sample abilities in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truppa, Valentina; De Simone, Diego Antonio; Piano Mortari, Eva; De Lillo, Carlo

    2014-09-01

    Traditionally, studies of delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) tasks in nonhuman species have focused on the assessment of the limits of the retrieval of information stored in short- and long-term memory systems. However, it is still unclear if visual recognition in these tasks is affected by very brief delay intervals, which are typically used to study rapidly decaying types of visual memory. This study aimed at evaluating if tufted capuchin monkeys' ability to recognise visual stimuli in a DMTS task is affected by (i) the disappearance of the sample stimulus and (ii) the introduction of delay intervals (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0s) between the disappearance of the sample and the presentation of the comparison stimuli. The results demonstrated that the simple disappearance of the sample and the introduction of a delay of 0.5s did not affect capuchins' performance either in terms of accuracy or response time. A delay interval of 1.0s produced a significant increase in response time but still did not affect recognition accuracy. By contrast, delays of 2.0 and 3.0s determined a significant increase in response time and a reduction in recognition accuracy. These findings indicate the existence in capuchin monkeys of processes enabling a very accurate retention of stimulus features within time frames comparable to those reported for humans' sensory memory (0.5-1.0s). The extent to which such processes can be considered analogous to the sensory memory processes observed in human visual cognition is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Gilby, Ian C; Wikelski, Martin C; Kays, Roland W

    2008-01-15

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition.

  17. Scream-embrace displays in wild black-horned capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica

    2008-06-01

    Reintroduction of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) into their social group in captivity can elicit sirena screams and embraces. Captive scream-embrace displays are male biased, and females never perform sirena screams. One hypothesis is that scream-embrace displays serve a tension-reduction or reconciliatory function between males with conflicting interests. Alternatively, these displays may function to maintain strong affiliative bonds between friendly male dyads. Scream and/or embrace displays in wild Brazilian black-horned capuchins were analyzed for social and ecological contexts, behavioral components, and individuals involved. Seventy-two displays were observed during the 199-day study period. Among the 66 displays for which both members could be identified by sex, there were 42 occurrences of male-male dyads, 17 of male-female dyads, and seven of female-female dyads. Scream-embrace dyads were male-male pairs significantly more often than expected from group membership, and the alpha male was the only male to engage in scream-embrace displays with females. Female-female pairs did embrace, but never emitted sirena screams. Displays most commonly occurred in "reunion" contexts, primarily the reuniting of subgroups after hours or days out of contact, but also after intergroup encounters, and across groups in "intergroup" displays. Displays were rare, but socially contagious, and subgroup reunions could elicit multiple displays in rapid succession. Although the occurrence of screams and embraces was positively correlated, both behaviors also occurred independently, and their functions may be different. Male sirena screams may be honest advertisements of united alliances, directed toward a third party, whereas the embrace may be a risky affiliative signal, directed primarily within the dyad. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Utilisation des sécrétions de myriapodes chez les lémurs et les sapajous : fonction curative ou signalisation sociale ? Fur-rubbing with millipedes in lemurs and capuchin monkeys: social function or zoopharmacognosy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Simmen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available L’utilisation des myriapodes en friction sur le pelage et d’autres zones corporelles est documentée chez les primates en conditions naturelles, notamment à partir des observations récurrentes menées chez le genre Cebus. La typologie de ces comportements suggère différentes hypothèses, fonctionnelles (zoopharmacognosie, alimentaire, sociale ou non (sensorielle, auto-stimulation. Nous présentons des observations qualitatives comparées de l’utilisation non alimentaire de myriapodes diplopodes chez une forme hybride du genre Eulemur au Sud de Madagascar (occurrences en janvier 2005 et chez le sapajou Cebus apella en Guyane Française (occurrences en mars-avril 1996. L’application des sécrétions à benzoquinones sur une large partie du pelage chez Cebus contraste avec la friction exclusive de la zone périgénitale faisant suite au flairage du diplopode chez Eulemur qui manifeste en outre une réponse stéréotypée analogue au flehmen. Dans notre étude, l’imprégnation de fluides à forte intensité olfactive potentialiserait la signalisation de l’identité individuelle chez Eulemur alors que le "fur-rubbing" chez Cebus est compatible avec l’hypothèse commune d’une forme d’appropriation des défenses antiparasitaires de ces invertébrés. La sécrétion de ces défenses chimiques n’est pas automatiquement déclenchée par la manipulation des diplopodes. Le stress induit par les morsures légères (Eulemur et Cebus et l’arrachage des pattes sur plusieurs segments (Cebus augmente la probabilité de sécrétion, ce qui témoignerait d’un apprentissage d’autant plus efficace des conditions d’émission de ces fluides que l’usage est spécifique et très opportuniste.Body-rubbing with millipedes is repeatedly documented in primates living under natural conditions, mainly in capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.. Various functional (zoopharmacognosy, ingestion, social and non-functional hypotheses (sensory, auto

  19. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Barkla, D. H.; Whitehead, R. H.; Foster, H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting f...

  20. Parasitosis intestinal en monos capuchinos cariblancos Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae de un área protegida en la provincia de Limón, noreste de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La deforestación de bosques tropicales está amenazando la biodiversidad de las especies de primates y su estado de salud, dependiente de un lugar ecológicamente equilibrado. Con el fin de evaluar esta relación, se analizó la presencia de parásitos en los intestinos de esta especie. El estudio se realizó en la Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS, Limón, Costa Rica. El grupo de monos capuchinos cariblancos (Cebus capucinus fue observado entre marzo y diciembre de 2006. Se recolectaron 75 muestras de heces a las que se les identificó las plantas ingeridas, y se procesaron en el laboratorio para evaluar la prevalencia de parásitos. Moraceae fue la familia de plantas más reportada. Strongyloides spp. y acantocéfalos fueron los más comunes. La distribución positiva de las mismas fue similar independientemente del sexo y la edad. Microsporidios se reportaron mayoritariamente en heces asociadas con la familia Piperaceae. Fue encontrada una baja existencia de éstos parásitos en muestras asociadas con Myrtaceae en cuyo género Psidium, se han reportado compuestos activos antiparasitarios. La aparición de parásitos fue relativamente mayor en la EBLS, comparado con muestras de otras regiones más secas de Costa Rica. Por lo tanto, esa expresión parasitaria puede deberse al hecho de ser la EBLS una selva lluviosa, además de estar rodeada por zonas con actividades antrópicas. Se sugiere incrementar las investigaciones de parasitología de campo en primates neotropicales con el fin de entender plenamente las relaciones parásitos-hospederos, para en un largo plazo poder comprender los ecosistemas donde conviven, y en consecuencia, preservar la diversidad biológica.Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus Primates: Cebidae inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica. Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an

  1. Male endocrine response to seasonally varying environmental and social factors in a neotropical primate, Cebus capucinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoof, Valérie A M; Bonnell, Tyler R; Jack, Katharine M; Ziegler, Toni E; Melin, Amanda D; Fedigan, Linda M

    2016-04-01

    Circannual variation in reproduction is pervasive in birds and mammals. In primates, breeding seasonality is variable, with seasonal birth peaks occurring even in year-round breeders. Environmental seasonality is reportedly an important contributor to the observed variation in reproductive seasonality. Given that food availability is the primary factor constraining female reproduction, predictions concerning responsiveness to environmental seasonality focus on females, with studies of males focusing primarily on social factors. We examined the influence of both environmental and social factors on male fecal testosterone (fT) and glucocorticoids (fGC) in moderately seasonally breeding white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica. Over 17 months, we collected 993 fecal samples from 14 males in three groups. We used LMM to simultaneously examine the relative effects of photoperiod, fruit biomass, rainfall, temperature, female reproductive status (i.e., number of periovulatory periods, POPs), and male age and dominance rank on monthly fT and fGC levels. Male age and rank had large effects on fT and fGC. Additionally, some hormone variation was explained by environmental factors: photoperiod in the previous month (i.e., lagged photoperiod) was the best environmental predictor of monthly fT levels, whereas fGC levels were best explained by lagged photoperiod, fruit biomass, and rainfall. POPs predicted monthly fT and fGC, but this effect was reduced when all variables were considered simultaneously, possibly because lagged photoperiod and POP were highly correlated. Males may use photoperiod as a cue predicting circannual trends in the temporal distribution of fertile females, while also fine-tuning short-term hormone increases to the actual presence of ovulatory females, which may occur at any time during the year. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: II. Influence of the social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of animals than adults. If social cues are safer and/or more reliable to use than asocial cues for learning about predators, then it is expected that the development of this behavior will be affected by the social environment. Our study examined the influence of the social environment on antipredator behavior in infant, juvenile, and adult wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) at Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve in Costa Rica during presentations of different species of model snakes and novel models. We examined (a) the alarm calling behavior of the focal animal when alone versus in the vicinity of conspecific alarm callers and (b) the latency of conspecifics to alarm call once the focal animal alarm called. Focal animals alarm called more when alone than after hearing a conspecific alarm call. No reliable differences were found in the latencies of conspecifics to alarm call based on age or model type. Conspecifics were more likely to alarm call when focal individuals alarm called at snake models than when they alarm called at novel models. Results indicate (a) that alarm calling may serve to attract others to the predator's location and (b) that learning about specific predators may begin with a generalized response to a wide variety of species, including some nonthreatening ones, that is winnowed down via Pavlovian conditioned inhibition into a response directed toward specific dangerous species. This study reveals that conspecifics play a role in the development of antipredator behavior in white-faced capuchins. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tuft (caveolated) cells in two human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Whitehead, R H; Foster, H; Tutton, P J

    1988-09-01

    The presence of an unusual cell type in two human colon carcinoma cell lines is reported. The cells show the same morphology as "tuft" (caveolated) cells present in normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Tuft cells were seen in cell line LIM 1863 growing in vitro and in human colon carcinoma cell line LIM 2210 growing as subcutaneous solid tumour xenografts in nude mice. Characteristic morphologic features of tuft cells included a wide base, narrow apex and a tuft of long microvilli projecting from the apical surface. The microvilli are attached by a core of long microfilaments passing deep into the apical cytoplasm. Between the microvilli are parallel arrays of vesicles (caveoli) containing flocculent material. Two different but not mutually exclusive explanations for the presence of tuft cells are proposed. The first explanation is that tuft cells came from the resected tumour and have survived by mitotic division during subsequent passages. The second explanation suggests that tuft cells are the progeny of undifferentiated tumour cells. Descriptions of tuft cells in colon carcinomas are uncommon and possible reasons for this are presented. The morphology of tuft cells is consistent with that of a highly differentiated cell specialised for absorption, and these new models provide an opportunity to further investigate the structure and function of tuft cells.

  4. Memoria espacial en monos capuchinos de Argentina: un estudio observacional en vida silvestre / Spatial memory in capuchin monkeys (Argentina:a wildlife observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María P. Tujague

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La memoria espacial se considera un factor selectivo en la evolución de la inteligencia. Los estudios en animales permiten pensar que los procesos cognitivos descriptos en humanos comparten características con los de otras especies. Se estudió el comportamiento espacial vinculado a la búsqueda del alimento de los monos capuchinos y su capacidad de retener información sobre la ubicación y estado del mismo. Durante los seguimientos de tres grupos de Cebus nigritus silvestres se aplicó un diseño observacional cualitativo que evaluó las cantidades de fruta madura e inmadura presentes en los árboles frutales consumidos por los monos en sus desplazamientos diarios. Las visitas a los árboles de frutos indicaron que los monos retienen información particular sobre la ubicación y condición de cada árbol. Los resultados obtenidos son fundamentales para la comprensión del funcionamiento de los mecanismos cognitivos no mediados por el lenguaje, lo cual permite ampliar los conocimientos de la base biológica del comportamiento espacial no humano. Palabras clave: Cebus=Sapajus nigritus; árboles frutales; velocidad de acercamiento; visita Spatial memory is considered a selective factor in the evolution of intelligence. Animal studies lead us to believe that cognitive processes described in humans may have much in common with those of other species. We studied the foraging spatial behavior of capuchin monkeys and their ability to retain information about food location and quality. We analyzed whether individuals were able to integrate stored information about food sites and changes in the ripening of the resource. A qualitative observational design was used to monitor three groups of wild Cebus nigritus in their daily movements, evaluating the amounts of ripe and unripe fruit present in the fruiting trees consumed by monkeys. Visits to fruiting trees showed that monkeys remember specific information on the location and condition of each tree

  5. Interpreting heterogeneity in intestinal tuft cell structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; McKinley, Eliot T; von Moltke, Jakob; Coffey, Robert J; Lau, Ken S

    2018-05-01

    Intestinal tuft cells are a morphologically unique cell type, best characterized by striking microvilli that form an apical tuft. These cells represent approximately 0.5% of gut epithelial cells depending on location. While they are known to express chemosensory receptors, their function has remained unclear. Recently, numerous groups have revealed startling insights into intestinal tuft cell biology. Here, we review the latest developments in understanding this peculiar cell type's structure and function. Recent advances in volumetric microscopy have begun to elucidate tuft cell ultrastructure with respect to its cellular neighbors. Moreover, single-cell approaches have revealed greater diversity in the tuft cell population than previously appreciated and uncovered novel markers to characterize this heterogeneity. Finally, advanced model systems have revealed tuft cells' roles in mucosal healing and orchestrating type 2 immunity against eukaryotic infection. While much remains unknown about intestinal tuft cells, these critical advances have illuminated the physiological importance of these previously understudied cells and provided experimentally tractable tools to interrogate this rare cell population. Tuft cells act as luminal sensors, linking the luminal microbiome to the host immune system, which may make them a potent clinical target for modulating host response to a variety of acute or chronic immune-driven conditions.

  6. The ecological rationality of delay tolerance: insights from capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Focaroli, Valentina

    2011-04-01

    Both human and non-human animals often face decisions between options available at different times, and the capacity of delaying gratification has usually been considered one of the features distinguishing humans from other animals. However, this characteristic can widely vary across individuals, species, and types of task and it is still unclear whether it is accounted for by phylogenetic relatedness, feeding ecology, social structure, or metabolic rate. To disentangle these hypotheses, we evaluated temporal preferences in capuchin monkeys, South-American primates that, despite splitting off from human lineage approximately 35 million years ago, show striking behavioural analogies with the great apes. Then, we compared capuchins' performance with that of the other primate species tested so far with the same procedure. Overall, capuchins showed a delay tolerance significantly higher than closely related species, such as marmosets and tamarins, and comparable to that shown by great apes. Capuchins' tool use abilities might explain their comparatively high preference for delayed options in inter-temporal choices. Moreover, as in humans, capuchin females showed a greater delay tolerance than males, possibly because of their less opportunistic foraging style. Thus, our results shed light on the evolutionary origins of self-control supporting explanations of delay tolerance in terms of feeding ecology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exophthalmos due to odontogenic intraorbital abscess in Cebus apella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriá, Arianne P; Pinna, Melissa H; Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Junior, Deusdete G; Libório, Fernanda A; de Assis Dórea Neto, Francisco; Oliveira, Alberto V D; Nogueira, Marcos; Requião, Katia

    2013-04-01

    The accumulation of pus in the orbit originating from an infected dental root is classified as odontogenic intraorbital abscess. Clinical, laboratory, and image evaluation of a non-human primate was performed. The patient was cured after surgical therapy. This represents the first report of an odontogenic periodontal abscess in Cebus apella. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. A comparative analysis of global and local processing of hierarchical visual stimuli in young children (Homo sapiens) and monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lillo, Carlo; Spinozzi, Giovanna; Truppa, Valentina; Naylor, Donna M

    2005-05-01

    Results obtained with preschool children (Homo sapiens) were compared with results previously obtained from capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in matching-to-sample tasks featuring hierarchical visual stimuli. In Experiment 1, monkeys, in contrast with children, showed an advantage in matching the stimuli on the basis of their local features. These results were replicated in a 2nd experiment in which control trials enabled the authors to rule out that children used spurious cues to solve the matching task. In a 3rd experiment featuring conditions in which the density of the stimuli was manipulated, monkeys' accuracy in the processing of the global shape of the stimuli was negatively affected by the separation of the local elements, whereas children's performance was robust across testing conditions. Children's response latencies revealed a global precedence in the 2nd and 3rd experiments. These results show differences in the processing of hierarchical stimuli by humans and monkeys that emerge early during childhood. 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Tufts academic health information network: concept and scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, N S

    1986-04-01

    Tufts University School of Medicine's new health sciences education building, the Arthur M. Sackler Center for Health Communications, will house a modern medical library and computer center, classrooms, auditoria, and media facilities. The building will also serve as the center for an information and communication network linking the medical school and adjacent New England Medical Center, Tufts' primary teaching hospital, with Tufts Associated Teaching Hospitals throughout New England. Ultimately, the Tufts network will join other gateway networks, information resource facilities, health care institutions, and medical schools throughout the world. The center and the network are intended to facilitate and improve the education of health professionals, the delivery of health care to patients, the conduct of research, and the implementation of administrative management approaches that should provide more efficient utilization of resources and save dollars. A model and scenario show how health care delivery and health care education are integrated through better use of information transfer technologies by health information specialists, practitioners, and educators.

  10. Manufacturing of composite parts reinforced through-thickness by tufting

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Anno, G.; Treiber, J. W G; Partridge, Ivana K

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims at providing practical guidelines for the manufacture of composite parts reinforced by tufting. The need for through-thickness reinforcement of high performance carbon fibre composite structures is reviewed and various options are presented. The tufting process is described in detail and relevant aspects of the technology are analysed such as: equipment configuration and setup, latest advances in tooling, thread selection, preform supporting systems and choice of ancillary mate...

  11. Dental remains of cebid platyrrhines from the earliest late Miocene of Western Amazonia, Peru: Macroevolutionary implications on the extant capuchin and marmoset lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Undoubted fossil Cebidae have so far been primarily documented from the late middle Miocene of Colombia, the late Miocene of Brazilian Amazonia, the early Miocene of Peruvian Amazonia, and very recently from the earliest Miocene of Panama. The evolutionary history of cebids is far from being well-documented, with notably a complete blank in the record of callitrichine stem lineages until and after the late middle Miocene (Laventan SALMA). Further documenting their evolutionary history is therefore of primary importance. Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have allowed for the discovery of an early late Miocene (ca. 11 Ma; Mayoan SALMA) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-43; Pebas Formation). In this study, we analyze the primate material, which consists of five isolated teeth documenting two distinct Cebidae: Cebus sp., a medium-sized capuchin (Cebinae), and Cebuella sp., a tiny marmoset (Callitrichinae). Although limited, this new fossil material of platyrrhines contributes to documenting the post-Laventan evolutionary history of cebids, and besides testifies to the earliest occurrences of the modern Cebuella and Cebus/Sapajus lineages in the Neotropics. Regarding the evolutionary history of callitrichine marmosets, the discovery of an 11 Ma-old fossil representative of the modern Cebuella pushes back by at least 6 Ma the age of the Mico/Cebuella divergence currently proposed by molecular biologists (i.e., ca. 4.5 Ma). This also extends back to > 11 Ma BP the divergence between Callithrix and the common ancestor (CA) of Mico/Cebuella, as well as the divergence between the CA of marmosets and Callimico (Goeldi's callitrichine). This discovery from Peruvian Amazonia implies a deep evolutionary root of the Cebuella lineage in the northwestern part of South America (the modern western Amazon basin), slightly before the recession of the Pebas mega-wetland system (PMWS), ca. 10.5 Ma, and well-before the subsequent

  12. Literature review of tufted reinforcement for composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaba, I.; Legrand, X.; Wang, P.; Soulat, D.

    2017-10-01

    In order to minimize the damage caused by the 2D structures, several research have been done on more complex structures (3D-preforms) which have more interesting mechanical characteristics. Divers textile technologies are used to manufacture 3D preforms such as weaving, knitting, stitching, z-pinning, tufting… This kind of reinforcement aims to achieve a balance between the in-plane and out-of-plane properties. Recently, the tufting technology shows more opportunities to develop 3D reinforcements especially with the advances in robotics. The present paper focuses not only on the various technologies of reinforcement through the thickness but also on the mechanical behaviour of a tufted preform in a stamping process.

  13. Tufting enteropathy with EpCAM mutation: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pêgas,Karla Lais; Cambruzzi,Eduardo; Ferrelli,Regis Schander; Silva,Carolina Soares da; Guedes,Renata Rostirola; Adami,Marina; Dias,Eduardo Montagner; Melere,Melina Utz; Ceza,Marilia Rosso; Steinhaus,Cintia; Epifanio,Matias; Salomon,Julie; Ferreira,Cristina Targa

    2014-01-01

    Tufting enteropathy (TE), also known as intestinal epithelial dysplasia (IED), is a rare congenital enteropathy related to an earlyonset of severe intractable diarrhea due to specific abnormalities of the intestinal epithelium and mutations of the EpCAM gene. TE is characterized by clinical and histological heterogeneity, such as with low or without mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria, and abnormalities of basement membrane. TE can be associated with malformations, other epith...

  14. Embryohistiogenesis of Vascular Tufts of Glomeruli: a Possible Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, Shahriar; Moeini-Aghtaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Dabiri, Bahram

    2017-10-01

    Embryogenesis of the kidney glomeruli, especially its vascular component, has not been well documented. Glomeruli capillary tuft is surrounded and enveloped by visceral epithelial cells, which is a unique portal system that connects afferent with efferent arteriole without interaction with venular circulation. We hypothesized that the portal system embryologically has developed by extension of the intima of afferent arteriole into the stroma of glomerulus. We also hypothesized that juxtaglomeruli apparatus was developed from remnants of smooth muscle cells of the media of afferent arteriole at the anastomosing site with the Bowman capsule entrance. We studied 5 human fetal kidneys by hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and immunoperoxidase staining techniques. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of fetal kidney showed presence of erythrocytes in early vesicle form of glomeruli that was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with CD31, smooth muscle actin, and CD34 markers. These stains showed extension of extraglomerular arterioles to the glomeruli. Periodic acid-Schiff staining showed also the continuity of the basement membrane in extraglomeruli and internal glomerular vascular tufts. This study shows that there is a relationship between the metanephric blast cells and major vessel critical for angiogenesis. When afferent arteriole come in contact with the immature glomeruli, its intima migrates into the glomerular tuft to form intraglomerular capillary system, while its smooth muscle remains at the entrance orifice and develops juxtaglomerular apparatus cells.

  15. Predatory threat of harpy eagles for yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys in the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suscke, Priscila; Verderane, Michele; de Oliveira, Robson Santos; Delval, Irene; Fernández-Bolaños, Marcelo; Izar, Patrícia

    2017-01-01

    We describe seven encounters between different harpy eagle individuals (Harpia harpyja) and a group of yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus xanthosternos) in Una Biological Reserve. These interactions lasted 58 min on average. In each of those encounters, the capuchin monkeys used particular behavioral strategies against the harpy eagle that were not employed in reaction to other aerial predators. We did not observe any successful predation events, but after one of those encounters an infant disappeared from the capuchin group. As a whole, these observations indicate that the presence of harpy eagles in the group's home range increases predation risk for capuchin monkeys. The present report also suggests a reoccupation by H. harpyja of this area, as no previous recent records identify harpy eagle occurrence in Una Biological Reserve.

  16. Humoral immune response in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella after vaccination with inactivated suckling mouse brain rabies vaccine: comparison of two schedules of immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevão de Camargo Passos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram vacinados contra a raiva, dois grupos de macacos-pregos adultos, com a vacina inativada preparada em cérebros de camundongos lactentes, administrada pela via intramuscular, na Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo. Os animais em momento algum haviam sido imunizados contra a raiva. O grupo I consistia de nove animais, que receberam três doses de 1,0 mL nos dias 0, 30 e uma dose de reforço aos 210 dias, e o grupo II continha 10 animais que receberam duas doses de 1,0 mL no dia 0 e uma dose de reforço aos 210 dias. As amostras de sangue foram colhidas aos 0, 30º, 60º, 90º, 150º, 210º, 240º, 300º e 365º dias, e os anticorpos neutralizantes titulados pela técnica simplificada da inibição de focos fluorescentes. A vacina induziu uma resposta imune de curta duração com títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes acima de 0.5 UI/mL em ambos os grupos; entretanto a resposta imune persistiu por apenas 54,9 + 57,0 e 36,1 + 60,2 dias nos Grupos I e II respectivamente após a primo vacinação, e, por apenas 62,6 + 74,0 e 86,4 + 61,5 dias nos Grupos I e II respectivamente após o reforço. Não houve diferença estatística significante entre os grupos estudados (p >; 0,05.

  17. Comportamiento social del mono capuchino común Cebus olivaceus (Primates: Cebidae en tres exhibiciones zoológicas de Caracas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Charlotte López

    2008-09-01

    repulsiones entre individuos, pero algunos aspectos de la dinámica social están alterados. Los rangos de dominancia no fueron claros, el macho alfa no dominaba a la hembra de mayor rango, los dominantes no interactuaban afiliativamente más que otros individuos, y las hembras no se afiliaban preferentemente con otras hembras. Estas observaciones son contrarias a lo descrito en la naturaleza. Globalmente C. olivaceus tolera bien el cautiverio porque presenta un repertorio de conductas similar al observado en la naturaleza y no muestra conductas anormales (auto agresión, movimientos estereotipados; sin embargo la dinámica social es afectada.Social behavior of the Wedge-capped Capuchin Monkey Cebus olivaceus (Primates: Cebidae in three zoological exhibits of Caracas, Venezuela. Captivity represents an extreme situation for primates, especially for those with large home ranges, and its effect on their behavior might be considerable. The Wedge-capped Capuchin Monkey Cebus olivaceus is the most common primate in Venezuelan zoos. To estimate the effect of confinement on C. olivaceus behavior, we analyzed the social behavior of three groups that differed in captivity conditions, in zoological exhibits in Caracas (Caricuao, Parque del Este, El Pinar. Caricuao’s group moved freely over a non-fenced area of 15 ha, Parque del Este’s and El Pinar’s groups lived in relatively small outdoor enclosures. Social behaviors were described using focal-animal sampling, group scans and ad libitum sampling. The frequency, duration and time devoted to each behavior (per focal period per individual were estimated. Relative dominance between pairs of individuals was established as well as affiliative associations. The repertory of social behaviors was similar between groups and to which has been observed in nature, but the duration and frequency of affiliative and agonistic interactions differed between groups. Affiliative behaviors were less frequent but longer in Caricuao than in the other

  18. Tufting enteropathy with EpCAM mutation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lais Pêgas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tufting enteropathy (TE, also known as intestinal epithelial dysplasia (IED, is a rare congenital enteropathy related to an earlyonset of severe intractable diarrhea due to specific abnormalities of the intestinal epithelium and mutations of the EpCAM gene. TE is characterized by clinical and histological heterogeneity, such as with low or without mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria, and abnormalities of basement membrane. TE can be associated with malformations, other epithelial diseases, or to abnormal enterocytes development and/or differentiation. The authors report a case of a Brazilian child with TE associated with c.556-14A>G mutation in the EpCAM gene (NM_002354.2.

  19. Dendritic branching of olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells: regulation by TrkB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Imamura

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Projection neurons of mammalian olfactory bulb (OB, mitral and tufted cells, have dendrites whose morphologies are specifically differentiated for efficient odor information processing. The apical dendrite extends radially and arborizes in single glomerulus where it receives primary input from olfactory sensory neurons that express the same odor receptor. The lateral dendrites extend horizontally in the external plexiform layer and make reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses with granule cells, which moderate mitral/tufted cell activity. The molecular mechanisms regulating dendritic development of mitral/tufted cells is one of the unsolved important problems in the olfactory system. Here, we focused on TrkB receptors to test the hypothesis that neurotrophin-mediate mechanisms contributed to dendritic differentiation of OB mitral/tufted cells.With immunohistochemical analysis, we found that the TrkB neurotrophin receptor is expressed by both apical and lateral dendrites of mitral/tufted cells and that expression is evident during the early postnatal days when these dendrites exhibit their most robust growth and differentiation. To examine the effect of TrkB activation on mitral/tufted cell dendritic development, we cultured OB neurons. When BDNF or NT4 were introduced into the cultures, there was a significant increase in the number of primary neurites and branching points among the mitral/tufted cells. Moreover, BDNF facilitated filopodial extension along the neurites of mitral/tufted cells.In this report, we show for the first time that TrkB activation stimulates the dendritic branching of mitral/tufted cells in developing OB. This suggests that arborization of the apical dendrite in a glomerulus is under the tight regulation of TrkB activation.

  20. A STUDY OF ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF Cebus apella TEETH ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DO CANAL RADICULAR DE DENTES DE Cebus apella

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Rocha Afonso; Leila Marques Araújo; Rafael Rodrigues Lima; Suely Maria Lamarão

    2008-01-01

    Realizou-se um estudo anatômico em dentes do Cebus apella, para análise da anatomia interna do canal radicular dessa espécie, normatizando seu uso como modelo experimental. Utilizaram-se doze animais adultos. Após a remoção do tecido orgânico, os dentes foram removidos, seccionados e fotografados, sendo analisados com um estereomicroscópio. Os resultados mostraram que os dentes apresentaram características semelhantes às dos seres humanos, mas com algumas peculiaridades, tais como: a anatomia...

  1. A STUDY OF ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF Cebus apella TEETH ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DO CANAL RADICULAR DE DENTES DE Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Rocha Afonso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo anatômico em dentes do Cebus apella, para análise da anatomia interna do canal radicular dessa espécie, normatizando seu uso como modelo experimental. Utilizaram-se doze animais adultos. Após a remoção do tecido orgânico, os dentes foram removidos, seccionados e fotografados, sendo analisados com um estereomicroscópio. Os resultados mostraram que os dentes apresentaram características semelhantes às dos seres humanos, mas com algumas peculiaridades, tais como: a anatomia do canal radicular variou de oval para circular; nos caninos inferiores, os canais são semelhantes a um rim, o que reflete o contorno externo da raiz; nos molares superiores, os canais mesiobucal e distobucal são ovais, seguindo o contorno geral do dente. Os autores concluem que esta espécie pode ser utilizada como modelo em pesquisas odontológicas, principalmente em estudos do tratamento do sistema de canal radicular.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, dentes, Cebus apella. An anatomic study of Cebus apella root teeth was performed to analyze the internal anatomy of permanent dentition, normalizing its use as experimental model endodontic research. Twelve adult animals were used in this study. After the removal of the organic tissue, the all teeth were removed, sectioned, analyzed and photographed with a stereomicroscope. The results showed that the anatomy of root canal of this species are similar to human dental anatomy, considering the shape, pathway and number of canals, but with some peculiarities, such as: the root canal anatomy varied from oval to circular; in the lower canines, the canals are resembled a kidney, reflecting the outside contour of the root; in the upper molars, the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals are oval, following the general contour of the tooth. The authors conclude that this primate can be applied as models for study of root canal treatment in human beings, in special the upper central and lateral incisors

  2. Anatomy of the arteries of the arm of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 monkeys = Anatomia das artérias do braço do macaco Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário de Souza Lima-e-Silva

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cebus monkey displays a high capacity for adaptation to urbanenvironments, and its high level of encephalization has generated great interest by scientific community to study it. The study of the vascularization of the arm of Cebus is important because of its arboreal habits. Twenty-four animals donated by Ibama (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources from the city of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and housed in the anatomy collections of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU and the Federal University of Goiás (UFG were used. The arterialsystem of these animals was injected with coloring latex, after which the arteries were dissected using stereoscopic microscope or the naked eye. In general terms, the findings on the brachial vessels of the Cebus monkey are identical to those found in humans and inother primates. In specific terms, the most outstanding variation was the small size or the absence of the brachial artery in Cebus. The arterial model of Cebus corroborates its arboreal behavior and constant use of its thoracic limbs.O macaco Cebus possui alta capacidade de adaptação em ambientes urbanos e o seu elevado índice de encefalização tem gerado grande interesse por parte da comunidade científica em estudá-lo. A importância do estudo da vascularização do braço desses animais éem virtude do seu hábito arbóreo. Foram usados 24 animais doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (Ibama de Sete Lagoas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, depositados nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial dos espécimes foi injetado com látex corado e, posteriormente, as artérias foram dissecadas com o auxílio de microscópico estereoscópico ou a olhos desarmados. Em termos gerais, os achados em Cebus acerca de vasos braquiais são idênticos aos encontrados em humanos e outros primatas. Em termos

  3. Tufted Angioma in Children: Report of Two Cases and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Dutra da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tufted angioma (TA is a benign vascular tumor with endothelial origin. It is extremely rare in oral mucosa; only seven cases have been reported in the literature so far. Here, we describe two cases of tufted angioma observed in children and we also present a review of the literature about this pathology, concerning the differential diagnosis and management of this lesion in children.

  4. Gestational ultrasonography and Dopplerfluxometry in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) zoometric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, S A; Leão, D L; Oliveira, K G; Sodré, I S; Domingues, S F S

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were as follows: 1) to evaluate blood flow in the uterine (UA) and umbilical (Uma) arteries in pregnant capuchin monkeys by measuring the resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI); 2) to determine the presence or absence of the early diastolic notch and diastolic flow in the UA and Uma flow waveforms, respectively; 3) to perform conceptus echobiometry for fetal growth assessment during pregnancy; 4) to describe the moment that the fetal organs were initially observed; and 5) to determine when the diagnosis of fetal gender is possible. Seven healthy, sexually mature female Sapajus apella were examined in Weeks -20 to -1 before whelping (whelping Week 0). Triplex Doppler was used to assess the blood flow and fetal heart rate, and B-mode ultrasonography was used to assess the fetal organs and conceptus measurements, including the gestational sac latero-lateral longitudinal (LLL) and latero-lateral transversal (LLT), the crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (BPD), occipito-frontal diameter (OFD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and fetal organ. All the pregnancies ended with a normal whelping and the birth of a live newborn. Prior to whelping, all conceptus dimensions increased significantly, whereas the RI and PI of both the UA and Uma decreased significantly. For the UA, the RI and PI were (mean ± SEM) 0.835 ± 0.017 and 2.157 ± 0.129, 0.808 ± 0.008 and 1.920 ± 0.041, and 0.761 ± 0.006 and 1.759 ± 0.036 on periods -3, -2 and -1, respectively. For the Uma, the RI and PI were 0.97 ± 0.01 and 2.50 ± 0.02 at Week -17 and were 0.64 ± 0.02 and 0.98 ± 0.04 at Week -1, respectively. The complete disappearance of the early diastolic notch in the UA, and the complete appearance of diastolic flow in the Uma occurred on Week -1 and Week -11, respectively. Linear regression analyses regarding the relationship of the weeks before whelping (WBW) with the

  5. High-energy physics at Tufts University. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes research accomplished at Tufts University in High Energy Physics during the period 1957 to 1982, with emphasis on the period since 1979 when next previous such summary report was submitted. Activities and publications up to 31 December 1982 and not earlier reported are listed. Principal accomplishments during the past six years include: measurement of the near equality of the charmed D 0 and D +- lifetimes; determination of important features of nu/sub μ/ cross sections on nucleons, of majority quark momentum distributions, of charmed #betta#/sub c/ + production and decay of quark and di-quark fragmentation, and of Z 0 left-handed couplings to u- and d-quarks; the second observation of the upsilon particle; the hadronic production of the J/psi particle via the chi charmonium state; observation of virtual-photon shadowing in deep-inelastic muon scattering; and observation of evidence for two new scalar meson states. In theoretical work, a detailed understanding of the nature of optimal representations of amplitudes and observables in scattering processes has been achieved

  6. Imaging dopamine-2 receptors in cebus apella at PET with F-18 fluoropropylspiperone and F-18 fluorinated benzamide neuroleptic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, J.; Yasillo, N.J.; Luh, K.E.; Diamond, M.; Levy, D.; Chen, C.T.; Cooper, M.

    1990-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD), an intractable disorder believed to involve dysfunction of dopamine D-2 receptors, often occurs with neuroleptic treatment in neuropsychiatric illness. This paper investigates the role of these receptors using a unique primate model of TD with newly developed (F-18) fluorinated radioligands. Two radioligands, (F-18)FPMB (one of a new class of fluorinated benzamide neuroleptics) have been used to image these receptors in a normal Cebus apella. Either (F-18)FPSP or (F-18)FPMB was administered intravenously to a normal Cebus, which was scanned for 2 hours in a PETT VI tomograph

  7. Distribution and function of HCN channels in the apical dendritic tuft of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Mark T; Magee, Jeffrey C; Williams, Stephen R

    2015-01-21

    The apical tuft is the most remote area of the dendritic tree of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Despite its distal location, the apical dendritic tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons receives substantial excitatory synaptic drive and actively processes corticocortical input during behavior. The properties of the voltage-activated ion channels that regulate synaptic integration in tuft dendrites have, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we use electrophysiological and optical approaches to examine the subcellular distribution and function of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective cation (HCN) channels in rat layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Outside-out patch recordings demonstrated that the amplitude and properties of ensemble HCN channel activity were uniform in patches excised from distal apical dendritic trunk and tuft sites. Simultaneous apical dendritic tuft and trunk whole-cell current-clamp recordings revealed that the pharmacological blockade of HCN channels decreased voltage compartmentalization and enhanced the generation and spread of apical dendritic tuft and trunk regenerative activity. Furthermore, multisite two-photon glutamate uncaging demonstrated that HCN channels control the amplitude and duration of synaptically evoked regenerative activity in the distal apical dendritic tuft. In contrast, at proximal apical dendritic trunk and somatic recording sites, the blockade of HCN channels decreased excitability. Dynamic-clamp experiments revealed that these compartment-specific actions of HCN channels were heavily influenced by the local and distributed impact of the high density of HCN channels in the distal apical dendritic arbor. The properties and subcellular distribution pattern of HCN channels are therefore tuned to regulate the interaction between integration compartments in layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351024-14$15.00/0.

  8. High Energy Physics at Tufts University Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Gary R. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Oliver, William P. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Napier, Austin [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Gallagher, Hugh R. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    2012-07-18

    In this Final Report, we the researchers of the high energy physics group at Tufts University summarize our works and achievements in three frontier areas of elementary particle physics: (i) Neutrino physics at the Intensity Frontier, (ii) Collider physics at the Energy Frontier, and (iii) Theory investigations of spin structure and quark-gluon dynamics of nucleons using quantum chromodynamics. With our Neutrino research we completed, or else brought to a useful state, the following: Data-taking, physics simulations, physics analysis, physics reporting, explorations of matter effects, and detector component fabrication. We conducted our work as participants in the MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE neutrino oscillation experiments and in the MINERvA neutrino scattering experiment. With our Collider research we completed or else brought to a useful state: Data-taking, development of muon system geometry and tracking codes, software validation and maintenance, physics simulations, physics analysis, searches for new particles, and study of top-quark and B-quark systems. We conducted these activities as participants in the ATLAS proton-proton collider experiment at CERN and in the CDF proton-antiproton collider experiment at Fermilab. In our Theory research we developed QCD-based models, applications of spin phenomenology to fundamental systems, fitting of models to data, presenting and reporting of new concepts and formalisms. The overarching objectives of our research work have always been: 1) to test and clarify the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, and 2) to discover new phenomena which may point the way to a more unified theoretical framework.

  9. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. 

  10. Digging up food: excavation stone tool use by wild capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falótico, Tiago; Siqueira, José O; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2017-07-24

    Capuchin monkeys at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) usually forage on the ground for roots and fossorial arthropods, digging primarily with their hands but also using stone tools to loosen the soil and aid the digging process. Here we describe the stone tools used for digging by two groups of capuchins on SCNP. Both groups used tools while digging three main food resources: Thiloa glaucocarpa tubers, Ocotea sp roots, and trapdoor spiders. One explanation for the occurrence of tool use in primates is the "necessity hypothesis", which states that the main function of tool use is to obtain fallback food. We tested for this, but only found a positive correlation between plant food availability and the frequency of stone tools' use. Thus, our data do not support the fallback food hypothesis for the use of tools to access burrowed resources.

  11. Wild capuchin monkeys anticipate the amount of ripe fruit in natural trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tujague, María Paula; Janson, Charles H

    2017-09-01

    Tropical forests have a high diversity of tree species which have very low densities and vary across time in their seasons of peak fruiting and maturation rates. As evidence of the ability of primates to track or anticipate changes in fruit production at individual trees, researchers have used the increased speed of primate groups toward more rewarding food patches. We analyzed the speed of approach to natural trees of wild capuchin monkeys under the effect of scramble competition, after excluding any plausible visual, olfactory and auditory cues. We conducted all-day group follows of three habituated capuchin groups at Iguazú National Park, Argentina, collecting data on ranging behavior and patterns of visits to fruit trees in relation with their location and fruit availability. Travel speed varied according to the expected reward at a feeding tree, increasing as rewards increased from low values, but decreasing again at very high values. Also, travel speed varied with time of day, decreasing from the time of first activity as the monkeys became less hungry, and increasing again toward late afternoon. Measures of unripe fruit cover did not explain variation in travel speed at any distance from a focal tree. Our data imply that, after excluding sensory cues, capuchins appear to anticipate time-varying ripe fruit quantity of natural resources, suggesting that they use memory of tree location and anticipation of fruit maturation. We also confirm that speed is a good measure about expectations of resources, as has been shown in previous studies.

  12. ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DAS ARTÉRIAS DO OMBRO DE Cebus libidinosus (RYLANDS, 2000; PRIMATES – CEBIDAE ANATOMIC STUDY OF ARTERIES OF SHOULDER Cebus libidinosus (RYLANDS, 2000; PRIMATES - CEBIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandra Cássia Lobato do Prado

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As pesquisas nos Cebus libidinosus têm sido incremAs pesquisas nos Cebus libidinosus têm sido in¬crementadas, em razão do pouco conhecimento de sua morfofisiologia e por terem expressivo desenvolvimento psicomotor comparável ao dos primatas do Velho Mundo. A região do ombro merece especial atenção, em virtude dos hábitos arborícolas e as constantes manipulações de objetos. Neste trabalho utilizaram-se 24 exemplares de Cebus libidinosus doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (IBAMA de Sete Lagoas, MG, Brasil, sacrificados de acordo com as recomendações do Comitê Brasileiro de Experimentação Animal (COBEA e inclu¬ídos nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial destes indivíduos foi injetado com látex corado e posteriormente dissecaram-se as artérias sob lupa estereoscópica. Na maioria dos casos, as artérias encontra¬da, apresentaram relativa correspondência de distribuição e número comparável ao modelo humano e de outros primatas, com variações quanto à frequência e origem dos vasos. De modo geral as artérias do ombro deste Cebídeo se originaram de vasos derivados indiretamente da artéria axilar, uma vez que surgiram como pequenos troncos arte¬riais que se subdividiram, e não como ramos individuais, como descrito nos outros animais estudados, e de modo específico ocorreram variações de todas as estruturas em relação aos outros primatas estudados. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, artérias, Cebus libidinosus, primatas. The researches in Cebus libidinosus has been reali¬zed because less known about your morphophisiology and its expressive psychomotor development comparative with Old World primates. The shoulder regions deserve special attention because behavior paste and objects manipulations. Twenty four Cebus specimens were donated by the “Bra¬zilian Institute for Environment and Recyclable Natural Resources

  13. Working and waiting for better rewards: self-control in two monkey species (Cebus apella and Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Self-control is typically defined as choosing a greater, delayed reward over a lesser, more immediate reward. However, in nature, there are other costs besides delay associated with obtaining the greatest outcome including increased effort, potential punishment, and low probability of reward. Effort is an interesting case because it sometimes impairs self-control, by acting as an additional cost, and at other times facilitates self-control, by distracting one from impulsive options. Additionally, different species may perform differently in effortful self-control tasks, based on their natural ecology. To gain insight into these aspects of self-control behavior, we examined capuchin monkeys' and rhesus monkeys' self-control in separate working and waiting choice tasks. We hypothesized that capuchins would show greater self-control in the working task, given their naturally higher activity level, whereas rhesus would perform similarly in both tasks. Rhesus performed as predicted, whereas contrary to our hypothesis, capuchins exhibited lesser performance in the working task. Nonetheless, these results may still stem from inherent species differences interacting with details of the methodology. Capuchins, being highly energetic and social monkeys, may have divided their energy and attention between the working task and other elements of the test environment such as visible group mates or manipulanda. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to predation danger during colony approach flights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addison, B.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Smith, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    In spite of their putative importance in the evolution of certain traits (e.g., nocturnality, coloniality, cliff nesting), the effects of aerial predators on behavior of adult seabirds at colonies have been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) respond to

  15. Not Waving but Drowning: A Review of Tufte's "The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    "The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint: Pitching Out Corrupts Within" by Edward Tufte (2006) condemns the software for failing to help users achieve many of the goals of an effective presentation and instead offers a low resolution platform with a deeply hierarchical single-path structure capable of convening a trivial amount of information even over…

  16. Miocardite no macaco Cebus após inoculações repetidas com Schizotrypanum cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Magarinos Torres

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Chagas disease is realized through contamination of ocular conjunctiva, mucosa or skin with infected dejections eliminated by the insect vectors of Schizotrypanum cruzi (Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Rhodnius prolixus. The triatomid bugs live in holes and craks in the walls, in beds, behind trunks, etc. Found in primitive mud huts covered with thatched roofs, and so the human dwellers have many chances to contract the disease, reinfections being reasonably more to expect than a single inoculation. Experimental work reproducing those natural conditions is welcomed as some important features in the pathologic picture of the disease such as the extensive myocardial fibrosis seen in chronic cases are still incompletely known. Microscopic changes were studied in the heart muscle of seven Cebus monkeys infected by S. cruzi. This animal survives the acute stage of the disease and so is particularly suited to experiments of long duration in which several inoculations of S. cruzi are performed. Three different strains of S. cruzi isolated from acute cases of Chagas' disease were employed. One monkey was injected in the skin with infected blood and necropsied after 252 days. Two monkeys were three times, and one, eight times infected in skin, one of them with contaminated blood, and two with contaminated blood and dejections from infected bugs. The necropsies were performed after 35, 95 and 149 days. One monkey was three times inoculated through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with infected blood, two times with dejections from infected bugs, and one time through the wounded buccal mucosa, and necropsied after 134 days. Another monkey was six times inoculated, four times through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with contaminated blood, three times with dejections from infected bugs and two times injected in the skin with infected blood, and necropsied after 157 days. Finally, another monkey was nine times

  17. Padrões hematológicos em Cebus apella, anestesiados com quetamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sangue foram colhidas de 124 macacos-prego (Cebus apella da Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo, anestesiados com quetamina (10 mg/kg, IM, com a finalidade de determinar os seguintes parâmetros hematológicos: contagens globais de hemácias e leucócitos, contagem diferencial de leucócitos, hematócrito, hemoglobina e índices hematimétricos (VCM, HCM e CHCM, expressos em média e desvio padrão. Estudou-se a influência do sexo e da idade sobre os referidos parâmetros.

  18. The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M B; Fuxe, K; Werge, T

    2002-01-01

    and lack of EPS in rodents could also be observed in non-human primates. We investigated the effects of CGS 21680 on behaviours induced by D-amphetamine and (-)-apomorphine in EPS-sensitized Cebus apella monkeys. CGS 21680 was administered s.c. in doses of 0.01, 0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg, alone...... and in combination with D-amphetamine and (-)-apomorphine. The monkeys were videotaped after drug administration and the tapes were rated for EPS and psychosis-like symptoms. CGS 21680 decreased apomorphine-induced behavioural unrest, arousal (0.01-0.05 mg/kg) and stereotypies (0.05 mg/kg) while amphetamine...... showed a functional anti-dopaminergic effect in Cebus apella monkeys without production of EPS. This further substantiates that adenosine A2A receptor agonists may have potential as antipsychotics with atypical profiles....

  19. The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M B; Fuxe, K; Werge, T

    2002-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 has shown effects similar to dopamine antagonists in behavioural assays in rats predictive for antipsychotic activity, without induction of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). In the present study, we examined whether this functional dopamine antagonism...... showed a functional anti-dopaminergic effect in Cebus apella monkeys without production of EPS. This further substantiates that adenosine A2A receptor agonists may have potential as antipsychotics with atypical profiles....

  20. Extracting quantitative three-dimensional unsteady flow direction from tuft flow visualizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu, E-mail: omata@nakl.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sirayama@sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Systems Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    We focus on the qualitative but widely used method of tuft flow visualization, and propose a method for quantifying it using information technology. By applying stereo image processing and computer vision, the three-dimensional (3D) flow direction in a real environment can be obtained quantitatively. In addition, we show that the flow can be divided temporally by performing appropriate machine learning on the data. Acquisition of flow information in real environments is important for design development, but it is generally considered difficult to apply simulations or quantitative experiments to such environments. Hence, qualitative methods including the tuft method are still in use today. Although attempts have been made previously to quantify such methods, it has not been possible to acquire 3D information. Furthermore, even if quantitative data could be acquired, analysis was often performed empirically or qualitatively. In contrast, we show that our method can acquire 3D information and analyze the measured data quantitatively. (paper)

  1. Endogenous GABA and Glutamate Finely Tune the Bursting of Olfactory Bulb External Tufted Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayar, Abdallah; Ennis, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    In rat olfactory bulb slices, external tufted (ET) cells spontaneously generate spike bursts. Although ET cell bursting is intrinsically generated, its strength and precise timing may be regulated by synaptic input. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing whether the burst properties are modulated by activation of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate receptors. Blocking GABAA receptors increased—whereas blocking ionotropic glutamate receptors decreased—the number of spikes/burst without changing the interburst frequency. The GABAA agonist (isoguvacine, 10 μM) completely inhibited bursting or reduced the number of spikes/burst, suggesting a shunting effect. These findings indicate that the properties of ET cell spontaneous bursting are differentially controlled by GABAergic and glutamatergic fast synaptic transmission. We suggest that ET cell excitatory and inhibitory inputs may be encoded as a change in the pattern of spike bursting in ET cells, which together with mitral/tufted cells constitute the output circuit of the olfactory bulb. PMID:17567771

  2. Extracting quantitative three-dimensional unsteady flow direction from tuft flow visualizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    We focus on the qualitative but widely used method of tuft flow visualization, and propose a method for quantifying it using information technology. By applying stereo image processing and computer vision, the three-dimensional (3D) flow direction in a real environment can be obtained quantitatively. In addition, we show that the flow can be divided temporally by performing appropriate machine learning on the data. Acquisition of flow information in real environments is important for design development, but it is generally considered difficult to apply simulations or quantitative experiments to such environments. Hence, qualitative methods including the tuft method are still in use today. Although attempts have been made previously to quantify such methods, it has not been possible to acquire 3D information. Furthermore, even if quantitative data could be acquired, analysis was often performed empirically or qualitatively. In contrast, we show that our method can acquire 3D information and analyze the measured data quantitatively. (paper)

  3. A novel nonsense mutation in the tyrosinase gene is related to the albinism in a capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante Rocha de Vasconcelos, Felipe Tadeu; Hauzman, Einat; Dutra Henriques, Leonardo; Kilpp Goulart, Paulo Roney; de Faria Galvão, Olavo; Sano, Ronaldo Yuiti; da Silva Souza, Givago; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; de Lima Silveira, Luis Carlos; Fix Ventura, Dora; Oliveira Bonci, Daniela Maria

    2017-05-05

    Oculocutaneous Albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive inherited condition that affects the pigmentation of eyes, hair and skin. The OCA phenotype may be caused by mutations in the tyrosinase gene (TYR), which expresses the tyrosinase enzyme and has an important role in the synthesis of melanin pigment. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic mutation responsible for the albinism in a captive capuchin monkey, and to describe the TYR gene of normal phenotype individuals. In addition, we identified the subject's species. A homozygous nonsense mutation was identified in exon 1 of the TYR gene, with the substitution of a cytosine for a thymine nucleotide (C64T) at codon 22, leading to a premature stop codon (R22X) in the albino robust capuchin monkey. The albino and five non-albino robust capuchin monkeys were identified as Sapajus apella, based on phylogenetic analyses, pelage pattern and geographic provenance. One individual was identified as S. macrocephalus. We conclude that the point mutation C64T in the TYR gene is responsible for the OCA1 albino phenotype in the capuchin monkey, classified as Sapajus apella.

