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Sample records for tufted capuchin cebus

  1. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Mikkelsen, L F; Hau, J

    2010-01-01

    The authors provided different forms of environmental enrichment to six old laboratory male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and studied the behavior of the monkeys during a baseline period and during three enrichment periods. Each observation period lasted 5 d, with an interval of 6 d...... Buster cubes, wood cylinders and bark shavings. When provided with enrichment, the monkeys engaged in natural, species-specific activities and began to exhibit behavioral profiles that more closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. This suggests that their psychological well-being had...

  2. Throwing behavior and mass distribution of stone selection in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

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    Cleveland, A; Rocca, A R; Wendt, E L; Westergaard, G C

    2003-12-01

    Cannell [Journal of Archaeological Science 29:335-339, 2002] argued that sex-based differences among humans in terms of the mass of chosen throwing stones could be used to infer body mass and patterns of sexual dimorphism in early hominids from Olduvai and Koobi Fora by examining the mass distributions of unaltered stone tools at those sites. We examined this hypothesis in tufted capuchin monkeys using a comparative approach, by investigating the relationships among body mass, sex, stone weight preference, and accuracy in a throwing task. The subject sample consisted of nine monkeys trained to perform an aimed-throwing task in which a food reward could be obtained by throwing a stone into a bucket. We found that 1) the subjects showed a strong mean stone mass preference; 2) the females chose heavier stones than the males, in terms of absolute mean selected stone mass and selected stone mass relative to body mass; 3) subjects threw more accurately when they used stones of preferred mass vs. stones of nonpreferred mass; and 4) overall, the males were more accurate in the throwing task than the females. We conclude that capuchins are highly selective when choosing throwing stones, and that this confers an advantage for throwing accuracy. Our results indicate that the sexually dimorphic pattern in stone mass preference observed among humans does not generalize to Cebus apella. We suggest that researchers examining this pattern in humans in an attempt to explain early hominid patterns of dimorphism and behavior should take into account not only stone weight preference, but also its adaptive advantage. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Individual and seasonal variation in fecal testosterone and cortisol levels of wild male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella nigritus.

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    Lynch, Jessica W; Ziegler, Toni E; Strier, Karen B

    2002-05-01

    This study tested the "challenge hypothesis" and rank-based predictions for temporal steroid production in male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Fecal samples (n = 209) collected from six wild males were analyzed for testosterone and cortisol concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The temporal pattern in male steroid production was compared to female sexual activity and rates of male aggression. The top-ranking adult male did not differ from other adult males in testosterone or cortisol concentration. Mean adult testosterone was significantly higher than mean subadult testosterone throughout the year. There was a clear elevation of testosterone and cortisol in both adult and subadult males during the peak of adult female sexual activity after the birth season. In fact, the magnitude of increase in testosterone was higher than predicted for a species with low male-male aggression. However, there was no difference between nonbreeding baseline testosterone levels during the birth season, and the "breeding" baseline of testosterone in males found during asynchronous female sexual activity. Of all behavioral indices examined, the distribution of female-maintained consortships was the best predictor of mean adult male testosterone concentrations. Although in many species, elevated testosterone coincides with increased male-male aggression, in the present study, the sustained high-magnitude increase in steroids during the peak of adult female sexual activity was associated with a relatively low rate of male-male intragroup aggression. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  4. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite protozoan. A large percentage of animals presents specific antibodies caused by a previous exposition, resulting in a chronic infection. Felides are the definitive hosts and the other warm-blooded animals, including primates, are the intermediate hosts. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-living tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station located on Mata de Santa Teresa, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. T. gondii antibodies were analyzed by modified agglutination test (MAT in serum samples of 36 tufted capuchin monkeys, considering eight as cut-off titer. From the studied animals, 3/36 (8.33%; CI95% 3.0-21.9% presented T. gondii antibodies, all with titer 32. No significative difference was observed relating to the sex (1/3 male and 2/3 female, and to the age (1/3 young and 2/3 adult (P>0.05. Thus, these results demonstrate the presence of T. gondii antibodies in primates from São Paulo state.

  5. How to spend a token? Trade-offs between food variety and food preference in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

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    Addessi, Elsa; Mancini, Alessandra; Crescimbene, Lara; Ariely, Dan; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2010-03-01

    Humans and non-human animals often choose among different alternatives by seeking variety. Here we assessed whether variety-seeking, i.e. the tendency to look for diversity in services and goods, occurs in capuchin monkeys--South-American primates which--as humans--are omnivorous and susceptible to food monotony. Capuchins chose between a Variety-token, that allowed to select one among 10 different foods (one more-preferred and nine less-preferred) and a Monotony-token, that--upon exchange with the experimenter--either allowed to select one among 10 units of the same more-preferred food or gave access to one unit of the more-preferred food. To examine how food preference affects variety-seeking, in the B-condition we presented nine moderately preferred foods, whereas in the C-condition we presented nine low-preferred foods. Overall, capuchins preferred the Variety-token over the Monotony-token and often selected one of the less-preferred foods. These results suggest that variety-seeking is rooted in our evolutionary history, and that it satisfies the need of experiencing stimulation from the environment; at the ultimate level, variety-seeking may allow the organism to exploit novel foods and obtain a correct nutritional intake. Finally, variety-seeking could have contributed to the transition from barter to money in many human cultures. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiothoracic ratio and vertebral heart size (VHS to standardize the heart size of the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella Linnaeus, 1758 in computerized radiographic images

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    Hermínio J. Rocha-Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The VHS and CTR were assessed using computerized thoracic radiographs of ten clinically healthy tufted capuchin monkeys (five males and five females from the Wild Animal Screening Center in São Luís (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de São Luís-MA-CETAS. Radiographs were taken in laterolateral and dorsoventral projections to calculate the cardiothoracic ratio (VHS and vertebral heart size (CTR. The VHS showed mean values of 9.34±0.32v (males and 9.16±0.34v (females and there was no statistical difference between males and females (p>0.05. The CTR showed mean values of 0.55±0.04 (males and 0.52±0.03 (females and there was no statistical difference between the sexes (p>0.05. There was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.78. The thoracic and heart diameters showed mean values of 5.70±0.48cm and 2.16±0.40cm in the males, respectively. In the females they measured 5.32±0.39cm and 2.94±0.32cm. There was no statistical difference between the sexes. Our results show that the high correlation found between VHS and CTR permitted the verification with similar clinical precision between the two methods to estimate alterations in the heart silhouette by radiographic examination of tufted capuchin, making it an easy technique to apply that can be considered in the investigation of heart problems for this wild species.

  7. Individual differences in responses toward a mirror by captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella / Differenze individuali nelle risposte allo specchio nei cebi dai cornetti (Cebus apella

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    M. Cristina Riviello

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study examines the responses directed toward a mirror by capuchin monkeys tested both individually (Phases I-III and in group (Phase IV. Subjects were four laboratory-born and tool-using Cebus apella. Manipulative responses decreased over phases for all subjects, whereas social responses decreased in the two adult monkeys and increased in the two juveniles. In addition, one subject preformed peculiar manipulations of the mirror, and the adult male showed reactions typical of psychological distress. No evidence of self-recognition was found. Riassunto Questo studio esamina i comportamenti diretti allo specchio di alcuni cebi dai cornetti testati sia individualmente (Fase I-III sia in gruppo (Fase IV allo scopo di investigare capacità di autoriconoscimento in questa specie. Sono stati osservati 4 soggetti appartenenti a differenti classi di età. Le risposte allo specchio sono state di tipo sociale e manipolativo. Durante il corso delle osservazioni le risposte manipolative sono diminuite in tutti i soggetti presi in esame mentre quelle sociali sono aumentate nei giovani e diminuite negli adulti. Nel corso dell'esperimento i cebi non hanno mostrato capacità di autoriconoscimento.

  8. Color Discrimination in the Tufted Capuchin Monkey, Sapajus spp

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    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an “ML protanope.” For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u′v′ diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the “classic” protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the “classic” and “ML” protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats. PMID:23620819

  9. Jaw-muscle fiber architecture in tufted capuchins favors generating relatively large muscle forces without compromising jaw gape

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    Taylor, Andrea B.; Vinyard, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Cebus apella is renowned for its dietary flexibility and capacity to exploit hard and tough objects. Cebus apella differs from other capuchins in displaying a suite of craniodental features that have been functionally and adaptively linked to their feeding behavior, particularly the generation and dissipation of relatively large jaw forces. We compared fiber architecture of the masseter and temporalis muscles between the tufted capuchin (C. apella; n = 12 ) and two “untufted” capuchins (C. capuchinus, n = 3; C. albifrons, n = 5). These three species share broadly similar diets, but tufted capuchins occasionally exploit mechanically challenging tissues. We tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits architectural properties of their jaw muscles that facilitate relatively large forces, including relatively greater physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSA), more pinnate fibers, and lower ratios of mass to tetanic tension (Mass/P0). Results show some evidence supporting these predictions, as C. apella has relatively greater superficial masseter, whole masseter, and temporalis PCSAs, significantly so only for the temporalis following Bonferroni adjustment. Capuchins did not differ in pinnation angle or Mass/P0. As an architectural trade-off between maximizing muscle force and muscle excursion/contraction velocity, we also tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits relatively shorter muscle fibers. Contrary to our prediction, there are no significant differences in relative fiber lengths between tufted and untufted capuchins. Therefore, we attribute the relatively greater PCSAs in C. apella primarily to their larger muscle masses. These findings suggest that relatively large jaw-muscle PCSAs can be added to the suite of masticatory features that have been functionally linked to the exploitation of a more resistant diet by C. apella. By enlarging jaw-muscle mass to increase PCSA, rather than reducing fiber lengths and increasing pinnation, tufted capuchins appear

  10. Analogical reasoning in a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella).

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    Kennedy, Erica Hoy; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2008-05-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that analogical reasoning (recognizing similarities among object relations when the objects themselves are dissimilar) is limited to humans and apes. This study investigated whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) can use analogical reasoning to solve a 3-dimensional search task. The task involved hiding a food item under 1 of 2 or 3 plastic cups of different sizes and then allowing subjects to search for food hidden under the cup of analogous size in their own set of cups. Four monkeys were exposed to a series of relational matching tasks. If subjects reached criterion on these tasks, they were exposed to relational transfer tasks involving novel stimuli. Three of the monkeys failed to reach criterion on the basic relational matching tasks and therefore were not tested further. One monkey, however, revealed above-chance performance on a series of transfer tasks with 3 novel stimuli. This evidence suggests that contrary to previous arguments, a member of a New World monkey species can solve an analogical problem. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin.

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    Saito, M; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, N; Hirasawa, M; Takada, K

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism was isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin (Cebus apella). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of the organism within the genus Streptococcus. Strain M8T was related most closely to Streptococcus oralis ATCC 35037T (96.17 % similarity) followed by Streptococcus massiliensis CCUG 49690T (95.90 %) based on the 16S rRNA gene. Strain M8T was related most closely to S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (86.58 %) based on the RNA polymerase β subunit-encoding gene (rpoB), and to Streptococcus tigurinus AZ_3aT (81.26 %) followed by S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (80.45 %) based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA, rpoB and groEL gene sequences showed that strain M8T was most closely related to S. massiliensis. Based on phenotypic characterization as well as 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping gene (rpoB and groEL) sequence data, a novel taxon, Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov. (type strain M8T = JCM 30719T = DSM 100101T), is proposed.

  12. Information seeking in capuchins (Cebus apella): a rudimentary form of metacognition?

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    Vining, Alexander Q; Marsh, Heidi L

    2015-05-01

    In previous research, great apes and rhesus macaques have demonstrated multiple apparently metacognitive abilities, whereas capuchin monkeys have not. The present experiment investigated whether at least a rudimentary form of metacognition might be demonstrated in capuchins if a simplified metacognitive task was used. Capuchins (Cebus apella) were required to locate a food reward hidden beneath one of two inverted cups that sat on a Plexiglas tray. In some conditions, the capuchins were shown where the food was hidden, in others they could infer its location, and in yet others they were not given information about the location of the food. On all trials, capuchins could optionally seek information about the food's location by looking up through the Plexiglas beneath the cups. In general, capuchins did this less often when they were shown the food reward, but not when they could infer the reward's location. These data suggest that capuchins-if metacognitive-only metacognitively control their information seeking in some conditions, particularly those in which information is presented in the visual domain. This may represent a rudimentary version of metacognitive control, in comparison with that seen in great apes and humans.

  13. The effect of dietary adaption on cranial morphological integration in capuchins (order Primates, genus Cebus.

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    Jana Makedonska

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C. apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C. albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback

  14. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

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    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  15. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

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    Jack, Katharine M; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sheller, Claire R; Rich, Catherine I; Klingelhofer, Peter P; Ziegler, Toni E; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Perception of the Müller-Lyer illusion in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

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    Suganuma, Elisa; Pessoa, Valdir Filgueiras; Monge-Fuentes, Victoria; Castro, Bráulio Magalhães; Tavares, Maria Clotilde Henriques

    2007-08-22

    Visual illusions are formed by differences between the perception of one figure and its real physical characteristics. The Müller-Lyer illusion is the best known and most studied geometric illusion, consisting in the subject's judgment between two parallel lines that have the same size, one flanked with outward-pointing arrowheads, and the other with inward-pointing arrowheads. These arrowheads act as inductors that make the lines to be perceived as having different sizes, inward-pointing stimuli being estimated as longer. This study aimed to investigate the Müller-Lyer illusion in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), a New World primate not yet investigated for this illusion. For this purpose, stimuli were presented on a touch screen monitor. Ten adult subjects (five females and five males) were used. Before the tests, they were trained to discriminate between two physically different lines with and without arrowheads. The longer lines were always the positive (rewarded) stimuli. Regarding the Müller-Lyer Illusion test, all monkeys, unrespective of gender, demonstrated susceptibility to the illusion, by choosing preferentially the line with inward-pointing arrowheads. In order to determine the degree of the illusion, a point of subjective equality test (PSE) was performed. The PSE without arrowheads values were lower than the PSE with arrowheads. Thus, it was demonstrated that capuchin monkeys were susceptible to the Müller-Lyer illusion, once the perception of the lines' size was influenced by the presence of the arrowheads and by their orientation.

  17. Do Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Diagnose Causal Relations in the Absence of a Direct Reward?

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    Edwards, Brian J.; Rottman, Benjamin M.; Shankar, Maya; Betzler, Riana; Chituc, Vladimir; Rodriguez, Ricardo; Silva, Liara; Wibecan, Leah; Widness, Jane; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    We adapted a method from developmental psychology [1] to explore whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) would place objects on a “blicket detector” machine to diagnose causal relations in the absence of a direct reward. Across five experiments, monkeys could place different objects on the machine and obtain evidence about the objects’ causal properties based on whether each object “activated” the machine. In Experiments 1–3, monkeys received both audiovisual cues and a food reward whenever the machine activated. In these experiments, monkeys spontaneously placed objects on the machine and succeeded at discriminating various patterns of statistical evidence. In Experiments 4 and 5, we modified the procedure so that in the learning trials, monkeys received the audiovisual cues when the machine activated, but did not receive a food reward. In these experiments, monkeys failed to test novel objects in the absence of an immediate food reward, even when doing so could provide critical information about how to obtain a reward in future test trials in which the food reward delivery device was reattached. The present studies suggest that the gap between human and animal causal cognition may be in part a gap of motivation. Specifically, we propose that monkey causal learning is motivated by the desire to obtain a direct reward, and that unlike humans, monkeys do not engage in learning for learning’s sake. PMID:24586347

  18. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

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    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  19. Color-vision polymorphism in wild capuchins (Cebus capucinus) and spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Costa Rica.

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    Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Tsutsui, Toko; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Aureli, Filippo; Fedigan, Linda M; Kawamura, Shoji

    2005-12-01

    New World monkeys are unique in exhibiting a color-vision polymorphism due to an allelic variation of the red-green visual pigment gene. This makes these monkeys excellent subjects for studying the adaptive evolution of the visual system from both molecular and ecological viewpoints. However, the allele frequencies of the pigments within a natural population have not been well investigated. As a first step toward understanding the relationship between vision and behavior, we conducted color-vision typing by analyzing fecal DNA from two wild groups of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) and one group of black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) inhabiting Santa Rosa National Park of Costa Rica. All color-typed monkeys were individually identified. In C. capucinus and A. geoffroyi we found three and two pigment types, respectively, and the spectral mechanism that created one of the two Ateles pigments was found to be novel. In one Cebus group and the Ateles group, all alleles were present, whereas in the other Cebus group only two alleles were found, with one allele predominating. This was likely due to the effect of close inbreeding, indicating that wild populations can exhibit a variety of allele compositions. This result also suggests that the color-vision polymorphism can be easily distorted by natural factors, such as inbreeding, skewing the population structure. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Costa Rica.

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    Webb, Shasta E; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20 yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinos), highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR), located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin popula- tions at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8 wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each) of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa Rica. It is critical that the consequences of habituation be studied more carefully, primarily in areas where ecotourism operations draw visitors to wildlife habitats.

  1. CANDIDÍASE CUTÂNEA EM CEBUS APELLA (MACACO PREGO CUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS IN A CEBUS APELLA (CAPUCHINS MONKEYS

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    Anelise Oliveira Fonseca

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Leveduras do gênero Candida têm sido freqüentemente isoladas de animais domésticos e silvestres, entretanto, candidíase não tem sido reportada em primatas. Encaminhou-se à Faculdade de Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Animal, um macaco-prego (Cebus apella para necropsia, que vinha apresentando emagrecimento profundo e lesões ulcerativas de pele e mucosas. Fragmentos de pele e órgãos foram processados para histologia e corados com H.E. e Groccot. Para micologia, coletaram-se fragmentos de órgãos, exsudato e crostas da pele, sendo realizado exame direto e cultivo a 37oC. Macroscopicamente, o animal apresentava alopecia, caquexia e ulcerações cutâneas de 1-4 cm. Histologicamente, nas ulcerações, a derme continha infiltrado de mononucleares e proliferação fibroblástica. Mediante utilização de Groccot, encontraram-se hifas e/ou pseudo-hifas e blastoconídeos intralesionais. Em cultivos de crostas e exsudato, observaram-se colônias brilhantes, com superfície lisa e coloração branca a creme. A microscopia das colônias revelou células leveduriformes ovaladas ou alongadas, com brotamento unipolar, gram-positivas. No microcultivo em fubá, observaram-se blastoconídeos globosos terminais, com parede espessa e pseudomicélio abundante e ramificado, com formação de tubo germinativo em albumina de ovo, sendo a levedura classificada como Candida albicans. O estudo aborda o risco da infecção por micoses oportunistas como a candidíase em animais silvestres em cativeiro.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Candidiasis, Candida albicans, pele, Cebus apella.

    Candida spp has been frequently isolated from domestic and sylvan animals, however, Candidiasis has not been reported in primates. One Cebus apella, with progressive thinning and ulcerative skin lesions and mucous, was

  2. Comparative Anatomy of the Hind Limb Vessels of the Bearded Capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus with Apes, Baboons, and Cebus capucinus: With Comments on the Vessels' Role in Bipedalism

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    Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capuchin monkeys are known to exhibit sporadic bipedalism while performing specific tasks, such as cracking nuts. The bipedal posture and locomotion cause an increase in the metabolic cost and therefore increased blood supply to lower limbs is necessary. Here, we present a detailed anatomical description of the capuchin arteries and veins of the pelvic limb of Sapajus libidinosus in comparison with other primates. The arterial pattern of the bearded capuchin hind limb is more similar to other quadrupedal Cebus species. Similarities were also found to the pattern observed in the quadruped Papio, which is probably due to a comparable pelvis and the presence of the tail. Sapajus' traits show fewer similarities when compared to great apes and modern humans. Moreover, the bearded capuchin showed unique patterns for the femoral and the short saphenous veins. Although this species switches easily from quadrupedal to bipedal postures, our results indicate that the bearded capuchin has no specific or differential features that support extended bipedal posture and locomotion. Thus, the explanation for the behavioral differences found among capuchin genera probably includes other aspects of their physiology.

  3. Self-control depletion in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): does delay of gratification rely on a limited resource?

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    Petrillo, Francesca De; Gori, Emanuele; Truppa, Valentina; Ariely, Dan; Addessi, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Self-control failure has enormous personal and societal consequences. One of the most debated models explaining why self-control breaks down is the Strength Model, according to which self-control depends on a limited resource. Either previous acts of self-control or taking part in highly demanding cognitive tasks have been shown to reduce self-control, possibly due to a reduction in blood glucose levels. However, several studies yielded negative findings, and recent meta-analyses questioned the robustness of the depletion effect in humans. We investigated, for the first time, whether the Strength Model applies to a non-human primate species, the tufted capuchin monkey. We tested five capuchins in a self-control task (the Accumulation task) in which food items were accumulated within individual’s reach for as long as the subject refrained from taking them. We evaluated whether capuchins’ performance decreases: (i) when tested before receiving their daily meal rather than after consuming it (Energy Depletion Experiment), and (ii) after being tested in two tasks with different levels of cognitive complexity (Cognitive Depletion Experiment). We also tested, in both experiments, how implementing self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task affected this capacity within each session and/or across consecutive sessions. Repeated acts of self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task progressively reduced this capacity within each session, as predicted by the Strength Model. However, neither experiencing a reduction in energy level nor taking part in a highly demanding cognitive task decreased performance in the subsequent Accumulation task. Thus, whereas capuchins seem to be vulnerable to within-session depletion effects, to other extents our findings are in line with the growing body of studies that failed to find a depletion effect in humans. Methodological issues potentially affecting the lack of depletion effects in capuchins are discussed. PMID

  4. Anatomical and radiographic appearance of the capuchin monkey thoracic cavity (Cebus apella

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    Flávio R. Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The capuchin monkey is widespread both north and south of the Legal Amazon and in the Brazilian cerrado. Ten clinically healthy capuchin monkeys were submitted to an anatomical and radiographic study of their thoracic cavities. The radiographic evaluation allowed the description of biometric values associated with the cardiac silhouette and thoracic structures. Application of the VHS (vertebral heart size method showed positive correlation (P<0.05 with depth of the thoracic cavity, as well as between the body length of vertebrae T3, T4, T5 and T6 and the cardiac length and width. The lung fields showed a diffuse interstitial pattern, more visible in the caudal lung lobes and a bronchial pattern in the middle and cranial lung lobes. The radiographic examination allowed preliminary inferences to be made concerning the syntopy of the thoracic structures and modification of the pulmonary patterns and cardiac anatomy for the capuchin monkey.

  5. Quantifying seasonal fallback on invertebrates, pith, and bromeliad leaves by white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in a tropical dry forest.

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    Mosdossy, Krisztina N; Melin, Amanda D; Fedigan, Linda M

    2015-09-01

    Fallback foods (FBFs) are hypothesized to shape the ecology, morphology, and behavior of primates, including hominins. Identifying FBFs is therefore critical for revealing past and present foraging adaptations. Recent research suggests invertebrates act as seasonal FBFs for many primate species and human populations. Yet, studies measuring the consumption of invertebrates relative to ecological variation are widely lacking. We address this gap by examining food abundance and entomophagy by primates in a seasonal forest. We study foraging behavior of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus)-a species renowned for its intelligence and propensity for extractive foraging-along with the abundance of invertebrates, dietary ripe fruits, pith, and bromeliads. Consumption events and processing time are recorded during focal animal samples. We determine abundance of vegetative foods through phenological and density records. Invertebrates are collected in malaise, pan, and terrestrial traps; caterpillar abundance is inferred from frass traps. Invertebrates are abundant throughout the year and capuchins consume invertebrates-including caterpillars-frequently when fruit is abundant. However, capuchins spend significantly more time processing protected invertebrates when fruit and caterpillars are low in abundance. Invertebrate foraging patterns are not uniform. Caterpillar consumption is consistent with a preferred strategy, whereas capuchins appear to fallback on invertebrates requiring high handling time. Capuchins are convergent with hominins in possessing large brains and high levels of sensorimotor intelligence, thus our research has broad implications for primate evolution, including factors shaping cognitive innovations, brain size, and the role of entomophagy in the human diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Failure to induce tumors in the large intestine of Capuchin mokeys (Cebus apella) by using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

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    Sánchez Negrette, M; Borda, J T; Montenegro, M A; Lertora, W J; Gimeno, E J

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce tumors in the large intestine of Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) by the administration of the colonotropic carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The subjects were 12 monkeys, all males, age 30 months, with a mean weight of 2.858 kg. The DMH was administered subcutaneously to six of the monkeys at a dosage of 25 mg/kg of body weight once a week for 16 weeks; control monkeys received an equivalent volume of the stock solution without DMH. Twenty months after administration of the first dose, the animals were sacrificed. None of the monkeys showed intestinal tumors. Samples of the gastrointestinal tract were removed, fixed, and stained according to standard histological techniques. Histological changes were seen in all of the DMH-treated animals; these consisted of glandular hyperplasia and hyperplasia of the epithelium overlying the lymphoid nodules. In addition, foci of dysplasia were found in three of the animals. Our results suggest that the DMH induced pre-neoplastic changes, characterized by hyperplasia and dysplasia, in the mucosa of the large intestine.

  7. Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Modulate Their Use of an Uncertainty Response Depending on Risk

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    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Church, Barbara A.; Smith, J. David

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition refers to thinking about thinking, and there has been a great deal of interest in how this ability manifests across primates. Based on much of the work to date, a tentative division has been drawn with New World monkeys on one side and Old World monkeys and apes on the other. Specifically, Old World monkeys, apes and humans often show patterns reflecting metacognition, but New World monkeys typically fail to do so, or show less convincing behavioral patterns. However, recent data suggests that this difference may relate to other aspects of some experimental tasks. For example, one possibility is that risk tolerance affects how capuchin monkeys, a New World primate species, tend to perform. Specifically, it has recently been argued that on tasks in which there are two or three options, the ‘risk’ of guessing is tolerable for capuchins since there is a high probability of being correct even if they ‘know they do not know’ or feel something akin to uncertainty. The current study investigated this possibility by manipulating the degree of risk (2-choices versus 6-choices) and found that capuchin monkeys used the uncertainty response more on 6-choice trials than on 2-choice trials. We also found that rate of reward does not appear to underlie these patterns of performance, and propose that the degree of risk is modulating the use of the uncertainty response in capuchin monkeys. Thus, the apparent differences between New and Old world monkeys in metacognition may reflect differences in risk tolerance rather than access to metacognitive states. PMID:26551351

  8. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella)

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    Wilson, V.; Lefevre, C. E.; Morton, F. B.; Brosnan, S. F.; Paukner, A.; Bates, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one’s personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but also in capuchin monkeys. Here we test the association of personality (assertiveness, openness, attentiveness, neuroticism, and sociability) with fWHR, face width/lower-face height, and lower face/face height ratio in 64 capuchins (Sapajus apella). In a structural model of personality and facial metrics, fWHR was associated with assertiveness, while lower face/face height ratio was associated with neuroticism (erratic vs. stable behaviour) and attentiveness (helpfulness vs. distractibility). Facial morphology thus appears to associate with three personality domains, which may act as a signal of status in capuchins. PMID:24347756

  9. Behavioral flexibility of a group of bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus in the National Park of Brasília (Brazil: consequences of cohabitation with visitors

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    G. Sabbatini

    Full Text Available Increasing urbanization and deforestation have enhanced the opportunities of contact between humans and monkeys and the impact of human activities on primate behavior is receiving growing attention. This study explores whether activity budgets and diet of a group of capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus inhabiting the area of the swimming pools of the National Park of Brasília is affected by the presence of visitors providing food to them. During one year, both in the dry and the wet seasons, we scored capuchins' behavior via scan sampling every ten minutes. Results showed that this group spent less time foraging for wild foods than other comparable groups living in similar habitats. Moreover, capuchins relied more on human food during the dry season, when pulpy fruits were less available, than in the wet season. Our findings confirm other studies on different monkey species that have shown that access to human food decreases the time spent foraging for wild food and the home range size. They also show that capuchins are able to modify their diet, to exploit alternative food sources, and to change their activity budget in response to the availability of new food opportunities and to seasonal food availability.

  10. Social and demographic correlates of male androgen levels in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

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    Schaebs, Franka S; Perry, Susan E; Cohen, Don; Mundry, Roger; Deschner, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    The Challenge Hypothesis, designed originally to explain the patterning of competitive behavior and androgen levels in seasonally breeding birds, predicts that males will increase their androgen levels in order to become more competitive in reproductive contexts. Here we test predictions derived from the Challenge Hypothesis in white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus), a species that has somewhat seasonal reproduction. We analyzed demographic and hormonal data collected over a 5.25-year period, from 18 males in nine social groups living in or near Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. Alpha males had higher androgen levels than subordinates. Contrary to our predictions, neither the number of breeding-age males nor the number of potentially fertile females was obviously associated with androgen levels. Furthermore, male androgen levels were not significantly linked to social stability, as measured by stability of male group membership or recency of change in the alpha male position. Androgen levels changed seasonally, but not in a manner that had an obvious relationship to predictions from the Challenge Hypothesis: levels were generally at their lowest near the beginning of the conception season, but instead of peaking when reproductive opportunities were greatest, they were at their highest near the end of the conception season or shortly thereafter. This lack of correspondence to the timing of conceptions suggests that there may be ecological factors not yet identified that influence ifA levels. We expected that the presence of offspring who were young enough to be vulnerable to infanticide during an alpha male takeover might influence androgen levels, at least in the alpha male, but this variable did not significantly impact results. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Does inequity aversion depend on a frustration effect? A test with capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

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    Silberberg, Alan; Crescimbene, Lara; Addessi, Elsa; Anderson, James R; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2009-05-01

    Brosnan and de Waal (Nature 425:297-299, 2003) reported that if a witness monkey saw a model monkey receive a high-value food, the witness was more inclined to reject a previously acceptable, but low-value food. Later work demonstrated that this alleged inequity aversion might be due to frustration induced by switching subjects from their role as models receiving a high-value food to the role of witnesses receiving a low-value food. In the present study, pairs of female capuchins exchanged a token for either a high- or a low-value food without switching their model-witness roles. Witnesses could exchange a token for a low-value food after an adjacent model had exchanged a token for the same food (Equity Condition) or for a high-value food (Inequity Condition). Failure- and latency-to-exchange measures showed that witnesses were unaffected by the food type offered to models (no inequity aversion). Moreover, models were unaffected by their history of food type offered (no frustration). These results join earlier work suggesting that alleged inequity effects depend on frustration-induction procedures. Furthermore, inequity effects sometimes fail to emerge because frustration induction in nonhuman primates is labile.

  12. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

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    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. [Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Urbani, Bernardo; Valerio, Idalia; Vanegas, Juan Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an ecologically undisturbed area. To asses this relationship, we analyzed parasite occurrence in their intestines. The study was conducted at the Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS), Limón, Costa Rica. The group of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) was observed between March and December of 2006. A total of 75 feces samples were obtained. Once a sample was collected, the eaten plant type was identified to family and species level, and feces were processed in the laboratory to determine parasite incidence. Results showed that Moraceae was the most represented family in the samples. Among parasites, Strongyloides spp. and Acanthocephala were the most common. Positive prevalence of parasites was found similar and independent of sex and age of capuchin individuals. Microsporids were mainly reported in feces associated with Piperaceae. A low presence of these parasites was found in samples associated with Myrtaceae, with possible anti-parasite active components. The occurrence of parasites was relatively high in EBLS, when compared to other regions in Costa Rica. The higher occurrence of parasites observed in capuchins at EBLS may be due to the fact that this rain forest is surrounded by areas affected by human activities. We suggest the promotion of research in neotropical primates parasitology, for a better comprehension of the parasite-host relationship, and in a long term, being able to understand the ecosystems where they coexist, and consequently, preserve the biodiversity of the whole region.

  14. Integrating feeding behavior, ecological data, and DNA barcoding to identify developmental differences in invertebrate foraging strategies in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallott, Elizabeth K; Garber, Paul A; Malhi, Ripan S

    2017-02-01

    Invertebrate foraging strategies in nonhuman primates often require complex extractive foraging or prey detection techniques. As these skills take time to master, juveniles may have reduced foraging efficiency or concentrate their foraging efforts on easier to acquire prey than adults. We use DNA barcoding, behavioral observations, and ecological data to assess age-based differences in invertebrate prey foraging strategies in a group of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in northeastern Costa Rica. Invertebrate availability was monitored using canopy traps and sweep netting. Fecal samples were collected from adult female, adult male, and juvenile white-faced capuchins (n = 225). COI mtDNA sequences were compared with known sequences in GenBank and the Barcode of Life Database. Frequencies of Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera consumption were higher in juveniles than in adults. A significantly smaller proportion of juvenile fecal samples contained Gryllidae and Cercopidae sequences, compared with adults (0% and 4.2% vs. 4.6% and 12.5%), and a significantly larger proportion contained Tenthredinidae, Culicidae, and Crambidae (5.6%, 9.7%, and 5.6% vs. 1.3%, 0.7%, and 1.3%). Juveniles spent significantly more time feeding and foraging than adults, and focused their foraging efforts on prey that require different skills to capture or extract. Arthropod availability was not correlated with foraging efficiency, and the rate of consumption of specific orders of invertebrates was not correlated with the availability of those same taxa. Our data support the hypothesis that juveniles are concentrating their foraging efforts on different prey than adults, potentially focusing their foraging efforts on more easily acquired types of prey. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The effects of ecology and evolutionary history on robust capuchin morphological diversity.