  4. Kocuria kristinae-caused sepsis in an infant with congenital tufting enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Malik; Ganschow, Rainer; Jankofsky, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aydin M, Ganschow R, Jankofsky M. Kocuria kristinae-caused sepsis in an infant with congenital tufting enteropathy. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 93-96. Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is characterized by the early-onset of chronic diarrhea and the inability to develop. It is a rare congenital disease with a low prevalence of 1:50,000 - 100,000 live births p.a. The histopathology is characterized by villous atrophy and the characteristic epithelial tufts. Recent identification of causative mutations in EpCAM has enhanced our understanding of this disease. Due to its severe clinical course, patients are dependent on parenteral nutrition to thrive successfully. Catheter-associated blood stream infections have become the primary problem for pediatric patients. Infections with Kocuria kristinae are rare. This report is about a 3-month-old girl with CTE suffering from a central venous catheter related mono-sepsis by K. kristinae. A sepsis therapy with meropenem and vancomycin improved her general state rapidly. Only few cases in the literature with CTE and K. kristinae are described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report presenting two coincidences in one case.

  5. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2 in OB mitral/tufted cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the olfactory bulb by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli.

  6. Differential Axonal Projection of Mitral and Tufted Cells in the Mouse Main Olfactory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Nagayama

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, much has been elucidated regarding the functional organization of the axonal connection of olfactory sensory neurons to olfactory bulb (OB glomeruli. However, the manner in which projection neurons of the OB process odorant input and send this information to higher brain centers remains unclear. Here, we report long-range, large-scale tracing of the axonal projection patterns of OB neurons using two-photon microscopy. Tracer injection into a single glomerulus demonstrated widely distributed mitral/tufted cell axonal projections on the lateroventral surface of the mouse brain, including the anterior/posterior piriform cortex (PC and olfactory tubercle (OT. We noted two distinct groups of labeled axons: PC-orienting axons and OT-orienting axons. Each group occupied distinct parts of the lateral olfactory tract. PC-orienting axons projected axon collaterals to a wide area of the PC but only a few collaterals to the OT. OT-orienting axons densely projected axon collaterals primarily to the anterolateral OT (alOT. Different colored dye injections into the superficial and deep portions of the OB external plexiform layer revealed that the PC-orienting axon populations originated in presumed mitral cells and the OT-orienting axons in presumed tufted cells. These data suggest that although mitral and tufted cells receive similar odor signals from a shared glomerulus, they process the odor information in different ways and send their output to different higher brain centers via the PC and alOT.

  7. A comparative study on component volumes from outer to inner dental enamel in relation to enamel tufts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setally Azevedo Macena, Marcus; de Alencar e Silva Leite, Maria Luísa; de Lima Gouveia, Cíntia; de Lima, Tamires Alcoforado Sena; Athayde, Priscilla Alves Aguiar; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Dental enamel presents marked mechanical properties gradients from outer to inner enamel, a region lacking component volumes profiles. Tufts, structures of inner enamel, have been shown to play a role in enamel resilience. We aimed at comparing component volumes from inner to outer enamel in relation to enamel tufts. Transversal ground sections from the cervical half of unerupted human third molars (n=10) were prepared and histological points were selected along transversal lines (extending from innermost to outer enamel) traced across tufts and adjacent control areas without tufts. Component volumes were measured at each histological point. Component volumes ranges were: 70.6-98.5% (mineral), 0.02-20.78% (organic), 3.8-9.8% (total water), 3-9% (firmly bound water), and 0.02-3.3% (loosely bound water). Inner enamel presented the lowest mineral volumes and the highest non-mineral volumes. Mineral, water and organic contents differed as a function of the distance from innermost enamel but not between the tuft and control lines. Tufts presented opaqueness in polarizing microscopy (feature of fracture lines). Organic volume gradient correlated with a relatively flat profile of loosely bound water. Inner, but not outer enamel, rehydrated after air-dried enamel was heated to 50°C and re-exposed to room conditions, as predicted by the organic/water gradient profiles. Component volumes vary markedly from outer to inner enamel, but not between areas with or without tufts (that behave like fracture lines under polarizing microscopy). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pairing and recombination features during meiosis in Cebus paraguayanus (Primates: Platyrrhini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Cruz Raquel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among neotropical Primates, the Cai monkey Cebus paraguayanus (CPA presents long, conserved chromosome syntenies with the human karyotype (HSA as well as numerous C+ blocks in different chromosome pairs. In this study, immunofluorescence (IF against two proteins of the Synaptonemal Complex (SC, namely REC8 and SYCP1, two recombination protein markers (RPA and MLH1, and one protein involved in the pachytene checkpoint machinery (BRCA1 was performed in CPA spermatocytes in order to analyze chromosome meiotic behavior in detail. Results Although in the vast majority of pachytene cells all autosomes were paired and synapsed, in a small number of nuclei the heterochromatic C-positive terminal region of bivalent 11 remained unpaired. The analysis of 75 CPA cells at pachytene revealed a mean of 43.22 MLH1 foci per nucleus and 1.07 MLH1 foci in each CPA bivalent 11, always positioned in the region homologous to HSA chromosome 21. Conclusion Our results suggest that C blocks undergo delayed pairing and synapsis, although they do not interfere with the general progress of pairing and synapsis.

  9. Visuotopic organization of the cebus pulvinar: a double representation the contralateral hemifield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattass, R; Oswaldo-Cruz, E; Sousa, A P

    1978-08-18

    The projection of the visual field in the pulvinar nucleus was studied in 17 Cebus monkeys using electrophysiological techniques. Visual space is represented in two regions of the pulvinar; (1) the ventrolateral group, Pvlg, comprising nuclei P delta, P delta, P gamma, P eta and P mu 1; and (2) P mu. In the first group, which corresponds to the pulvinar inferior and ventral part of the pulvinar lateralis, we observed a greater respresentation of the central part of the visual field. Approximately 58% of the volume of the ventrolateral group is concerned with the visual space within 10 degrees of the fovea. This portion of the visual field is represented at its lateral aspects, mainly close to the level of the caudal pole of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Projection of the vertical meridian runs along its lateral border while that of the horizontal one is found running from the dorsal third of the LGN's hilus to the medial border of the ventro-lateral group. The lower quadrant is represented at its dorsal portion while the upper quadrant is represented at the ventral one. In Pmu the representation is rotated 90 degrees clockwise around the rostrocaudal axis: the vertical meridian is found at the ventromedial border of this nucleus. Thus, the lower quadrant is represented at the later portion of Pmu and the upper at its medial portion. Both projections are restricted to the contralateral hemifield.

  10. Facial Width-To-Height Ratio Relates to Alpha Status and Assertive Personality in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Carmen Emilia; Wilson, Vanessa A. D.; Morton, F. Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Paukner, Annika; Bates, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Social dominance hierarchies play a pivotal role in shaping the behaviour of many species, and sex differences within these hierarchies often exist. To date, however, few physical markers of dominance have been identified. Such markers would be valuable in terms of understanding the etiology of dominant behaviour and changes in social hierarchies over time. Animals may also use such traits to evaluate the potential dominance of others relative to themselves (i.e. a physical “cue”). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), for example, has been suggested as a cue to dominance in humans, with links to both dominant behaviour and the perception of dominance in other individuals. Whether this association is present in non-human animals is currently not known. Therefore, here we examine within-species links between fWHR and dominant behaviour in 64 brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) aged between 2 and 40 years. fWHR was positively associated with alpha status and with a dimensional rating of assertive personality in both males and females. Moreover, fWHR showed significant sexual dimorphism in adults but not juveniles, suggesting a developmental change may occur during puberty. In a sub-sample, sex differences were mediated by weight, suggesting fWHR dimorphism does not exceed what would be expected by differences in body weight. This is the first report of an association between face shape and behaviour in a non-human species. Results are discussed in terms of the role that face-behaviour associations might play within capuchin societies, and the possible selective forces that might have led to the evolution of fWHR-dominance associations in humans. PMID:24705247

  11. SIZE SELECTION IN DIVING TUFTED DUCKS AYTHYA-FULIGULA EXPLAINED BY DIFFERENTIAL HANDLING OF SMALL AND LARGE MUSSELS DREISSENA-POLYMORPHA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DELEEUW, JJ; VANEERDEN, MR

    1992-01-01

    We studied prey size selection of Tufted Ducks feeding on fresh-water mussels under semi-natural conditions. In experiments with non-diving birds, we found that Tufted Ducks use two techniques to handle mussels. Mussels less than 16 mm in length are strained from a waterflow generated in the bill

  12. Dclk1+ small intestinal epithelial tuft cells display the hallmarks of quiescence and self-renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Weygant, Nathaniel; Taylor, Vivian E.; Li, James D.; Ali, Naushad; Sureban, Sripathi M.; Qante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C.; Bronze, Michael S.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2015-01-01

    To date, no discrete genetic signature has been defined for isolated Dclk1+ tuft cells within the small intestine. Furthermore, recent reports on the functional significance of Dclk1+ cells in the small intestine have been inconsistent. These cells have been proposed to be fully differentiated cells, reserve stem cells, and tumor stem cells. In order to elucidate the potential function of Dclk1+ cells, we FACS-sorted Dclk1+ cells from mouse small intestinal epithelium using transgenic mice expressing YFP under the control of the Dclk1 promoter (Dclk1-CreER;Rosa26-YFP). Analysis of sorted YFP+ cells demonstrated marked enrichment (~6000 fold) for Dclk1 mRNA compared with YFP− cells. Dclk1+ population display ~6 fold enrichment for the putative quiescent stem cell marker Bmi1. We observed significantly greater expression of pluripotency genes, pro-survival genes, and quiescence markers in the Dclk1+ population. A significant increase in self-renewal capability (14-fold) was observed in in vitro isolated Dclk1+ cells. The unique genetic report presented in this manuscript suggests that Dclk1+ cells may maintain quiescence, pluripotency, and metabolic activity for survival/longevity. Functionally, these reserve characteristics manifest in vitro, with Dclk1+ cells exhibiting greater ability to self-renew. These findings indicate that quiescent stem-like functionality is a feature of Dclk1-expressing tuft cells. PMID:26362399

  13. The Great Diseases Project: a partnership between Tufts Medical School and the Boston public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F

    2013-05-01

    Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, affecting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston public school teachers established a partnership of formal scholarly dialogue to create 11th- to 12th-grade high school curricula about critical health-related concepts, with the goal of increasing scientific literacy and influencing health-related decisions. The curricula are based on the great diseases (infectious diseases, neurological disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer). Unlike most health science curricular interventions that provide circumscribed activities, the curricula are comprehensive, each filling one full term of in-class learning and providing extensive real-time support for the teacher. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented the infectious disease curriculum, and its impacts. The high school teachers and students showed robust gains in content knowledge and critical thinking skills, whereas the Tufts scientists increased their pedagogical knowledge and appreciation for health-related science communication. The results show how formal interactions between medical schools and K-12 educators can be mutually beneficial.

  14. Active iris vascular tufts bleeding successfully treated with argon laser photocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmad, Ambreen; Alfaqawi, Fadi; Chakrabarti, Monali; Mitra, Arijit; Mushtaq, Bushra

    2018-03-01

    Iris vascular tufts (IVT) are rare biomicroscopic capillary outgrowths from the pupillary margins. Patients are usually asymptomatic until presenting with blurred vision due to spontaneous hyphema or with raised intraocular pressure. A 61-year-old woman presented to eye casualty with left eye (LE) blurred vision and discomfort for 1 day. Her external ocular examination was unremarkable and visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye (RE) and 6/9 in the LE. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a 2-mm hyphema in her LE and bilateral multiple small IVT and active bleeding from IVT at the pupillary margin of the LE at the 5 o'clock position. Diagnosis of LE active bleeding from IVT was made and she underwent argon laser photocoagulation directed at the source of bleeding. The bleeding stopped immediately after the second burn. She was followed up for 3 months; her visual acuity was 6/5 and 6/6 in the RE and LE, respectively, with no further problems. Iris vascular tufts are benign and recurrent hemorrhages are unlikely. Therefore, definitive argon laser photocoagulation or surgical treatment are reserved to arrest further episodes of hyphema. Our case demonstrates the effective use of argon laser photocoagulation to completely arrest active bleeding from IVT and excellent recovery of hyphema with no further problems for 5 years.

  15. Comparative anatomy of the thigh nerves of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.G.M.F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates have constituted an important group among animals subjected to various studies. Ethological, evolutionary and paleontological studies have revealed changes in anatomical structures linked to the evolution of primates, considered in studies on the comparative anatomy between Cebus libidinosus and other neotropical monkeys or those from the Old World, and the detailed knowledge on their anatomy may represent an important factor for their preservation and protection when the animals are brought to veterinary clinics after accidents or illnesses. In terms of veterinary importance, sometimes these animals arrive in the veterinary medical clinics after accidents, needing surgery or clinical treatment, but the little data available on anatomy has impaired the correct proceedings. The main justification for studies on C. libidinosus, is due to little information about the anatomy related to C. libidinosus in Brazilian and worldwide scientific literature. In this study, the distribution, enervation and path of the femoral and sciatic nerves of the pelvic limb (thigh of C. libidinosus were studied and these results were compared with literature on the anatomy of humans, chimpanzees and baboons. In general, the enervation model of the four primates is identical, but in specific terms, the differences in enervations indicate evolution convergence closer to the branch of baboons in the evolutionary tree, and these data corroborate other comparative studies in relation to the same primates to vessels, muscles and nerves. In conclusion, the nerve organization in the thigh of C. libidinosus is identical to baboon, chimpanzee and homo, but more similar to baboon. The specific differences found indicate an ancient phylogenic origin to C. libidinosus and baboons (data corroborated by other studies.

  16. Distinct ATOH1 and Neurog3 requirements define tuft cells as a new secretory cell type in the intestinal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbe, F.; van Es, J.H.; Makrini, L.; Brulin, B.; Mellitzer, G.; Robine, S.; Romagnolo, B.; Shroyer, N.F.; Bourgaux, J.F.; Pignodel, C.; Clevers, H.; Jay, P.

    2011-01-01

    The unique morphology of tuft cells was first revealed by electron microscopy analyses in several endoderm-derived epithelia. Here, we explore the relationship of these cells with the other cell types of the intestinal epithelium and describe the first marker signature allowing their unambiguous

  17. Cooling the Campus: Experiences from a Pilot Study to Reduce Electricity Use at Tufts University, USA, Using Social Marketing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Kristin; Agyeman, Julian; Rappaport, Ann

    2004-01-01

    A community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to reduce student electricity use and greenhouse gas emissions was undertaken at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts. Social marketing methods follow a commercial marketing model and involve market research into the planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and evaluation of methods…

  18. Variation in chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor: note type and individual distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jessica L; Freeberg, Todd M

    2007-08-01

    The chick-a-dee call of chickadee species (genus Poecile) has been the focus of much research. A great deal is known about the structural complexity and the meaning of variation in notes making up calls in these species. However, little is known about the likely homologous "chick-a-dee" call of the closely related tufted titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor. Tufted titmice are a prime candidate for comparative analyses of the call, because their vocal and social systems share many characteristics with those of chickadees. To address the paucity of data on the structure of chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, we recorded birds in field and aviary settings. Four main note types were identified in the call: Z, A, D(h), and D notes. Several acoustic parameters of each note type were measured, and statistical analyses revealed that the note types are acoustically distinct from one another. Furthermore, note types vary in the extent of individual distinctiveness reflected in their acoustic parameters. This first step towards understanding the chick-a-dee call of tufted titmice indicates that the call is comparable in structure and complexity to the calls of chickadees.

  19. Food intake rates and habitat segregation of tufted duck Aythya fuligula and scaup Aythya marila exploiting zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, JJ

    1999-01-01

    The foraging skills of Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula and Scaup Aythya marila feeding on Zebra Mussels Dreissena polymorpha were studied in experiments under seminatural diving conditions with relevance to the IJssalmeer/Markermeer area (large lakes in the centre of The Netherlands, former Zuiderzee

  20. Food intake rates and habitat segregation of tufted duck Aythya fuligula scaup Aythya marila exploiting zebra mussels Dreissena Polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The foraging skills of Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula and Scaup Aythya marila feeding on Zebra Mussels Dreissena polymorpha were studied in experiments under semi-natural diving conditions with relevance to the IJsselmeer/Markermeer area (large lakes in the centre of The Netherlands, former Zuiderzee

  1. The influence of oxygen and carbon dioxide on diving behaviour of tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis; Reed, Jane Z; Woakes, Anthony; Butler, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    While optimal diving models focus on the diver's oxygen (O(2)) stores as the predominant factor influencing diving behaviour, many vertebrate species surface from a dive before these stores are exhausted and may commence another dive well after their O(2) stores have been resaturated. This study investigates the influence of hypoxia and also hypercapnia on the dive cycle of tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula, in terms of surface duration and dive duration. The birds were trained to surface into a respirometer box after each dive to a feeding tray so that rates of O(2) uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) at the surface could be measured. Although Vco2 initially lagged behind Vo2, both respiratory gas stores were close to full adjustment after the average surface duration, indicating that they probably had a similar degree of influence on surface duration. Chemoreceptors, which are known to influence diving behaviour, detect changes in O(2) and CO(2) partial pressures in the arterial blood. Thus, the need to restore blood gas levels appears to be a strong stimulus to continue ventilation. Mean surface duration coincided with peak instantaneous respiratory exchange ratio due to predive anticipatory hyperventilation causing hypocapnia. For comparison, the relationship between surface duration and O(2) uptake in reanalysed data for two grey seals indicated that one animal tended to dive well after fully restocking its O(2) stores, while the other dived at the point of full restocking. More CO(2) is exchanged than O(2) in tufted ducks during the last few breaths before the first dive of a bout, serving to reduce CO(2) stores and suggesting that hypercapnia rather than hypoxia is more often the limiting factor on asphyxia tolerance during dives. Indeed, according to calculations of O(2) stores and O(2) consumption rates over modal diving durations, a lack of O(2) does not seem to be associated with the termination of a dive in tufted ducks. However, factors other

  2. Gastric acid secretion response in the Cebus apella: a monkey model of chronic Chagas disease Respuesta secretora acida gastrica en el Cebus apella, un modelo animal de la enfermedad de Chagas cronica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Falasca

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the secretory pattern, both basal and stimulated either by histamine (0.1 mg/kg or pentagastrin (64 ug/kg in eighteen Cebus apella monkeys chronically infected with different T. cruzi strains (CA1, n=10; Colombian, n=4 and Tulahuen, n=4 and to describe the morphological findings in the gastrointestinal tract in twelve infected (6 sacrificed and 6 spontaneously dead and four healthy monkeys. All infected monkeys and 35 healthy ones were evaluated by contrast X-ray examination. No differences were observed in basal acid output between control and infected groups. Animals infected with the Tulahuen and Colombian strains showed significant lower values of peak acid output in response to histamine or pentagastrin (pEl objetivo fue estudiar la respuesta secretora basal y estimulada por histamina (0.1 mg/kg o pentagastrina (64 ug/kg en 18 monos Cebus apella cronicamente infectados con diferentes cepas de T. cruzi (CA1 n=10; Colombiana n=4 y Tulahuén n=4. Además se describieron los hallazgos morfológicos en el tracto gastrointestinal de 12 animales muertos (6 sacrificados y 6 espontaneamente. Se evaluó radiológicamente el tracto gastrointestinal de 35 Cebus sp. sanos (controles y 18 infectados crónicamente. Se estudiaron histopatologicamente 4 controles y 12 infectados. No hubo diferencias en la secreción basal ácida entre los grupos control e infectado. Los animales infectados con la cepa Tulahuén y Colombian tuvieron valores más bajos en el pico de secreción ácida, como respuesta a la histamina o a la pentagastrina (p<0.01 y p<0.05 respectivamente; test "t" con respecto a los controles. Los estudios con contraste de bario mostraron agrandamiento y dilatación del colon en 3 animales infectados. En las autopsias de los chagásicos se encontraron lesiones histologicas en el 75% de los casos (solo en colon, 33%; en colon y esofago, 42%. En el grupo CA1, la secreción ácida estuvo dentro de los parámetros normales

  3. Yangtze River, an insignificant genetic boundary in tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus): the evidence from a first population genetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonglou; Pan, Tao; Wang, Hui; Pang, Mujia; Zhang, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    Great rivers were generally looked at as the geographical barrier to gene flow for many taxonomic groups. The Yangtze River is the third largest river in the world, and flows across South China and into the East China Sea. Up until now, few studies have been carried out to evaluate its effect as a geographical barrier. In this study, we attempted to determine the barrier effect of the Yangtze River on the tufted deer ( Elaphodus cephalophus ) using the molecular ecology approach. Using mitochondrial DNA control region (CR) sequences and 13 nuclear microsatellite loci, we explored the genetic structure and gene flow in two adjacent tufted deer populations (Dabashan and Wulingshan populations), which are separated by the Yangtze River. Results indicated that there are high genetic diversity levels in the two populations, but no distinguishable haplotype group or potential genetic cluster was detected which corresponded to specific geographical population. At the same time, high gene flow was observed between Wulingshan and Dabashan populations. The tufted deer populations experienced population decrease from 0.3 to 0.09 Ma BP, then followed by a distinct population increase. A strong signal of recent population decline ( T = 4,396 years) was detected in the Wulingshan population by a Markov-Switching Vector Autoregressions(MSVAR) process population demography analysis. The results indicated that the Yangtze River may not act as an effective barrier to gene flow in the tufted deer. Finally, we surmised that the population demography of the tufted deer was likely affected by Pleistocene climate fluctuations and ancient human activities.

  4. A multi-objective optimization for brush monofilament tufting process design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salmasnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the optimization of monofilament tufting process as the most important and the main stage of toothbrush production in sanitary industries. In order to minimize both process time and depreciation costs, and ultimately increase the production efficiency in such an industrial unit, we propose a metaheuristic based optimization approach to solve it. The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP is used to formulate the proposed problem. Then by using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, NSGA-II and MOPSO, we seek to obtain the best solution and objective functions described above. Extensive computational experiments on three different kinds of toothbrush handles are performed and the results demonstrate the applicability and appropriate performance of algorithms. The comparison metrics like spacing, number of Pareto solutions, time, mean distance from the ideal solution and diversity are used to evaluate the quality of solutions. Moreover a sensitivity analysis is done for investigation of the performance in various setting of parameters.

  5. Relationship between body temperature, weight, and hematological parameters of black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas Cardoso; Barros, Marilia

    2016-06-01

    Basal thermal values of captive adult black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) in a thermoneutral environment were measured via different methods, along with body weight and hematological parameters. Body temperatures were recorded with rectal (RC), subcutaneous (SC) microchip transponder and infrared (left and right) tympanic membrane (TM) thermometries. Thermal values were correlated with body mass and some hematological data. Similar RC and SC temperatures were observed, these being significantly higher than the left and right TM values. SC temperature was positively correlated and in close agreement with RC measurements. Although body temperatures were not influenced by gender, capture time, or body weight, they were correlated with hematological parameters. Thus, body temperatures in this species seem to reflect some of the characteristics of the assessments' location, with SC microchip transponders being a less invasive method to assess body temperature in these small-bodied non-human primates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. High energy physics at Tufts University: Progress report, July 16, 1987--July 15, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The past year is best characterized in production terms: the Tufts High Energy Physics Group has participated significantly in the successful manufacture of a great mass of raw scientific data and of a major detector system. In summary: the fixed-target study of charm production at Fermilab---Experiment E-769---has yielded upwards of 500 million recorded triggers on some 10 4 standard computer tapes, far more events than planned and a landmark in online data acquisition at an accelerator. The Fermilab 15-foot hydrogen-neon bubble chamber exposure to neutrinos---E-632---has concluded its second and final run yielding interactions from the Tevatron-neutrino spectrum generated by more than 4 /times/ 10 17 protons on target. This set of filmed events is unique for its high neutrino energy and is, moreover, augmented by electronic data identifying energetic muons from charged-current processes and by subsets of high-resolution recordings from specialized holographic and conventional cameras. The Soudan-II nucleon decay program has brought significant portions of its central calorimeter and its Tufts-manufactured veto shield into operation on-line and is preparing to enter an extended data-collection period this summer. These experimental accomplishments, each of them as part of an international collaboration, promise us a flow of new and interesting results during the coming years. Our small theory sub-group continues its prolific activities in several areas of high energy phenomenology. Our progress in each of these activities will be described in more detail in the report

  7. The substituted (S)-3-phenylpiperidine (-)-OSU6162 reduces apomorphine- and amphetamine-induced behaviour in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt-Christensen, M; Andersen, M B; Fink-Jensen, A

    2006-01-01

    -amphetamine-induced behaviours in EPS sensitised Cebus apella monkeys. (-)-OSU6162 was administered subcutaneously in doses of 1, 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg alone and in combination with (-)-apomorphine (0.25 mg/kg) or d-amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg). (-)-OSU6162 inhibited (-)-apomorphine-(1-9 mg/kg) as well as d-amphetamine (3-9 mg....../kg)-induced arousal and stereotypy. EPS did not occur when (-)-OSU6162 was administered in combination with (-)-apomorphine or d-amphetamine. However, when (-)-OSU6162 was administered alone, dystonia was observed at high doses (6 and 9 mg/kg) in two out of six monkeys. The present study shows that (-)-OSU6162 can...

  8. Using photographs to study animal social cognition and behaviour: Do capuchins' responses to photos reflect reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, F Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F; Prétôt, Laurent; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; O'Sullivan, Eoin; Stocker, Martina; D'Mello, Daniel; Wilson, Vanessa A D

    2016-03-01

    Behavioural responses to photos are often used to infer what animals understand about their social environment, but are rarely validated against the same stimuli in real life. If subjects' responses to photos do not reflect responses to the same live stimuli, it is difficult to conclude what happens in reality based on photo responses alone. We compared capuchins' responses to photos versus live stimuli in an identical scenario within research cubicles. Subjects had the opportunity to approach food placed in front of an alpha group member and, in a separate condition, photos depicting the same individual. Subjects' latencies to approach food when placed in front of the real alpha negatively correlated with time subjects spent in close proximity to the alpha in their main enclosure. We therefore predicted subjects' latencies to approach food in the presence of photos would positively correlate with their latencies to approach food in the presence of the real alpha inside the cubicles, but negatively correlate with time they spent in proximity to the alpha in their enclosure. Neither prediction was supported. While not necessarily surprising, we explain why these results should be an important reminder that care is needed when interpreting results from photo studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. (Ir)rational choices of humans, rhesus macaques, and capuchin monkeys in dynamic stochastic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzek, Julia; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2018-05-28

    Human and animal decision-making is known to violate rational expectations in a variety of contexts. Previous models suggest that statistical structures of real-world environments can favor such seemingly irrational behavior, but this has not been tested empirically. We tested 16 capuchin monkeys, seven rhesus monkeys, and 30 humans in a computerized experiment that implemented such stochastic environments. Subjects chose from among up to three options of different value that disappeared and became available again with different probabilities. All species overwhelmingly chose transitively (A > B > C) in the control condition, where doing so maximized overall gain. Most subjects also adhered to transitivity in the test condition, where it was suboptimal, but ultimately led to negligible losses compared to the optimal, non-transitive strategy. We used a modelling approach to show that differences in temporal discounting may account for this pattern of choices on a proximate level. Specifically, when short- and long-term goals are valued similarly, near-optimal decision rules can map onto rational choice principles. Such cognitive shortcuts have been argued to have evolved to preserve mental resources without sacrificing good decision-making, and here we provide evidence that these heuristics can provide almost identical outcomes even in situations in which they lead to suboptimal choices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Intracerebral infection of Cebus apella with the XJ-Clone 3 strain of Junín virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballal, G; Oubiña, J R; Molinas, F C; Nagle, C; de la Vega, M T; Videla, C; Elsner, B

    1987-03-01

    To assess the usefulness of the South American primate Cebus apella as a model for neurovirulence of Junín virus, eight monkeys were inoculated with 10(5) LD50 of the attenuated XJ-Clone 3 Junín virus strain by the intrathalamic route. After the second week, weight loss and polyadenopathies were observed in most animals, one-half of which had a transient leukothrombocytopenia. Moderate clinical central nervous system (CNS) involvement was present in four of eight monkeys, while the rest had only mild neurologic signs. All recovered except one, which developed a deep coma and was killed in a pre-mortem stage at 18 days post-infection (pi). Junín virus was isolated from the throat from five, from the blood from three, and from the brain from two monkeys. In the most severely ill animal, virus titers higher than viremia were detected in both inoculated and contralateral brain hemispheres, as well as in lung, lymph node, and small intestine. Junín antigens and "in vivo" bound immunoglobulins were detected by immunofluorescence (IF) in the brain of four animals at 18, 21, 40, and 155 days pi. Moderate lymphocytic parenchymal and meningeal infiltration were observed in the brain of four animals, and gliosis was also present in the most affected monkey. Although the clinical response to infection was not uniform, all infected monkeys developed high IF antibodies. Cebus apella cannot be used as a highly sensitive model for Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). However, the results obtained show that the XJ-Clone 3 strain can replicate in the primate CNS and to induce lesions and immunoglobulin deposition. In addition, viral persistence is suggested by the late detection of viral antigens in brain at 40 and 155 days pi.

  11. The Palermo Capuchin Catacombs Project: a multidisciplinary approach to the study of a modern Mummy Collection (ca 1600-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sineo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a multidisciplinary project for the study of the present conditions, history, bioanthropological features and conservation status of a large collection of modern human mummies, kept in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo (Sicily, Italy. Due to the large amount of spontaneously and anthropogenically mummified human bodies, and to an abundant presence of associated artefacts, this collection provides a unique opportunity to carry out a large multidisciplinary survey useful for a thorough biocultural understanding of these remains, a conservation plan, and testing of new restoration protocols.

  12. CXC chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7 regulates CXCR4 protein expression and capillary tuft development in mouse kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Haege

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is involved in kidney development by regulating formation of the glomerular tuft. Recently, a second CXCL12 receptor was identified and designated CXCR7. Although it is established that CXCR7 regulates heart and brain development in conjunction with CXCL12 and CXCR4, little is known about the influence of CXCR7 on CXCL12 dependent kidney development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We provided analysis of CXCR7 expression and function in the developing mouse kidney. Using in situ hybridization, we identified CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial cells including podocytes at all nephron stages up to the mature glomerulus. CXCL12 mRNA showed a striking overlap with CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial structures. In addition, CXCL12 was detected in stromal cells and the glomerular tuft. Expression of CXCR4 was complementary to that of CXCR7 as it occurred in mesenchymal cells, outgrowing ureteric buds and glomerular endothelial cells but not in podocytes. Kidney examination in CXCR7 null mice revealed ballooning of glomerular capillaries as described earlier for CXCR4 null mice. Moreover, we detected a severe reduction of CXCR4 protein but not CXCR4 mRNA within the glomerular tuft and in the condensed mesenchyme. Malformation of the glomerular tuft in CXCR7 null mice was associated with mesangial cell clumping. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We established that there is a similar glomerular pathology in CXCR7 and CXCR4 null embryos. Based on the phenotype and the anatomical organization of the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 system in the forming glomerulus, we propose that CXCR7 fine-tunes CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated signalling between podocytes and glomerular capillaries.

  13. CXC Chemokine Receptor 7 (CXCR7) Regulates CXCR4 Protein Expression and Capillary Tuft Development in Mouse Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haege, Sammy; Mueller, Wiebke; Nietzsche, Sandor; Lupp, Amelie; Mackay, Fabienne; Schulz, Stefan; Stumm, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Background The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is involved in kidney development by regulating formation of the glomerular tuft. Recently, a second CXCL12 receptor was identified and designated CXCR7. Although it is established that CXCR7 regulates heart and brain development in conjunction with CXCL12 and CXCR4, little is known about the influence of CXCR7 on CXCL12 dependent kidney development. Methodology/Principal Findings We provided analysis of CXCR7 expression and function in the developing mouse kidney. Using in situ hybridization, we identified CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial cells including podocytes at all nephron stages up to the mature glomerulus. CXCL12 mRNA showed a striking overlap with CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial structures. In addition, CXCL12 was detected in stromal cells and the glomerular tuft. Expression of CXCR4 was complementary to that of CXCR7 as it occurred in mesenchymal cells, outgrowing ureteric buds and glomerular endothelial cells but not in podocytes. Kidney examination in CXCR7 null mice revealed ballooning of glomerular capillaries as described earlier for CXCR4 null mice. Moreover, we detected a severe reduction of CXCR4 protein but not CXCR4 mRNA within the glomerular tuft and in the condensed mesenchyme. Malformation of the glomerular tuft in CXCR7 null mice was associated with mesangial cell clumping. Conclusions/Significance We established that there is a similar glomerular pathology in CXCR7 and CXCR4 null embryos. Based on the phenotype and the anatomical organization of the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 system in the forming glomerulus, we propose that CXCR7 fine-tunes CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated signalling between podocytes and glomerular capillaries. PMID:22880115

  14. Mitral and tufted cells are potential cellular targets of nitration in the olfactory bulb of aged mice.

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    Myung Jae Yang

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory function declines with age; though, the underlying molecular changes that occur in the olfactory bulb (OB are relatively unknown. An important cellular signaling molecule involved in the processing, modulation, and formation of olfactory memories is nitric oxide (NO. However, excess NO can result in the production of peroxynitrite to cause oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this study, we assessed whether changes in the expression of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, a neurochemical marker of peroxynitrite and thus oxidative damage, exists in the OB of young, adult, middle-aged, and aged mice. Our results demonstrate that OB 3-NT levels increase with age in normal C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, in aged mice, 3-NT immunoreactivity was found in some blood vessels and microglia throughout the OB. Notably, large and strongly immunoreactive puncta were found in mitral and tufted cells, and these were identified as lipofuscin granules. Additionally, we found many small-labeled puncta within the glomeruli of the glomerular layer and in the external plexiform layer, and these were localized to mitochondria and discrete segments of mitral and tufted dendritic plasma membranes. These results suggest that mitral and tufted cells are potential cellular targets of nitration, along with microglia and blood vessels, in the OB during aging.

  15. Male resource defense mating system in primates? An experimental test in wild capuchin monkeys.

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    Barbara Tiddi

    Full Text Available Ecological models of mating systems provide a theoretical framework to predict the effect of the defendability of both breeding resources and mating partners on mating patterns. In resource-based mating systems, male control over breeding resources is tightly linked to female mating preference. To date, few field studies have experimentally investigated the relationship between male resource control and female mating preference in mammals due to difficulties in manipulating ecological factors (e.g., food contestability. We tested the within-group male resource defense hypothesis experimentally in a wild population of black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus in Iguazú National Park, Argentina. Sapajus spp. represent an ideal study model as, in contrast to most primates, they have been previously argued to be characterized by female mate choice and a resource-based mating system in which within-group resource monopolization by high-ranking males drives female mating preference for those males. Here, we examined whether females (N = 12 showed a weaker preference for alpha males during mating seasons in which food distribution was experimentally manipulated to be less defendable relative to those in which it was highly defendable. Results did not support the within-group male resource defense hypothesis, as female sexual preferences for alpha males did not vary based on food defendability. We discuss possible reasons for our results, including the possibility of other direct and indirect benefits females receive in exercising mate choice, the potential lack of tolerance over food directed towards females by alpha males, and phylogenetic constraints.

  16. Herniation pits in human mummies: a CT investigation in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily.

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    Stephanie Panzer

    Full Text Available Herniation pits (HPs of the femoral neck were first described in a radiological publication in 1982 as round to oval radiolucencies in the proximal superior quadrant of the femoral neck on anteroposterior radiographs of adults. In following early clinical publications, HPs were generally recognized as an incidental finding. In contrast, in current clinical literature they are mentioned in the context of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI of the hip joint, which is known to cause osteoarthritis (OA. The significance of HPs in chronic skeletal disorders such as OA is still unclear, but they are discussed as a possible radiological indicator for FAI in a large part of clinical studies.In this paleoradiological study we examined a sample of mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, by a mobile computed tomography (CT scanner. Evaluation of the CT examinations revealed HPs in six out of 16 (37.5% adult male mummies.The first aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of HPs shown in our mummy collection to the findings described in clinical literature. Thereby CT evaluation revealed that their osseous imaging characteristics are in accordance, consisting of round to oval subcortical lesions at the anterior femoral neck, clearly demarcated by a sclerotic margin.The second aim was to introduce HPs to the paleoradiological and paleopathological methodology as an entity that underwent a renaissance from an incidental finding to a possible radiological indicator of FAI in the clinical situation. As FAI plays an important role in the development of OA of the hip, which is a very common finding in human skeletal remains, HPs should always be considered in paleoradiological evaluation of hip joint diseases.

  17. Visible spatial contiguity of social information and reward affects social learning in brown capuchins (Sapajus apella) and children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lara A; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Animal social learning is typically studied experimentally by the presentation of artificial foraging tasks. Although productive, results are often variable even for the same species. We present and test the hypothesis that one cause of variation is that spatial distance between rewards and the means of reward release causes conflicts for participants' attentional focus. We investigated whether spatial contiguity between a visible reward and the means of release would affect behavioral responses that evidence social learning, testing 21 brown capuchins ( Sapajus apella ), a much-studied species with variant evidence for social learning, and one hundred eighty 2- to 4-year-old human children ( Homo sapiens ), a benchmark species known for a strong social learning disposition. Participants were presented with a novel transparent apparatus where a reward was either proximal or distal to a demonstrated means of releasing it. A distal reward location decreased attention toward the location of the demonstration and impaired subsequent success in gaining rewards. Generally, the capuchins produced the alternative method to that demonstrated, whereas children copied the method demonstrated, although a distal reward location reduced copying in younger children. We conclude that some design features in common social learning tasks may significantly degrade the evidence for social learning. We have demonstrated this for 2 different primates but suggest that it is a significant factor to control for in social learning research across all taxa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Microbial survey of the mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy: biodeterioration risk and contamination of the indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Sterflinger, Katja

    2013-11-01

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies dating from the 16th to 20th centuries AD and showing evidence of biodeterioration. An extensive microbiological and molecular investigation was recently performed. Samples were taken from skin, muscle, hair, bone, stuffing materials, clothes, and surrounding walls as well as from the indoor air. In this study, we witnessed that the different degradation phenomena observed on the variety of materials located at the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo are biological in origin. Molecular techniques showed the dominance of halophilic species of the domains Bacteria and Archaea on the walls and - as a result of salt emanating from the walls - on the mummies themselves. Nevertheless, specialized microorganisms belonging to taxa well-known for their cellulolytic and proteolytic activities were detected on clothes and stuffing material, and on skin, muscle, hair, and bone, respectively. This specialized microbiota is threatening the conservation of the mummies themselves. Additionally, sequences related to the human skin microbiome and to some pathogenic Bacteria (order Clostridiales) and fungi (genus Phialosimplex) were identified on samples derived from the mummies. Furthermore, a phosphate-reducing fungus, Penicillium radicum, was detected on bone. Finally, the high concentration of airborne fungal spores is not conducive to the conservation of the human remains and is posing a potential health risk for visitors. © 2013 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  19. Morfologia da artéria cerebelar superior do macaco prego (Cebus apella L., 1766: divisões e anastomoses Morphology of the superior cerebellar artery of the “macaco prego” (Cebus paella L., 1766: divisions and anastomoses

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    Rosimeire Alves da Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Dando continuidade a estudos já existentes na área de mapeamento da vascularização cerebral do Cebus apella e considerando a semelhança desse animal com outros primatas descritos, inclusive os humanos, estudou-se a morfologia das artérias cerebelares superiores, que destinam a irrigar a superfície superior do cerebelo. 57 hemisférios cerebelares foram injetados com látex corado e fixados em solução de formol a 10%, dissecados sob mesoscopia de luz com microdissecações. As artérias cerebelares superiores são simétricas em 84,21% e assimétricas em 7,01%, ramificam-se em 4 ramos: sendo 1 para o mesencéfalo e 3 troncos principais para a superfície superior do cerebelo e regiões anterior dessa superfície. Estas artérias terminam na fissura póstero-superior ou pós-semilunar após emitir vários ramos colaterais de hierarquia decrescente de calibreIn order to continue studies already done in the area of mapping the cerebral vascularization of Cebus paella and taking into consideration the resemblance of this animal with other primates described, humans included, we studied the morphology of the superior cerebellar arteries determined to perfuse the superior surface of the cerebellum. Fifty-seven cerebellar hemispheres were injected with stained latex, fixed in 10% formol solution and dissected under light mesoscopy. The superior cerebellar arteries are symmetrical in 84,21% and asymmetrical in 7,01%, and give off four branches, one to the mesencephalon and three mains branches to the upper surface of the cerebellum and its anterior portion. These arteries end in the posterior superior or post-semilunar fissure, after giving off many collaterals of decreasing diameter

  20. Understanding odor information segregation in the olfactory bulb by means of mitral and tufted cells.

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    Davide Polese

    Full Text Available Odor identification is one of the main tasks of the olfactory system. It is performed almost independently from the concentration of the odor providing a robust recognition. This capacity to ignore concentration information does not preclude the olfactory system from estimating concentration itself. Significant experimental evidence has indicated that the olfactory system is able to infer simultaneously odor identity and intensity. However, it is still unclear at what level or levels of the olfactory pathway this segregation of information occurs. In this work, we study whether this odor information segregation is performed at the input stage of the olfactory bulb: the glomerular layer. To this end, we built a detailed neural model of the glomerular layer based on its known anatomical connections and conducted two simulated odor experiments. In the first experiment, the model was exposed to an odor stimulus dataset composed of six different odorants, each one dosed at six different concentrations. In the second experiment, we conducted an odor morphing experiment where a sequence of binary mixtures going from one odor to another through intermediate mixtures was presented to the model. The results of the experiments were visualized using principal components analysis and analyzed with hierarchical clustering to unveil the structure of the high-dimensional output space. Additionally, Fisher's discriminant ratio and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to quantify odor identity and odor concentration information respectively. Our results showed that the architecture of the glomerular layer was able to mediate the segregation of odor information obtaining output spiking sequences of the principal neurons, namely the mitral and external tufted cells, strongly correlated with odor identity and concentration, respectively. An important conclusion is also that the morphological difference between the principal neurons is not key to achieve odor

  1. Reduced range of the endangered crested capuchin monkey (Sapajus robustus) and a possible hybrid zone with Sapajus nigritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Waldney Pereira; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Rylands, Anthony B

    2017-10-01

    The crested capuchin monkey (Sapajus robustus) is an endangered species endemic to the highly fragmented Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Surveys for S. robustus were carried out over a 25-month period (2003-2005) to obtain more precise geographical limits for the western range of the species. Previously published localities for S. robustus were mapped, and each point was given a 25-km radius "buffer zone." The largest forest remnants in the buffer zones (>300 ha) in Minas Gerais were visited in order to interview the local people and/or survey the forests directly using playback recordings of S. robustus. Camera traps were used in key localities if interviews suggested the presence of capuchins but no animals were sighted during the surveys. Of 127 valid interviews, only 39 people reported the presence of Sapajus in nearby forest fragments. We confirmed the presence of Sapajus in only 19 of these. S. robustus occurred in four, and S. libidinosus, S. nigritus, S. xanthosternos, or S. robustus × S. nigritus (hybrids?) occurred in the remaining 15. Based on our study, the estimated geographical distribution of S. robustus is 119,654 km 2 , which represents a reduction of more than 70,000 km 2 when compared to its formerly described range. The geographical limits as defined in this study are: northeast-the Jequitinhonha River; northwest and west-the Jequitinhonha River; southwest-the Suaçuí Grande River and the Espinhaço mountains; southeast-the Doce River; east-the Atlantic Ocean. A probable hybrid zone where capuchin monkeys have morphological features of both S. nigritus and S. robustus was found between the Santo Antônio and the Suaçuí Grande rivers. The elucidation of the geographical distribution of S. robustus is important for its conservation, facilitating the delineation of priority areas for the creation of reserves and the initiation of studies of the species' ecology and behavior. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. When and where to practice: social influences on the development of nut-cracking in bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshchar, Y; Izar, P; Visalberghi, E; Resende, B; Fragaszy, D

    2016-05-01

    The habitual use of tools by wild capuchin monkeys presents a unique opportunity to study the maintenance and transmission of traditions. Young capuchins spend several years interacting with nuts before cracking them efficiently with stone tools. Using a two-observer method, we quantified the magnitude of the social influences that sustain this long period of practice. During five collection periods (over 26 months), one observer recorded the behavior of 16 immature monkeys, and another observer concurrently recorded behavior of group members in the focal monkey's vicinity. The two-observer method provides a means to quantify distinct social influences. Data show that immatures match the behavior of the adults in time and especially in space. The rate of manipulation of nuts by the immatures quadrupled when others in the group cracked and ate nuts, and immatures were ten times more likely to handle nuts and 40 times more likely to strike a nut with a stone when they themselves were near the anvils. Moreover, immature monkeys were three times more likely to be near an anvil when others were cracking. We suggest a model for social influence on nut-cracking development, based on two related processes: (1) social facilitation from observing group members engaged in nut-cracking, and (2) opportunity for practice provided by the anvils, hammer stones and nut shells available on and around the anvils. Nut-cracking activities by others support learning by drawing immatures to the anvils, where extended practice can take place, and by providing materials for practice at these places.

  3. Estudo anatômico descritivo dos órgãos genitais masculinos do macaco-prego (Cebus apella Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Dulcinea Gonçalves Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    A Anatomia comparada de mamíferos é tema de grande interesse em pesquisas e tem como objetivo buscar conhecimentos que possam auxiliar o entendimento do binômio unidadevariedade. O conhecimento da Anatomia de qualquer animal silvestre é de importância capital para a sua preservação e proteção (RIBEIRO, 2002). Os primatas do novo mundo estão distribuídos na Região Neotropical das Américas Central e do Sul, (RYLANDS; MITTERMEIER; RODRÍGUEZ-LUNA, 1997). O Cebus apella, animal das matas do contin...

  4. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure

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    Keith S. K. Fong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1, co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse.

  5. Ricinus communis biocompatibility histological study in the nose of Cebus apella monkeys Avaliação histológica da biocompatibilidade do polímero da mamona no dorso nasal de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella

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    Paulo Cesar de Jesus Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue lesions can be caused by congenital and acquired factors, and result in nasal deformities with cosmetic and functional repercussion. Surgical treatment in these cases frequently requires complex reconstructions and the use of biomaterials. The polyurethane derived from castor beans (Ricinus communis has a favorable formulation in terms of ease of processing, flexibility, no emission of toxic vapors and low cost. Nonetheless, despite favorable results, studies about the use of castor beam polymer (Ricinus communis assessing tissue reaction on the nasal dorsum are still missing in the literature. AIM: the goal of the present investigation is to histologically assess the Ricinus communis polymer implant biocompatibility with the nasal dorsum. STUDY DESING: experimental. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we used four Cebus appela monkeys, in which we created a nasal dorsal defect in all the animals and there we placed the aforementioned implant. The animals were sacrificed 270 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. RESULTS: in the histology analysis we did not observe the presence of foreign body granulomas or phagocytic cells. We also observed a progressive bone formation and maturation. CONCLUSION: macroscopic and microscopic results showed that the castor oil polymer implant was biocompatible.Lesões do tecido ósseo podem ser causadas por fatores congênitos e adquiridos e resultar em deformidade nasal com repercussão estética e funcional. O tratamento cirúrgico desses casos requer reconstruções complexas e frequentemente o uso de biomateriais. O poliuretano derivado do óleo da mamona apresenta uma fórmula com aspectos favoráveis de processabilidade, flexibilidade de formulação, ausência de emissão de vapores tóxicos e baixo custo. Entretanto, a despeito dos resultados favoráveis, estudos referentes ao uso do polímero de mamona, avaliando a reação tecidual no dorso nasal, ainda não foram

  6. Wintering Tufted Ducks Aythya fuligula diving for zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha balance feeding costs within narrow margins of their energy budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.; Eerden, van M.R.; Visser, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    Diving ducks face the strongly cooling properties of aquatic environments. In experiments with Tufted Ducks Aythya fuligula feeding on zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha in outdoor cages, we measured changes in food consumption and diving behaviour in relation to water temperature (3-22°C). Water

  7. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerts, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Bomhoff, D.; Verhagen, I.; Swart, J.M.; Boer, de W.F.

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of

  8. Wintering Tufted Ducks Aythya fuligula diving for zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha balance feeding costs within narrow margins of their energy budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, JJ; van Eerden, MR; Visser, GH

    Diving ducks face the strongly cooling properties of aquatic environments. In experiments with Tufted Ducks Aythya fuligula feeding on zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha in outdoor cages, we measured changes in food consumption and diving behaviour in relation to water temperature (3-22 degrees C).

  9. Leadership of Winter Mixed-Species Flocks by Tufted Titmice (Baeolophus bicolor: Are Titmice Passive Nuclear Species?

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    Thomas A. Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor, TUTI is a nuclear species in winter foraging flocks whose antipredator calls are used to manage predation risk by diverse heterospecifics. We hypothesized that satellite species in mixed flocks follow TUTI (not vice versa, thereby defining the role of TUTI as a “passive” nuclear species. We followed 20 winter mixed-species flocks in North-Central Florida and assessed angular-angular correlations between overall flock, TUTI, and satellite species movement directions. We observed significant correlations between overall flock movement directions and those of TUTI, confirming our central prediction. Within flocks, however, fine-scale movement directions of satellite species were often more highly correlated with those of other satellites than with TUTI movements. We conclude that TUTI are passive nuclear species whose movements define flock paths, but within flocks, TUTI movements may have less influence on satellite movements than do other factors.

  10. Densidad y estructura poblacional de Cebus capucinus curtus (Primates: Cebidae y Bradypus variegatus gorgon (Pilosa: Bradypodidae, en Isla Gorgona , Colombia

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    Mario Fernando Garcés-Restrepo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available En Isla Gorgona se registran dos subespecies endémicas de mamíferos arbóreos, el Mono capuchino de pecho blanco (Cebus capucinus curtus y el Perezoso de tres dedos de garganta marrón (Bradypus variegatus gorgon, especies importante para la conservación debido a su carácter endémico y papel ecológico como dispersores de semillas en el PNN Gorgona. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre la ecología poblacional de estas dos subespecies, utilizando el método de muestreo por distancia con transectos lineales para establecer la densidad, además se describió la estructura etaria general de cada población con base en los muestreos y observaciones directas. La densidad de C. capucinus curtus en isla Gorgona fue de 170,6 ind/km² (IC 95%=122,0-238,4 ind/km² mientras que para B. variegatus gorgon fue de 2,6 ind/km² (IC 95%=1,3-4,9 ind/km². El registro de densidad de C. capucinus curtus en isla Gorgona es el más alto para la especie en todo su rango de distribución geográfica, mientras que el de B. variegatus gorgon es el más bajo reportado para la especie. La alta densidad de C. capucinus curtus estaría relacionada con un efecto sinérgico entre la baja depredación natural y la continua disponibilidad de alimento, mientras que la baja densidad de B. variegatus gorgon estaría relacionada con la presión de caza realizada en el pasado, la baja tasa reproductiva de la especie y una pandemia ocurrida en el año 2005. Se recomienda el monitoreo constante de las poblaciones y estudios de salud poblacional para B. variegatus gorgon.