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    Wright, Kristin A; Wright, Barth W; Ford, Susan M; Fragaszy, Dorothy; Izar, Patricia; Norconk, Marilyn; Masterson, Thomas; Hobbs, David G; Alfaro, Michael E; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular work has confirmed the long-standing morphological hypothesis that capuchins are comprised of two distinct clades, the gracile (untufted) capuchins (genus Cebus, Erxleben, 1777) and the robust (tufted) capuchins (genus Sapajus Kerr, 1792). In the past, the robust group was treated as a single, undifferentiated and cosmopolitan species, with data from all populations lumped together in morphological and ecological studies, obscuring morphological differences that might exist across this radiation. Genetic evidence suggests that the modern radiation of robust capuchins began diversifying ∼2.5 Ma, with significant subsequent geographic expansion into new habitat types. In this study we use a morphological sample of gracile and robust capuchin craniofacial and postcranial characters to examine how ecology and evolutionary history have contributed to morphological diversity within the robust capuchins. We predicted that if ecology is driving robust capuchin variation, three distinct robust morphotypes would be identified: (1) the Atlantic Forest species (Sapajus xanthosternos, S. robustus, and S. nigritus), (2) the Amazonian rainforest species (S. apella, S. cay and S. macrocephalus), and (3) the Cerrado-Caatinga species (S. libidinosus). Alternatively, if diversification time between species pairs predicts degree of morphological difference, we predicted that the recently diverged S. apella, S. macrocephalus, S. libidinosus, and S. cay would be morphologically comparable, with greater variation among the more ancient lineages of S. nigritus, S. xanthosternos, and S. robustus. Our analyses suggest that S. libidinosus has the most derived craniofacial and postcranial features, indicative of inhabiting a more terrestrial niche that includes a dependence on tool use for the extraction of imbedded foods. We also suggest that the cranial robusticity of S. macrocephalus and S. apella are indicative of recent competition with sympatric gracile capuchin

  16. When size makes a difference: allometry, life-history and morphological evolution of capuchins (Cebus) and squirrels (Saimiri) monkeys (Cebinae, Platyrrhini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroig, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Background How are morphological evolution and developmental changes related? This rather old and intriguing question had a substantial boost after the 70s within the framework of heterochrony (changes in rates or timing of development) and nowadays has the potential to make another major leap forward through the combination of approaches: molecular biology, developmental experimentation, comparative systematic studies, geometric morphometrics and quantitative genetics. Here I take an integrated approach combining life-history comparative analyses, classical and geometric morphometrics applied to ontogenetic series to understand changes in size and shape which happen during the evolution of two New World Monkeys (NWM) sister genera. Results Cebus and Saimiri share the same basic allometric patterns in skull traits, a result robust to sexual and ontogenetic variation. If adults of both genera are compared in the same scale (discounting size differences) most differences are small and not statistically significant. These results are consistent using both approaches, classical and geometric Morphometrics. Cebus is a genus characterized by a number of peramorphic traits (adult-like) while Saimiri is a genus with paedomorphic (child like) traits. Yet, the whole clade Cebinae is characterized by a unique combination of very high pre-natal growth rates and relatively slow post-natal growth rates when compared to the rest of the NWM. Morphologically Cebinae can be considered paedomorphic in relation to the other NWM. Geometric morphometrics allows the precise separation of absolute size, shape variation associated with size (allometry), and shape variation non-associated with size. Interestingly, and despite the fact that they were extracted as independent factors (principal components), evolutionary allometry (those differences in allometric shape associated with intergeneric differences) and ontogenetic allometry (differences in allometric shape associated with

  17. Mechanical isolation of capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) preantral ovarian follicles Isolamento mecânico de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais de macaca-prego (Cebus apella)

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    S.F.S. Domingues; H.S. Ferreira; J.A.P.C. Muniz; A.K.F. Lima; O.M. Ohashi; J.R. Figueiredo; L.D.M. Silva

    2003-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou adaptar um procedimento mecânico para o isolamento de folículos pré-antrais a partir de ovários de Cebus apella. Para isso, foi testado o efeito do intervalo de cortes seriados do tissue chopper sobre o número de folículos pré-antrais isolados a partir de ovários (n=6) de três fêmeas de C. apella, duas pré-púberes e uma adulta. Os ovários foram divididos em quatro partes iguais e fragmentados com auxílio de um tissue chopper, ajustado para a realização de secções...

  18. Same/different concept learning by capuchin monkeys in matching-to-sample tasks.

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    Valentina Truppa

    Full Text Available The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions.

  19. Same/Different Concept Learning by Capuchin Monkeys in Matching-to-Sample Tasks

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    Truppa, Valentina; Piano Mortari, Eva; Garofoli, Duilio; Privitera, Sara; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i) the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii) the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions. PMID:21858225

  20. Predation on the black capuchin monkey Cebus nigritus (Primates: Cebidae by domestic dogs Canis lupus familiaris (Carnivora: Canidae, in the Parque Estadual Serra do Brigadeiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil Predação de macaco-prego Cebus nigritus (Primates: Cebidae por cães domésticos Canis lupus familiaris (Carnivora: Canidae, no Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska B. de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Predation on an adult male black capuchin monkey, Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 by two domestic dogs was observed in the Parque Estadual Serra do Brigadeiro, in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Minas Gerais. Predation occurred in an area of well preserved native forest 800 m from the nearest forest edge. This is the first confirmed record of predation by domestic dogs in this reserve, yet data from a study in the same area indicates that the domestic dog is the most frequently recorded mammal species, which suggests that it is common in the area. The few published reports indicate that this problem occurs in other conservation units in Brazil and should, therefore, be treated with more rigor by the environmental agencies.A predação de um macho adulto de macaco-prego, Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 por dois cães-domésticos é relatada no interior do Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, localizado na Mata Atlântica do sudeste de Minas Gerais. A observação foi registrada em local de mata nativa bem preservada, a cerca de 800 m da borda mais próxima da reserva. Embora este seja o primeiro registro confirmado de predação por cão doméstico nesta unidade de conservação, dados de um estudo sobre a mastofauna local, usando parcelas de pegadas, indicam que o cão-doméstico é a espécie de mamífero mais freqüentemente registrada, sugerindo que sua presença é constante e amplamente distribuída na área. Os poucos relatos existentes na literatura indicam que este problema está presente em outras unidades de conservação e deveria, portanto, ser tratado com maior rigor pelas agências ambientais.

  1. Figs Are More Than Fallback Foods: The Relationship between Ficus and Cebus in a Tropical Dry Forest

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    Nigel A. Parr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many studies on primate feeding ecology, figs (Ficus spp. are characterized as fallback foods, utilized only when preferred sources of food are unavailable. However, for white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus living in northwestern Costa Rica, figs are a consistently important resource and may increase groupwide energy intake. We investigated whether visits to figs affect ranging and behavioural patterns of capuchins. Although daily range length and average travel speed do not differ on days when fig trees are visited, capuchins spend more time in directed travel and more time stationary on “fig days”. Capuchins also increase time spent foraging for fruit and decrease time spent foraging for invertebrates on days when figs trees are visited. Capuchins experience higher energy intake and lower energy output on “fig” days. Thus, the patterns of foraging for figs support an energy-maximization strategy and constitute an important nutritional resource for capuchins.

  2. USE OF COCONUT WATER SOLUTION AT 37°C AS EXTENDER OF CAPTIVE Cebus apella (CAPUCHIN MONKEY SEMEN USO DE SOLUÇÃO À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO A 37 °C COMO DILUIDOR DE SÊMEN DE Cebus apella (MACACO-PREGO MANTIDO EM CATIVEIRO

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    Sheyla Farhayldes Souza Domingues

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was to evaluate the efficiency of in natura coconut water solution at 37º C as seminal extender. Were analyzed fifteen ejaculates collected from 5 adult Cebus apella by electroejaculation. The means volumes of liquid and coagulated fractions were 0.26 + 0.06 mL and 0.98 + 0.02 mL, respectively. The sperm concentration in the liquid fraction (2.1 x 108 + 0.5 108 mL was lower than liquefied fraction (1.6 x 109+ 0.9 109 mL (p = 0.05. The mean percentage of live spermatozoa after 7 hours incubated at 37 °C was 72 + 3%. Only in one sample was observed sperm motility (20% and vigor (2. The results suggest that electroejaculation protocol using 100mA maximum amperage is efficient to obtain semen from adult Cebus apella. The coconut water extender can be used to maintain sperm viability for up to 7 hours at 37 °C. However, studies are necessary to evaluate the sperm functionality extended in natura coconut water based solution.

    KEY WORDS: Cebus apella, electroejaculation water, extender, semen.
    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência de um diluidor de sêmen à base de água de coco in natura a 37 °C na dissolução da fração coagulada e conservação do sêmen de macacos-prego. Analisaram-se quinze ejaculados colhidos de cinco (n=5 machos adultos de Cebus apella através de eletroejaculação. Os volumes médios das frações líquida e coagulada foram 0,26 + 0,06 mL e 0,98 + 0,02 mL, respectivamente. A fração líquida apresentou baixa concentração média de espermatozoides (210. 106 + 50 106 mL em relação à fração coagulada (1600. 106+ 900 106 mL (p ? 0,05. O percentual médio de espermatozoides vivos após sete horas de incubação a 37°C foi 72 + 3%. Em apenas uma amostra observaram-se 20% de motilidade e vigor 2. Os resultados sugerem que o protocolo de eletroejaculação utilizando amperagem máxima de 100 mA é eficaz para a obtenção de sêmen de Cebus apella e que o diluidor à base

  3. Sample Stimulus Control Shaping and Restricted Stimulus Control in Capuchin Monkeys: A Methodological Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brino, Ana Leda F., Barros, Romariz S., Galvao, Ol; Garotti, M.; Da Cruz, Ilara R. N.; Santos, Jose R.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports use of sample stimulus control shaping procedures to teach arbitrary matching-to-sample to 2 capuchin monkeys ("Cebus apella"). The procedures started with identity matching-to-sample. During shaping, stimulus features of the sample were altered gradually, rendering samples and comparisons increasingly physically dissimilar. The…

  4. Comparative Anatomical Analyses of the Forearm Muscles of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al. 2000): Manipulatory Behavior and Tool Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Maior, Rafael Souto; Carneiro-e-Silva, Frederico O.; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A. G. M. F.; Tavares, Maria Clotilde; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the flexor and extensor muscles in Cebus libidinosus' forearm and compares them with those from humans, chimpanzees and baboons. The data is presented in quantitative anatomical indices for similarity. The capuchin forearm muscles showed important similarities with chimpanzees and humans, particularly those that act on thumb motion and allow certain degree of independence from other hand structures, even though their configuration does not enable a true opposable thumb. The characteristics of Cebus' forearm muscles corroborate the evolutionary convergence towards an adaptive behavior (tool use) between Cebus genus and apes. PMID:21789230

  5. Comparative anatomical analyses of the forearm muscles of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al. 2000: manipulatory behavior and tool use.

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    Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira

    Full Text Available The present study describes the flexor and extensor muscles in Cebus libidinosus' forearm and compares them with those from humans, chimpanzees and baboons. The data is presented in quantitative anatomical indices for similarity. The capuchin forearm muscles showed important similarities with chimpanzees and humans, particularly those that act on thumb motion and allow certain degree of independence from other hand structures, even though their configuration does not enable a true opposable thumb. The characteristics of Cebus' forearm muscles corroborate the evolutionary convergence towards an adaptive behavior (tool use between Cebus genus and apes.

  6. a Maximum Entropy Model of the Bearded Capuchin Monkey Habitat Incorporating Topography and Spectral Unmixing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. M.; Bernardes, S.; Nibbelink, N.; Biondi, L.; Presotto, A.; Fragaszy, D. M.; Madden, M.

    2012-07-01

    Movement patterns of bearded capuchin monkeys (Cebus (Sapajus) libidinosus) in northeastern Brazil are likely impacted by environmental features such as elevation, vegetation density, or vegetation type. Habitat preferences of these monkeys provide insights regarding the impact of environmental features on species ecology and the degree to which they incorporate these features in movement decisions. In order to evaluate environmental features influencing movement patterns and predict areas suitable for movement, we employed a maximum entropy modelling approach, using observation points along capuchin monkey daily routes as species presence points. We combined these presence points with spatial data on important environmental features from remotely sensed data on land cover and topography. A spectral mixing analysis procedure was used to generate fraction images that represent green vegetation, shade and soil of the study area. A Landsat Thematic Mapper scene of the area of study was geometrically and atmospherically corrected and used as input in a Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) procedure and a linear spectral unmixing approach was used to generate the fraction images. These fraction images and elevation were the environmental layer inputs for our logistic MaxEnt model of capuchin movement. Our models' predictive power (test AUC) was 0.775. Areas of high elevation (>450 m) showed low probabilities of presence, and percent green vegetation was the greatest overall contributor to model AUC. This work has implications for predicting daily movement patterns of capuchins in our field site, as suitability values from our model may relate to habitat preference and facility of movement.

  7. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling. PMID:25520677

  8. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

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    Rhia eCatapano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good’s price can have irrational effects on people’s preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased, we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human price effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  9. Capuchin Monkeys Alternate Play and Reward in a Dual Computerized Task

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    Audrey E. Parrish

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many animals cooperate with one another to achieve outcomes that they could not obtain on their own. One form of cooperation that has received much attention but little empirical support from experimental studies is reciprocity, leaving open the question of whether animals will work to provide benefits to others. Although there is some evidence of reciprocal behavior in animals, early work in macaque monkeys showed that while they would initially work to pay another individual (who could then return the favor, they ceased doing so over time. Here, we extended this investigation of reciprocity to capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, a species known for cooperating and providing each other with rewards in other contexts. We investigated whether capuchin monkeys would engage in a dual computer task that required alternating work by two animals, such that food rewards earned by one individual were delivered to the partner. Unlike previous research, capuchin monkeys sustained work on the task when their actions benefited only another monkey, even with progressively longer delays between the subject’s actions that rewarded the partner and the partner’s subsequent actions that rewarded the subject. A separate question was the degree to which subjects understood their actions as social. We assessed whether subjects’ behaviors were influenced by the presence or absence of a partner. Subjects behaved differently in the two conditions, indicating that future research investigating what subjects understand about their partners is warranted.

  10. "Unwilling" versus "Unable": Capuchin Monkeys' ("Cebus Apella") Understanding of Human Intentional Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Webb; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Mahajan, Neha; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) lends credence to the…

  11. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al.…

  12. Gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-ranging Cebus albifrons in the Western Amazon, Ecuador

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    Sarah Martin-Solano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a lack of surveys that report the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in the white-headed capuchin monkey (Cebus albifrons. We therefore assessed the presence and richness (= number of different parasite genera of parasites in C. albifrons in wildlife refuges (n = 11 and in a free-ranging group near a human village (n = 15 in the Ecuadorian Amazon. In the 78 samples collected (median of 3 samples per animal, we identified a total of 6 genera of gastrointestinal parasites, representing protozoa, nematodes, acanthocephalans and cestodes. We observed a high prevalence (84% across the 26 individuals, with the most prevalent parasite being Strongyloides sp. (76.9%, followed by Hymenolepis sp. (38.5% and Prosthenorchis elegans (11.5%. We found Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moskovskii/nuttalli and Capillaria sp. in only a minority of the animals (3.8%. In addition, we observed unidentified strongyles in approximately one-third of the animals (34.6%. We found a total of 6 parasite genera for the adult age group, which showed higher parasite richness than the subadult age group (5 and the juvenile age group (3. Faecal egg/cyst counts were not significantly different between captive and free-ranging individuals or between sexes or age groups. The free-ranging group had a higher prevalence than the captive group; however, this difference was not significant. The only genus common to captive and free-ranging individuals was Strongyloides sp. The high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and the presence of Strongyloides in both populations support results from previous studies in Cebus species. This high prevalence could be related to the high degree of humidity in the region. For the free-ranging group, additional studies are required to gain insights into the differences in parasite prevalence and intensity between age and sex groups. Additionally, our study demonstrated that a serial sampling of each individual increases

  13. Effects of brief time delays on matching-to-sample abilities in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truppa, Valentina; De Simone, Diego Antonio; Piano Mortari, Eva; De Lillo, Carlo

    2014-09-01

    Traditionally, studies of delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) tasks in nonhuman species have focused on the assessment of the limits of the retrieval of information stored in short- and long-term memory systems. However, it is still unclear if visual recognition in these tasks is affected by very brief delay intervals, which are typically used to study rapidly decaying types of visual memory. This study aimed at evaluating if tufted capuchin monkeys' ability to recognise visual stimuli in a DMTS task is affected by (i) the disappearance of the sample stimulus and (ii) the introduction of delay intervals (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0s) between the disappearance of the sample and the presentation of the comparison stimuli. The results demonstrated that the simple disappearance of the sample and the introduction of a delay of 0.5s did not affect capuchins' performance either in terms of accuracy or response time. A delay interval of 1.0s produced a significant increase in response time but still did not affect recognition accuracy. By contrast, delays of 2.0 and 3.0s determined a significant increase in response time and a reduction in recognition accuracy. These findings indicate the existence in capuchin monkeys of processes enabling a very accurate retention of stimulus features within time frames comparable to those reported for humans' sensory memory (0.5-1.0s). The extent to which such processes can be considered analogous to the sensory memory processes observed in human visual cognition is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Gilby, Ian C; Wikelski, Martin C; Kays, Roland W

    2008-01-15

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition.

  15. Utilisation des sécrétions de myriapodes chez les lémurs et les sapajous : fonction curative ou signalisation sociale ? Fur-rubbing with millipedes in lemurs and capuchin monkeys: social function or zoopharmacognosy?

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    Bruno Simmen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available L’utilisation des myriapodes en friction sur le pelage et d’autres zones corporelles est documentée chez les primates en conditions naturelles, notamment à partir des observations récurrentes menées chez le genre Cebus. La typologie de ces comportements suggère différentes hypothèses, fonctionnelles (zoopharmacognosie, alimentaire, sociale ou non (sensorielle, auto-stimulation. Nous présentons des observations qualitatives comparées de l’utilisation non alimentaire de myriapodes diplopodes chez une forme hybride du genre Eulemur au Sud de Madagascar (occurrences en janvier 2005 et chez le sapajou Cebus apella en Guyane Française (occurrences en mars-avril 1996. L’application des sécrétions à benzoquinones sur une large partie du pelage chez Cebus contraste avec la friction exclusive de la zone périgénitale faisant suite au flairage du diplopode chez Eulemur qui manifeste en outre une réponse stéréotypée analogue au flehmen. Dans notre étude, l’imprégnation de fluides à forte intensité olfactive potentialiserait la signalisation de l’identité individuelle chez Eulemur alors que le "fur-rubbing" chez Cebus est compatible avec l’hypothèse commune d’une forme d’appropriation des défenses antiparasitaires de ces invertébrés. La sécrétion de ces défenses chimiques n’est pas automatiquement déclenchée par la manipulation des diplopodes. Le stress induit par les morsures légères (Eulemur et Cebus et l’arrachage des pattes sur plusieurs segments (Cebus augmente la probabilité de sécrétion, ce qui témoignerait d’un apprentissage d’autant plus efficace des conditions d’émission de ces fluides que l’usage est spécifique et très opportuniste.Body-rubbing with millipedes is repeatedly documented in primates living under natural conditions, mainly in capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.. Various functional (zoopharmacognosy, ingestion, social and non-functional hypotheses (sensory, auto

  16. Parasitosis intestinal en monos capuchinos cariblancos Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae de un área protegida en la provincia de Limón, noreste de Costa Rica

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    Misael Chinchilla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La deforestación de bosques tropicales está amenazando la biodiversidad de las especies de primates y su estado de salud, dependiente de un lugar ecológicamente equilibrado. Con el fin de evaluar esta relación, se analizó la presencia de parásitos en los intestinos de esta especie. El estudio se realizó en la Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS, Limón, Costa Rica. El grupo de monos capuchinos cariblancos (Cebus capucinus fue observado entre marzo y diciembre de 2006. Se recolectaron 75 muestras de heces a las que se les identificó las plantas ingeridas, y se procesaron en el laboratorio para evaluar la prevalencia de parásitos. Moraceae fue la familia de plantas más reportada. Strongyloides spp. y acantocéfalos fueron los más comunes. La distribución positiva de las mismas fue similar independientemente del sexo y la edad. Microsporidios se reportaron mayoritariamente en heces asociadas con la familia Piperaceae. Fue encontrada una baja existencia de éstos parásitos en muestras asociadas con Myrtaceae en cuyo género Psidium, se han reportado compuestos activos antiparasitarios. La aparición de parásitos fue relativamente mayor en la EBLS, comparado con muestras de otras regiones más secas de Costa Rica. Por lo tanto, esa expresión parasitaria puede deberse al hecho de ser la EBLS una selva lluviosa, además de estar rodeada por zonas con actividades antrópicas. Se sugiere incrementar las investigaciones de parasitología de campo en primates neotropicales con el fin de entender plenamente las relaciones parásitos-hospederos, para en un largo plazo poder comprender los ecosistemas donde conviven, y en consecuencia, preservar la diversidad biológica.Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus Primates: Cebidae inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica. Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an

  17. Tribological Tuft Testing Candidate Brush Seal Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Chris

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a tribological tuft test method of candidate brush seal materials in viewgraph form. The goals of the research are: 1) To develop test method to tribologically brush seal materials; 2) To evaluate materials to identify potential improvements and trends; and 3) Guide seal material development and selection.

  18. For the history of the Capuchin monastery libraries of Genoa

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    Francesca Nepori

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper traces the history of the Capuchin monastery libraries of Genoa, since the 1535 to the present day. The main sources used are the Capuchin Constitutions, the documents kept at the Provincial Archives and the library catalogs of the cloisters (including the Bibliotheca Scriptorum Minorum Ordinis S. Francisci Capuccinorum p. Dionisio from Genoa and, finally, was some piece of news by private libraries. The story of the thirty-four cloister libraries is linked with the Provincial Library, which is representative of the Capuchin Province of Genoa and an important center for the conservation of all monastic book collections.

  19. Origem do plexo braquial do macaco Cebus apella

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    Adriana Rodrigues Ribeiro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The monkey Cebus apella, native to South American forests, is geographically distributed through the Brazilian land and presents satisfactory adaptation to the captive life showing great capacity of reproduction. Thus, we have described the origin of the brachial plexus in the monkey Cebus apella. The aim of this study was to add information for morphofunctional and comparative studies focusing on Cebus apella, humans and domestic animals. Twenty adult animals, 10 males and 10 females, belonging to the collection of Anatomy Laboratory of the Federal University of Uberlândia were obtained and prepared through fixation and dissection. In the dissected specimens, the brachial plexus of Cebus apella was comprised of nerve roots from C5 to T1 (55,00 ±± 11,12%, from C5 to T2 (25,00 ±± 9,68%, from C4 to T1 (15,00 ±± 7,98% and from C4 to T2 (5,00 ±± 4,87%. In addition, the occurrence of pre- and post- fixation of the plexus as well as its cranial and caudal extent have been discussed. In conclusion, the brachial plexus of Cebus apella is constituted by nerve roots from C5 to T1.

  20. Capuchin monkeys' use of human and conspecific cues to solve a hidden object-choice task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essler, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Lindsay P; Rossettie, Mattea S; Judge, Peter G

    2017-09-01

    Learning by watching others can provide valuable information with adaptive consequences, such as identifying the presence of a predator or locating a food source. The extent to which nonhuman animals can gain information by reading the cues of others is often tested by evaluating responses to human gestures, such as a point, and less often evaluated by examining responses to conspecific cues. We tested whether ten brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus [Sapajus] apella) were able to use cues from monkeys and a pointing cue from a human to obtain hidden rewards. A monkey could gain access to a reward hidden in one of two locations by reading a cue from a conspecific (e.g., reaching) or a human pointing. We then tested whether they could transfer this skill from monkeys to humans, from humans to monkeys, and from one conspecific to another conspecific. One group of monkeys was trained and tested using a conspecific as the cue-giver and was then tested with a human cue-giver. The second group of monkeys was trained and tested with a human cue-giver and was then tested with a monkey cue-giver. Monkeys that were successful with a conspecific cue-giver were also tested with a novel conspecific cue-giver. Monkeys learned to use a human point and conspecific cues to obtain rewards. Monkeys that had learned to use the cues of a conspecific to obtain rewards performed significantly better than expected by chance when they were transferred to the cues of a novel conspecific. Monkeys that learned to use a human point to obtain rewards performed significantly better than expected by chance when tested while observing conspecific cues. Some evidence suggested that transferring between conspecific cue-givers occurred with more facility than transferring across species. Results may be explained by simple rules of association learning and stimulus generalization; however, spontaneous flexible use of gestures across conspecifics and between different species may indicate capuchins can

  1. Evaluation of dental pulp repair using low level laser therapy (688 nm and 785 nm) morphologic study in capuchin monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretel, H; Ramalho, L T O; Oliveira, J A; Lizarelli, R F Z

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) 688 nm and 785 nm accelerate dentin barrier formation and repair process after traumatic pulp exposure. The sample consisted of 45 premolars of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with pulp exposure Class V cavities. All premolars were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ), divided in groups of 15 teeth each, and analyzed on 7 th , 25 th , and 60 th day. Group GI – only Ca(OH) 2 , GII – laser 688 nm, and GIII – laser 785 nm. Laser beam was used in single and punctual dose with the parameters: continuous, 688 nm and 785 nm wavelength, tip's area of 0.00785 cm 2 , power 50 mW, application time 20 s, dose 255 J/cm 2 , energy 2 J. Teeth were capped with Ca(OH) 2 , Ca(OH) 2 cement and restored with amalgam. All groups presented pulp repair. On 25 th day the thickness of the formed dentin barrier was different between the groups GI and GII (p th day there was difference between GI and GIII (p < 0.01). It may be concluded that, LLLT 688 nm and 785 nm accelerated dentin barrier formation and consequently pulp repair process, with best results using infrared laser 785 nm

  2. Evaluation of dental pulp repair using low level laser therapy (688 nm and 785 nm) morphologic study in capuchin monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretel, H.; Oliveira, J. A.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Ramalho, L. T. O.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) 688 nm and 785 nm accelerate dentin barrier formation and repair process after traumatic pulp exposure. The sample consisted of 45 premolars of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with pulp exposure Class V cavities. All premolars were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), divided in groups of 15 teeth each, and analyzed on 7th, 25th, and 60th day. Group GI - only Ca(OH)2, GII - laser 688 nm, and GIII - laser 785 nm. Laser beam was used in single and punctual dose with the parameters: continuous, 688 nm and 785 nm wavelength, tip's area of 0.00785 cm2, power 50 mW, application time 20 s, dose 255 J/cm2, energy 2 J. Teeth were capped with Ca(OH)2, Ca(OH)2 cement and restored with amalgam. All groups presented pulp repair. On 25th day the thickness of the formed dentin barrier was different between the groups GI and GII (p < 0.05) and between groups GI and GIII (p < 0.01). On 60th day there was difference between GI and GIII (p < 0.01). It may be concluded that, LLLT 688 nm and 785 nm accelerated dentin barrier formation and consequently pulp repair process, with best results using infrared laser 785 nm.

  3. Memoria espacial en monos capuchinos de Argentina: un estudio observacional en vida silvestre / Spatial memory in capuchin monkeys (Argentina:a wildlife observational study

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    María P. Tujague

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La memoria espacial se considera un factor selectivo en la evolución de la inteligencia. Los estudios en animales permiten pensar que los procesos cognitivos descriptos en humanos comparten características con los de otras especies. Se estudió el comportamiento espacial vinculado a la búsqueda del alimento de los monos capuchinos y su capacidad de retener información sobre la ubicación y estado del mismo. Durante los seguimientos de tres grupos de Cebus nigritus silvestres se aplicó un diseño observacional cualitativo que evaluó las cantidades de fruta madura e inmadura presentes en los árboles frutales consumidos por los monos en sus desplazamientos diarios. Las visitas a los árboles de frutos indicaron que los monos retienen información particular sobre la ubicación y condición de cada árbol. Los resultados obtenidos son fundamentales para la comprensión del funcionamiento de los mecanismos cognitivos no mediados por el lenguaje, lo cual permite ampliar los conocimientos de la base biológica del comportamiento espacial no humano. Palabras clave: Cebus=Sapajus nigritus; árboles frutales; velocidad de acercamiento; visita Spatial memory is considered a selective factor in the evolution of intelligence. Animal studies lead us to believe that cognitive processes described in humans may have much in common with those of other species. We studied the foraging spatial behavior of capuchin monkeys and their ability to retain information about food location and quality. We analyzed whether individuals were able to integrate stored information about food sites and changes in the ripening of the resource. A qualitative observational design was used to monitor three groups of wild Cebus nigritus in their daily movements, evaluating the amounts of ripe and unripe fruit present in the fruiting trees consumed by monkeys. Visits to fruiting trees showed that monkeys remember specific information on the location and condition of each tree

  4. Interpreting heterogeneity in intestinal tuft cell structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; McKinley, Eliot T; von Moltke, Jakob; Coffey, Robert J; Lau, Ken S

    2018-05-01

    Intestinal tuft cells are a morphologically unique cell type, best characterized by striking microvilli that form an apical tuft. These cells represent approximately 0.5% of gut epithelial cells depending on location. While they are known to express chemosensory receptors, their function has remained unclear. Recently, numerous groups have revealed startling insights into intestinal tuft cell biology. Here, we review the latest developments in understanding this peculiar cell type's structure and function. Recent advances in volumetric microscopy have begun to elucidate tuft cell ultrastructure with respect to its cellular neighbors. Moreover, single-cell approaches have revealed greater diversity in the tuft cell population than previously appreciated and uncovered novel markers to characterize this heterogeneity. Finally, advanced model systems have revealed tuft cells' roles in mucosal healing and orchestrating type 2 immunity against eukaryotic infection. While much remains unknown about intestinal tuft cells, these critical advances have illuminated the physiological importance of these previously understudied cells and provided experimentally tractable tools to interrogate this rare cell population. Tuft cells act as luminal sensors, linking the luminal microbiome to the host immune system, which may make them a potent clinical target for modulating host response to a variety of acute or chronic immune-driven conditions.

  5. Nocturnal pectoral tuft display in the malachite sunbird | Wellmann ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most male southern African sunbirds have pectoral tufts, although the function of these is not always understood. ... We suggest the possible function of this behaviour and suggest that these tufts might be a deterrent to predators, as they look like 'eyes' in the dark. A review ... African Zoology 45(2): 342–347 (October 2010) ...

  6. For Tufts, the World Is a Matter of Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2009-01-01

    This article is the third in an occasional series on how colleges have tackled some of the basic challenges of internationalizing their campuses. Tufts University has long been an internationally focused institution. Yet in one area it has, until recently, been sorely lacking. Like many universities, Tufts made little attempt to connect with…

  7. Tufts Health Sciences Database: lessons, issues, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mary Y; Albright, Susan A; Alkasab, Tarik; Damassa, David A; Wang, Paul J; Eaton, Elizabeth K

    2003-03-01

    The authors present their seven-year experience with developing the Tufts Health Sciences Database (Tufts HSDB), a database-driven information management system that combines the strengths of a digital library, content delivery tools, and curriculum management. They describe a future where online tools will provide a health sciences learning infrastructure that fosters the work of an increasingly interdisciplinary community of learners and allows content to be shared across institutions as well as with academic and commercial information repositories. The authors note the key partners in Tufts HSDB's success--the close collaboration of the health sciences library, educational affairs, and information technology staff. Tufts HSDB moved quickly from serving the medical curriculum to supporting Tufts' veterinary, dental, biomedical sciences, and nutrition schools, thus leveraging Tufts HSDB research and development with university-wide efforts including Internet2 middleware, wireless access, information security, and digital libraries. The authors identify major effects on teaching and learning, e.g., what is better taught with multimedia, how faculty preparation and student learning time can be more efficient and effective, how content integration for interdisciplinary teaching and learning is promoted, and how continuous improvement methods can be integrated. Also addressed are issues of faculty development, copyright and intellectual property, budgetary concerns, and coordinating IT across schools and hospitals. The authors describe Tufts' recent experience with sharing its infrastructure with other schools, and welcome inquiries from those wishing to explore national and international partnerships to create a truly open and integrated infrastructure for education across the health sciences.

  8. Three-dimensional kinematics of capuchin monkey bipedalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demes, Brigitte

    2011-05-01

    Capuchin monkeys are known to use bipedalism when transporting food items and tools. The bipedal gait of two capuchin monkeys in the laboratory was studied with three-dimensional kinematics. Capuchins progress bipedally with a bent-hip, bent-knee gait. The knee collapses into flexion during stance and the hip drops in height. The knee is also highly flexed during swing to allow the foot which is plantarflexed to clear the ground. The forefoot makes first contact at touchdown. Stride frequency is high, and stride length and limb excursion low. Hind limb retraction is limited, presumably to reduce the pitch moment of the forward-leaning trunk. Unlike human bipedalism, the bipedal gait of capuchins is not a vaulting gait, and energy recovery from pendulum-like exchanges is unlikely. It extends into speeds at which humans and other animals run, but without a human-like gait transition. In this respect it resembles avian bipedal gaits. It remains to be tested whether energy is recovered through cyclic elastic storage and release as in bipedal birds at higher speeds. Capuchin bipedalism has many features in common with the facultative bipedalism of other primates which is further evidence for restrictions on a fully upright striding gait in primates that transition to bipedalism. It differs from the facultative bipedalism of other primates in the lack of an extended double-support phase and short aerial phases at higher speeds that make it a run by kinematic definition. This demonstrates that facultative bipedalism of quadrupedal primates need not necessarily be a walking gait. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Tufted Puffins nesting in estuarine habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Robert E.; Sanger, Gerald A.