  11. Antischistosomal activity of acridanone- hydrazones in Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with the SJ strain of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four compounds were utilized at the dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight, p.o., to treat Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with about 200 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ strain, via transcutaneous route. The oograms performed with rectal snips, as well as stool examinations carried out periodically, showed no viable eggs of the parasite, from day 29 to 226post-treatment. The perfusion undertaken after killing the animals showed absence of worms in the treated monkeys, whereas 83 worms were recovered from the control, thus corroborating the results obtained by means of oograms and coproscopy. These results confirm the efficacy of 9-acridanone- hydrazones previously tested against the LE strain of S. mansoni. The low curative dose and apparent absence of toxicity render these dmgs an important therapeutic reserve, taking into consideration the reports on the resistance of S. mansoni to the modern drugs oxamniquine and praziquantel.No presente trabalho, quatro compostos foram utilizados na dose de 12,5mg/kg de peso, por via oral, em macacos infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 200 cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni. Os oogramas realizados com fragmentos de mucosa retal e os exames de fezes realizados, periodicamente, demonstraram a ausência de ovos viáveis do parasito a partir do 29- até o 226a dia pós-tratamento. A perfusão, apôs sacrifício dos animais tratados, não detectou vermes, enquanto que do macaco cotztrole 83 vermes foram recuperados, confirmando assim os resultados dos oogramas e da coproscopia. Estes resultados confirmam a eficácia das 9-acridanonas- hydrazonas já observada anteriormente contra a cepa LE de S. mansoni. A baixa dosagem curativa e aparente ausência de toxicidade colocam estas drogas como uma reserva terapêutica importante, tendo em vista o relato de resistência do S. mansoni às drogas modernas oxamniquína e praziquantel.

  12. Evidence of aortic dissection and Marfan syndrome in a mummy from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Thompson, Randall C; Hergan, Klaus; Zink, Albert R; Piombino-Mascali, Dario

    2018-06-08

    The authors report on the assessment of an anthropogenic mummy of a young man from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, tentatively dated from the mid- to late 19 th century AD. The mummy was investigated by full-body CT examination. CT images clearly showed aortic dissection classified as Stanford-A. Due to the relation of aortic dissection to inherited connective tissue diseases in young people, such as Marfan syndrome, conspicuous and pathological findings possibly indicating the presence of underlying Marfan syndrome were assessed. Several systemic features were scored that supported the presence of underlying Marfan syndrome in this mummy. These findings were: pectus carinatum and chest asymmetry, dural ectasia, protrusio acetabuli, dolichocephaly, down-slanting palpebral fissures, malar hypoplasia and (probable) reduced elbow extension. Aortic dissection, a cardinal feature of Marfan syndrome, turned out to be the diagnostic key for the paleoradiological diagnosis of this disease. The demonstrated CT findings contribute to the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases and inherited connective tissue disease in the fields of paleopathology and paleoradiology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biometric values, C-reactive protein, and proteinogram of healthy blonde capuchin (Sapajus flavius) kept in northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Stéphanie Machado; Ferreira, Adriano Fernandes; Azevedo, Jair; Nery, Thiago Lopes; Zermiani, Fabiana; Queiroga, Felisbina Luisa

    2016-12-01

    Sapajus flavius is a species of capuchin monkey classified as critically endangered. Studies related to their biometric values are scarce with incomplete external measurement reports available from only four specimens. Moreover, information regarding proteinogram is limited with no reference to C-reactive protein (CRP) and globulin fractions for this species. Biometric values, CRP, and proteinogram were determined for 12 clinically healthy S. flavius, kept in captivity in João Pessoa, Brazil. The measured values in biometric parameters present a tendency to be higher in males. The CRP mean values from 12 S. flavius were 1.2±0.2 mg/dL. For albumin, alpha, beta, and gamma globulin fraction parameters, the reference interval was calculated. Authors believe that with certain limitations, results obtained can be helpful for the populations in the wild, which could be of great aid in detecting unhealthy individuals and therefore contributing to the conservation of this species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The effects of tradition on problem solving by two wild populations of bearded capuchin monkeys in a probing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Raphael Moura; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2016-11-01

    The effects of culture on individual cognition have become a core issue among cultural primatologists. Field studies with wild populations provide evidence on the role of social cues in the ontogeny of tool use in non-human primates, and on the transmission of such behaviours over generations through socially biased learning. Recent experimental studies have shown that cultural knowledge may influence problem solving in wild populations of chimpanzees. Here, we present the results from a field experiment comparing the performance of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) from two wild savannah populations with distinct toolkits in a probing task. Only the population that already exhibited the customary use of probing tools succeeded in solving the new problem, suggesting that their cultural repertoire shaped their approach to the new task. Moreover, only this population, which uses stone tools in a broader range of contexts, tried to use them to solve the problem. Social interactions can affect the formation of learning sets and they affect the performance of the monkeys in problem solving. We suggest that behavioural traditions affect the ways non-human primates solve novel foraging problems using tools. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Foreign Policy, Agrarian Unrest, and Missionary Praxis: the Italian Capuchins and the Relations Between Brazil and the Vatican at the Beginning of the Second Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Palacios

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the role played by the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide’s Apostolic Missions in the political relations between the Empire of Brazil and the Holy See. Based mainly on Vatican sources, the text follows the negotiations between the Brazilian State, the Roman Curia, the Brazilian bishops, and the Italian Friar Capuchin Missions, in search of a common ground to solve institutional policy problems as well as the definition of power spheres between the State and the Ca...

  16. The Relationship between Respiration-Related Membrane Potential Slow Oscillations and Discharge Patterns in Mitral/Tufted Cells: What Are the Rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briffaud, Virginie; Fourcaud-Trocmé, Nicolas; Messaoudi, Belkacem; Buonviso, Nathalie; Amat, Corine

    2012-01-01

    Background A slow respiration-related rhythm strongly shapes the activity of the olfactory bulb. This rhythm appears as a slow oscillation that is detectable in the membrane potential, the respiration-related spike discharge of the mitral/tufted cells and the bulbar local field potential. Here, we investigated the rules that govern the manifestation of membrane potential slow oscillations (MPSOs) and respiration-related discharge activities under various afferent input conditions and cellular excitability states. Methodology and Principal Findings We recorded the intracellular membrane potential signals in the mitral/tufted cells of freely breathing anesthetized rats. We first demonstrated the existence of multiple types of MPSOs, which were influenced by odor stimulation and discharge activity patterns. Complementary studies using changes in the intracellular excitability state and a computational model of the mitral cell demonstrated that slow oscillations in the mitral/tufted cell membrane potential were also modulated by the intracellular excitability state, whereas the respiration-related spike activity primarily reflected the afferent input. Based on our data regarding MPSOs and spike patterns, we found that cells exhibiting an unsynchronized discharge pattern never exhibited an MPSO. In contrast, cells with a respiration-synchronized discharge pattern always exhibited an MPSO. In addition, we demonstrated that the association between spike patterns and MPSO types appeared complex. Conclusion We propose that both the intracellular excitability state and input strength underlie specific MPSOs, which, in turn, constrain the types of spike patterns exhibited. PMID:22952828

  17. Cryptochrome 2 expression level is critical for adrenocorticotropin stimulation of cortisol production in the capuchin monkey adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Farfan, C; Abarzua-Catalan, L; Valenzuela, F J; Mendez, N; Richter, H G; Valenzuela, G J; Serón-Ferré, M

    2009-06-01

    Timely production of glucocorticoid hormones in response to ACTH is essential for survival by coordinating energy intake and expenditure and acting as homeostatic regulators against stress. Adrenal cortisol response to ACTH is clock time dependent, suggesting that an intrinsic circadian oscillator in the adrenal cortex contributes to modulate the response to ACTH. Circadian clock gene expression has been reported in the adrenal cortex of several species. However, there are no reports accounting for potential involvement of adrenal clock proteins on cortisol response to ACTH. Here we explored whether the clock protein cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) knockdown modifies the adrenal response to ACTH in a primate. Adrenal gland explants from adult capuchin monkey (n = 5) were preincubated for 6 h with transfection vehicle (control) or with two different Cry2 antisense and sense probes followed by 48 h incubation in medium alone (no ACTH) or with 100 nm ACTH. Under control and sense conditions, ACTH increased cortisol production, whereas CRY2 suppression inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol production. Expression of the steroidogenic enzymes steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase at 48 h of incubation was increased by ACTH in control explants and suppressed by Cry2 knockdown. Additionally, we found that Cry2 knockdown decreased the expression of the clock gene brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein (Bmal1) at the mRNA and protein levels. Altogether these results strongly support that the clock protein CRY2 is involved in the mechanism by which ACTH increases the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Thus, adequate expression levels of components of the adrenal circadian clock are required for an appropriate cortisol response to ACTH.

  18. Radiographic changes of the distal phalangeal tuft of the hands in subjects with systemic sclerosis. Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Yojhan Edilberto; Calvo Páramo, Enrique; Castañeda, Luisa María; Gómez, Sandra Viviana; Zambrano, Fernán Santiago

    To determine abnormal plain radiograph findings of the distal phalanx tuft of the hand (DPTH) associated with systemic sclerosis in adults. A systematic review was developed following the parameters of the PRISMA guidelines in databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIREME, Scielo, Google Scholar and others including as primary outcomes alterations of DPTH (erosions, resorption, sclerosis and proliferation) detected by simple radiography in subjects with systemic sclerosis. The prevalence of radiographic findings was synthesized using the fixed effects model. The statistical associations were expressed in terms of relative risk or odds ratio with their respective confidence intervals and p values. Twenty-two observational studies were included; the prevalence of DPTH resorption was 28.3% (95% CI: 0.256-0.312; p < .001); I 2 =80.4%, the prevalence of calcinosis was 15.6% (95% CI: 0.113-0.210; p < .001); I 2 =0%. No study reported proliferation or erosions and only one study described sclerosis of DPTH in 5 individuals. Resorption and calcinosis of DPTH are the characteristic radiographic findings in patients with systemic sclerosis. However, new studies with greater methodological strength are needed to establish associations between these phenomena and their presence in other connective tissue diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  19. Proposal of anatomical terminology to call the arteries of the base of the encephalon in the monkey (Cebus paella L., 1766 Nomenclatura proposta para denominar as artérias da base do encéfalo do macaco-prego (Cebus apella L., 1766

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    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Arteries of the encephalon basis of 30 monkeys (Cebus paella were studied. Arteries were injected with colored latex, fixed in formaldehyde solution at 10% and dissected under magnifying lenses. Since the animals died from natural causes they had been previously used in other experiments. Human and veterinary anatomical terminology and literature were used as a reference for the determination of vessels studied in the primates. Arteries of the encephalon base represent division branches of three vascular pedicules: the right and left internal carotid arteries and the basilar system. Vessels in the basilar system of the animal were called vertebral arteries; anterior spinal artery; anterior and posterior cerebelar arteries; pontine arteries; satellite cerebelar arteries; caudal and cranial cerebelar arteries. The basilar artery bifurcates into two posterior cerebral arteries (100%. The caudal area of the encephalon’s arterial circuit is thus constituted. Linking between the vertebro-basilar and the carotid segments is done by the posterior communicating artery, that caudally anastomizes (100% with the posterior cerebral artery. The internal carotid artery gives origin to the posterior communicating artery. The right and left internal carotid artery (intracranial portion compounds the carotid system. The following vessels were identified: middle cerebral artery; anterior cerebral artery; interhemispheric artery; olfactory arteries. Results report that Cebus paella presents an arterial pattern of relative morphological stabilityEstudaram-se as artérias da base do encéfalo do Cebus apella em 30 animais, vindos a óbito por morte natural no Zoológico de São Paulo e coletados durante 10 anos. O material recebeu injeção de látex corado, fixado em formol a 10%, e foi dissecado sob lupa. Encontramos dificuldade e denominar estes vasos. As terminologias anatômicas humana e veterinária e a recuperação da literatura nos serviram de base para

  20. Effects of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonism and antagonism on SKF81297-induced dyskinesia and haloperidol-induced dystonia in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten V; Peacock, Linda P; Werge, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    81297 (SKF) and acute dystonia induced by the dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist haloperidol in Cebus apella monkeys. The monkeys were sensitised to EPS by prior exposure to D(2) receptor antagonists. SKF (0.3 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with the CB(1) agonist CP55,940 (0.......0025-0.01 mg/kg) or the CB(1) antagonist SR141716A (0.25-0.75 mg/kg). Haloperidol (individual doses at 0.01-0.02 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with CP55,940 (0.005 or 0.01 mg/kg) or SR141716A (0.5 or 0.75 mg/kg). Subsequently, the monkeys were videotaped, and the recordings were rated...... for oral dyskinesia or dystonia. SKF-induced oral dyskinesia was dose-dependently reduced by CP55,940, with no effect of SR141716A. Haloperidol-induced dystonia was not affected by either CP55,940 or SR141716A....

  1. Evaluation of the immunological cellular response of Cebus apella exposed to the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and treated with CANOVA®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feio, Danielle Cristinne Azevedo; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; De Brito Junior, Lacy Cardoso; De Lima, Patrícia Danielle Lima

    2014-01-01

    The immune response modifier Canova® is a homeopathic remedy indicated for patients with depressed immune system, since this drug appears to increase adaptive immunity and induce an immune response against multiple and severe pathological conditions, including cancer. We evaluated the pattern of immune cellular response in non-human primates of the species Cebus apella exposed to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) with and without Canova®. Twelve animals were divided into four groups, with three animals each: negative control and three experimental groups, MNU-alone (35 days); MNU (35 days)-plus-Canova® (3 days) and Canova®-alone (3 days). The animals received MNU orally and Canova® by three intravenous injections. Evaluation of the cellular immune response was performed by immunophenotyping of T-lymphocytes (CD4(+), CD8(+)), B-lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Analysis was also performed of the cell cycle. Our results suggest an increase of T-lymphocytes (CD4(+)CD3(+)) only in the Canova® group, while in the MNU-plus-Canova® group only B-lymphocytes increased. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Foreign Policy, Agrarian Unrest, and Missionary Praxis: the Italian Capuchins and the Relations Between Brazil and the Vatican at the Beginning of the Second Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Palacios

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the role played by the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide’s Apostolic Missions in the political relations between the Empire of Brazil and the Holy See. Based mainly on Vatican sources, the text follows the negotiations between the Brazilian State, the Roman Curia, the Brazilian bishops, and the Italian Friar Capuchin Missions, in search of a common ground to solve institutional policy problems as well as the definition of power spheres between the State and the Catholic Church for the missionary practice to take place. Agreements were reach in the context of a threatening series of insurrections and revolts performed by communities of free men and women in the Northeastern countryside.

  3. Flow Observations with Tufts and Lampblack of the Stalling of Four Typical Airfoil Sections in the NACA Variable-density Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Ira H; Sherman, Albert

    1938-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the stalling processes of four typical airfoil sections was made over the critical range of the Reynolds Number. Motion pictures were taken of the movements of small silk tufts on the airfoil surface as the angle of attack increased through a range of angles including the stall. The boundary-layer flow also at certain angles of attack was indicated by the patterns formed by a suspension of lampblack in oil brushed onto the airfoil surface. These observations were analyzed together with corresponding force-test measurements to derive a picture of the stalling processes of airfoils.

  4. Administration of high doses of copper to capuchin monkeys does not cause liver damage but induces transcriptional activation of hepatic proliferative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Magdalena; Núñez, Héctor; Pavez, Leonardo; Arredondo, Miguel; Méndez, Marco; Cisternas, Felipe; Pizarro, Fernando; Sierralta, Walter; Uauy, Ricardo; González, Mauricio

    2012-02-01

    Liver cells respond to copper loading upregulating protective mechanisms. However, to date, except for liver content, there are no good indicators that identify individuals with excess liver copper. We hypothesized that administering high doses of copper to young (5.5 mg Cu · kg⁻¹ . d⁻¹) and adult (7.5 mg Cu · kg⁻¹ . d⁻¹) capuchin monkeys would induce detectable liver damage. Study groups included adult monkeys (2 females, 2 males) 3-3.5 y old at enrollment treated with copper for 36 mo (ACu); age-matched controls (1 female, 3 males) that did not receive additional copper (AC); young monkeys (2 female, 2 males) treated from birth with copper for 36 mo (YCu); and young age-matched controls (2 female, 2 males) that did not receive additional copper (YC). We periodically assessed clinical, blood biochemical, and liver histological indicators and at 36 mo the hepatic mRNA abundance of MT2a, APP, DMT1, CTR1, HGF, TGFβ, and NFκΒ only in adult monkeys. After 36 mo, the liver copper concentration was 4-5 times greater in treated monkeys relative to controls. All monkeys remained healthy with normal routine serum biochemical indices and there was no evidence of liver tissue damage. Relative mRNA abundance of HGF, TGFβ and NFκB was significantly greater in ACu than in AC monkeys. In conclusion, capuchin monkeys exposed to copper at doses up to 50 times the current upper level enhanced expression of genes related to inflammation and injury without clinical, blood biochemical, or histological evidence of liver damage.

  5. Olfactory bulb short axon cell release of GABA and dopamine produces a temporally biphasic inhibition-excitation response in external tufted cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaolin; Plachez, Celine; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam; Shipley, Michael T

    2013-02-13

    Evidence for coexpression of two or more classic neurotransmitters in neurons has increased, but less is known about cotransmission. Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons corelease dopamine (DA), the excitatory transmitter glutamate, and the inhibitory transmitter GABA onto target cells in the striatum. Olfactory bulb (OB) short axon cells (SACs) form interglomerular connections and coexpress markers for DA and GABA. Using an optogenetic approach, we provide evidence that mouse OB SACs release both GABA and DA onto external tufted cells (ETCs) in other glomeruli. Optical activation of channelrhodopsin specifically expressed in DAergic SACs produced a GABA(A) receptor-mediated monosynaptic inhibitory response, followed by DA-D(1)-like receptor-mediated excitatory response in ETCs. The GABA(A) receptor-mediated hyperpolarization activates I(h) current in ETCs; synaptically released DA increases I(h), which enhances postinhibitory rebound spiking. Thus, the opposing actions of synaptically released GABA and DA are functionally integrated by I(h) to generate an inhibition-to-excitation "switch" in ETCs. Consistent with the established role of I(h) in ETC burst firing, we show that endogenous DA release increases ETC spontaneous bursting frequency. ETCs transmit sensory signals to mitral/tufted output neurons and drive intraglomerular inhibition to shape glomerulus output to downstream olfactory networks. GABA and DA cotransmission from SACs to ETCs may play a key role in regulating output coding across the glomerular array.

  6. A pitfall of glomerular sieving: profibrotic and matrix proteins derive from the Bowman's capsule and not the glomerular tuft in rats with renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, O M; Panzer, U; Fehr, S; Meyer-Schwesinger, C; Stahl, R A K; Wenzel, U O

    2007-10-01

    The glomeruli in the non-clipped kidney of rats with 2-kidney, 1-clip hypertension are a classical model for studying the mechanisms of glomerular injury. In the present study, we compared the glomerular expression of PAI-1 and collagen I alpha1 mRNA from glomeruli isolated by the classic technique of sieving with the recently developed technique of tissue laser microdissection. For quantification of mRNA from both methods, real-time PCR was used. Real-time PCR revealed a 9.0 +/- 1.3- and a 7.1 +/- 0.2-fold induction of PAI-1 and collagen I alpha 1, respectively, in the glomeruli from hypertensive rats isolated by sieving. However, in situ hybridization and microdissection revealed that expression of both mRNAs was mainly from the Bowman's capsule and not from the glomerular tuft (10.7 +/- 1.3- and 7.2 +/- 0.6-fold higher induction in whole glomeruli compared with tuft alone). This emphasizes that studies focusing on processes in the mesangium, endothelial cells or podocytes should not rely on glomeruli obtained by sieving. Rather, a technique like the laser microdissection or in situ hybridization should be applied which allows the clear separation of different glomerular and periglomerular compartments.

  7. Functional Reintegration of Sensory Neurons and Transitional Dendritic Reduction of Mitral/Tufted Cells during Injury-Induced Recovery of the Larval Xenopus Olfactory Circuit

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    Sara J. Hawkins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms involved in maintaining lifelong neurogenesis has a clear biological and clinical interest. In the present study, we performed olfactory nerve transection on larval Xenopus to induce severe damage to the olfactory circuitry. We surveyed the timing of the degeneration, subsequent rewiring and functional regeneration of the olfactory system following injury. A range of structural labeling techniques and functional calcium imaging were performed on both tissue slices and whole brain preparations. Cell death of olfactory receptor neurons and proliferation of stem cells in the olfactory epithelium were immediately increased following lesion. New olfactory receptor neurons repopulated the olfactory epithelium and once again showed functional responses to natural odorants within 1 week after transection. Reinnervation of the olfactory bulb (OB by newly formed olfactory receptor neuron axons also began at this time. Additionally, we observed a temporary increase in cell death in the OB and a subsequent loss in OB volume. Mitral/tufted cells, the second order neurons of the olfactory system, largely survived, but transiently lost dendritic tuft complexity. The first odorant-induced responses in the OB were observed 3 weeks after nerve transection and the olfactory network showed signs of major recovery, both structurally and functionally, after 7 weeks.

  8. EFFECT OF THE LEVEL AND TYPE OF DIETARY FAT ON THE METABOLISM OF CHOLESTEROL AND BETA LIPOPROTEINS IN THE CEBUS MONKEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Oscar W.; Hegsted, D. Mark; Stare, Fredrick J.; Bruno, Dorothy; Murphy, Robert; Sinisterra, Leonardo

    1956-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effect of the level and type of dietary fat on the concentration of cholesterol and beta lipoproteins in the sera of Cebus monkeys. Three groups of monkeys were fed isocaloric diets containing a fixed ratio of alpha protein and cholesterol to calories but with different amounts of corn oil and sucrose. Corn oil provided 10, 32, and 45 per cent of the calories in the three diets, and the level of sucrose was varied inversely. After 8 weeks the serum cholesterol and Sf 12 to 100 beta lipoprotein concentrations were significantly greater in the medium and high fat groups. When corn oil was decreased from 45 to 10 per cent of dietary calories and sucrose was increased, the serum cholesterol fell in all cases, and when the reverse change was made, the concentration of serum cholesterol increased. Variation in dietary sucrose had no specific effect. Substitution of starch for sucrose with diets otherwise constant did not cause significant change in the concentration of serum cholesterol. When monkeys fed corn oil diets at any of three levels were changed to hydrogenated cottonseed oil diets at the same level, the serum cholesterol and Sf 12 to 100 beta lipoproteins rose. However, hydrogenated cottonseed oil had no greater hypercholesteremic effect than did corn oil in the absence of dietary cholesterol. Diets containing lard with cholesterol also produced strikingly greater serum lipide responses than did diets based on corn oil and cholesterol. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil had a greater hypercholesteremic effect than an unhydrogenated cottonseed oil from the same lot. Preliminary studies indicated that the saturated fats (hydrogenated cottonseed oil) produced the most striking elevation of serum cholesterol values (above controls fed corn oil) when casein was the dietary protein. PMID:13376806

  9. Ocorrência de anticorpos e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Leptospira spp. em Cebus spp. mantidos em cativeiro no Nordeste do Brasil

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    Débora R.A. Ferreira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Leptospira e os fatores de risco associados à infecção em primatas do gênero Cebus mantidos em cativeiro no Nordeste do Brasil. Foram analisadas 139 amostras de soro sanguíneo de diferentes espécies de primatas de ambos os sexos e idades variadas. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos empregou-se a técnica de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (SAM e para estudo dos fatores de risco utilizou-se análise multivariada. Foram observados anticorpos anti-Leptospira, sorovar Patoc em 6,5% dos primatas (09/139. O fator de risco identificado nesse estudo foi a não higienização diária de bebedouros (Odds ratio=12,095; IC 95% = 1,73-84,52; p=0,012,. Conclui-se que a população de Cebus mantidos em cativeiros no Nordeste do Brasil está exposta à infecção por anticorpos anti-Leptospira e que medidas corretivas de manejo dos animais, especificamente aquelas relacionadas à higienização diária de bebedouros devem ser implementadas para reduzir o risco de infecção por sorovares de Leptospira spp.

  10. Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a new world primate.

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    Barbara Tiddi

    Full Text Available Seyfarth's model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies on the relation between grooming and dominance rank in the New World genus Cebus have found conflicting results, showing considerable variability across groups and species. In this study, we investigated the pattern of grooming in wild tufted capuchin females (Cebus apella nigritus in Iguazú National Park, Argentina by testing both the assumption (i.e., that females gain rank-related return benefits from grooming and predictions (i.e., that females direct grooming up the dominance hierarchy and the majority of grooming occurs between females with adjacent ranks of Seyfarth's model. Study subjects were 9 adult females belonging to a single group. Results showed that grooming was given in return for tolerance during naturally occurring feeding, a benefit that higher-ranking females can more easily grant. Female grooming was directed up the hierarchy and was given more often to partners with similar rank. These findings provide supporting evidence for both the assumption and predictions of Seyfarth's model and represent, more generally, the first evidence of reciprocal behavioural interchanges driven by rank-related benefits in New World female primates.

  11. Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a new world primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Seyfarth's model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies on the relation between grooming and dominance rank in the New World genus Cebus have found conflicting results, showing considerable variability across groups and species. In this study, we investigated the pattern of grooming in wild tufted capuchin females (Cebus apella nigritus) in Iguazú National Park, Argentina by testing both the assumption (i.e., that females gain rank-related return benefits from grooming) and predictions (i.e., that females direct grooming up the dominance hierarchy and the majority of grooming occurs between females with adjacent ranks) of Seyfarth's model. Study subjects were 9 adult females belonging to a single group. Results showed that grooming was given in return for tolerance during naturally occurring feeding, a benefit that higher-ranking females can more easily grant. Female grooming was directed up the hierarchy and was given more often to partners with similar rank. These findings provide supporting evidence for both the assumption and predictions of Seyfarth's model and represent, more generally, the first evidence of reciprocal behavioural interchanges driven by rank-related benefits in New World female primates.

  12. Conservation value of a native forest fragment in a region of extensive agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello

    2000-05-01

    A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals), including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) were found frequently, suggesting high population density in the fragment. Regarding the avifauna, 49 bird species were recorded, most of them typical of open areas or forest edges. Some confirmed species, however, are becoming increasingly rare in the region, as for example the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) and the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco). The results demonstrate that forest fragment of this size are refuges for native fauna in a region dominated almost exclusively by sugar-cane plantations. Besides faunal aspects, the conservation of these fragments is of great importance for the establishment of studies related to species preservation in the long term, including reintroduction and translocation projects, as well as studies related to genetic health of isolated populations.

  13. Does hierarchy stability influence testosterone and cortisol levels of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) adult males? A comparison between two wild groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Edaes, Mariana; Palme, Rupert; Rodrigues, Agatha; Siqueira, José; Izar, Patrícia

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone and cortisol are hormones expected to play a major role in competitive behaviours (i.e. aggression), and are related to rank and hierarchical stability. Through a non-invasive technique, we analyzed faecal testosterone (FTM(1)) and cortisol (FCM(2)) metabolites of dominant and subordinate males from two wild groups of bearded capuchin monkeys. One group had a stable dominance hierarchy while the other had an unstable hierarchy, with a marked conflict period related to a male take-over. In the unstable hierarchy group (1) the dominant male had higher FTM peaks than subordinates, and (2) basal FTM levels were higher than in the stable group. These findings are in accordance with the Challenge Hypothesis and rank-based predictions, and confirm that in Sapajus libidinosus hierarchy stability, social status, aggression rates and testosterone are closely related. Dominants of both groups had higher basal and peak FCM levels, suggesting that in S. libidinosus the dominant male has a higher allostatic load than subordinates, related to his role in protection against predators, intragroup appeasement, and control of food sources. Finally, we suggest that males of S. libidinosus are resistant to testosterone suppression by cortisol, because in the unstable group in spite of an increase in FCM there was also an increase in FTM during the conflict period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic myocardial damage in experimental T. cruzi infection of a new world primate, Cebus sp. monkey Lesões miocárdicas crônicas na infecção experimental pelo T. cruzi no macaco (Cebus apella

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    Carlos Alberto Falasca

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen Cebus apella monkeys, (juvenile and adult of both sexes were inoculated five years ago, with three Trypanosoma cruzi strains (CA1, n = 10; Colombian, n=4 and Tulahuen, n=4, either by conjunctival or intraperitoneal route, once or repeatedly. Parasitological, hematological, serological, enzymatic, radiographic, electro and echocardiographic findings have been peviously published15 and they are similar to those observed in human pathology. The most frequent electrocardiographic alteration was right branch bundle block. Six animals, chosen at random, were sacrificed. Those sacrificed 20 to 25 months post-first inoculation showed focal accumuli of leukocytes with myocytolysis. Foci of diffuse interstitial fibrosis with mild infiltrate of leukocytes among fibers were observed in the animals sacrificed 36 to 47 months post-inoculation. No parasites were seen. The lesions were more prominent in the ventricular walls and the septum. The fact that the infiltrates were predominant in the animals sacrificed at a shorter time after first inoculation and that fibrosis was more severe in those sacrificed at a longer time suggests that there is a progression of the infiltrative lesions to fibrosis, with a leukocytic activity indicative of a chronic phase. These lesions are similar to those described in human chronic Chagas' disease. This would demonstrate that this model is useful in evaluating a progress in the knowledge of the pathogenesis which is still a controversial issue, immunology, immunogenesis and chemotherapeutic agents of the chronic and indeterminate phases of this disease.Dezoito macacos Cebus apella (jovens e adultos de ambos os sexos foram inoculados há 5 anos atrás, com 3 cepas de T. cruzi (CA1, n = 10; Colombiana, n =4 e Tulahuen, n =4 seja por via conjuntival ou intraperitonial, uma única vez ou repetidamente. Os achados parasitológicos, hematológicos, sorológicos, enzimáticos, radiográficos, eletro e ecocardiogr

  15. Estudo anatômico dos principais sulcos e giros do cérebro de Cebus libidinosus (Rylands, 2000) (Primates, Cebidae) e análise da citoarquitetura cortical do lobo parietal usando a técnica de Golgi-Cox

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, Jarbas Pereira de

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar a morfologia do cérebro de Cebus a fim de evidenciar os principais giros e sulcos, o grau de girencefalia, o índice de encefalização e as medidas das principais estruturas, para comparar os resultados com os dados na literatura para humanos, chimpanzés, babuínos e outros primatas não humanos. Além disso, executa-se o estudo da arquitetura do neocórtex parietal utilizando a técnica histológica de Golgix-Cox. Quatro espécimes de Cebus libidinosus adultos e sa...

  16. Sniff-Like Patterned Input Results in Long-Term Plasticity at the Rat Olfactory Bulb Mitral and Tufted Cell to Granule Cell Synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During odor sensing the activity of principal neurons of the mammalian olfactory bulb, the mitral and tufted cells (MTCs, occurs in repetitive bursts that are synchronized to respiration, reminiscent of hippocampal theta-gamma coupling. Axonless granule cells (GCs mediate self- and lateral inhibitory interactions between the excitatory MTCs via reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. We have explored long-term plasticity at this synapse by using a theta burst stimulation (TBS protocol and variations thereof. GCs were excited via glomerular stimulation in acute brain slices. We find that TBS induces exclusively long-term depression in the majority of experiments, whereas single bursts (“single-sniff paradigm” can elicit both long-term potentiation and depression. Statistical analysis predicts that the mechanism underlying this bidirectional plasticity involves the proportional addition or removal of presynaptic release sites. Gamma stimulation with the same number of APs as in TBS was less efficient in inducing plasticity. Both TBS- and “single-sniff paradigm”-induced plasticity depend on NMDA receptor activation. Since the onset of plasticity is very rapid and requires little extra activity, we propose that these forms of plasticity might play a role already during an ongoing search for odor sources. Our results imply that components of both short-term and long-term olfactory memory may be encoded at this synapse.

  17. Fatal attack on black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) by a Boa constrictor: a simultaneous assault on two juvenile monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Danilo Simonini; dos Santos, Edmilson; Leal, Silvana Gomes; de Jesus, Andrea Karla; Vargas, Waldemir Paixão; Dutra, Irapuan; Barros, Marilia

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the first witnessed attack on a marmoset by a constrictor snake. The incident occurred mid-morning in a gallery forest within an altered landscape of the Cerrado region of central Brazil and refers to a fatal attack by a Boa constrictor on two juvenile black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) simultaneously. The snake captured both individuals at a height of ~ 4 m while a group of eight marmosets traveled through the subcanopy. The actual strike was not seen. After 2 min, the boa fell to the ground with both marmosets in its coils and proceeded to kill one animal at a time through constriction. Two adult marmosets immediately descended to where the snake held its victims on the ground and attacked it. The snake showed no apparent reaction, and after ~ 1-2 min, the adults rejoined the remaining group members that were mobbing and vocalizing from 5 to 6 m above. The group left the scene ~ 7 min after the onset of the attack and was not seen again. The snake loosened its coils 10 min after its initial strike, left the two carcasses on the ground and stayed behind a nearby tree. Thus, we are not sure if the victims were in fact ingested. This report confirms that marmosets are vulnerable to boid snakes and capable of highly organized and cooperative antipredation behavior. It also suggests that snakes pose a greater threat to callitrichids than previously thought.

  18. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerts, J A; Prins, H H T; Bomhoff, D; Verhagen, I; Swart, J M; de Boer, W F

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon) and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta), and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns.

  19. Classificação morfofuncional dos dentes de saguis-de-tufo-branco (Callithrix jacchus, Callitrichidae, saguis-de-tufo-preto (C. penicillata e saguis-de-cara-branca (C. geoffroyi Morphofunctional classification of teeth of marmosets-tufted white (Callithrix jacchus, Callitrichidae, marmosets-tufted black (C. penicillata, and marmosets white-face (C. geoffroyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Machado Bertassoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo para analisar morfologicamente os dentes do saguis-de-tufo-branco (C. jacchus, saguis-de-tufo-preto (C. penicillata e saguis-de-cara-branca (C. geoffroyi, para compara-los entre si e com outras espécies já descritas na literatura. Utilizou-se dentes das três espécies para analises macroscópicas, microscópicas e ultraestrutural e os resultados correlacionados com os obtidos com outras espécies citadas na literatura. Chegou-se a conclusão de que: as três espécies apresentaram uma fórmula dentária idêntica, chegando a um total de 32 dentes, expressa na fórmula 2x: incisivos 2/2; caninos 1/1; pré-molares 3/3 e molares 2/2, estes são classificados como diplodontes, anelodontes, bunodontes, e braquiodontes.A study was conducted to analyze the morphology of the teeth of white-tufted-ear-marmoset (C. jacchus black-tufted-ear-marmoset (C. penicillata and marmosets-white-faced (C. geoffroyi, to compare them among themselves and with other species described in the literature. Teeth of the three species were submitted to macroscopic, microscopic and ultrastructural analyzes. The results were correlated with those of other species. We concluded that: the three species have a similar dental formula, reaching a total of 32 teeth, expressed in the formula 2x: incisors 2/2; canines 1/1, pre-molars 3/3 and molars 2/2, ich are classified as diplodont, anelodont, bunodont and brachyodont.

  20. Learning-dependent and -independent enhancement of mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses following olfactory fear conditioning in awake mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jordan M; Fletcher, Max L

    2018-04-18

    Associative fear learning produces fear toward the conditioned stimulus (CS) and often generalization, the expansion of fear from the CS to similar, unlearned stimuli. However, how fear learning affects early sensory processing of learned and unlearned stimuli in relation to behavioral fear responses to these stimuli remains unclear. We subjected male and female mice expressing the fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP3 in olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells to a classical olfactory fear conditioning paradigm. We then used awake, in vivo calcium imaging to quantify learning-induced changes in glomerular odor responses, which constitute the first site of olfactory processing in the brain. The results demonstrate that odor-shock pairing non-specifically enhances glomerular odor representations in a learning-dependent manner and increases representational similarity between the CS and non-conditioned odors, potentially priming the system towards generalization of learned fear. Additionally, CS-specific glomerular enhancements remain even when associative learning is blocked, suggesting two separate mechanisms lead to enhanced glomerular responses following odor-shock pairings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the olfactory bulb (OB), odors are uniquely coded in a spatial map that represents odor identity, making the OB a unique model system for investigating how learned fear alters sensory processing. Classical fear conditioning causes fear of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and of neutral stimuli, known as generalization. Combining fear conditioning with fluorescent calcium imaging of OB glomeruli, we found enhanced glomerular responses of the CS as well as neutral stimuli in awake mice, which mirrors fear generalization. We report that CS and neutral stimuli enhancements are, respectively, learning- independent and learning-dependent. Together, these results reveal distinct mechanisms leading to enhanced OB processing of fear-inducing stimuli and provide important

  1. Suscetibilidade in vitro a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus spp e Micrococcus spp isoladas a partir de mucosa oral de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aspis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com 29 macacos-pregos (Cebus apella. Foram colhidas 50 amostras de suabe da mucosa oral, junto à transição muco-gengival maxilar, com auxílio de zaragatoas esterilizadas, embebidas em caldo Brain Heart Infusion (BHI. Todos os animais foram submetidos a exame clínico para avaliação periodontal. As amostras obtidas foram cultivadas em meios apropriados: caldo simples, caldo BHI, e ágar sangue para o isolamento de cocos Gram-positivos aeróbios da família Micrococcaceae. Para sua classificação utilizou-se as provas de catalase, Staphy-test (teste rápido para caracterização de Staphylococcus aureus e sensibilidade à bacitracina. Foram identificados 73,1% de Staphylococcus spp; 15,4% de Staphylococcus aureus; e 11,5% Micrococcus spp. As cepas isoladas foram testadas em relação à sua suscetibilidade a antibióticos pela técnica de difusão em ágar. Verificou-se para as cepas de Staphylococcus spp, 94,7% de sensibilidade a cefalotina e resistência de 89,5% à penicilina, 97,4% à oxacilina, 55,3% à tetraciclina, 57,9% à clindamicina e 63,2% à amoxicilina. Os dados obtidos demonstraram que a cefalotina foi o antibiótico para o qual as amsotras de Staphylococcus spp estudadas apresentaram, in vitro, maior grau de sensibilidade.

  2. Conservação e fisiologia pós-colheita de folhas de Capuchinha (Tropaeolum majus L. Conservation and postharvest physiology of leaves Capuchin (Tropaeolum majus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.S. Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a vida útil pós-colheita de folhas de Capuchinha (Tropaeolum majus L. embaladas com filme PVC de baixa densidade e proteínas nas concentrações de 1, 3 e 5%. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Química e Bioquímica do Centro de Ciências Agrárias (CCA da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB Areia - PB. As folhas de Capuchinha colhidas no CCA foram levadas imediatamente ao Laboratório de Química e Bioquímica, para pré-seleção, desinfestação em água clorada contendo 100mg.L-1 de cloro ativo, e seca à temperatura ambiente. Após o controle fitossanitário, as folhas foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: solução de proteína nas concentrações de 1, 3 e 5%, filme PVC de baixa densidade e a testemunha sem recobrimento. As folhas foram armazenadas durante cinco dias em temperatura média de 26 - 29ºC e umidade relativa média de 59,5 - 71,5% e outra parte foi armazenada em câmara fria com temperatura média de 12 ± 0,5 ºC e umidade relativa média de 95 ± 3%. Durante o período de armazenamento as folhas foram avaliadas quanto à perda de massa fresca, determinação de ácido ascórbico, sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável. O armazenamento durante quatro dias sob refrigeração a temperatura média de 12 ± 0,5ºC associada ao recobrimento com filme PVC mostrou melhores resultados na conservação da vida útil pós-colheita das folhas de Capuchinha.This study aimed to evaluate the shelf-life of Capuchin sheets (Tropaeolum majus L. packed with plastic wrap and low density proteins at concentrations of 1, 3 and 5%. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratório de Química e Bioquímica and the Centro de Ciências Agrárias (CCA of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB Areia - PB. Capuchin leaves harvested in the CCA were taken immediately to the Laboratório de Química e Bioquímica, for pre-screening, disinfection in chlorinated water containing 100mg.L-1

  3. Complementary roles of two resilient neotropical mammalian seed dispersers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Adriana; Morris, Rebecca J.; Lewis, Owen T.; Mikich, Sandra B.

    2018-04-01

    Capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp. and Sapajus spp.) and coatis (Nasua spp.) coexist in most neotropical forests, including small forest remnants. Both capuchins and coatis eat fruit and disperse seeds, but little is known about whether their roles in seed dispersal are redundant or complementary. We compiled 49 studies from the literature on feeding by capuchins and/or coatis, of which 19 were comprehensive enough for our analyses. We determined the relative importance of fruit eating to each species and compared their diets. Additionally, we analysed the structure of three fruit-frugivore networks built with both animal groups and the fruits they eat and evaluated whether fruit traits influenced the network topology. Fruits represented the largest part of capuchin and coati diets, even though coatis have been known for their opportunistic and generalist diets. Capuchins and coatis also exhibited similar general diet parameters (niche breadth and trophic diversity). The three networks exhibited high connectance values and variable niche overlap. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis, failed to detect any trait or trait combination related to food use. In conclusion, capuchins and coatis both have generalist diets; they feed on many different species of fruits and exhibit important complementarity as seed dispersers. Both are likely to be particularly important seed dispersers in disturbed and fragmented forests.

  4. High Energy Physics at Tufts University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Fermilab fixed target experiments; Soudan II nucleon decay project; Physics at the proton-antiproton collider at √s = 1.8 TeV; The Solenoidal Detector for the supercollider; Neutrino telescope proposal; Polarization in massive quark and hadron production; Production characteristics of top quarks; Scattering, spin dependence and mass corrections in Skyrmion models; and computation and networking

  5. High Energy Physics at Tufts University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-15

    This report discusses the following topics: Neutrino Interactions in the 15-foot Bubble Chamber; Pion and Kaon Production of Charm and Charm-Strange States; Study of Heavy Flavors at the Tagged Particle Spectrometer; Neutrino Oscillations at the Fermilab Main Injector; Soudan II Nucleon Decay Project; Physics at the Antiproton-Proton Collider at {radical}{bar s} = 1.8 TeV; Designing the Solenoidal Detector for the Supercollider; Neutrino Telescope Proposal; Polarization in Inclusive Hyperon Production and QCD Subprocesses; Production and Decay Characteristics of Top Quarks; Scattering in Extended Skyrmion Models and Spin Dependence; Search for Top Quark Production at the Tevatron; Polarization Correlations in Hadronic Production of Top Quarks; and Computation and Networking.

  6. High Energy Physics at Tufts University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.; Schneps, J.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following: fermilab fixed target experiments; photoproduction at 20 GeV: SLAC BC72-75; soudan 2 nucleon decay project; physics at the antiproton-proton collider at √s = 1.8 TeV; Designing the solenoidal detector for the supercollider; charm physics at LEP in OPAL; neutrino telescope proposal; general kinematic description of polarization in scattering processes; polarization in inclusive hyperon production and QCD subprocesses; measuring quark helicity underlying hadronic jets; scattering in extended skyrmion models and spin dependence; the diquark-quark model of the excited baryons; computation and networking; and the science and technology center

  7. High Energy Physics at Tufts University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Neutrino Interactions in the 15-foot Bubble Chamber; Pion and Kaon Production of Charm and Charm-Strange States; Study of Heavy Flavors at the Tagged Particle Spectrometer; Neutrino Oscillations at the Fermilab Main Injector; Soudan II Nucleon Decay Project; Physics at the Antiproton-Proton Collider at √ bar s = 1.8 TeV; Designing the Solenoidal Detector for the Supercollider; Neutrino Telescope Proposal; Polarization in Inclusive Hyperon Production and QCD Subprocesses; Production and Decay Characteristics of Top Quarks; Scattering in Extended Skyrmion Models and Spin Dependence; Search for Top Quark Production at the Tevatron; Polarization Correlations in Hadronic Production of Top Quarks; and Computation and Networking

  8. Capuchin Monkeys Judge Third-Party Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R.; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of…

  9. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  10. High energy physics at Tufts University. Progress report. [Summaries of research activities at Tufts University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    During the year a final paper was produced on XI* production from 2.9 GeV/c K/sup -/p interactions, and a paper on the ..sigma../sup -/..pi../sup -/..pi../sup +/ (..pi../sup 0/) final state from 2.9 GeV/c K/sup -/d interactions is on the verge of completion. From our 14.75 GeV/c anti pp experiment results have been prepared for publication on three topics: the charm search, V/sup 0/ inclusive production, and ..pi../sup 0/ production. Further analysis of data is continuing. In the 300 GeV/c pp experiment, investigations are completed or underway in three areas: neutral and charged pion correlations, inclusive ..gamma.. and V/sup 0/ production, and inclusive resonance production. Further data on inclusive V/sup 0/ distributions from 6.5 GeV/c K/sup -/p interactions has been obtained and analysis is nearing completion. A good deal of effort went into the development of proposals for new physics. These new directions may be represented by three approved experiments at three different laboratories: Neutrino-deuterium interactions at Fermilab (an approved and a proposed experiment); Search for new states decaying into anti ..lambda lambda.. and K/sup 0//sub s/K/sup 0//sub s/ using the Multiparticle Spectrometer at B.N.L. (approved in May, 1977); Search for baryonium using the SLAC hybrid bubble chamber system, which won approval in September with a recommendation for prompt running from the Program Advisory Committee. A list of publications is included.

  11. Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles. PMID:18521716

  12. Experimental gastric carcinogenesis in Cebus apella nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana de Fátima Ferreira Borges da Costa

    Full Text Available The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU. Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9(th day though on the 14(th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940(th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the tolerability and duration of anticancer treatments.

  13. Serological survey for Leishmania sp. infection in wild animals from the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EM Voltarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania sp. infection was investigated in wild animals from the Ingá Park, in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil, where American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is an endemic disease. Sixty-five mammals, comprising Didelphis albiventris, Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua, were captured. Blood samples were collected for parasite cultivation. Antibodies were investigated by direct agglutination test (DAT using Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis as antigen. Flagellates were observed in blood cultures of 14 (35.9% Didelphis albiventris. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 31 (51.6% specimens of Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua. These results suggest that Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex vetulus (crab-eating fox, Cebus apella (capuchin monkey, Dasyprocta azarae (agouti, Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon and Nasua nasua (coati play an important role in the ACL transmission cycle in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

  14. High energy physics at Tufts University. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    In the past year the Bubble Chamber Group has been involved in a wide range of activities in experimental high energy physics. Beam momenta varying from 2.9 to 300 GeV/c; bubble chambers including the FNAL 30-inch, BNL 80-inch, ANL 12-foot and FNAL 15-foot; targets which include hydrogen, deuterium, hydrogen with downstream plate, and deuterium with downstream spark chambers; beam particles including K - , anti p and p--one is still waiting for neutrinos--were used. A search was made for exotic particles and charmed particles, continued to study strange baryons and mesons, probed the dimensions of the ''fireball,'' and studied multiplicities and correlations in high energy collisions. The following progress in each of the activities which have taken place is summarized. A list of publications is included

  15. High energy physics at Tufts University. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    During the year a final paper was produced on XI* production from 2.9 GeV/c K - p interactions, and a paper on the Σ - π - π + (π 0 ) final state from 2.9 GeV/c K - d interactions is on the verge of completion. From our 14.75 GeV/c anti pp experiment results have been prepared for publication on three topics: the charm search, V 0 inclusive production, and π 0 production. Further analysis of data is continuing. In the 300 GeV/c pp experiment, investigations are completed or underway in three areas: neutral and charged pion correlations, inclusive γ and V 0 production, and inclusive resonance production. Further data on inclusive V 0 distributions from 6.5 GeV/c K - p interactions has been obtained and analysis is nearing completion. A good deal of effort went into the development of proposals for new physics. These new directions may be represented by three approved experiments at three different laboratories: Neutrino-deuterium interactions at Fermilab (an approved and a proposed experiment); Search for new states decaying into anti ΛΛ and K 0 /sub s/K 0 /sub s/ using the Multiparticle Spectrometer at B.N.L. (approved in May, 1977); Search for baryonium using the SLAC hybrid bubble chamber system, which won approval in September with a recommendation for prompt running from the Program Advisory Committee. A list of publications is included

  16. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    OpenAIRE

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative a...

  17. The Ecological Rationality of Delay Tolerance: Insights from Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Focaroli, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Both human and non-human animals often face decisions between options available at different times, and the capacity of delaying gratification has usually been considered one of the features distinguishing humans from other animals. However, this characteristic can widely vary across individuals, species, and types of task and it is still unclear…

  18. The systematics and evolution of New World primates - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the taxonomy of New World primates from proposals of the 1980's based on morphology to the great number of studies based on molecular data aiming for the elucidation of the phylogeny of New World monkeys. The innovations of the first molecular phylogeny presented by Schneider et al. (1993) positioned Callimico as a sister group of Callithrix and Cebuella; Callicebus as a member of the pitheciids; Brachyteles as sister to Lagothrix; and the night monkeys (Aotus), capuchins (Cebus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) in the same clade with the small callitrichines. These results were subsequently confirmed by dozens of subsequent studies using data from DNA sequences. Some issues difficult to resolve with the phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences, such as the diversification of the oldest lineages (pitheciids, atelids and cebids), and the confirmation of Aotus as a member of the Cebinae clade (together with Cebus/Saimiri), were clarified with new molecular approaches based on the presence or absence of Alu insertions as well as through the use of phylogenomics. At this time, all relationships at the intergeneric level had been deciphered, with the exception of the definition of the sister group of callitrichines (whether Aotus or Cebus/Saimiri are sister to callitrichines, or if Aotus, Saimiri and Cebus form a clade together). Future studies should prioritize the alpha taxonomy of most Neotropical primate groups, and the use of phylogenetic and geographic data, combined with reliable estimates of divergence times, to clarify the taxonomic status at species and genus level, as well as to help understand the evolutionary history of this remarkable and highly diversified group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Silva, Dayana Campelo da; Almeida, Robson Ferreira Cavalcante de; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Andreotti, Renato; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle), which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti), 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense) were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.