    1979-01-01

    The Tufted Puffin (Lunda cirrhata) apparently has the most extensive breeding distribution of any North Pacific seabird, extending in the western North Pacific from Hokkaido to the north Chukotsk Peninsula on the Chukchi Sea, and in North America from Cape Lisburne on the Chukchi Sea, south to the Farallon Islands off central California (Udvardy 1963). Despite this wide breeding distribution, the reported nesting habitat is generally restricted to steep, rocky islands and continental headlands (see Dement’ev and Gladkov 1951, Kozlova 1957, Gabrielson and Lincoln 1959, Portenko 1973, Sealy 1973, and Sowls et al. 1978). Nests are typically excavated in steep slopes and/or on vegetated plateaus, well above normal tidal influence but occasionally within the spray or storm-wash zone. Nowhere has L. cirrhata or any other puffin species been reported to nest in a flat, estuarine habitat in substrate normally affected by tides during the breeding season. Portenko (1973: 137) refers to Tufted Puffins breeding on Alyumka Island in the Anadyr "estuary" (64°40'N, 177°37'E), but Alyumka Island is a rocky coastal island having immediate offshore waters between 3-18 m deep (A.A. Kistchinski, The Ringing Center, Moscow, and George Tyner, U.S. Defense Mapping Agency, pers. comm.).During the summers of 1976, 1977, and 1978, we found 14-18 pairs of Tufted Puffins nesting on 4 narrow sand islands (5-7 ha each) along the northcentral Alaska Peninsula at Nelson Lagoon (56°00'N, 161°10'W). As of June 1979, 25 active burrows had been reported there (Margaret R. Petersen, pers. comm.). The islands lie approximately 1.3 km from the Bering Sea coast and are protected from the sea by a long, narrow (0.5 kin) sand peninsula. The main deepwater channel in the lagoon, 3-7 m deep and 100-300 m wide at mean low water (MLW), separates the islands from the peninsula. The islands, which are free of permafrost, have a uniformly low profile with the highest elevation 1-2 m above mean high water

  10. Outcomes Assessment at Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Lawrence J.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo; Kimball, Grayson

    2002-01-01

    Using a survey, compared relative values assigned by Tufts veterinary alumni to questions about skills, training, attitudes, and behaviors with those of veterinary employers and faculty. Also assessed their perceptions of future employment opportunities. (EV)

  11. Tufts academic health information network: concept and scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, N S

    1986-04-01

    Tufts University School of Medicine's new health sciences education building, the Arthur M. Sackler Center for Health Communications, will house a modern medical library and computer center, classrooms, auditoria, and media facilities. The building will also serve as the center for an information and communication network linking the medical school and adjacent New England Medical Center, Tufts' primary teaching hospital, with Tufts Associated Teaching Hospitals throughout New England. Ultimately, the Tufts network will join other gateway networks, information resource facilities, health care institutions, and medical schools throughout the world. The center and the network are intended to facilitate and improve the education of health professionals, the delivery of health care to patients, the conduct of research, and the implementation of administrative management approaches that should provide more efficient utilization of resources and save dollars. A model and scenario show how health care delivery and health care education are integrated through better use of information transfer technologies by health information specialists, practitioners, and educators.

  12. The intestinal tuft cell nanostructure in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Ben; Baena, Valentina; Kaelberer, Melanie M; Getaneh, Feven; Chinchilla, Skarleth; Bohórquez, Diego V

    2017-05-10

    Once referred to as "peculiar," tuft cells are enigmatic epithelial cells. Here, we reasoned that future functional studies could be derived from a complete account of the tuft cell ultrastructure. We identified and documented the volumetric ultrastructure at nanometer resolution (4-5 nm/pixel) of specific intestinal tuft cells. The techniques used were Serial Block-Face (SBF) and Automated Tape-collecting Ultra-Microtome (ATUM) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Our results exposed a short (~15 µm) basal cytoplasmic process devoid of secretory vesicles. Volume rendering of serial sections unveiled several thin cytospinules (~1 µm). These cytospinules project from the tuft cell into the nuclei of neighboring epithelial cells. Volume rendering also revealed within the tuft cell an elegant network of interconnected tubules. The network forms a passage from the base of the microvilli to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Based on their location and microanatomy, the tuft cells' cytospinules, and tubular network, might facilitate the exchange of molecular cargo with nuclei of neighboring cells, and the gut lumen.

  13. Personality Structure in Brown Capuchin Monkeys: Comparisons with Chimpanzees, Orangutans, and Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, F. Blake; Lee, Phyllis C.; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Thierry, Bernard; Paukner, Annika; de Waal, Frans B. M.; Widness, Jane; Essler, Jennifer L.; Weiss, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Species comparisons of personality structure (i.e. how many personality dimensions and the characteristics of those dimensions) can facilitate questions about the adaptive function of personality in nonhuman primates. Here we investigate personality structure in the brown capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella), a New World primate species, and compare this structure to those of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), orangutans (Pongo spp.), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Brown capuchins evolved behavioral and cognitive traits that are qualitatively similar to those of great apes, and individual differences in behavior and cognition are closely associated with differences in personality. Thus, we hypothesized that brown capuchin personality structure would overlap more with great apes than with rhesus macaques. We obtained personality ratings from seven sites on 127 brown capuchin monkeys. Principal-components analysis identified five personality dimensions (Assertiveness, Openness, Neuroticism, Sociability, and Attentiveness), which were reliable across raters and, in a subset of subjects, significantly correlated with relevant behaviors up to a year later. Comparisons between species revealed that brown capuchins and great apes overlapped in personality structure, particularly chimpanzees in the case of Neuroticism. However, in some respects (i.e. capuchin Sociability and Openness) the similarities between capuchins and great apes were not significantly greater than those between capuchins and rhesus macaques. We discuss the relevance of our results to brown capuchin behavior, and the evolution of personality structure in primates. PMID:23668695

  14. Preliminary experiments with a carbon fiber tuft cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    This work reports initial tests of a carbon brush or tuft cathode intended for use by the Beam Research Program. It was found that electric fields of approximately 100 kV/cm were required to produce current densities above 20 A/sq cm. The beam extracted from the cathode consisted of many beamlets - one for each tuft. The beamlets were found to be quite uniform in peak current density and the cathode operation was microscopically repeatable. The turn-on time was estimated to be 200 ns

  15. Valores de referência das provas de funções hepática, renal e de alguns eletrólitos em Cebus apella, anestesiados com cetamina Serum biochemical profile of healthy Cebus apella, anesthetized with ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 127 amostras de soro sangüíneo, obtidas de macacos-prego (Cebus apella, anestesiados com cetamina. Quantificaram-se as provas de função hepática (proteínas totais, albumina, glicose, bilirrubinas e atividade enzimática de ALT, AST e ALP, de função renal (uréia e creatinina, bem como alguns eletrólitos (sódio, potássio, cloro, cálcio e fósforo. Os valores médios obtidos foram analisados e comparados entre grupos, de acordo com o sexo e a faixa etária. Dentre as provas de função hepática, os valores de ALP e ALT dos animais jovens mostraram-se superiores aos dos adultos, enquanto os níveis de AST foram maiores nos machos jovens em relação aos machos adultos. Os níveis de albumina foram maiores nos machos adultose fêmeas jovens e a proteína total apresentou valores mais altos nas fêmeas adultas. Relativamente às provas de função renal, os níveis de creatinina mostraram-se maiores nos machos adultos, enquanto os níveis de uréia foram maiores nos machos jovens. Quanto aos eletrólitos, os níveis séricos de cloretos foram superiores nas fêmeas jovens enquanto o sódio mostrou-se mais elevado nos machos adultos do que nas fêmeas jovens.Blood serum samples obtained from 127 Capuchin monkeys, anesthetized with ketamine, were analysed. Hepatic function tests (total protein, albumin, glucose, bilirrubins and enzimatic activity of ALT, AST and ALP, renal function tests (urea and creatinine, and some electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were quantified. Differences related to sex and age were studied. Among the hepatic function tests, the values of ALP and ALT were higher in the young animals, while the levels of AST were higher in the young males when compared to adult males. The albumin parameters were more elevated in adult males and females than in young males and the total protein showed higher in adult females. In relation to the renal function tests, the

  16. Tufts Learns How Far a Big Gift Can Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, eBay's founder gave Tufts University $100-million dollars with an unusual stipulation: The money was to be invested in the burgeoning field of microfinance and used to provide small-business loans and other financial services to poor people around the world. The university would make money if the investments were profitable. The author…

  17. Capuchin stone tool use in Caatinga dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A C de A; Lee, P C

    2004-12-10

    Wild capuchin monkeys inhabiting dry forest were found to customarily use tools as part of their extractive foraging techniques. Tools consisted of twigs and sticks, often modified, which were used to probe for insects and, most frequently, of stones of a variety of sizes and shapes used for cracking and digging. The use of tools for digging has been thought to be restricted to humans. These monkeys, living in a harsh dry habitat, survive food limitation and foraging time constraints through their extensive tool use.

  18. Dental remains of cebid platyrrhines from the earliest late Miocene of Western Amazonia, Peru: Macroevolutionary implications on the extant capuchin and marmoset lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Undoubted fossil Cebidae have so far been primarily documented from the late middle Miocene of Colombia, the late Miocene of Brazilian Amazonia, the early Miocene of Peruvian Amazonia, and very recently from the earliest Miocene of Panama. The evolutionary history of cebids is far from being well-documented, with notably a complete blank in the record of callitrichine stem lineages until and after the late middle Miocene (Laventan SALMA). Further documenting their evolutionary history is therefore of primary importance. Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have allowed for the discovery of an early late Miocene (ca. 11 Ma; Mayoan SALMA) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-43; Pebas Formation). In this study, we analyze the primate material, which consists of five isolated teeth documenting two distinct Cebidae: Cebus sp., a medium-sized capuchin (Cebinae), and Cebuella sp., a tiny marmoset (Callitrichinae). Although limited, this new fossil material of platyrrhines contributes to documenting the post-Laventan evolutionary history of cebids, and besides testifies to the earliest occurrences of the modern Cebuella and Cebus/Sapajus lineages in the Neotropics. Regarding the evolutionary history of callitrichine marmosets, the discovery of an 11 Ma-old fossil representative of the modern Cebuella pushes back by at least 6 Ma the age of the Mico/Cebuella divergence currently proposed by molecular biologists (i.e., ca. 4.5 Ma). This also extends back to > 11 Ma BP the divergence between Callithrix and the common ancestor (CA) of Mico/Cebuella, as well as the divergence between the CA of marmosets and Callimico (Goeldi's callitrichine). This discovery from Peruvian Amazonia implies a deep evolutionary root of the Cebuella lineage in the northwestern part of South America (the modern western Amazon basin), slightly before the recession of the Pebas mega-wetland system (PMWS), ca. 10.5 Ma, and well-before the subsequent

  19. Predatory threat of harpy eagles for yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys in the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suscke, Priscila; Verderane, Michele; de Oliveira, Robson Santos; Delval, Irene; Fernández-Bolaños, Marcelo; Izar, Patrícia

    2017-01-01

    We describe seven encounters between different harpy eagle individuals (Harpia harpyja) and a group of yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus xanthosternos) in Una Biological Reserve. These interactions lasted 58 min on average. In each of those encounters, the capuchin monkeys used particular behavioral strategies against the harpy eagle that were not employed in reaction to other aerial predators. We did not observe any successful predation events, but after one of those encounters an infant disappeared from the capuchin group. As a whole, these observations indicate that the presence of harpy eagles in the group's home range increases predation risk for capuchin monkeys. The present report also suggests a reoccupation by H. harpyja of this area, as no previous recent records identify harpy eagle occurrence in Una Biological Reserve.

  20. Literature review of tufted reinforcement for composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaba, I.; Legrand, X.; Wang, P.; Soulat, D.

    2017-10-01

    In order to minimize the damage caused by the 2D structures, several research have been done on more complex structures (3D-preforms) which have more interesting mechanical characteristics. Divers textile technologies are used to manufacture 3D preforms such as weaving, knitting, stitching, z-pinning, tufting… This kind of reinforcement aims to achieve a balance between the in-plane and out-of-plane properties. Recently, the tufting technology shows more opportunities to develop 3D reinforcements especially with the advances in robotics. The present paper focuses not only on the various technologies of reinforcement through the thickness but also on the mechanical behaviour of a tufted preform in a stamping process.

  1. High-energy physics at Tufts University. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    High energy physics research by Tufts University during the period from July 1981 through July 1982 is described. Reports are included from the bubble chamber group, bubble-chamber-photon-group collaborations, the photon group and the theory group. Experiments were performed on neutrino-deuterium interactions, antiproton-neutron interactions, pion-minus proton interactions, neutrino-deuteron interactions, photoproduction of charmed particles, hadronic production of Chi, shadowing of virtual photons, and high transverse momentum inelastic hadronic reactions

  2. Tufting enteropathy with EpCAM mutation: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pêgas,Karla Lais; Cambruzzi,Eduardo; Ferrelli,Regis Schander; Silva,Carolina Soares da; Guedes,Renata Rostirola; Adami,Marina; Dias,Eduardo Montagner; Melere,Melina Utz; Ceza,Marilia Rosso; Steinhaus,Cintia; Epifanio,Matias; Salomon,Julie; Ferreira,Cristina Targa

    2014-01-01

    Tufting enteropathy (TE), also known as intestinal epithelial dysplasia (IED), is a rare congenital enteropathy related to an earlyonset of severe intractable diarrhea due to specific abnormalities of the intestinal epithelium and mutations of the EpCAM gene. TE is characterized by clinical and histological heterogeneity, such as with low or without mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria, and abnormalities of basement membrane. TE can be associated with malformations, other epith...

  3. Embryohistiogenesis of Vascular Tufts of Glomeruli: a Possible Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, Shahriar; Moeini-Aghtaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Dabiri, Bahram

    2017-10-01

    Embryogenesis of the kidney glomeruli, especially its vascular component, has not been well documented. Glomeruli capillary tuft is surrounded and enveloped by visceral epithelial cells, which is a unique portal system that connects afferent with efferent arteriole without interaction with venular circulation. We hypothesized that the portal system embryologically has developed by extension of the intima of afferent arteriole into the stroma of glomerulus. We also hypothesized that juxtaglomeruli apparatus was developed from remnants of smooth muscle cells of the media of afferent arteriole at the anastomosing site with the Bowman capsule entrance. We studied 5 human fetal kidneys by hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and immunoperoxidase staining techniques. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of fetal kidney showed presence of erythrocytes in early vesicle form of glomeruli that was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with CD31, smooth muscle actin, and CD34 markers. These stains showed extension of extraglomerular arterioles to the glomeruli. Periodic acid-Schiff staining showed also the continuity of the basement membrane in extraglomeruli and internal glomerular vascular tufts. This study shows that there is a relationship between the metanephric blast cells and major vessel critical for angiogenesis. When afferent arteriole come in contact with the immature glomeruli, its intima migrates into the glomerular tuft to form intraglomerular capillary system, while its smooth muscle remains at the entrance orifice and develops juxtaglomerular apparatus cells.

  4. Humoral immune response in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella after vaccination with inactivated suckling mouse brain rabies vaccine: comparison of two schedules of immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevão de Camargo Passos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram vacinados contra a raiva, dois grupos de macacos-pregos adultos, com a vacina inativada preparada em cérebros de camundongos lactentes, administrada pela via intramuscular, na Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo. Os animais em momento algum haviam sido imunizados contra a raiva. O grupo I consistia de nove animais, que receberam três doses de 1,0 mL nos dias 0, 30 e uma dose de reforço aos 210 dias, e o grupo II continha 10 animais que receberam duas doses de 1,0 mL no dia 0 e uma dose de reforço aos 210 dias. As amostras de sangue foram colhidas aos 0, 30º, 60º, 90º, 150º, 210º, 240º, 300º e 365º dias, e os anticorpos neutralizantes titulados pela técnica simplificada da inibição de focos fluorescentes. A vacina induziu uma resposta imune de curta duração com títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes acima de 0.5 UI/mL em ambos os grupos; entretanto a resposta imune persistiu por apenas 54,9 + 57,0 e 36,1 + 60,2 dias nos Grupos I e II respectivamente após a primo vacinação, e, por apenas 62,6 + 74,0 e 86,4 + 61,5 dias nos Grupos I e II respectivamente após o reforço. Não houve diferença estatística significante entre os grupos estudados (p >; 0,05.

  5. Behavioral and ecological consequences of sex-based differences in gustatory anatomy in Cebus apella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Docherty, Beth A; Alport, Laura J; Burrows, Anne M; Smith, Timothy D; Paesani, Sylvia M

    2011-12-01

    Fungiform papillae (FPs) are the only gustatory structures on the anterior tongue. Taste buds (TBs), which are located in FPs, house taste receptors. Each TB has a taste pore (TP) by which tastants are transmitted. In humans, FP and TB densities correlate with taste sensitivity and food preferences. Females have higher FP densities than males in Homo, Pan, and Cebus. Homo, Pan, and Cebus also have larger brains, slower ontogenetic development, and higher maternal investment in offspring compared to most primates. An increase in maternal investment places intense pressure on females to 1) obtain high-quality foods, and 2) detect potential toxins at low levels. This study examines sex differences in FPs and TPs (a TB surrogate) in 11 Cebus apella to test the hypothesis that higher FP density in females may be an adaptation specific to reproductive strategies of females. Tongues were imaged using an environmental scanning electron microscope; from these images FP surface area, FP density, TP count, and TP densities were calculated. We found that there were no significant differences between males and females in the number of TPs per FP. However, we did find that females do have larger FP surface areas and higher FP densities than males. The anatomical evidence indicates that females may have greater taste sensitivity than males because females have more FP than males. Future research on food preference and selection in Cebus is expected to show sex-specific behaviors similar to those observed in Homo and Pan. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comportamiento social del mono capuchino común Cebus olivaceus (Primates: Cebidae en tres exhibiciones zoológicas de Caracas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Charlotte López

    2008-09-01

    repulsiones entre individuos, pero algunos aspectos de la dinámica social están alterados. Los rangos de dominancia no fueron claros, el macho alfa no dominaba a la hembra de mayor rango, los dominantes no interactuaban afiliativamente más que otros individuos, y las hembras no se afiliaban preferentemente con otras hembras. Estas observaciones son contrarias a lo descrito en la naturaleza. Globalmente C. olivaceus tolera bien el cautiverio porque presenta un repertorio de conductas similar al observado en la naturaleza y no muestra conductas anormales (auto agresión, movimientos estereotipados; sin embargo la dinámica social es afectada.Social behavior of the Wedge-capped Capuchin Monkey Cebus olivaceus (Primates: Cebidae in three zoological exhibits of Caracas, Venezuela. Captivity represents an extreme situation for primates, especially for those with large home ranges, and its effect on their behavior might be considerable. The Wedge-capped Capuchin Monkey Cebus olivaceus is the most common primate in Venezuelan zoos. To estimate the effect of confinement on C. olivaceus behavior, we analyzed the social behavior of three groups that differed in captivity conditions, in zoological exhibits in Caracas (Caricuao, Parque del Este, El Pinar. Caricuao’s group moved freely over a non-fenced area of 15 ha, Parque del Este’s and El Pinar’s groups lived in relatively small outdoor enclosures. Social behaviors were described using focal-animal sampling, group scans and ad libitum sampling. The frequency, duration and time devoted to each behavior (per focal period per individual were estimated. Relative dominance between pairs of individuals was established as well as affiliative associations. The repertory of social behaviors was similar between groups and to which has been observed in nature, but the duration and frequency of affiliative and agonistic interactions differed between groups. Affiliative behaviors were less frequent but longer in Caricuao than in the other

  7. Observational learning in capuchin monkeys: a video deficit effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-07-01

    Young human children have been shown to learn less effectively from video or televised images than from real-life demonstrations. Although nonhuman primates respond to and can learn from video images, there is a lack of direct comparisons of task acquisition from video and live demonstrations. To address this gap in knowledge, we presented capuchin monkeys with video clips of a human demonstrator explicitly hiding food under one of two containers. The clips were presented at normal, faster than normal, or slower than normal speed, and then the monkeys were allowed to choose between the real containers. Even after 55 sessions and hundreds of video demonstration trials the monkeys' performances indicated no mastery of the task, and there was no effect of video speed. When given live demonstrations of the hiding act, the monkeys' performances were vastly improved. Upon subsequent return to video demonstrations, performances declined to pre-live-demonstration levels, but this time with evidence for an advantage of fast video demonstrations. Demonstration action speed may be one aspect of images that influence nonhuman primates' ability to learn from video images, an ability that in monkeys, as in young children, appears limited compared to learning from live models.

  8. A STUDY OF ROOT CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF Cebus apella TEETH ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DO CANAL RADICULAR DE DENTES DE Cebus apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Rocha Afonso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo anatômico em dentes do Cebus apella, para análise da anatomia interna do canal radicular dessa espécie, normatizando seu uso como modelo experimental. Utilizaram-se doze animais adultos. Após a remoção do tecido orgânico, os dentes foram removidos, seccionados e fotografados, sendo analisados com um estereomicroscópio. Os resultados mostraram que os dentes apresentaram características semelhantes às dos seres humanos, mas com algumas peculiaridades, tais como: a anatomia do canal radicular variou de oval para circular; nos caninos inferiores, os canais são semelhantes a um rim, o que reflete o contorno externo da raiz; nos molares superiores, os canais mesiobucal e distobucal são ovais, seguindo o contorno geral do dente. Os autores concluem que esta espécie pode ser utilizada como modelo em pesquisas odontológicas, principalmente em estudos do tratamento do sistema de canal radicular.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, dentes, Cebus apella. An anatomic study of Cebus apella root teeth was performed to analyze the internal anatomy of permanent dentition, normalizing its use as experimental model endodontic research. Twelve adult animals were used in this study. After the removal of the organic tissue, the all teeth were removed, sectioned, analyzed and photographed with a stereomicroscope. The results showed that the anatomy of root canal of this species are similar to human dental anatomy, considering the shape, pathway and number of canals, but with some peculiarities, such as: the root canal anatomy varied from oval to circular; in the lower canines, the canals are resembled a kidney, reflecting the outside contour of the root; in the upper molars, the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals are oval, following the general contour of the tooth. The authors conclude that this primate can be applied as models for study of root canal treatment in human beings, in special the upper central and lateral incisors

  9. Anatomy of the arteries of the arm of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 monkeys = Anatomia das artérias do braço do macaco Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário de Souza Lima-e-Silva

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cebus monkey displays a high capacity for adaptation to urbanenvironments, and its high level of encephalization has generated great interest by scientific community to study it. The study of the vascularization of the arm of Cebus is important because of its arboreal habits. Twenty-four animals donated by Ibama (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources from the city of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and housed in the anatomy collections of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU and the Federal University of Goiás (UFG were used. The arterialsystem of these animals was injected with coloring latex, after which the arteries were dissected using stereoscopic microscope or the naked eye. In general terms, the findings on the brachial vessels of the Cebus monkey are identical to those found in humans and inother primates. In specific terms, the most outstanding variation was the small size or the absence of the brachial artery in Cebus. The arterial model of Cebus corroborates its arboreal behavior and constant use of its thoracic limbs.O macaco Cebus possui alta capacidade de adaptação em ambientes urbanos e o seu elevado índice de encefalização tem gerado grande interesse por parte da comunidade científica em estudá-lo. A importância do estudo da vascularização do braço desses animais éem virtude do seu hábito arbóreo. Foram usados 24 animais doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (Ibama de Sete Lagoas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, depositados nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial dos espécimes foi injetado com látex corado e, posteriormente, as artérias foram dissecadas com o auxílio de microscópico estereoscópico ou a olhos desarmados. Em termos gerais, os achados em Cebus acerca de vasos braquiais são idênticos aos encontrados em humanos e outros primatas. Em termos

  10. Gestational ultrasonography and Dopplerfluxometry in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) zoometric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, S A; Leão, D L; Oliveira, K G; Sodré, I S; Domingues, S F S

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were as follows: 1) to evaluate blood flow in the uterine (UA) and umbilical (Uma) arteries in pregnant capuchin monkeys by measuring the resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI); 2) to determine the presence or absence of the early diastolic notch and diastolic flow in the UA and Uma flow waveforms, respectively; 3) to perform conceptus echobiometry for fetal growth assessment during pregnancy; 4) to describe the moment that the fetal organs were initially observed; and 5) to determine when the diagnosis of fetal gender is possible. Seven healthy, sexually mature female Sapajus apella were examined in Weeks -20 to -1 before whelping (whelping Week 0). Triplex Doppler was used to assess the blood flow and fetal heart rate, and B-mode ultrasonography was used to assess the fetal organs and conceptus measurements, including the gestational sac latero-lateral longitudinal (LLL) and latero-lateral transversal (LLT), the crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (BPD), occipito-frontal diameter (OFD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and fetal organ. All the pregnancies ended with a normal whelping and the birth of a live newborn. Prior to whelping, all conceptus dimensions increased significantly, whereas the RI and PI of both the UA and Uma decreased significantly. For the UA, the RI and PI were (mean ± SEM) 0.835 ± 0.017 and 2.157 ± 0.129, 0.808 ± 0.008 and 1.920 ± 0.041, and 0.761 ± 0.006 and 1.759 ± 0.036 on periods -3, -2 and -1, respectively. For the Uma, the RI and PI were 0.97 ± 0.01 and 2.50 ± 0.02 at Week -17 and were 0.64 ± 0.02 and 0.98 ± 0.04 at Week -1, respectively. The complete disappearance of the early diastolic notch in the UA, and the complete appearance of diastolic flow in the Uma occurred on Week -1 and Week -11, respectively. Linear regression analyses regarding the relationship of the weeks before whelping (WBW) with the

  11. A rare cause of congenital diarrhea in a Turkish newborn: tufting enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahvecioğlu, Dilek; Yıldız, Duran; Kılıç, Atilla; İnce-Alkan, Banu; Erdeve, Ömer; Kuloğlu, Zarife; Atasay, Begüm; Ensari, Arzu; Yılmaz, Resul; Arsan, Saadet

    2014-01-01

    Tufting enteropathy is an autosomal recessive congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset severe intractable diarrhea. It presents with watery diarrhea that develops in the first days after birth and persists despite bowel rest. Growth is impaired, and most patients require total parenteral nutrition. The histological characteristic of tufting enteropathy is the presence of epithelial tufts. We hereby present a patient who was referred to our neonatal intensive care unit because of chronic diarrhea and diagnosed with tufting enteropathy according to histological examination. To the best of our knowledge, the newborn case presented here is the first one reported from Turkey. As TE is a very rare disease, it should be considered in patients with continuing diarrhea beginning in the first days of life.

  12. Exploring mechanical property balance in tufted carbon fabric/epoxy composites.

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Anno, Giuseppe; Cartié, Denis D. R.; Partridge, Ivana K.; Rezai, Amir

    2007-01-01

    The paper details the manufacturing processes involved in the preparation of through-the-thickness reinforced composites via the ‘dry preform–tufting–liquid resin injection’ route. Samples for mechanical testing were prepared by tufting a 5 harness satin weave carbon fabric in a 3 mm × 3 mm square pitch configuration with a commercial glass or carbon tufting thread, infusing the reinforced preforms with liquid epoxy resin and curing them under moderate pressure. The glass th...

  13. High-energy physics at Tufts University. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes research accomplished at Tufts University in High Energy Physics during the period 1957 to 1982, with emphasis on the period since 1979 when next previous such summary report was submitted. Activities and publications up to 31 December 1982 and not earlier reported are listed. Principal accomplishments during the past six years include: measurement of the near equality of the charmed D 0 and D +- lifetimes; determination of important features of nu/sub μ/ cross sections on nucleons, of majority quark momentum distributions, of charmed #betta#/sub c/ + production and decay of quark and di-quark fragmentation, and of Z 0 left-handed couplings to u- and d-quarks; the second observation of the upsilon particle; the hadronic production of the J/psi particle via the chi charmonium state; observation of virtual-photon shadowing in deep-inelastic muon scattering; and observation of evidence for two new scalar meson states. In theoretical work, a detailed understanding of the nature of optimal representations of amplitudes and observables in scattering processes has been achieved

  14. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    . To this end, we investigated the effects of xanomeline on the behavior induced by D-amphetamine and (-)-apomorphine in drug-naive Cebus apella monkeys. Antipsychotic compounds antagonize amphetamine-induced motor unrest and stereotypies in this species. Xanomeline inhibited D-amphetamine-induced motor unrest......, stereotypies and arousal as well as apomorphine-induced stereotypies and arousal in drug-naive Cebus apella monkeys. Xanomeline did not induce EPS but vomiting occurred in some monkeys at high doses, in accordance with emetic events observed in Alzheimer patients following xanomeline administration. Even when...... xanomeline was tested in EPS-sensitized Cebus apella monkeys, EPS were not observed at the dose range of xanomeline used in the D-amphetamine-apomorphine combination study (0.5-3 mg/kg). However, when xanomeline was tested at 4 mg/kg, moderate dystonia was seen in two out of three monkeys. It is concluded...

  15. Distribution and function of HCN channels in the apical dendritic tuft of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Mark T; Magee, Jeffrey C; Williams, Stephen R

    2015-01-21

    The apical tuft is the most remote area of the dendritic tree of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Despite its distal location, the apical dendritic tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons receives substantial excitatory synaptic drive and actively processes corticocortical input during behavior. The properties of the voltage-activated ion channels that regulate synaptic integration in tuft dendrites have, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we use electrophysiological and optical approaches to examine the subcellular distribution and function of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective cation (HCN) channels in rat layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Outside-out patch recordings demonstrated that the amplitude and properties of ensemble HCN channel activity were uniform in patches excised from distal apical dendritic trunk and tuft sites. Simultaneous apical dendritic tuft and trunk whole-cell current-clamp recordings revealed that the pharmacological blockade of HCN channels decreased voltage compartmentalization and enhanced the generation and spread of apical dendritic tuft and trunk regenerative activity. Furthermore, multisite two-photon glutamate uncaging demonstrated that HCN channels control the amplitude and duration of synaptically evoked regenerative activity in the distal apical dendritic tuft. In contrast, at proximal apical dendritic trunk and somatic recording sites, the blockade of HCN channels decreased excitability. Dynamic-clamp experiments revealed that these compartment-specific actions of HCN channels were heavily influenced by the local and distributed impact of the high density of HCN channels in the distal apical dendritic arbor. The properties and subcellular distribution pattern of HCN channels are therefore tuned to regulate the interaction between integration compartments in layer 5B pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351024-14$15.00/0.

  16. High Energy Physics at Tufts University Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Gary R. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Oliver, William P. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Napier, Austin [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Gallagher, Hugh R. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    2012-07-18

    In this Final Report, we the researchers of the high energy physics group at Tufts University summarize our works and achievements in three frontier areas of elementary particle physics: (i) Neutrino physics at the Intensity Frontier, (ii) Collider physics at the Energy Frontier, and (iii) Theory investigations of spin structure and quark-gluon dynamics of nucleons using quantum chromodynamics. With our Neutrino research we completed, or else brought to a useful state, the following: Data-taking, physics simulations, physics analysis, physics reporting, explorations of matter effects, and detector component fabrication. We conducted our work as participants in the MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE neutrino oscillation experiments and in the MINERvA neutrino scattering experiment. With our Collider research we completed or else brought to a useful state: Data-taking, development of muon system geometry and tracking codes, software validation and maintenance, physics simulations, physics analysis, searches for new particles, and study of top-quark and B-quark systems. We conducted these activities as participants in the ATLAS proton-proton collider experiment at CERN and in the CDF proton-antiproton collider experiment at Fermilab. In our Theory research we developed QCD-based models, applications of spin phenomenology to fundamental systems, fitting of models to data, presenting and reporting of new concepts and formalisms. The overarching objectives of our research work have always been: 1) to test and clarify the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, and 2) to discover new phenomena which may point the way to a more unified theoretical framework.

  17. The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Romano, Marc D.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Kikuchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation. 

  18. ANATOMICAL DESCRIPTION OF MUSCLES IN THE HIND LIMB AND TAIL OF CEBUS ALBIFRONS

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo U., Miriam; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Cisneros S., Jannet; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Navarette Z., Miluska; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Torres G., Juan Pablo; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sato S., Alberto; Laboratorio de Anatomía y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform the anatomic description of the muscles located in the hind limb and tail of Cebus albifrons. Four adult monkeys older than 3 years of age and castrated were used. The animals were euthanized and embalmed; then, after six days, the dissection of the hind limb and tail was carried out. Muscles were described in comparison with the Rhesus monkey (Maccaca mullata). The pelvis and thigh, leg and foot region presented 18, 12 and 11 muscles respectively. P...

  19. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine inhibits d-amphetamine-induced psychotic-like behavior in Cebus monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Werge, Thomas; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    allosterically potentiates nicotinic receptor stimulation. To this end, we investigated its ability to antagonize d-amphetamine-induced psychotic-like behavior in extrapyramidal side effects (EPS)-primed Cebus monkeys. Galantamine inhibited d-amphetamine-induced unrest, arousal, and stereotypy. Side effects...... such as emesis, sedation, and EPS were minor or not existing. The results indicate that AChE inhibitors have antipsychotic potentials and suggest that clinical trials investigating antipsychotic effects of AChE inhibitors as monotherapy would be of interest....

  20. High temperature brush seal tuft testing of metallic bristles versus chrome carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Kenneth D.; Boyes, Esther

    1996-01-01

    The tribology of brush seals is of considerable interest to turbine engine designers because bristle wear continues to limit long term seal performance and life. To provide better materials characterization and foster the development of improved seals, NASA Lewis has developed a brush seal tuft tester. In this test, a 'paintbrush' sample tuft is loaded under constant contact pressure against the outside diameter of a rotating journal. With this configuration a direct measurement of load and friction is made. Accurate wear rate measurements are possible due to the known contact pressure. Previously reported baseline research using this facility showed good data repeatability and wear morphology similar to published seal data. This paper extends and expands the database for candidate brush seal materials. A series of tuft tests were completed to evaluate the performance of five high temperature superalloy wires sliding against plasma sprayed nichrome-bonded chrome carbide. Wire materials were either nickel-chrome or cobalt-chrome based superalloys. Good corroboration of the tuft results with dynamic seal rig tests was observed; giving additional confidence in the tuft test as a screening and development tool.