  1. Irrational choice behavior in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Brown, Ella R

    2018-03-01

    Choice behavior in humans has motivated a large body of research with a focus on whether decisions can be considered to be rational. In general, humans prefer having choice, as do a number of other species that have been tested, even though having increased choice does not necessarily yield a positive outcome. Humans have been found to choose an option more often only because the opportunity to select it was diminishing, an example of a deviation from economic rationality. Here we extend this paradigm to nonhuman primates in an effort to understand the mechanisms underlying this finding. In this study, we presented two groups of laboratory monkeys, capuchins (Cebus apella) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), as well as human subjects, with a computerized task in which subjects were presented with two differently colored icons. When the subject selected an icon, differing numbers of food pellets were dispensed (or points were assigned), making each icon correspond to a certain level of risk (one icon yielded 1 or 4 pellets/points and the other yielded 2 or 3). Initially, both options remained constantly available and we established choice preference scores for each subject. Then, we assessed preference patterns once the options were not continuously available. Specifically, choosing one icon would cause the other to shrink in size on the screen and eventually disappear if never selected. Selecting it would restore it to its full size. As predicted, humans shifted their risk preferences in the diminishing options phase, choosing to click on both icons more equally in order to keep both options available. At the group level, capuchin monkeys showed this pattern as well, but there was a great deal of individual variability in both capuchins and macaques. The present work suggests that there is some degree of continuity between human and nonhuman primates in the desire to have choice simply for the sake of having choice.

  2. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine inhibits d-amphetamine-induced psychotic-like behavior in Cebus monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Werge, Thomas; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Cholinergic receptors (AChR) are reported altered in brains from schizophrenic patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit antipsychotic potential. Centrally acting selective muscarinic receptor agonists are currently not available for clinical use,...

  3. High energy physics at Tufts University: Progress report, July 16, 1986 to July 15, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses topics and projects in the following areas: Soudan-II nucleon decay project, neutrino interactions at the Tevatron in the 15-foot bubbble chamber, pion and kaon production of charm and charm-strange states, multiparticle spectrometer studies at Fermilab, general kinematic description of polarization in scattering processes and spin phenomenology, polarization in inclusive hyperon production and measuring quarks helicity underlying hadronic jets

  4. Salmonella Yoruba infection in white-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Knöbl

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe a fatal salmonellosis case in a non-human female primate (Callithrix jacchus, found in the illegal pet trade in Brazil. The marmoset was sent to the quarantine section of the Guarulhos City Zoo and died in the sequence of an episode of profuse diarrhea. Necropsy findings included mucous enteritis, and liver enlargement and necrosis. Feces and liver fragments were collected for bacteriological tests, which indicated the presence of Salmonella sp.; it was subsequently characterized as pertaining to the Yoruba serotype. The susceptibility profile demonstrated resistance to tetracycline only. The strain was positive for genes that encoded the virulence factors investigated (invA, sefC, pefA and spvC. The results indicated the risk of introduction of Salmonella pathogenic serotypes in primates in captivity.

  5. High Energy Physics at Tufts University. Progress report, 1991--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-15

    This report discusses the following topics: Neutrino Interactions in the 15-foot Bubble Chamber; Pion and Kaon Production of Charm and Charm-Strange States; Study of Heavy Flavors at the Tagged Particle Spectrometer; Neutrino Oscillations at the Fermilab Main Injector; Soudan II Nucleon Decay Project; Physics at the Antiproton-Proton Collider at {radical}{bar s} = 1.8 TeV; Designing the Solenoidal Detector for the Supercollider; Neutrino Telescope Proposal; Polarization in Inclusive Hyperon Production and QCD Subprocesses; Production and Decay Characteristics of Top Quarks; Scattering in Extended Skyrmion Models and Spin Dependence; Search for Top Quark Production at the Tevatron; Polarization Correlations in Hadronic Production of Top Quarks; and Computation and Networking.

  6. High energy physics at Tufts University. Progress report, August 1, 1984-July 15, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Work is reported in these experimental projects: Soudan-II nucleon decay project; neutrino interactions; photoproduction studies; multiparticle spectrometer studies, such as K/sub s/ 0 K/sub s/ 0 from π - p interactions and phi phi final states in pp reactions; and streamer chamber study of anti K* 0 (890). Theoretical work included general kinematic description of polarization processes and applications of QCD perturbation theory. 67 refs

  7. Tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa) exhibits a lower photosynthetic plasticity than Antarctic hairgrass (D. antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, Grazyna; Urban, Pawel L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of our work was to assess photosynthetic plasticity of two hairgrass species with different ecological origins (a temperate zone species, Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauv. and an Antarctic species, D. antarctica) and to consider how the anticipated climate change may affect vitality of these plants. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that the photosystem II (PSII) quantum efficiency of D. caespitosa decreased during 4 d of incubation at 4 degrees C but it remained stable in D. antarctica. The fluorescence half-rise times were almost always lower in D. caespitosa than in D. antarctica, irrespective of the incubation temperature. These results indicate that the photosynthetic apparatus of D. caespitosa has poorer performance in these conditions. D. caespitosa reached the maximum photosynthesis rate at a higher temperature than D. antarctica although the values obtained at 8 degrees C were similar in both species. The photosynthetic water-use efficiency (photosynthesis-to-transpiration ratio, P/E) emerges as an important factor demonstrating presence of mechanisms which facilitate functioning of a plant in non-optimal conditions. Comparison of the P/E values, which were higher in D. antarctica than in D. caespitosa at low and medium temperatures, confirms a high degree of adjustability of the photosynthetic apparatus in D. antarctica and unveils the lack of such a feature in D. caespitosa.

  8. Clinical Prediction Models for Cardiovascular Disease: Tufts Predictive Analytics and Comparative Effectiveness Clinical Prediction Model Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Benjamin S; Lai Yh, Lana; Kramer, Whitney; Cangelosi, Michael; Raman, Gowri; Lutz, Jennifer S; Kent, David M

    2015-07-01

    Clinical prediction models (CPMs) estimate the probability of clinical outcomes and hold the potential to improve decision making and individualize care. For patients with cardiovascular disease, there are numerous CPMs available although the extent of this literature is not well described. We conducted a systematic review for articles containing CPMs for cardiovascular disease published between January 1990 and May 2012. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, stroke, venous thromboembolism, and peripheral vascular disease. We created a novel database and characterized CPMs based on the stage of development, population under study, performance, covariates, and predicted outcomes. There are 796 models included in this database. The number of CPMs published each year is increasing steadily over time. Seven hundred seventeen (90%) are de novo CPMs, 21 (3%) are CPM recalibrations, and 58 (7%) are CPM adaptations. This database contains CPMs for 31 index conditions, including 215 CPMs for patients with coronary artery disease, 168 CPMs for population samples, and 79 models for patients with heart failure. There are 77 distinct index/outcome pairings. Of the de novo models in this database, 450 (63%) report a c-statistic and 259 (36%) report some information on calibration. There is an abundance of CPMs available for a wide assortment of cardiovascular disease conditions, with substantial redundancy in the literature. The comparative performance of these models, the consistency of effects and risk estimates across models and the actual and potential clinical impact of this body of literature is poorly understood. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Clinical Prediction Models for Cardiovascular Disease: The Tufts PACE CPM Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Benjamin S.; Lana Lai, YH; Kramer, Whitney; Cangelosi, Michael; Raman, Gowri; Lutz, Jennifer S.; Kent, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical prediction models (CPMs) estimate the probability of clinical outcomes and hold the potential to improve decision making and individualize care. For patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) there are numerous CPMs available though the extent of this literature is not well described. Methods and Results We conducted a systematic review for articles containing CPMs for CVD published between January 1990 through May 2012. CVD includes coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), arrhythmias, stroke, venous thromboembolism (VTE) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD). We created a novel database and characterized CPMs based on the stage of development, population under study, performance, covariates, and predicted outcomes. There are 796 models included in this database. The number of CPMs published each year is increasing steadily over time. 717 (90%) are de novo CPMs, 21 (3%) are CPM recalibrations, and 58 (7%) are CPM adaptations. This database contains CPMs for 31 index conditions including 215 CPMs for patients with CAD, 168 CPMs for population samples, and 79 models for patients with HF. There are 77 distinct index/ outcome (I/O) pairings. Of the de novo models in this database 450 (63%) report a c-statistic and 259 (36%) report some information on calibration. Conclusions There is an abundance of CPMs available for a wide assortment of CVD conditions, with substantial redundancy in the literature. The comparative performance of these models, the consistency of effects and risk estimates across models and the actual and potential clinical impact of this body of literature is poorly understood. PMID:26152680

  10. High energy physics at Tufts University. Progress report, July 16, 1985-July 15, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Experimental projects in high energy physics that are reported include the Soudan-II Nucleon Decay Project, neutrino physics, pion and kaon production of charm and charm-strange states, and multiparticle spectrometer studies at Fermilab. Theoretical efforts include general kinematic description of polarization in scattering processes and spin phenomenology, as well as applications of quantum chromodynamic perturbation theory

  11. High-energy physics at Tufts University. Progress report, August 1, 1982-July 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Progress on the following topics is described: neutrino-deuterium interactions; anti pN interactions; K/sub s/ 0 /K/sub s/ 0 π - p interactions at 300 GeV/c; phi phi final states in 400 GeV/c pp; Fermilab Tevatron MPS proposals; nu D-physics proposed using HBC with internal calorimeter; Talloires neutrino workshop; photoproduction of charmed particles; streamer chamber study of anti K* 0 (890); Soudan-II nucleon decay program; CCD-detector study; optical resolution study; measuring hardware systems and data links; hadronic production of chi mesons; high-p/sub t/ inelastic hadronic reactions; and theoretical investigations

  12. Evidence that tufted puffins Fratercula cirrhata use colony overflights to reduce kleptoparasitism risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackburn, G.S.; Hipfner, J.M.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Predation, foraging and mating costs are critical factors shaping life histories. Among colonial seabirds, colony overflights may enhance foraging or mating success, or diminish the risk of predation and kleptoparasitism. The latter possibility is difficult to test because low predation or

  13. Morphological study of the eye and adnexa in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Nascimento Silva

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic and histologic features of the Sapajus sp. eye, comparing similarities and differences of humans and other species of non-human primates for biomedical research purposes. Computed tomography (CT of adnexa, eye and orbit live animal, as well as formolized pieces of the same structures of Sapajus sp. for anatomical and histological study were also performed. The anatomical description of the eye and adnexa was performed using the techniques of topographic dissection and exenteration. Histological fragments were fixated in buffered formalin 10%, processed by the routine paraffin inclusion technique, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and special stains. CT scan evaluation showed no differences between the live animal and the formolized head on identification of visual apparatus structures. Anatomic and histologic evaluation revealed rounded orbit, absence of the supraorbital foramen and frontal notch, little exposure of the sclera, with slight pigmentation of the exposed area and marked pigmentation at the sclerocorneal junction. Masson's Trichrome revealed the Meibomian glands, the corneal epithelium and Bowman's membrane; in the choroid, melanocytes and Bruch's membrane were observed; and in the retina, cones and rods as well as, optic nerve, the lamina cribrosa of the nerve fibers bundles. Toluidine blue highlighted the membranes: Bowman, Descemet and the endothelium; in the choroid: melanocytes; and in the retina: nuclear layers and retinal pigment epithelium. In view of the observed results Sapajus sp. is an important experimental model for research in the ophthalmology field, which has been shown due to the high similarity of its anatomical and histological structures with the human species.

  14. The influence of anthropogenic edge effects on primate populations and their habitat in a fragmented rainforest in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Laura M; Schreier, Amy L; Voss, Kristofor A; Sheehan, Elizabeth A; Barrickman, Nancy L; Pryor, Nathaniel P; Barton, Matthew C

    2018-05-01

    When a forest is fragmented, this increases the amount of forest edge relative to the interior. Edge effects can lead to loss of animal and plant species and decreased plant biomass near forest edges. We examined the influence of an anthropogenic forest edge comprising cattle pasture, coconut plantations, and human settlement on the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), and plant populations at La Suerte Biological Research Station (LSBRS), Costa Rica. We predicted that there would be lower monkey encounter rate, mean tree species richness, and diameter at breast height (DBH) in forest edge versus interior, and that monkeys would show species-specific responses to edge based on diet, body size, and canopy height preferences. Specifically, we predicted that howler monkeys would show positive or neutral edge effects due to their flexible folivorous diet, large body size, and preference for high canopy, capuchins would show positive edge effects due to their diverse diet, small body size, and preference for low to middle canopy, and spider monkeys would show negative edge effects due their reliance on ripe fruit, large body size, and preference for high upper canopy. We conducted population and vegetation surveys along edge and interior transects at LSBRS. Contrary to predictions, total monkey encounter rate did not vary between the forest edge and forest interior. Furthermore, all three species showed neutral edge effects with no significant differences in encounter rate between forest edge and interior. Interior transects had significantly higher mean tree species richness than edge transects, and interior trees had greater DBH than edge trees, although this difference was not significant. These results suggest that forest edges negatively impact plant populations at La Suerte but that the monkeys are able to withstand these differences in vegetation.

  15. Stable isotope ratios indicate diet and habitat use in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeninger, M J; Iwaniec, U T; Glander, K E

    1997-05-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in animal tissue for indicating aspects of species behavioral strategy. We analyzed hair from individuals representing four species of New World monkeys (Alouatta palliata, the mantled howler; Ateles geoffroyi, the spider monkey; Cebus capucinus, the capuchin; and Brachyteles arachnoides, the woolly-spider monkey or muriqui) for delta 13C and delta 15N using previously developed methods. There are no significant differences in either carbon or nitrogen ratios between sexes, sampling year, or year of analysis. Seasonal differences in delta 13C reached a low level of significance but do not affect general patterns. Variation within species was similar to that recorded previously within single individuals. The omega 13C data show a bimodal distribution with significant difference between the means. The two monkey populations living in an evergreen forest were similar to each other and different from the other two monkey populations that inhabited dry, deciduous forests. This bimodal distribution is independent of any particular species' diet and reflects the level of leaf cover in the two types of forest. The delta 15N data display three significantly different modes. The omnivorous capuchins were most positive reflecting a trophic level offset. The spider monkeys and the muriquis were similar to one another and significantly more positive than the howlers. This distribution among totally herbivorous species correlates with the ingestion of legumes by the howler monkey population. In combination, these data indicate that museum-curated primate material can be analyzed to yield information on forest cover and diet in populations and species lacking behavioral data.

  16. Cheating monkeys undermine group strength in enemy territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret Chatham; Gilby, Ian C

    2012-01-10

    In many social animals, group-mates cooperate to defend their range against intrusion by neighboring groups. Because group size tends to be highly variable, such conflicts are often asymmetric. Although numerical superiority is assumed to provide a competitive advantage, small groups can generally defend their ranges, even when greatly outnumbered. The prevailing explanation for this puzzling phenomenon is that individuals in relatively large groups experience a greater temptation to flee from conflicts, in effect leveling the balance of power. Using playback experiments simulating territorial intrusions by wild capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) groups, we show that such a collective action problem does indeed undermine the competitive ability of large groups. Focal capuchins were more likely to run away from territorial intrusions when their group had a numeric advantage; each one-individual increase in relative group size raised the odds of flight by 25%. However, interaction location had a more important impact on individuals' reactions, creating a strong home-field advantage. After controlling for relative group size, the odds that a focal animal fled were 91% lower in experiments that occurred in the center compared with on the edge of its group's range, whereas the odds that it rushed toward the speaker were more than sixfold higher. These location-dependent patterns of defection and cooperation create a competitive advantage for residents over intruders across a wide range of relative group sizes, which may stabilize range boundaries and provide a general explanation for how groups of widely divergent sizes can coexist, even in the face of intense intergroup competition.

  17. Monkeys Wait to Begin a Computer Task when Waiting Makes Their Responses More Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore A. Evans

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella performed a computerized inhibitory control task modeled after an “escalating interest task” from a recent human study (Young, Webb, & Jacobs, 2011. In the original study, which utilized a first-person shooter game, human participants learned to inhibit firing their simulated weapon long enough for the weapon‟s damage potential to grow in effectiveness (up to 10 seconds in duration. In the present study, monkeys earned food pellets for eliminating arrays of target objects using a digital eraser. We assessed whether monkeys could suppress trial-initiating joystick movements long enough for the eraser to grow in size and speed, thereby making their eventual responses more effective. Monkeys of both species learned to inhibit moving the eraser for as long as 10 seconds, and they allowed the eraser to grow larger for successively larger target arrays. This study demonstrates an interesting parallel in behavioral inhibition between human and nonhuman participants and provides a method for future comparative testing of human and nonhuman test groups.

  18. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Anne M.; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution. PMID:26928014

  19. Systematic, cross-cortex variation in neuron numbers in rodents and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Cahalane, Diarmuid J; Finlay, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Uniformity, local variability, and systematic variation in neuron numbers per unit of cortical surface area across species and cortical areas have been claimed to characterize the isocortex. Resolving these claims has been difficult, because species, techniques, and cortical areas vary across studies. We present a stereological assessment of neuron numbers in layers II-IV and V-VI per unit of cortical surface area across the isocortex in rodents (hamster, Mesocricetus auratus; agouti, Dasyprocta azarae; paca, Cuniculus paca) and primates (owl monkey, Aotus trivigratus; tamarin, Saguinus midas; capuchin, Cebus apella); these chosen to vary systematically in cortical size. The contributions of species, cortical areas, and techniques (stereology, "isotropic fractionator") to neuron estimates were assessed. Neurons per unit of cortical surface area increase across the rostro-caudal (RC) axis in primates (varying by a factor of 1.64-2.13 across the rostral and caudal poles) but less in rodents (varying by a factor of 1.15-1.54). Layer II-IV neurons account for most of this variation. When integrated into the context of species variation, and this RC gradient in neuron numbers, conflicts between studies can be accounted for. The RC variation in isocortical neurons in adulthood mirrors the gradients in neurogenesis duration in development. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species.

  1. Can monkeys make investments based on maximized pay-off?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Steelandt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible.

  2. Inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe Serological survey of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in neotropical wild mammals from Aracaju Zoo, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert S. Pimentel

    2009-12-01

    ção aos quatro mamíferos soropositivos para Leptospira spp., três (75% foram procedentes da natureza e um (25% nasceu no zoológico. Este foi o primeiro inquérito sorológico de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. em primatas e carnívoros neotropicais em um zoológico do Nordeste do Brasil e descreveu pela primeira vez a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-T. gondii e anti-Leptospira spp. com sorovar mais provável Copenhageni no primata ameaçado de extinção macaco-prego-de-peito-amarelo (C. xanthosternus em Aracaju, SE.Modern zoological gardens are institutions to wildlife maintenance, aiming its conservation, the performance of scientific research and leisure, recreation and environ-mental education activities. The variety of wild species living in conditions different from the one found in its natural habitats represents a propitious environment for diseases spread, specially the zoonotic ones. Due to data shortage and wild mammals' epidemio-logical relevance both for toxoplasmosis as for leptospirosis, this study aimed to determine the serological survey of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Neotropical wild mammals, from Zoo of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 32 wild mammals, adults and from both sexes: 14 wild bearded capuchins (Cebus libidinosus, four golden-bellied capuchins (Cebus xanthosternus, three pumas (Puma concolor, one jaguar (Pantheraonca, one crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, six crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus, two South American coatis (Nasua nasua, and one tayra (Eira barbara. Sera were tested to Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT e"1:25, and by the microscopic seroaglutination test (cut-off e"1:100 using 24 serovar of pathogenic leptospiras and two serovar of saprophyte leptospiras. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 17 of 32 (53.1% wild mammals, and antibodies to Leptospira spp. were found in 4 of 32 (12.5% wild mammals. In relation to gender, 9 of 15 (60% males, and 8 of 17

  3. White-faced monkey (Cebus capucinus ecology and management in neotropical agricultural landscapes during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Williams

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use by a C. capucinus troop was studied in an agricultural landscape during late dry season (March-April 1994 in northwest Costa Rica. Riparian forests, palm canals and living fence rows accounted for 82 % of observations, significantly more than the other six habitats present. The study troop consumed 24 species of plants and five animals. Feeding concentrated on the introduced African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis (33.6 % and mango (Mangifera indica (27.2 %, found mostly in palm canals and mango orchards respectively. The troop rested between 0930-1330 hr and fed and moved between 0530-0930 hr and 1330-1730 hr. Living fence rows were used as travel routes or corridors and less intensively for other activitiesSe estudió el uso de hábitat por una tropa de C. capucinus en una zona de agricultura durante la estación seca tardía (Marzo-Abril 1994 en el noroeste de Costa Rica. Los bosques riparios, canales de palmas y cercas de árboles vivos contaron con el 82 % de las observaciones, significantemente más que los otros seis hábitats presentes. La tropa de estudio consumió 24 especies de plntas y cinco animales. La alimentación se concentró en la palma de aceite Africana introducida (Elaeis guineensis (33.6 % y en mango (Mangifera indica (27.2 %, encontrados principalmente en los canales de palmas y huertos de mango respectivamente. La tropa descansó entre las 0930-1330 hr y se alimentó y movió entre las 0530-0930 hr y 1330-730 hr. Las cercas de árboles vivos fueron usadas como rutas de paso o corredores y menos intensamente para otras actividades

  4. White-faced monkey (Cebus capucinus) ecology and management in neotropical agricultural landscapes during the dry season

    OpenAIRE

    Heather E. Williams; Christopher Vaughan

    2001-01-01

    Habitat use by a C. capucinus troop was studied in an agricultural landscape during late dry season (March-April 1994) in northwest Costa Rica. Riparian forests, palm canals and living fence rows accounted for 82 % of observations, significantly more than the other six habitats present. The study troop consumed 24 species of plants and five animals. Feeding concentrated on the introduced African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) (33.6 %) and mango (Mangifera indica) (27.2 %), found mostly in palm ...

  5. Memoria espacial de árboles frutales de Cebus apella nigritus en el Parque Nacional Iguazú, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Tujague, María Paula; Lahitte, Héctor Blas

    2009-01-01

    Durante el desplazamiento diario los primates integran información sobre la localización, calidad, cantidad y estado de maduración del alimento. La diversidad extrema de árboles de fruta y la forma en que éstos se distribuyen en tiempo y espacio ha sido señalada como la mayor fuerza selectiva en el desarrollo de la memoria espacial. Modelos y experimentación sugieren que la misma ofrece una mejor explicación de los patrones de detección de comida observados en el campo, por encima de los sist...

  6. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects ...

  7. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    (EPS) at therapeutically relevant doses. In the present study, we examined whether the xanomeline-induced functional dopamine antagonism found in rodent studies could also be observed in nonhuman primates. In addition, we studied whether the lack of EPS observed in rodents also applies to primates......Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects...

  8. The substituted (S)-3-phenylpiperidine (-)-OSU6162 reduces apomorphine- and amphetamine-induced behaviour in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Andersen, M B; Fink-Jensen, A

    2006-01-01

    Low affinity dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists such as the substituted (S)-3-phenylpiperidine (-)-OSU6162 have been proposed to be putative antipsychotic agents not endowed with extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). In the present study we investigated the effects of (-)-OSU6162 on (-)-apomorphine and d-...

  9. Security in an interdependent world. Medford, Massachusetts, 18 May 2003. Statement to the Fletcher School at Tufts University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Addressing the members of The Fletcher School Board of Overseers, Director General of the IAEA emphasised the principal actions that will be essential achieve security in an independent world: First, we must modernize and revamp the collective security system of the United Nations Charter - in terms of both preventive diplomacy and enforcement action. To start, the Security Council should be reconstituted to include the major political and economic powers of today's world. In addition, new working concepts, tools and methods are needed to ensure that the Council can effectively discharge its role as the body with 'the primary responsibility' for the maintenance of international peace and security. Second, we must create an environment in which, as foreseen in the UN Charter, the use of force is limited to situations of self-defence or enforcement measures authorized by the Security Council. Preemptive strikes, however tempting, can send the global community into uncharted and dangerous territory. Only an action authorized by the Council will bring international legitimacy and support to such a measure. More importantly, these limitations will restrict the use of force to those situations where force is indeed the last and only alternative. Third, we must take concrete steps to de-legitimize the acquisition or use of weapons of mass destruction. Clearly, a new approach is needed - an approach that applies to all weapons of mass destruction, and would include: universal adherence to conventions that ban such weapons; robust and intrusive systems of verification for all related weapons conventions; a clear road map and the determination to eliminate these weapons in all States, to abolish over time the divide between the nuclear 'haves' and 'have nots'; new doctrines of security that do not rely on the deterrent effect of nuclear weapons; and reliable enforcement measures, under the aegis of the Security Council, to effectively counter efforts by any country to illicitly acquire nuclear, biological or chemical weapons. Fourth, we must develop a comprehensive regime to ensure that weapons of mass destruction and their components will not fall into the hands of terrorists. This demands an effective global approach to the physical protection of nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities, better controls for chemical and biological agents, and an effective approach to export controls worldwide. Fifth, we must have the foresight to address decisively the chronic disputes that create the greatest incentives for acquiring such weapons. It is instructive that so many of the suspected efforts to acquire weapons of mass destruction are to be found in the Middle East, a hotbed of instability for over half a century. In any future Middle East settlement, it is essential that regional security arrangements including the establishment of a region free from such weapons be pursued as part and parcel of such a settlement. The same should apply in any future settlement of such disputes, including the one currently in the spotlight on the Korean Peninsula. We must understand that peace and security are indivisible. Finally, we must work collectively to address the root causes of insecurity and instability, including: the widening divide between rich and poor, in which two-fifth of the world's population lives on less than two dollars per day; the chronic lack of good governance and respect for human rights with despots in many parts of the world taking cover under the cloak of 'sovereignty'; and the increasingly perceived schisms between cultures and civilizations. Effective amelioration of these causes of insecurity will require adequate financial assistance by the developed countries - assistance that now shamefully stands at less than one-quarter of one percent of the combined gross national income of the developed countries- about half of the cost of the war in Iraq. Improving our performance in this 'global distributive justice' will go a long way towards addressing many of the social ills that affect our planet. Global respect for human rights should be the overarching norm, irrespective of any consideration of political expediency or short term interests. Effective remedy will in addition require an increased focus by international institutions, governments, and civil society on encouraging interaction among cultures and people in order to promote mutual appreciation of our differences. More importantly, we must appreciate that what unites us is far, far greater than what divides us and equally that what separates us, in terms of our beliefs, customs and traditions, are differences in which we should take pride and which should not be scorned, but cherished. None of us as mortals holds a monopoly on the ultimate truth; and yet all of us should continue to seek it, each in his or her own way. This is a tall order. But if our aim is to spare future generations the prospect of conflicts and wars in which humanity could self-destruct, we have no other alternative

  10. Radiographic changes in the distal phalanx tuft of the hands in subjects with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis. Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yojhan Edilberto Izquierdo-Ramírez

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Current evidence regarding DPTH involvement in PsA and psoriasis is limited. However, an apparent correlation between DPTH findings and ungual abnormalities could exist, where erosions and sclerosis are the most significant abnormalities.

  11. Turbidite pathways in Cascadia Basin and Tufts abyssal plain, Part A, Astoria Channel, Blanco Valley, and Gorda Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen C.; Hamer, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    This open-file report was prepared in support of the USGS Earthquake Hazards of Cascadia Project. The primary objective of this phase of the project is to determine recurrence intervals of turbidites in Cascadia basin-floor channel systems and evaluate implications of this event record for the paleoseismic history of the Cascadia subduction zone. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the canyon/channel systems themselves are blocked or deformed in such a way that the downstream turbidite stratigraphy might be biased. To accomplish this investigation approximately 7500 kilometers of pre-existing 3.5 KHz seismic data were evaluated to determine the direction and extent of the Astoria Channel/pathway system, which originates at the base of the Astoria Fan. Additionally, distribution and thickness of turbidite sediment sequences were determined along each identified pathway. Bathymetery and distance were used to determine gradients along the main pathway axis and for each of the secondary pathways that feed into it. Channel pathways were identified on the basis of channel phyisiography, where visible at the seafloor, subbottom channel configuration, and acoustic packets of sediments that might represent turbidite deposits. A principal result of this study is that the Astoria Channel/pathway extends continuously from the base of the Astoria Fan southward along the base of the continental slope through the Blanco Valley, then heads southwestward through the Gorda Basin and into the region of the Escanaba Trough. Additionally it was determined that the Astoria Channel is filled and basically buried for it's full length south of 44 degrees latitude. The 44 North Slump, as defined by Goldfinger (1999, see Map 3 ref.), may have been instrumental in blocking the pathway and thus contributed to the filling of the channel/pathway. Sheets 1 and 2 show the Astoria and secondary turbidite pathways highlighted in blue. Ship survey tracklines are shown for the area studied; they are time and date coded, and color keyed to each ship ID data base listed at the bottom of each sheet. The first letter in the cruise ID is an abbreviation letter for the ship name, the following numbers represent the consecutive cruise number of that year, followed by the year number. The letters at the end of the ID represent the survey area, ie. NC- northern California, NP- north Pacific. Locations of selected sample seismic sections illustrated on sheets 3-5 also are shown. Scales for each of the sheets are the same as for sheets 3-5, which allows for overlaying of track data onto the interpretations shown on Maps A-C. Sheets 3 (MAP A), 4 (MAP B), and 5 (MAP C) show channel pathway location, bathymetric depth based on the USGS COW data base (Ca/Or/Wa), pathway morphology, and thickness of turbidite sediment fill at various locations. The interpreted turbidite sediments are color highlighted on the selected seismic sections to differentiate them from the typical deep sea sediments below and to the side of the turbidite pathways. Thickness of sediment fill, in meters, is shown along major pathways in white circular highlights. The data and interpretations rest on a background of USGS GLORIA side scan sonar imagery (1984) to illustrate the relationship of pathway position to sub sea features. Channel distance points are plotted along channel centerlines at 20,000 m intervals. These points begin at the start of each interpreted channel pathway. A bathymetric depth was assigned to each distance point. These data points were then used to construct channel gradient curves for the Astoria, Eel, Bear Valley, and Mendocino channel pathways. These gradients are plotted on sheet 6 of this report and illustrate the similarities and differences between each of the pathways. Sheet 7 shows various views of the Mendocino/Mattole Canyon heads as an example of useful derivative information of the Seabeam bathymetric data. These views illustrate that the Mendocino pathway probably was directed from it's canyon mouth, to the northwest at an earlier time, but was diverted to the west along the base of the Mendocino Ridge by a major fault event in the recent past. Offset of the southwest channel wall is readily evident in views B and D. This apparent disruption complicates the turbidite history of the Mendocino pathway.

  12. A Novel Model for Teaching Primary Care in a Community Practice Setting: Tufts at Tech Community Veterinary Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCobb, Emily; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Malcolm, Elizabeth L; Wolfus, Gregory; Rush, John E

    Providing veterinary students with opportunities to develop clinical skills in a realistic, hands-on environment remains a challenge for veterinary education. We have developed a novel approach to teaching clinical medicine to fourth-year veterinary students and technical high school students via development of a primary care clinic embedded within a technical high school. The primary care clinic targets an underserved area of the community, which includes many of the participating high school students. Support from the veterinary community for the project has been strong as a result of communication, the opportunity for veterinarians to volunteer in the clinic, and the careful targeting of services. Benefits to veterinary students include the opportunity to build clinical competencies and confidence, as well as the exposure to a diverse client population. The financial model of the clinic is described and initial data on outcomes for case load, clinic income, veterinary student evaluations, and high school students' success in passing the veterinary assisting examination are reported. This clinical model, involving a partnership between a veterinary school and a technical high school, may be adoptable to other clinical teaching situations.

  13. Comparative morphology of the diaphragm of white tufted-ear marmoset and the white-fronted marmoset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Borges Lessa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The marmosets of the Callithrix genus have a great importance in the research field, not only for its occurrence in the ecosystems of South America and Central America, but also because of its small size and easy management. This study aimed to characterize the ultrastructure of the diaphragm of four adult animals of the C. jacchus species and four animals of the C. geoffroyi species that died from natural causes. Diaphragms were collected, dissected, and fixed in 10% formaldehyde and analyzed through scanning electron microscopy. It was observed the presence of an external membrane of connective tissue, with cylindrical muscle fibers arranged in rows perpendicular to the longitudinal axis and grouped into fascicles. In C. jacchus it was observed a discontinuous and linear fibers’ architecture, resulting in a score of 7 and 8 fascicles for male and female, respectively. In C. geoffroyi the fiber had a continuous shape, but also linear, yielding a total of 9 and 6 fascicles for male and female, respectively. The architecture of muscle fibers and the count of fascicles of the coastal face of the diaphragm suggest differences between the species C. geoffroyi and C. jacchus and between males and females, intra- and interspecies.

  14. STUDIES ON SOUTH AMERICAN YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.

    1929-01-01

    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  15. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae associados com o ambiente em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valério Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle, which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti, 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.Neste trabalho são descritas as espécies de carrapatos de animais selvagens e domésticos e do ambiente coletados por um ano na EMBRAPA Gado de Corte localizado na área urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Dos 55 hospedeiros selvagens de seis espécies diferentes (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla e Dasyprocta aguti foram coletados 323 carrapatos. Amblyomma ovale foi encontrado apenas em quatis e Amblyomma nodosum apenas sobre tamanduás. Nenhum carrapato foi encontrado sobre macacos-prego. Por outro lado, Amblyomma cajennense foi encontrado em todos os hospedeiros

  16. Haloperidol-induced striatal Nur77 expression in a non-human primate model of tardive dyskinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Souha; Blanchet, Pierre J.; Lévesque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a delayed and potentially irreversible motor complication arising in patients chronically exposed to antipsychotic drugs. As several modern (so-called atypical) antipsychotic drugs are common offenders, the widening clinical indications for prescription as well as exposure of vulnerable individuals, TD will remain a significant drug-induced unwanted side effect. In addition, the pathophysiology of TD remains elusive and therapeutics difficult. Based on rodent experiments, we have previously shown that the transcriptional factor Nur77 (also known as NGFI-B or Nr4a1) is induced in the striatum following antipsychotic drug exposure as part of a long-term neuroadaptive process. To confirm this, we exposed adult capuchin (Cebus apella) monkeys to prolonged treatments with haloperidol (median 18.5 months, N=11) or clozapine (median 6 months, N=6). Six untreated animals were used as controls. Six haloperidol-treated animals developed mild TD movements similar to those found in humans. No TD was observed in the clozapine group. Postmortem analysis of Nur77 expression measured by in situ hybridization revealed a stark contrast between the two drugs, as Nur77 mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen were strongly upregulated in animals exposed to haloperidol while spared following clozapine treatment. Interestingly, within the haloperidol-treated group, TD-free animals showed higher Nur77 expression in putamen subterritories compared to dyskinetic animals. This suggests that Nur77 expression might be associated with a reduced risk to TD in this experimental model and could provide a novel target for drug intervention. PMID:23551242

  17. Effects of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist CP55,940 and antagonist SR141716A on d-amphetamine-induced behaviours in Cebus monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten V; Peacock, Linda; Werge, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Several clinical studies have shown that alterations in the cannabinoid system in the brain may be associated with schizophrenia. Although evidence points towards an antipsychotic potential for cannabinoid antagonists, experimental studies have shown inconsistent behavioural effects of cannabinoi...

  18. Development of collision dynamics models to estimate the results of full-scale rail vehicle impact tests : Tufts University Master's Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    In an effort to study occupant survivability in train collisions, analyses and tests were conducted to understand and improve the crashworthiness of rail vehicles. A collision dynamics model was developed in order to estimate the rigid body motion of...

  19. High frequency action potential bursts (≥ 100 Hz) in L2/3 and L5B thick tufted neurons in anaesthetized and awake rat primary somatosensory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.J. de Kock (Christiaan); B. Sakmann (Bert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHigh frequency (≥ 100 Hz) bursts of action potentials (APs) generated by neocortical neurons are thought to increase information content and, through back-propagation, to influence synaptic integration and efficacy in distal dendritic compartments. It was recently shown in acute slice

  20. Atropelamentos de vertebrados na Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Pará, Brasil Roadkills of vertebrates in Carajas National Forest, Para, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Gumier-Costa

    2009-01-01

    frequency of vertebrates from April/2003 to Octobre/2006 along the first 25 km of the highway. We registered 155 roadkills. The number of roadkills diminished along the years (P=0,01, and with distance from the beginning of the highway (P=0,0002. Snakes (Ophidia and opossum Didelphis marsupialis presented higher roadkill numbers (7,5/year, followed by birds (Aves, crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, coati Nasua nasua, rodents (Rodentia, and non identified (4,9/year; opossum Marmosops sp., brazilian rabbit Sylvilagus brasiliensis, black howler monkey Alouatta sp., tayra Eira barbara, tortoise Geochelone sp., lizards (Lacertilia e capuchin monkey Cebus apella (1/year. There was no significant relation between monthly roadkill numbers and monthly precipitation.

  1. Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Zaldívar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi, howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata, capuchins (Cebus capucinus, and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii. Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecology and life history traits were obtained through a literature review. Genetic diversity was characterized using isozyme electrophoresis. Risk of extinction was assessed from the literature. We found that species differed in all these traits. Using these data, we conducted a Pearson correlation between risk of extinction and ecological and life history traits, and genetic variation, for widely distributed species. We found a negative association between risk of extinction and population birth and growth rates; indicating that slower reproducing species had a greater risk of extinction. We found a positive association between genetic variation and risk of extinction; i.e., species showing higher genetic variation had a greater risk of extinction. The relevance of these traits for conservation efforts is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 679-693. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Se estudió la asociación entre la distribución geográfica, algunos rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida, la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción, en primates no humanos de Costa Rica. Se incluyen todas las especies de primates no humanos del país: los monos araña (Ateles geoffroyi, congo (Alouatta palliata, cara blanca (Cebus capucinus, y tití (Saimiri oerstedii. La distribución geográfica se caracterizó utilizando principalmente bases de datos existentes. Se obtuvo información acerca de sus características ecológicas y de historias de vida mediante una revisión bibliogr

  2. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  3. Mapping of the Pim-1 oncogene in mouse t-haplotypes and its use to define the relative map positions of the tcl loci t0(t6) and tw12 and the marker tf (tufted).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ark, B; Gummere, G; Bennett, D; Artzt, K

    1991-06-01

    Pim-1 is an oncogene activated in mouse T-cell lymphomas induced by Moloney and AKR mink cell focus (MCF) viruses. Pim-1 was previously mapped to chromosome 17 by somatic cell hybrids, and subsequently to the region between the hemoglobin alpha-chain pseudogene 4 (Hba-4ps) and the alpha-crystalline gene (Crya-1) by Southern blot analysis of DNA obtained from panels of recombinant inbred strains. We have now mapped Pim-1 more accurately in t-haplotypes by analysis of recombinant t-chromosomes. The recombinants were derived from Tts6tf/t12 parents backcrossed to + tf/ + tf, and scored for recombination between the loci of T and tf. For simplicity all t-complex lethal genes properly named tcl-tx are shortened to tx. The Pim-1 gene was localized 0.6 cM proximal to the tw12 lethal gene, thus placing the Pim-1 gene 5.2 cM distal to the H-2 region in t-haplotypes. Once mapped, the Pim-1 gene was used as a marker for further genetic analysis of t-haplotypes. tw12 is so close to tf that even with a large number of recombinants it was not possible to determine whether it is proximal or distal to tf. Southern blot analysis of DNA from T-tf recombinants with a separation of tw12 and tf indicated that tw12 is proximal to tf. The mapping of two allelic t-lethals, t0 and t6 with respect to tw12 and tf has also been a problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Geografia das religiões: temas sobre a experiência e o pensamento na ordem dos frades menores capuchinhos = Geography of religious: issues about experience and thoughts of Capuchin Minor Friars Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker, Elsbeth Lisa S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta temas sobre a experiência e o pensamento na Ordem dos Frades Menores Capuchinhos, que evidenciam a riqueza da perspectiva cultural da Geografia, sua espacialização, sua presença social e espiritual em diferentes fatos históricos. Visa-se a conhecer e a descrever a Ordem dos Frades Menores Capuchinhos, com ênfase à sua presença no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, descrevendo atitudes, valores, entre outros aspectos, vinculados ao sentido e aos símbolos espiritualizados deste clero. Identificou-se o contexto da imigração italiana, no século XIX, e a con- sequente inserção dessa Ordem no Rio Grande do Sul como ponto de partida. A metodologia consistiu em uma análise documental, em textos de comentadores da filosofia franciscana e de entrevistas realizadas com oito frades Capuchinhos que pertencem à Província Sagrado Coração de Jesus. O artigo, pela complexidade do tema, não pode tratar detalhadamente da descrição da Ordem e dos símbolos em sua profundidade espiritual. Apenas destacou-se a abrangência geográfica dessa Ordem no Estado gaúcho e no Brasil e, também, nos países latino-americanos como Haiti e República Dominicana e evidenciou-se a vida religiosa consagrada, pela sua natureza, inserida na Igreja, contribuindo com sua presença e missão para o bem do povo de Deus. Constatou-se que o simbolismo franciscano está presente na atual sociedade, mesmo que esta não perceba, principalmente, difundido através do presépio e do Tau; e que os votos e a saudação de “Paz e Bem” apresentam maiores significados para aqueles que praticam essa filosofia de vida

  5. Movement disorders induced in monkeys by chronic haloperidol treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S; Lusink, G

    1977-01-01

    After several months of treatment, Cebus apella, Cebus albifrons, and Saimiri sciurea monkeys maintained on haloperidol, in doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg orally 5 days per week, began to display severe movement disorders, typically 1 to 6 h post-drug. Cebus monkeys exhibited violent, uncontrolled movements that flung the animals about the cage. Such episodes usually lasted only a few minutes, recurring several times during the period following drug ingestion. Writhing and bizarre postures dominated the response in S. sciurea. Cessation of drug treatment produced no distinctive after-effects. When tested as long as 508 days after the last administration, however, Cebus monkeys responded to haloperidol with several episodes of hyperkinesis, even at challenge doses considerably lower than those in the original treatment.

  6. Densidade e tamanho populacional de mamíferos cinegéticos em duas Unidades de Conservação do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Density and population size of game mammals in two Conservation Units of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M. de Araújo

    2008-09-01

    hunting, loss of habitat, and wildlife trade. In the State of Rio de Janeiro there are only two Federal Biological Reserves of lowland Atlantic Rain Forest, the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve and the União Biological Reserve. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence and putative influence of illegal hunting on the mammals in these two Conservation Units. Surveys were conducted using a line-transect method; 375 kilometers were covered during the period between December 2003 and January 2005. The data for the population density estimate was analyzed using the program DISTANCE 5.0. Twelve species were confirmed through visual encounters during the surveys, whereas are regularly hunted in the region studied. The species that presented higher density were brown capuchin monkey (Cebus nigritus Erxleben, 1777, howler monkey (Alouatta guariba Lacépède, 1799, nine-banded long-nosed armadillo (Dasypus novemcintus Linnaeus, 1758, and the seven-banded long-nosed armadillo (Dasypus septemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758. The most rare or absent species were the brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris Brünnich, 1771, the red brocket deer (Mazama americana Rafinesque, 1817 and the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari Link, 1795. In these two study areas both direct and indirect evidence of illegal hunting was observed, indicating that hunting is a common practice inside these Biological Reserves. The long-term survival of the hunted species is questionable, because the remaining populations living in fragments that are small and isolated, making them more susceptible to extinction even under low hunting pressure.

  7. A revision of Crossonophelis (Sapindaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1973-01-01

    Tress or shrubs, exceptionally scandent; monoecious or dioecious; indument either consisting of solitary simple hairs, sometimes intermingled with some pairs or small tufts, or mainly consisting of small stellate tufts; neither glandular-capitate hairs nor glandular scales present. Leaves either all

  8. The effect of prolonged heavy grazing pressure on the regrowth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A clipping experiment was done in the field using T. triandra and U. mosambicensis tufts. Regrowth was lower (P0.01) in the heavy grazing sites for both species. This was more a function of tiller production rate, in terms of numbers of tillers, than of tiller extension rate. Rate of regrowth was not strongly affected by tuft ...

  9. Reducción de la desnutrición crónica en el Perú: propuesta para una estrategia nacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Flores Vidalón

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available THE GERALD J. AND DOROTHY R. FRIEDMAN SCHOOL OF NUTRITION SCIENCE AND POLICY AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY. Reducción de la desnutrición crónica en el Perú: propuesta para una estrategia nacional. Medford, Massachussetts: Tufts University, 2001.

  10. Preliminary early evaluation of radiation acute syndrome severity in an animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, J.C.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (Argentina); Nagle, C. [Centro de Educacion Medica e Investigaciones Clinicas (Argentina); Dubner, D. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, (Argentina); Di Rizzio, C. [Academia Nacional de Medicina (Argentina)

    1992-07-01

    To improve the knowledge of Radiation Acute Syndrome radiopathological picture, whole body x-rays irradiation at 2Gy of a primate (Cebus apella paraguayanus) used as model has been performed. Early evaluations of clinical symptoms and dose and damage biological indicators have shown that this primate has given out similar responses to those of man. (author)

  11. Preliminary early evaluation of radiation acute syndrome severity in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, J.C.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R.; Nagle, C.; Dubner, D.; Di Rizzio, C.

    1992-01-01

    To improve the knowledge of Radiation Acute Syndrome radiopathological picture, whole body x-rays irradiation at 2Gy of a primate (Cebus apella paraguayanus) used as model has been performed. Early evaluations of clinical symptoms and dose and damage biological indicators have shown that this primate has given out similar responses to those of man. (author)

  12. Application of fibre reinforced plastic sandwich structures for automotive crashworthiness applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukaszewicz, D.; Blok, L.G.; Kratz, J.; Ward, C.; Kassapoglou, C.; Elmarakbi, A.; Araújo, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work the application of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) sandwich
    structures, with particular focus on aramid fibre tufted sandwiches is being studied for
    automotive crashworthiness applications using impact testing and numerical simulation.

  13. Dieffenbachia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbcane poisoning; Leopard lily poisoning; Tuft root poisoning ... Get the following information: Person's age, weight, and condition Parts of the plant that were eaten, if known Time swallowed Amount swallowed

  14. effect of thermal stress of short duration on the red blood cell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ivanc

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... of red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume ... The temperature at which stress begins to occur ..... of Barton (2002) that PCV is a measure of the cellular ..... Tufts B (eds) Fish respiration.

  15. Dataset - Evaluation of Standardized Sample Collection, Packaging, and Decontamination Procedures to Assess Cross-Contamination Potential during Bacillus anthracis Incident Response Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Spore recovery data during sample packaging decontamination tests. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Calfee, W., J. Tufts, K. Meyer, K....

  16. Morphology and fracture of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, Sangwon; Lee, James; Constantino, Paul; Lucas, Peter; Chai, Herzl; Lawn, Brian

    2009-08-25

    This study examines the inter-relation between enamel morphology and crack resistance by sectioning extracted human molars after loading to fracture. Cracks appear to initiate from tufts, hypocalcified defects at the enamel-dentin junction, and grow longitudinally around the enamel coat to produce failure. Microindentation corner cracks placed next to the tufts in the sections deflect along the tuft interfaces and occasionally penetrate into the adjacent enamel. Although they constitute weak interfaces, the tufts are nevertheless filled with organic matter, and appear to be stabilized against easy extension by self-healing, as well as by mutual stress-shielding and decussation, accounting at least in part for the capacity of tooth enamel to survive high functional forces.

  17. Integrative Microbiology – The Third Golden Age Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA. .... about the mechanisms that control gene expression in bacteria. How is the synthesis of .... The second Golden Age of microbiology materialized in the 1940's with the birth of.

  18. Long-term remission of folliculitis decalvans after treatment with the long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Arne A.; van der Veen, J. P. Wietze; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Folliculitis decalvans (FD) is a rare inflammatory scalp disorder presenting with tufted folliculitis, follicular papules and pustules, progressing to cicatricial alopecia. Current treatments mainly consist of antibiotic and immunomodulatory therapies and are often disappointing. FD has previously

  19. Making It in the Mainstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    With the aid of an innovative electronic device, the Tufts Interactive Communicator (TIC), a severely handicapped, cerebral palsied 16-year-old boy has been able to enter a regular sixth-grade classroom. (PHR)

  20. Negotiating Moral Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Lene; Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, twelve capuchin monkeys were moved from the labs of the Danish psychiatric hospital of Sankt Hans to a small private-owned zoo in another part of Denmark in order to be rehabilitated. These monkeys were the last nonhuman primates to be used as research animals in Danish biomedical labora...

  1. 'For Good, God, and the Empire': French Franciscan Sisters in Ethiopia 1896-1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    In 1897, four French Franciscan sisters arrived in Ethiopia, having been summoned there by the Capuchin missionaries. In 1925, they ran an orphanage, a dispensary, a leper colony and 10 schools with 350 girl students. The students were freed slaves, orphans and upper-class Ethiopian and European girls. After providing a brief background to the…

  2. Wind flow through shrouded wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Aeroflow 5-hole probe, which took various measurements at multiple planes of each model. Flow visualization tests, including oil and tufts, were also...through an Aeroflow 5-hole probe, which took various measurements at multiple planes of each model. Flow visualization tests, including oil and tufts...facilities by 2025. This meets a larger DOD mandate, Title 10 USC § 2911, which directs at least 25 percent of any DOD facility’s energy consumption come

  3. Endoglin: a critical mediator of cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Kapur, Navin K; Morine, Kevin J; Letarte, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Navin K Kapur,1 Kevin J Morine,1 Michelle Letarte2,31Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 2Molecular Structure and Function Program, Hospital for Sick Children, 3The Heart and Stroke Foundation Richard Lewar Centre of Excellence, and the Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Endoglin (CD105) is a type III auxiliary receptor for the transforming growth factor ...

  4. Functional correlates of the position of the axis of rotation of the mandible during chewing in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Terhune, Claire E; Taylor, Andrea B; Ross, Callum F

    2017-10-01

    The location of the axis of rotation (AoR) of the mandible was quantified using the helical axis (HA) in eight individuals from three species of non-human primates: Papio anubis, Cebus apella, and Macaca mulatta. These data were used to test three hypotheses regarding the functional significance of anteroposterior condylar translation - an AoR located inferior to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) - during chewing: minimizing impingement of the gonial region on cervical soft tissue structures during jaw opening; avoiding stretching of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle (IANB); and increasing jaw-elevator muscle torques. The results reveal that the HA is located near the occlusal plane in Papio and Cebus, but closer to the condyle in Macaca; is located anteroinferior to the TMJ during both opening and closing in Papio, as well as during opening in Macaca and Cebus; and varies in its location during closing in Macaca and Cebus. The impingement hypothesis is not supported by interspecific variation in HA location: species with larger gonial angles like Cebus do not have more inferiorly located HAs than species with more obtuse mandibular angles like Papio. However, intraspecific variation provides some support for the impingement hypothesis. The HA seldom passes near or through the lingula, falsifying the hypothesis that its location is determined by the sphenomandibular ligament, and the magnitudes of strain associated with a HA at the TMJ would not be large enough to cause problematic stretching of the IANB. HA location does affect muscle moment arms about the TMJ, with implications for the torque generation capability of the jaw-elevator muscles. In Cebus, a HA farther away from the TMJ is associated with larger jaw-elevator muscle moment arms about the joint than if it were at the TMJ. The effects of HA location on muscle strain and muscle moment arms are largest at large gapes and smallest at low gapes, suggesting that if HA location is of functional

  5. Sleep-inducing N-alkyl-5-[m-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidinones and N-alkyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)cinnamamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, W J; Gogerty, J H; Ryan, E A; Schmitt, G

    1985-01-01

    A series of N-alkyl-3-[m-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidinones and N-alkyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)-cinnamamides were prepared and screened in a series of tests designed to detect potential sleep inducers. The more active members of the series were evaluated for their ability to induce sleep in Cebus monkeys. The most active compound, N-methyl-5-[m-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidinone, was equal to methaqualone.