  1. Plaque removal efficacy of an electric and a manual toothbrush with additional interdental tufts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, W; Sturm, D; de Jager, M

    2001-01-01

    This clinical study compares the plaque removal efficacy of the Philips/Jordan 2-Action Plaque Remover electric toothbrush with that of the Oral-B 35 Advantage manual toothbrush. In this single-blind randomized split-mouth study, subjects brushed under supervision after having abstained from all oral hygiene for 24 hours. Plaque scored after brushing was used to compare the efficacy of the toothbrushes. Both toothbrushes have special tufts to promote interdental cleaning. It was found that these tufts improve interdental cleaning. Overall, the Philips/Jordan brush removed significantly more plaque than the Oral-B manual brush.

  2. ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DAS ARTÉRIAS DO OMBRO DE Cebus libidinosus (RYLANDS, 2000; PRIMATES – CEBIDAE ANATOMIC STUDY OF ARTERIES OF SHOULDER Cebus libidinosus (RYLANDS, 2000; PRIMATES - CEBIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandra Cássia Lobato do Prado

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As pesquisas nos Cebus libidinosus têm sido incremAs pesquisas nos Cebus libidinosus têm sido in¬crementadas, em razão do pouco conhecimento de sua morfofisiologia e por terem expressivo desenvolvimento psicomotor comparável ao dos primatas do Velho Mundo. A região do ombro merece especial atenção, em virtude dos hábitos arborícolas e as constantes manipulações de objetos. Neste trabalho utilizaram-se 24 exemplares de Cebus libidinosus doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (IBAMA de Sete Lagoas, MG, Brasil, sacrificados de acordo com as recomendações do Comitê Brasileiro de Experimentação Animal (COBEA e inclu¬ídos nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial destes indivíduos foi injetado com látex corado e posteriormente dissecaram-se as artérias sob lupa estereoscópica. Na maioria dos casos, as artérias encontra¬da, apresentaram relativa correspondência de distribuição e número comparável ao modelo humano e de outros primatas, com variações quanto à frequência e origem dos vasos. De modo geral as artérias do ombro deste Cebídeo se originaram de vasos derivados indiretamente da artéria axilar, uma vez que surgiram como pequenos troncos arte¬riais que se subdividiram, e não como ramos individuais, como descrito nos outros animais estudados, e de modo específico ocorreram variações de todas as estruturas em relação aos outros primatas estudados. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, artérias, Cebus libidinosus, primatas. The researches in Cebus libidinosus has been reali¬zed because less known about your morphophisiology and its expressive psychomotor development comparative with Old World primates. The shoulder regions deserve special attention because behavior paste and objects manipulations. Twenty four Cebus specimens were donated by the “Bra¬zilian Institute for Environment and Recyclable Natural Resources

  3. Carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado em macaco-prego, Cebus sp. (Cebidae Mammary high-grade carcinoma in a monkey, Cebus sp. (Cebidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Ziliotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias mamárias são raras em primatas não humanos, enquanto que nas mulheres apresentam alta incidência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência e os resultados do tratamento de um Cebus sp. (fam. Cebidae fêmea, com carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado encaminhado ao Serviço de Atendimento de Animais Selvagens da Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste. À inspeção o animal apresentava aumento de volume em região mamária direita e ao exame radiográfico foram observados três pontos de radiopacidade, característicos de projétil balístico de arma de pressão, com um deles alojado ao centro da massa de tecido mamário Após estabilização, a paciente foi submetida à exérese cirúrgica de aumento de volume e o material foi encaminhado para análise histopatológica. O diagnóstico obtido foi de carcinoma de alto grau, compatível com carcinoma adenoescamoso. Após a retirada dos pontos a paciente foi encaminhada ao convívio de outros animais. Mais de 20 meses após a terapia cirúrgica não há sinais de recidiva. A paciente alimenta-se bem, convive normalmente com o grupo, sugerindo que a terapia adotada foi eficiente até o momento em alcançar qualidade de vida e aumento de sobrevida do animal.Mammary tumors in non-human primates are rare. The aim of this paper is to report the occurrence and treatment outcomes of a female Cebus sp. (fam. Cebidae with high-grade mammary carcinoma received at the Serviço de Atendimento de Animais Selvagens (SAAS, Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste. A right mammary gland nodule was identified and at radiographic examination a point of radiopacity due to gun projectile entrapped within the mammary mass was seen. After the patient stabilization, the mass was excised and submitted to histopathological examination. The diagnosis was of high-grade carcinoma, compatible with adenosquamous carcinoma. The monkey was transported to Wild Animals Treat and Receiving Center (CETAS and

  4. History of the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, while quite a mouthful, is aptly named, since it has contributed substantially to the legacy of Jean Mayer, to the scientific stature of the USDA and, in Atwater’s tradition, to the d...

  5. Self-control assessments of capuchin monkeys with the rotating tray task and the accumulation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Rossettie, Mattea S; James, Brielle T; Whitham, Will; Walker, Bradlyn; Futch, Sara E; Parrish, Audrey E

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of delay of gratification in capuchin monkeys using a rotating tray (RT) task have shown improved self-control performance in these animals in comparison to the accumulation (AC) task. In this study, we investigated whether this improvement resulted from the difference in methods between the rotating tray task and previous tests, or whether it was the result of greater overall experience with delay of gratification tasks. Experiment 1 produced similar performance levels by capuchins monkeys in the RT and AC tasks when identical reward and temporal parameters were used. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar result using reward amounts that were more similar to previous AC experiments with these monkeys. In Experiment 3, monkeys performed multiple versions of the AC task with varied reward and temporal parameters. Their self-control behavior was found to be dependent on the overall delay to reward consumption, rather than the overall reward amount ultimately consumed. These findings indicate that these capuchin monkeys' self-control capacities were more likely to have improved across studies because of the greater experience they had with delay of gratification tasks. Experiment 4 and Experiment 5 tested new, task-naïve monkeys on both tasks, finding more limited evidence of self-control, and no evidence that one task was more beneficial than the other in promoting self-control. The results of this study suggest that future testing of this kind should focus on temporal parameters and reward magnitude parameters to establish accurate measures of delay of gratification capacity and development in this species and perhaps others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Miocardite no macaco Cebus após inoculações repetidas com Schizotrypanum cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Magarinos Torres

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Chagas disease is realized through contamination of ocular conjunctiva, mucosa or skin with infected dejections eliminated by the insect vectors of Schizotrypanum cruzi (Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Rhodnius prolixus. The triatomid bugs live in holes and craks in the walls, in beds, behind trunks, etc. Found in primitive mud huts covered with thatched roofs, and so the human dwellers have many chances to contract the disease, reinfections being reasonably more to expect than a single inoculation. Experimental work reproducing those natural conditions is welcomed as some important features in the pathologic picture of the disease such as the extensive myocardial fibrosis seen in chronic cases are still incompletely known. Microscopic changes were studied in the heart muscle of seven Cebus monkeys infected by S. cruzi. This animal survives the acute stage of the disease and so is particularly suited to experiments of long duration in which several inoculations of S. cruzi are performed. Three different strains of S. cruzi isolated from acute cases of Chagas' disease were employed. One monkey was injected in the skin with infected blood and necropsied after 252 days. Two monkeys were three times, and one, eight times infected in skin, one of them with contaminated blood, and two with contaminated blood and dejections from infected bugs. The necropsies were performed after 35, 95 and 149 days. One monkey was three times inoculated through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with infected blood, two times with dejections from infected bugs, and one time through the wounded buccal mucosa, and necropsied after 134 days. Another monkey was six times inoculated, four times through the intact ocular conjunctiva (one time with contaminated blood, three times with dejections from infected bugs and two times injected in the skin with infected blood, and necropsied after 157 days. Finally, another monkey was nine times

  7. Padrões hematológicos em Cebus apella, anestesiados com quetamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sangue foram colhidas de 124 macacos-prego (Cebus apella da Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo, anestesiados com quetamina (10 mg/kg, IM, com a finalidade de determinar os seguintes parâmetros hematológicos: contagens globais de hemácias e leucócitos, contagem diferencial de leucócitos, hematócrito, hemoglobina e índices hematimétricos (VCM, HCM e CHCM, expressos em média e desvio padrão. Estudou-se a influência do sexo e da idade sobre os referidos parâmetros.

  8. A novel nonsense mutation in the tyrosinase gene is related to the albinism in a capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante Rocha de Vasconcelos, Felipe Tadeu; Hauzman, Einat; Dutra Henriques, Leonardo; Kilpp Goulart, Paulo Roney; de Faria Galvão, Olavo; Sano, Ronaldo Yuiti; da Silva Souza, Givago; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; de Lima Silveira, Luis Carlos; Fix Ventura, Dora; Oliveira Bonci, Daniela Maria

    2017-05-05

    Oculocutaneous Albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive inherited condition that affects the pigmentation of eyes, hair and skin. The OCA phenotype may be caused by mutations in the tyrosinase gene (TYR), which expresses the tyrosinase enzyme and has an important role in the synthesis of melanin pigment. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic mutation responsible for the albinism in a captive capuchin monkey, and to describe the TYR gene of normal phenotype individuals. In addition, we identified the subject's species. A homozygous nonsense mutation was identified in exon 1 of the TYR gene, with the substitution of a cytosine for a thymine nucleotide (C64T) at codon 22, leading to a premature stop codon (R22X) in the albino robust capuchin monkey. The albino and five non-albino robust capuchin monkeys were identified as Sapajus apella, based on phylogenetic analyses, pelage pattern and geographic provenance. One individual was identified as S. macrocephalus. We conclude that the point mutation C64T in the TYR gene is responsible for the OCA1 albino phenotype in the capuchin monkey, classified as Sapajus apella.

  9. Scenes from the past: radiologic evidence of anthropogenic mummification in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Zink, Albert R; Piombino-Mascali, Dario

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use paleoradiologic analyses to investigate a sample of the mummies in the Capuchin Catacombs in Palermo, Sicily, in order to assess skeletal abnormalities and the state of preservation, especially the condition of the internal organs, and to determine radiologic evidence of anthropogenic mummification. Ten 19th and early 20th century mummies with good external preservation were investigated by using a portable direct radiography unit inside the Capuchin Catacombs. The radiographs clearly demonstrated signs of anthropogenic mummification in nine of the 10 mummies investigated. The embalming methods that had been used included (a) evisceration and arterial injection; (b) the placement of foreign materials into the orbits and the nasal and oral cavities; and (c) filling of the thoracic, abdominal, and rectal cavities with foreign materials. Organ preservation varied greatly among the mummies, although brain tissue was found in all of the mummies. Analyses of the skeletal material of the mummies showed evidence of healed vertebral fractures, age-related degenerative changes, and, in one of the child mummies, a remarkable skeletal pathologic condition. The radiographs clearly illustrated different methods of anthropogenic mummification in the catacomb mummies of Palermo, allowed assessment of the preservation of the mummies, and demonstrated skeletal abnormalities.

  10. Anatomical Study of Intrahemispheric Association Fibers in the Brains of Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Christina Malheiros Borges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that the complexity of fiber connections in the brain plays a key role in the evolutionary process of the primate brain and behaviors. The patterns of brain fiber systems have been studied in detail in many nonhuman primates, but not in Sapajus sp. Behavioral studies indicated that Sapajus sp. (bearded capuchins show highly cognitive behaviors such as tool use comparable to those in other nonhuman primates. To compare the brain fiber systems in capuchins with those in other nonhuman primates and humans, the intrahemispheric fibers systems in 24 cerebral hemispheres of Sapajus were dissected by a freezing-thawing procedure. Dissection of the hemispheres in lateral view indicated short arcuate fibers, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, while that in a medial view indicated short arcuate fibers, the cingulum united with the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The results showed that the fiber systems in Sapajus are comparable to those in rhesus and humans, except for a lack of independent superior longitudinal fasciculus and cingulum in Sapajus.

  11. Detection of activated parietal epithelial cells on the glomerular tuft distinguishes early focal segmental glomerulosclerosis from minimal change disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Stucker, F.; Wetzels, J.; Brocheriou, I.; Ronco, P.; Grone, H.J.; D'Agati, V.; Fogo, A.B.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Fischer, H.P.; Boor, P.; Floege, J.; Ostendorf, T.; Moeller, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) migrating onto the glomerular tuft participate in the formation of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) lesions. We investigated whether immunohistologic detection of PEC markers in the initial biopsies of human patients with first manifestation of

  12. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

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    Max L Fletcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2 in OB mitral/tufted cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the olfactory bulb by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli.

  13. Differential Axonal Projection of Mitral and Tufted Cells in the Mouse Main Olfactory System

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    Shin Nagayama

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, much has been elucidated regarding the functional organization of the axonal connection of olfactory sensory neurons to olfactory bulb (OB glomeruli. However, the manner in which projection neurons of the OB process odorant input and send this information to higher brain centers remains unclear. Here, we report long-range, large-scale tracing of the axonal projection patterns of OB neurons using two-photon microscopy. Tracer injection into a single glomerulus demonstrated widely distributed mitral/tufted cell axonal projections on the lateroventral surface of the mouse brain, including the anterior/posterior piriform cortex (PC and olfactory tubercle (OT. We noted two distinct groups of labeled axons: PC-orienting axons and OT-orienting axons. Each group occupied distinct parts of the lateral olfactory tract. PC-orienting axons projected axon collaterals to a wide area of the PC but only a few collaterals to the OT. OT-orienting axons densely projected axon collaterals primarily to the anterolateral OT (alOT. Different colored dye injections into the superficial and deep portions of the OB external plexiform layer revealed that the PC-orienting axon populations originated in presumed mitral cells and the OT-orienting axons in presumed tufted cells. These data suggest that although mitral and tufted cells receive similar odor signals from a shared glomerulus, they process the odor information in different ways and send their output to different higher brain centers via the PC and alOT.

  14. Plasmid profile in oral Fusobacterium nucleatum from humans and Cebus apella monkeys

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    Paula Marcia O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium nucleatum is a strict anaerobe and is indigenous of the human oral cavity. This organism is commonly recovered from different monomicrobial and mixed infections in humans and animals. In this study, the plasmid profile, the plasmid stability and the penicillin-resistance association in oral F. nucleatum isolated from periodontal patients, healthy subjects and Cebus apella monkeys were evaluated. Forty-five F. nucleatum strains from patients, 38 from healthy subjects and seven from C. apella were identified and analyzed. Plasmid extraction was performed in all the isolated strains. These elements were found in 26.7% strains from patients and one strain from C. apella. Strains from healthy subjects did not show any plasmid. Most of strains showed two plasmid bands ranging from 4 to 16 Kb, but digestions with endonucleases showed that they belonged to a single plasmid. The plasmid profile was similar and stable in human and monkey strains. Also, plasmids were classified into three groups according to size. Two strains were positive to beta-lactamase production and no plasmid DNA-hybridization with a beta-lactamase gene probe was observed, suggesting a chromosomal resistance.

  15. A comparative study on component volumes from outer to inner dental enamel in relation to enamel tufts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setally Azevedo Macena, Marcus; de Alencar e Silva Leite, Maria Luísa; de Lima Gouveia, Cíntia; de Lima, Tamires Alcoforado Sena; Athayde, Priscilla Alves Aguiar; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Dental enamel presents marked mechanical properties gradients from outer to inner enamel, a region lacking component volumes profiles. Tufts, structures of inner enamel, have been shown to play a role in enamel resilience. We aimed at comparing component volumes from inner to outer enamel in relation to enamel tufts. Transversal ground sections from the cervical half of unerupted human third molars (n=10) were prepared and histological points were selected along transversal lines (extending from innermost to outer enamel) traced across tufts and adjacent control areas without tufts. Component volumes were measured at each histological point. Component volumes ranges were: 70.6-98.5% (mineral), 0.02-20.78% (organic), 3.8-9.8% (total water), 3-9% (firmly bound water), and 0.02-3.3% (loosely bound water). Inner enamel presented the lowest mineral volumes and the highest non-mineral volumes. Mineral, water and organic contents differed as a function of the distance from innermost enamel but not between the tuft and control lines. Tufts presented opaqueness in polarizing microscopy (feature of fracture lines). Organic volume gradient correlated with a relatively flat profile of loosely bound water. Inner, but not outer enamel, rehydrated after air-dried enamel was heated to 50°C and re-exposed to room conditions, as predicted by the organic/water gradient profiles. Component volumes vary markedly from outer to inner enamel, but not between areas with or without tufts (that behave like fracture lines under polarizing microscopy). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Facial Width-To-Height Ratio Relates to Alpha Status and Assertive Personality in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Carmen Emilia; Wilson, Vanessa A. D.; Morton, F. Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Paukner, Annika; Bates, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Social dominance hierarchies play a pivotal role in shaping the behaviour of many species, and sex differences within these hierarchies often exist. To date, however, few physical markers of dominance have been identified. Such markers would be valuable in terms of understanding the etiology of dominant behaviour and changes in social hierarchies over time. Animals may also use such traits to evaluate the potential dominance of others relative to themselves (i.e. a physical “cue”). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), for example, has been suggested as a cue to dominance in humans, with links to both dominant behaviour and the perception of dominance in other individuals. Whether this association is present in non-human animals is currently not known. Therefore, here we examine within-species links between fWHR and dominant behaviour in 64 brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) aged between 2 and 40 years. fWHR was positively associated with alpha status and with a dimensional rating of assertive personality in both males and females. Moreover, fWHR showed significant sexual dimorphism in adults but not juveniles, suggesting a developmental change may occur during puberty. In a sub-sample, sex differences were mediated by weight, suggesting fWHR dimorphism does not exceed what would be expected by differences in body weight. This is the first report of an association between face shape and behaviour in a non-human species. Results are discussed in terms of the role that face-behaviour associations might play within capuchin societies, and the possible selective forces that might have led to the evolution of fWHR-dominance associations in humans. PMID:24705247

  17. Análise da morfologia interna do tronco encefálico de macaco-prego (Cebus apella

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    Karina do Valle Marques

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia e a morfologia interna do tronco encefálico (TE do macaco-prego (Cebus apella foram descritas com base nas observações feitas em troncos encefálicos de macacos adultos. Seis macacos Cebus apella adultos foram utilizados para as observações anatômicas. Para os estudos da morfologia interna os TE foram cortados seriadamente em seis níveis diferentes: decussação piramidal, porção superior da oliva, porção inferior da oliva, ponte, colículo superior e colículo inferior. Após esse procedimento eles foram corados com a técnica de Mulligan modificada por nós. Nossos resultados mostram que o TE de Cebus apella é caracterizado pela presença do sulco bulbo-pontino, aumento do tamanho do TE, especialmente da medula oblonga, com consequente lateralização do corpo trapezoide, presença do sulco ântero-lateral separando as pirâmides das olivas; desenvolvimento expressivo do corpo trapezoide, da ponte, dos núcleos da ponte e do pedúnculo cerebral. Estes resultados são consistentes com descrições prévias para outros primatas na literatura e sugerem que a organização e desenvolvimento do TE exibe semelhanças com primatas superiores, incluindo o homem, o que reflete as habilidades motoras da espécie estudada.

  18. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Xanomeline is a muscarinic M(1)/M(4) preferring receptor agonist with little or no affinity for dopamine receptors. The compound reduces psychotic-like symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease and exhibits an antipsychotic-like profile in rodents without inducing extrapyramidal side effects...... that xanomeline inhibits D-amphetamine- and (-)-apomorphine-induced behavior in Cebus apella monkeys at doses that do not cause EPS. These data further substantiate that muscarinic receptor agonists may be useful in the pharmacological treatment of psychosis....

  19. Anatomia das artérias do braço do macaco Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.473 Anatomy of the arteries of the arm of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 monkeys - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.473

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    Zenon Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O macaco Cebus possui alta capacidade de adaptação em ambientes urbanos e o seu elevado índice de encefalização tem gerado grande interesse por parte da comunidade científica em estudá-lo. A importância do estudo da vascularização do braço desses animais é em virtude do seu hábito arbóreo. Foram usados 24 animais doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (Ibama de Sete Lagoas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, depositados nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial dos espécimes foi injetado com látex corado e, posteriormente, as artérias foram dissecadas com o auxílio de microscópico estereoscópico ou a olhos desarmados. Em termos gerais, os achados em Cebus acerca de vasos braquiais são idênticos aos encontrados em humanos e outros primatas. Em termos específicos, o fato marcante foi a ocorrência de uma curta artéria braquial, que em alguns casos pode estar ausente, nos Cebus. O modelo arterial braquial em Cebus corrobora seu comportamento arbóreo e constante uso dos membros torácicos.The Cebus monkey displays a high capacity for adaptation to urban environments, and its high level of encephalization has generated great interest by scientific community to study it. The study of the vascularization of the arm of Cebus is important because of its arboreal habits. Twenty-four animals donated by Ibama (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources from the city of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and housed in the anatomy collections of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU and the Federal University of Goiás (UFG were used. The arterial system of these animals was injected with coloring latex, after which the arteries were dissected using stereoscopic microscope or the naked eye. In general terms, the findings on the brachial vessels of the Cebus monkey are identical to those found in humans

  20. Blank-comparison matching-to-sample reveals a false positive symmetry test in a capuchin monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria Brino, Ana Leda; da Silva Campos, Rodolfo; de Faria Galvão, Olavo; McIlvane, William Jay

    2014-06-01

    A positive symmetry test result was obtained with a capuchin monkey that had previously exhibited virtually errorless AB and BA arbitrary matching-to-sample (MTS) with different stimuli. The symmetry test (BA) followed the acquisition of a new AB relation. It seemed possible, however, that the positive result could have occurred through the exclusion of previously defined comparison stimuli and not because the new AB and BA relations had the property of symmetry. To assess this possibility, a blank-comparison MTS procedure was implemented that permitted the separate assessment of select and reject (i.e., exclusion) control with both baseline and BA matching relations. In this assessment, the monkey did not exhibit reliable BA matching when exclusion was not possible, thus showing that the symmetry result was a false positive. However, the study demonstrated the feasibility of using a blank comparison MTS procedure with capuchins. The present results may set the stage for more successful methodology for establishing desired forms of relational stimulus control in capuchins and ultimately improving the assessment of relational learning capacity in that species, other nonhuman species, and nonverbal humans.

  1. Two-dimensional map of direction selectivity in cortical visual area MT of Cebus monkey

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    ANTONIA CINIRA M. DIOGO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the spatial organization of direction of motion in visual area MT of the Cebus apella monkey. We used arrays of 6 (700 µm apart parallel electrodes in penetrations tangential to the cortical layers to record multi-unit responses to moving bars, at 200 µm steps. We determined the direction selectivity at each recording site. The data from single penetrations showed cyclic and gradual changes in the direction selectivity of clusters of cells, intermixed with abrupt 180º discontinuities along the electrode track. In order to obtain maps of direction of motion selectivity, we examined the spatial distribution of direction of motion in MT and we applied a method to determine the location of the centers of radial arrangements of direction selectivity. This tangential organization is characterized by slow continuous changes in direction of motion, interrupted by discontinuities. The changes in direction selectivity are organized radially in a pinwheel fashion and in slabs of linear variation. The pinwheel arrangements have 800-1400 µm in diameter. The size of the radial arrangement is comparable to the point image size in area MT at each eccentricity.Estudamos a organização espacial da seletividade ao sentido do movimento na área visual MT do macaco Cebus apella. Utilizamos um arranjo de 6 eletródios paralelos (separados por 700µm em penetrações tangenciais às camadas corticais para registrar, a cada 200µm, a atividade multi-unitária em resposta a barras em movimento. Determinamos a seletividade ao sentido de movimento em cada sítio de registro. Os dados captados por um único eletródio mostraram uma mudança cíclica e gradual na seletividade ao sentido de movimento dos grupos de neurônios registrados ao longo da trajetória do eletródio, interrompida por mudanças abruptas de 180º ocasionando descontinuidades na seletividade ao sentido do movimento. Para obter mapas de seletividade ao sentido do movimento, examinamos a

  2. Anatomical aspect of the hard palate of the Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1766 primates

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    Andréia Luciana Martins Ramos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen hard palates of neotropical primates were studied (Cebus apella, fixed on formaldehyde (10% and preserved in ethylic alcohol (70%, collected according to the International Bioethics Committee. The animals were supplied by the Medicine College Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnica of the University of São Paulo in 1994. They originated from the São Paulo Zoo. They had died naturally. Measurement (in centimeters of the viscerocranium (8 adults and 6 young animals was made, including palatine length (PL, interpremolar distance (ID, intermolar distance (ID, interorbital distance (IDi, and midface height (MH. The palatine anatomy showed complete right crests (7.64 to 1.22, complete left crests (8.07 to 1.71, incomplete right crests (1.71 to 1.43, and incomplete left crests (1.64 to 1.3. The diasten between the lateral incisive teeth was the main anatomical landmark for the anterior end of the crest, and the landmark for the posterior end was the second molar teeth for all the specimens. The palate is very peculiar: mild concave, from the dental arcade to the median line, covered by the non-pigmented mucous tissue, with osseous structure composed of horizontal layers of the maxilar and palatine bones; sub mucous tissue attached to the periosteum and mucous tissue showing relatively prominent palatine crests. The crests appear as a rigid elevation of the mucous tissue, with some variations at the antimers. It may be concluded that the length of the hard palate is strongly related to the maturity of the animal, relative to the interorbital distance, and that the latter is also related to the length of the palate and the labial opening.

  3. Comparative anatomy of the thigh nerves of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

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    R.A.G.M.F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates have constituted an important group among animals subjected to various studies. Ethological, evolutionary and paleontological studies have revealed changes in anatomical structures linked to the evolution of primates, considered in studies on the comparative anatomy between Cebus libidinosus and other neotropical monkeys or those from the Old World, and the detailed knowledge on their anatomy may represent an important factor for their preservation and protection when the animals are brought to veterinary clinics after accidents or illnesses. In terms of veterinary importance, sometimes these animals arrive in the veterinary medical clinics after accidents, needing surgery or clinical treatment, but the little data available on anatomy has impaired the correct proceedings. The main justification for studies on C. libidinosus, is due to little information about the anatomy related to C. libidinosus in Brazilian and worldwide scientific literature. In this study, the distribution, enervation and path of the femoral and sciatic nerves of the pelvic limb (thigh of C. libidinosus were studied and these results were compared with literature on the anatomy of humans, chimpanzees and baboons. In general, the enervation model of the four primates is identical, but in specific terms, the differences in enervations indicate evolution convergence closer to the branch of baboons in the evolutionary tree, and these data corroborate other comparative studies in relation to the same primates to vessels, muscles and nerves. In conclusion, the nerve organization in the thigh of C. libidinosus is identical to baboon, chimpanzee and homo, but more similar to baboon. The specific differences found indicate an ancient phylogenic origin to C. libidinosus and baboons (data corroborated by other studies.

  4. Carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado em macaco-prego, Cebus sp. (Cebidae

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    Liane Ziliotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As neoplasias mamárias são raras em primatas não humanos, enquanto que nas mulheres apresentam alta incidência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência e os resultados do tratamento de um Cebus sp. (fam. Cebidae fêmea, com carcinoma mamário pouco diferenciado encaminhado ao Serviço de Atendimento de Animais Selvagens da Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste. À inspeção o animal apresentava aumento de volume em região mamária direita e ao exame radiográfico foram observados três pontos de radiopacidade, característicos de projétil balístico de arma de pressão, com um deles alojado ao centro da massa de tecido mamário Após estabilização, a paciente foi submetida à exérese cirúrgica de aumento de volume e o material foi encaminhado para análise histopatológica. O diagnóstico obtido foi de carcinoma de alto grau, compatível com carcinoma adenoescamoso. Após a retirada dos pontos a paciente foi encaminhada ao convívio de outros animais. Mais de 20 meses após a terapia cirúrgica não há sinais de recidiva. A paciente alimenta-se bem, convive normalmente com o grupo, sugerindo que a terapia adotada foi eficiente até o momento em alcançar qualidade de vida e aumento de sobrevida do animal.

  5. High Temperature Brush Seal Tuft Testing of Selected Nickel-Chrome and Cobalt-Chrome Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Kenneth D.; Boyes, Esther

    1997-01-01

    The tribology of brush seals is of considerable interest to turbine engine designers because bristle wear continues to limit long term seal performance and life. To provide better materials characterization and foster the development of improved seals, NASA Lewis has developed a brush seal tuft tester. In this test, a 'paintbrush' sample tuft is loaded under constant contact pressure against the outside diameter of a rotating journal. With this configuration, load and friction are directly measured and accurate wear measurements are possible. Previously reported research using this facility showed excellent data repeatability and wear morphology similar to published seal data and dynamic rig tests. This paper is an update of the ongoing research into the tribology of brush seals. The effects of wire materials processing on seal wear and the tribological results for three journal coatings are discussed. Included in the materials processing were two nickel-chrome superalloys each processed to two different yield strengths. The results suggest that seal wear is dependent more on material composition than processing conditions.

  6. The Great Diseases Project: a partnership between Tufts Medical School and the Boston public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F

    2013-05-01

    Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, affecting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston public school teachers established a partnership of formal scholarly dialogue to create 11th- to 12th-grade high school curricula about critical health-related concepts, with the goal of increasing scientific literacy and influencing health-related decisions. The curricula are based on the great diseases (infectious diseases, neurological disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer). Unlike most health science curricular interventions that provide circumscribed activities, the curricula are comprehensive, each filling one full term of in-class learning and providing extensive real-time support for the teacher. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented the infectious disease curriculum, and its impacts. The high school teachers and students showed robust gains in content knowledge and critical thinking skills, whereas the Tufts scientists increased their pedagogical knowledge and appreciation for health-related science communication. The results show how formal interactions between medical schools and K-12 educators can be mutually beneficial.

  7. SIZE SELECTION IN DIVING TUFTED DUCKS AYTHYA-FULIGULA EXPLAINED BY DIFFERENTIAL HANDLING OF SMALL AND LARGE MUSSELS DREISSENA-POLYMORPHA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DELEEUW, JJ; VANEERDEN, MR

    1992-01-01

    We studied prey size selection of Tufted Ducks feeding on fresh-water mussels under semi-natural conditions. In experiments with non-diving birds, we found that Tufted Ducks use two techniques to handle mussels. Mussels less than 16 mm in length are strained from a waterflow generated in the bill

  8. Gastric acid secretion response in the Cebus apella: a monkey model of chronic Chagas disease Respuesta secretora acida gastrica en el Cebus apella, un modelo animal de la enfermedad de Chagas cronica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Falasca

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the secretory pattern, both basal and stimulated either by histamine (0.1 mg/kg or pentagastrin (64 ug/kg in eighteen Cebus apella monkeys chronically infected with different T. cruzi strains (CA1, n=10; Colombian, n=4 and Tulahuen, n=4 and to describe the morphological findings in the gastrointestinal tract in twelve infected (6 sacrificed and 6 spontaneously dead and four healthy monkeys. All infected monkeys and 35 healthy ones were evaluated by contrast X-ray examination. No differences were observed in basal acid output between control and infected groups. Animals infected with the Tulahuen and Colombian strains showed significant lower values of peak acid output in response to histamine or pentagastrin (pEl objetivo fue estudiar la respuesta secretora basal y estimulada por histamina (0.1 mg/kg o pentagastrina (64 ug/kg en 18 monos Cebus apella cronicamente infectados con diferentes cepas de T. cruzi (CA1 n=10; Colombiana n=4 y Tulahuén n=4. Además se describieron los hallazgos morfológicos en el tracto gastrointestinal de 12 animales muertos (6 sacrificados y 6 espontaneamente. Se evaluó radiológicamente el tracto gastrointestinal de 35 Cebus sp. sanos (controles y 18 infectados crónicamente. Se estudiaron histopatologicamente 4 controles y 12 infectados. No hubo diferencias en la secreción basal ácida entre los grupos control e infectado. Los animales infectados con la cepa Tulahuén y Colombian tuvieron valores más bajos en el pico de secreción ácida, como respuesta a la histamina o a la pentagastrina (p<0.01 y p<0.05 respectivamente; test "t" con respecto a los controles. Los estudios con contraste de bario mostraron agrandamiento y dilatación del colon en 3 animales infectados. En las autopsias de los chagásicos se encontraron lesiones histologicas en el 75% de los casos (solo en colon, 33%; en colon y esofago, 42%. En el grupo CA1, la secreción ácida estuvo dentro de los parámetros normales

  9. Variation in chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor: note type and individual distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jessica L; Freeberg, Todd M

    2007-08-01

    The chick-a-dee call of chickadee species (genus Poecile) has been the focus of much research. A great deal is known about the structural complexity and the meaning of variation in notes making up calls in these species. However, little is known about the likely homologous "chick-a-dee" call of the closely related tufted titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor. Tufted titmice are a prime candidate for comparative analyses of the call, because their vocal and social systems share many characteristics with those of chickadees. To address the paucity of data on the structure of chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, we recorded birds in field and aviary settings. Four main note types were identified in the call: Z, A, D(h), and D notes. Several acoustic parameters of each note type were measured, and statistical analyses revealed that the note types are acoustically distinct from one another. Furthermore, note types vary in the extent of individual distinctiveness reflected in their acoustic parameters. This first step towards understanding the chick-a-dee call of tufted titmice indicates that the call is comparable in structure and complexity to the calls of chickadees.

  10. Cooling the Campus: Experiences from a Pilot Study to Reduce Electricity Use at Tufts University, USA, Using Social Marketing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Kristin; Agyeman, Julian; Rappaport, Ann

    2004-01-01

    A community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to reduce student electricity use and greenhouse gas emissions was undertaken at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts. Social marketing methods follow a commercial marketing model and involve market research into the planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and evaluation of methods…

  11. Distinct ATOH1 and Neurog3 requirements define tuft cells as a new secretory cell type in the intestinal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbe, F.; van Es, J.H.; Makrini, L.; Brulin, B.; Mellitzer, G.; Robine, S.; Romagnolo, B.; Shroyer, N.F.; Bourgaux, J.F.; Pignodel, C.; Clevers, H.; Jay, P.

    2011-01-01

    The unique morphology of tuft cells was first revealed by electron microscopy analyses in several endoderm-derived epithelia. Here, we explore the relationship of these cells with the other cell types of the intestinal epithelium and describe the first marker signature allowing their unambiguous

  12. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tufting that are Indian products? 309.14 Section 309.14 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.14 What are examples of beadwork... other toys and collectibles, are Indian products. (b) Specific examples include, but are not limited to...

  13. Food intake rates and habitat segregation of tufted duck Aythya fuligula and scaup Aythya marila exploiting zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, JJ

    1999-01-01

    The foraging skills of Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula and Scaup Aythya marila feeding on Zebra Mussels Dreissena polymorpha were studied in experiments under seminatural diving conditions with relevance to the IJssalmeer/Markermeer area (large lakes in the centre of The Netherlands, former Zuiderzee

  14. Food intake rates and habitat segregation of tufted duck Aythya fuligula scaup Aythya marila exploiting zebra mussels Dreissena Polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The foraging skills of Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula and Scaup Aythya marila feeding on Zebra Mussels Dreissena polymorpha were studied in experiments under semi-natural diving conditions with relevance to the IJsselmeer/Markermeer area (large lakes in the centre of The Netherlands, former Zuiderzee

  15. Ethyl glucuronide findings in hair samples from the mummies of the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, Frank; Brockmann, Christopher; Madea, Burkhard; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Piombino-Mascali, Dario

    2013-10-10

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies: friars, priests and laypeople including men, women, and children. The bodies were accessible to family members who could visit the deceased and commemorate them through prayers. The "Sicily Mummy Project" analyzed hair samples from 38 mummies to determine the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) using a routine procedure in our accredited laboratory of liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification was 2.3 pg/mg. The hair samples were from 1.5 to 12 cm in length. All samples were analyzed in 2 segments (seg. A 0-3 cm and seg. B the remainder). Samples <4 cm in length were cut in half. In 31 out of 76 segments positive results were obtained for EtG, with concentrations between 2.5 and 531.3 pg/mg (mean 73.8, median 13.3 pg/mg). In 14 cases positive results were obtained for both segments. In one sample a positive result was obtained for segment A but not for segment B and in a further two samples only for segment B. The results indicate that EtG analyses can be performed on mummy hair samples even several hundred years after death to identify evidence for significant alcohol consumption during life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synchronized practice helps bearded capuchin monkeys learn to extend attention while learning a tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragaszy, Dorothy M; Eshchar, Yonat; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Resende, Briseida; Laity, Kellie; Izar, Patrícia

    2017-07-24

    Culture extends biology in that the setting of development shapes the traditions that individuals learn, and over time, traditions evolve as occasional variations are learned by others. In humans, interactions with others impact the development of cognitive processes, such as sustained attention, that shape how individuals learn as well as what they learn. Thus, learning itself is impacted by culture. Here, we explore how social partners might shape the development of psychological processes impacting learning a tradition. We studied bearded capuchin monkeys learning a traditional tool-using skill, cracking nuts using stone hammers. Young monkeys practice components of cracking nuts with stones for years before achieving proficiency. We examined the time course of young monkeys' activity with nuts before, during, and following others' cracking nuts. Results demonstrate that the onset of others' cracking nuts immediately prompts young monkeys to start handling and percussing nuts, and they continue these activities while others are cracking. When others stop cracking nuts, young monkeys sustain the uncommon actions of percussing and striking nuts for shorter periods than the more common actions of handling nuts. We conclude that nut-cracking by adults can promote the development of sustained attention for the critical but less common actions that young monkeys must practice to learn this traditional skill. This work suggests that in nonhuman species, as in humans, socially specified settings of development impact learning processes as well as learning outcomes. Nonhumans, like humans, may be culturally variable learners.

  17. Using photographs to study animal social cognition and behaviour: Do capuchins' responses to photos reflect reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, F Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F; Prétôt, Laurent; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; O'Sullivan, Eoin; Stocker, Martina; D'Mello, Daniel; Wilson, Vanessa A D

    2016-03-01

    Behavioural responses to photos are often used to infer what animals understand about their social environment, but are rarely validated against the same stimuli in real life. If subjects' responses to photos do not reflect responses to the same live stimuli, it is difficult to conclude what happens in reality based on photo responses alone. We compared capuchins' responses to photos versus live stimuli in an identical scenario within research cubicles. Subjects had the opportunity to approach food placed in front of an alpha group member and, in a separate condition, photos depicting the same individual. Subjects' latencies to approach food when placed in front of the real alpha negatively correlated with time subjects spent in close proximity to the alpha in their main enclosure. We therefore predicted subjects' latencies to approach food in the presence of photos would positively correlate with their latencies to approach food in the presence of the real alpha inside the cubicles, but negatively correlate with time they spent in proximity to the alpha in their enclosure. Neither prediction was supported. While not necessarily surprising, we explain why these results should be an important reminder that care is needed when interpreting results from photo studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxoplasmose em primatas não humanos: I - Infecções naturais em Macacca Mulatta e Cebus Apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felippe Nery-Guimarães

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são descritas infecções naturais por Toxoplasma em um Macacca mulatta e em um Cebus apella, ambos tendo apresentado curto período de doença. Ambos se infectaram no cativeiro: o primeiro no biotério do laboratório, onde havia outros mamíferos com toxoplasmose experimental, e o segundo, na casa dos seus donos, em Jacarepaguá, on se habituara a comer carne crua como parte da alimentação. Nessa casa viviam outros platirrinos, entre os quais 2 Cebus libidinosus (um casal, os quais apresentaram Reação de Sabin-Feldman positiva (1:64, do mesmo modo que o tratador dos animais. Microscòpicamente, observaram-se nos 2 animais mortos de toxoplasmose espontânea lesões necróticas no fígado e baço, com a presença de toxoplasmas livres e intracelulares, isolados ou em associação, com maior ou menor número de indivíduos. No Cebus, no qual foi feita autópsia completa, foram observadas lesões e parasitos na suprarenal; e lesões moderadas no encéfalo, mas sem parasitos. É feita uma revisão das infecções naturais por Toxoplasma em primatas não humanos. Em mais de 60 anos de estudos do Txoplasma, foram descritas infecções naturais em apenas 31 exemplares de 18 espécies: 3 Prosimii, 10 Platyrrhinus e 5 Catharrhinus. A baixa freqüência da toxoplasmose no símios em geral é relacionada aos seus hábitos alimentares vegetarianos e insetífagos e à ecologia arborícola. A maior incidência nos platirrinos é relacionada à sua mais fácil domesticação e conseqüente mudança dos hábitos alimentares.

  19. A multi-objective optimization for brush monofilament tufting process design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salmasnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the optimization of monofilament tufting process as the most important and the main stage of toothbrush production in sanitary industries. In order to minimize both process time and depreciation costs, and ultimately increase the production efficiency in such an industrial unit, we propose a metaheuristic based optimization approach to solve it. The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP is used to formulate the proposed problem. Then by using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, NSGA-II and MOPSO, we seek to obtain the best solution and objective functions described above. Extensive computational experiments on three different kinds of toothbrush handles are performed and the results demonstrate the applicability and appropriate performance of algorithms. The comparison metrics like spacing, number of Pareto solutions, time, mean distance from the ideal solution and diversity are used to evaluate the quality of solutions. Moreover a sensitivity analysis is done for investigation of the performance in various setting of parameters.

  20. Anatomy and Physiology of the Thick-tufted Layer 5 Pyramidal Neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth eRamaswamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The thick-tufted layer 5 (TTL5 pyramidal neuron is one of the most extensively studied neuron types in the mammalian neocortex and has become a benchmark for understanding information processing in excitatory neurons. By virtue of having the widest local axonal and dendritic arborization, the TTL5 neuron encompasses various local neocortical neurons and thereby defines the dimensions of neocortical microcircuitry. The TTL5 neuron integrates input across all neocortical layers and is the principal output pathway funneling information flow to subcortical structures. Several studies over the past decades have investigated the anatomy, physiology, synaptology, and pathophysiology of the TTL5 neuron. This review summarizes key discoveries and identifies potential avenues of research to facilitate an integrated and unifying understanding on the role of a central neuron in the neocortex.

  1. Anatomy and physiology of the thick-tufted layer 5 pyramidal neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Srikanth; Markram, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The thick-tufted layer 5 (TTL5) pyramidal neuron is one of the most extensively studied neuron types in the mammalian neocortex and has become a benchmark for understanding information processing in excitatory neurons. By virtue of having the widest local axonal and dendritic arborization, the TTL5 neuron encompasses various local neocortical neurons and thereby defines the dimensions of neocortical microcircuitry. The TTL5 neuron integrates input across all neocortical layers and is the principal output pathway funneling information flow to subcortical structures. Several studies over the past decades have investigated the anatomy, physiology, synaptology, and pathophysiology of the TTL5 neuron. This review summarizes key discoveries and identifies potential avenues of research to facilitate an integrated and unifying understanding on the role of a central neuron in the neocortex.

  2. Relationship between body temperature, weight, and hematological parameters of black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas Cardoso; Barros, Marilia

    2016-06-01

    Basal thermal values of captive adult black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) in a thermoneutral environment were measured via different methods, along with body weight and hematological parameters. Body temperatures were recorded with rectal (RC), subcutaneous (SC) microchip transponder and infrared (left and right) tympanic membrane (TM) thermometries. Thermal values were correlated with body mass and some hematological data. Similar RC and SC temperatures were observed, these being significantly higher than the left and right TM values. SC temperature was positively correlated and in close agreement with RC measurements. Although body temperatures were not influenced by gender, capture time, or body weight, they were correlated with hematological parameters. Thus, body temperatures in this species seem to reflect some of the characteristics of the assessments' location, with SC microchip transponders being a less invasive method to assess body temperature in these small-bodied non-human primates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Yangtze River, an insignificant genetic boundary in tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus: the evidence from a first population genetics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglou Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Great rivers were generally looked at as the geographical barrier to gene flow for many taxonomic groups. The Yangtze River is the third largest river in the world, and flows across South China and into the East China Sea. Up until now, few studies have been carried out to evaluate its effect as a geographical barrier. In this study, we attempted to determine the barrier effect of the Yangtze River on the tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus using the molecular ecology approach. Using mitochondrial DNA control region (CR sequences and 13 nuclear microsatellite loci, we explored the genetic structure and gene flow in two adjacent tufted deer populations (Dabashan and Wulingshan populations, which are separated by the Yangtze River. Results indicated that there are high genetic diversity levels in the two populations, but no distinguishable haplotype group or potential genetic cluster was detected which corresponded to specific geographical population. At the same time, high gene flow was observed between Wulingshan and Dabashan populations. The tufted deer populations experienced population decrease from 0.3 to 0.09 Ma BP, then followed by a distinct population increase. A strong signal of recent population decline (T = 4,396 years was detected in the Wulingshan population by a Markov-Switching Vector Autoregressions(MSVAR process population demography analysis. The results indicated that the Yangtze River may not act as an effective barrier to gene flow in the tufted deer. Finally, we surmised that the population demography of the tufted deer was likely affected by Pleistocene climate fluctuations and ancient human activities.

  4. Angioma em tufo e síndrome dolorosa miofascial Tufted angioma and myofascial pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Souto da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O Angioma em tufo é considerado um raro tumor vascular cutâneo adquirido. Caracteriza-se por máculas purpúrico-violáceas, dolorosas que podem evoluir para placas com pápulas angiomatosas. Tem natureza benigna, mas o envolvimento extenso é comum, gerando alteração funcional do membro afetado em caso de dor. Os autores relatam um caso de angioma em tufo associado à síndrome dolorosa miofascial, em que o elemento predisponente foi a presença deste tumor desde a infância. A dor local prejudicou a utilização da musculatura e possibilitou o surgimento da síndrome relatada. A realização de bloqueio anestésico de pontos-gatilhos no membro afetado, levou à melhora total dos sintomas.Tufted angioma is a rare acquired vascular tumor. It is characterized by painful purplish macules that may progress to plaques containing angiomatous papules. The condition is benign; however, it often affects extensive areas of the skin, leading to functional disability of the affected limb if painful. The present report describes a case of a tufted angioma associated with myofascial pain syndrome in which the predisposing element was the presence of this tumor since childhood. Pain at the site of the lesion affected muscle use and led to the onset of the associated syndrome. Complete relief from symptoms was achieved by blocking the trigger points of the affected limb with anesthesia.

  5. High energy physics at Tufts University: Progress report, July 16, 1987--July 15, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    The past year is best characterized in production terms: the Tufts High Energy Physics Group has participated significantly in the successful manufacture of a great mass of raw scientific data and of a major detector system. In summary: the fixed-target study of charm production at Fermilab---Experiment E-769---has yielded upwards of 500 million recorded triggers on some 10 4 standard computer tapes, far more events than planned and a landmark in online data acquisition at an accelerator. The Fermilab 15-foot hydrogen-neon bubble chamber exposure to neutrinos---E-632---has concluded its second and final run yielding interactions from the Tevatron-neutrino spectrum generated by more than 4 /times/ 10 17 protons on target. This set of filmed events is unique for its high neutrino energy and is, moreover, augmented by electronic data identifying energetic muons from charged-current processes and by subsets of high-resolution recordings from specialized holographic and conventional cameras. The Soudan-II nucleon decay program has brought significant portions of its central calorimeter and its Tufts-manufactured veto shield into operation on-line and is preparing to enter an extended data-collection period this summer. These experimental accomplishments, each of them as part of an international collaboration, promise us a flow of new and interesting results during the coming years. Our small theory sub-group continues its prolific activities in several areas of high energy phenomenology. Our progress in each of these activities will be described in more detail in the report

  6. The Palermo Capuchin Catacombs Project: a multidisciplinary approach to the study of a modern Mummy Collection (ca 1600-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sineo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a multidisciplinary project for the study of the present conditions, history, bioanthropological features and conservation status of a large collection of modern human mummies, kept in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo (Sicily, Italy. Due to the large amount of spontaneously and anthropogenically mummified human bodies, and to an abundant presence of associated artefacts, this collection provides a unique opportunity to carry out a large multidisciplinary survey useful for a thorough biocultural understanding of these remains, a conservation plan, and testing of new restoration protocols.

  7. The substituted (S)-3-phenylpiperidine (-)-OSU6162 reduces apomorphine- and amphetamine-induced behaviour in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt-Christensen, M; Andersen, M B; Fink-Jensen, A

    2006-01-01

    -amphetamine-induced behaviours in EPS sensitised Cebus apella monkeys. (-)-OSU6162 was administered subcutaneously in doses of 1, 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg alone and in combination with (-)-apomorphine (0.25 mg/kg) or d-amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg). (-)-OSU6162 inhibited (-)-apomorphine-(1-9 mg/kg) as well as d-amphetamine (3-9 mg....../kg)-induced arousal and stereotypy. EPS did not occur when (-)-OSU6162 was administered in combination with (-)-apomorphine or d-amphetamine. However, when (-)-OSU6162 was administered alone, dystonia was observed at high doses (6 and 9 mg/kg) in two out of six monkeys. The present study shows that (-)-OSU6162 can...

  8. Generalidade da Aprendizagem em Situações de Uso de Ferramentas por um Macaco-Prego, Cebus Apella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Elias Gotardelo Audebert Delage

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre o uso de ferramentas em primatas do gênero Cebus divergem sobre se esta habilidade seria do tipo associativa ou "por compreensão". Estudos mostraram que o uso de ferramentas aprendido em um contexto pode se transferir para outros contextos, indicando que algo além da aprendizagem "estímulo-e-resposta" estaria envolvido. Neste estudo um macaco-prego foi exposto a duas situações problema, uma em que o animal precisava encaixar duas varetas para alcançar um pedaço de alimento e outra em que o animal precisava encaixar outro modelo de varetas para golpear um equipamento. Os resultados mostraram que a resolução do primeiro problema facilitou a resolução do segundo, indicando que em novas situações respostas anteriormente bem sucedidas se tornam mais prováveis.

  9. The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M B; Fuxe, K; Werge, T

    2002-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 has shown effects similar to dopamine antagonists in behavioural assays in rats predictive for antipsychotic activity, without induction of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). In the present study, we examined whether this functional dopamine antagonism......-induced behaviours (unrest, stereotypies, arousal) were unaffected. EPS were not observed at any dose. At 0.05 mg/kg CGS 21680 produced vomiting. The two lower doses did not produce observable side-effects. Though the differential effect on amphetamine- and apomorphine-induced behaviours is intriguing, CGS 21680...... showed a functional anti-dopaminergic effect in Cebus apella monkeys without production of EPS. This further substantiates that adenosine A2A receptor agonists may have potential as antipsychotics with atypical profiles....

  10. Herniation Pits in Human Mummies: A CT Investigation in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Zink, Albert R.

    2012-01-01

    Herniation pits (HPs) of the femoral neck were first described in a radiological publication in 1982 as round to oval radiolucencies in the proximal superior quadrant of the femoral neck on anteroposterior radiographs of adults. In following early clinical publications, HPs were generally recognized as an incidental finding. In contrast, in current clinical literature they are mentioned in the context of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) of the hip joint, which is known to cause osteoarthritis (OA). The significance of HPs in chronic skeletal disorders such as OA is still unclear, but they are discussed as a possible radiological indicator for FAI in a large part of clinical studies. In this paleoradiological study we examined a sample of mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, by a mobile computed tomography (CT) scanner. Evaluation of the CT examinations revealed HPs in six out of 16 (37.5%) adult male mummies. The first aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of HPs shown in our mummy collection to the findings described in clinical literature. Thereby CT evaluation revealed that their osseous imaging characteristics are in accordance, consisting of round to oval subcortical lesions at the anterior femoral neck, clearly demarcated by a sclerotic margin. The second aim was to introduce HPs to the paleoradiological and paleopathological methodology as an entity that underwent a renaissance from an incidental finding to a possible radiological indicator of FAI in the clinical situation. As FAI plays an important role in the development of OA of the hip, which is a very common finding in human skeletal remains, HPs should always be considered in paleoradiological evaluation of hip joint diseases. PMID:22567164

  11. Herniation pits in human mummies: a CT investigation in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Panzer

    Full Text Available Herniation pits (HPs of the femoral neck were first described in a radiological publication in 1982 as round to oval radiolucencies in the proximal superior quadrant of the femoral neck on anteroposterior radiographs of adults. In following early clinical publications, HPs were generally recognized as an incidental finding. In contrast, in current clinical literature they are mentioned in the context of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI of the hip joint, which is known to cause osteoarthritis (OA. The significance of HPs in chronic skeletal disorders such as OA is still unclear, but they are discussed as a possible radiological indicator for FAI in a large part of clinical studies.In this paleoradiological study we examined a sample of mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, by a mobile computed tomography (CT scanner. Evaluation of the CT examinations revealed HPs in six out of 16 (37.5% adult male mummies.The first aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of HPs shown in our mummy collection to the findings described in clinical literature. Thereby CT evaluation revealed that their osseous imaging characteristics are in accordance, consisting of round to oval subcortical lesions at the anterior femoral neck, clearly demarcated by a sclerotic margin.The second aim was to introduce HPs to the paleoradiological and paleopathological methodology as an entity that underwent a renaissance from an incidental finding to a possible radiological indicator of FAI in the clinical situation. As FAI plays an important role in the development of OA of the hip, which is a very common finding in human skeletal remains, HPs should always be considered in paleoradiological evaluation of hip joint diseases.

  12. Herniation pits in human mummies: a CT investigation in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Zink, Albert R

    2012-01-01

    Herniation pits (HPs) of the femoral neck were first described in a radiological publication in 1982 as round to oval radiolucencies in the proximal superior quadrant of the femoral neck on anteroposterior radiographs of adults. In following early clinical publications, HPs were generally recognized as an incidental finding. In contrast, in current clinical literature they are mentioned in the context of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) of the hip joint, which is known to cause osteoarthritis (OA). The significance of HPs in chronic skeletal disorders such as OA is still unclear, but they are discussed as a possible radiological indicator for FAI in a large part of clinical studies.In this paleoradiological study we examined a sample of mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, by a mobile computed tomography (CT) scanner. Evaluation of the CT examinations revealed HPs in six out of 16 (37.5%) adult male mummies.The first aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of HPs shown in our mummy collection to the findings described in clinical literature. Thereby CT evaluation revealed that their osseous imaging characteristics are in accordance, consisting of round to oval subcortical lesions at the anterior femoral neck, clearly demarcated by a sclerotic margin.The second aim was to introduce HPs to the paleoradiological and paleopathological methodology as an entity that underwent a renaissance from an incidental finding to a possible radiological indicator of FAI in the clinical situation. As FAI plays an important role in the development of OA of the hip, which is a very common finding in human skeletal remains, HPs should always be considered in paleoradiological evaluation of hip joint diseases.

  13. Halophilic bacteria are colonizing the exhibition areas of the Capuchin Catacombs in Palermo, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñar, G; Kraková, L; Pangallo, D; Piombino-Mascali, D; Maixner, F; Zink, A; Sterflinger, K

    2014-07-01

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy, contain over 1800 mummies dating from the 16th to 20th centuries AD. Their environment is not conducive to the conservation of the remains due to, among other factors, water infiltration, which is producing salt efflorescences on the walls. A multiphasic approach was applied to investigate the halophilic microbiota present in the Catacombs. Enrichment cultures were conducted on media containing different NaCl concentrations, ranging from 3 to 20 %. For screening of the strains, the following two PCR-based methods were used and compared: fluorescence internal transcribed spacer PCR (f-ITS) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Results derived from RAPD profiles were shown to be slightly more discriminative than those derived from f-ITS. In addition, the proteolytic and cellulolytic abilities were screened through the use of plate assays, gelatin agar and Ostazin Brilliant Red H-3B (OBR-HEC), respectively. Many of the strains isolated from the wall samples displayed proteolytic activities, such as all strains belonging to the genera Bacillus, Virgibacillus and Arthrobacter, as well as some strains related to the genera Oceanobacillus, Halobacillus and Idiomarina. In addition, many of the strains isolated from materials employed to stuff the mummies showed cellulolytic activities, such as those related to species of the genera Chromohalobacter and Nesterenkonia, as well as those identified as Staphylococcus equorum and Halomonas sp. Furthermore, many of the strains were pigmented ranging from yellow to a strong pink color, being directly related to the discoloration displayed by the materials.

  14. Microbial survey of the mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy: biodeterioration risk and contamination of the indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Sterflinger, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies dating from the 16th to 20th centuries AD and showing evidence of biodeterioration. An extensive microbiological and molecular investigation was recently performed. Samples were taken from skin, muscle, hair, bone, stuffing materials, clothes, and surrounding walls as well as from the indoor air. In this study, we witnessed that the different degradation phenomena observed on the variety of materials located at the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo are biological in origin. Molecular techniques showed the dominance of halophilic species of the domains Bacteria and Archaea on the walls and – as a result of salt emanating from the walls – on the mummies themselves. Nevertheless, specialized microorganisms belonging to taxa well-known for their cellulolytic and proteolytic activities were detected on clothes and stuffing material, and on skin, muscle, hair, and bone, respectively. This specialized microbiota is threatening the conservation of the mummies themselves. Additionally, sequences related to the human skin microbiome and to some pathogenic Bacteria (order Clostridiales) and fungi (genus Phialosimplex) were identified on samples derived from the mummies. Furthermore, a phosphate-reducing fungus, Penicillium radicum, was detected on bone. Finally, the high concentration of airborne fungal spores is not conducive to the conservation of the human remains and is posing a potential health risk for visitors. PMID:23772650

  15. Dental investigation of mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo (circa 18th-19th century CE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R; Piombino-Mascali, D; Rühli, F

    2017-08-01

    Within the framework of the Sicily Mummy Project, the orofacial complex of a significant sample of individuals (n=111) from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy, was inspected. The heads and dentitions of the mummies were documented and the recorded findings described: the state of preservation of skeletal and soft tissues; dental pathologies such as carious lesions and alveolar bone loss; enamel hypoplasia; and ante- and post-mortem tooth loss. Despite limitations in data collection, the oral health of these mummies was assessed and the frequencies of pathologies were compared to those of similar populations. From their position within the corridors of the Catacombs, sex and social status of the mummies were also inferred, allowing the dental pathologies to be specified in the social and historical context. Most interestingly, the rate of oral health problems did not differ between the groups of the members of the Capuchin Order and the laymen of the city of Palermo, despite their different lifestyles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbial survey of the mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy: biodeterioration risk and contamination of the indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Sterflinger, Katja

    2013-11-01

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies dating from the 16th to 20th centuries AD and showing evidence of biodeterioration. An extensive microbiological and molecular investigation was recently performed. Samples were taken from skin, muscle, hair, bone, stuffing materials, clothes, and surrounding walls as well as from the indoor air. In this study, we witnessed that the different degradation phenomena observed on the variety of materials located at the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo are biological in origin. Molecular techniques showed the dominance of halophilic species of the domains Bacteria and Archaea on the walls and - as a result of salt emanating from the walls - on the mummies themselves. Nevertheless, specialized microorganisms belonging to taxa well-known for their cellulolytic and proteolytic activities were detected on clothes and stuffing material, and on skin, muscle, hair, and bone, respectively. This specialized microbiota is threatening the conservation of the mummies themselves. Additionally, sequences related to the human skin microbiome and to some pathogenic Bacteria (order Clostridiales) and fungi (genus Phialosimplex) were identified on samples derived from the mummies. Furthermore, a phosphate-reducing fungus, Penicillium radicum, was detected on bone. Finally, the high concentration of airborne fungal spores is not conducive to the conservation of the human remains and is posing a potential health risk for visitors. © 2013 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  17. Seroprevalence of selected flaviviruses in free-living and captive capuchin monkeys in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira-Filho, E F; Oliveira, R A S; Ferreira, D R A; Laroque, P O; Pena, L J; Valença-Montenegro, M M; Mota, R A; Gil, L H V G

    2018-02-08

    Mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue, yellow fever and, more recently, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) have a great impact in the public health. In addition, the presence of such viruses might have an impact on wild animal conservation as well as their possible role as animal reservoir. Here, we performed a serological survey searching for antibodies against a panel of flaviviruses [ZIKV, Dengue virus (DENV), Yellow Fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV), Saint Louis Encephalitis virus (SLEV), Ilheus virus (ILHV) and Rocio virus (ROCV)] using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT 90 ) in both free-ranging and captive capuchin monkeys (Sapajus flavius and Sapajus libidinosus). Captive and free-living monkeys were sampled between June 2015 and January 2016 in the state of Pernambuco, including in the border with State of Paraíba, the epicentre of the ZIKV epidemics in Brazil. We have found neutralizing antibodies for ZIKV, DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4, YFV, ILHV and SLEV in both S. flavius and S. libidinosus samples. No positives samples were found for ROCV and WNV. Our results suggest that these flaviviruses might be circulating in capuchin monkey in the studied region. The possible presence of these viruses represents a risk for public health, as well as for animal conservation, especially for S. flavius which is a critically endangered species, facing high risk of extinction. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Visible spatial contiguity of social information and reward affects social learning in brown capuchins (Sapajus apella) and children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lara A; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Animal social learning is typically studied experimentally by the presentation of artificial foraging tasks. Although productive, results are often variable even for the same species. We present and test the hypothesis that one cause of variation is that spatial distance between rewards and the means of reward release causes conflicts for participants' attentional focus. We investigated whether spatial contiguity between a visible reward and the means of release would affect behavioral responses that evidence social learning, testing 21 brown capuchins ( Sapajus apella ), a much-studied species with variant evidence for social learning, and one hundred eighty 2- to 4-year-old human children ( Homo sapiens ), a benchmark species known for a strong social learning disposition. Participants were presented with a novel transparent apparatus where a reward was either proximal or distal to a demonstrated means of releasing it. A distal reward location decreased attention toward the location of the demonstration and impaired subsequent success in gaining rewards. Generally, the capuchins produced the alternative method to that demonstrated, whereas children copied the method demonstrated, although a distal reward location reduced copying in younger children. We conclude that some design features in common social learning tasks may significantly degrade the evidence for social learning. We have demonstrated this for 2 different primates but suggest that it is a significant factor to control for in social learning research across all taxa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. CXC chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) regulates CXCR4 protein expression and capillary tuft development in mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haege, Sammy; Einer, Claudia; Thiele, Stefanie; Mueller, Wiebke; Nietzsche, Sandor; Lupp, Amelie; Mackay, Fabienne; Schulz, Stefan; Stumm, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is involved in kidney development by regulating formation of the glomerular tuft. Recently, a second CXCL12 receptor was identified and designated CXCR7. Although it is established that CXCR7 regulates heart and brain development in conjunction with CXCL12 and CXCR4, little is known about the influence of CXCR7 on CXCL12 dependent kidney development. We provided analysis of CXCR7 expression and function in the developing mouse kidney. Using in situ hybridization, we identified CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial cells including podocytes at all nephron stages up to the mature glomerulus. CXCL12 mRNA showed a striking overlap with CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial structures. In addition, CXCL12 was detected in stromal cells and the glomerular tuft. Expression of CXCR4 was complementary to that of CXCR7 as it occurred in mesenchymal cells, outgrowing ureteric buds and glomerular endothelial cells but not in podocytes. Kidney examination in CXCR7 null mice revealed ballooning of glomerular capillaries as described earlier for CXCR4 null mice. Moreover, we detected a severe reduction of CXCR4 protein but not CXCR4 mRNA within the glomerular tuft and in the condensed mesenchyme. Malformation of the glomerular tuft in CXCR7 null mice was associated with mesangial cell clumping. We established that there is a similar glomerular pathology in CXCR7 and CXCR4 null embryos. Based on the phenotype and the anatomical organization of the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 system in the forming glomerulus, we propose that CXCR7 fine-tunes CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated signalling between podocytes and glomerular capillaries.

  20. Mitral and tufted cells are potential cellular targets of nitration in the olfactory bulb of aged mice.

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    Myung Jae Yang

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory function declines with age; though, the underlying molecular changes that occur in the olfactory bulb (OB are relatively unknown. An important cellular signaling molecule involved in the processing, modulation, and formation of olfactory memories is nitric oxide (NO. However, excess NO can result in the production of peroxynitrite to cause oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this study, we assessed whether changes in the expression of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, a neurochemical marker of peroxynitrite and thus oxidative damage, exists in the OB of young, adult, middle-aged, and aged mice. Our results demonstrate that OB 3-NT levels increase with age in normal C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, in aged mice, 3-NT immunoreactivity was found in some blood vessels and microglia throughout the OB. Notably, large and strongly immunoreactive puncta were found in mitral and tufted cells, and these were identified as lipofuscin granules. Additionally, we found many small-labeled puncta within the glomeruli of the glomerular layer and in the external plexiform layer, and these were localized to mitochondria and discrete segments of mitral and tufted dendritic plasma membranes. These results suggest that mitral and tufted cells are potential cellular targets of nitration, along with microglia and blood vessels, in the OB during aging.

  1. Morfologia da artéria cerebelar superior do macaco prego (Cebus apella L., 1766: divisões e anastomoses Morphology of the superior cerebellar artery of the “macaco prego” (Cebus paella L., 1766: divisions and anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Alves da Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Dando continuidade a estudos já existentes na área de mapeamento da vascularização cerebral do Cebus apella e considerando a semelhança desse animal com outros primatas descritos, inclusive os humanos, estudou-se a morfologia das artérias cerebelares superiores, que destinam a irrigar a superfície superior do cerebelo. 57 hemisférios cerebelares foram injetados com látex corado e fixados em solução de formol a 10%, dissecados sob mesoscopia de luz com microdissecações. As artérias cerebelares superiores são simétricas em 84,21% e assimétricas em 7,01%, ramificam-se em 4 ramos: sendo 1 para o mesencéfalo e 3 troncos principais para a superfície superior do cerebelo e regiões anterior dessa superfície. Estas artérias terminam na fissura póstero-superior ou pós-semilunar após emitir vários ramos colaterais de hierarquia decrescente de calibreIn order to continue studies already done in the area of mapping the cerebral vascularization of Cebus paella and taking into consideration the resemblance of this animal with other primates described, humans included, we studied the morphology of the superior cerebellar arteries determined to perfuse the superior surface of the cerebellum. Fifty-seven cerebellar hemispheres were injected with stained latex, fixed in 10% formol solution and dissected under light mesoscopy. The superior cerebellar arteries are symmetrical in 84,21% and asymmetrical in 7,01%, and give off four branches, one to the mesencephalon and three mains branches to the upper surface of the cerebellum and its anterior portion. These arteries end in the posterior superior or post-semilunar fissure, after giving off many collaterals of decreasing diameter

  2. Preliminary Tuft Testing of Metallic Bristles Versus PS212, PS300, and HVOF300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Turbine engine brush seals are designed with sacrificial brushes and hard shaft coatings to minimize shaft wear and reduce the cost of engine overhauls. Replacing a worm seal is more cost and time effective than refinishing an engine shaft. However, this tribological design causes excessive brush wear and reduces long term seal efficiency. An alternative approach is to coat the shaft with a solid lubricant and allow the bristles to wear into the shaft coating similar to traditional abradable labyrinth seals. This approach can result in reduced seal leakage by forcing the leakage to flow through the seal bristle pack or through a more tortuous shaft wear track. Key to this approach is limiting the shaft wear to an acceptable level were surface refinishing would not be required during every engine overhaul. Included in this paper are brush seal tuft test results for four metallic bristles (nickel-chrome or cobalt-chrome based superalloys) tested against three solid lubricant coatings (NASA's PS212, PS300, and HVOF300). These test results are also compared to previous baseline tests conducted with plasma sprayed chrome carbide. Compared to the baseline results, no tribological benefit was achieved with the metallic bristle/solid lubricant tribopairs tested. To improve the performance of the solid lubricant coatings, issues regarding lubricant phase sizes (homogeneity), and composition need to be addressed.