  6. A census of mammal populations in Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Timock; Christopher Vaughan

    2002-01-01

    Population sizes of six mammal species were estimated using the King method during the late dry season (March) of 1996 in the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica. The white-faced monkey (Cebus capucinus), coati (Nasua narica) and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) with 148, 46, and 8 sighted individuals, respectively, demonstrated the largest populations in the refuge. The Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), tamandua anteater (Tamandua mexicana), and varie...

  7. U.S. Army Medical Materiel Development Activity, 1987 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-06

    Argentina to determine efficacy of the Candid #1 vaccine in both immune and nonimmune populations. 12 %0 0 Shigella Vaccines are oral products containing...in Cebus monkeys at the University of Lowell, MA. Working groups were convened to outline clinical testing of the TAP and to finalize the draft...measure exposure rates. Data collected from these studies will be used to plan field trials for vaccines that have been developed including Shigella

  8. Adrenergic Modulation Regulates the Dendritic Excitability of Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Labarrera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The excitability of the apical tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons is thought to play a crucial role in behavioral performance and synaptic plasticity. We show that the excitability of the apical tuft is sensitive to adrenergic neuromodulation. Using two-photon dendritic Ca2+ imaging and in vivo whole-cell and extracellular recordings in awake mice, we show that application of the α2A-adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine increases the probability of dendritic Ca2+ events in the tuft and lowers the threshold for dendritic Ca2+ spikes. We further show that these effects are likely to be mediated by the dendritic current Ih. Modulation of Ih in a realistic compartmental model controlled both the generation and magnitude of dendritic calcium spikes in the apical tuft. These findings suggest that adrenergic neuromodulation may affect cognitive processes such as sensory integration, attention, and working memory by regulating the sensitivity of layer 5 pyramidal neurons to top-down inputs. : Labarrera et al. show that noradrenergic neuromodulation can be an effective way to regulate the interaction between different input streams of information processed by an individual neuron. These findings may have important implications for our understanding of how adrenergic neuromodulation affects sensory integration, attention, and working memory. Keywords: cortical layer 5 pyramidal neuron, dendrites, norepinephrine, HCN, Ih, Ca2+ spike, apical tuft, guanfacine, ADHD, somatosensory cortex

  9. The fourth dimension of tool use: temporally enduring artefacts aid primates learning to use tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragaszy, D M; Biro, D; Eshchar, Y; Humle, T; Izar, P; Resende, B; Visalberghi, E

    2013-11-19

    All investigated cases of habitual tool use in wild chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys include youngsters encountering durable artefacts, most often in a supportive social context. We propose that enduring artefacts associated with tool use, such as previously used tools, partly processed food items and residual material from previous activity, aid non-human primates to learn to use tools, and to develop expertise in their use, thus contributing to traditional technologies in non-humans. Therefore, social contributions to tool use can be considered as situated in the three dimensions of Euclidean space, and in the fourth dimension of time. This notion expands the contribution of social context to learning a skill beyond the immediate presence of a model nearby. We provide examples supporting this hypothesis from wild bearded capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees, and suggest avenues for future research.

  10. Identification of the social and cognitive processes underlying human cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L G; Kendal, R L; Schapiro, S J; Thierry, B; Laland, K N

    2012-03-02

    The remarkable ecological and demographic success of humanity is largely attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture, with knowledge and technology accumulating over time, yet the social and cognitive capabilities that have enabled cumulative culture remain unclear. In a comparative study of sequential problem solving, we provided groups of capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees, and children with an experimental puzzlebox that could be solved in three stages to retrieve rewards of increasing desirability. The success of the children, but not of the chimpanzees or capuchins, in reaching higher-level solutions was strongly associated with a package of sociocognitive processes-including teaching through verbal instruction, imitation, and prosociality-that were observed only in the children and covaried with performance.

  11. Third-party social evaluations of humans by monkeys and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Bucher, Benoit; Chijiiwa, Hitomi; Kuroshima, Hika; Takimoto, Ayaka; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-11-01

    Developmental psychologists are increasingly interested in young children's evaluations of individuals based on third-party interactions. Studies have shown that infants react negatively to agents who display harmful intentions toward others, and to those who behave unfairly. We describe experimental studies of capuchin monkeys' and pet dogs' differential reactions to people who are helpful or unhelpful in third-party contexts, and monkeys' responses to people who behave unfairly in exchanges of objects with a third party. We also present evidence that capuchin monkeys monitor the context of failures to help and violations of reciprocity, and that intentionality is one factor underlying their social evaluations of individuals whom they see interacting with others. We conclude by proposing some questions for studies of nonhuman species' third party-based social evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative anatomy of the arm muscles of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with some comments on locomotor mechanics and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A G M F; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    The anatomical literature on the genus Macaca has focused mainly on the rhesus monkey. However, some aspects in the positional behaviors of the Japanese monkey may be different from those in rhesus monkey, suggesting that the anatomical details of these species are divergent. Four thoracic limbs of Macaca fuscata adults were dissected. The arm muscles in Japanese macaques are more similar to rhesus monkeys and Papio; these characteristics are closer to those of bearded capuchins than apes, indicating more proximity of this genus to New World primates. The anatomical features observed favor quadrupedal locomotor behaviors on the ground and in arboreal environments. Japanese monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and bearded capuchins, which share more primitive characteristics in their arm muscles, present features that favor both arboreal and quadrupedal locomotor behaviors, whereas apes, mainly Pan and Gorilla, which spend more time on the ground, present more quadrupedal specializations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Self-medication by orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus) using bioactive properties of Dracaena cantleyi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morrogh-Bernard, H.; Foitová, I.; Yeen, Z.; Wilkin, P.; De Martin, R.; Rárová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Nurcahyo, W.; Olšanský, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 30 (2017), č. článku 16653. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1163 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : STEROIDAL SAPONINS * CAPUCHIN MONKEYS * CHIMPANZEES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  14. Test stálosti objektu u primátů

    OpenAIRE

    Gálik, Michal

    2014-01-01

    5 ABSTRACT Object permanence is a cognitive ability to perceive the continuous existence of objects, even if they cannot be directly observed, respectively perceived by other senses (Piaget 1954). In humans object permanence develops in 6 qualitatively different stages. By using a comparative approach, it was found that the last stage 6 of this ability also occurs in great apes, gibbons and some New World monkeys (capuchin, marmoset and tamarin). In this study, we conducted a study with a ser...

  15. An Experimental Analysis of Memory Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained and tested in visual and auditory list-memory tasks with sequences of four travel pictures or four natural/environmental sounds followed by single test items. Acquisitions of the visual list-memory task are presented. Visual recency (last item) memory diminished with retention delay, and primacy (first item) memory strengthened. Capuchin monkeys, pigeons, and humans showed similar visual-memory changes. Rhesus learned an auditory memory task and showed octave gener...

  16. Ringing and recovery data prove poor at detecting migratory short-stopping of diving ducks associated with climate change throughout Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tománková, Irena; Reid, Neil; Enlander, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has been shown to affect the distribution of many bird species. International Waterbird Census (IWC) data revealed that Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula and Goldeneye Bucephala clangula have shifted their European wintering distributions northeastwards as a direct response to increased ...... in recovery distances. We conclude that ringing and recovery data provide little utility in detecting changes in migratory behaviour of these waterbirds.......Climate change has been shown to affect the distribution of many bird species. International Waterbird Census (IWC) data revealed that Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula and Goldeneye Bucephala clangula have shifted their European wintering distributions northeastwards as a direct response to increased...... the southwest to northeast from 1950 onwards, but this change could not be linked to winter temperatures. Conversely, Tufted Duck directly violated our hypothesis with its recovery distances increasing significantly by about 400 km but again this change could not be explicitly linked to winter temperatures...

  17. Monkeys fail to reciprocate in an exchange task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelé, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Call, Josep; Dufour, Valérie

    2010-09-01

    Exchanges form the basis of human economies. Animals too can engage in reciprocal interactions but they do not barter goods like humans, which raises the question of the abilities necessary for trading to occur. Previous studies have shown that non-human primates can exchange food with human partners. Here, we tested the ability of brown capuchin monkeys and Tonkean macaques to reciprocate in a task requiring two conspecifics to exchange tokens in order to obtain rewards from an experimenter. We recorded 56 transfers between subjects in capuchin monkeys and 10 in Tonkean macaques. All transfers were passive in both species. Capuchins preferentially picked up tokens valuable for them in the partner's compartment. They tended to manipulate the partner-valued tokens more often than the no-value ones, leading to more opportunities for these tokens to end up within reach of the partner. Despite optimal conditions where values of goods were defined and known by partners, however, none of the pairs tested engaged in short-term reciprocal interactions. These results indicate that calculated reciprocity was difficult if not impossible in the animals tested.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  19. Deaths among wild birds during highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus outbreak, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, van der Henk P.

    2017-01-01

    During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks

  20. Opportunities and challenges in conducting systematic reviews to support development of nutrient reference values: vitamin A as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient reference values have significant public health and policy implications. Given the importance of defining reliable nutrient reference values, there is a need for an explicit, objective, and transparent process to set these values. The Tufts Medical Center Evidence-based Practice Center asse...

  1. Calcium Signaling in Mitral Cell Dendrites of Olfactory Bulbs of Neonatal Rats and Mice during Olfactory Nerve Stimulation and Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Mutoh, Hiroki; Debarbieux, Franck; Knopfel, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing. Beta-adrenergic modulation of electrical…

  2. Comparative efficacy of house dust mite extermination products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schober, G.; Kniest, F.M.; Kort, H.S.M.; Saint Georges Gridelet, de D.M.O.G.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of nine marketed products, i.e. Acardust, Acarosan (foam and powder), Actelic 50, Artilin 3A (spirit and water base), liquid nitrogen, Paragerm AK, and Tymasil, and of intensive vacuum-cleaning have been compared on four different test surfaces: mattress, tufted carpet,

  3. 2018-03-20T19:34:14Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V. zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant ...

  4. Leaf domatia do not affect population dynamics of the predatory mite Iphiseiodes zuluagai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.A.M.; Pallini, A.; Oliveira, C.L.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Leaves of plants of several families possess small cavities or tufts of hair where leaf veins bifurcate. These so-called acarodomatia are usually inhabited by predatory and fungivorous mites, which utilize domatia as shelter against adverse conditions or against other predators and cannibals. Plants

  5. Notice of release of Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass (selected germplasm, natural track)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass is a small, densely tufted short-lived perennial bunchgrass adapted to low elevation, semi-arid sites with long, hot growing seasons. Mountain Home's drought tolerance, competitive nature, and ease of establishment make it an excellent choice for post-fire restoration of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) dominated...

  6. Speech Intelligibility and Hearing Protector Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    not only affect the listener of speech communication in a noisy environment, HPDs can also affect the speaker . Tufts and Frank (2003) found that...of hearing protection on speech intelligibility in noise. Sound and Vibration . 20(10): 12-14. Berger, E. H. 1980. EARLog #4 – The

  7. Workshop Physics and Related Curricula: "A 25-Year History of Collaborative Learning Enhanced by Computer Tools for Observation and Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Sokoloff, David R.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the 25-year history of development of the activity-based Workshop Physics (WP) at Dickinson College, its adaptation for use at Gettysburg Area High School, and its synergistic influence on curricular materials developed at the University of Oregon and Tufts University and vice versa. WP and these related curricula: 1) are…

  8. Moving beyond the Bar Plot and the Line Graph to Create Informative and Attractive Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson-Hall, Jenifer

    2017-01-01

    Graphics are often mistaken for a mere frill in the methodological arsenal of data analysis when in fact they can be one of the simplest and at the same time most powerful methods of communicating statistical information (Tufte, 2001). The first section of the article argues for the statistical necessity of graphs, echoing and amplifying similar…

  9. Online Teaching as a Catalyst for Re-Examining Pedagogical Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Russell Tufts University This study examines the potential of designing and teaching online courses to prompt university faculty members to reflect on the essence of good teaching, and as a result reconsider their beliefs concerning effective pedagogy. A phenomenological investigation was conducted based on interviews with six long-time university…

  10. 16 CFR 1633.9 - Glossary of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and stationary (see Figure 11). (m) Futon. A flexible mattress generally used on the floor that can be... riser. This is a frame of sofa seating height with two equal size mattresses without a backrest. The... or two single beds as in a high riser (see Figure 11). (dd) Tufted means buttoned or laced through...

  11. FoxP3 Functions as a Novel Breast Cancer Suppressor Gene Through Cooperation with NFAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    peared transformed, as demonstrated by enlargement of nuclei and more-active nucleoli (Figure 6C). In most mice, multiple PINs were found in the...papillary and tufting. A high-power imagine showing enlarged nuclei and active nucleoli is presented in the lower panel.tissue is sufficient to initiate

  12. Investigating Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Using Noninvasive Imaging of Genetically Engineered Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    nuclei with prominent nucleoli were common among T121 expressing cells (Figure 3F). The combined inactivation of pRbf and p53 also dramatically...architecture in primary ducts (C) and lactating alveoli (D), shown by papillary tufting (C, arrows) and high grade nuclei and prominent nucleoli (D

  13. Comparison of the growth and biomass production of Miscanthus sinensis, Miscanthus floridulus and Saccharum arundinaceum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X.; He, Y.; Fang, J.; Fang, Z.; Jiang, B.; Brancourt-Hulmel, M.; Zheng, B.; Jiang, D.

    2015-07-01

    Miscanthus and Saccharum are considered excellent candidates for bioenergy feedstock production. A field experiment was conducted in Zhejiang province of China to characterize the phenotypic differences in three species, two of Miscanthus (M. sinensis and M. floridulus) and one of Saccharum (S. arundinaceum), each with two accessions collected from China. Agronomical traits, including plant height, culm number, tuft diameter and culm diameter, were monitored monthly for the first 3 years of growth. For each year of trail, flowering time was observed and biomass yield was harvested. M. floridulus produced a superior biomass yield with increasing plant age associated with higher yields (4.18, 24.16 and 29.01 t dry matter/hain November of years one to three, respectively). Higher culm diameter, plant height and tuft diameter values were observed for M. floridulus when compared to the other species. Biomass yield was positively correlated to tuft diameter, culm diameter, culm number and negatively to flowering time, but it showed no correlation with plant height. Tuft diameter and culm diameter could be suitable indicators in the selection of accessions for crop yield at the yield-building phase. Studies of the primary colonizers of Miscanthus and Saccharum in their original location may be of interest from the perspective of bioenergy germplasm resource collection. (Author)

  14. Development and evaluation of a risk communication curriculum for medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, P.K.; Joekes, K.; Elwyn, G.; Mazor, K.M.; Thomson, R.; Sedgwick, P.; Ibison, J.; Wong, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop, pilot, and evaluate a curriculum for teaching clinical risk communication skills to medical students. METHODS: A new experience-based curriculum, "Risk Talk," was developed and piloted over a 1-year period among students at Tufts University School of Medicine. An experimental

  15. Shaken but prepared: Analysis of disaster response at an academic medical centre following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Robert; Scanlon, Courtney; Jotwani, Rohan; Rodkey, Daniel; Arshanskiy, Maria; Salem, Deeb

    Over the last decade, there has been a rise in the number of mass casualty incidences (MCIs) and their subsequent effect on hospital systems. While there has been much discussion over improving procedures to treat victims of MCIs, there has not been a thorough, systems-based analysis concerning the costs incurred by hospitals during such events. Here the authors examine the history of the Hospital Incident Command Center and how its evolution at Tufts Medical Center helped mitigate the damage following the Boston Marathon Bombings. Tufts' unique variations to the Hospital Incident Command Center include strategic communication hierarchies and a 'zero cost centre' financial system which both provided for a quick and adaptive response. Operating in collaboration with the Conference of Boston Teaching Hospitals encouraged coordination and preparation during emergency situations such as mass casualty events. The direct and indirect effects on Tufts Medical Center stemming from the Boston Marathon Bombings were analysed. Tufts MC treated 36 victims immediately following the MCI. The estimated total cost during the week of April 15 to April 19, 2013 was $776,051. The cost was primarily comprised of lost revenue from cancelled outpatient and inpatient hospital services, as well as expenses incurred due to overtime pay, salary expenses, PPE kits and hospitality services. Finally, the authors examine ways to reduce the future costs during emergency situations through increasing communication with employees, understanding the source of all direct expenses, and mitigating excess risk by developing partnerships with other hospital systems.

  16. Preparing Urban Teachers: Uncovering Communities. A Community Curriculum for Interns and New Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespear, Eileen; Beardsley, Linda; Newton, Anne

    The Urban Teacher Training Collaborative (UTTC) is a school-university, school-based, Master of Arts in Teaching Program developed by Tufts University and three small Boston Public Schools. The program reflects partners' understanding of the needs of urban students and teachers. It presents an innovative model for teacher training similar to the…

  17. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  18. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    covered with dense orange-red tomentum i.e. growth of tufts of short hairs. Inflorescences mostly appear on old woody twigs. Flowers are unisexual and without petals. Sepals are fused into a tubular structure, which is toothed distally. This, the calyx tube as well as the flower stalk are orange-red to scarlet-red in colour.

  19. The effect of frequency of defoliation on Themeda triandra in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tufts of Themeda triandra were subjected to different frequencies of defoliation during a single season under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Frequent defoliation (> 5 times per year) severely reduced clipped yield on both moisture treatments. On irrigated treatments, root mass declined and shoot apex elevation was ...

  20. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moselio Schaechter1. Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Tufts University Boston, MA, Adjunct Professor San Diego State University and University of California San Diego, USA. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 3. March 2018. Home · Volumes & ...

  1. CLASSIFICATION PROBLEMS OF AFRICAN MURIDAE In a paper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2[3]+ii-3[4]-3+(i) means that the upper molar series, M.~/, has 5, 4 and 3 alveoli and ..... sometimes a small tuft at tip; post-tympanic hook of squamosal with divided mastoid process ... deeply between molars, often extending to back ~f alveolus of inner root of M.!I ; ..... Note the small foramen and the shallow depression or.

  2. OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAlindon, T E; Bannuru, R R; Sullivan, M C

    2014-01-01

    International (OARSI) evidence team at Tufts Medical Center, Boston, USA. Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were initially searched in first quarter 2012 and last searched in March 2013. Included evidence was assessed for quality using...

  3. Glomerular parietal epithelial cells contribute to adult podocyte regeneration in experimental focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Diana G.; Sunseri, Maria W.; Kaverina, Natalya; Roeder, Sebastian S.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Since adult podocytes cannot adequately proliferate following depletion in disease states there has been interest in the potential role of progenitors in podocyte repair and regeneration. To determine if parietal epithelial cells (PECs) can serve as adult podocyte progenitors following disease-induced podocyte depletion, PECs were permanently labeled in adult PECrtTA/LC1/R26 reporter mice. In normal mice, labeled PECs were confined to Bowman's capsule, while in disease (cytotoxic sheep anti-podocyte antibody), labeled PECs were found in the glomerular tuft in progressively higher numbers by days 7, 14 and 28. Early in disease, the majority of PECs in the tuft co-expressed CD44. By day 28, when podocyte numbers were significantly higher and disease severity was significantly lower, the majority of labeled PECs co-expressed podocyte proteins but not CD44. Neither labeled PECs on the tuft, nor podocytes stained for the proliferation marker BrdU. The de novo expression of phospho-ERK colocalized to CD44 expressing PECs, but not to PECs expressing podocyte markers. Thus, in a mouse model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis typified by abrupt podocyte depletion followed by regeneration, PECs undergo two phenotypic changes once they migrate to the glomerular tuft. Initially these cells are predominantly activated CD44 expressing cells coinciding with glomerulosclerosis, and later they predominantly exhibit a podocyte phenotype which is likely reparative. PMID:25993321

  4. Deaths among Wild Birds during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Outbreak, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, Henk P. van der

    2017-01-01

    During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks

  5. Mode of the absorption of water and nutrients by ascocarps of Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum: a radioactive tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, D.; Staunton, S.; Callot, G.

    1994-01-01

    A simple technique has been developed to study the absorption capacity of the tufts of mycelial filaments, or hyphae, observed on both black and white truffles Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum. These hyphae sprout from the tops of certain scales on the peridium of Tuber. They colonize the surrounding soil and could therefore exploit the nutrients from a large volume of soil. The ability to absorb organic and inorganic nutrients from a source other than the host is a necessary condition for the hypothesis we wished to test, namely that at some stage in its development the truffle ascocarp becomes autonomous. The absorption was demonstrated using autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting. We found that the tufts of hyphae are water permeable ( 3 H 2 O). In addition, they absorb a sugar ([ 14 C]mannose) and an anion ([ 32 P]phosphate). An analysis of our results shows that the spatial distribution of [ 32 P]phosphate is independent of that of tritiated water; the transport of phosphate is therefore not determined by water flux. The quantity and redistribution of the tracer depended on the application site, directly onto the peridium or on a mycelial tuft. The tufts increase the absorption of the tracer and influence its internal redistribution towards accumulation zones. (author)

  6. Vincristine: A new treatment option for Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Avasthi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS is characterized by a rapidly enlarging hemangioma, thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and consumption coagulopathy as a result of platelet and red blood cell trapping and activation of clotting system within the vasculature of hemangioma. This syndrome is shown to be associated with kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas or tufted hemangioma.

  7. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V. zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant ...

  8. Reconnaissance Waccamaw River Basin North Carolina and South Carolina. Flood Control and Related Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    carota), horseweed (Erigeron canadensis), plantain (Plantago lanceolata, P. virginica, P. aristata), horse nettle (Solanum carolinense), dog fennel... insects that are used for food by the red-eyed vireo, scarlet tanager, tufted titmouse, common flicker, and various warblers. The abundant birds and...Detritivores, including immature stages of aquatic insects , small arthropods, and annelid worms, which thrive in this wetland community are consumed

  9. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a ...

  10. Assessment of the disc pasture meter on natural veld in the False ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of the standard disc pasture meter is found to be a reliable technique for estimating the yield of the densely tufted grass swards found in the False Thornveld of the Eastern Province. It compares favourably with traditional methods of yield estimation in the veld type and its attractiveness lies in the rapidity with which ...

  11. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... sclerodactyly with finger flexion contractures and digital tuft loss (Figure 1). ... such as Vitamin A and its derivatives [30], methotrexate and cyclosporine ... Desquamation from the parts covered with hair. ... Shvili D, David M, Mimouni M. Childhood-onset pityriasis rubra pilaris with immunologic abnormalities.

  12. Joining Undergraduate Liberal Arts Colleges with a Graduate M.A.T. Program To Implement the Holmes and Carnegie Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Stephen S.

    This paper describes a combined B.A.-M.A.T. program, a project planned jointly by Kenyon College and Tufts University for the recruitment of outstanding liberal arts students who are interested in teaching careers. The program fulfills the requirements for teacher certification at the middle or secondary level in Massachusetts. The program offered…

  13. Level of Dietary Fat Does Not Affect Fuel Oxidation or Endurance Exercise Performance of Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-15

    prevent or slow depletion of the body’s limited carbohydrate (glycogen) reserves, and thereby maintain or restore the original ratio of carbohydrate-to-fat...micron; Microfiltration Systems, Dublin, CA). The final filtrate was used for the enzyme assay. All enzyme assays were run by Dr. Barry Goldin, Tufts

  14. The vegetation of the S.A. Lombard Nature Reserve and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University, the National Herbarium and staff of the reserve over a period of 10 years. Collected specimens are housed in a small herbarium on the station. ..... these green leaves during winter and they were observed to pick green shoots from dry tufts of. T. triandra. All Sporobolus species provide excellent summer grazing ...

  15. Glomerular parietal epithelial cells contribute to adult podocyte regeneration in experimental focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Diana G; Sunseri, Maria W; Kaverina, Natalya V; Roeder, Sebastian S; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Shankland, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    As adult podocytes cannot adequately proliferate following depletion in disease states, there has been interest in the potential role of progenitors in podocyte repair and regeneration. To determine whether parietal epithelial cells (PECs) can serve as adult podocyte progenitors following disease-induced podocyte depletion, PECs were permanently labeled in adult PEC-rtTA/LC1/R26 reporter mice. In normal mice, labeled PECs were confined to Bowman's capsule, whereas in disease (cytotoxic sheep anti-podocyte antibody) labeled PECs were found in the glomerular tuft in progressively higher numbers by days 7, 14, and 28. Early in disease, the majority of PECs in the tuft coexpressed CD44. By day 28, when podocyte numbers were significantly higher and disease severity was significantly lower, the majority of labeled PECs coexpressed podocyte proteins but not CD44. Neither labeled PECs on the tuft nor podocytes stained for the proliferation marker BrdU. The de novo expression of phospho-ERK colocalized to CD44 expressing PECs, but not to PECs expressing podocyte markers. Thus, in a mouse model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis typified by abrupt podocyte depletion followed by regeneration, PECs undergo two phenotypic changes once they migrate to the glomerular tuft. Initially these cells are predominantly activated CD44 expressing cells coinciding with glomerulosclerosis, and later they predominantly exhibit a podocyte phenotype, which is likely reparative.

  16. Diversity of Nuptial Plumages in Male Ruffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rhijn, J.; Jukema, J.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    Nuptial ornament diversity was studied in 1814 individual male Ruffs that were caught in their spring staging areas in Friesland, The Netherlands. Ornaments (hereafter called plumages) comprised of a ruff, two head tufts and facial wattles. Individual feathers were found to be plain (white, black or

  17. Special edition summarizing the scientific discourse which took ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OHCEA membership includes 14 Central and Eastern African Schools of Public Health (7) and Schools of Veterinary Medicine (7); and US partner institutions, The University of Minnesota (UMN) and Tufts University. The overall goal of this collaboration is to enhance One Health policy formation and implementation, ...

  18. Integrative Microbiology - The Third Golden Age

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moselio Schaechter1 2. Biology Department, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA; Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 4 · Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 4. April 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues ...

  19. Cytogenetical evaluation of a new animal model for radiobiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, N.; Taja, M.R.; Nagle, C.; Gimenez, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The response of a New World monkey species (Cebus apella paraguayanus) lymphocytes to various doses of 60 Co gamma-rays has been studied using dicentrics + rings frequency in first mitosis and compared to that of man. Results have shown that differences between both species are no significant. The distribution of 200 breakpoints in G-banded metaphases has been scored showing an excess of breaks in chromosomes 1, 11, 12 and 16. Terminal heterochromatin blocks differ from intercalar heterochromatin in the response to gamma radiation being the former more affected. (author)

  20. Cytogenetical evaluation of a new animal model for radiobiological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasazzi, N.; Taja, M.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nagle, C. [Centro de Educacion Medica e Investigaciones Clinicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gimenez, J.C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1992-07-01

    The response of a New World monkey species (Cebus apella paraguayanus) lymphocytes to various doses of 60 Co gamma-rays has been studied using dicentrics + rings frequency in first mitosis and compared to that of man. Results have shown that differences between both species are no significant. The distribution of 200 breakpoints in G-banded metaphases has been scored showing an excess of breaks in chromosomes 1, 11, 12 and 16. Terminal heterochromatin blocks differ from intercalar heterochromatin in the response to gamma radiation being the former more affected. (author)

  1. Connections of the medial posterior parietal cortex (area 7m) in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichnetz, G R

    2001-06-01

    The afferent and efferent cortical and subcortical connections of the medial posterior parietal cortex (area 7m) were studied in cebus (Cebus apella) and macaque (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys using the retrograde and anterograde capabilities of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) technique. The principal intraparietal corticocortical connections of area 7m in both cebus and macaque cases were with the ipsilateral medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus (MIP) and adjacent superior parietal lobule (area 5), inferior parietal lobule (area 7a), lateral bank of the IPS (area 7ip), caudal parietal operculum (PGop), dorsal bank of the caudal superior temporal sulcus (visual area MST), and medial prestriate cortex (including visual area PO and caudal medial lobule). Its principal frontal corticocortical connections were with the prefrontal cortex in the shoulder above the principal sulcus and the cortex in the shoulder above the superior ramus of the arcuate sulcus (SAS), the area purported to contain the smooth eye movement-related frontal eye field (FEFsem) in the cebus monkey by other investigators. There were moderate connections with the cortex in the rostral bank of the arcuate sulcus (purported to contain the saccade-related frontal eye field; FEFsac), supplementary eye field (SEF), and rostral dorsal premotor area (PMDr). Area 7m also had major connections with the cingulate cortex (area 23), particularly the ventral bank of the cingulate sulcus. The principal subcortical connections of area 7m were with the dorsal portion of the ventrolateral thalamic (VLc) nucleus, lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, lateral pulvinar, caudal mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and medial pulvinar, central lateral, central superior lateral, and central inferior intralaminar thalamic nuclei, dorsolateral caudate nucleus and putamen, middle region of the claustrum, nucleus of the diagonal band, zona incerta, pregeniculate nucleus, anterior and posterior pretectal nuclei, intermediate layer of

  2. Cholinergic Inputs from Basal Forebrain Add an Excitatory Bias to Odor Coding in the Olfactory Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Markus; Carey, Ryan M.; Puche, Adam; Shipley, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic modulation of central circuits is associated with active sensation, attention, and learning, yet the neural circuits and temporal dynamics underlying cholinergic effects on sensory processing remain unclear. Understanding the effects of cholinergic modulation on particular circuits is complicated by the widespread projections of cholinergic neurons to telencephalic structures that themselves are highly interconnected. Here we examined how cholinergic projections from basal forebrain to the olfactory bulb (OB) modulate output from the first stage of sensory processing in the mouse olfactory system. By optogenetically activating their axons directly in the OB, we found that cholinergic projections from basal forebrain regulate OB output by increasing the spike output of presumptive mitral/tufted cells. Cholinergic stimulation increased mitral/tufted cell spiking in the absence of inhalation-driven sensory input and further increased spiking responses to inhalation of odorless air and to odorants. This modulation was rapid and transient, was dependent on local cholinergic signaling in the OB, and differed from modulation by optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in basal forebrain, which led to a mixture of mitral/tufted cell excitation and suppression. Finally, bulbar cholinergic enhancement of mitral/tufted cell odorant responses was robust and occurred independent of the strength or even polarity of the odorant-evoked response, indicating that cholinergic modulation adds an excitatory bias to mitral/tufted cells as opposed to increasing response gain or sharpening response spectra. These results are consistent with a role for the basal forebrain cholinergic system in dynamically regulating the sensitivity to or salience of odors during active sensing of the olfactory environment. PMID:24672011

  3. Pathological interstitial vascular proliferation adjacent to glomeruli in immunoglobulin a nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honami Mori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We detected an increase in small arterioles around glomeruli, particularly adjacent to tuft adhesive lesions in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN, for the 1 st time, as far as we know. We labeled these as periglomerular microarterioles (PGMAs. This study aimed to clarify the pathological significance of PGMAs. Sixty-two patients with IgAN and 19 controls with minor glomerular abnormalities without proteinuria were evaluated in this study. The number of PGMAs located between the Bowman′s capsule and the adjoining tubules was counted for each glomerulus. The mean number of PGMAs per glomerulus in cases of IgAN was significantly higher than those of the controls (0.530 ± 0.477 vs. 0.240 ± 0.182, P <0.05. Serial sections showed that most of the PGMAs were in contact with adjacent glomeruli (71.8%, through tuft adhesive lesions (52.1%, or the vascular pole (19.7%. By single regression analysis, the number of PGMAs was found to be positively correlated with the incidence of glomerular tuft adhesion, glomerular sclerosis, or the area of interstitial fibrosis in IgAN. By multiple regression analysis, the incidence of glomerular tuft adhesion was found to be the only independent pathological feature to correlate with the number of PGMAs (P = 0.0006. We have noticed the existence of PGMAs around glomeruli as a pathological finding of IgAN. Furthermore, the number of PGMAs was associated with the incidence of tuft adhesive lesion in glomeruli of IgAN although there was no relationship between the presence of PGMAs and clinical parameters including urinary protein excretion or creatinine clearance in the present study.

  4. Igreja e italianidade: Rio Grande do Sul (1875-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Possamai

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the position adopted by the catholic clergy concerning the italianità policy among the Italian immigrants in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. While the Carlists protected the Italian nationalism among the colonists and were inclined to a good relationship between the Catholic Church and the Kingdom of Italy, to the Capuchins the italianità was useful to preserve the catholic faith among the colonists, although they also supported the conservative point of view of the Vatican, that the liberal Italian State was the usurper of the papacy lands.

  5. Sergio Luzzatto, Padre Pio. Miracoli e politica nell’Italia del Novecento

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, David

    2008-01-01

    The cult of Padre Pio has engulfed the Catholic Church: in Italy, according to Sergio Luzzatto, more people pray to Padre Pio than to the Virgin, to any saint, or indeed to the very figure of Jesus Christ, and it has spread throughout Europe and the Americas. Padre Pio prayer groups constitute a worldwide devotional movement; the impoverished hamlet of San Giovanni Rotondo, on the plateau of the Gargano peninsula in Puglia, to whose minuscule convent the young Capuchin was sent during the Fir...

  6. [St Leopold Mandić: a cripple who became a charismatic confessor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlah, Anđelko

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this article presents in detail the life of the Croatian Capuchin St Leopold Bogdan Mandić (Herceg Novi, 1866 - Padova, 1942). Follows a discussion about the relation between his disability and medicine, including paranormal phenomena recorded during his life on earth. The article concludes with a note that the Holy See has recognised an outstanding number of healing miracles performed by Leopold Mandić, and describes the two most fascinating. The extraordinary attendance to his funeral in 1942, beatification in 1977, and canonisation in 1983 evidence that this saint has been one of the most revered personalities in the recent history of the Catholic Church.

  7. The current status of the New World monkey phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHNEIDER HORACIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Four DNA datasets were combined in tandem (6700 bp and Maximum parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analyses were performed. The results suggest three groups emerging almost at the same time: Atelidae, Pitheciidae and Cebidae. The total analysis strongly supports the monophyly of the Cebidae family, grouping Aotus, Cebus and Saimiri with the small callitrichines. In the callitrichines, the data link Cebuela to Callithrix, place Callimico as a sister group of Callithrix/Cebuella, and show Saguinus to be the earliest offshoot of the callitrichines. In the family Pithecidae, Callicebus is the basal genus. Finally, combined molecular data showed congruent branching in the atelid clade, setting up Alouatta as the basal lineage and Brachyteles-Lagothrix as a sister group and the most derived branch. Two major points remain to be clarified in the platyrrhine phylogeny: (i what is the exact branching pattern of Aotus, Cebus, Saimiri and the small callitrichines, and (ii, which two of these three lineages, pitheciines, atelines or cebids, are more closely related?

  8. Dental microwear texture analysis of late Pliocene Procynocephalus subhimalayanus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) of the Upper Siwaliks, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Holmes, Noelle A.

    2012-09-01

    Late Pliocene Procynocephalus subhimalayanus from the Upper Siwaliks, India is known from only three specimens. The dietary proclivities of this taxon have implications for reconstructing the paleoecology of the Upper Siwaliks. The dental microwear texture properties of Procynocephalus are compared to those from extant tropical forest primates including Alouatta palliata (n = 11), Cebus apella (n = 13), Gorilla gorilla (n = 9), Lophocebus albigena (n = 15) and Trachypithecus cristatus (n = 12). Dental microwear textures are generated by scanning the surface enamel of Facet 9 using white-light confocal microscopy at 100x. Four variables were extracted from scale-sensitive fractal analysis, and the data were ranked before ANOVA with post-hoc tests of significance and multivariate analyses were performed. Procynocephalus clusters closest to Lophocebus, Cebus and some Gorilla specimens suggesting hard-object feeding characterized a portion of its diet. The dental microwear texture of Procynocephalus supports interpretations of widespread grasslands of the Late Pliocene Kansal Formation (Pinjor zone). The extreme enamel complexity characterizing Procynocephalus may derive from consumption of underground storage organs, or other foods with high grit loads. Foods consumed near ground level carry a heavy load of abrasive minerals possibly contributing to greater enamel surface complexity and textural fill volume.

  9. Radial arrangement of Janus-like setae permits friction control in spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic attachment is the key to move on steep surfaces, with mechanisms being still not well understood. The hunting spider Cupiennius salei (Arachnida, Ctenidae) possesses hairy attachment pads (claw tufts) at its distal legs, consisting of directional branched setae. The morphological investigation revealed that adhesive setae are arranged in a radial manner within the distal tarsus. Friction of claw tufts on smooth glass was measured to reveal the functional effect of seta arrangement within the pad. Measurements revealed frictional anisotropy in both longitudinal and transversal directions. Contact behaviour of adhesive setae was investigated in a reflection interference contrast microscope (RICM). Observations on living spiders showed, that only a small part of the hairy pads is in contact at the same time. Thus the direction of frictional forces is depending on leg placement and rotation. This may aid controlling the attachment to the substrate.

  10. Using wintergreen oil for mounting mosquito larvae: a safer alternative to xylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, J B; Natasya, N N; Nashithatul, Mag; Ihsanuddin, R; Salleh, F M; Azil, A H

    2016-01-01

    Permanent mounting of fourth instar mosquito larvae is essential for identifying Aedes spp. This procedure requires extensive exposure to xylene, a clearing agent in the mounting process. We investigated wintergreen oil as a substitute for xylene. Five hundred larvae were mounted on slides to evaluate shrinkage or expansion of specimens after clearing using xylene or wintergreen oil. We examined the ventral brush and siphonal hair tufts for species identification and for preservation of morphological characteristics after clearing specimens in xylene or wintergreen oil. Shrinkage of the length of whole larvae and width of the head, thorax and abdomen after mounting was significantly greater after clearing with xylene than with wintergreen oil. The length of the comb scale nearest the ventral brush was similar for both clearing agents. The clarity of the specimens after mounting was improved by clearing with wintergreen oil, but the integrity of the ventral brush and siphonal hair tufts were similar for both clearing agents.

  11. Tipe Mating pada Empat Isolat Thanatephorus Cucumeris Anamorf: Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group (AG 1-IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmadi Priyatmojo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Four parent isolates (189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1 of Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IC were induced to produce basidiospores using soil-over culture method. All of four parent isolates could produce basidiospores. Colonies obtained from single basidiospore isolate of each parent isolate were paired on charcoal potato dextrose agar. Single basidiospore isolate having different mating type produced tuft at area of the junction of paired colonies. On the based of tuft formation, single basidiospore isolates of each parent isolate could be divided into two different mating types, therefore it is concluded that each of 189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1 isolate of T. cucumeris AG I-IC has bipolar mating type.

  12. Role of golimumab, a TNF-alpha inhibitor, in the treatment of the psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Michelon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Melissa A Michelon1, Alice B Gottlieb1,21Tufts University School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA is an inflammatory arthritis that affects many psoriasis patients and can often have a debilitating disease progression. Golimumab is a new tumor necrosis factor (TNF antagonist recently approved by the FDA for controlling signs and symptoms of psoriatic arthritis. In a Phase III clinical trial in patients with PsA, patients receiving golimumab showed significant improvement in the signs and symptoms of disease. It was usually well tolerated, but adverse events generally occurred more in patients receiving golimumab compared to placebo. Golimumab has also recently shown efficacy in slowing structural damage in PsA. This new biologic therapy provides physicians with another option in the treatment of this inflammatory arthritis while offering patients certain advantages over other TNF antagonists.Keywords: golimumab, psoriatic arthritis, TNF-alpha inhibitor

  13. Parietal Epithelial Cells Participate in the Formation of Sclerotic Lesions in Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Bart; Kuppe, Christoph; Sicking, Eva-Maria; Fuss, Astrid; Jirak, Peggy; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Endlich, Karlhans; Wetzels, Jack F.M.; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Floege, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the development of sclerotic lesions in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) remains unknown. Here, we selectively tagged podocytes or parietal epithelial cells (PECs) to determine whether PECs contribute to sclerosis. In three distinct models of FSGS (5/6-nephrectomy + DOCA-salt; the murine transgenic chronic Thy1.1 model; or the MWF rat) and in human biopsies, the primary injury to induce FSGS associated with focal activation of PECs and the formation of cellular adhesions to the capillary tuft. From this entry site, activated PECs invaded the affected segment of the glomerular tuft and deposited extracellular matrix. Within the affected segment, podocytes were lost and mesangial sclerosis developed within the endocapillary compartment. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that PECs contribute to the development and progression of the sclerotic lesions that define FSGS, but this pathogenesis may be relevant to all etiologies of glomerulosclerosis. PMID:21719782

  14. Endoglin: a critical mediator of cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapur NK

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Navin K Kapur,1 Kevin J Morine,1 Michelle Letarte2,31Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 2Molecular Structure and Function Program, Hospital for Sick Children, 3The Heart and Stroke Foundation Richard Lewar Centre of Excellence, and the Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Endoglin (CD105 is a type III auxiliary receptor for the transforming growth factor beta (TGFß superfamily. Several lines of evidence suggest that endoglin plays a critical role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis. Seemingly disparate disease conditions, including hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, pre-eclampsia, and cardiac fibrosis, have now been associated with endoglin. Given the central role of the TGFß superfamily in multiple disease conditions, this review provides a detailed update on endoglin as an evolving therapeutic target in the management of cardiovascular disease.Keywords: endoglin, transforming growth factor beta, vascular, cardiac remodeling

  15. Vascular anatomy of the pig kidney glomerulus: a qualitative study of corrosion casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B J; Holmes, K R; Xu, L X

    1992-09-01

    Pig kidney glomerular vascular anatomy was studied by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. A generalized vascular architecture is presented to describe the pig kidney glomerulus based upon the observation of 3,800 vascular cast glomeruli. The relative simplicity of the pig glomerular vascular architecture has allowed the characterization of different vascular segments more completely than has been possible in other mammals. Based upon relationships to the afferent arteriole, a nomenclature and definition of primary, secondary, tertiary and anastomotic vessels is proposed for the distributing vessels comprising the glomerular tuft. The existence and formation of a large central hemispheric vessel deep within the confines of a glomerular hemisphere is micrographically documented. Micrographic evidence is presented supporting the formation of the single efferent arteriole by the merging of two central hemispheric vessels within the confines of the glomerular tuft. Failure of the merging of these two vessels may result in multiple efferent arterioles.

  16. Functional implication of Dclk1 and Dclk1-expressing cells in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphalen, C Benedikt; Quante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C

    2017-07-03

    Doublecortin like kinase protein 1 (Dclk1) is a microtubule-associated protein with C-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain. Originally designated Doublecortin and CaM kinase-like 1 protein (Dcamkl1) or KIAA0369, Dclk1 was first described as a marker for radial glia cells in the context of microtubule polymerization and neuronal migration, possibly contributing to early neurogenesis. Additionally, Dclk1 was proposed as a marker of quiescent gastrointestinal and pancreatic stem cells, but in recent years has been recognized as a marker for tuft cells in the gastrointestinal tract. While Dclk1+ tuft cells are now considered as niche or sensory cells in the normal gut, growing evidence supports a role for Dclk1 function in a variety of malignancies, modulating the activity of multiple key pathways, including Kras signaling. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of the importance of Dclk1 function in tumorigenesis and cancer.

  17. Peripheral retinal degenerations and the risk of retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hilel

    2003-07-01

    To review the degenerative diseases of the peripheral retina in relationship with the risk to develop a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and to present recommendations for use in eyes at increased risk of developing a retinal detachment. Focused literature review and author's clinical experience. Retinal degenerations are common lesions involving the peripheral retina, and most of them are clinically insignificant. Lattice degeneration, degenerative retinoschisis, cystic retinal tufts, and, rarely, zonular traction tufts, can result in a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Therefore, these lesions have been considered for prophylactic therapy; however, adequate studies have not been performed to date. Well-designed, prospective, randomized clinical studies are necessary to determine the benefit-risk ratio of prophylactic treatment. In the meantime, the evidence available suggests that most of the peripheral retinal degenerations should not be treated except in rare, high-risk situations.

  18. [Peripheral retinal degenerations--treatment recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussen, A M; Kirchhof, B

    2004-10-01

    This report reviews the clinical appearance of degenerative diseases of the peripheral retina in relationship to the risk of developing a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. We present recommendations for preventive treatment in eyes at increased risk of developing retinal detachment. Retinal degenerations are common lesions involving the peripheral retina but most of them are clinically insignificant. Lattice degeneration, degenerative retinoschisis, cystic retinal tufts, and very rarely zonular traction tufts can result in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Therefore, these lesions have been considered for prophylactic treatment; however, adequate studies have not been performed to date. Most of the peripheral retinal degenerations may not require treatment except in rare, high-risk situations. According to current knowledge there is no higher incidence of secondary pucker or other side effects after laser coagulation. Therefore, generous laser indication is recommended if risk factors apply.

  19. Search for New Phenomena Using W/Z + (b)-Jets Measurements Performed with the ATLAS Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues

    2015-01-01

    The Project proposed to use data of the ATLAS experiment, obtained during the 2011 and 2012 data-taking campaigns, to pursue studies of the strong interaction (QCD) and to examine promising signatures for new physics. The Project also contains a service component dedicated to a detector development initiative. The objective of the strong interaction studies is to determine how various predictions from the main theory (QCD) compare to the data. Results of a set of measurements developed by the Tufts team indicate that the dominant factor of discrepancy between data and QCD predictions come from the mis-modeling of the low energy gluon radiation as described by algorithms called parton showers. The discrepancies introduced by parton showers on LHC predictions could even be larger than the effect due to completely new phenomena (dark matter, supersymmetry, etc.) and could thus block further discoveries at the LHC. Some of the results obtained in the course of this Project also specify how QCD predictions must be improved in order to open the possibility for the discovery of something completely new at the LHC during Run-II. This has been integrated in the Run-II ATLAS physics program. Another objective of Tufts studies of the strong interaction was to determine how the hypothesis about an intrinsic heavy-quark component of the proton (strange, charm or bottom quarks) could be tested at the LHC. This hypothesis has been proposed by theorists 30 years ago and is still controversial. The Tufts team demonstrated that intrinsic charms can be observed, or severely constrained, at the LHC, and determine how the measurement should be performed in order to maximize its sensitivity to such an intrinsic heavy-quark component of the proton. Tufts also embarked on performing the measurement that is in progress, but final results are not yet available. They should shade a light of understanding on the fundamental structure of the proton. Determining the nature of dark matter

  20. Cell renewal of glomerular cell types in normal rats. An autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, R.; Sterzel, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Normal adult Sprague-Dawley rats received either a single or repetitive injection of the DNA precursor 3 H-thymidine ( 3 H-TdR). For autoradiography semi-thin sections were prepared 2 hr to 14 days after labeling. The majority of labeled cells noted in glomerular tufts were endothelial cells. Mesangial cells had a lower production rate. Podocytes revealed no evidence of proliferation. Bowman's capsule cells showed a higher labeling index than tuft cells at all times. Neither the urinary nor the vascular pole was found to be a proliferative zone for Bowman's capsule cells. The flash and repetitive labeling experiments demonstrated a constant rate of cell renewal of about 1% per day, resulting in a long life span for endothelial and mesangial cells as well as Bowman's capsule cells. These data provide a basis for cell kinetic studies in models of glomerular diseases

  1. A spiking neural network model of self-organized pattern recognition in the early mammalian olfactory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bernhard A.; Lansner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory sensory information passes through several processing stages before an odor percept emerges. The question how the olfactory system learns to create odor representations linking those different levels and how it learns to connect and discriminate between them is largely unresolved. We present a large-scale network model with single and multi-compartmental Hodgkin–Huxley type model neurons representing olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the epithelium, periglomerular cells, mitral/tufted cells and granule cells in the olfactory bulb (OB), and three types of cortical cells in the piriform cortex (PC). Odor patterns are calculated based on affinities between ORNs and odor stimuli derived from physico-chemical descriptors of behaviorally relevant real-world odorants. The properties of ORNs were tuned to show saturated response curves with increasing concentration as seen in experiments. On the level of the OB we explored the possibility of using a fuzzy concentration interval code, which was implemented through dendro-dendritic inhibition leading to winner-take-all like dynamics between mitral/tufted cells belonging to the same glomerulus. The connectivity from mitral/tufted cells to PC neurons was self-organized from a mutual information measure and by using a competitive Hebbian–Bayesian learning algorithm based on the response patterns of mitral/tufted cells to different odors yielding a distributed feed-forward projection to the PC. The PC was implemented as a modular attractor network with a recurrent connectivity that was likewise organized through Hebbian–Bayesian learning. We demonstrate the functionality of the model in a one-sniff-learning and recognition task on a set of 50 odorants. Furthermore, we study its robustness against noise on the receptor level and its ability to perform concentration invariant odor recognition. Moreover, we investigate the pattern completion capabilities of the system and rivalry dynamics for odor mixtures. PMID

  2. Dynamic computed tomography for the diagnosis of microadenoma, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Toshiaki; Andoh, Kazuo; Ito, Jyusuke

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic CT scan was used to study 20 normal pituitary glands. Eight were examined by means of a coronal dynamic CT scan, and 12, by means of an axial dynamic CT scan. In the anterior lobe, initially the secondary capillary bed (called the ''tuft'' by Bonneville) appeared as a high-density area located in the midline, beneath the upper surface of the anterior lobe. Subsequently, the high-density area located in the secondary capillary bed spread centrifugally into the anterior lobe. Finally, the entire anterior lobe became a homogeneous high-density area. Three patterns of the time-density curve were observed in the anterior lobe. Type 1, observed in the midline, beneath the upper surface of the anterior lobe, was a vascular pattern. It corresponded to the tuft topographically. Compared with the other venous system, the peak of Type 1 was somewhat delayed. This is attributable to the slower circulation in the hypophyseal portal system. Type 2, observed just below the tuft, represented the extravasation of the contrast material in a highly vascular tissue (hypervascular extravasation pattern). Type 3, observed at the bottom of the anterior lobe, represented the extravasation of the contrast material in a less vascular tissue (oligovascular extravasation pattern). The anterior lobe has no blood-brain barrier, and the sinusoid vessels are abundant in the following order: the upper surface of the anterior lobe, the area below the tuft, and the bottom of the anterior lobe. Taking these two facts into account, Type 1 (vascular pattern) is considered to be due to the abundant vascularity of the secondary capillary bed. Type 2 (hypervascular extravasation pattern) results from the extravasation of the contrast material at the site of highly vascular tissue without any blood-brain barrier. Type 3 (oligovascular extravasation pattern) seems to indicate the extravasation of the contrast material at the site of less vascular tissue without any blood-brain barrier. (J.P.N.)

  3. The role of rasagiline in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Leegwater-Kim, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Julie Leegwater-Kim1, Elena Bortan21Tufts University School of Medicine and Department of Neurology, Lahey Clinic, Burlington, MA, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Lahey Clinic, Burlington, MA, USAAbstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 1% to 2% of people older than 60 years. Treatment of PD consists of symptomatic therapies while neuroprotective strategies have remained elusive. Rasagiline is a novel, potent, and irreversible...

  4. Healthy Foodservice Benchmarking and Leading Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    cafeterias, managed by the Military and companies such Healthy Foodservice Benchmarking and Leading Practices | 7 as ARAMARK (Rolfsen, 2010) and...machine, a cafeteria line, a table where a patron gives his or her selection to a waiter , a cashier’s counter, a drive-thru window, a phone where orders...Nutrition and Weight Management Center at Boston Medical Center, the Medical Director of the Obesity Consult Center at Tufts University School of

  5. Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Noelia Adelina; Tanzola, Ruben Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Necropsy on 15 specimens of white-tufted grebe, Rollandiarolland, caught in the Mar Chiquita and Chascomús lagoons (Buenos Aires province), revealed the presence of Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907). This nematode shows a marked specificity for podicipediform birds. The specimens were identified from morphological study on features such as cephalic and esophageal structures and caudal papillae, using both optical and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first record of C. ovale parasitizing R. rolland in Argentina.