  3. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information; Envisioning Information; Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (by Edward R. Tufte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-02-01

    The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should: Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one indication of how

  4. Do capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) know the contents of memory traces?: A study of metamemory for compound stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Saho; Fujita, Kazuo

    2018-02-01

    Whereas evidence has accumulated that nonhuman animals have access to the strength of their memory trace, it is unclear whether such metamemory contains components, as proposed by Hampton (2005). We assessed whether capuchin monkeys could recognize details of memorized items using a delayed matching-to-sample task. We used compound stimuli separable into 2 dimensions, "what" and "where." Two monkeys were trained to memorize both "what" and "where" a sample was and answer both/either "what" and/or "where" the sample was depending on each task after a delay. In Experiment 1, the monkeys were tested on a modified delayed matching-to-sample task with selectable task option. In some trials, the monkeys could choose which task they wanted to do. In other trials, they were forced to choose a specific task because the other icon had no effect. Results showed that both monkeys selected the task at which they were better in forced trials, but accuracy in chosen trials was not significantly higher than that in forced trials. In Experiment 2, we inserted stimuli that could individually interfere with "what" or "where" after the sample and before the matching test to manipulate task difficulty, and tested whether monkeys would choose the easier task, that is, with the noninterfered-with dimension. However, task choice was unaffected by the interfering stimuli. These results did not support the hypothesis that capuchin monkeys metacognitively monitor detailed contents of their memory traces. We suggest that working memory load might have affected performance, and advocate further research to test this possibility with simpler tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Understanding odor information segregation in the olfactory bulb by means of mitral and tufted cells.

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    Davide Polese

    Full Text Available Odor identification is one of the main tasks of the olfactory system. It is performed almost independently from the concentration of the odor providing a robust recognition. This capacity to ignore concentration information does not preclude the olfactory system from estimating concentration itself. Significant experimental evidence has indicated that the olfactory system is able to infer simultaneously odor identity and intensity. However, it is still unclear at what level or levels of the olfactory pathway this segregation of information occurs. In this work, we study whether this odor information segregation is performed at the input stage of the olfactory bulb: the glomerular layer. To this end, we built a detailed neural model of the glomerular layer based on its known anatomical connections and conducted two simulated odor experiments. In the first experiment, the model was exposed to an odor stimulus dataset composed of six different odorants, each one dosed at six different concentrations. In the second experiment, we conducted an odor morphing experiment where a sequence of binary mixtures going from one odor to another through intermediate mixtures was presented to the model. The results of the experiments were visualized using principal components analysis and analyzed with hierarchical clustering to unveil the structure of the high-dimensional output space. Additionally, Fisher's discriminant ratio and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to quantify odor identity and odor concentration information respectively. Our results showed that the architecture of the glomerular layer was able to mediate the segregation of odor information obtaining output spiking sequences of the principal neurons, namely the mitral and external tufted cells, strongly correlated with odor identity and concentration, respectively. An important conclusion is also that the morphological difference between the principal neurons is not key to achieve odor

  6. Ricinus communis biocompatibility histological study in the nose of Cebus apella monkeys Avaliação histológica da biocompatibilidade do polímero da mamona no dorso nasal de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella

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    Paulo Cesar de Jesus Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue lesions can be caused by congenital and acquired factors, and result in nasal deformities with cosmetic and functional repercussion. Surgical treatment in these cases frequently requires complex reconstructions and the use of biomaterials. The polyurethane derived from castor beans (Ricinus communis has a favorable formulation in terms of ease of processing, flexibility, no emission of toxic vapors and low cost. Nonetheless, despite favorable results, studies about the use of castor beam polymer (Ricinus communis assessing tissue reaction on the nasal dorsum are still missing in the literature. AIM: the goal of the present investigation is to histologically assess the Ricinus communis polymer implant biocompatibility with the nasal dorsum. STUDY DESING: experimental. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we used four Cebus appela monkeys, in which we created a nasal dorsal defect in all the animals and there we placed the aforementioned implant. The animals were sacrificed 270 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. RESULTS: in the histology analysis we did not observe the presence of foreign body granulomas or phagocytic cells. We also observed a progressive bone formation and maturation. CONCLUSION: macroscopic and microscopic results showed that the castor oil polymer implant was biocompatible.Lesões do tecido ósseo podem ser causadas por fatores congênitos e adquiridos e resultar em deformidade nasal com repercussão estética e funcional. O tratamento cirúrgico desses casos requer reconstruções complexas e frequentemente o uso de biomateriais. O poliuretano derivado do óleo da mamona apresenta uma fórmula com aspectos favoráveis de processabilidade, flexibilidade de formulação, ausência de emissão de vapores tóxicos e baixo custo. Entretanto, a despeito dos resultados favoráveis, estudos referentes ao uso do polímero de mamona, avaliando a reação tecidual no dorso nasal, ainda não foram

  7. A mutation in the tuft mouse disrupts TET1 activity and alters the expression of genes that are crucial for neural tube closure

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    Keith S. K. Fong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variations affecting neural tube closure along the head result in malformations of the face and brain. Neural tube defects (NTDs are among the most common birth defects in humans. We previously reported a mouse mutant called tuft that arose spontaneously in our wild-type 3H1 colony. Adult tuft mice present midline craniofacial malformations with or without an anterior cephalocele. In addition, affected embryos presented neural tube closure defects resulting in insufficient closure of the anterior neuropore or exencephaly. Here, through whole-genome sequencing, we identified a nonsense mutation in the Tet1 gene, which encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET1, co-segregating with the tuft phenotype. This mutation resulted in premature termination that disrupts the catalytic domain that is involved in the demethylation of cytosine. We detected a significant loss of TET enzyme activity in the heads of tuft embryos that were homozygous for the mutation and had NTDs. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis indicated that multiple gene pathways associated with neural tube closure were dysregulated in tuft embryo heads. Among them, the expressions of Cecr2, Epha7 and Grhl2 were significantly reduced in some embryos presenting neural tube closure defects, whereas one or more components of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway mediating planar cell polarity and convergent extension were affected in others. We further show that the recombinant mutant TET1 protein was capable of entering the nucleus and affected the expression of endogenous Grhl2 in IMCD-3 (inner medullary collecting duct cells. These results indicate that TET1 is an epigenetic determinant for regulating genes that are crucial to closure of the anterior neural tube and its mutation has implications to craniofacial development, as presented by the tuft mouse.

  8. Modelagem do estímulo-modelo para estabelecer relações condicionais arbitrárias em macacos-prego (Cebus apella

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    Ilara Reis Nogueira da Cruz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Arbitrary conditional discriminations are difficult to obtain in non-human subjects. This study evaluates the efficacy of sample stimulus shaping procedure. Two experiments were carried out. In Experiment I two capuchin monkeys, M12 and M15, acquired quickly the discriminations, and a third subject, M09, required longer training. In Experiment II, the procedure was modified and a new training with M09 was carried out, and M09 performance improved. However, lack of stimulus control coherence was found, precluding the conclusion of the shaping process. Key procedural variables in stimulus control research and intervention with non-humans and people with developmental disabilities are discussed.

  9. Intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts: a diagnostic clue of renal tumors associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Naoto; Furuya, Mitsuko; Nagashima, Yoji; Gotohda, Hiroko; Moritani, Suzuko; Kawakami, Fumi; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Bando, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Kanayama, Hiro-omi; Ota, Satoshi; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej; Nakatani, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we searched for the common histologic characteristic of renal tumors in patients with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS). We selected 6 patients with histologically confirmed renal tumor in BHDS. Germline FLCN gene mutation has been identified in 5 patients. Multifocality and bilaterality of the renal tumors were pathologically or radiologically confirmed in 5 and 2 cases, respectively. Histologic subtypes of the dominant tumor included 3 previously described hybrid oncocytic tumors, one composite chromophobe/papillary/clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and one unclassified RCC resembling hybrid chromophobe/clear cell RCC. In one case, chromophobe RCC and clear cell RCC were separately observed. Small papillary lesions located in the peripheral area of the tumor, which we designated as intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts, were identified in all patients. In conclusion, multifocality/bilaterality of renal tumors, discordance of histologic subtypes, and the presence of intratumoral peripheral small papillary tufts may be important clues to identify BHDS-associated renal tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wintering Tufted Ducks Aythya fuligula diving for zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha balance feeding costs within narrow margins of their energy budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, JJ; van Eerden, MR; Visser, GH

    Diving ducks face the strongly cooling properties of aquatic environments. In experiments with Tufted Ducks Aythya fuligula feeding on zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha in outdoor cages, we measured changes in food consumption and diving behaviour in relation to water temperature (3-22 degrees C).

  11. Wintering Tufted Ducks Aythya fuligula diving for zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha balance feeding costs within narrow margins of their energy budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.; Eerden, van M.R.; Visser, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    Diving ducks face the strongly cooling properties of aquatic environments. In experiments with Tufted Ducks Aythya fuligula feeding on zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha in outdoor cages, we measured changes in food consumption and diving behaviour in relation to water temperature (3-22°C). Water

  12. Antischistosomal activity of acridanone- hydrazones in Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with the SJ strain of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four compounds were utilized at the dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight, p.o., to treat Cebus monkeys experimentally infected with about 200 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ strain, via transcutaneous route. The oograms performed with rectal snips, as well as stool examinations carried out periodically, showed no viable eggs of the parasite, from day 29 to 226post-treatment. The perfusion undertaken after killing the animals showed absence of worms in the treated monkeys, whereas 83 worms were recovered from the control, thus corroborating the results obtained by means of oograms and coproscopy. These results confirm the efficacy of 9-acridanone- hydrazones previously tested against the LE strain of S. mansoni. The low curative dose and apparent absence of toxicity render these dmgs an important therapeutic reserve, taking into consideration the reports on the resistance of S. mansoni to the modern drugs oxamniquine and praziquantel.No presente trabalho, quatro compostos foram utilizados na dose de 12,5mg/kg de peso, por via oral, em macacos infectados transcutaneamente com cerca de 200 cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni. Os oogramas realizados com fragmentos de mucosa retal e os exames de fezes realizados, periodicamente, demonstraram a ausência de ovos viáveis do parasito a partir do 29- até o 226a dia pós-tratamento. A perfusão, apôs sacrifício dos animais tratados, não detectou vermes, enquanto que do macaco cotztrole 83 vermes foram recuperados, confirmando assim os resultados dos oogramas e da coproscopia. Estes resultados confirmam a eficácia das 9-acridanonas- hydrazonas já observada anteriormente contra a cepa LE de S. mansoni. A baixa dosagem curativa e aparente ausência de toxicidade colocam estas drogas como uma reserva terapêutica importante, tendo em vista o relato de resistência do S. mansoni às drogas modernas oxamniquína e praziquantel.

  13. Foreign Policy, Agrarian Unrest, and Missionary Praxis: the Italian Capuchins and the Relations Between Brazil and the Vatican at the Beginning of the Second Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Palacios

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the role played by the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide’s Apostolic Missions in the political relations between the Empire of Brazil and the Holy See. Based mainly on Vatican sources, the text follows the negotiations between the Brazilian State, the Roman Curia, the Brazilian bishops, and the Italian Friar Capuchin Missions, in search of a common ground to solve institutional policy problems as well as the definition of power spheres between the State and the Ca...

  14. Waiting by mistake: symbolic representation of rewards modulates intertemporal choice in capuchin monkeys, preschool children and adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Bellagamba, Francesca; Delfino, Alexia; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina; Macchitella, Luigi; Maggiorelli, Valentina; Pace, Beatrice; Pecora, Giulia; Rossi, Sabrina; Sbaffi, Agnese; Tasselli, Maria Isabella; Paglieri, Fabio

    2014-03-01

    In the Delay choice task subjects choose between a smaller immediate option and a larger delayed option. This paradigm, also known as intertemporal choice task, is frequently used to assess delay tolerance, interpreting a preference for the larger delayed option as willingness to wait. However, in the Delay choice task subjects face a dilemma between two preferred responses: "go for more" (i.e., selecting the larger, but delayed, option) vs. "go for sooner" (i.e., selecting the immediate, but smaller, option). When the options consist of visible food amounts, at least some of the choices of the larger delayed option might be due to a failure to inhibit a prepotent response towards the larger option rather than to a sustained delay tolerance. To disentangle this issue, we tested 10 capuchin monkeys, 101 preschool children, and 88 adult humans in a Delay choice task with food, low-symbolic tokens (objects that can be exchanged with food and have a one-to-one correspondence with food items), and high-symbolic tokens (objects that can be exchanged with food and have a one-to-many correspondence with food items). This allows evaluating how different methods of representing rewards modulate the relative contribution of the "go for more" and "go for sooner" responses. Consistently with the idea that choices for the delayed option are sometimes due to a failure at inhibiting the prepotent response for the larger quantity, we expected high-symbolic tokens to decrease the salience of the larger option, thus reducing "go for more" responses. In fact, previous findings have shown that inhibiting prepotent responses for quantity is easier when the problem is framed in a symbolic context. Overall, opting for the larger delayed option in the visible-food version of the Delay choice task seems to partially result from an impulsive preference for quantity, rather than from a sustained delay tolerance. In capuchins and children high-symbolic stimuli decreased the individual

  15. Preference and consequences: A preliminary look at whether preference impacts oral processing in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyard, Christopher J; Thompson, Cynthia L; Doherty, Alison; Robl, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    Non-human primates demonstrate food preferences much like humans. We have little insight, however, into how those preferences impact oral processing in primates. To begin describing this relationship, we conducted a preliminary analysis measuring food preference in two tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) and comparing ranked preference to physiological variables during chewing of these foods. Food preference was assessed for each monkey across 12 foods, including monkey biscuits and 11 foods consumed by humans (e.g., various fruits and nuts). Animals chose from randomized pairs of foods to generate a ranked scale across the 12 foods. Contemporaneous with preference testing, electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured for the jaw-closing muscles to assess oral physiology during chewing of these foods. As expected, these capuchins exhibited clear preferences among these 12 foods. Based on their preferences, we identified sets of preferred and non-preferred brittle (i.e., almond versus monkey chow) and ductile (i.e., dates and prunes versus apricots) foods for physiological comparisons that broadly control variation in food mechanical properties (FMPs). As expected, oral physiology varied with FMPs in each animal. Within brittle and ductile groupings, we observed several significant differences in chewing cycle length and relative muscle activation levels that are likely related to food preference. These differences tended to be complex and individual specific. The two capuchins chewed non-preferred apricots significantly faster than preferred dates and prunes. Effect sizes for preference were smaller than those for FMPs, supporting the previous focus on FMPs in primate dietary research. Although preliminary, these results suggest that food preference may influence oral physiology in non-human primates. The prospect that this relationship exists in monkeys raises the possibility that a link between food preference and oral processing in humans may be based on shared

  16. Proposal of anatomical terminology to call the arteries of the base of the encephalon in the monkey (Cebus paella L., 1766 Nomenclatura proposta para denominar as artérias da base do encéfalo do macaco-prego (Cebus apella L., 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Ferreira

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Arteries of the encephalon basis of 30 monkeys (Cebus paella were studied. Arteries were injected with colored latex, fixed in formaldehyde solution at 10% and dissected under magnifying lenses. Since the animals died from natural causes they had been previously used in other experiments. Human and veterinary anatomical terminology and literature were used as a reference for the determination of vessels studied in the primates. Arteries of the encephalon base represent division branches of three vascular pedicules: the right and left internal carotid arteries and the basilar system. Vessels in the basilar system of the animal were called vertebral arteries; anterior spinal artery; anterior and posterior cerebelar arteries; pontine arteries; satellite cerebelar arteries; caudal and cranial cerebelar arteries. The basilar artery bifurcates into two posterior cerebral arteries (100%. The caudal area of the encephalon’s arterial circuit is thus constituted. Linking between the vertebro-basilar and the carotid segments is done by the posterior communicating artery, that caudally anastomizes (100% with the posterior cerebral artery. The internal carotid artery gives origin to the posterior communicating artery. The right and left internal carotid artery (intracranial portion compounds the carotid system. The following vessels were identified: middle cerebral artery; anterior cerebral artery; interhemispheric artery; olfactory arteries. Results report that Cebus paella presents an arterial pattern of relative morphological stabilityEstudaram-se as artérias da base do encéfalo do Cebus apella em 30 animais, vindos a óbito por morte natural no Zoológico de São Paulo e coletados durante 10 anos. O material recebeu injeção de látex corado, fixado em formol a 10%, e foi dissecado sob lupa. Encontramos dificuldade e denominar estes vasos. As terminologias anatômicas humana e veterinária e a recuperação da literatura nos serviram de base para

  17. Foreign Policy, Agrarian Unrest, and Missionary Praxis: the Italian Capuchins and the Relations Between Brazil and the Vatican at the Beginning of the Second Empire

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    Guillermo Palacios

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the role played by the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide’s Apostolic Missions in the political relations between the Empire of Brazil and the Holy See. Based mainly on Vatican sources, the text follows the negotiations between the Brazilian State, the Roman Curia, the Brazilian bishops, and the Italian Friar Capuchin Missions, in search of a common ground to solve institutional policy problems as well as the definition of power spheres between the State and the Catholic Church for the missionary practice to take place. Agreements were reach in the context of a threatening series of insurrections and revolts performed by communities of free men and women in the Northeastern countryside.

  18. Estudo das artérias cerebelares do macaco-prego: considerações sobre a nomenclatura (Cebus apella, L.1766

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    Rosimeire Alves da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos as artérias cerebelares no macaco prego (Cebus apella. Para tanto utilizamos 57 hemisférios cerebelares obtidos de animais já utlizados em pesquisas anteriores o que permitiu-nos não sacrificar vidas para esta pesquisa. O método incluiu microdissecações sob mesoscopi de luz após injeção do sistema arterial com látex corrado (neopreme 450 e sulvinil corante. A análise do material evidenciou que o suprimento sanguíneo do cerebelo é dependente do sistema vértebro basilar que emitiu vasos em geral pares para as diferentes regiões cerebelares e porção ventral do tronco cerebral. Identificamos os seguintes troncos de suprimento arteriais cerebelares: inferiores caudais, inferiores rostrais, anteriores, superior e pontinos. O primeiro tronco é dependente da artéria vertebral (100%, o segundo da artéria basilar (63,15%, e os três últimos dependentes da artéria basilar. A nominação destas artérias não esta plenamente estabelecida acreditmaos que em razão da tendência de comparar os primatas em geral com os humanos, o que vai de encontro ao estabelecido na nomenclatura Veterinária Oficial.

  19. Análise de alguns parâmetros normais do espermograma de macaco-prego (Cebus apella Linnaeus, 1758

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    Renato Campanarut Barnabe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram submetidos a eletro-ejaculação 9 macacos-prego, adultos, pertencentes à Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo, com o uso de eletrodo retal bipolar, sob anestesia geral obtida pela aplicação da associação tiletamina-zolazepan. Do sêmen assim obtido foram analisadas apenas as frações líquidas resultantes após a coagulação do ejaculado, não havendo nenhum tratamento químico para sua dissolução, apenas a separação das frações após a ejaculação. O volume médio obtido foi de 0,2ml, a concentração média de 56.169 x 10(6 espermatozóides/ml, com motilidade média de 68,4% e vigor médio de 2,6.O percentual médio de espermatozóides morfológicamente normais foi de 39%. A técnica é eficiente em macacos-prego (Cebus apella e estes resultados permitem a avaliação do sêmen evitando-se os danos causados pela dissolução química do coágulo seminal.

  20. Leishmaniose cutânea experimental: I - sobre a susceptibilidade do primata Cebus apella (Cebidae a infecção pela Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni Silveira, Shaw, Braga e Ishikawa, 1987

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    Fernando T. Silveira

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigada a susceptibilidade do primata Cebus apella (Cebidae à infecção experimental pela Leishmaiua (Viannia lainsoni, com o objetivo de estudara patogenia desse parasita, ainda pouco conhecido para o homem. Dessa forma, cinco espécimens jovens daquele primata, 2 machos e 3 fêmeas, foram inoculados, intraderme, em oito sítios diferentes da região dorsal da cauda com 3 x 10(6 de promastigotas do parasita (MHOMZBR/81/M6426, Benevides, Pará, obtidas de cultura da fase estacionária. Em seguida às inoculações, a infecção experimental nos animais foi comprovada, não só pela presença de amastigotas do parasita na pele dos animais inoculados, mas, também, pela concomitância desse achado associado ao desenvolvimento de lesão cutânea nos pontos da pele onde o parasita foi inoculado. Diante desses resultados, ficou demonstrada a susceptibilidade do primata Cebus apella à infecção experimental pela Leishmama lainsoni cujo período de infecção durou quase quatro meses, suficiente para testar drogas antileishmanióticas e estudar a patogênese da doença causada por este parasita.The susceptibility of the monkey Cebus apella (Cebidae to experimental infection by Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni has been investigated. For this purpose, five young monkeys, 2 males and 3 females, were intradermally, inoculated, in eight different places along the dorsal surface of the tail with 3 x 10(6 promastigotes of the parasite (MHOM/BR/81/M6426, Benevides, Pará, from stationary phase culture in Difco B45 medium. After inoculations, infection in the monkeys was indicated by the presence of amastigotes in the skin lesions produced in these animals at the points of inoculation, confirming the susceptibility of the monkey Cebus apella to experimental infection by Leishmania lainsoni, with an infection period of four months. This represents a suitable period for testing antileishmanial drugs or studying the pathogenesis of the disease caused by

  1. Dieta y comportamiento alimentario de un grupo de mico maicero Cebus apella de acuerdo a la variación en la oferta de frutos y artrópodos, en la Amazonía colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Posada,Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Se analizó la relación entre la abundancia de artrópodos y frutos maduros, con el comportamiento alimentario y dieta de un grupo de Cebus apella en la Amazonía colombiana durante 1999. La oferta de frutos se midió por transectos fenológicos y la abundancia de artrópodos por capturas manuales. La oferta de ambos recursos varió a lo largo del año, lo que permitió establecer tres períodos de disponibilidad combinada: abundancia, oferta intermedia y escasez. Se completaron 708 horas de seguimient...

  2. A pitfall of glomerular sieving: profibrotic and matrix proteins derive from the Bowman's capsule and not the glomerular tuft in rats with renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, O M; Panzer, U; Fehr, S; Meyer-Schwesinger, C; Stahl, R A K; Wenzel, U O

    2007-10-01

    The glomeruli in the non-clipped kidney of rats with 2-kidney, 1-clip hypertension are a classical model for studying the mechanisms of glomerular injury. In the present study, we compared the glomerular expression of PAI-1 and collagen I alpha1 mRNA from glomeruli isolated by the classic technique of sieving with the recently developed technique of tissue laser microdissection. For quantification of mRNA from both methods, real-time PCR was used. Real-time PCR revealed a 9.0 +/- 1.3- and a 7.1 +/- 0.2-fold induction of PAI-1 and collagen I alpha 1, respectively, in the glomeruli from hypertensive rats isolated by sieving. However, in situ hybridization and microdissection revealed that expression of both mRNAs was mainly from the Bowman's capsule and not from the glomerular tuft (10.7 +/- 1.3- and 7.2 +/- 0.6-fold higher induction in whole glomeruli compared with tuft alone). This emphasizes that studies focusing on processes in the mesangium, endothelial cells or podocytes should not rely on glomeruli obtained by sieving. Rather, a technique like the laser microdissection or in situ hybridization should be applied which allows the clear separation of different glomerular and periglomerular compartments.

  3. Functional Reintegration of Sensory Neurons and Transitional Dendritic Reduction of Mitral/Tufted Cells during Injury-Induced Recovery of the Larval Xenopus Olfactory Circuit

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    Sara J. Hawkins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms involved in maintaining lifelong neurogenesis has a clear biological and clinical interest. In the present study, we performed olfactory nerve transection on larval Xenopus to induce severe damage to the olfactory circuitry. We surveyed the timing of the degeneration, subsequent rewiring and functional regeneration of the olfactory system following injury. A range of structural labeling techniques and functional calcium imaging were performed on both tissue slices and whole brain preparations. Cell death of olfactory receptor neurons and proliferation of stem cells in the olfactory epithelium were immediately increased following lesion. New olfactory receptor neurons repopulated the olfactory epithelium and once again showed functional responses to natural odorants within 1 week after transection. Reinnervation of the olfactory bulb (OB by newly formed olfactory receptor neuron axons also began at this time. Additionally, we observed a temporary increase in cell death in the OB and a subsequent loss in OB volume. Mitral/tufted cells, the second order neurons of the olfactory system, largely survived, but transiently lost dendritic tuft complexity. The first odorant-induced responses in the OB were observed 3 weeks after nerve transection and the olfactory network showed signs of major recovery, both structurally and functionally, after 7 weeks.

  4. Viabilidad poblacional de Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae y Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica Population viability of Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae and Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica

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    Jorge Rodríguez-Matamoros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La destrucción del hábitat conlleva a la fragmentación de poblaciones de especies silvestres y se considera como uno de los principales factores en la extinción de especies A medida que las poblaciones se vuelven más pequeñas, surgen amenazas hacia su estabilidad y persistencia, como resultado de factores estocásticos demográficos, ambientales y genéticos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de la fragmentación de poblaciones en la viabilidad de Alouatta palliata y Cebus capucinus en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal (RVSPN, Sarapiquí, Heredia. Para esto se uso el programa VORTEX para correr un análisis de viabilidad de poblaciones (PVA para ambas especies. La información utilizada en el PVA proviene de la estructura demográafica de las poblaciones del RVSPN, literatura sobre la historia natural de las especies y artículos relacionados con PVA. Los resultados sugieren que tanto A. palliata como C. capucinus pueden sobrevivir en fragmentos boscosos aislados. Sin embargo, si se incorporan factores como depresión por endogamia, catástrofes o perdida de hábitat, las pequeñas poblaciones fragmentadas se vuelven inestables y aumenta el riesgo de que desaparezcan. Las poblaciones continuas fueron más robustas ante las amenazas incorporadas, por lo que se recomienda continuar con la reforestación para unir los fragmentos boscosos. Es importante darle seguimiento a las poblaciones de ambas especies y tener un manejo de su hábitat para disminuir los efectos negativos de diferentes eventos estocásticos provocados por el ambiente.Population viability of Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae and Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica. Habitat destruction may cause wildlife population fragmentation and is considered an important factor in small population species extinction. As wildlife populations become smaller, threats to their stability

  5. [Histological and histochemical study of hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions of the large intestine in Cebus Apella (primate) treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Negrette, M; Borda, J T; Montenegro, M A; Lertora, J W

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the histological changes of colon ephitelium in Cebus apella induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) administration. Twelve monkeys, males, (aged x: 30 months) with an average body weight of 2,800 g were utilized. The DMH was injected subcutaneously at 25 mg/kg and continued once a week for 16 weeks. The body weight was assessed once a week during the first 4 months and every 30 days until the end of the experience. Histological changes of intestinal ephitelium and mucins were assessed at the end of the experience in specimens sectioned at 5 microns, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin, PAS and Alcian blue pH 2.5. The histological and histochemical study permitted to characterize the normal morphology, as well as the mucins characteristics in the three regions: caecum, transverse colon and distal colon. The histological changes in the DMH treated animals were hyperplasia, dysplasia and mucins decreasing. The hyperplastic changes were localizated in glandular crypts, and in the epithelio located over the lymphoid nodules. The dysplastic crypts were observed in the transverse colon and in the last portion of distal colon. These lesions were located in the upper portion as well as the bottom of the mucosa. A decrease of neutral and acids mucopolysaccharides were observed in the crypts. The results of this study suggest that the DMH induced hyperplastic changes in the crypts and in the epithelium located over the lymphoid nodules and dysplastic focus, as well as a decrease of neutral and acids mucopolysaccharides.

  6. [Population viability of Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae) and Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Matamoros, Jorge; Villalobos-Brenes, Federico; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A

    2012-06-01

    Habitat destruction may cause wildlife population fragmentation and is considered an important factor in small population species extinction. As wildlife populations become smaller, threats to their stability and persistence arise as a result of demographic, environmental and genetic stochastic factors. The aim of this work was to study the effects of population fragmentation on the long term viability of Alouatta palliata and Cebus capucinus populations, at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí (RVSPN), Heredia. For this we used the computer software VORTEX to run a population viability analysis (PVA) for both species. The input data of the PVA were taken from the demography structure of the RVSPN, literature sources from the species and from PVA related papers. We evaluated two sets of scenarios: small fragmented populations to reflect the population current state, and one larger and continuous population, to reflect the effect of reforestation actions followed by RVSPN to connect forest fragments. Results suggest that both A. palliata and C. capucinus can survive in isolated forest fragments. However, if different factors as inbreeding depression, catastrophes or habitat loss were incorporated to the scenarios, the small fragmented populations become unstable and the risk of extinction increased for both species. Continuous and larger populations were more robust against the threats incorporated in the scenarios when compared to the current situation of smaller and fragmented populations. The best management option for both species would be to continue reforestation efforts in the area to connect forest fragments, with the result of larger and continuous populations of both species. It is important to continue the observation of both species populations, and to promote a habitat management to reduce the negative effects of stochastic environmental events.

  7. Viabilidad poblacional de Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae y Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodríguez-Matamoros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La destrucción del hábitat conlleva a la fragmentación de poblaciones de especies silvestres y se considera como uno de los principales factores en la extinción de especies A medida que las poblaciones se vuelven más pequeñas, surgen amenazas hacia su estabilidad y persistencia, como resultado de factores estocásticos demográficos, ambientales y genéticos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de la fragmentación de poblaciones en la viabilidad de Alouatta palliata y Cebus capucinus en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal (RVSPN, Sarapiquí, Heredia. Para esto se uso el programa VORTEX para correr un análisis de viabilidad de poblaciones (PVA para ambas especies. La información utilizada en el PVA proviene de la estructura demográafica de las poblaciones del RVSPN, literatura sobre la historia natural de las especies y artículos relacionados con PVA. Los resultados sugieren que tanto A. palliata como C. capucinus pueden sobrevivir en fragmentos boscosos aislados. Sin embargo, si se incorporan factores como depresión por endogamia, catástrofes o perdida de hábitat, las pequeñas poblaciones fragmentadas se vuelven inestables y aumenta el riesgo de que desaparezcan. Las poblaciones continuas fueron más robustas ante las amenazas incorporadas, por lo que se recomienda continuar con la reforestación para unir los fragmentos boscosos. Es importante darle seguimiento a las poblaciones de ambas especies y tener un manejo de su hábitat para disminuir los efectos negativos de diferentes eventos estocásticos provocados por el ambiente.

  8. Ocorrência de anticorpos e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Leptospira spp. em Cebus spp. mantidos em cativeiro no Nordeste do Brasil

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    Débora R.A. Ferreira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Leptospira e os fatores de risco associados à infecção em primatas do gênero Cebus mantidos em cativeiro no Nordeste do Brasil. Foram analisadas 139 amostras de soro sanguíneo de diferentes espécies de primatas de ambos os sexos e idades variadas. Para a pesquisa de anticorpos empregou-se a técnica de Soroaglutinação Microscópica (SAM e para estudo dos fatores de risco utilizou-se análise multivariada. Foram observados anticorpos anti-Leptospira, sorovar Patoc em 6,5% dos primatas (09/139. O fator de risco identificado nesse estudo foi a não higienização diária de bebedouros (Odds ratio=12,095; IC 95% = 1,73-84,52; p=0,012,. Conclui-se que a população de Cebus mantidos em cativeiros no Nordeste do Brasil está exposta à infecção por anticorpos anti-Leptospira e que medidas corretivas de manejo dos animais, especificamente aquelas relacionadas à higienização diária de bebedouros devem ser implementadas para reduzir o risco de infecção por sorovares de Leptospira spp.

  9. Does hierarchy stability influence testosterone and cortisol levels of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) adult males? A comparison between two wild groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Edaes, Mariana; Palme, Rupert; Rodrigues, Agatha; Siqueira, José; Izar, Patrícia

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone and cortisol are hormones expected to play a major role in competitive behaviours (i.e. aggression), and are related to rank and hierarchical stability. Through a non-invasive technique, we analyzed faecal testosterone (FTM(1)) and cortisol (FCM(2)) metabolites of dominant and subordinate males from two wild groups of bearded capuchin monkeys. One group had a stable dominance hierarchy while the other had an unstable hierarchy, with a marked conflict period related to a male take-over. In the unstable hierarchy group (1) the dominant male had higher FTM peaks than subordinates, and (2) basal FTM levels were higher than in the stable group. These findings are in accordance with the Challenge Hypothesis and rank-based predictions, and confirm that in Sapajus libidinosus hierarchy stability, social status, aggression rates and testosterone are closely related. Dominants of both groups had higher basal and peak FCM levels, suggesting that in S. libidinosus the dominant male has a higher allostatic load than subordinates, related to his role in protection against predators, intragroup appeasement, and control of food sources. Finally, we suggest that males of S. libidinosus are resistant to testosterone suppression by cortisol, because in the unstable group in spite of an increase in FCM there was also an increase in FTM during the conflict period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Orthodontic and Triple-headed Toothbrushes When Used Alone or in Conjunction with Single-tufted Toothbrush in Patients with Fixed Lingual Orthodontic Appliances. A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Malka; Salem, Nurit Flaisher; Garon, Silvia; Levin, Liran

    2015-04-01

    Brushing with a single-tufted toothbrush in conjunction with a manual toothbrush has been widely recommended, although its effectiveness has not been proven. This study investigated the effectiveness of orthodontic and triple-headed toothbrushes when used alone or in conjunction with the single-tufted toothbrush in patients with fixed lingual orthodontic appliances. In this randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial, orthodontic patients (N = 26, mean age 27.3 years) with lingual fixed appliances were asked to brush with a triple-headed or an orthodontic toothbrush alone for one month, followed by brushing in conjunction with the single-tufted toothbrush for an additional month. Teeth were professionally cleaned at baseline and one month later. A clinician blinded to group assignments examined the patients and evaluated tooth plaque index, bracket plaque index, modified gingival index and bleeding on probing at baseline at one month and two months. After one month of brushing with the orthodontic toothbrush, the mean plaque index for tooth and bracket, bleeding index and gingival index were higher by 74.4% (0.68 vs. 0.39, p = 0.026), 54.2% (0.37 vs. 0.24), 15.4% (0.15 vs. 0.13) and 30% (0.26 vs. 0.20), respectively, than after brushing with the triple-headed toothbrush. After combined brushing with the single-tufted toothbrush, no additional statistical differences were found between groups. When used alone, the triple-headed toothbrush seems to remove plaque more effectively than the orthodontic toothbrush. The addition of the single-tufted toothbrush eliminates differences between groups.

  11. Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a new world primate.

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    Barbara Tiddi

    Full Text Available Seyfarth's model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies on the relation between grooming and dominance rank in the New World genus Cebus have found conflicting results, showing considerable variability across groups and species. In this study, we investigated the pattern of grooming in wild tufted capuchin females (Cebus apella nigritus in Iguazú National Park, Argentina by testing both the assumption (i.e., that females gain rank-related return benefits from grooming and predictions (i.e., that females direct grooming up the dominance hierarchy and the majority of grooming occurs between females with adjacent ranks of Seyfarth's model. Study subjects were 9 adult females belonging to a single group. Results showed that grooming was given in return for tolerance during naturally occurring feeding, a benefit that higher-ranking females can more easily grant. Female grooming was directed up the hierarchy and was given more often to partners with similar rank. These findings provide supporting evidence for both the assumption and predictions of Seyfarth's model and represent, more generally, the first evidence of reciprocal behavioural interchanges driven by rank-related benefits in New World female primates.

  12. Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a new world primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Seyfarth's model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies on the relation between grooming and dominance rank in the New World genus Cebus have found conflicting results, showing considerable variability across groups and species. In this study, we investigated the pattern of grooming in wild tufted capuchin females (Cebus apella nigritus) in Iguazú National Park, Argentina by testing both the assumption (i.e., that females gain rank-related return benefits from grooming) and predictions (i.e., that females direct grooming up the dominance hierarchy and the majority of grooming occurs between females with adjacent ranks) of Seyfarth's model. Study subjects were 9 adult females belonging to a single group. Results showed that grooming was given in return for tolerance during naturally occurring feeding, a benefit that higher-ranking females can more easily grant. Female grooming was directed up the hierarchy and was given more often to partners with similar rank. These findings provide supporting evidence for both the assumption and predictions of Seyfarth's model and represent, more generally, the first evidence of reciprocal behavioural interchanges driven by rank-related benefits in New World female primates.

  13. Evidence of a Conserved Molecular Response to Selection for Increased Brain Size in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter W.; Caravas, Jason A.; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Phillips, Kimberley A.; Mundy, Nicholas I.

    2017-01-01

    The adaptive significance of human brain evolution has been frequently studied through comparisons with other primates. However, the evolution of increased brain size is not restricted to the human lineage but is a general characteristic of primate evolution. Whether or not these independent episodes of increased brain size share a common genetic basis is unclear. We sequenced and de novo assembled the transcriptome from the neocortical tissue of the most highly encephalized nonhuman primate, the tufted capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Using this novel data set, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of orthologous brain-expressed protein coding genes to identify evidence of conserved gene–phenotype associations and species-specific adaptations during three independent episodes of brain size increase. We identify a greater number of genes associated with either total brain mass or relative brain size across these six species than show species-specific accelerated rates of evolution in individual large-brained lineages. We test the robustness of these associations in an expanded data set of 13 species, through permutation tests and by analyzing how genome-wide patterns of substitution co-vary with brain size. Many of the genes targeted by selection during brain expansion have glutamatergic functions or roles in cell cycle dynamics. We also identify accelerated evolution in a number of individual capuchin genes whose human orthologs are associated with human neuropsychiatric disorders. These findings demonstrate the value of phenotypically informed genome analyses, and suggest at least some aspects of human brain evolution have occurred through conserved gene–phenotype associations. Understanding these commonalities is essential for distinguishing human-specific selection events from general trends in brain evolution. PMID:28391320

  14. Infecção experimental de macacos Cebus apella sp pelo Trypanosoma cruzi (cepa "y" I - curva da parasitemia na fase aguda da doença de Chagas

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    Geraldo Chaia

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available Sete macacos (Cebus apella sp foram inoculados por via subcutânea peto Trypanosoma cruzi com um número de formas tripomastigotas que variou de 25 x 103 a 5 x 1O6. Um outro primata, também da mesma espécie, foi inoculado por via palpebral com fezes de Triatoma infestans contendo formas de T. cruzi provenientes da mesma cepa "Y". A presença do T. cruzi foi assinalada na maioria dos animais, pela primeira vez, no 8º dia após a infecção. Os picos máximos da parasitemia foram observados entre o 9º e o 12º dia da infecção. O número de tripanosomas caiu acentuadamente do 19º ao 25º dia. Todos os animais infectados sobreviveram. Estudos estão sendo conduzidos com o intuito de se observar o comportamento destes animais na fase crônica da doença.Seven monkeys Cebus apella sp were inoculated by subcutaneous route with an amount of tripomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi ranging from 25 x 10³ to 5 x 1O6. Another primate of the same species was inoculated by palpebral route with feces of Triatoma infestans containing T. cruzi forms originating from the same "Y" strain. The presence of T. cruzi was first observed in most of the animais on the 8th day after the infection. The maximum peaks of parasitemia occurred between the 9th and the 12th day of infection. The number of T. cruzi decreased markedly from the 19th to the 25th day and ail of the infected animais survived. Further studies are being conducted in order to observe the behaviour of these animais in the chronic phase of the disease.

  15. Sniff-Like Patterned Input Results in Long-Term Plasticity at the Rat Olfactory Bulb Mitral and Tufted Cell to Granule Cell Synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During odor sensing the activity of principal neurons of the mammalian olfactory bulb, the mitral and tufted cells (MTCs, occurs in repetitive bursts that are synchronized to respiration, reminiscent of hippocampal theta-gamma coupling. Axonless granule cells (GCs mediate self- and lateral inhibitory interactions between the excitatory MTCs via reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. We have explored long-term plasticity at this synapse by using a theta burst stimulation (TBS protocol and variations thereof. GCs were excited via glomerular stimulation in acute brain slices. We find that TBS induces exclusively long-term depression in the majority of experiments, whereas single bursts (“single-sniff paradigm” can elicit both long-term potentiation and depression. Statistical analysis predicts that the mechanism underlying this bidirectional plasticity involves the proportional addition or removal of presynaptic release sites. Gamma stimulation with the same number of APs as in TBS was less efficient in inducing plasticity. Both TBS- and “single-sniff paradigm”-induced plasticity depend on NMDA receptor activation. Since the onset of plasticity is very rapid and requires little extra activity, we propose that these forms of plasticity might play a role already during an ongoing search for odor sources. Our results imply that components of both short-term and long-term olfactory memory may be encoded at this synapse.

  16. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerts, J A; Prins, H H T; Bomhoff, D; Verhagen, I; Swart, J M; de Boer, W F

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon) and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta), and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns.

  17. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Zwerts

    Full Text Available South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta, and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns.

  18. Classificação morfofuncional dos dentes de saguis-de-tufo-branco (Callithrix jacchus, Callitrichidae, saguis-de-tufo-preto (C. penicillata e saguis-de-cara-branca (C. geoffroyi Morphofunctional classification of teeth of marmosets-tufted white (Callithrix jacchus, Callitrichidae, marmosets-tufted black (C. penicillata, and marmosets white-face (C. geoffroyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Machado Bertassoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo para analisar morfologicamente os dentes do saguis-de-tufo-branco (C. jacchus, saguis-de-tufo-preto (C. penicillata e saguis-de-cara-branca (C. geoffroyi, para compara-los entre si e com outras espécies já descritas na literatura. Utilizou-se dentes das três espécies para analises macroscópicas, microscópicas e ultraestrutural e os resultados correlacionados com os obtidos com outras espécies citadas na literatura. Chegou-se a conclusão de que: as três espécies apresentaram uma fórmula dentária idêntica, chegando a um total de 32 dentes, expressa na fórmula 2x: incisivos 2/2; caninos 1/1; pré-molares 3/3 e molares 2/2, estes são classificados como diplodontes, anelodontes, bunodontes, e braquiodontes.A study was conducted to analyze the morphology of the teeth of white-tufted-ear-marmoset (C. jacchus black-tufted-ear-marmoset (C. penicillata and marmosets-white-faced (C. geoffroyi, to compare them among themselves and with other species described in the literature. Teeth of the three species were submitted to macroscopic, microscopic and ultrastructural analyzes. The results were correlated with those of other species. We concluded that: the three species have a similar dental formula, reaching a total of 32 teeth, expressed in the formula 2x: incisors 2/2; canines 1/1, pre-molars 3/3 and molars 2/2, ich are classified as diplodont, anelodont, bunodont and brachyodont.

  19. Learning-dependent and -independent enhancement of mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses following olfactory fear conditioning in awake mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jordan M; Fletcher, Max L

    2018-04-18

    Associative fear learning produces fear toward the conditioned stimulus (CS) and often generalization, the expansion of fear from the CS to similar, unlearned stimuli. However, how fear learning affects early sensory processing of learned and unlearned stimuli in relation to behavioral fear responses to these stimuli remains unclear. We subjected male and female mice expressing the fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP3 in olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells to a classical olfactory fear conditioning paradigm. We then used awake, in vivo calcium imaging to quantify learning-induced changes in glomerular odor responses, which constitute the first site of olfactory processing in the brain. The results demonstrate that odor-shock pairing non-specifically enhances glomerular odor representations in a learning-dependent manner and increases representational similarity between the CS and non-conditioned odors, potentially priming the system towards generalization of learned fear. Additionally, CS-specific glomerular enhancements remain even when associative learning is blocked, suggesting two separate mechanisms lead to enhanced glomerular responses following odor-shock pairings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the olfactory bulb (OB), odors are uniquely coded in a spatial map that represents odor identity, making the OB a unique model system for investigating how learned fear alters sensory processing. Classical fear conditioning causes fear of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and of neutral stimuli, known as generalization. Combining fear conditioning with fluorescent calcium imaging of OB glomeruli, we found enhanced glomerular responses of the CS as well as neutral stimuli in awake mice, which mirrors fear generalization. We report that CS and neutral stimuli enhancements are, respectively, learning- independent and learning-dependent. Together, these results reveal distinct mechanisms leading to enhanced OB processing of fear-inducing stimuli and provide important

  20. Conservação e fisiologia pós-colheita de folhas de Capuchinha (Tropaeolum majus L. Conservation and postharvest physiology of leaves Capuchin (Tropaeolum majus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.S. Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a vida útil pós-colheita de folhas de Capuchinha (Tropaeolum majus L. embaladas com filme PVC de baixa densidade e proteínas nas concentrações de 1, 3 e 5%. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Química e Bioquímica do Centro de Ciências Agrárias (CCA da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB Areia - PB. As folhas de Capuchinha colhidas no CCA foram levadas imediatamente ao Laboratório de Química e Bioquímica, para pré-seleção, desinfestação em água clorada contendo 100mg.L-1 de cloro ativo, e seca à temperatura ambiente. Após o controle fitossanitário, as folhas foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: solução de proteína nas concentrações de 1, 3 e 5%, filme PVC de baixa densidade e a testemunha sem recobrimento. As folhas foram armazenadas durante cinco dias em temperatura média de 26 - 29ºC e umidade relativa média de 59,5 - 71,5% e outra parte foi armazenada em câmara fria com temperatura média de 12 ± 0,5 ºC e umidade relativa média de 95 ± 3%. Durante o período de armazenamento as folhas foram avaliadas quanto à perda de massa fresca, determinação de ácido ascórbico, sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável. O armazenamento durante quatro dias sob refrigeração a temperatura média de 12 ± 0,5ºC associada ao recobrimento com filme PVC mostrou melhores resultados na conservação da vida útil pós-colheita das folhas de Capuchinha.This study aimed to evaluate the shelf-life of Capuchin sheets (Tropaeolum majus L. packed with plastic wrap and low density proteins at concentrations of 1, 3 and 5%. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratório de Química e Bioquímica and the Centro de Ciências Agrárias (CCA of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB Areia - PB. Capuchin leaves harvested in the CCA were taken immediately to the Laboratório de Química e Bioquímica, for pre-screening, disinfection in chlorinated water containing 100mg.L-1

  1. Un archéologue capucin en Éthiopie (1922-1936 : François Bernardin Azaïs A Capuchin archaeologist in Ethiopia (1922-1936: François Bernardin Azaïs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Chekroun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1922, François Bernardin Azaïs, moine capucin et ancien missionnaire dans la province de Hārar de 1897 à 1913, est envoyé par le gouvernement français en Éthiopie afin de réaliser des recherches archéologiques. Au total, il y accomplit dix missions archéologiques et ethnographiques couvrant les parties est et sud du pays. Seules ses quatre premières expéditions sont connues aujourd’hui, grâce à son ouvrage Cinq Années de recherches archéologiques en Éthiopie (1931. Pourtant, au cours des onze années suivantes, F.B. Azaïs a rédigé de nombreux rapports et articles inédits, conservés actuellement dans les archives capucines de Rome, qui permettent de retracer son parcours et ses découvertes. Cette nouvelle documentation permet au chercheur de compléter nos connaissances sur l’ensemble des sites archéologiques de la moitié sud du pays, de retracer l’origine d’institutions éthiopiennes comme la Bibliothèque nationale et le Musée national mais aussi d’un Institut d’archéologie. À la lumière de ces nouvelles informations, F.B. Azaïs mérite d’être reconnu comme le père de l’archéologie du Sud de l’Éthiopie.In 1922, the Capuchin monk François Bernardin Azaïs, a former missionary of the Province of Hārar between 1897 and 1913, was commissioned by the French government to realise some archaeological researches in Ethiopia. In total, he achieved ten archaeological and ethnological missions in the South and the East of the country. Only his first four expeditions are known today, thanks to his book Cinq Années de recherches archéologiques en Éthiopie (1931. During the other eleven years, Azaïs wrote numerous progress reports and articles, still unpublished and kept in the Capuchin archives in Roma. This new documentation will help the researcher to increase the knowledge about the archaeological sites of southern Ethiopia and the history of Ethiopian institutions like the National Library

  2. Suscetibilidade in vitro a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus spp e Micrococcus spp isoladas a partir de mucosa oral de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aspis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com 29 macacos-pregos (Cebus apella. Foram colhidas 50 amostras de suabe da mucosa oral, junto à transição muco-gengival maxilar, com auxílio de zaragatoas esterilizadas, embebidas em caldo Brain Heart Infusion (BHI. Todos os animais foram submetidos a exame clínico para avaliação periodontal. As amostras obtidas foram cultivadas em meios apropriados: caldo simples, caldo BHI, e ágar sangue para o isolamento de cocos Gram-positivos aeróbios da família Micrococcaceae. Para sua classificação utilizou-se as provas de catalase, Staphy-test (teste rápido para caracterização de Staphylococcus aureus e sensibilidade à bacitracina. Foram identificados 73,1% de Staphylococcus spp; 15,4% de Staphylococcus aureus; e 11,5% Micrococcus spp. As cepas isoladas foram testadas em relação à sua suscetibilidade a antibióticos pela técnica de difusão em ágar. Verificou-se para as cepas de Staphylococcus spp, 94,7% de sensibilidade a cefalotina e resistência de 89,5% à penicilina, 97,4% à oxacilina, 55,3% à tetraciclina, 57,9% à clindamicina e 63,2% à amoxicilina. Os dados obtidos demonstraram que a cefalotina foi o antibiótico para o qual as amsotras de Staphylococcus spp estudadas apresentaram, in vitro, maior grau de sensibilidade.

  3. Pityriasis amiantacea: clinical-dermatoscopic features and microscopy of hair tufts Pitiríase amiantácea: aspectos clínicos e dermatoscópicos e microscopia dos tufos capilares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Costa Verardino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis Amiantacea, also known as pseudotinea amiantacea, is a clinical syndrome which affects the scalp, having a reaction pattern reported to occur in several inflammatory dermatoses. The authors seek to establish the correlation between its clinical, dermoscopic and light microscopy features through the analysis of scale- encrusted hair tufts submitted to histological processing.A pitiríase amiantácea, também chamada de pseudotínea amiantácea, é compreendida como uma síndrome clínica que acomete o couro cabeludo. Representa um padrão de reação a diversas dermatoses inflamatórias. Os autores procuram estabelecer a correlação entre características clínicas, dermatoscópicas e de microscopia ótica, através da análise do tufo de cabelos agregados pelas escamocrostas, submetido a processamento histológico.

  4. Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Zaldívar, María E.; Rocha, Oscar; Glander, Kenneth E.; Aguilar, Gabriel; Huertas, Ana S; Sánchez, Ronald; Wong, Grace

    2014-01-01

    We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata), capuchins (Cebus capucinus), and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii). Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecolog...

  5. Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    María E Zaldívar; Oscar Rocha; Kenneth E Glander; Gabriel Aguilar; Ana S Huertas; Ronald Sánchez; Grace Wong

    2004-01-01

    We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata), capuchins (Cebus capucinus), and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii). Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecolog...

  6. Veterinary Research Manpower Development for Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    faced Capuchin Monkeys, Cebus capuchinus, in Heavily Touristed National Parks in Costa Rica Compared to Isolated National Parks. Summary: Ecotourism ...assay will be used. The total number of positive and negative titers for each species at each site will be counted. The mean , standard deviations...and confidence intervals will be determined. To determine whether the difference between the means is statistically significant, statistical tests of

  7. Complementary roles of two resilient neotropical mammalian seed dispersers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Adriana; Morris, Rebecca J.; Lewis, Owen T.; Mikich, Sandra B.

    2018-04-01

    Capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp. and Sapajus spp.) and coatis (Nasua spp.) coexist in most neotropical forests, including small forest remnants. Both capuchins and coatis eat fruit and disperse seeds, but little is known about whether their roles in seed dispersal are redundant or complementary. We compiled 49 studies from the literature on feeding by capuchins and/or coatis, of which 19 were comprehensive enough for our analyses. We determined the relative importance of fruit eating to each species and compared their diets. Additionally, we analysed the structure of three fruit-frugivore networks built with both animal groups and the fruits they eat and evaluated whether fruit traits influenced the network topology. Fruits represented the largest part of capuchin and coati diets, even though coatis have been known for their opportunistic and generalist diets. Capuchins and coatis also exhibited similar general diet parameters (niche breadth and trophic diversity). The three networks exhibited high connectance values and variable niche overlap. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis, failed to detect any trait or trait combination related to food use. In conclusion, capuchins and coatis both have generalist diets; they feed on many different species of fruits and exhibit important complementarity as seed dispersers. Both are likely to be particularly important seed dispersers in disturbed and fragmented forests.

  8. Capuchin Monkeys Judge Third-Party Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R.; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of…

  9. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  10. High Energy Physics at Tufts University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Fermilab fixed target experiments; Soudan II nucleon decay project; Physics at the proton-antiproton collider at √s = 1.8 TeV; The Solenoidal Detector for the supercollider; Neutrino telescope proposal; Polarization in massive quark and hadron production; Production characteristics of top quarks; Scattering, spin dependence and mass corrections in Skyrmion models; and computation and networking

  11. High Energy Physics at Tufts University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Neutrino Interactions in the 15-foot Bubble Chamber; Pion and Kaon Production of Charm and Charm-Strange States; Study of Heavy Flavors at the Tagged Particle Spectrometer; Neutrino Oscillations at the Fermilab Main Injector; Soudan II Nucleon Decay Project; Physics at the Antiproton-Proton Collider at √ bar s = 1.8 TeV; Designing the Solenoidal Detector for the Supercollider; Neutrino Telescope Proposal; Polarization in Inclusive Hyperon Production and QCD Subprocesses; Production and Decay Characteristics of Top Quarks; Scattering in Extended Skyrmion Models and Spin Dependence; Search for Top Quark Production at the Tevatron; Polarization Correlations in Hadronic Production of Top Quarks; and Computation and Networking

  12. High Energy Physics at Tufts University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.; Schneps, J.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following: fermilab fixed target experiments; photoproduction at 20 GeV: SLAC BC72-75; soudan 2 nucleon decay project; physics at the antiproton-proton collider at √s = 1.8 TeV; Designing the solenoidal detector for the supercollider; charm physics at LEP in OPAL; neutrino telescope proposal; general kinematic description of polarization in scattering processes; polarization in inclusive hyperon production and QCD subprocesses; measuring quark helicity underlying hadronic jets; scattering in extended skyrmion models and spin dependence; the diquark-quark model of the excited baryons; computation and networking; and the science and technology center

  13. Fur rubbing behavior in free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C J

    2000-07-01

    Members of the population of black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, use the leaves of three Rutaceae species in a behavior that resembles fur rubbing in the white faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus). This behavior has not been reported from other sites where Ateles has been studied. During more than 1,200 hours of observation, 30 episodes of this behavior were recorded ad libitum. Adult males engage in this behavior more than adult females. Season did not impact the frequency of the behavior. The behavior described here differs in many respects from that reported for Cebus capucinus, and does not fit the hypotheses that the behavior functions in repelling insects or other antiseptic purposes. It is proposed that fur rubbing in this group of spider monkeys is a modification of a behavior previously recorded in Ateles and may function in scent marking.

  14. Analysis of the heterochromatin of Cebus (Primates, Platyrrhini) by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Briefly, heterochromatic blocks of the chromosome 11 of C. libidinosus (11qHe+) were microdissected with a mechanical micromanipulator from a fibroblast cell line, as described by Nieves et al. (2005b). Amplification of the microdissected material was carried out with a slightly modified degenerate oligonucleotide primer.

  15. Analysis of the heterochromatin of Cebus (Primates, Platyrrhini) by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    23, C1650, San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Av. Rivadavia, 1917 C1033AAJ, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina; Laboratório de Citogenética, Departamento de Genética, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Rua Augusto Corrêa, No. 1 Campus Básico ...

  16. Polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2011-11-01

    One of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in Neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchins (Cebus). The present study focused on association patterns in two Saimiri sciureus groups in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, between March and October, 2009. The associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. The study involved two S. sciureus groups (B4 and GI) on the right and left bank of the Tocantins River, respectively, within the area of the Tucuruí reservoir in southeastern Pará. Relations between species were classified as associations (individuals within 50 m and moving in the same direction), and encounters (individuals within 50 m and no coordinated movement). Group B4 was in association with Cebus apella during 100% of monitoring, and with Chiropotes satanas in 20.2%. By contrast, Group GI associated with Cebus 54.8% of the time, and with Chiropotes utahickae 2.5%. Encounters with Alouatta belzebul and Saguinus niger were recorded at both sites, with Aotus azarae and Dasyprocta prymnolopha at B4, and with Callicebus moloch, Dasyproct aleporina, Mazama gouazoubira, and Nasua nasua at GI. Overall, Saimiri had a broader niche than Cebus in terms of vertical spacing and diet, but not for substrate use. This pattern did not appear to be affected by association. While group GI spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in association with Cebus during the wet season, group B4 associated with Chiropotes more during the dry season. Despite the higher association rates, niche overlap was greater for all variables at B4. This may reflect differences in the ranging and foraging patterns at the two sites, and the varying potential benefits of association for Saimiri. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. First skull of Antillothrix bernensis, an extinct relict monkey from the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Alfred L.; Cooke, Siobhán B.; Rímoli, Renato; Ni, Xijun; Cardoso, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The nearly pristine remains of Antillothrix bernensis, a capuchin-sized (Cebus) extinct platyrrhine from the Dominican Republic, have been found submerged in an underwater cave. This represents the first specimen of an extinct Caribbean primate with diagnostic craniodental and skeletal parts in association, only the second example of a skull from the region, and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil platyrrhine cranium yet discovered. Cranially, it closely resembles living cebines but is more conservative. Dentally, it is less bunodont and more primitive than Cebus, with crowns resembling Saimiri (squirrel monkeys) and one of the oldest definitive cebines, the late Early Miocene Killikaike blakei from Argentina. The tricuspid second molar also resembles the enigmatic marmosets and tamarins, whose origins continue to present a major gap in knowledge of primate evolution. While the femur is oddly short and stout, the ulna, though more robust, compares well with Cebus. As a member of the cebid clade, Antillothrix demonstrates that insular Caribbean monkeys are not monophyletically related and may not be the product of a single colonizing event. Antillothrix bernensis is an intriguing mosaic whose primitive characters are consistent with an early origin, possibly antedating the assembly of the modern primate fauna in greater Amazonia during the La Venta horizon. While most Greater Antillean primate specimens are quite young geologically, this vanished radiation, known from Cuba (Paralouatta) and Jamaica (Xenothrix) as well as Hispaniola, appears to be composed of long-lived lineages like several other mainland clades. PMID:20659936

  18. The Ecological Rationality of Delay Tolerance: Insights from Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Focaroli, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Both human and non-human animals often face decisions between options available at different times, and the capacity of delaying gratification has usually been considered one of the features distinguishing humans from other animals. However, this characteristic can widely vary across individuals, species, and types of task and it is still unclear…

  19. High energy physics at Tufts University. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    In the past year the Bubble Chamber Group has been involved in a wide range of activities in experimental high energy physics. Beam momenta varying from 2.9 to 300 GeV/c; bubble chambers including the FNAL 30-inch, BNL 80-inch, ANL 12-foot and FNAL 15-foot; targets which include hydrogen, deuterium, hydrogen with downstream plate, and deuterium with downstream spark chambers; beam particles including K - , anti p and p--one is still waiting for neutrinos--were used. A search was made for exotic particles and charmed particles, continued to study strange baryons and mesons, probed the dimensions of the ''fireball,'' and studied multiplicities and correlations in high energy collisions. The following progress in each of the activities which have taken place is summarized. A list of publications is included

  20. The impact of moving to a novel environment on social networks, activity and wellbeing in two new world primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, V; Sueur, C; Whiten, A; Buchanan-Smith, H M

    2011-08-01

    Among the stressors that can affect animal welfare in zoos, the immediate effect of relocation to a novel environment is one that has received little attention in the literature. Here, we compare the social network, daily activity and the expression of stress-related behavior in capuchins (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) before and just after they were relocated to a new enriched enclosure. Results showed similar immediate responses to the move in the two species. Both showed a substantial increase in the time spent resting and spent more time in the highest and "safest" part of their enclosure after relocation. Both capuchins and squirrel monkeys spent significantly more time in close proximity to other group members after relocation, compared to before. In squirrel monkeys, the structure of the social network, which was initially correlated to affiliation, was no longer so after the move. In capuchins, the network analysis showed that individuals regrouped by age, with the youngsters who were potentially more affected by stress being in the center of the network. Social network analysis helped to achieve a more complete picture of how individuals were affected by relocation. We suggest that this type of analysis should be used alongside traditional methods of observation and analysis to encompass the most complex aspects of animal behavior in times of stress and to improve welfare. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Silva, Dayana Campelo da; Almeida, Robson Ferreira Cavalcante de; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Andreotti, Renato; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle), which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti), 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense) were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.

  2. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Diversity of nutcracking tool sites used by Sapajus libidinosus in Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Francisco Dyonísio C; Cardoso, Raphael Moura; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Izar, Patrícia; Villar, Daniell Nunes A; Marquezan, Rogério F

    2015-05-01

    Cracking nuts with tools is a behavior documented in a small number of populations of tufted capuchins, mainly in semi-arid Caatinga and Caatinga-Cerrado transitional environments of northeastern Brazil. Only one of these populations inhabits the less arid Cerrado in Central Brazil, where environments are composed of a heterogeneous mosaic of fields, savannas and forest formations. We conducted surveys in 10 of 20 localities where nutcracking by capuchins was reported by the local inhabitants in the Cerrrado of Northern Goiás and Tocantins. Our purpose was to evaluate nutcracking sites (anvils and associated hammers and nuts) based on indirect evidence of extensive pounding of nuts and seeds. Nutcracking was confirmed at all 10 surveyed localities. A total of 270 sites were identified. Surveyed localities included areas that were ecologically similar to those where capuchins crack nuts in Caatinga, as well as less arid localities with more typical Cerrado habitat. Anvils and hammers were made of materials including quartz, limestone, sandstone and wood, and displayed a wider range of sizes (i.e., 60-3,750 g for hammers' weight) than reported at previously studied localities. Nuts of seven genera were found in association with anvils and hammers. We conclude that nutcracking by capuchins are not restricted to arid environments and argue that the occurrence and diversity of nutcracking tool sites result from complex interactions of environmental variables (e.g., availability of food and mineral resources, density of canopy cover) and social variables (e.g., spatial cohesiveness and tolerance among group members) that need to be examined through long-term research of habituated groups. Localities in the Cerrado of Northern Goiás and Tocantins vary considerable in the ecological conditions faced by wild groups, and therefore offer the opportunity to examine these interactions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Irrational choice behavior in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Brown, Ella R

    2018-03-01

    Choice behavior in humans has motivated a large body of research with a focus on whether decisions can be considered to be rational. In general, humans prefer having choice, as do a number of other species that have been tested, even though having increased choice does not necessarily yield a positive outcome. Humans have been found to choose an option more often only because the opportunity to select it was diminishing, an example of a deviation from economic rationality. Here we extend this paradigm to nonhuman primates in an effort to understand the mechanisms underlying this finding. In this study, we presented two groups of laboratory monkeys, capuchins (Cebus apella) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), as well as human subjects, with a computerized task in which subjects were presented with two differently colored icons. When the subject selected an icon, differing numbers of food pellets were dispensed (or points were assigned), making each icon correspond to a certain level of risk (one icon yielded 1 or 4 pellets/points and the other yielded 2 or 3). Initially, both options remained constantly available and we established choice preference scores for each subject. Then, we assessed preference patterns once the options were not continuously available. Specifically, choosing one icon would cause the other to shrink in size on the screen and eventually disappear if never selected. Selecting it would restore it to its full size. As predicted, humans shifted their risk preferences in the diminishing options phase, choosing to click on both icons more equally in order to keep both options available. At the group level, capuchin monkeys showed this pattern as well, but there was a great deal of individual variability in both capuchins and macaques. The present work suggests that there is some degree of continuity between human and nonhuman primates in the desire to have choice simply for the sake of having choice.

  5. Morphological study of the eye and adnexa in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Nascimento Silva

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic and histologic features of the Sapajus sp. eye, comparing similarities and differences of humans and other species of non-human primates for biomedical research purposes. Computed tomography (CT of adnexa, eye and orbit live animal, as well as formolized pieces of the same structures of Sapajus sp. for anatomical and histological study were also performed. The anatomical description of the eye and adnexa was performed using the techniques of topographic dissection and exenteration. Histological fragments were fixated in buffered formalin 10%, processed by the routine paraffin inclusion technique, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and special stains. CT scan evaluation showed no differences between the live animal and the formolized head on identification of visual apparatus structures. Anatomic and histologic evaluation revealed rounded orbit, absence of the supraorbital foramen and frontal notch, little exposure of the sclera, with slight pigmentation of the exposed area and marked pigmentation at the sclerocorneal junction. Masson's Trichrome revealed the Meibomian glands, the corneal epithelium and Bowman's membrane; in the choroid, melanocytes and Bruch's membrane were observed; and in the retina, cones and rods as well as, optic nerve, the lamina cribrosa of the nerve fibers bundles. Toluidine blue highlighted the membranes: Bowman, Descemet and the endothelium; in the choroid: melanocytes; and in the retina: nuclear layers and retinal pigment epithelium. In view of the observed results Sapajus sp. is an important experimental model for research in the ophthalmology field, which has been shown due to the high similarity of its anatomical and histological structures with the human species.

  6. Short poly-glutamine repeat in the androgen receptor in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Paukner, Annika; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo; Suomi, Stephen J; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2017-12-01

    The androgen receptor mediates various physiological and developmental functions and is highly conserved in mammals. Although great intraspecific length polymorphisms in poly glutamine (poly-Q) and poly glycine (poly-G) regions of the androgen receptor in humans, apes and several Old World monkeys have been reported, little is known about the characteristics of these regions in New World monkeys. In this study, we surveyed 17 species of New World monkeys and found length polymorphisms in these regions in three species (common squirrel monkeys, tufted capuchin monkeys and owl monkeys). We found that the poly-Q region in New World monkeys is relatively shorter than that in catarrhines (humans, apes and Old World monkeys). In addition, we observed that codon usage for poly-G region in New World monkeys is unique among primates. These results suggest that the length of polymorphic regions in androgen receptor genes have evolved uniquely in New World monkeys.