  6. High Reynolds Number Liquid Flow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    25. .n Fig. 25, the dotted line represents data taken from Eckelmann’s study in the thick viscous sublaver of an oil channel. Scatter in the...measurements of the fundamental physical quantities are not only an essencial part in an understanding of multiphase flows but also in the measurement process...technique. One of the most yloei’ used techniques, however, is some form of flow visualization. This includes the use o: tufts, oil paint films

  7. Hvem underviser i massekommunikation? - hvordan? - og hvad mangler?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Alrø

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Disse spørgsmål har Helle Arø og Birgitte Tufte forsøgt at få besvaret ved hjælp af et spørgeskema, der blev udsendt via de faglige foreningers blade. Svarprocenten har indtil nu ikke været stor, men alligevel kan de indkomne svar nok belyse tendenserne inden for medieundervisningen på forskellige uddannelsestrin: i folkeskolen, i gymnasiet og på HF.

  8. Olfactory Information Processing in the Drosophila Antennal Lobe : Anything Goes?

    OpenAIRE

    Silbering, Ana F.; Okada, Ryuichi; Ito, Kei; Galizia, Cosmas Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    When an animal smells an odor, olfactory sensory neurons generate an activity pattern across olfactory glomeruli of the first sensory neuropil, the insect antennal lobe or the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Here, several networks of local neurons interact with sensory neurons and with output neurons-insect projection neurons, or vertebrate mitral/tufted cells. The extent and form of information processing taking place in these local networks has been subject of controversy. To investigate the ro...

  9. Cognitive functions of intracellular mechanisms for contextual amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, William A

    2017-03-01

    Evidence for the hypothesis that input to the apical tufts of neocortical pyramidal cells plays a central role in cognition by amplifying their responses to feedforward input is reviewed. Apical tufts are electrically remote from the soma, and their inputs come from diverse sources including direct feedback from higher cortical regions, indirect feedback via the thalamus, and long-range lateral connections both within and between cortical regions. This suggests that input to tuft dendrites may amplify the cell's response to basal inputs that they receive via layer 4 and which have synapses closer to the soma. ERP data supporting this inference is noted. Intracellular studies of apical amplification (AA) and of disamplification by inhibitory interneurons targeted only at tufts are reviewed. Cognitive processes that have been related to them by computational, electrophysiological, and psychopathological studies are then outlined. These processes include: figure-ground segregation and Gestalt grouping; contextual disambiguation in perception and sentence comprehension; priming; winner-take-all competition; attention and working memory; setting the level of consciousness; cognitive control; and learning. It is argued that theories in cognitive neuroscience should not assume that all neurons function as integrate-and-fire point processors, but should use the capabilities of cells with distinct sites of integration for driving and modulatory inputs. Potentially 'unifying' theories that depend upon these capabilities are reviewed. It is concluded that evolution of the primitives of AA and disamplification in neocortex may have extended cognitive capabilities beyond those built from the long-established primitives of excitation, inhibition, and disinhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Cartilage Forming Cells in Regenerative Medicine for Cartilage Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Lin; Reagan, Michaela R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Lin Sun1, Michaela R Reagan2, David L Kaplan1,21Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USAAbstract: Currently, cartilage repair remains a major challenge for researchers and physicians due to its limited healing capacity. Cartilage regeneration requires suitable cells; these must be easily obtained and expanded, able to produce hyaline matrix with proper mechanical properties, and demonstrate sustained integrati...

  11. Posterior Lattice Degeneration Characterized by Spectral Domain Optical Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunath, Varsha; Taha, Mohammed; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To utilize high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the characterization of retinal and vitreal morphological changes overlying posterior lattice degeneration. METHODS: A cross-sectional, retrospective analysis was performed on 13 eyes of 13 nonconsecutive subjects with posterior lattice degeneration seen at the New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center between October 2009 and January 2010. SD-OCT images taken through the region of latti...

  12. Long-term remission of folliculitis decalvans after treatment with the long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Arne A; Van der Veen, J P Wietze; Wolkerstorfer, Albert

    2014-04-01

    Folliculitis decalvans (FD) is a rare inflammatory scalp disorder presenting with tufted folliculitis, follicular papules and pustules, progressing to cicatricial alopecia. Current treatments mainly consist of antibiotic and immunomodulatory therapies and are often disappointing. FD has previously shown to respond to treatment with neodymium:yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser in one case. We present a case of recalcitrant FD, successfully treated with a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser.

  13. Reconciling Air Force Physicians’ Peacetime and Wartime Capabilities, Demonstration of a Work Force Design Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Viet - nam ," Military Medicine, Vol. 135, No. 1, 1970, pp. 8-13. St. Clair, N. J., and R. W. Tufte, The PRISM Analysis System, Vector Research, Inc...number not listed) cosmetic lid surgery 96 PLASTIC SURGEON Emergency Procedures emergency surgical control of hemorrhage B5 intubation of airway B6...number not listed) first-assist in surgery perform triage cosmetic lid surgery 108 DERMATOLOGIST Emergency Procedures emergency surgical control of

  14. Evolution of power plant foundations in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.T.; Larade, M.; Myette, R.; MacIvor, T. [Nova Scotia Power Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many thermal steam plants in Nova Scotia, including the first 3 units Dartmouth's Tufts Cove Generating Station, were constructed on bedrock and near the sea for easy access to cooling water. Major equipment foundations such as turbine/condenser foundations, boiler feed pump foundations and fan foundations are concrete block foundations that are designed to withstand the heavy equipment and environmental loads imposed throughout the service-life of the plant. This paper discussed the rationale for choosing different types of foundations at the 5 power generating units at the Tufts Cove Generating Station. Due to the presence of boulders, pipe piles were installed in drilled holes in 1995 for the unit 2 precipitator foundation. In 2005, micro-piles were installed for unit 1 and 3 precipitators because they were relatively non-protrusive for the congested urban site that was full of buried structures and services. Similarly, for the unit 4 and 5 sound wall foundations, the high resistance capacities for both downward and uplift loads of the micro-piles embedded into the bedrock proved to be very valuable. These tall wall structures are subject to very high wind loads and were constructed at a geotechnically challenged site. Good geotechnical investigation and consultation was shown to be the basis for good design and construction of foundation works. It was concluded that the lessons learned at Tufts Cove can be applied to other similar foundation designs. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Dynamic computed tomography for the diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Toshiaki

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the diagnostic criteria on microadenoma by dynamic CT. Dynamic CT was studied in 19 patients with hormone-secreting microadenomas. There were 10 prolactin-secreting, 5 growth-hormone-secreting, and 4 adrenocorticotropic-hormone-secreting adenomas. The following diagnostic criteria on microadenomas were concluded by analyzing dynamic CT on 19 microadenomas, in which histology, location and extension of the tumor were verified by surgery and postoperative CT. The tuft distorted and displaced indicates a mass effect mainly in the opposite side. The mid-situated tuft with a disproportionately small size compared with a size of the anterior lobe indicates a mass effect mainly in the midportion. The area, into which a high density at the tuft definitely spreads, presents the normal anterior lobe. The area, in which less increase in density than the former area is observed, indicates an abnormal mass. In the time-density curve, the former area represents the vascular pattern or the hypervascular extravasation pattern, while the latter area represents extravasation of contrast material in a hypovascular tissue. Only eight microadenomas were presented as a less enhanced mass. The rest of the cases exhibited adenomas isodense to the normal pituitary gland. Dynamic CT was useful particularly in the diagnosis of isodense adenomas. (author)

  16. The impact of wave exposure on the meiofauna of Gelidium pristoides (Turner) Kuetzing (Gelidiales: Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M. J.

    1988-12-01

    The impact of wave exposure on the meiofaunal communities colonising Gelidium pristoides, was examined on five shores around False Bay, South Africa. Under conditions of constant algal structure and mass, and in tufts with similar epiphyte and sediment loads, exposure had a profound impact on meiofaunal communities. Algae on sheltered shores supported significantly greater numbers of animals in the size range 63-280 μm (predominantly copepods, copepod nauplii and ostracods), while those on exposed shores supported a greater number of amphipods and bivalves. Total meiofaunal biomass per tuft remained constant irrespective of shore type. Differences between shores are discussed in terms of algal structure and animal size and morphology. Gelidium tufts are open-plan and offer little resistance to water movement; as the frond diameter is wider than the meiofauna are long, small animals are likely to be flushed more easily from exposed than sheltered shores. Differences in the abundance of permanent meiofauna between shores may, however, reflect ifferences in the organic content of sediments, although this was not examined. It is also suggested that meiofaunal communities on plants from different shores are influenced by the total algal and macrofaunal standing stocks, which act as banks of meiofauna and influence the regularity and magnitude of immigration. Extrapolating these data to the whole shore indicates that while the biomass of meiofauna may be greater on exposed than sheltered shores, the proportional contribution of meiofauna to total secondary production is greater under more sheltered conditions.

  17. A machine learning approach for automated assessment of retinal vasculature in the oxygen induced retinopathy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaferri, Javier; Larrivée, Bruno; Cakir, Bertan; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Costantino, Santiago

    2018-03-02

    Preclinical studies of vascular retinal diseases rely on the assessment of developmental dystrophies in the oxygen induced retinopathy rodent model. The quantification of vessel tufts and avascular regions is typically computed manually from flat mounted retinas imaged using fluorescent probes that highlight the vascular network. Such manual measurements are time-consuming and hampered by user variability and bias, thus a rapid and objective method is needed. Here, we introduce a machine learning approach to segment and characterize vascular tufts, delineate the whole vasculature network, and identify and analyze avascular regions. Our quantitative retinal vascular assessment (QuRVA) technique uses a simple machine learning method and morphological analysis to provide reliable computations of vascular density and pathological vascular tuft regions, devoid of user intervention within seconds. We demonstrate the high degree of error and variability of manual segmentations, and designed, coded, and implemented a set of algorithms to perform this task in a fully automated manner. We benchmark and validate the results of our analysis pipeline using the consensus of several manually curated segmentations using commonly used computer tools. The source code of our implementation is released under version 3 of the GNU General Public License ( https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/65699-javimazzaf-qurva ).

  18. The Great Silk Alternative: Multiple Co-Evolution of Web Loss and Sticky Hairs in Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O.; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Spiders are the most important terrestrial predators among arthropods. Their ecological success is reflected by a high biodiversity and the conquest of nearly every terrestrial habitat. Spiders are closely associated with silk, a material, often seen to be responsible for their great ecological success and gaining high attention in life sciences. However, it is often overlooked that more than half of all Recent spider species have abandoned web building or never developed such an adaptation. These species must have found other, more economic solutions for prey capture and retention, compensating the higher energy costs of increased locomotion activity. Here we show that hairy adhesive pads (scopulae) are closely associated with the convergent evolution of a vagrant life style, resulting in highly diversified lineages of at least, equal importance as the derived web building taxa. Previous studies often highlighted the idea that scopulae have the primary function of assisting locomotion, neglecting the fact that only the distal most pads (claw tufts) are suitable for those purposes. The former observations, that scopulae are used in prey capture, are largely overlooked. Our results suggest the scopulae evolved as a substitute for silk in controlling prey and that the claw tufts are, in most cases, a secondary development. Evolutionary trends towards specialized claw tufts and their composition from a low number of enlarged setae to a dense array of slender ones, as well as the secondary loss of those pads are discussed further. Hypotheses about the origin of the adhesive setae and their diversification throughout evolution are provided. PMID:23650526

  19. The regenerative potential of parietal epithelial cells in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman's capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glomerular hypertrophy was induced by progressive partial nephrectomies. Again, no significant podocyte replenishment was observed. Rather, labeled PECs exclusively invaded segments of the tuft affected by glomerulosclerosis, consistent with our previous findings. We next reassessed PEC recruitment in juvenile mice using a different reporter mouse and confirmed significant recruitment of labeled PECs onto the glomerular tuft. Moreover, some labeled cells on Bowman's capsule expressed podocyte markers, and cells on Bowman's capsule were also directly labeled in juvenile podocyte-specific Pod-rtTA transgenic mice. In 6-week-old mice, however, cells on Bowman's capsule no longer expressed podocyte-specific markers. Similarly, in human kidneys, some cells on Bowman's capsule expressed the podocyte marker synaptopodin from 2 weeks to 2 years of age but not at 7 years of age. In summary, podocyte regeneration from PECs could not be detected in aging mice or models of glomerular hypertrophy. We propose that a small fraction of committed podocytes reside on Bowman's capsule close to the vascular stalk and are recruited onto the glomerular tuft during infancy to adolescence in mice and humans.

  20. "We make the path by walking it": building an academic community partnership with Boston Chinatown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Carolyn Leung; Allukian, Nathan; Wang, Xingyue; Ghosh, Sujata; Huang, Chien-Chi; Wang, Jacy; Brugge, Doug; Wong, John B; Mark, Shirley; Dong, Sherry; Koch-Weser, Susan; Parsons, Susan K; Leslie, Laurel K; Freund, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    The potential for academic community partnerships are challenged in places where there is a history of conflict and mistrust. Addressing Disparities in Asian Populations through Translational Research (ADAPT) represents an academic community partnership between researchers and clinicians from Tufts Medical Center and Tufts University and community partners from Boston Chinatown. Based in principles of community-based participatory research and partnership research, this partnership is seeking to build a trusting relationship between Tufts and Boston Chinatown. This case study aims to provides a narrative story of the development and formation of ADAPT as well as discuss challenges to its future viability. Using case study research tools, this study draws upon a variety of data sources including interviews, program evaluation data and documents. Several contextual factors laid the foundation for ADAPT. Weaving these factors together helped to create synergy and led to ADAPT's formation. In its first year, ADAPT has conducted formative research, piloted an educational program for community partners and held stakeholder forums to build a broad base of support. ADAPT recognizes that long term sustainability requires bringing multiple stakeholders to the table even before a funding opportunity is released and attempting to build a diversified funding base.

  1. Adhesive foot pads: an adaptation to climbing? An ecological survey in hunting spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-02-01

    Hairy pads relying on dry adhesion are fascinating structures that convergently evolved among spiders and lizards. Numerous studies underline the functional aspects leading to their strong adhesion to smooth surfaces, but rarely has their role been studied in the context of natural habitats and surfaces that animals are faced with. In hunting spiders, the hairy foot pads (claw tufts) underneath the paired claws are assumed to be an adaptation to a climbing lifestyle, particularly on smooth plant surfaces. However, surfaces that are too smooth for claws to generate a sufficient grip are rather rare in natural habitats and above-ground habitats are occupied by hunting spiders both with and without claw tufts. In this study we estimated the proportion of claw tuft-bearing hunting spiders (ct+ ratio) among microhabitat-specific assemblages by conducting both a field study and a meta-analysis approach. The effect of surface characteristics, structure fragmentation and altitude of the microhabitat niche on the ct+ ratio was analyzed. We hypothesized that the ct+ ratio will be higher in (i) hunting spider assemblages obtained from microhabitats above the ground than from those at the ground and (ii) in hunting spider assemblages obtained from microhabitats with smoother surfaces (tree foliage) than those with rougher surfaces (barks, stones), and lower in (iii) hunting spider assemblages obtained from microhabitats with more fragmented structures (small leaves) than in those with comparable but less fragmented structures (large leaves). We found the ct+ ratio to be significantly affected by the microhabitat's distance from the ground, whereas surface characteristics and fragmentation of the substrates were of minor importance. This suggests that claw tufts are highly beneficial when the microhabitat's height exceeds a value where the additional pad-related costs are exceeded by the costs of dropping. We assume the benefit to be mainly due to gaining a high safety factor

  2. Describing the organization of dominance relationships by dominance-directed tree method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izar, Patrícia; Ferreira, Renata G; Sato, Takechi

    2006-02-01

    Methods to describe dominance hierarchies are a key tool in primatology studies. Most current methods are appropriate for analyzing linear and near-linear hierarchies; however, more complex structures are common in primate groups. We propose a method termed "dominance-directed tree." This method is based on graph theory and set theory to analyze dominance relationships in social groups. The method constructs a transitive matrix by imposing transitivity to the dominance matrix and produces a graphical representation of the dominance relationships, which allows an easy visualization of the hierarchical position of the individuals, or subsets of individuals. The method is also able to detect partial and complete hierarchies, and to describe situations in which hierarchical and nonhierarchical principles operate. To illustrate the method, we apply a dominance tree analysis to artificial data and empirical data from a group of Cebus apella. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Habitat, density and group size of primates in a Brazilian tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, L P; Costa, C M; Strier, K B; da Fonseca, G A

    1993-01-01

    Habitats, population densities and group sizes of 5 primate species (Callithrix flaviceps, Callicebus personatus personatus, Cebus apella nigritus, Alouatta fusca clamitans, and Brachyteles arachnoides) were estimated, using the method of repeated transect sampling, in an area of montane pluvial forest in eastern Brazil (Atlantic forest). A. fusca and C. apella had the highest densities in terms of groups and individuals per square kilometer, respectively, while B. arachnoides was least abundant. The highest primate densities were observed in areas of secondary vegetation. Both group sizes and population densities for the 5 species were generally lower at the Reserva Biologica Augusto Ruschi than those reported in other areas of Atlantic forest. Hunting pressure and the different carrying capacity of the habitat are suggested as possible causes for the low number of sightings registered for these species.

  4. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

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    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  5. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A

    2002-12-01

    From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  6. Hemorrhoids: an experimental model in monkeys

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    Plapler Hélio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hemorrhoids are a matter of concern due to a painful outcome. We describe a simple, easy and reliable experimental model to produce hemorrhoids in monkeys. METHODS: 14 monkeys (Cebus apella were used. After general anesthesia, hemorrhoids were induced by ligation of the inferior hemorrhoidal vein, which is very alike to humans. The vein was located through a perianal incision, dissected and ligated with a 3-0 vicryl. The skin was sutured with a 4-0 catgut thread. Animals were kept in appropriate cages and evaluated daily. RESULTS: Nine days later there were hemorrhoidal piles in the anus in fifty percent (50% of the animals. Outcome was unremarkable. There was no bleeding and all animals showed no signs of pain or suffering. CONCLUSION: This is an affordable and reliable experimental model to induce hemorrhoids for experimental studies.

  7. An enzootic outbreak of acute disease associated with pathogenic E. coli in Adler monkey colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, Boris A; Yakovleva, Lelita A; Dzhikidze, Eteri K; Gvozdik, Tatiana E; Agumava, Aslan A; Stasilevich, Zinaida K; Danilova, Irina G

    2015-12-01

    In spring 2009 in Adler colony of the Institute of Medical Primatology, a large enzootic outbreak of acute intestine infection associated with pathogenic E. coli occurred and caused 5% mortality of population (209 animals). The epidemiological analysis, bacteriological investigation, postmortem examination, histological analysis, and PCR were used to identify the infectious agent. Marked hemorrhagic diathesis, lethargy, dehydration, diarrhea with blood, wasting, and sometimes dystrophic changes in articular cartilages were noted. Morphologically, hemorrhagic enterocolitis and massive hemorrhages were found. PCR investigation of bacteriologically isolated E. coli characterized it as enteropathogenic and enteroinvasive E. coli. The outbreak in Adler colony slightly differed from similar outbreak in Florida in 2014 by more marked hemorrhagic diathesis and articular changes in some monkeys caused by polyavitaminosis developed in the course of infection. Sensitive to infection were M. mulatta, M. fascicularis, Cercopithecus aethiops, P. hamadryas and anubis, and Cebus capucinus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A census of mammal populations in Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica

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    Joshua Timock

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Population sizes of six mammal species were estimated using the King method during the late dry season (March of 1996 in the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica. The white-faced monkey (Cebus capucinus, coati (Nasua narica and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus with 148, 46, and 8 sighted individuals, respectively, demonstrated the largest populations in the refuge. The Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi, tamandua anteater (Tamandua mexicana, and variegated squirrel (Sciurus variegatoides were also included in the census. Population densities are calculated, habitat types are describes, and habitat use and activity periods are discussed.Se estimó el tamaño poblacional de seis especies de mamíferos, usando el método de King, durante la estación seca tardía (marzo de 1996 en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre de Punta Leona, Costa Rica. El mono carablanca (Cebus capucinus, el pizote (Nasua narica y el armadillo de 9 bandas (Dasypus novecinctus presentaron las poblaciones más grandes en el refugio, con 148, 46, y 8 observaciones respectivamente. El mono araña centroamericano (Ateles geoffroyi, el tamandúa hormiguero (Tamandua mexicana y la ardilla (Sciurus variegatoides también se tomaron en cuenta durante el censo. Además se calculan las densidades poblacionales, se describen los tipos de hábitat y se discute el uso de estos, así como los periodos de actividad de las especies encontradas.

  9. Effects of Habitat Structure and Fragmentation on Diversity and Abundance of Primates in Tropical Deciduous Forests in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyritz, Lennart W; Büntge, Anna B S; Herzog, Sebastian K; Kessler, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Habitat structure and anthropogenic disturbance are known to affect primate diversity and abundance. However, researchers have focused on lowland rain forests, whereas endangered deciduous forests have been neglected. We aimed to investigate the relationships between primate diversity and abundance and habitat parameters in 10 deciduous forest fragments southeast of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. We obtained primate data via line-transect surveys and visual and acoustic observations. In addition, we assessed the vegetation structure (canopy height, understory density), size, isolation time, and surrounding forest area of the fragments. We interpreted our results in the context of the historical distribution data for primates in the area before fragmentation and interviews with local people. We detected 5 of the 8 historically observed primate species: Alouatta caraya, Aotus azarae boliviensis, Callithrix melanura, Callicebus donacophilus, and Cebus libidinosus juruanus. Total species number and detection rates decreased with understory density. Detection rates also negatively correlated with forest areas in the surroundings of a fragment, which may be due to variables not assessed, i.e., fragment shape, distance to nearest town. Observations for Alouatta and Aotus were too few to conduct further statistics. Cebus and Callicebus were present in 90% and 70% of the sites, respectively, and their density did not correlate with any of the habitat variables assessed, signaling high ecological plasticity and adaptability to anthropogenic impact in these species. Detections of Callithrix were higher in areas with low forest strata. Our study provides baseline data for future fragmentation studies in Neotropical dry deciduous forests and sets a base for specific conservation measures.

  10. Wide distribution and ancient evolutionary history of simian foamy viruses in New World primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, Bruno M; Jia, Hongwei; Aiewsakun, Pakorn; Katzourakis, Aris; Mendoza, Patricia; Bausch, Daniel G; Kasper, Matthew R; Montgomery, Joel M; Switzer, William M

    2015-10-29

    Although simian foamy viruses (SFV) are the only exogenous retroviruses to infect New World monkeys (NWMs), little is known about their evolutionary history and epidemiology. Previous reports show distinct SFVs among NWMs but were limited to small numbers of captive or wild monkeys from five (Cebus, Saimiri, Ateles, Alouatta, and Callithrix) of the 15 NWM genera. Other studies also used only PCR testing or serological assays with limited validation and may have missed infection in some species. We developed and validated new serological and PCR assays to determine the prevalence of SFV in blood specimens from a large number of captive NWMs in the US (n = 274) and in captive and wild-caught NWMs (n = 236) in Peruvian zoos, rescue centers, and illegal trade markets. Phylogenetic and co-speciation reconciliation analyses of new SFV polymerase (pol) and host mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences, were performed to infer SFV and host co-evolutionary histories. 124/274 (45.2 %) of NWMs captive in the US and 59/157 (37.5 %) of captive and wild-caught NWMs in Peru were SFV WB-positive representing 11 different genera (Alouatta, Aotus, Ateles, Cacajao, Callithrix, Cebus, Lagothrix, Leontopithecus, Pithecia, Saguinus and Saimiri). Seroprevalences were lower at rescue centers (10/53, 18.9 %) compared to zoos (46/97, 47.4 %) and illegal trade markets (3/7, 8/19, 42.9 %) in Peru. Analyses showed that the trees of NWM hosts and SFVs have remarkably similar topologies at the level of species and sub-populations suggestive of co-speciation. Phylogenetic reconciliation confirmed 12 co-speciation events (p history of SFV in NWMs at the species level. Additional studies are necessary to further explore the epidemiology and natural history of SFV infection of NWMs and to determine the zoonotic potential for persons exposed to infected monkeys in captivity and in the wild.

  11. Enamel microwear texture properties of IGF 11778 (Oreopithecus bambolii) from the late Miocene of Baccinello, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L' Engle Williams, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Late Miocene Oreopithecus bambolii has been posited as a folivore from its pronounced molar shearing crests. However, scanning electron microscopy yields conflicting results with one study of Oreopithecus showing folivory and another indicating a coarser diet was consumed. To address this debate, the dietary proclivities of the well-known IGF 11778 Oreopithecus bambolii specimen are reconstructed by comparing the enamel texture properties of this specimen to extant Alouatta palliata (n = 11), Cebus apella (n = 13), Gorilla gorilla (n = 9), Lophocebus albigena (n = 15), Pan troglodytes (n = 17) and Trachypithecus cristatus (n = 12). Dental microwear is captured by scanning facet 9, a Phase II facet on the hypoconid surface, using white-light confocal microscopy at 100x. The scanning was followed by scale-sensitive fractal analysis, yielding four texture characteristics. These were ranked before ANOVA with post-hoc tests of significance and multivariate analyses were conducted. Oreopithecus specimen IGF 11778 does not match any of the extant taxa consistently but in some analyses is associated with Lophocebus, and secondarily with Pan, Gorilla and Cebus outliers suggesting mixed-fruit and hard-object feeding characterized at least a portion of its diet. The partially open habitat of late Miocene Baccinello may have had resources with mechanically resistant foods, or foods found near ground level were consumed. Hard, brittle foods, insects, and or extraneous grit may have contributed to the greater use-wear complexity of the enamel surface observed in IGF 11778 compared to extant folivores. IGF 11778 does not exhibit the degree of anisotropy characterizing Trachypithecus and Alouatta. The partial resemblance of IGF 11778 to some great ape specimens may indicate intermittent extractive and or terrestrial foraging.

  12. Genetic diversity of oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from patients with different clinical conditions Diversidade genética de Fusobacterium nucleatum orais isolados de pacientes com diferentes condições clínicas

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    Mario J. Avila-Campos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 23 oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from 15 periodontal patients, eight from seven healthy subjects, nine from nine AIDS patients and two from two Cebus apella monkeys were analyzed. EcoRI restricted the bacterial DNA and 28 ribotypes grouped from A to J groups were obtained. Isolates formed 24 ribotypes which were contained into A, B, C, D, E and F groups, and three reference strains and two clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans, and E. coli CDC formed four different ribotypes into the G, H, I and J groups. Moreover, from nine F. nucleatum from AIDS patients, six were ribotyped as group C and three as group D. By using ribotyping we distinguished F. nucleatum recovered from different sources. It is possible that isolates from AIDS patients may contain some phenotypic or genotypic factor did not observed in this study.Neste estudo foi avaliada a diversidade genética de 23 amostras de Fusobacterium nucleatum isoladas da cavidade bucal de 15 pacientes com doença periodontal, de oito cepas isoladas de sete indivíduos sadios, de nove isoladas de nove pacientes com AIDS e de duas isoladas de dois macacos Cebus apella. Pela ação da enzima EcoRI sobre o DNA bacteriano foram reconhecidos 28 ribotipos agrupados de A a J. Os isolados testados formaram 24 ribotipos os quais foram contidos nos grupos A, B, C, D, E e F, e as três cepas de referência e dois isolados clínicos de A. actinomycetemcomitans e E. coli CDC formaram quatro diferentes ribotipos contidos nos grupos G, H, I e J. Em adição, as nove cepas de F. nucleatum isoladas de pacientes com AIDS, seis pertenciam ao grupo C e três ao grupo D. Usando-se a ribotipagem foi possível distinguir F. nucleatum isolados de diferentes origens.

  13. Caracterización del cariotipo del mono aullador colorado Alouatta seniculus que habita en Colombia

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    Torres Olga María

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos cariotipos con bandas Q, G, R Y C del mono aullador colorado de Colombia, con base en el análisis de los cariotipos de 12 ejemplares cautivos y la reevaluación de los cariotipos de bandas Q de un macho y de una hembra publicados (Yunis et al. 1976. Reinterpretamos el mecanismo cromosómico de determinación del sexo y la morfología del cromosoma X de Alouatta seniculus seniculus. Los resultados indican que el cromosoma X es un metacéntrico de tamaño medio (4.85 % TCL similar al cromosoma X de otros primates de los géneros Cebus, Aotus y Ateles estudiados hasta la fecha, así como al cromosoma X humano. Además, los machos portan una translocación entre el cromosoma Y y el autosoma 3, demostrando un mecanismo cromosómico de  determinación del sexo XIXI X2X2 IXIX2 YIY2, diferente del convencional XX I XV. Todos los animales estudiados presentaron un número diploide de 44.This paper presents Q- G- R- and C-bands karyotypes ofred howler from Colombia, based on analyses of karyotypes oftwelve caught specimens besides a female and a male Q banding karyotypes (Yunis et al. 1976 reevaluated. We reappraisal X chromosome morphology and sex determination chromosome mechanism of Alouatta seniculus seniculus. This work shows X chromosome is a nearly metacentric médium sized chromosome (4.85 %TCL, similar to other primates X chromosome from Cebus, Aotus and Ateles genus up to now studied, as well as human X chromosome. Further in males, Y chromosome undergone a translocation onto autosome 3, named X1X2Y1Y2• Al! specimens studied shows 44 chromosomes diploid number.

  14. The Effect of Human Development on Mammal Populations of the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica

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    Michael Van Hulle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of human development on six diurnal mammal species was studied using transects in the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas, Costa Rica during the dry season months of March and April 2006. Individuals/km was recorded for each species in more developed (MD (near paved roads, buildings, construction, or deforested trees and less developed areas (LD (secondary forest. The white-faced apuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus (n = 233, coatimundi (Nasua narica (n = 46, and Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi (n = 36 demonstrated a preference for less-developed habitats. The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus (n = 4, tamandua (Tamandua mexicana (n = 2 and variegated squirrel (Sciurus variegatoides (n = 5 were observed infrequently. White-faced monkeys avoided construction areas, but received artificial food daily in developed areas. Coatimundis also received artificial foods daily and showed aggression towards guests. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 441-449. Epub 2009 June 30.Se estudiaron seis especies de mamíferos mediante transectos durante la estación seca tardía (marzo y abril de 1996 en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre de Punta Leona, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Se registró la cantidad de animales por km en lugares con mucho efecto humano (cerca del caminos pavimentados, edificios, construcción, y deforestación y lugares con menos efecto. El mono carablanca (Cebus capucinus (n = 233, el pizote (Nasua narica (n = 46, y el mono araña centroamericano (Ateles geoffroyi (n = 36 prefirieron lugares con menos efecto. Se observó pocos armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus (n = 4, osos hormigueros (Tamandua mexicana (n = 2, y ardillas (Sciurus variegatoides (n = 5. Los monos carablancas y pizotes aceptan alimentos artificiales y los pizotes fueron agresivos con los turistas. Los carablancas evitan los lugares con construcciones y los caminos pavimentados.

  15. Alimentación de mamíferos de caza en los «aguajales» de la Reserva Nacional de Pacaya-Samiria (Iquitos, Perú

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    Rolando Aquino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo contiene información relacionada a los mamíferos de caza que habitan los aguajales de los bosques inundables de la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria y su interrelación con las plantas alimenticias. Está basado en censos por transectos en aguajales de origen reciente y aguajales semi-eutrofizados. Fueron registrados 24 especies de mamíferos de caza haciendo uso de los aguajales; de ellas, los primates fueron los más representativos y de mayor abundancia en ambos tipos de aguajales. Entre los primates, el fraile (Saimiri boliviensis E. Geoffroy & R. de Blainville y el machín negro (Cebus apella Linnaeus fueron los más abundantes en aguajales de origen reciente (350 individuos/km2 y 90 individuos/km2 , respectivamente, mientras que el machín blanco (Cebus albifrons Humboldt fue el más abundante en aguajales semi-eutrofizados (90 individos/ km2 . En términos de biomasa, los ungulados tuvieron la mayor biomasa y estuvieron representados por el pecarí labiado (Tayassu pecari Link con 825 kg/km2 y el tapir (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus con 126,6 kg/km2 . Finalmente, en los aguajales fueron registradas 16 especies de plantas alimenticias, la mayoría habitando en los aguajales semi-eutrofizados; de ellas, el aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L.f., la shapaja (Scheelea cephalotes Poepp. Ex Mart y los renacos (Ficus spp., constituyeron los recursos alimenticios más importantes, de cuyos frutos y semillas se alimentaron alrededor de 14 especies de mamíferos de caza.

  16. Primate community of the tropical rain forests of Saracá-Taqüera National Forest, Pará, Brazil

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    LC. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Brazil is the richest country in the world in terms of primate species and the Amazonian rain forest is one of the richest biomes containing 15 (ca. 90% of the Neotropical primate genera. Although considered key elements in conservation strategies, there is only anecdotal information on primates for several protected areas within the region. Here we present new data on the community composition of the primates in the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest (429,600 ha, an actively mined, bauxite rich area, in Pará, Brazil. We used information from the literature, technical reports, museum data, and interviews conducted with agents from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Natural Renewable Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA and members of the local "Quilombo" community. In addition, from July 2003 to June 2007, we carried out 19 field trips ranging from 10 to15 days each, amounting to a total effort of 1,230 hours and 1,420 km of censuses, resulting in 1,034 records of eight primate species (Saguinus martinsi, Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Pithecia pithecia, Chiropotes sagulatus, Ateles paniscus, and Alouatta macconelli. Two other species (Cebus olivaceus and Aotus trivirgatus were recorded only indirectly, through interviews and literature data. In all, Alouatta macconelli was the most frequently recorded species (43% of all records; while Saguinus midas and P. pithecia were the least (ca. 0.4 and 0.6% of all records. Based on our results, we discuss group sizes as well as taxonomic problems concerning the genera Pithecia and Chiropotes, for which we registered individuals displaying phenotypic geographical variation and two different forms, respectively. Despite the deforestation inherent in bauxite mining, the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest still has a remarkable richness of primate species. Our study results place this National Forest amongst the richest

  17. Responses to the Assurance game in monkeys, apes, and humans using equivalent procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Parrish, Audrey; Beran, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    There is great interest in the evolution of economic behavior. In typical studies, species are asked to play one of a series of economic games, derived from game theory, and their responses are compared. The advantage of this approach is the relative level of consistency and control that emerges...... from the games themselves; however, in the typical experiment, procedures and conditions differ widely, particularly between humans and other species. Thus, in the current study, we investigated how three primate species, capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees, and humans, played the Assurance (or Stag Hunt......) game using procedures that were, to the best of our ability, the same across species, particularly with respect to training and pretesting. Our goal was to determine what, if any, differences existed in the ways in which these species made decisions in this game. We hypothesized differences along...

  18. Abstract Knowledge in the Broken-String Problem: Evidence from Nonhuman Primates and Pre-Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Carolina; Call, Josep; Albiach-Serrano, Anna; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Sabbatini, Gloria; Seed, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    There is still large controversy about whether abstract knowledge of physical problems is uniquely human. We presented 9 capuchin monkeys, 6 bonobos, 6 chimpanzees and 48 children with two versions of a broken-string problem. In the standard condition, participants had to choose between an intact and a broken string as means to a reward. In the critical condition, the functional parts of the strings were covered up and replaced by perceptually similar, but non-functional cues. Apes, monkeys and young children performed significantly better in the standard condition in which the cues played a functional role, indicating knowledge of the functional properties involved. Moreover, a control experiment with chimpanzees and young children ruled out that this difference in performance could be accounted for by differences of perceptual feedback in the two conditions. We suggest that, similar to humans, nonhuman primates partly rely on abstract concepts in physical problem-solving. PMID:25272161

  19. Sensorimotor gating impairments induced by MK-801 treatment may be reduced by tolerance effect and by familiarization in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletti, Patricia G.; Maior, Rafael S.; Hori, Etsuro; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Dizocilpine (MK-801) is a non-competitive NMDA antagonist that induces schizophreniclike effects. It is therefore widely used in experimental models of schizophrenia including prepulse inhibition (PPI) impairments in rodents. Nevertheless, MK-801 has never been tested in monkeys on a PPI paradigm. In order to evaluate MK-801 effects on monkeys’ PPI, we tested eight capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) using three different doses of MK-801 (0.01; 0.02; 0.03 mg/kg). Results show PPI impairment in acute administration of the highest dose (0.03 mg/kg). PPI impairment induced by MK-801 was reversed by re-exposure to the PPI test throughout treatment trials, in contrast with rodent studies. These results indicate that tolerance effect and familiarization with PPI test may reduce the sensorimotor gating deficits induced by MK-801 in monkeys, suggesting a drug-training interaction. PMID:26441660

  20. Impact of chronodisruption during primate pregnancy on the maternal and newborn temperature rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Serón-Ferré

    Full Text Available Disruption of the maternal environment during pregnancy is a key contributor to offspring diseases that develop in adult life. To explore the impact of chronodisruption during pregnancy in primates, we exposed pregnant capuchin monkeys to constant light (eliminating the maternal melatonin rhythm from the last third of gestation to term. Maternal temperature and activity circadian rhythms were assessed as well as the newborn temperature rhythm. Additionally we studied the effect of daily maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy on these rhythms. Ten pregnant capuchin monkeys were exposed to constant light from 60% of gestation to term. Five received a daily oral dose of melatonin (250 µg kg/body weight at 1800 h (LL+Mel and the other five a placebo (LL. Six additional pregnant females were maintained in a 14∶10 light:dark cycles and their newborns were used as controls (LD. Rhythms were recorded 96 h before delivery in the mother and at 4-6 days of age in the newborn. Exposure to constant light had no effect on the maternal body temperature rhythm however it delayed the acrophase of the activity rhythm. Neither rhythm was affected by melatonin replacement. In contrast, maternal exposure to constant light affected the newborn body temperature rhythm. This rhythm was entrained in control newborns whereas LL newborns showed a random distribution of the acrophases over 24-h. In addition, mean temperature was decreased (34.0±0.6 vs 36.1±0.2°C, in LL and control, respectively P<0.05. Maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy re-synchronized the acrophases and restored mean temperature to the values in control newborns. Our findings demonstrate that prenatal melatonin is a Zeitgeber for the newborn temperature rhythm and supports normal body temperature maintenance. Altogether these prenatal melatonin effects highlight the physiological importance of the maternal melatonin rhythm during pregnancy for the newborn primate.

  1. Dynamic computed tomography for the diagnosis of microadenoma, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Toshiaki; Andou, Kazuo; Ito, Jusuke; Kuroki, Sumio; Yokoyama, Motoharu; Tanaka, Ryuichi.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic computed tomography was used to study 19 patients with hormone-secreting microadenomas: 10 prolactin-secreting, 5 growth-hormone-secreting, and 4 adrenocorticotropic-hormone-secreting. A distorted and displaced tuft indicates a mass effect mainly on the opposite side. A mid-situated tuft with a disproportionately small size compared with the size of the anterior lobe indicates a mass effect mainly in the midportion. An area into which a high density at the tuft definitely spreads indicates a normal anterior lobe; an area in which less increase in the density than in the former area is observed indicates an abnormal mass. In the time-density curve, the former area represents the vascular pattern or the hypervascular extravasation pattern, while the latter area represents the extravasation of the contrast material in a hypovascular tissue. Only eight microadenomas appeared as a less enhanced mass. The rest of the cases exhibited adenomas isodense to the normal pituitary gland. A dynamic CT scan was particularly useful in the diagnosis of isodense adenomas. In these isodense adenomas, the dynamic CT scan facilitated the identification of an adenoma as a relatively less enhanced area than the normal gland. The extent of a normal pituitary gland could also be identified by means of dynamic CT. In three of the 11 isodense microadenomas, the conventional diagnostic criteria, such as infundibulum displacement, abnormal height and upward convexity of a pituitary-microadenoma complex, and changes in the sellar floor, were not encountered. A dynamic CT scan, however, enabled us to diagnose the localization of microadenomas in two of these three cases. In 18 of the 19 microadenomas, dynamic CT findings as to the localization of a microadenoma and the normal pituitary gland correlated well with the surgical findings. (J.P.N.)

  2. Dynamic computed tomography for the diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Toshiaki

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dynamic CT findings on the normal pituitary gland. Dynamic CT scan was studied in 20 normal pituitary glands. In the anterior lobe, initially the secondary capillary bed ('tuft' by Bonneville) appeared as a high density area located in the midline, beneath the upper surface of the anterior lobe. Subsequently the high density area, located in the secondary capillary bed, spreaded centrifugally into the anterior lobe. Finally, the entire anterior lobe became a homogeneously high density area. Three patterns of the time-density curve were observed in the anterior lobe. Type 1, observed in the midline, beneath the upper surface of the anterior lobe, was a vascular pattern. It corresponded to the tuft topographically. Compared with the other venous system, the peak of the type 1 somewhat delayed. It is considered due to a slower circulation in the hypophyseal portal system. Type 2, observed just below the tuft, represented the extravasation of contrast material in a highly vascular tissue (hypervascular extravasation pattern). Type 3, observed at the bottom of the anterior lobe, represented the extravasation of contrast material in a less vascular tissue (oligovascular extravasation pattern). The posterior lobe appeared as a high density area, in the midline, close to the dorsum sellae. The time-density curve of the posterior lobe had the vascular pattern with the peak time which coincides with arterial one. The ordinary artery-capillary-venouse circulatory system and the blood-brain-barrier in the posterior lobe well explain these facts. (author)

  3. Impact of carpet construction on fluid penetration: The case of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengcheng; Michielsen, Stephen; Attinger, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Bloodstains and bloodstain patterns are often observed at crime scenes and their analysis through bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) can assist in reconstructing crime scenes. However, most published work related to BPA only deals with hard, non-porous surfaces and none of the studies have carefully characterized carpets. Soft and porous carpets are often encountered at crime scenes since they are common in American homes accounting for 51% of total U.S. flooring market; this has motivated the research described herein. To assess fluid penetration into tufted carpers, a new method for determining porosity and pore size distribution in tufted carpets has been developed for bloodstains on carpet. In this study, three kinds of nylon carpet were used: a low, a medium and a high face-weight carpet. Each carpet had an antistain treatment, which was removed from half of each carpet by steam-cleaning with a pH 12 NaOH solution. This resulted in six carpet samples. Yarn twist, carpet weight, pile height, water contact angles on carpets, water contact angles on individual fibers, and fiber cross-sectional shapes were characterized. Porosity and pore size distribution were analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Porcine blood was used as a human blood substitute at three liquid volumes (30μL, 10μL, and 2μL). Analysis showed that porous carpet construction and antistain finishing both affected penetration. The depth of blood penetration decreased with the increase of carpet face-weight but increased with increased drop height. The removal of antistain treatment increased blood penetration into the carpets and changed the pore size distribution. Effects of antistain treatment, porosity and pore size distribution of tufted carpet, and blood wicking behaviors on carpets were found to strongly affect blood penetration into the carpets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Catalogue of tooth brush head designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Marsha A; Bayne, Stephen C; Liu, Ying; Walker, Mary P

    2013-06-01

    Manual toothbrushes (MTBs) and power toothbrushes (PTBs) are effective oral physiotherapy aids for plaque removal. End-rounded bristles are safer and reduce damage to oral tissues. Nylon bristles are more effective in plaque removal because the bristle is stiffer than natural bristles. In the last 10 years the number of options for MTBs and PTBs has expanded significantly and there is very little information providing a reference frame for the design characteristics of the heads. The present in vitro study characterized a variety of MTB and PTB heads to provide a reference library for other research comparisons which might be made. Various commercial MTB and PTB heads were used to characterize the following: bristle size, shape, diameter, number of tufts, number of bristles per tuft and surface characteristics. Photographs were collected from the side, at 45 degrees and the top of each toothbrush (TB) head using a scanning electron microscope and digital camera. Images were analyzed (Soft Imaging System) for bristle features and designs. One-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05) was performed to detect differences among TB types within MTB and PTB groups and between pooled values for MTB and PTB groups. There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in toothbrush bristle diameter and bristle shape. In contrast, there were no significant differences between PTB vs. MTB in regards to bristle diameter, bristle count and tuft count. The results suggest that although there are wide variations in toothbrush head designs, significant differences were found only in relation to bristle diameter and shape.

  5. Location of rRNA transcription to the nucleolar components: disappearance of the fibrillar centers in nucleoli of regenerating rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Lorenzo; Govoni, Marzia; Orrico, Catia; Treré, Davide; Derenzini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The precise location of rDNA transcription to the components of mammalian cell nucleolus is still debated. This was due to the fact that all the molecules necessary for rRNA synthesis are located in two of the three components, the fibrillar centers (FCs) and the dense fibrillar component (DFC), which together with the granular component (GC) are considered to be constantly present in mammalian cell nucleoli. In the present study we demonstrated that in nucleoli of many regenerating rat hepatocytes at 15 h after partial hepatectomy the FCs were no longer present, only the DFC and the GC being detected. At this time of regeneration the rRNA transcriptional activity was three fold that of resting hepatocytes, while the synthesis of DNA was not yet significantly increased, indicating that these nucleolar changes were due to the rRNA synthesis up-regulation. The DFC appeared to be organized in numerous, small, roundish tufts of fibrils. The silver staining procedure for AgNOR proteins, which are associated with the ribosomal genes, selectively and homogeneously stained these fibrillar tufts. Immuno-gold visualization of the Upstream Binding Factor (UBF), which is associated with the promoter region and the transcribed portion of the rRNA 45S gene, demonstrated that UBF was selectively located in the fibrillar tufts. We concluded that in proliferating rat hepatocytes the increased synthesis of rRNA induced an activation of the rRNA transcription machinery located in the fibrillar centers which, by becoming associated with the ribonucleoprotein transcripts, assumed the morphological pattern of the DFC.

  6. The Regenerative Potential of Parietal Epithelial Cells in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman’s capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glomerular hypertrophy was induced by progressive partial nephrectomies. Again, no significant podocyte replenishment was observed. Rather, labeled PECs exclusively invaded segments of the tuft affected by glomerulosclerosis, consistent with our previous findings. We next reassessed PEC recruitment in juvenile mice using a different reporter mouse and confirmed significant recruitment of labeled PECs onto the glomerular tuft. Moreover, some labeled cells on Bowman’s capsule expressed podocyte markers, and cells on Bowman’s capsule were also directly labeled in juvenile podocyte-specific Pod-rtTA transgenic mice. In 6-week-old mice, however, cells on Bowman’s capsule no longer expressed podocyte-specific markers. Similarly, in human kidneys, some cells on Bowman’s capsule expressed the podocyte marker synaptopodin from 2 weeks to 2 years of age but not at 7 years of age. In summary, podocyte regeneration from PECs could not be detected in aging mice or models of glomerular hypertrophy. We propose that a small fraction of committed podocytes reside on Bowman’s capsule close to the vascular stalk and are recruited onto the glomerular tuft during infancy to adolescence in mice and humans. PMID:24408873

  7. Letna Dinamika Pojavljanja Vodnih Ptic Na Reki Dravi Med Mariborskim Jezerom In Jezom Melje (Sv Slovenija / Yearly dynamics of waterbirds’ occurrence on the Drava River between Lake Maribor and Melje Dam (NE Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logar Katja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Between April 2007 and April 2008, 40 systematic waterbird counts were conducted on the Drava River between Lake Maribor and the Melje Dam (length 8.5 km, area 155 ha to determine the specific composition, abundance and seasonal dynamics of bird occurrence. Between October and May, counts were conducted every week, whereas between June and September they were carried out once every two weeks. In total, 26,803 individuals of 30 species were counted. The number of waterbirds and diversity of species were the highest from late December to late February, when more than 1,000 individuals were regularly present in the area. Waterbirds were distributed along the river unequally, with the highest number of birds present yearround in the city centre and in the first counting sector of Lake Maribor. The Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Mute Swan Cygnus olor were recorded during every count, while occurrence frequency was greater than 50% in another 10 species. Dominant species in terms of percentage composition were Mallard, Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Coot Fulica atra, Mute Swan, Pochard Aythya ferina and Tufted Duck Ay. fuligula. Mute Swan and Mallard were the only breeding waterbirds in the study area. Both the total number of waterbirds and the highest daily total in the first two counting sectors were greater between October and March 1992/93 than in our study. The decline in numbers was the greatest for Mallard, Pochard and Tufted Duck, while an increase was noted in Mute Swan and Yellow-legged / Caspian Gull Larus michahellis / cachinnans. The total number of waterbirds and the number of some species in the study area were significantly higher than expected solely based on its length compared to the length of the lowland Drava in Slovenia (125.7 km. The study area is conservationally important for Pochard, Tufted Duck and Black-headed Gull

  8. Steady-state dynamics and experience-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines of layer 4/5a pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Miquelajauregui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steady state dynamics and experience-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines of layer (L 2/3 and L5B cortical pyramidal neurons have recently been assessed using in vivo two-photon microscopy (Trachtenberg et al., 2002; Zuo et al., 2005; Holtmaat et al., 2006. In contrast, not much is known about spine dynamics in L4/5a neurons, regarded as direct recipients of thalamocortical input (Constantinople and Bruno, 2013. In the adult mouse somatosensory cortex (SCx, the transcription factor Ebf2 is enriched in excitatory neurons of L4/5a, including pyramidal neurons. We assessed the molecular and electrophysiological properties of these neurons as well as the morphology of their apical tufts (Scholl analysis and cortical outputs (optogenetics within the SCx. To test the hypothesis that L4/5a pyramidal neurons play an important role in sensory processing (given their key laminar position; soma depth ~450-480 µm, we successfully labeled them in Ebf2-Cre mice with EGFP by expressing recombinant rAAV vectors in utero. Using longitudinal in vivo two-photon microscopy through a craniotomy (Mostany and Portera-Cailliau, 2008, we repeatedly imaged spines in apical dendritic tufts of L4/5a neurons under basal conditions and after sensory deprivation. Under steady-state conditions in adults, the morphology of the apical tufts and the mean spine density were stable at 0.39 ± 0.05 spines/μm (comparable to L5B, Mostany et al., 2011. Interestingly, spine elimination increases 4-8 days after sensory deprivation, probably due to input loss. This suggests that Ebf2+ L4/5a neurons could be involved in early steps of processing of thalamocortical information.

  9. Contribution of glomerular morphometry to the diagnosis of pediatric nephropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barreto Marini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies describe histopathological changes in renal biopsies performed in pediatric patients. This study was conducted to identify an association between morphometric data in renal biopsies and renal function of these patients. Fifty-nine individuals with ages between 2 and 18 years old were selected, who were divided into six groups consisting of frequent nephropathies in children and adolescents and one control group. Proteinuria, urea, and creatinine values of the patients were recorded. Interactive image analysis software Leica QWin[®]was used for morpho- metric analysis of Bowman′s capsule, glomerular capillary tuft, and Bowman′s space area. The mean glomerular tuft area was higher in the membranous glomerulopathy group than in the podo- cytopathy group (57,101 ± 25,094 vs. 27,420 c ± 6279 µm2; P <0.05. The median of Bowman′s space area was higher in the control group than in the podocytopathy group and in the thin basement membrane/Alport syndrome group [12,210 (7676-26,945 vs. 5801 (3031-7852 µm2; P <0.01 and 12210 (7676-26,945 vs. 4183 (3797-7992 µm2; P <0.01, respectively]. There was a positive and significant correlation between Bowman′s capsule area and the levels of proteinuria, creatinine, and urea of the patients, as well as between the glomerular tuft area and the levels of proteinuria, creatinine, and urea in the patients, regardless of their nephropathy. Glomerular morphometry may contribute to the diagnosis of some glomerulopathies and the association between glomerular morphometric parameters, and laboratory data may promote a better understanding of the prognosis of these patients.

  10. Podocyte and Parietal Epithelial Cell Interactions in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hussain, Turki; Al Mana, Hadeel; Hussein, Maged H; Akhtar, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The glomerulus has 3 resident cells namely mesangial cells that produce the mesangial matrix, endothelial cells that line the glomerular capillaries, and podocytes that cover the outer surface of the glomerular basement membrane. Parietal epithelial cells (PrECs), which line the Bowman's capsule are not part of the glomerular tuft but may have an important role in the normal function of the glomerulus. A significant progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of the role and function of these cells in normal kidney and in kidneys with various types of glomerulopathy. In crescentic glomerulonephritis necrotizing injury of the glomerular tuft results in activation and leakage of fibrinogen which provides the trigger for excessive proliferation of PrECs giving rise to glomerular crescents. In cases of collapsing glomerulopathy, podocyte injury causes collapse of the glomerular capillaries and activation and proliferation of PrECs, which accumulate within the urinary space in the form of pseudocrescents. Many of the noninflammatory glomerular lesions such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and global glomerulosclerosis also result from podocyte injury which causes variable loss of podocytes. In these cases podocyte injury leads to activation of PrECs that extend on to the glomerular tuft where they cause segmental and/or global sclerosis by producing excess matrix, resulting in obliteration of the capillary lumina. In diabetic nephropathy, in addition to increased matrix production in the mesangium and glomerular basement membranes, increased loss of podocytes is an important determinant of long-term prognosis. Contrary to prior belief there is no convincing evidence for an active podocyte proliferation in any of the above mentioned glomerulopathies.

  11. ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert S. Weber

    1999-01-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO(sub 2)-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO(sub 2)-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing

  12. Acute radiation nephritis. Light and electron microscopic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, S.; Chandra, R.; Antonovych, T.

    1977-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy were used to observe acute radiation nephritis. By light microscopy the changes were of fibrinoid necrosis of the arteries and arterioles with segmental necrosis of the glomerular tufts. By electron microscopy the endocapillary cells reacted by hypertrophy and hyperplasia with increase in cytoplasmic organelles. In addition, disruption of endothelial and epithelial cells from the basement membranes were seen. It is concluded that the electron microscopic changes were unique and may be helpful in differentiating the necrotizing glomerulitis seen in other conditions, especially malignant hypertension

  13. A summary of alcid records from Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Abstract.-Four species of alcids have now been recorded frorn Hawaii. Two of them, the Tufted Puffin (Fratercula cirrhata and the Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramchus aleuticus) have been found only once; the occurrence of the latter is reported here for the first time. two other alcids, the Horned Puffin (Fratercula arctica) and the Parakeet .Auklet (Cyclorrhynchus psittacula) have been recorded frorn Hawaii in greater numbers; the latter may be of regular occurrence in subtropical waters near the northwestern portion of the Hawaiian archipelago. Occurrence in Hawaii does not appear to be strongly related to size of populations to the north but instead to the extent to which the species are known to disperse.

  14. Para-aortic lymph node radiation in advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emami, B.; Watring, W.G.; Tak, W.; Anderson, B.; Piro, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix and with iliac or para-aortic nodes interpreted as un-equivocally positive on lymphangiography have received radiation therapy to the para-aortic area at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology at Tufts-New England Medical Center Hospital. Of 29 patients who received para-aortic area irradiation as part of their initial treatment, local control was achieved in 18 patients (62%). Overall, four patients developed major complications requiring surgical intervention. Detailed results and our current pre-treatment evaluation policy including lymphangiography, percutaneous needle biopsy and selective extra-peritoneal lymph node biopsy will be discussed

  15. Radiation therapy of malignant melanomas: an evaluation of clinically used fractionation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, A.; Dritschilo, A.; Nathanson, L.; Piro, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the importance of radiation dose fraction size in the treatment of malignant melanomas, the records of 48 patients (83 sites) treated at Tufts-New England Medical Center from 1971 to 1979 have been retrospectively reviewed. During this period, the dose fractionation schemes evolved from standard fraction size to large-dose techniques. Radiation fraction size was observed to be the major factor in the clinical response of melanoma. Fractions of 600-800 rad resulted in the best overall response (80%). The rapid fractionation scheme of 800-400-400 rad on successive days resulted in intermediate response (58%) and may be useful for the palliative treatment of selected patients

  16. Radiological changes of the hands of systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, B.; Serup, J.; Hagdrup, H.

    1983-01-01

    Radiological examination of the hands was performed in 41 patients with systemic sclerosis. Pathological changes were found in 39 patients. Eighteen patients had subcutaneous calcifications and 11 had atrophy of the finger pulps. Bone resorption of ungual tufts was found in 11 patients. Juxta-articular osteoporosis was seen in 9 patients and periarticular bone erosions in 8 patients indicating erosive arthropathy. Osteoarthritis and generalized osteoporosis were seen in 10 and 7 patients, respectively. Radiological examination of the hands is recommended during treatment. (Authors)

  17. ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Weber

    1999-05-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing

  18. An Investigation of Backflow Phenomenon in Centrifugal Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benser, William A; Moses, Jason J

    1945-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation conducted to determine the nature and the extent of the reversal of flow, which occurs at the inlet of centrifugal compressors over a considerable portion of the operating range. Qualitative studies of this flow reversal were made by lampblack patterns taken on a mixed-flow-type impeller and by tuft studies made on a conventional centrifugal compressor. Quantitative studies were made on a compressor specially designed to enable survey of angularity of flow, static and total pressures, and temperatures to be taken very close to the impeller front housing.

  19. Visualization study of flow in axial flow inducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, B.

    1972-01-01

    A visualization study of the flow through a three ft dia model of a four bladed inducer, which is operated in air at a flow coefficient of 0.065, is reported in this paper. The flow near the blade surfaces, inside the rotating passages, downstream and upstream of the inducer is visualized by means of smoke, tufts, ammonia filament, and lampblack techniques. Flow is found to be highly three dimensional, with appreciable radial velocity throughout the entire passage. The secondary flows observed near the hub and annulus walls agree with qualitative predictions obtained from the inviscid secondary flow theory.

  20. [Highly pathogenic avian influenza--monitoring of migratory waterfowl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2006-10-01

    Since 1979, the group belonging to Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary Public Health and the Avian Zoonoses Research Centre, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University is continuing isolation of avian influenza virus from such migratory waterfowls as whistling swan, pintail and tufted dugs flying from Siberia and/or northern China. They have already isolated many interesting influenza viruses. Serotype of the isolates is various; some H5 and H7 and human types of viruses were also isolated; and its pathogenicity for chickens is not high. It was interested that low pathogenic H5N3 virus isolated from whistling swan acquired severe pathogenicity during passage in chicks.

  1. Ancient DNA unravels the truth behind the controversial GUS Greenlandic Norse fur samples: the bison was a horse, and the muskox and beats were goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Mikkel-Holger; Arneborg, Jette; Nyegaard, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The Norse Greenlandic archaeological site known as ‘the Farm Beneath the Sand’ (GUS) has sourced many well-preserved and unique archaeological artefacts. Some of the most controversial finds are tufts of hair, which previous morphological-based examination concluded derive from bison, black bear...... mitochondrial 16S DNA analysis. The results revealed that the putative bison was, in fact horse, while the bears and muskox were goat. The results demonstrate the importance of using genetic analyses to validate results derived from morphological analyses on hair, in particular where such studies lead...

  2. Observations on Dissocladella annulata (Elliott, 1993 nov. comb. (Calcareous algae, Dasycladales from the Cenomanian of west Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoičić Rajka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on material from the type area at Tetrebovo in the Zlatibor massif of WSerbia, the Cenomanian dasycladalean alga originally described as Harlanjohnsonella annulata by ELLIOTT (1968, typified 1993 in: GRANIER & DELOFFRE, is emended and revisited as Dissocladella annulata (ELLIOTT nov. comb. The evidence of tufts of short secondaries arising at the top of the drop-like primaries allows its transfer to the genus Dissocladella PIA, 1936. This species displays a different degree of skeleton calcification which is described in detail. The monospecific genus Harlanjohnsonella ELLIOTT becomes invalid, as being a junior synonym of Dissocladella.

  3. A - a view in the invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow visualization is an important topic in, experimental and computational fluid dynamics and has been the subject of research for many years. This paper presents an overview of flow visualization techniques. The physical basis and applications of different visualization methods for subsonic, transonic and supersonic flow in wind and water tunnels are described: direct injection methods, (smoke, dye, fog and different small particles, gas and hydrogen bubbles, , flow visualization by tufts, oil, liquid crystals, pressure and temperature sensitive paints, shadow, schlieren, interferometry, Laser Doppler Anemometry, Particle Image Velocimetry and other special techniques. Almost all presented photos have been recorded during tests in laboratories of MTI Belgrade.

  4. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreational pack stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David N.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Moore, Peggy E.; McDougald, Neil K.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer's reed grass (Calamagrostis breweri Thurber), and tufted hairgrass [Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv.]. Horses and mules grazed experimental plots at intensities of 15 to 69% utilization for 4 seasons. In all 3 meadows, grazing caused decreases in productivity. The mean reduction after 4 years of grazing was 18% in the shorthair sedge meadow, 17% in the Brewer's reed grass meadow, and 22% in the tufted hairgrass meadow. Grazing also caused shifts in basal groundcover (usually a reduction in vegetation cover and increase in bare soil cover), and changes in species composition. Productivity and vegetation cover decreased as percent utilization increased, while bare soil cover increased as utilization increased. Changes in species composition were less predictably related to differences in grazing intensity. Passive management of grazing is insufficient in wilderness areas that are regularly used by groups with recreational stock. Wilderness managers need to monitor meadow conditions and the grazing intensities that occur. Our study suggests that biomass and ground cover are more sensitive indicators of grazing impact than species composition. Managers must make decisions about maximum acceptable levels of grazing impact and then develop guidelines for maximum use levels, based on data such as ours that relates grazing intensity to meadow response.

  5. Compound effects of aging and experimental FSGS on glomerular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Remington R S; Eng, Diana G; Kutz, J Nathan; Sweetwyne, Mariya T; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Shankland, Stuart J

    2017-02-17

    Advanced age portends a poorer prognosis in FSGS. To understand the impact of age on glomerular podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs), experimental FSGS was induced in 3m-old mice (20-year old human age) and 27m-old mice (78-year old human age) by abruptly depleting podocytes with a cytopathic anti-podocyte antibody. Despite similar binding of the disease-inducing antibody, podocyte density was lower in aged FSGS mice compared to young FSGS mice. Activated PEC density was higher in aged versus young FSGS mice, as was the percentage of total activated PECs. Additionally, the percentage of glomeruli containing PECs with evidence of phosphorylated ERK and EMT was higher in aged FSGS mice. Extracellular matrix, measured by collagen IV and silver staining, was higher in aged FSGS mice along Bowman's capsule. However, collagen IV accumulation in the glomerular tufts alone and in glomeruli with both tuft and Bowman's capsule accumulation were similar in young FSGS and aged FSGS mice. Thus, the major difference in collagen IV staining in FSGS was along Bowman's capsule in aged mice. The significant differences in podocytes, PECs and extracellular matrix accumulation between young mice and old mice with FSGS might explain the differences in outcomes in FSGS based on age.

  6. The New England Space Science Initiative in Education (NESSIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, W. H.; Clemens, C. M.; Sneider, C. I.

    2002-12-01

    Founded in January 2002, NESSIE is the NASA/OSS broker/facilitator for education and public outreach (E/PO) within the six-state New England region. NESSIE is charged with catalyzing and fostering collaborations among space scientists and educators within both the formal and informal education communities. NESSIE itself is a collaboration of scientists and science educators at the Museum of Science, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and Tufts University. Its primary goals are to 1) broker partnerships among space scientists and educators, 2) facilitate a wide range of educational and public outreach activities, and 3) examine and improve space science education methods. NESSIE's unique strengths reside in its prime location (the Museum of Science), its diverse mix of scientists and educators, and its dedicated board of advisors. NESSIE's role as a clearinghouse and facilitator of space science education is being realized through its interactive web site and via targeted meetings, workshops, and conferences involving scientists and educators. Special efforts are being made to reach underserved groups by tailoring programs to their particular educational needs and interests. These efforts are building on the experiences of prior and ongoing programs in space science education at the Museum of Science, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Tufts University, and NASA.

  7. Sequential generation of olfactory bulb glutamatergic neurons by Neurog2-expressing precursor cells

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    Brill Monika S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the diversity and spatio-temporal origin of olfactory bulb (OB GABAergic interneurons has been studied in detail, much less is known about the subtypes of glutamatergic OB interneurons. Results We studied the temporal generation and diversity of Neurog2-positive precursor progeny using an inducible genetic fate mapping approach. We show that all subtypes of glutamatergic neurons derive from Neurog2 positive progenitors during development of the OB. Projection neurons, that is, mitral and tufted cells, are produced at early embryonic stages, while a heterogeneous population of glutamatergic juxtaglomerular neurons are generated at later embryonic as well as at perinatal stages. While most juxtaglomerular neurons express the T-Box protein Tbr2, those generated later also express Tbr1. Based on morphological features, these juxtaglomerular cells can be identified as tufted interneurons and short axon cells, respectively. Finally, targeted electroporation experiments provide evidence that while the majority of OB glutamatergic neurons are generated from intrabulbar progenitors, a small portion of them originate from extrabulbar regions at perinatal ages. Conclusions We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the temporal and spatial generation of OB glutamatergic neurons and identify distinct populations of juxtaglomerular interneurons that differ in their antigenic properties and time of origin.

  8. Everything is connected: social determinants of pediatric health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazi, Carine; Skeer, Margie; Fiscella, Kevin; Dean, Stephanie; Dammann, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Carine Tarazi, MA, is an Assistant Editor for Pediatric Research in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Margie Skeer, ScD, MPH, MSW, served as a Guest Editor for this special issue. Dr. Skeer is Assistant Professor of Public Health and Community Medicine at Tufts University. Her research focuses on adolescent substance misuse and sexual risk prevention, both from epidemiologic and intervention-development perspectives. Kevin Fiscella, MD, MPH, served as a Guest Editor for this special issue. Dr. Fiscella is Tenured Professor of Family Medicine, Public Health Sciences and Community Health at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Dr. Fiscella's research focuses on health and health care disparities, particularly practical strategies to improve health equity. Stephanie Dean, MBA, is Managing Editor of Pediatric Research and is based out of editorial office in The Woodlands, Texas. Olaf Dammann, MD, served as a Guest Editor for this special issue. Dr. Dammann is a Professor of Public Health and Community Medicine, Pediatrics, and Ophthalmology at Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, as well as Professor of Perinatal Neuroepidemiology at Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. His research interests include the elucidation of risk factors for brain damage and retinopathy in preterm newborns, the theory of risk and causation in biomedical and public health research, and the development of computational chronic disease models.

  9. Intraglomerular inhibition shapes the strength and temporal structure of glomerular output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Liu, Shaolin; Shipley, Michael T

    2012-08-01

    Odor signals are transmitted to the olfactory bulb by olfactory nerve (ON) synapses onto mitral/tufted cells (MCs) and external tufted cells (ETCs). ETCs, in turn, provide feedforward excitatory input to MCs. MC and ETCs are also regulated by inhibition: intraglomerular and interglomerular inhibitory circuits act at MC and ETC apical dendrites; granule cells (GCs) inhibit MC lateral dendrites via the MC→GC→MC circuit. We investigated the contribution of intraglomerular inhibition to MC and ETCs responses to ON input. ON input evokes initial excitation followed by early, strongly summating inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in MCs; this is followed by prolonged, intermittent IPSCs. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist dl-amino-5-phosphovaleric acid, known to suppress GABA release by GCs, reduced late IPSCs but had no effect on early IPSCs. In contrast, selective intraglomerular block of GABA(A) receptors eliminated all early IPSCs and caused a 5-fold increase in ON-evoked MC spiking and a 10-fold increase in response duration. ETCs also receive intraglomerular inhibition; blockade of inhibition doubled ETC spike responses. By reducing ETC excitatory drive and directly inhibiting MCs, intraglomerular inhibition is a key factor shaping the strength and temporal structure of MC responses to sensory input. Sensory input generates an intraglomerular excitation-inhibition sequence that limits MC spike output to a brief temporal window. Glomerular circuits may dynamically regulate this input-output window to optimize MC encoding across sniff-sampled inputs.

  10. Parasitisme du safoutier par les Tapinanthus au plateau de Logbessou (Douala, Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mony, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Safou Parasitism by Tapinanthus on Logbessou's plateau (Douala, Cameroon. In Cameroon, parasitism by Loranthaceae is a limiting factor of the safou tree cultivation as well as the perishable nature of the fruit which reduces the shelf life. Inventories were carried out in the home gardens of Logbessou's plateau in Douala. All the safou trees likely to produce and located within a perimeter of 200 m x 25 m from the center to the periphery of the plateau were observed and characterized by the circumference of the trunk, the number of tufts of Loranthaceae present on the tree and the taxon of the parasite. Safou trees are primarily parasitized by two species of Tapinanthus. Parasitism rate (34% varied significantly between center and periphery of the plateau. The average number of tufts of Tapinanthus by tree was also significantly different according to the location of the trees and between the two species of Tapinanthus. It is important to investigate the age at which pests significantly affect Safou yields in order to be able to propose adequate control methods when the farmers want to limit the parasitism of this species.

  11. Augmentation of transfer of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in mice by irradiation of recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.V.; Kyriakos, M.; Sharp, G.C.; Braley-Mullen, H.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) can be adoptively transferred to normal syngeneic recipients using spleen cells from susceptible strains of mice primed in vivo with mouse thyroglobulin (MTg) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following in vitro activation of spleen cells by culture with MTg. Irradiation of recipient animals markedly augments the severity of thyroiditis induced in this system. Irradiation of recipients does not alter the time course of the development of thyroiditis, nor does it alter the requirement for both in vivo priming and in vitro activation of spleen cells for the development of EAT. Spleen cells from EAT-resistant strains of mice (e.g., Balb/c) do not induce EAT in irradiated recipients. Irradiated recipients develop significant levels of anti-MTg antibodies while unirradiated recipients have little detectable antibody response. The augmenting effect of irradiation can be substantially reversed by transferring naive spleen cells to recipients prior to the transfer of MTg/LPS-primed in vitro-activated spleen cells. In addition athymic CBA/Tufts nude mice develop more severe EAT than CBA/Tufts nude/+ littermates following transfer of activated CBA/J spleen cells. These data suggest that natural suppressor cells may regulate the development of EAT at the effector cell level

  12. A direct contact between astrocyte and vitreous body is possible in the rabbit eye due to discontinuities in the basement membrane of the retinal inner limiting membrane

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    A. Haddad

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Different from most mammalian species, the optic nerve of the rabbit eye is initially formed inside the retina where myelination of the axons of the ganglion cells starts and vascularization occurs. Astrocytes are confined to these regions. The aforementioned nerve fibers known as medullated nerve fibers form two bundles that may be identified with the naked eye. The blood vessels run on the inner surface of these nerve fiber bundles (epivascularization and, accordingly, the accompanying astrocytes lie mostly facing the vitreous body from which they are separated only by the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The arrangement of the astrocytes around blood vessels leads to the formation of structures known as glial tufts. Fragments (N = 3 or whole pieces (N = 3 of the medullated nerve fiber region of three-month-old male rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus were fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, and their thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Randomly located discontinuities (up to a few micrometers long of the basement membrane of the inner limiting membrane of the retina were observed in the glial tufts. As a consequence, a direct contact between the astrocyte plasma membrane and vitreous elements was demonstrated, making possible functional interactions such as macromolecular exchanges between this glial cell type and the components of the vitreous body.

  13. Pharmacogenetic guidance: individualized medicine promotes enhanced pain outcomes

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    Dragic LL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lisa Lynn Dragic,1 Erica L Wegrzyn,2 Michael E Schatman,3–5 Jeffrey Fudin2,6 1Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy, Albany Stratton VA Medical Center, Albany, NY, USA; 3Research and Network Development, Boston Pain Care, Waltham, MA, USA; 4Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 5Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 6Scientific and Clinical Affairs, Remitigate, LLC, Delmar, NY, USA Abstract: The use of pharmacogenomics has become more prevalent over the past several years in treating many disease states. Several cytochrome P450 enzymes play a role in the metabolism of many pain medications including opioids and antidepressants. Noncytochrome P450 enzymes such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT also play a role in the explanation of opioid dosage requirements as well as in response to certain antidepressants. We present the case of a patient with reduced COMT and MTHFR expression treated with leucovorin 10 mg daily for the management of chronic pain. The use of leucovorin in this patient decreased pain scores, which were clinically significant and increased functionality. This case demonstrates the importance of pharmacogenetics testing in patients, as this can help direct providers to better therapeutic options for their patients. Keywords: pharmacogenetic, depression, pain, MTHFR, COMT, methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase, catechol-O-methyltransferase

  14. Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

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    Beom Jin Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS. FSGS may also be caused by genetic alterations. These genes are mainly those regulating slit diaphragm structure, actin cytoskeleton of podocytes, and foot process structure. The mode of inheritance and age of onset are different according to the gene involved. Recently, the role of parietal epithelial cells (PECs has been highlighted. Podocytes and PECs have common mesenchymal progenitors, therefore, PECs could be a source of podocyte repopulation after podocyte injury. Activated PECs migrate along adhesion to the glomerular tuft and may also contribute to the progression of sclerosis. Markers of activated PECs, including CD44, could be used to distinguish FSGS from minimal change disease. The pathogenesis of FSGS is very complex; however, understanding basic mechanisms of podocyte injury is important not only for basic research, but also for daily diagnostic pathology practice.

  15. The Japanese alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) on the South Atlantic Ocean: first report of an invasive macroalga inhabiting oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M. Emilia; Parodi, Elisa R.

    2014-06-01

    Conspicuous tufts of the filamentous algae Polysiphonia Greville inhabit the reefs of Crassostrea gigas on the Atlantic Patagonian coast. The population was recorded for the first time in 1994 and identified as P. argentinica. This study exhaustively investigated the morphology and reproduction of specimens and the seasonality of the population. The results revealed the identity of the specimens as the invasive Japanese macroalga Polysiphonia morrowii Harvey, on the basis of several striking features: the setaceous and tufted thalli, the corymbose growing apices, the endogenous axillary branches, the urceolate cystocarps and the sharply pointed branches. Sexual reproduction was evidenced; however, fertile male gametophytes were absent in the samples. The population was found almost all year round, but its abundance became higher in autumn and winter. The present study constitutes the first record of this invasive macroalga on the South Atlantic Ocean; the fourth record of an exotic macroalgal species on the Atlantic Patagonian coast; and the first record of an invasive species related to the establishment of C. gigas in Atlantic Patagonia.

  16. Flow visualization through metal enclosures with neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimbala, J.M.; Sathianathan, D.; Cosgrove, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Many practical fluid flow problems involve flow inside metal shrouds (valves, combustors, boilers, turbomachinery, etc.) where visual access is not available. For flows under extreme pressure or heat, glass or transparent plastic can not be used; a flow visualization technique which permits visualization through metal containers is needed in these cases. Since neutrons can penetrate metal casings, neutron radiography has been developed for application to fluid flow visualization. This technique involves imaging of neutron opaque tracer materials, such as solid or fluid particles or streaklines, as they convect in neutron transparent ambient fluids. Surface flow visualization is also possible by using neutron opaque tufts. An extension of the surface tuft technique has also been developed, enabling the visualization of flow a patterns away from solid surfaces. This paper presents a summary of the various flow visualization techniques developed in the authors' laboratory, along with examples which illustrate how these techniques may be applied to practical fluid flow problems. These include flow over a circular cylinder, the recirculation pattern formed by a jet exhausting into a tank, and the flow pattern inside a rotating automotive torque converter

  17. Enamel ultrastructure of fossil and modern pinnipeds: evaluating hypotheses of feeding adaptations in the extinct walrus Pelagiarctos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Carolina; Boessenecker, Robert W.; Churchill, Morgan; Kieser, Jules

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the enamel ultrastructure in modern otariid pinnipeds and in the extinct walrus Pelagiarctos. Teeth of the New Zealand fur seal ( Arctocephalus forsteri), sea lion ( Phocarctos hookeri), and fossil walrus Pelagiarctos thomasi were embedded, sectioned, etched, and analyzed via scanning electron microscopy. The enamel of NZ otariids and Pelagiarctos was prismatic and moderately thick, measuring 150-450 μm on average. It consisted of transversely oriented Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs) from the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to near the outer surface, where it faded into prismless enamel less than 10 μm thick. The width of HSB was variable and averaged between 6 and 10 prisms, and they presented an undulating course both in longitudinal and cross sections. The overall organization of the enamel was similar in all teeth sampled; however, the enamel was thicker in canines and postcanines than in incisors. The crowns of all teeth sampled were uniformly covered by enamel; however, the grooved incisors lacked an enamel cover on the posterior side of the buccal face. Large tubules and tuft-like structures were seen at the EDJ. HSB enamel as well as tubules and tufts at the EDJ suggest increased occlusal loads during feeding, a biomechanical adaptation to avoid enamel cracking and failure. Despite overall simplification in tooth morphology and reduced mastication, the fossil and modern pinnipeds analyzed here retained the complex undulating HSB structure of other fossils and living Carnivora, while other marine mammals such as cetaceans developed simplified radial enamel.

  18. The phenotypes of podocytes and parietal epithelial cells may overlap in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andeen, Nicole K; Nguyen, Tri Q; Steegh, Floor; Hudkins, Kelly L; Najafian, Behzad; Alpers, Charles E

    2015-11-01

    Reversal of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has been achieved in humans and mice, but only rarely and under special circumstances. As progression of DN is related to podocyte loss, reversal of DN requires restoration of podocytes. Here, we identified and quantified potential glomerular progenitor cells that could be a source for restored podocytes. DN was identified in 31 human renal biopsy cases and separated into morphologically early or advanced lesions. Markers of podocytes (WT-1, p57), parietal epithelial cells (PECs) (claudin-1), and cell proliferation (Ki-67) were identified by immunohistochemistry. Podocyte density was progressively reduced with DN. Cells marking as podocytes (p57) were present infrequently on Bowman's capsule in controls, but significantly increased in histologically early DN. Ki-67-expressing cells were identified on the glomerular tuft and Bowman's capsule in DN, but rarely in controls. Cells marking as PECs were present on the glomerular tuft, particularly in morphologically advanced DN. These findings show evidence of phenotypic plasticity in podocyte and PEC populations and are consistent with studies in the BTBR ob/ob murine model in which reversibility of DN occurs with podocytes potentially regenerating from PEC precursors. Thus, our findings support, but do not prove, that podocytes may regenerate from PEC progenitors in human DN. If so, progression of DN may represent a modifiable net balance between podocyte loss and regeneration.

  19. Hand fractures: A study of their site and type in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, Arumugam; Basu, Avi K.; Vaidhyanath, Ramachandran; Finlay, David

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the study was to document the site and type of fractures of the hand in children up to 16 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radiographs of 280 children who were found to have a fracture in Accident and Emergency over a one-year period were reviewed. A total of 293 fractures of the hand and 3 distal interphalangeal joint dislocations without fracture were identified. There were 293 fractures as some children had more than one fracture. RESULTS: Distal tuft fractures were commonest in the 0 to 4-year age-group; fractures of distal phalanx (both transverse and tuft) in the 5 to 8-year age-group; transverse fractures of the proximal phalanx of little finger in the 9 to 12-year age-group and transverse fractures of neck of the fifth metacarpal in the 13 to 16-year age-groups. CONCLUSION: Hand fractures are more common in older children, with a male preponderance in most groups except in the 0-4 age-group. The site of injury is different in the various corresponding age-groups, reflecting the differing mechanisms of injury. The management of hand fractures rely on a correct diagnosis and a knowledge of their common site in each age-group should aid diagnosis. Rajesh, A. et al. (2001)

  20. Bacteriocin-like activity of oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from human and non-human primates Atividade semelhante a bacteriocina de Fusobacterium nucleatum orais isolados de primatas humanos e não-humanos

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    Elerson Gaetti-Jardim Júnior

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium nucleatum is indigenous of the human oral cavity and has been involved in different infectious processes. The production of bacteriocin-like substances may be important in regulation of bacterial microbiota in oral cavity. The ability to produce bacteriocin-like substances by 80 oral F. nucleatum isolates obtained from periodontal patients, healthy individuals and Cebus apella monkeys, was examinated. 17.5% of all tested isolates showed auto-antagonism and 78.8% iso- or hetero-antagonism. No isolate from monkey was capable to produce auto-inhibition. In this study, the antagonistic substances production was variable in all tested isolates. Most of the F. nucleatum showed antagonistic activity against tested reference strains. These data suggest a possible participation of these substances on the oral microbial ecology in humans and animals. However, the role of bacteriocins in regulating dental plaque microbiota in vivo is discussed.Fusobacterium nucleatum é indígena da cavidade oral humana e tem sido envolvido em diferentes processos infecciosos. A produção de substâncias semelhantes a bacteriocinas pode ser importante na regulação da microbiota bacteriana da cavidade oral. A capacidade de produzir substâncias tipo bacteriocina de 80 isolados de F. nucleatum orais, obtidos de pacientes com doença periodontal, indivíduos sadios e macaco Cebus apella, foi avaliada. 17,5% de todos os isolados mostrou auto-antagonismo e 78,8% iso- ou hetero-antagonismo. Nenhum isolado de macaco foi capaz de produzir auto-inibição. Neste estudo, a produção de substâncias antagonístas foi variável em todos os isolados testados. A maioria dos F. nucleatum mostrou atividade antagonísta para as cepas de referência testadas. Esses dados sugerem a possível participação dessas substâncias sobre a ecologia microbiana em humanos e animais. Entretanto, o papel das bacteriocinas na regulação da microbiota da placa dental in vivo

  1. Contribución al conocimiento de los reservorios del Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas,1909 en la Provincia de Corrientes, Argentina Contribution to knowledge of reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909 in Corrientes Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Bar

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de identificar a reservorios del Trypanosoma cruzi se investigaron 60 mamíferos en los Departamentos Capital y San Luis del Palmar. Se examinaron: primates, roedores, marsupiales, carnívoros y edentados; 40 vivían en cautiverio y 20 fueron capturados mediante trampas en una comunidad rural forestal. Los mamíferos fueron analizados por xenodiagnóstico, empleándose ninfas de 3o o 4o estadío de Triatoma infestans ayunadas durante 2 semanas. Las heces de los triatominos fueron observadas al microscopio (400x a los 30, 60 y 90 días post-alimentación. En 2 Saimiri sciureus y en 1 Cebus apella se constató infección por tripanosomas cruziformes. Se concluye que la parasitemia detectada fue baja. La presencia de Didelphis albiventris, reservorio potencial del Trypanosoma cruzi , en una zona de transmisión activa del parásito representa un factor de riesgo, por lo que son necesarias futuras investigaciones epidemiológicas para determinar la real diagnosis de esta parasitosis en la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina.In order to identify Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs in transmission areas, 60 mammals in Capital and San Luis del Palmar Departments, Corrientes, Argentina were studied. Primates, rodents, carnivores, marsupials and edentates were investigated, 40 of them living in captivity and 20 caught with traps in a rural area. The mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis and third or fourth instars nymphs of Triatoma infestans starved for 2 weeks were used. The feces were microscopically observed (400x for Trypanosoma cruzi infection at 30, 60 and 90 days after feeding. Trypanosoma cruzi-like parasites were identified in 2 Saimiri sciureus and 1 Cebus apella analyzed by xenodiagnosis. It was concluded that parasitemia was low. Howewer, the presence in a forest area of Didelphis albiventris, potential reservoir of the parasite, indicates a risk factor and deserves further epidemiological study for a true diagnosis of this

  2. Divergent evolution and purifying selection of the H (FUT1 gene in New World monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini

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    Bárbara do Nascimento Borges

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the coding region of the H gene was sequenced and analyzed in fourteen genera of New World primates (Alouatta, Aotus, Ateles, Brachyteles, Cacajao, Callicebus, Callithrix, Cebus, Chiropotes, Lagothrix, Leontopithecus, Pithecia, Saguinus, and Saimiri, in order to investigate the evolution of the gene. The analyses revealed that this coding region contains 1,101 nucleotides, with the exception of Brachyteles, the callitrichines (Callithrix, Leontopithecus, and Saguinus and one species of Callicebus (moloch, in which one codon was deleted. In the primates studied, the high GC content (63%, the nonrandom distribution of codons and the low evolution rate of the gene (0.513 substitutions/site/MA in the order Primates suggest the action of a purifying type of selective pressure, confirmed by the Z-test. Our analyses did not identify mutations equivalent to those responsible for the H-deficient phenotypes found in humans, nor any other alteration that might explain the lack of expression of the gene in the erythrocytes of Neotropical monkeys. The phylogenetic trees obtained for the H gene and the distance matrix data suggest the occurrence of divergent evolution in the primates.

  3. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus,Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates. PMID:21637455

  4. Mammalian wildlife diseases as hazards to man and livestock in an area of the Llanos Orientales of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, E A; D'Alessandro, A; Morales, G A; Angel, D

    1981-01-01

    Development of the LLanos Orientales of Colombia, and access to underdeveloped areas in the Llanos, may create disease hazards to man and domestic animals or introduce exotic pathogens, creating reservoirs of infection for domestic animals and acting as limiting factors on the native wild species. A survey of wild animals common to the Llanos revealed a number of parasites indigenous to the area. A total total of 59 mammalian species, representing eight orders were examined. Haematozoa were represented by Trypanosoma cruzi, T. evansi and T. rangeli. Eight species of ticks were found: Amblyomma cajennense, A. auricularium, A. rotundatum, A. maculatum, A. longirostre, A. pacae, Ixodes luciae and Boophilus microplus. Four species of fleas were found: Rhopalopsyllus lugubris lugubris, R. australis tupinus, R. cacicus saevus and Polygenis klagesi samuelis. A species of Echinococcus was commonly found in Cuniculus paca. Serologic titers and/or isolations of pathogenic viral and bacterial agents generally indicated that the wildlife population had not been exposed to the diseases common to the domestic population. A low prevalence of titers to Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis was found in Cebus apella and Proechimys sp. Neutralizing antibodies to Group B viruses were found in Proechimys sp., Coendor sp. and Nectomys squamipes. Antibodies to Group C viruses were found in Proechimys sp. Serologic titers to Leptospira sejroe and L. tarassovi were found in Proechimys sp. and Didelphis marsupialis. L. tarassovi was isolated from Proechimys sp. Titers to Brucella were not found in 1964 animals. The significance of these findings are discussed.

  5. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  6. Evolutionary modifications of human milk composition: evidence from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of anthropoid milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Lauren A; Bazinet, Richard P

    2008-12-01

    Brain growth in mammals is associated with increased accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in brain phospholipids. The period of maximum accumulation is during the brain growth spurt. Humans have a perinatal brain growth spurt, selectively accumulating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other LCPUFA from the third trimester through the second year of life. The emphasis on rapid postnatal brain growth and LCPUFA transfer during lactation has led to the suggestion that human milk LCPUFA composition may be unique. Our study tests this hypothesis by determining fatty acid composition for 11 species of captive anthropoids (n=53; Callithrix jacchus, Cebus apella, Gorilla gorilla, Hylobates lar, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca mulatta, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Pongo pygmaeus, Saimiri boliviensis, and Symphalangus syndactylus). Results are compared to previously published data on five species of wild anthropoids (n=28; Alouatta paliatta, Callithrix jacchus, Gorilla beringei, Leontopithecus rosalia, and Macaca sinica) and human milk fatty acid profiles. Milk LCPUFA profiles of captive anthropoids (consuming diets with a preformed source of DHA) are similar to milk from women on a Western diet, and those of wild anthropoids are similar to milk from vegan women. Collectively, the range of DHA percent composition values from nonhuman anthropoid milks (0.03-1.1) is nearly identical to that from a cross-cultural analysis of human milk (0.06-1.4). Humans do not appear to be unique in their ability to secrete LCPUFA in milk but may be unique in their access to dietary LCPUFA.

  7. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifalli-Iughetti, Cristiani; Koiffmann, Célia P

    2009-10-01

    In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus,Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates.

  8. Ensaio laboratorial e clínico com Hycanthone, nôvo agente esquistossomicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1967-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir do Miracil D, um derivado hidroximetílico (Hycanthone pode ser obtido através da atividade biológica do Aspergillus sclerotiorum. Êste derivado mostrou-se muito ativo quando administrado a camundongos, hamsters e macacos Cebus experimentalmente infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. Ensaios clínicos com o Hycanthone foram feitos em 52 pacientes com esquistossomose mansoni ativa. A droga foi administrada, nas doses de 2 e 3 mg/kg/ dia, junto com um anti-ácido, duas vêzes ao dia, durante 5 dias consecutivos. Com exceção de 2 casos, todos os pacientes completaram o tratamento. Náusea e/ou vômito, anorexia, tonturas e cefaléia foram os efeitos colaterais mais comuns. Atividade terapêutica foi avaliada através de repetidos exames de fezes (4 a 6 e uma biópsia retal realizada a partir do 4.° mês após o tratamento. As percentagens de cura foram de 83,3 e 80,0% com o esquema de 2 e 3 mg/kg, respectivamente. Os dados laboratoriais e clínicos sôbre a atividade esquistossomicida do Hycanthone até agora obtidos mostram a necessidade de novos ensaios com êste promissor medicamento.

  9. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  10. Dietary proclivities of Paranthropus robustus from Swartkrans, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L’Engle Williams Frank

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene Paranthropus robustus fossils from Swartkrans have yielded stable isotope values suggesting some foraging on C4 plants possibly including underground storage organs. Dental microwear texture analysis on P. robustus (SK 6, SK 34 and SK 47 from Swartkrans Member 1 is performed to examine whether tooth surface damage from mastication agrees with prior dietary inferences from carbon isotopes. There is considerable variation in textural characteristics among the P. robustus specimens. Specifically, adult SK 34 stands apart from the two subadult specimens, SK 6 and SK 47, suggesting life history could be reflected in patterns of dental microwear texture characteristics, although seasonality and availability of fallback foods may also explain the variation observed in P. robustus. The fossils all exhibit elevated surface texture complexity, resembling the values for Lophocebus albigena and Cebus apella, and to a lesser extent, Pan troglodytes. Paranthropus robustus is dissimilar to primary folivores, such as Trachypithecus cristatus or folivore- frugivores such as Alouatta palliata suggesting leaves comprised very little of its diet. The textural fill volume of P. robustus differs from that observed in extant primates from tropical forests indicating extreme durophagy, perhaps a function of differences in habitat. Ingestion of extraneous grit on the underground parts of plants and from terrestrial resources, perhaps as fallback foods or as dietary staples, may account for these enamel textural properties and may help explain the mixed C3/C4 isotopic signal in P. robustus.

  11. Dental microwear and diets of African early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Peter S; Grine, Frederick E; Teaford, Mark F; El Zaatari, Sireen

    2006-01-01

    Conventional wisdom ties the origin and early evolution of the genus Homo to environmental changes that occurred near the end of the Pliocene. The basic idea is that changing habitats led to new diets emphasizing savanna resources, such as herd mammals or underground storage organs. Fossil teeth provide the most direct evidence available for evaluating this theory. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of dental microwear in Plio-Pleistocene Homo from Africa. We examined all available cheek teeth from Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa and found 18 that preserved antemortem microwear. Microwear features were measured and compared for these specimens and a baseline series of five extant primate species (Cebus apella, Gorilla gorilla, Lophocebus albigena, Pan troglodytes, and Papio ursinus) and two protohistoric human foraging groups (Aleut and Arikara) with documented differences in diet and subsistence strategies. Results confirmed that dental microwear reflects diet, such that hard-object specialists tend to have more large microwear pits, whereas tough food eaters usually have more striations and smaller microwear features. Early Homo specimens clustered with baseline groups that do not prefer fracture resistant foods. Still, Homo erectus and individuals from Swartkrans Member 1 had more small pits than Homo habilis and specimens from Sterkfontein Member 5C. These results suggest that none of the early Homo groups specialized on very hard or tough foods, but that H. erectus and Swartkrans Member 1 individuals ate, at least occasionally, more brittle or tough items than other fossil hominins studied.

  12. The LiveWire Project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.D.; Nelson, T.T. [Enova Technology, San Diego, CA (United States); Kelly, J.C.; Dominguez, H.A. [Paragon Consulting Services, La Verne, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Utilities across the US have begun pilot testing a variety of hardware and software products to develop a two-way communications system between themselves and their customers. Their purpose is to reduce utility operating costs and to provide new and improved services for customers in light of pending changes in the electric industry being brought about by deregulation. A consortium including utilities, national labs, consultants, and contractors, with the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), initiated a project that utilized a hybrid fiber-coax (HFC) wide-area network integrated with a CEBus based local area network within the customers home. The system combined energy consumption data taken within the home, and home automation features to provide a suite of energy management services for residential customers. The information was transferred via the Internet through the HFC network, and presented to the customer on their personal computer. This final project report discusses the design, prototype testing, and system deployment planning of the energy management system.

  13. Experimental chemotherapy of Schistosomiasis III: laboratory and clinical trials with trichlorphone, an organophosphorus compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available Oogram studies have been carried out on mice, hamsters, and Cebus morikeys experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with trichlorphone (0,0-dimethyl 1-hydroxy-2, 2, 2-trichloroethylphosphonate. In mice, despite a slight hepatic shift of schistosomes, all animais presented oogram changes when dosed, per os, at the schedules of 200, and 100 mg/kg/day × 7. In hamsters, antischistosomal activity could be detected only at toxic leveis. In monkeys, trichlorphone showed insignificant action even after oral administration of 30 mg/kg/day for 10 consecutive days. In 5 volunteers, a sharp drop in cholinesterase plasma level was observed 24 hours after a single oral dose of 7.5 mg/kg. However, cholinesterase levels returned to the initial values within a period of 11 to 27 days. Trichlorphone was then administered to 12 schistosome patients (7.5 mg/kg/day, every fort- night, × 5. One month after therapy, interruption of egg laying was observed in 6 patients. Late parasitological control showed that all treated patients continued to pass viable S. mansoni eggs with their stools.

  14. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Gifalli-Iughetti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus, Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62. The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates.

  15. Pay-off-biased social learning underlies the diffusion of novel extractive foraging traditions in a wild primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The type and variety of learning strategies used by individuals to acquire behaviours in the wild are poorly understood, despite the presence of behavioural traditions in diverse taxa. Social learning strategies such as conformity can be broadly adaptive, but may also retard the spread of adaptive innovations. Strategies like pay-off-biased learning, by contrast, are effective at diffusing new behaviour but may perform poorly when adaptive behaviour is common. We present a field experiment in a wild primate, Cebus capucinus, that introduced a novel food item and documented the innovation and diffusion of successful extraction techniques. We develop a multilevel, Bayesian statistical analysis that allows us to quantify individual-level evidence for different social and individual learning strategies. We find that pay-off-biased and age-biased social learning are primarily responsible for the diffusion of new techniques. We find no evidence of conformity; instead rare techniques receive slightly increased attention. We also find substantial and important variation in individual learning strategies that is patterned by age, with younger individuals being more influenced by both social information and their own individual experience. The aggregate cultural dynamics in turn depend upon the variation in learning strategies and the age structure of the wild population. PMID:28592681

  16. Evaluación del impacto de la caza en mamíferos de la cuenca del río Alto Itaya, Amazonía peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Aquino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se informa sobre la abundancia, presión de caza y el impacto de la caza en mamíferos que habitan los bosques de la cuenca del río Alto Itaya. La información procede de censos por transectos y registros de caza llevados a cabo en seis comunidades. Entre los mamíferos de caza, el choro (Lagothrix poeppigii Schinz fue el más abundante con 15,4 individuos/km², mientras que el mono aullador (Alouatta seniculus Linnaeus y el venado colorado (Mazama americana Erxleben fueron los menos abundantes con 0,15 individuos/km² y 0,5 individuos/ km2, respectivamente. Por otro lado, del área fueron cosechados un promedio anual de 1176 mamíferos, equivalente a 14184,6 kg. Finalmente, el modelo de cosecha sugiere sobrecaza del tapir (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus, huangana (Tayassu pecari Link, choro (L. poeppigii, mono aullador (A. seniculus y machín negro (Cebus apella Linnaeus, cuyas cosechas en algunos casos alcanzaron el 100% de la producción anual.

  17. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Fan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs using human multicolor banding (MCB probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA, Callithrix jacchus (CJA, Cebus apella (CAP, Saimiri sciureus (SSC, and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE, respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107 NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99 NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA and 66.3% (71/107 NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS. Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  18. A wire length minimization approach to ocular dominance patterns in mammalian visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chklovskii, Dmitri B.; Koulakov, Alexei A.

    2000-09-01

    The primary visual area (V1) of the mammalian brain is a thin sheet of neurons. Because each neuron is dominated by either right or left eye one can treat V1 as a binary mixture of neurons. The spatial arrangement of neurons dominated by different eyes is known as the ocular dominance (OD) pattern. We propose a theory for OD patterns based on the premise that they are evolutionary adaptations to minimize the length of intra-cortical connections. Thus, the existing OD patterns are obtained by solving a wire length minimization problem. We divide all the neurons into two classes: right- and left-eye dominated. We find that if the number of connections of each neuron with the neurons of the same class differs from that with the other class, the segregation of neurons into monocular regions indeed reduces the wire length. The shape of the regions depends on the relative number of neurons in the two classes. If both classes are equally represented we find that the optimal OD pattern consists of alternating stripes. If one class is less numerous than the other, the optimal OD pattern consists of patches of the underrepresented (ipsilateral) eye dominated neurons surrounded by the neurons of the other class. We predict the transition from stripes to patches when the fraction of neurons dominated by the ipsilateral eye is about 40%. This prediction agrees with the data in macaque and Cebus monkeys. Our theory can be applied to other binary cortical systems.

  19. Response of frugivorous primates to changes in fruit supply in a northern Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourthé, I

    2014-08-01

    Few attempts have been made to understand how spatiotemporal changes in fruit supply influence frugivores in tropical forests. The marked spatiotemporal variation in fruit supply can affect frugivore abundance and distribution, but studies addressing the effects of this variation on primates are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate how the spatiotemporal distribution of fruits influences the local distribution of three frugivorous primates in the eastern part of the Maracá Ecological Station, a highly seasonal Amazonian rainforest. Specifically, it was hypothesised that primate distribution will track changes in fruit supply, resulting that sites with high fruit availability should be heavily used by primates. During a 1-year study, fruit supply (ground fruit surveys) and primate density (line-transects) were monitored in twelve 2 km-long transects at monthly intervals. Fruit supply varied seasonally, being low during the dry season. The density of Ateles belzebuth was positively related to fruit supply during fruit shortage, but Cebus olivaceus and Alouatta macconnelli did not follow the same pattern. The supply of Sapotaceae fruit was an important component determining local distribution of A. belzebuth during the overall fruit shortage. Highly frugivorous primates such as A. belzebuth respond to seasonal decline in fruit supply by congregating at places with high fruit supply in this forest, particularly, those with many individuals of species of Sapotaceae. This study underscores the importance of small-scale spatiotemporal changes of fruit supply as a key component of frugivorous primate ecology in highly seasonal environments.

  20. Antipsychotic-like effect of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist BuTAC in non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maibritt B Andersen

    Full Text Available Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4-preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  1. Pathways to nephron loss starting from glomerular diseases-insights from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Wilhelm; LeHir, Michel

    2005-02-01

    Studies of glomerular diseases in animal models show that progression toward nephron loss starts with extracapillary lesions, whereby podocytes play the central role. If injuries remain bound within the endocapillary compartment, they will undergo recovery or be repaired by scaring. Degenerative, inflammatory and dysregulative mechanisms leading to nephron loss are distinguished. In addition to several other unique features, the dysregulative mechanisms leading to collapsing glomerulopathy are particular in that glomeruli and tubules are affected in parallel. In contrast, in degenerative and inflammatory diseases, tubular injury is secondary to glomerular lesions. In both of the latter groups of diseases, the progression starts in the glomerulus with the loss of the separation between the tuft and Bowman's capsule by forming cell bridges (parietal cells and/or podocytes) between the glomerular and the parietal basement membranes. Cell bridges develop into tuft adhesions to Bowman's capsule, which initiate the formation of crescents, either by misdirected filtration (proteinaceous crescents) or by epithelial cell proliferation (cellular crescents). Crescents may spread over the entire circumference of the glomerulus and, via the glomerulotubular junction, may extend onto the tubule. Two mechanisms concerning the transfer of a glomerular injury onto the tubulointerstitium are discussed: (1) direct encroachment of extracapillary lesions and (2) protein leakage into tubular urine, resulting in injury to the tubule and the interstitium. There is evidence that direct encroachment is the crucial mechanism. Progression of chronic renal disease is underlain by a vicious cycle which passes on the damage from lost and/or damaged nephrons to so far healthy nephrons. Presently, two mechanisms are discussed: (1) the loss of nephrons leads to compensatory mechanisms in the remaining nephrons (glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, hypertrophy) which increase their

  2. Ultra-Widefield Steering-Based Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Retinal Periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Netan; Golding, John; Manry, Matthew W; Rao, Rajesh C

    2016-06-01

    To describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) features of peripheral retinal findings using an ultra-widefield (UWF) steering technique to image the retinal periphery. Observational study. A total of 68 patients (68 eyes) with 19 peripheral retinal features. Spectral-domain OCT-based structural features. Nineteen peripheral retinal features, including vortex vein, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, pars plana, ora serrata pearl, typical cystoid degeneration (TCD), cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice and cobblestone degeneration, retinal hole, retinal tear, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, typical degenerative senile retinoschisis, peripheral laser coagulation scars, ora tooth, cryopexy scars (retinal tear and treated retinoblastoma scar), bone spicules, white without pressure, and peripheral drusen, were identified by peripheral clinical examination. Near-infrared scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images and SD OCT of these entities were registered to UWF color photographs. Spectral-domain OCT resolved structural features of all peripheral findings. Dilated hyporeflective tubular structures within the choroid were observed in the vortex vein. Loss of retinal lamination, neural retinal attenuation, retinal pigment epithelium loss, or hypertrophy was seen in several entities, including congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, ora serrata pearl, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice, and cobblestone degenerations. Hyporeflective intraretinal spaces, indicating cystoid or schitic fluid, were seen in ora serrata pearl, ora tooth, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, retinal hole, and typical degenerative senile retinoschisis. The vitreoretinal interface, which often consisted of lamellae-like structures of the condensed cortical vitreous near or adherent to the neural retina, appeared clearly in most peripheral findings, confirming its association with many low-risk and vision

  3. Ultra-Widefield Steering-Based SD-OCT Imaging of the Retinal Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Netan; Golding, John; Manry, Matthew W.; Rao, Rajesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features of peripheral retinal findings using an ultra-widefield (UWF) steering technique to image the retinal periphery. Design Observational study. Participants 68 patients (68 eyes) with 19 peripheral retinal features. Main Outcome Measures SD-OCT-based structural features. Methods Nineteen peripheral retinal features including: vortex vein, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), pars plana, ora serrata pearl, typical cystoid degeneration (TCD), cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice and cobblestone degeneration, retinal hole, retinal tear, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), typical degenerative senile retinoschisis, peripheral laser coagulation scars, ora tooth, cryopexy scars (retinal tear and treated retinoblastoma scar), bone spicules, white without pressure, and peripheral drusen were identified by peripheral clinical examination. Near infrared (NIR) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) images and SD-OCT of these entities were registered to UWF color photographs. Results SD-OCT resolved structural features of all peripheral findings. Dilated hyporeflective tubular structures within the choroid were observed in the vortex vein. Loss of retinal lamination, neural retinal attenuation, RPE loss or hypertrophy were seen in several entities including CHRPE, ora serrata pearl, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice and cobblestone degenerations. Hyporeflective intraretinal spaces, indicating cystoid or schitic fluid, were seen in ora serrata pearl, ora tooth, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, retinal hole, and typical degenerative senile retinoschisis. The vitreoretinal interface, which often consisted of lamellae-like structures of the condensed cortical vitreous near or adherent to the neural retina, appeared clearly in most peripheral findings, confirming its association with many low-risk and vision-threatening pathologies

  4. Prevalence and cost of imaging in inpatient falls: the rising cost of falling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fields J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jessica Fields,1 Tahani Alturkistani,2 Neal Kumar,3 Arjun Kanuri,3 Deeb N Salem,1 Samson Munn,2 Deborah Blazey-Martin1 1Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Radiology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 3Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Objective: To quantify the type, prevalence, and cost of imaging following inpatient falls, identify factors associated with post-fall imaging, and determine correlates of positive versus negative imaging. Design: Single-center retrospective cohort study of inpatient falls. Data were collected from the hospital's adverse event reporting system, DrQuality. Age, sex, date, time, and location of fall, clinical service, Morse Fall Scale/fall protocol, admitting diagnosis, and fall-related imaging studies were reviewed. Cost included professional and facilities fees for each study. Setting: Four hundred and fifteen bed urban academic hospital over 3 years (2008–2010. Patients: All adult inpatient falls during the study period were included. Falls experienced by patients aged <18 years, outpatient and emergency patients, visitors to the hospital, and staff were excluded. Measurements and main results: Five hundred and thirty inpatient falls occurred during the study period, average patient age 60.7 years (range 20–98. More than half of falls were men (55% and patients considered at risk of falls (56%. Falls were evenly distributed across morning (33%, evening (34%, and night (33% shifts. Of 530 falls, 178 (34% patients were imaged with 262 studies. Twenty percent of patients imaged had at least one positive imaging study attributed to the fall and 82% of studies were negative. Total cost of imaging was $160,897, 63% ($100,700 from head computed tomography (CT. Conclusion: Inpatient falls affect patients of both sexes, all ages, occur at any time of day and lead to expensive imaging, mainly from head CTs. Further study should be targeted toward

  5. Sarcoidosis: radiographic manifestations in the nails and distal phalanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, Brittany K.; Garner, Hillary W. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Sluzevich, Jason C. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Dermatology, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which can affect multiple organ systems. Clinical and radiologic manifestations depend on the organ system involved and the chronicity of disease. Nail involvement in sarcoidosis is rare, but is clinically relevant as it indicates chronic systemic disease. Nail abnormalities can be identified radiographically, and when seen in patients with known or suspected sarcoidosis, should prompt careful evaluation of the underlying bone for osseous involvement. We describe a case of sarcoidosis with radiographic findings in the nails and distal phalangeal tufts, which were indicative of nail and osseous sarcoid involvement and strongly supported the presence of chronic systemic disease. Although the nail findings resolved clinically and on radiographs after treatment, the osseous findings showed only minimal improvement. To our knowledge, the radiographic findings of nail sarcoidosis have not been previously addressed in the literature. (orig.)

  6. Removal of Uranium and Associated Contaminants from Aqueous Solutions Using Functional Carbon Nanotubes-Sodium Alginate Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Allaboun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of hydrophilic/hydrophobic beads from functional carbon nanotubes (CNTs conjugated with sodium alginate was investigated. Glutaraldehyde was used as a coupling agent and Ca2+ as a crosslinking agent. The formed conjugate comprises two-dimensional sheets of sodium alginate bounded to long tufts of functional CNT tails of micro-size geometry. Detailed characterization of the conjugates was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and its first derivative (DTG, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, and scanning electron microscope (SEM techniques. Different ratios of the conjugate were successfully prepared and used as biodegradable environmentally friendly sorbents. Removal of U6+, V3+, Cr3+, Mo3+, Pb2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Ti4+ and Ni2+ from aqueous solutions using the synthesized biosorbent was experimentally demonstrated. Maximum metal uptake of 53 mg/g was achieved using the % Functional CNTs = 33 sample.

  7. The Vida Verde Women's Co-Op: Brazilian Immigrants Organizing to Promote Environmental and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Eduardo; Goldberg, Julia S.; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Mônica; Pirie, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed the key steps in the launch of the Vida Verde Women's Co-Op among Brazilian immigrant housecleaners in Somerville, MA. The co-op provides green housecleaning products, encourages healthy work practices, and promotes a sense of community among its members. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 of the first co-op members, who reported a reduction in symptoms associated with the use of traditional cleaning agents and a new sense of mutual support. Critical to the co-op's success have been the supportive roles of its academic partners (Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts, Lowell), effective media outreach, and a focus on advancing social justice. Next steps include implementing a formal business plan and assessing the appropriateness of cooperatives in other industries. PMID:19890146

  8. Radiation therapy of malignant melanomas: an evaluation of clinically used fractionation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, A.; Dritschilo, A.; Nathanson, L.; Piro, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the importance of radiation dose fraction size in the treatment of malignant melanomas, the records of 48 patients (83 sites) treated at Tufts-New England Medical Center from 1971 to 1979 have been retrospectively reviewed. During this period, the dose fractionation schemes evolved from standard fraction size to large-dose techniques. Radiation fraction size was observed to be the major factor in the clinical response of melanoma. Fractions of 600 to 800 rad resulted in the best overall response (80%). The rapid fractionation scheme of 800 to 400 to 400 rad on successive days resulted in intermediate response (58%) and may be useful for the palliative treatment of selected patients

  9. Search for exotic barton resonances in the final states of K-p and K-d interactions at 2.9 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staab, R.W.

    1975-11-01

    The reactions K - p → Ψ 0 π - π + K 0 in hydrogen and K - n → Ψ - π - K + in deuterium were analyzed for isotopic spin-3/2 exotic cascade resonance production at a K - beam momentum of 2.9 GeV/c. In addition, the strangeness +1 baryons (Z*'s) were searched for in the reaction K - d → Ψ - Z* at the same beam momentum. The three particle states under consideration lie at the corners of an exotic decuplet. The data came from the Brandeis-Maryland-Syracuse-Tufts collaboration involving two experiments at the 31'' bubble chamber at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Each involved 10 6 pictures with a 30 event/μbarn exposure in hydrogen and a 17 event/μbarn exposure in deuterium

  10. Metaphyseal sclerosis in patients with chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W.; Sevcik, M.; Tallroth, K. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-04-01

    We reviewed radiographs of the hand and wrists of 33 patients with immature skeletons and chronic renal disease. Various radiographic manifestations of renal osteodystrophy were seen, including osteopenia in 23 patients (70%), subperiosteal resorption in 20 (61%), distal tuft resorption in 14 (42%), sclerosis of vertebral bodies in 2 (6%), and soft-tissue calcification in 1 (3%). We also noted that 13 patients (39%) exhibited metaphyseal sclerosis adjacent to the growth plates. Five of these 13 showed persistent sclerosis years after the growth plates had fused. None of the patients showed other radiographic changes of rickets, and there was no correlation between the serum calcium, phosphorus, or aluminum levels and the presence of metaphyseal sclerosis. Neiter was there any association with the underlying cause of renal failure, method of treatment, presence of a transplant, or type of dialysis. We view this finding as another manifestation of renal osteodystrophy. The importance of distinguishing it from other sclerotic lesions is discussed. (orig.).

  11. Pain management, prescription opioid mortality, and the CDC: is the devil in the data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatman ME

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Schatman,1,2 Stephen J Ziegler31Research and Network Development, Boston Pain Care, Waltham, MA, 2Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 3Department of Public Policy, Purdue University, Fort Wayne, IN, USATransparency, freedom from bias, and accountability are, in principle, hallmarks of taxpayer-funded institutions. Unfortunately, it seems that at least one institution, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, continues to struggle with all three.What began with a prescribing guideline created in secrecy has now evolved to the use of statistical data and public statements that fail to capture not only the complexity of the problem but also the distinction between licit and illicit opioids and their relationship to the alarming increase in unintentional overdose. This is unfortunately consistent with Mark Twain’s assertion that “There are lies, there are damn lies, and then there are statistics.”1

  12. The new sponge species Amphoriscus pedunculatus (Porifera, Calcarea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klautau, Michelle; Cavalcanti, Fernanda F; Borojevic, Radovan

    2017-10-30

    Amphoriscus is a widespread genus with 17 species. A new species was found in SE Brazil and it represents the second species of this genus in Brazilian waters. Amphoriscus pedunculatus sp. nov. has a special structure, a peduncle, to attach to the substrate. Special attachment structures are not very common in the class Calcarea but this is the third species of the genus with a peduncle. Besides peduncle, another attachment structure found in some species of Amphoriscus is the root-tuft, an attachment structure composed of diactines and anchor-like triactines or tetractines. The evolution of these attachment structures in Amphoriscus is not known but they have also been found out of this genus, suggesting that these structures appeared several times during the evolution of Calcarea or that species currently classified in different genera are in fact congeneric.

  13. New England Energy Congress: progress report - a descriptive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert L.; Mayer, Jean; Buckley, John G.; Spencer, Bailey; Alford, Zeb D.; Keating, Jr., Stephen J.; Aubin, Elmer B.

    1978-09-01

    New England's dependence on oil (about 80%) is posing a double threat to the region and its economic prosperity, as oil dependency means extreme supply vulnerability and substantially higher prices than the national average. The New England Energy Congress, sponsored by the New England Congressional Caucus and Tufts Univ., represents the concerted effort of a highly diverse group of New Englanders to address these problems. The work of the six committees of the Congress is reviewed in this report. The committees are the Supply Committee, Energy Demand Committee, Energy Conservation Committee, Regulatory and Institutional Processes Committee, Economic Development through Alternative Sources of Energy Committee, and Energy Economics and Financing Committee. (MCW)

  14. In memoriam of Professor Theodore L. Munsat (1930-2013): his outstanding legacy with the WFN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marco T

    2014-04-15

    The World Federation of Neurology (WFN) lost an outstanding leader on November 22, 2013 with the death of Professor Theodore Leon Munsat ("Ted"), in Waltham, Massachusetts, USA. Professor Munsat was Emeritus professor of Neurology at Tufts University School of Medicine and served the WFN in several capacities as trustee, chairman of the WFN Education and research committees, chairman of the WFN ALS Research group and founding director of the WFN Seminars in Clinical Neurology. He was president of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), 1989-1991, chairman of the Continuing Educational Committee of the AAN and founding director of AAN's premier continuing medical education journal Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology. He left an outstanding legacy with the WFN. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Two new species of the acifer species group of Polypedilum subgenus Tripodura Townes from China (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilei; Song, Chao; Wang, Liqing; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-02-13

    Polypedilum (Tripodura) falcatum sp. n. and P. (T.) procerum sp. n. of the acifer species group of Polypedilum subgenus Tripodura Townes are described and illustrated as male imagines from China. The male adult of P. (T.) falcatum sp. n. is distinguished by the presence of two faint markings on wing; short and interrupted abdominal tergite bands; the sickle-like superior volsella bearing 0-2 outer setae and a tuft of short setae on its apex. The male adult of P. (T.) procerum sp. n. differs in having short abdominal tergite bands; a long, slender and apically curved superior volsella; a high fore leg ratio (2.30-2.33). A key to known male imagines of Polypedilum subgenus Tripodura from China is presented.

  16. Malignant hypertension-associated thrombotic microangiopathy following cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamia, Rais; El Ati, Zohra; Ben Fatma, Lilia; Zouaghi, Karim; Smaoui, Wided; Rania, Khedher; Krid, Madiha; Ben Hmida, Fathi; Béji, Soumaya; Ben Moussa, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs with distribution and consumption throughout the world. Acute renal failure associated with rhabdomyolysis, direct vasoconstriction and hemodynamic alteration is well described in patients with cocaine intoxication. Cocaine use is associated with high blood pressure and may rarely induce malignant hypertension associated with thrombotic microangiopathy. We report the case of a patient who developed malignant hypertension associated with thrombotic microangiopathy after chronic consumption of cocaine. A kidney biopsy revealed thrombotic microangiopathy with fibrinoid necrosis of arterioles and glomerular tufts. He required dialysis sessions. Cocaine-mediated endothelial injury and platelet activation may play important pathogenetic roles in cocaine abusers who develop malignant hypertension associated with thrombotic microangiopathy. Clinicians need to be aware of this rare feature of cocaine intoxication.

  17. The association between sports participation and athletic identity with eating pathology among college-aged males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, K; Economos, C; Lerner, R M; Becker, A E; Sacheck, J

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined associations among sports participation (SP), athletic identity (AI), weight status, and eating pathology, and whether these relations differed by gender. Data come from male and female first-year college students who participated in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS) between 1999-2007 (N=712). Relations among SP, AI, actual and perceived weight statuses, Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) subscale scores, and indices of body shape concern and restrictive eating were examined with hierarchical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Associations between SP and eating pathology among females were moderated by perceived weight status. By contrast, relations between males' EDI subscales scores and SP were moderated by ethnicity, as well as by actual weight status. Our findings support that sports participation alone neither promotes nor protects against eating pathology among males and females.

  18. Crescentic glomerulonephritis in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hiroshi; Kudo, Tomoo; Makino, Yoshinori; Mochizuki, Yasumasa; Takagi, Takayo; Une, Yumi

    2013-11-01

    Spontaneous crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN) in animals has only been reported in dog and sheep. We report the pathological features of CrGN in a 17-year-old male polar bear that died due to renal failure. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by fibrocellular crescents, adhesion between Bowman's capsule and the glomerular capillary tuft and an increase in the mesangial matrix in glomeruli. The proliferating cells in the crescent were partly immunopositive for cytokeratin and intensely positive for vimentin, WT-1 and α-smooth muscle actin, suggesting they originated from parietal epithelial cells. Ultrastructually, thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and loss of epithelial cell foot processes were observed with electron-dense deposits.

  19. CMS penalizes 758 hospitals for safety incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS is penalizing 758 hospitals with higher rates of patient safety incidents, and more than half of those were also fined last year, as reported by Kaiser Health News (1. Among the hospitals being financially punished are some well-known institutions, including Yale New Haven Hospital, Medstar Washington Hospital Center in DC, Grady Memorial Hospital, Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago, Indiana University Health, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Tufts Medical Center, University of North Carolina Hospital, the Cleveland Clinic, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Parkland Health and Hospital, and the University of Virginia Medical Center (Complete List of Hospitals Penalized 2016. In the Southwest the list includes Banner University Medical Center in Tucson, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Stanford Health Care, Denver Health Medical Center and the University of New Mexico Medical Center (for list of Southwest hospitals see Appendix 1. In total, CMS ...

  20. FINAL REPORT. DOE Grant Award Number DE-SC0004062

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiesa, Luisa [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    With the support of the DOE-OFES Early Career Award and the Tufts startup support the PI has developed experimental and analytical expertise on the electromechanical characterization of Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) and High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) for high magnetic field applications. These superconducting wires and cables are used in fusion and high-energy physics magnet applications. In a short period of time, the PI has built a laboratory and research group with unique capabilities that include both experimental and numerical modeling effort to improve the design and performance of superconducting cables and magnets. All the projects in the PI’s laboratory explore the fundamental electromechanical behavior of superconductors but the types of materials, geometries and operating conditions are chosen to be directly relevant to real machines, in particular fusion machines like ITER.

  1. Sarcoidosis: radiographic manifestations in the nails and distal phalanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, Brittany K.; Garner, Hillary W.; Sluzevich, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which can affect multiple organ systems. Clinical and radiologic manifestations depend on the organ system involved and the chronicity of disease. Nail involvement in sarcoidosis is rare, but is clinically relevant as it indicates chronic systemic disease. Nail abnormalities can be identified radiographically, and when seen in patients with known or suspected sarcoidosis, should prompt careful evaluation of the underlying bone for osseous involvement. We describe a case of sarcoidosis with radiographic findings in the nails and distal phalangeal tufts, which were indicative of nail and osseous sarcoid involvement and strongly supported the presence of chronic systemic disease. Although the nail findings resolved clinically and on radiographs after treatment, the osseous findings showed only minimal improvement. To our knowledge, the radiographic findings of nail sarcoidosis have not been previously addressed in the literature. (orig.)

  2. EPIDERMAL CHARACTERS OF BACCHARIS (ASTERACEAE SPECIES USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREIRE SUSANA E.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A morphological study of 38 species of Baccharis used in traditional medicinewas carried out to provide some epidermal characters that will contribute to theknowledge of the genus. The present study revealed: 1 seven different types oftrichomes: conical, aseptate fl agellate, fi liform fl agellate, 1-armed, 2-4-armed,bulbiferous fl agellate, and glandular biseriate; 2 that 28 of the total of 38 specieshave trichomes in tufts; 3 six different types of stomata: anomocytic, anisocytic,cyclocytic, actinocytic, tetracytic, and staurocytic; 4 that some trichome types,such as 2-4-armed (B. dracunculifolia and aseptate fl agellate branched (B. trinervis,show a high diagnostic value; 5 that the stomata types can be used to differentiatespecies with similar trichomes type (e.g. B. trimera and B. articulata.Illustrations of the studied characters are provided.

  3. Pediatric Digital Necrosis Secondary to Dressing Application: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Kim A; Rice, Dahlia M; Amalfi, Ashley N

    2018-04-01

    Pediatric digital necrosis resulting in revision amputation is a devastating outcome following digital dressing application. We report a series of 4 pediatric patients (age: 21 months-11 years) who presented for surgical consultation related to digital ischemia and irreversible necrosis following the application of Coban digital dressings. A review of the literature demonstrated that such injuries had not previously been described. In our case series, Coban dressing was utilized as a deterrent for thumb sucking, fingertip tuft fractures with nail bed lacerations, and a phalanx fracture secondary to crush injury. All 4 children suffered digital necrosis secondary to Coban dressings and ultimately required revision amputation. We discuss risks factors, application practices, and strategies to minimize complications with digital dressings in the pediatric population with the intent of creating awareness among hand surgeons to help promote safe practices and improve patient outcomes.

  4. A non-digging zoobenthivorous fish attracts two opportunistic predatory fish associates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sazima

    Full Text Available Following behaviour among reef fishes involves mostly a digging nuclear species while foraging, which attracts opportunistic followers preying on the exposed organisms. The flying gurnard Dactylopterus volitans preys on benthic animals, mostly crustaceans and small fishes, scratching and probing the bottom with the inner rays of its pectoral fins. We recorded the flying gurnard being followed by two opportunistic predators, the yellow jack Caranx bartholomaei and the coney Cephalopholis fulva at Fernando de Noronha, off northeast Brazil. Albeit not actually digging the substrate, the flying gurnard acts as a nuclear species by exploring algae tufts and by its wandering near the boulders and ledges, disturbing and flushing out hidden animals which thus become available to predation.

  5. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B

    1980-01-01

    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and smaller in the toad. In contrast, granulated juxtaglomerular arteriolar myoephithelial cells were much more readily found and larger in the toad than in the axolotl. No consistent differences were noted in juxtaglomerular cells or their granules in response to changes in environmental chloride concentration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7410189

  6. Documentation of the Recirculation in a Closed-Chamber Rotor Hover Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Miranda; Wadcock, Alan J.; Young, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    A rotor hover test was performed inside the JPL 25-foot-diameter Space Simulator. The 40-inch-diameter rotor was tested at two locations in the chamber-on the chamber centerline and 2m off-axis. The rotor was tested in both upright and inverted configurations for 500 < RPM < 2000. Fluorescent tufts were used to identify regions of recirculation. Velocities on the entrainment side of the rotor were measured. Tabulated values for the mean entrainment velocity components and the corresponding root mean square velocity fluctuations are provided. Unsteady velocity measurements provide a description of the turbulence ingested into the rotor plane and quantify the unsteady velocity field that the Mars Scout Helicopter can expect to encounter during free flight inside the Space Simulator.

  7. Metaphyseal sclerosis in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.; Sevcik, M.; Tallroth, K.

    1991-01-01

    We reviewed radiographs of the hand and wrists of 33 patients with immature skeletons and chronic renal disease. Various radiographic manifestations of renal osteodystrophy were seen, including osteopenia in 23 patients (70%), subperiosteal resorption in 20 (61%), distal tuft resorption in 14 (42%), sclerosis of vertebral bodies in 2 (6%), and soft-tissue calcification in 1 (3%). We also noted that 13 patients (39%) exhibited metaphyseal sclerosis adjacent to the growth plates. Five of these 13 showed persistent sclerosis years after the growth plates had fused. None of the patients showed other radiographic changes of rickets, and there was no correlation between the serum calcium, phosphorus, or aluminum levels and the presence of metaphyseal sclerosis. Neiter was there any association with the underlying cause of renal failure, method of treatment, presence of a transplant, or type of dialysis. We view this finding as another manifestation of renal osteodystrophy. The importance of distinguishing it from other sclerotic lesions is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Applying Process Improvement Methods to Clinical and Translational Research: Conceptual Framework and Case Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudelin, Denise H; Selker, Harry P; Leslie, Laurel K

    2015-12-01

    There is growing appreciation that process improvement holds promise for improving quality and efficiency across the translational research continuum but frameworks for such programs are not often described. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework and case examples of a Research Process Improvement Program implemented at Tufts CTSI. To promote research process improvement, we developed online training seminars, workshops, and in-person consultation models to describe core process improvement principles and methods, demonstrate the use of improvement tools, and illustrate the application of these methods in case examples. We implemented these methods, as well as relational coordination theory, with junior researchers, pilot funding awardees, our CTRC, and CTSI resource and service providers. The program focuses on capacity building to address common process problems and quality gaps that threaten the efficient, timely and successful completion of clinical and translational studies. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of Mie tip-vane on pressure distribution of rotor blade and power augmentation of horizontal axis wind turbine; Yokutan shoyoku Mie ben ni yoru suiheijiku fusha yokumenjo no atsuryoku bunpu no kaizen to seino kojo tono kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y.; Maeda, T.; Kamada, Y. [Mie Univ., Mie (Japan); Seto, H. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    By recent developments of exclusive rotor blade, the efficiency of wind turbine is improved substantially. By measuring pressure on rotor blades of horizontal axis wind turbines rotating in wind tunnels, this report clarified relation between improvement of pressure distribution on main rotor blades by Mie vane and upgrade of wind turbine performance. The results under mentioned have been got by measuring pressure distribution on rotor blades, visualization by tuft, and measuring resistance of Mie vane. (1) The difference of pressure between suction surface and pressure surface on the end of rotor blade increase, and output power of wind turbine improves. (2) Vortex of blade end is inhibited by Mie vane. (3) The reason of reduction on wind turbine performance with Mie vane in aria of high rotating speed ratio is the increase of Mie vane flow resistance.(NEDO)

  10. Parametric Study of Synthetic-Jet-Based Flow Control on a Vertical Tail Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastero, Marianne; Lindstrom, Annika; Beyar, Michael; Amitay, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Separation control over the rudder of the vertical tail of a commercial airplane using synthetic-jet-based flow control can lead to a reduction in tail size, with an associated decrease in drag and increase in fuel savings. A parametric, experimental study was undertaken using an array of finite span synthetic jets to investigate the sensitivity of the enhanced vertical tail side force to jet parameters, such as jet spanwise spacing and jet momentum coefficient. A generic wind tunnel model was designed and fabricated to fundamentally study the effects of the jet parameters at varying rudder deflection and model sideslip angles. Wind tunnel results obtained from pressure measurements and tuft flow visualization in the Rensselaer Polytechnic Subsonic Wind Tunnel show a decrease in separation severity and increase in model performance in comparison to the baseline, non-actuated case. The sensitivity to various parameters will be presented.

  11. Search for exotic barton resonances in the final states of K/sup -/p and K/sup -/d interactions at 2. 9 GeV/c. [Cross section upper limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staab, R.W.

    1975-11-01

    The reactions K/sup -/p ..-->.. ..xi../sup 0/..pi../sup -/..pi../sup +/K/sup 0/ in hydrogen and K/sup -/n ..-->.. ..xi../sup -/..pi../sup -/K/sup +/ in deuterium were analyzed for isotopic spin-3/2 exotic cascade resonance production at a K/sup -/ beam momentum of 2.9 GeV/c. In addition, the strangeness +1 baryons (Z*'s) were searched for in the reaction K/sup -/d ..-->.. ..xi../sup -/Z* at the same beam momentum. The three particle states under consideration lie at the corners of an exotic decuplet. The data came from the Brandeis-Maryland-Syracuse-Tufts collaboration involving two experiments at the 31'' bubble chamber at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Each involved 10/sup 6/ pictures with a 30 event/..mu..barn exposure in hydrogen and a 17 event/..mu..barn exposure in deuterium.

  12. Career transitions for persons with severe physical disabilities: integrating technological and psychosocial skills and accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, M; Licenziato, V

    1995-01-01

    This article describes a vocational training program entitled, 'Careers in Automation for Persons with Severe Physical Disabilities', that was developed by the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Tufts University School of Medicine in collaboration with the Massachusetts Rehabilitation Commission. Its goal is to secure employment for individuals with severe physical impairments by using computers and technology as job related accommodations. Psychosocial, educational, and vocational profiles are presented for 24 clients over 4 years. Three case studies involving persons with traumatic, chronic and developmental disabilities illustrate the importance of matching technological accommodations with employer needs and personal preferences. Discussion of employment outcomes illustrates that the effective use of computers and technology by persons with disabilities is best measured not by the degree of sophistication and engineering of systems and devices, but by employer and employee satisfaction with job performance and productivity.

  13. The suprastructure of the saccular macula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Komorowski, Thomas E.; Donovan, Kathleen M.; Pote, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the rat's macular end organ was examined. Primary fixatives containing 4 or 8 percent tannic acid (with 1 hr fixation time) were found to be optimal for preserving the macular suprastructure from the macular surface to the otoconia. In agreement with observations of other workers, the suprastructure of the macular end organ showed two kinds of filamentous material of different organization: the material which supports the otoconia, the 'otoconial membrane', and the filamentous material, the 'supramacular substance'. However, in contrast to earlier reports, the fluid-filled channels around the stereociliary tufts and a slitlike space immediately above the macula were found to be artefacts of tissue preparation. The results were confirmed in decalcified samples.

  14. Mucosal Ecological Network of Epithelium and Immune Cells for Gut Homeostasis and Tissue Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Yosuke; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2017-04-26

    The intestinal epithelial barrier includes columnar epithelial, Paneth, goblet, enteroendocrine, and tuft cells as well as other cell populations, all of which contribute properties essential for gastrointestinal homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa is covered by mucin, which contains antimicrobial peptides and secretory IgA and prevents luminal bacteria, fungi, and viruses from stimulating intestinal immune responses. Conversely, the transport of luminal microorganisms-mediated by M, dendritic, and goblet cells-into intestinal tissues facilitates the harmonization of active and quiescent mucosal immune responses. The bacterial population within gut-associated lymphoid tissues creates the intratissue cohabitations for harmonized mucosal immunity. Intermolecular and intercellular communication among epithelial, immune, and mesenchymal cells creates an environment conducive for epithelial regeneration and mucosal healing. This review summarizes the so-called intestinal mucosal ecological network-the complex but vital molecular and cellular interactions of epithelial mesenchymal cells, immune cells, and commensal microbiota that achieve intestinal homeostasis, regeneration, and healing.

  15. Remarkable resilience of teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Lawn, Brian R

    2009-05-05

    Tooth enamel is inherently weak, with fracture toughness comparable with glass, yet it is remarkably resilient, surviving millions of functional contacts over a lifetime. We propose a microstructural mechanism of damage resistance, based on observations from ex situ loading of human and sea otter molars (teeth with strikingly similar structural features). Section views of the enamel implicate tufts, hypomineralized crack-like defects at the enamel-dentin junction, as primary fracture sources. We report a stabilization in the evolution of these defects, by "stress shielding" from neighbors, by inhibition of ensuing crack extension from prism interweaving (decussation), and by self-healing. These factors, coupled with the capacity of the tooth configuration to limit the generation of tensile stresses in largely compressive biting, explain how teeth may absorb considerable damage over time without catastrophic failure, an outcome with strong implications concerning the adaptation of animal species to diet.

  16. Recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy after peripheral retinal laser photocoagulation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Francesco; Russo, Andrea; Delcassi, Luisa; Costagliola, Ciro

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) after performing peripheral laser photocoagulation for retinal degenerations. A 44-year-old woman with ocular history of CSC presented to the emergency room of our department complaining of heavy photopsia due to retinal tuft and lattice degenerations, and underwent laser photocoagulation to prevent retinal detachment. Two days after laser treatment, the visual acuity dropped, and optical coherence tomography scan showed the onset of CSC. The serous detachment completely resolved in 20 days with no therapy. A new CSC episode occurred in the same eye after another analogous laser treatment and, similarly, quickly resolved spontaneously. We reviewed the literature and discuss the possibility that laser-induced inflammation could rouse an inflammatory cascade mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and PAI-1, leading to the exacerbation of retinal serous detachment in susceptible patients.

  17. Development of a Kevlar/PMR-15 reduced drag DC-9 nacelle fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, R. T.; Hrach, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes an advanced composite fairing designed to reduce drag on DC-9 nacelles as a part of the NASA Engine Component Improvement Program. This fairing is the aft enclosure for the thrust reverser actuator system on JT8D engine nacelles and is subjected to a 500 F exhaust flow during the reverse thrust. A reduced-drag configuration was developed by using in-flight tuft surveys for flow visualization in order to identify areas with low-quality flow, and then modifying the aerodynamic lines to improve the flow. A fabrication method for molding the part in an autoclave was developed; this material system is suitable for 500 F. The resultant composite fairing reduces the overall aircraft drag 1% with a weight reduction of 40% when compared with a metal component.

  18. La comunicación para la salud como disciplina en las universidades estadounidenses Health communication as a field of study in universities in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Alcalay

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the state of development of communications related to health in universities of the United States of America. This specialty is essential for people's well-being, and it involves interpersonal, organizational, and mass communications. In the United States, communications for health promotion is an area of applied communications with social relevance and generally performed in interdisciplinary settings. A number of universities in the United States offer communications master's degree programs with an emphasis on health. However, so far, the only program with a formal graduate degree in health and communications is one jointly offered by the Emerson University Department of Communications and the Tufts School of Medicine. Developing and including this specialization in the schools of communications in Latin America is crucial to improving the quality of life of the peoples of the continent.

  19. Crescentic Glomerulonephritis in a Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BABA, Hiroshi; KUDO, Tomoo; MAKINO, Yoshinori; MOCHIZUKI, Yasumasa; TAKAGI, Takayo; UNE, Yumi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spontaneous crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN) in animals has only been reported in dog and sheep. We report the pathological features of CrGN in a 17-year-old male polar bear that died due to renal failure. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by fibrocellular crescents, adhesion between Bowman’s capsule and the glomerular capillary tuft and an increase in the mesangial matrix in glomeruli. The proliferating cells in the crescent were partly immunopositive for cytokeratin and intensely positive for vimentin, WT-1 and α-smooth muscle actin, suggesting they originated from parietal epithelial cells. Ultrastructually, thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and loss of epithelial cell foot processes were observed with electron-dense deposits. PMID:23856758

  20. High ability: Giftedness and talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Prieto Sánchez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the journal aims at putting together national and international research on high abilities, and is divided into three sections: 1 Roles and cognitive, emotional and professional competences of high ability students’ teachers, 2 Identification and assessment of high ability students, 3 Analysis of practices, programs and mentoring of high ability students’ attention to diversity.The articles are authored by scholars from nine different countries (Spain, Argentina, UK, USA, Russia, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Portugal and Poland, from sixteen different Spanish and international universities: Alicante (Spain, Autónoma de Barcelona (Spain, Málaga (Spain, Murcia (Spain, Navarra (Spain, Oviedo (Spain, Tufts University (USA, Yale University (USA, Moscow State University (Russia, Nacional de La Plata (Argentina, University of Connecticut (USA, Universidade do Minho (Portugal, Universidade da Beira Interior (Portugal, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, King Faisal University (Saudi Arabia and Universidad de Szczecin (Poland.

  1. Tracing the origin of glomerular extracapillary lesions from parietal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Bart; Uhlig, Sandra; Fuss, Astrid; Mooren, Fieke; Wetzels, Jack F M; Floege, Jürgen; Moeller, Marcus J

    2009-12-01

    Cellular lesions form in Bowman's space in both crescentic glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy. The pathomechanism and origin of the proliferating cells in these lesions are unknown. In this study, we examined proliferating cells by lineage tracing of either podocytes or parietal epithelial cells (PECs) in the nephrotoxic nephritis model of inflammatory crescentic glomerulonephritis. In addition, we traced the fate of genetically labeled PECs in the Thy-1.1 transgenic mouse model of collapsing glomerulopathy. In both models, cellular bridges composed of PECs were observed between Bowman's capsule and the glomerular tuft. Genetically labeled PECs also populated larger, more advanced cellular lesions. In these lesions, we detected de novo expression of CD44 in activated PECs. In contrast, we rarely identified genetically labeled podocytes within the cellular lesions of crescentic glomerulonephritis. In conclusion, PECs constitute the majority of cells that compose early extracapillary proliferative lesions in both crescentic glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy, suggesting similar pathomechanisms in both diseases.

  2. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on kidneys in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histolopathological effect of doxorubicin on rat kidney tissue. The drug was administrated by rats at the dose of (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mg/kg intrapertonial every (84 hr for the three weeks and the doses of (1, 2, 3 mg/kg intrapertonial every 84 hrs for six weeks. The animals were scarified after 48 hr. of last injection. The study revealed congestion, thrombus, blood vessels hemorrhage, vaculation in the cells of glomerular tuft and tubular, tubuo-interstitial degeneration, tubular casts. The injury score revealed significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules in the animals that received 5 mg/kg of doxorubicin for three weeks and also significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules of the animals that received 3 mg/kg of doxorubicin for six weeks as compared with control animals. We concluded that the doxorubicin has histopathological effect on kidney.

  3. Pushing Back the Origin of Bantu Lexicography: The Vocabularium Congense of 1652, 1928, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kind, Jasper; de Schryver, Gilles-Maurice; Bostoen, Koen

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the oldest Bantu dictionary hitherto known is explored, that is the Vocabularium Latinum, Hispanicum, e Congense, handed down to us through a manuscript from 1652 by the Flemish Capuchin Joris van Gheel, missionary in the Kongo (present-day north-western Angola and the southern part of the Lower Congo Province of the DRC). The manuscript was heavily reworked by the Belgian Jesuits Joseph van Wing and Constant Penders, and published in 1928. Both works are currently being digitized, linked and added to an interlingual and multimedia database that revolves around Kikongo and the early history of the Kongo kingdom. In Sections 1 and 2 the origins of Bantu lexicography in general and of Kikongo metalexicography in particular are revisited. Sections 3 and 4 are devoted to a study of Van Gheel’s manuscript and an analysis of Van Wing and Penders’ rework. In Sections 5 and 6 translation equivalence and lexicographical structure in both dictionaries are scrutinized and compared. In Section 7, finally, all the material is brought together. PMID:23814547

  4. The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Simon M; Hager, Yfke; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-04-12

    There are consistent individual differences in human intelligence, attributable to a single 'general intelligence' factor, g. The evolutionary basis of g and its links to social learning and culture remain controversial. Conflicting hypotheses regard primate cognition as divided into specialized, independently evolving modules versus a single general process. To assess how processes underlying culture relate to one another and other cognitive capacities, we compiled ecologically relevant cognitive measures from multiple domains, namely reported incidences of behavioural innovation, social learning, tool use, extractive foraging and tactical deception, in 62 primate species. All exhibited strong positive associations in principal component and factor analyses, after statistically controlling for multiple potential confounds. This highly correlated composite of cognitive traits suggests social, technical and ecological abilities have coevolved in primates, indicative of an across-species general intelligence that includes elements of cultural intelligence. Our composite species-level measure of general intelligence, 'primate g(S)', covaried with both brain volume and captive learning performance measures. Our findings question the independence of cognitive traits and do not support 'massive modularity' in primate cognition, nor an exclusively social model of primate intelligence. High general intelligence has independently evolved at least four times, with convergent evolution in capuchins, baboons, macaques and great apes.

  5. Entre la retórica legal y eclesiástica:una misión antiesclavista en el siglo XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Moreno Orama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1537 la Iglesia prohibió la esclavitud de los amerindios, y no sería sino hasta 1839 que hiciera lo mismo con la esclavitud africana. Entre los siglos entre una postura a la otra, la impugnación religiosa de la esclavitud africana estuvo en manos de unos cuantos misioneros. Este trabajo discute cómo a través del empleo de la retórica legal y eclesiástica, el capuchino Francisco José de Jaca construye en su Resolución (La Habana, 1681un proyecto misionero alterno, centrado en la denuncia del cuerpo católico envuelto en la esclavitud y no en la evangelización de los africanos. In 1537 the Catholic Church prohibited Amerindian slavery, but not until 1839 would they do the same with African slavery. Between the centuries that span from one position to the other, religious condemnation of African slavery was in the hands of but a few missionaries. This work discusses how, through the employment of legal and ecclesiastic rhetoric, the Capuchin monk Francisco José de Jaca constructs in his Resolución (Havana, 1681 an alternative missionary project, focused on the denunciation of the Catholic body involved in the slavery institution and not on the evangelization of Africans.

  6. Fission-fusion dynamics, behavioral flexibility, and inhibitory control in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Federica; Aureli, Filippo; Call, Josep

    2008-09-23

    The Machiavellian Intelligence or Social Brain Hypothesis explains the evolution of increased brain size as mainly driven by living in complex organized social systems in which individuals represent "moving targets" who can adopt multiple strategies to respond to one another. Frequently splitting and merging in subgroups of variable composition (fission-fusion or FF dynamics) has been proposed as one aspect of social complexity ( compare with) that may be associated with an enhancement of cognitive skills like inhibition, which allows the suppression of prepotent but ineffective responses in a changing social environment. We compared the performance of primates experiencing high levels of FF dynamics (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and spider monkeys) to that of species living in more cohesive groups (gorillas, capuchin monkeys, and long-tailed macaques) on five inhibition tasks. Testing species differing in diet, phylogenetic relatedness, and levels of FF dynamics allowed us to contrast ecological, phylogenetic, and socioecological explanations for interspecific differences. Spider monkeys performed at levels comparable to chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans, and better than gorillas. A two-cluster analysis grouped all species with higher levels of FF dynamics together. These findings confirmed that enhanced inhibitory skills are positively associated with FF dynamics, more than to phylogenetic relations or feeding ecology.

  7. The origins of cognitive dissonance: evidence from children and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Louisa C; Santos, Laurie R; Bloom, Paul

    2007-11-01

    In a study exploring the origins of cognitive dissonance, preschoolers and capuchins were given a choice between two equally preferred alternatives (two different stickers and two differently colored M&M's, respectively). On the basis of previous research with adults, this choice was thought to cause dissonance because it conflicted with subjects' belief that the two options were equally valuable. We therefore expected subjects to change their attitude toward the unchosen alternative, deeming it less valuable. We then presented subjects with a choice between the unchosen option and an option that was originally as attractive as both options in the first choice. Both groups preferred the novel over the unchosen option in this experimental condition, but not in a control condition in which they did not take part in the first decision. These results provide the first evidence of decision rationalization in children and nonhuman primates. They suggest that the mechanisms underlying cognitive-dissonance reduction in human adults may have originated both developmentally and evolutionarily earlier than previously thought.

  8. A time for dogma, a time for the Bible, a time for condoms: building a Catholic theology of prevention in the face of public health policies at Casa Fonte Colombo in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffner, Fernando; Garcia, Jonathan; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Parker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Casa Fonte Colombo (CFC) is a religious organisation that assists people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The funding for its activities comes from public sources such as the Brazilian National STD/AIDS Program as well as the Catholic Church. Capuchin (Franciscan) priests run the CFC and it has an extensive group of volunteers made up mostly of women. Between 2006 and 2009, we observed daily life at the CFC and interviewed priests, volunteers, employees, service providers, and clients. We also attended meetings, group sessions, and celebrations. Everyday actions carried out by the CFC reveal the efforts to resolve the tension between the position of the Catholic Church and the Brazilian state in the politics of AIDS. These efforts affirm that the CFC presents itself as a space where the position of the Catholic Church, as much as the politics of public health, are re-worked, giving way to a progressive act of Catholic prevention and assistance for AIDS that we call 'theology of prevention'.

  9. CURRENT STATE OF CONSERVATION, FIRST PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD AND POPULATION ESTIMATION OF THE COASTAL JAGUAR (Panthera onca centralis AND RECORDS OF COMPANION FAUNA OF MEDIUM-SIZED AND HIGHER MAMMALS IN THE PROTECTED FOREST CERRO BLANCO OF THE CHONGÓN COLONCHE MOUNTAIN RANGE, GUAYAQUIL – ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saavedra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chongón-Colonche Mountain Range is important for their goods and environmental services, its high biodiversity, and being one of the few coastal regions of Ecuador, which still houses the coastal Jaguar Panthera onca centralis. In the Forest Protector Cerro Blanco (BPCB, last Southeast extension of the mountain chain, it was developed the field research through the data collection with direct and indirect medium-sized and higher mammals’ records. Besides a Cuddeback Digital camera trap was used, by selecting a sampling point within a probable route of the jaguar. Inspections in a nearby quarry were made to observe traces of major feline registries. The same consolidated past sightings or evidence of witnesses which complemented the study for the determination of the status of the species in the BPCB. The study showed indirect and direct records of white-tailed deer, peccaries, raccoons, agoutis, wild rabbits, howler monkeys, Capuchin white or monkeys, agouti, bears Anteaters and Jaguars from the coast for which it is considered that the BPCB is probably a meeting place between two individuals; however, it is important to note that the results presented are preliminary.

  10. Pushing Back the Origin of Bantu Lexicography: The Vocabularium Congense of 1652, 1928, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kind, Jasper; de Schryver, Gilles-Maurice; Bostoen, Koen

    2012-12-01

    In this article, the oldest Bantu dictionary hitherto known is explored, that is the Vocabularium Latinum, Hispanicum, e Congense , handed down to us through a manuscript from 1652 by the Flemish Capuchin Joris van Gheel, missionary in the Kongo (present-day north-western Angola and the southern part of the Lower Congo Province of the DRC). The manuscript was heavily reworked by the Belgian Jesuits Joseph van Wing and Constant Penders, and published in 1928. Both works are currently being digitized, linked and added to an interlingual and multimedia database that revolves around Kikongo and the early history of the Kongo kingdom. In Sections 1 and 2 the origins of Bantu lexicography in general and of Kikongo metalexicography in particular are revisited. Sections 3 and 4 are devoted to a study of Van Gheel's manuscript and an analysis of Van Wing and Penders' rework. In Sections 5 and 6 translation equivalence and lexicographical structure in both dictionaries are scrutinized and compared. In Section 7, finally, all the material is brought together.

  11. Neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons in the cerebral cortex of humans and other haplorrhine primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghanti, Mary Ann; Conley, Tiffini; Sudduth, Jessica; Erwin, Joseph M.; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the distribution of neurons immunoreactive for neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the posterior part of the superior temporal cortex (Brodmann's area 22 or area Tpt) of humans and nonhuman haplorrhine primates. NPY has been implicated in learning and memory and the density of NPY-expressing cortical neurons and axons is reduced in depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Due to the role that NPY plays in both cognition and neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that the density of cortical and interstitial neurons expressing NPY was increased in humans relative to other primate species. The study sample included great apes (chimpanzee and gorilla), Old World monkeys (pigtailed macaque, moor macaque, and baboon) and New World monkeys (squirrel monkey and capuchin). Stereologic methods were used to estimate the density of NPY-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in layers I-VI of area Tpt and the subjacent white matter. Adjacent Nissl-stained sections were used to calculate local densities of all neurons. The ratio of NPY-ir neurons to total neurons within area Tpt and the total density of NPY-ir neurons within the white matter were compared among species. Overall, NPY-ir neurons represented only an average of 0.006% of the total neuron population. While there were significant differences among species, phylogenetic trends in NPY-ir neuron distributions were not observed and humans did not differ from other primates. However, variation among species warrants further investigation into the distribution of this neuromodulator system. PMID:23042407

  12. Responses to a simple barter task in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; de Waal, Frans B M

    2005-07-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) frequently participate in social exchange involving multiple goods and services of variable value, yet they have not been tested in a formalized situation to see whether they can barter using multiple tokens and rewards. We set up a simple barter economy with two tokens and two associated rewards and tested chimpanzees on their ability to obtain rewards by returning the matching token in situations in which their access to tokens was unlimited or limited. Chimpanzees easily learned to associate value with the tokens, as expected, and did barter, but followed a simple strategy of favoring the higher-value token, regardless of the reward proffered, instead of a more complex but more effective strategy of returning the token that matched the reward. This response is similar to that shown by capuchin monkeys in our previous study. We speculate that this response, while not ideal, may be sufficient to allow for stability of the social exchange system in these primates, and that the importance of social barter to both species may have led to this convergence of strategies.

  13. Radiation retinopathy as an experimental model for ischemic proliferative retinopathy and rubeosis iridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, A.R.; Wood, I.S.

    1987-01-01

    We produced radiation retinopathy in capuchin monkeys and studied them with fluorescein angiography and light and electron microscopy. The animals were followed up from ten days to 3 1/2 years after radiation in order to determine whether this could provide an experimental model for other chronic ischemic-proliferative retinopathies, such as diabetes. The first change detected after radiation was the focal loss of capillary endothelial cells and pericytes. As the areas of acellular capillaries became confluent, cotton-wool spots became visible ophthalmoscopically. These increased in number and then faded away, leaving large areas of retinal capillary perfusion. Histologic studies showed occlusion first of the deeper, smaller retinal vessels and then gradually of the larger vessels. Intraretinal neovascularization as well as apparent recanalization then developed, but no new vessels extended through the internal limiting lamina into the vitreous. Rubeosis iridis with neovascular glaucoma developed 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 years postirradiation, and vitreous aspirate demonstrated a high level of angiogenic factor

  14. Response to social challenge in young bonnet (Macaca radiata) and pigtail (Macaca nemestrina) macaques is related to early maternal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ann; Richardson, Rebecca; Worlein, Julie; De Waal, Frans; Laudenslager, Mark

    2004-04-01

    Previous experience affects how young primates respond to challenging social situations. The present retrospective study looked at one aspect of early experience, the quality of the mother-infant relationship, to determine its relationship to young bonnet and pigtail macaques' responses to two social challenges: temporary maternal separation at 5-6 months and permanent transfer to an unfamiliar peer group at 16-17 months. Relationship quality was measured quantitatively on 30 macaque mother-infant pairs with the Relationship Quality Index (RQI), the ratio of relative affiliation to relative agonism as previously applied to capuchin monkeys. Infants with high RQI values had amicable mother-infant relationships and infants with low RQI values had agonistic mother-infant relationships. Young monkeys with amicable and agonistic relationships showed consistent differences in behavior before, during, and after each social challenge, supporting the hypothesis that juveniles from amicable mother-infant relationships based on the RQI coped more effectively with social challenges than did juveniles from agonistic mother-infant relationships. Results suggest 1) characteristic amicability or agonism in early mother-offspring macaque relationships has the potential to influence offspring behavior in tense social contexts and 2) the RQI is useful as one of a coordinated suite of methods for studying the development of social skills. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. High consumption of primates by pumas and ocelots in a remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    JL Santos

    Full Text Available We studied the diet of the ocelot and puma during the years 2007 and 2008 at the Feliciano Miguel Abdala Reserve, in Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. We collected 49 faecal samples (scats from cats, and identified the species of cat from 23 of them by the analysis of the microstructure patterns of hairs found in their faeces: 17 scats of the puma (Puma concolor and six of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis. In the puma scats, we identified three species of primates (Brachyteles hypoxanthus, Alouatta guariba and Sapajus nigritus, the remains of which were found in eight of 17 collected (47.1%, representing 26.7% of items consumed. For the ocelot, we detected capuchin monkey (S. nigritus remains in three of the six scats (50%, accounting for 18.7% of items consumed by ocelot. We were unable to identify the cat species in the remaining 26 faecal samples, but we were able to analyse the food items present. Primates were found in five of these 26 faeces (19.2% and represented 10.2% of the items found. Although the sample size is limited, our results indicate a relatively high consumption of primates by felines. We believe that this high predation may be the result of the high local density of primates as well as the greater exposure to the risks of predation in fragmented landscapes, which tends to increase the incidence of the primates using the ground.

  16. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-05-01

    Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. A time for dogma, a time for the Bible, a time for condoms: Building a Catholic theology of prevention in the face of public health policies at Casa Fonte Colombo in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffner, Fernando; Garcia, Jonathan; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Parker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Casa Fonte Colombo (CFC) is a religious organisation that assists people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The funding for its activities comes from public sources such as the Brazilian National STD/AIDS Program as well as the Catholic Church. Capuchin (Franciscan) priests run the CFC, and it has an extensive group of volunteers made up mostly of women. Between 2006 and 2009, we observed daily life at the Casa Fonte Colombo and interviewed priests, volunteers, employees, service providers, and clients. We also attended meetings, group sessions, and celebrations. Everyday actions carried out by the CFC reveal the efforts to resolve the tension between the position of the Catholic Church and the Brazilian state in the politics of AIDS. These efforts affirm that the Casa Fonte Colombo presents itself as a space where the position of the Catholic Church, as much as the politics of public health, are re-worked, giving way to a progressive act of Catholic prevention and assistance for AIDS, that we call “theology of prevention.” PMID:21834734

  18. The ecology of primate material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

    2014-11-01

    Tool use in extant primates may inform our understanding of the conditions that favoured the expansion of hominin technology and material culture. The 'method of exclusion' has, arguably, confirmed the presence of culture in wild animal populations by excluding ecological and genetic explanations for geographical variation in behaviour. However, this method neglects ecological influences on culture, which, ironically, may be critical for understanding technology and thus material culture. We review all the current evidence for the role of ecology in shaping material culture in three habitual tool-using non-human primates: chimpanzees, orangutans and capuchin monkeys. We show that environmental opportunity, rather than necessity, is the main driver. We argue that a better understanding of primate technology requires explicit investigation of the role of ecological conditions. We propose a model in which three sets of factors, namely environment, sociality and cognition, influence invention, transmission and retention of material culture. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  20. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

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    Stephanie Maiolino

    Full Text Available Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans. Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21, tegulae (n = 4, and grooming claws (n = 10, and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.