  7. High-energy physics at Tufts University. Progress report, August 1, 1982-July 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Progress on the following topics is described: neutrino-deuterium interactions; anti pN interactions; K/sub s/ 0 /K/sub s/ 0 π - p interactions at 300 GeV/c; phi phi final states in 400 GeV/c pp; Fermilab Tevatron MPS proposals; nu D-physics proposed using HBC with internal calorimeter; Talloires neutrino workshop; photoproduction of charmed particles; streamer chamber study of anti K* 0 (890); Soudan-II nucleon decay program; CCD-detector study; optical resolution study; measuring hardware systems and data links; hadronic production of chi mesons; high-p/sub t/ inelastic hadronic reactions; and theoretical investigations

  8. High energy physics at Tufts University: Progress report, July 16, 1986 to July 15, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses topics and projects in the following areas: Soudan-II nucleon decay project, neutrino interactions at the Tevatron in the 15-foot bubbble chamber, pion and kaon production of charm and charm-strange states, multiparticle spectrometer studies at Fermilab, general kinematic description of polarization in scattering processes and spin phenomenology, polarization in inclusive hyperon production and measuring quarks helicity underlying hadronic jets

  9. High energy physics at Tufts University. Progress report. [Summaries of research activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    In the past year the Bubble Chamber Group has been involved in a wide range of activities in experimental high energy physics. Beam momenta varying from 2.9 to 300 GeV/c; bubble chambers including the FNAL 30-inch, BNL 80-inch, ANL 12-foot and FNAL 15-foot; targets which include hydrogen, deuterium, hydrogen with downstream plate, and deuterium with downstream spark chambers; beam particles including K/sup -/, anti p and p--one is still waiting for neutrinos--were used. A search was made for exotic particles and charmed particles, continued to study strange baryons and mesons, probed the dimensions of the ''fireball,'' and studied multiplicities and correlations in high energy collisions. The following progress in each of the activities which have taken place is summarized. A list of publications is included.

  10. Clinical Prediction Models for Cardiovascular Disease: The Tufts PACE CPM Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Benjamin S.; Lana Lai, YH; Kramer, Whitney; Cangelosi, Michael; Raman, Gowri; Lutz, Jennifer S.; Kent, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical prediction models (CPMs) estimate the probability of clinical outcomes and hold the potential to improve decision making and individualize care. For patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) there are numerous CPMs available though the extent of this literature is not well described. Methods and Results We conducted a systematic review for articles containing CPMs for CVD published between January 1990 through May 2012. CVD includes coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), arrhythmias, stroke, venous thromboembolism (VTE) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD). We created a novel database and characterized CPMs based on the stage of development, population under study, performance, covariates, and predicted outcomes. There are 796 models included in this database. The number of CPMs published each year is increasing steadily over time. 717 (90%) are de novo CPMs, 21 (3%) are CPM recalibrations, and 58 (7%) are CPM adaptations. This database contains CPMs for 31 index conditions including 215 CPMs for patients with CAD, 168 CPMs for population samples, and 79 models for patients with HF. There are 77 distinct index/ outcome (I/O) pairings. Of the de novo models in this database 450 (63%) report a c-statistic and 259 (36%) report some information on calibration. Conclusions There is an abundance of CPMs available for a wide assortment of CVD conditions, with substantial redundancy in the literature. The comparative performance of these models, the consistency of effects and risk estimates across models and the actual and potential clinical impact of this body of literature is poorly understood. PMID:26152680

  11. Clinical Prediction Models for Cardiovascular Disease: Tufts Predictive Analytics and Comparative Effectiveness Clinical Prediction Model Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Benjamin S; Lai Yh, Lana; Kramer, Whitney; Cangelosi, Michael; Raman, Gowri; Lutz, Jennifer S; Kent, David M

    2015-07-01

    Clinical prediction models (CPMs) estimate the probability of clinical outcomes and hold the potential to improve decision making and individualize care. For patients with cardiovascular disease, there are numerous CPMs available although the extent of this literature is not well described. We conducted a systematic review for articles containing CPMs for cardiovascular disease published between January 1990 and May 2012. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, stroke, venous thromboembolism, and peripheral vascular disease. We created a novel database and characterized CPMs based on the stage of development, population under study, performance, covariates, and predicted outcomes. There are 796 models included in this database. The number of CPMs published each year is increasing steadily over time. Seven hundred seventeen (90%) are de novo CPMs, 21 (3%) are CPM recalibrations, and 58 (7%) are CPM adaptations. This database contains CPMs for 31 index conditions, including 215 CPMs for patients with coronary artery disease, 168 CPMs for population samples, and 79 models for patients with heart failure. There are 77 distinct index/outcome pairings. Of the de novo models in this database, 450 (63%) report a c-statistic and 259 (36%) report some information on calibration. There is an abundance of CPMs available for a wide assortment of cardiovascular disease conditions, with substantial redundancy in the literature. The comparative performance of these models, the consistency of effects and risk estimates across models and the actual and potential clinical impact of this body of literature is poorly understood. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. High energy physics at Tufts University. Progress report, July 16, 1985-July 15, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Experimental projects in high energy physics that are reported include the Soudan-II Nucleon Decay Project, neutrino physics, pion and kaon production of charm and charm-strange states, and multiparticle spectrometer studies at Fermilab. Theoretical efforts include general kinematic description of polarization in scattering processes and spin phenomenology, as well as applications of quantum chromodynamic perturbation theory

  13. Evidence that tufted puffins Fratercula cirrhata use colony overflights to reduce kleptoparasitism risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackburn, G.S.; Hipfner, J.M.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Predation, foraging and mating costs are critical factors shaping life histories. Among colonial seabirds, colony overflights may enhance foraging or mating success, or diminish the risk of predation and kleptoparasitism. The latter possibility is difficult to test because low predation or

  14. Stable isotope ratios indicate diet and habitat use in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeninger, M J; Iwaniec, U T; Glander, K E

    1997-05-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in animal tissue for indicating aspects of species behavioral strategy. We analyzed hair from individuals representing four species of New World monkeys (Alouatta palliata, the mantled howler; Ateles geoffroyi, the spider monkey; Cebus capucinus, the capuchin; and Brachyteles arachnoides, the woolly-spider monkey or muriqui) for delta 13C and delta 15N using previously developed methods. There are no significant differences in either carbon or nitrogen ratios between sexes, sampling year, or year of analysis. Seasonal differences in delta 13C reached a low level of significance but do not affect general patterns. Variation within species was similar to that recorded previously within single individuals. The omega 13C data show a bimodal distribution with significant difference between the means. The two monkey populations living in an evergreen forest were similar to each other and different from the other two monkey populations that inhabited dry, deciduous forests. This bimodal distribution is independent of any particular species' diet and reflects the level of leaf cover in the two types of forest. The delta 15N data display three significantly different modes. The omnivorous capuchins were most positive reflecting a trophic level offset. The spider monkeys and the muriquis were similar to one another and significantly more positive than the howlers. This distribution among totally herbivorous species correlates with the ingestion of legumes by the howler monkey population. In combination, these data indicate that museum-curated primate material can be analyzed to yield information on forest cover and diet in populations and species lacking behavioral data.

  15. The influence of anthropogenic edge effects on primate populations and their habitat in a fragmented rainforest in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Laura M; Schreier, Amy L; Voss, Kristofor A; Sheehan, Elizabeth A; Barrickman, Nancy L; Pryor, Nathaniel P; Barton, Matthew C

    2018-02-06

    When a forest is fragmented, this increases the amount of forest edge relative to the interior. Edge effects can lead to loss of animal and plant species and decreased plant biomass near forest edges. We examined the influence of an anthropogenic forest edge comprising cattle pasture, coconut plantations, and human settlement on the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), and plant populations at La Suerte Biological Research Station (LSBRS), Costa Rica. We predicted that there would be lower monkey encounter rate, mean tree species richness, and diameter at breast height (DBH) in forest edge versus interior, and that monkeys would show species-specific responses to edge based on diet, body size, and canopy height preferences. Specifically, we predicted that howler monkeys would show positive or neutral edge effects due to their flexible folivorous diet, large body size, and preference for high canopy, capuchins would show positive edge effects due to their diverse diet, small body size, and preference for low to middle canopy, and spider monkeys would show negative edge effects due their reliance on ripe fruit, large body size, and preference for high upper canopy. We conducted population and vegetation surveys along edge and interior transects at LSBRS. Contrary to predictions, total monkey encounter rate did not vary between the forest edge and forest interior. Furthermore, all three species showed neutral edge effects with no significant differences in encounter rate between forest edge and interior. Interior transects had significantly higher mean tree species richness than edge transects, and interior trees had greater DBH than edge trees, although this difference was not significant. These results suggest that forest edges negatively impact plant populations at La Suerte but that the monkeys are able to withstand these differences in vegetation.

  16. The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M B; Fuxe, K; Werge, T

    2002-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 has shown effects similar to dopamine antagonists in behavioural assays in rats predictive for antipsychotic activity, without induction of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). In the present study, we examined whether this functional dopamine antagonism...

  17. White-faced monkey (Cebus capucinus ecology and management in neotropical agricultural landscapes during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E. Williams

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use by a C. capucinus troop was studied in an agricultural landscape during late dry season (March-April 1994 in northwest Costa Rica. Riparian forests, palm canals and living fence rows accounted for 82 % of observations, significantly more than the other six habitats present. The study troop consumed 24 species of plants and five animals. Feeding concentrated on the introduced African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis (33.6 % and mango (Mangifera indica (27.2 %, found mostly in palm canals and mango orchards respectively. The troop rested between 0930-1330 hr and fed and moved between 0530-0930 hr and 1330-1730 hr. Living fence rows were used as travel routes or corridors and less intensively for other activitiesSe estudió el uso de hábitat por una tropa de C. capucinus en una zona de agricultura durante la estación seca tardía (Marzo-Abril 1994 en el noroeste de Costa Rica. Los bosques riparios, canales de palmas y cercas de árboles vivos contaron con el 82 % de las observaciones, significantemente más que los otros seis hábitats presentes. La tropa de estudio consumió 24 especies de plntas y cinco animales. La alimentación se concentró en la palma de aceite Africana introducida (Elaeis guineensis (33.6 % y en mango (Mangifera indica (27.2 %, encontrados principalmente en los canales de palmas y huertos de mango respectivamente. La tropa descansó entre las 0930-1330 hr y se alimentó y movió entre las 0530-0930 hr y 1330-730 hr. Las cercas de árboles vivos fueron usadas como rutas de paso o corredores y menos intensamente para otras actividades

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species.

  19. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Anne M.; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution. PMID:26928014

  20. Inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe Serological survey of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in neotropical wild mammals from Aracaju Zoo, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert S. Pimentel

    2009-12-01

    ção aos quatro mamíferos soropositivos para Leptospira spp., três (75% foram procedentes da natureza e um (25% nasceu no zoológico. Este foi o primeiro inquérito sorológico de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. em primatas e carnívoros neotropicais em um zoológico do Nordeste do Brasil e descreveu pela primeira vez a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-T. gondii e anti-Leptospira spp. com sorovar mais provável Copenhageni no primata ameaçado de extinção macaco-prego-de-peito-amarelo (C. xanthosternus em Aracaju, SE.Modern zoological gardens are institutions to wildlife maintenance, aiming its conservation, the performance of scientific research and leisure, recreation and environ-mental education activities. The variety of wild species living in conditions different from the one found in its natural habitats represents a propitious environment for diseases spread, specially the zoonotic ones. Due to data shortage and wild mammals' epidemio-logical relevance both for toxoplasmosis as for leptospirosis, this study aimed to determine the serological survey of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Neotropical wild mammals, from Zoo of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 32 wild mammals, adults and from both sexes: 14 wild bearded capuchins (Cebus libidinosus, four golden-bellied capuchins (Cebus xanthosternus, three pumas (Puma concolor, one jaguar (Pantheraonca, one crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, six crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus, two South American coatis (Nasua nasua, and one tayra (Eira barbara. Sera were tested to Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT e"1:25, and by the microscopic seroaglutination test (cut-off e"1:100 using 24 serovar of pathogenic leptospiras and two serovar of saprophyte leptospiras. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 17 of 32 (53.1% wild mammals, and antibodies to Leptospira spp. were found in 4 of 32 (12.5% wild mammals. In relation to gender, 9 of 15 (60% males, and 8 of 17

  1. Comparative morphology of the diaphragm of white tufted-ear marmoset and the white-fronted marmoset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Borges Lessa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The marmosets of the Callithrix genus have a great importance in the research field, not only for its occurrence in the ecosystems of South America and Central America, but also because of its small size and easy management. This study aimed to characterize the ultrastructure of the diaphragm of four adult animals of the C. jacchus species and four animals of the C. geoffroyi species that died from natural causes. Diaphragms were collected, dissected, and fixed in 10% formaldehyde and analyzed through scanning electron microscopy. It was observed the presence of an external membrane of connective tissue, with cylindrical muscle fibers arranged in rows perpendicular to the longitudinal axis and grouped into fascicles. In C. jacchus it was observed a discontinuous and linear fibers’ architecture, resulting in a score of 7 and 8 fascicles for male and female, respectively. In C. geoffroyi the fiber had a continuous shape, but also linear, yielding a total of 9 and 6 fascicles for male and female, respectively. The architecture of muscle fibers and the count of fascicles of the coastal face of the diaphragm suggest differences between the species C. geoffroyi and C. jacchus and between males and females, intra- and interspecies.

  2. Turbidite pathways in Cascadia Basin and Tufts abyssal plain, Part A, Astoria Channel, Blanco Valley, and Gorda Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen C.; Hamer, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    This open-file report was prepared in support of the USGS Earthquake Hazards of Cascadia Project. The primary objective of this phase of the project is to determine recurrence intervals of turbidites in Cascadia basin-floor channel systems and evaluate implications of this event record for the paleoseismic history of the Cascadia subduction zone. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the canyon/channel systems themselves are blocked or deformed in such a way that the downstream turbidite stratigraphy might be biased. To accomplish this investigation approximately 7500 kilometers of pre-existing 3.5 KHz seismic data were evaluated to determine the direction and extent of the Astoria Channel/pathway system, which originates at the base of the Astoria Fan. Additionally, distribution and thickness of turbidite sediment sequences were determined along each identified pathway. Bathymetery and distance were used to determine gradients along the main pathway axis and for each of the secondary pathways that feed into it. Channel pathways were identified on the basis of channel phyisiography, where visible at the seafloor, subbottom channel configuration, and acoustic packets of sediments that might represent turbidite deposits. A principal result of this study is that the Astoria Channel/pathway extends continuously from the base of the Astoria Fan southward along the base of the continental slope through the Blanco Valley, then heads southwestward through the Gorda Basin and into the region of the Escanaba Trough. Additionally it was determined that the Astoria Channel is filled and basically buried for it's full length south of 44 degrees latitude. The 44 North Slump, as defined by Goldfinger (1999, see Map 3 ref.), may have been instrumental in blocking the pathway and thus contributed to the filling of the channel/pathway. Sheets 1 and 2 show the Astoria and secondary turbidite pathways highlighted in blue. Ship survey tracklines are shown for the area studied; they are time and date coded, and color keyed to each ship ID data base listed at the bottom of each sheet. The first letter in the cruise ID is an abbreviation letter for the ship name, the following numbers represent the consecutive cruise number of that year, followed by the year number. The letters at the end of the ID represent the survey area, ie. NC- northern California, NP- north Pacific. Locations of selected sample seismic sections illustrated on sheets 3-5 also are shown. Scales for each of the sheets are the same as for sheets 3-5, which allows for overlaying of track data onto the interpretations shown on Maps A-C. Sheets 3 (MAP A), 4 (MAP B), and 5 (MAP C) show channel pathway location, bathymetric depth based on the USGS COW data base (Ca/Or/Wa), pathway morphology, and thickness of turbidite sediment fill at various locations. The interpreted turbidite sediments are color highlighted on the selected seismic sections to differentiate them from the typical deep sea sediments below and to the side of the turbidite pathways. Thickness of sediment fill, in meters, is shown along major pathways in white circular highlights. The data and interpretations rest on a background of USGS GLORIA side scan sonar imagery (1984) to illustrate the relationship of pathway position to sub sea features. Channel distance points are plotted along channel centerlines at 20,000 m intervals. These points begin at the start of each interpreted channel pathway. A bathymetric depth was assigned to each distance point. These data points were then used to construct channel gradient curves for the Astoria, Eel, Bear Valley, and Mendocino channel pathways. These gradients are plotted on sheet 6 of this report and illustrate the similarities and differences between each of the pathways. Sheet 7 shows various views of the Mendocino/Mattole Canyon heads as an example of useful derivative information of the Seabeam bathymetric data. These views illustrate that the Mendocino pathway probably was directed from it's canyon mouth, to the northwest at an earlier time, but was diverted to the west along the base of the Mendocino Ridge by a major fault event in the recent past. Offset of the southwest channel wall is readily evident in views B and D. This apparent disruption complicates the turbidite history of the Mendocino pathway.

  3. Antibody-enhanced dengue disease generates a marked CNS inflammatory response in the black-tufted marmoset Callithrix penicillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Barbara Cristina Baldez; Vieira, Juliana Almeida; Silva, Geane Oliveira; Fernandes, Taiany Nogueira; Rocha, Luciano Chaves; Viana, André Pereira; Serique, Cássio Diego Sá; Filho, Carlos Santos; Bringel, Raissa Aires Ribeiro; Teixeira, Francisco Fernando Dacier Lobato; Ferreira, Milene Silveira; Casseb, Samir Mansour Moraes; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; de Melo, Karla Fabiane Lopes; de Castro, Paulo Henrique Gomes; Araújo, Sanderson Corrêa; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Demachki, Samia; Anaissi, Ana Karyssa Mendes; Sosthenes, Marcia Consentino Kronka; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço; Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro

    2016-02-01

    Severe dengue disease is often associated with long-term neurological impairments, but it is unclear what mechanisms are associated with neurological sequelae. Previously, we demonstrated antibody-enhanced dengue disease (ADE) dengue in an immunocompetent mouse model with a dengue virus 2 (DENV2) antibody injection followed by DENV3 virus infection. Here we migrated this ADE model to Callithrix penicillata. To mimic human multiple infections of endemic zones where abundant vectors and multiple serotypes co-exist, three animals received weekly subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected supernatant of C6/36 cell cultures, followed 24 h later by anti-DENV2 antibody for 12 weeks. There were six control animals, two of which received weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, and four further animals received no injections. After multiple infections, brain, liver, and spleen samples were collected and tissue was immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens, ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1, Ki-67, TNFα. There were marked morphological changes in the microglial population of ADE monkeys characterized by more highly ramified microglial processes, higher numbers of trees and larger surface areas. These changes were associated with intense TNFα-positive immunolabeling. It is unclear why ADE should generate such microglial activation given that IgG does not cross the blood-brain barrier, but this study reveals that in ADE dengue therapy targeting the CNS host response is likely to be important. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  4. Radiographic changes in the distal phalanx tuft of the hands in subjects with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis. Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yojhan Edilberto Izquierdo-Ramírez

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Current evidence regarding DPTH involvement in PsA and psoriasis is limited. However, an apparent correlation between DPTH findings and ungual abnormalities could exist, where erosions and sclerosis are the most significant abnormalities.

  5. Security in an interdependent world. Medford, Massachusetts, 18 May 2003. Statement to the Fletcher School at Tufts University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Addressing the members of The Fletcher School Board of Overseers, Director General of the IAEA emphasised the principal actions that will be essential achieve security in an independent world: First, we must modernize and revamp the collective security system of the United Nations Charter - in terms of both preventive diplomacy and enforcement action. To start, the Security Council should be reconstituted to include the major political and economic powers of today's world. In addition, new working concepts, tools and methods are needed to ensure that the Council can effectively discharge its role as the body with 'the primary responsibility' for the maintenance of international peace and security. Second, we must create an environment in which, as foreseen in the UN Charter, the use of force is limited to situations of self-defence or enforcement measures authorized by the Security Council. Preemptive strikes, however tempting, can send the global community into uncharted and dangerous territory. Only an action authorized by the Council will bring international legitimacy and support to such a measure. More importantly, these limitations will restrict the use of force to those situations where force is indeed the last and only alternative. Third, we must take concrete steps to de-legitimize the acquisition or use of weapons of mass destruction. Clearly, a new approach is needed - an approach that applies to all weapons of mass destruction, and would include: universal adherence to conventions that ban such weapons; robust and intrusive systems of verification for all related weapons conventions; a clear road map and the determination to eliminate these weapons in all States, to abolish over time the divide between the nuclear 'haves' and 'have nots'; new doctrines of security that do not rely on the deterrent effect of nuclear weapons; and reliable enforcement measures, under the aegis of the Security Council, to effectively counter efforts by any country to illicitly acquire nuclear, biological or chemical weapons. Fourth, we must develop a comprehensive regime to ensure that weapons of mass destruction and their components will not fall into the hands of terrorists. This demands an effective global approach to the physical protection of nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities, better controls for chemical and biological agents, and an effective approach to export controls worldwide. Fifth, we must have the foresight to address decisively the chronic disputes that create the greatest incentives for acquiring such weapons. It is instructive that so many of the suspected efforts to acquire weapons of mass destruction are to be found in the Middle East, a hotbed of instability for over half a century. In any future Middle East settlement, it is essential that regional security arrangements including the establishment of a region free from such weapons be pursued as part and parcel of such a settlement. The same should apply in any future settlement of such disputes, including the one currently in the spotlight on the Korean Peninsula. We must understand that peace and security are indivisible. Finally, we must work collectively to address the root causes of insecurity and instability, including: the widening divide between rich and poor, in which two-fifth of the world's population lives on less than two dollars per day; the chronic lack of good governance and respect for human rights with despots in many parts of the world taking cover under the cloak of 'sovereignty'; and the increasingly perceived schisms between cultures and civilizations. Effective amelioration of these causes of insecurity will require adequate financial assistance by the developed countries - assistance that now shamefully stands at less than one-quarter of one percent of the combined gross national income of the developed countries- about half of the cost of the war in Iraq. Improving our performance in this 'global distributive justice' will go a long way towards addressing many of the social ills that affect our planet. Global respect for human rights should be the overarching norm, irrespective of any consideration of political expediency or short term interests. Effective remedy will in addition require an increased focus by international institutions, governments, and civil society on encouraging interaction among cultures and people in order to promote mutual appreciation of our differences. More importantly, we must appreciate that what unites us is far, far greater than what divides us and equally that what separates us, in terms of our beliefs, customs and traditions, are differences in which we should take pride and which should not be scorned, but cherished. None of us as mortals holds a monopoly on the ultimate truth; and yet all of us should continue to seek it, each in his or her own way. This is a tall order. But if our aim is to spare future generations the prospect of conflicts and wars in which humanity could self-destruct, we have no other alternative

  6. STUDIES ON SOUTH AMERICAN YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.

    1929-01-01

    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  7. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae associados com o ambiente em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valério Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle, which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti, 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.Neste trabalho são descritas as espécies de carrapatos de animais selvagens e domésticos e do ambiente coletados por um ano na EMBRAPA Gado de Corte localizado na área urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Dos 55 hospedeiros selvagens de seis espécies diferentes (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla e Dasyprocta aguti foram coletados 323 carrapatos. Amblyomma ovale foi encontrado apenas em quatis e Amblyomma nodosum apenas sobre tamanduás. Nenhum carrapato foi encontrado sobre macacos-prego. Por outro lado, Amblyomma cajennense foi encontrado em todos os hospedeiros

  8. Haloperidol-induced striatal Nur77 expression in a non-human primate model of tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Souha; Blanchet, Pierre J; Lévesque, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a delayed and potentially irreversible motor complication arising in patients chronically exposed to antipsychotic drugs. As several modern (so-called atypical) antipsychotic drugs are common offenders, combined with the widening clinical indications for prescription as well as exposure of vulnerable individuals, TD will remain a significant drug-induced unwanted side effect. In addition, the pathophysiology of TD remains elusive and therapeutics are difficult. Based on rodent experiments, we have previously shown that the transcriptional factor Nur77 (also known as nerve growth factor inducible gene B or Nr4a1) is induced in the striatum following antipsychotic drug exposure as part of a long-term neuroadaptive process. To confirm this, we exposed adult capuchin (Cebus apella) monkeys to prolonged treatments with haloperidol (median 18.5 months, N = 11) or clozapine (median 6 months, N = 6). Six untreated animals were used as controls. Five haloperidol-treated animals developed mild TD movements similar to those found in humans. No TD was observed in the clozapine group. Postmortem analysis of Nur77 expression measured by in situ hybridization revealed a stark contrast between the two drugs, as Nur77 mRNA levels in the caudate-putamen were strongly upregulated in animals exposed to haloperidol but were spared following clozapine treatment. Interestingly, within the haloperidol-treated group, TD-free animals showed higher Nur77 expression in putamen subterritories compared with dyskinetic animals. This suggests that Nur77 expression might be associated with a reduced risk of TD in this experimental model and could provide a novel target for drug intervention. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Leishmaniose cutânea experimental: II - aspectos evolutivos da infecção no primata Cebus apella (Cebidae pela Leishmania (V. Braziliensis e L. (L. Amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando T. Silveira

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar o potencial do primata C. apella como modelo experimental da leishmaniose cutânea, produzida pela L. (V. braziliensis e L. (L. Amazonensis , inocularam-se, via intradérmica, 3 X 10(6 de promastigotas dessas leishmanias, em 8 sítios da cauda de 10 espécimens desse primata, 5 deles com a L. (V. braziliensis e outros 5 com a L. (L. Amazonensis . Posteriormente, às inoculações, o exame semanal dos animais e biópsias mensais, revelaram os seguintes resultados relativos a cada parasita: a L. (V. braziliensis : o período de incubação foi de 15-20 dias; aos 30 dias evidenciaram-se lesões pápulo-eritematosas, que evoluíram para nódulos ao fim de 60 dias; no 3.° mês, notou-se ulceração espontânea destas lesões e, no 4° mês, deu-se o início da reparação das lesões ulceradas, culminando com a cura em um dos animais após 5 meses, em dois após 6 meses, noutro após 7 meses e, no último, após 10 meses. Quanto ao parasitismo nas lesões, foi demonstrado nos 5 animais, até 90 dias; depois disto, somente em 2 até 120 dias e, por fim, até 180 dias apenas naquele que curou depois de 10 meses, b L. (L. Amazonensis : o período de incubação foi de 20 dias; aos 30 dias notou- se lesões pápulo-eritematosas, que também evoluíram para nódulos ao fim de 60 dias, porém, a partir do 3.° mês, estas lesões regrediram rapidamente ao fim de 90 dias, quando não mais detectou-se o parasita na pele dos animais. Em relação aos testes de Montenegro, somente 2 dos 5 animais infectados com a L. (V. braziliensis reagiram ao teste, 60 e 90 dias após as inoculações. Os resultados observados permitiram confirmar a infectividade do C. apella a estas leishmanias e, também, reforçar a indicação desse primata como modelo experimental da leishmaniose cutânea causada por estes parasitas.

  10. Effects of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist CP55,940 and antagonist SR141716A on d-amphetamine-induced behaviours in Cebus monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten V; Peacock, Linda; Werge, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Several clinical studies have shown that alterations in the cannabinoid system in the brain may be associated with schizophrenia. Although evidence points towards an antipsychotic potential for cannabinoid antagonists, experimental studies have shown inconsistent behavioural effects of cannabinoid...

  11. Effects of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonism and antagonism on SKF81297-induced dyskinesia and haloperidol-induced dystonia in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten V; Peacock, Linda P; Werge, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs may cause extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as dyskinesia and dystonia. These effects are believed to involve dysfunctional striatal dopamine transmission. Patients with schizophrenia show increased prevalence of cannabis abuse and this has been linked to severity of EPS...

  12. Influence of rainfall and grazing on the compositional change of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Communal grazing; Grazing intensity; Mortality; Relative biomass; Sites; Sward structure changes; Treatments; Tuft size changes; Tuft sizes; cattle; digitaria eriantha; forbs; grazing; tuft size; herbaceous layer; composition; recruitment; herbaceous composition; sandveld; gazankulu; abundance; pogonarthria ...

  13. A Comparative Assessment of Hand Preference in Captive Red Howler Monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and Yellow-Breasted Capuchin Monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos

    OpenAIRE

    Sfar, Nasibah; Mangalam, Madhur; Kaumanns, Werner; Singh, Mewa

    2014-01-01

    There are two major theories that attempt to explain hand preference in non-human primates–the ‘task complexity’ theory and the ‘postural origins’ theory. In the present study, we proposed a third hypothesis to explain the evolutionary origin of hand preference in non-human primates, stating that it could have evolved owing to structural and functional adaptations to feeding, which we refer to as the ‘niche structure’ hypothesis. We attempted to explore this hypothesis by comparing hand prefe...

  14. Development of collision dynamics models to estimate the results of full-scale rail vehicle impact tests : Tufts University Master's Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    In an effort to study occupant survivability in train collisions, analyses and tests were conducted to understand and improve the crashworthiness of rail vehicles. A collision dynamics model was developed in order to estimate the rigid body motion of...

  15. High frequency action potential bursts (≥ 100 Hz) in L2/3 and L5B thick tufted neurons in anaesthetized and awake rat primary somatosensory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.J. de Kock (Christiaan); B. Sakmann (Bert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHigh frequency (≥ 100 Hz) bursts of action potentials (APs) generated by neocortical neurons are thought to increase information content and, through back-propagation, to influence synaptic integration and efficacy in distal dendritic compartments. It was recently shown in acute slice

  16. Diving costs as a component of daily energy budgets of aquatic birds and mammals : Generalizing the inclusion of dive-recovery costs demonstrated in tufted ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deLeeuw, JJ

    1996-01-01

    Metabolic studies on freely diving birds and mammals are reviewed and allometric relations of diving costs are presented. A distinction can be made between three different types of diving costs: (1) metabolic rate during submergence, relevant in estimating aerobic dive limits, (2) average metabolic

  17. Tufts University Summer Guidance Institute on the Utilization of Occupational Education and Placement (Medford, Mass., Jul 20-31, 1970). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Elizabeth M.; Morine, John P.

    The purposes of this institute were to (1) provide the information needed to offer vocational courses for the non-college bound handicapped and disadvantaged, (2) point out the need for remedial and psychological services, (3) increase participants' understanding of the role of the counselor in our rapidly changing society, (4) increase emphasis…

  18. Distribution, ecology, life history, genetic variation, and risk of extinction of nonhuman primates from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Zaldívar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association between geographic distribution, ecological traits, life history, genetic diversity, and risk of extinction in nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica. All of the current nonhuman primate species from Costa Rica are included in the study; spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi, howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata, capuchins (Cebus capucinus, and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedii. Geographic distribution was characterized accessing existing databases. Data on ecology and life history traits were obtained through a literature review. Genetic diversity was characterized using isozyme electrophoresis. Risk of extinction was assessed from the literature. We found that species differed in all these traits. Using these data, we conducted a Pearson correlation between risk of extinction and ecological and life history traits, and genetic variation, for widely distributed species. We found a negative association between risk of extinction and population birth and growth rates; indicating that slower reproducing species had a greater risk of extinction. We found a positive association between genetic variation and risk of extinction; i.e., species showing higher genetic variation had a greater risk of extinction. The relevance of these traits for conservation efforts is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 679-693. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Se estudió la asociación entre la distribución geográfica, algunos rasgos ecológicos, las historias de vida, la diversidad genética y el riesgo de extinción, en primates no humanos de Costa Rica. Se incluyen todas las especies de primates no humanos del país: los monos araña (Ateles geoffroyi, congo (Alouatta palliata, cara blanca (Cebus capucinus, y tití (Saimiri oerstedii. La distribución geográfica se caracterizó utilizando principalmente bases de datos existentes. Se obtuvo información acerca de sus características ecológicas y de historias de vida mediante una revisión bibliogr

  19. Atropelamentos de vertebrados na Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Pará, Brasil Roadkills of vertebrates in Carajas National Forest, Para, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Gumier-Costa

    2009-01-01

    frequency of vertebrates from April/2003 to Octobre/2006 along the first 25 km of the highway. We registered 155 roadkills. The number of roadkills diminished along the years (P=0,01, and with distance from the beginning of the highway (P=0,0002. Snakes (Ophidia and opossum Didelphis marsupialis presented higher roadkill numbers (7,5/year, followed by birds (Aves, crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, coati Nasua nasua, rodents (Rodentia, and non identified (4,9/year; opossum Marmosops sp., brazilian rabbit Sylvilagus brasiliensis, black howler monkey Alouatta sp., tayra Eira barbara, tortoise Geochelone sp., lizards (Lacertilia e capuchin monkey Cebus apella (1/year. There was no significant relation between monthly roadkill numbers and monthly precipitation.

  20. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  1. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Hopper

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23. Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”. Two thirds (67% of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions and paired controls (28% were successful but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert

  2. Mapping of the Pim-1 oncogene in mouse t-haplotypes and its use to define the relative map positions of the tcl loci t0(t6) and tw12 and the marker tf (tufted).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ark, B; Gummere, G; Bennett, D; Artzt, K

    1991-06-01

    Pim-1 is an oncogene activated in mouse T-cell lymphomas induced by Moloney and AKR mink cell focus (MCF) viruses. Pim-1 was previously mapped to chromosome 17 by somatic cell hybrids, and subsequently to the region between the hemoglobin alpha-chain pseudogene 4 (Hba-4ps) and the alpha-crystalline gene (Crya-1) by Southern blot analysis of DNA obtained from panels of recombinant inbred strains. We have now mapped Pim-1 more accurately in t-haplotypes by analysis of recombinant t-chromosomes. The recombinants were derived from Tts6tf/t12 parents backcrossed to + tf/ + tf, and scored for recombination between the loci of T and tf. For simplicity all t-complex lethal genes properly named tcl-tx are shortened to tx. The Pim-1 gene was localized 0.6 cM proximal to the tw12 lethal gene, thus placing the Pim-1 gene 5.2 cM distal to the H-2 region in t-haplotypes. Once mapped, the Pim-1 gene was used as a marker for further genetic analysis of t-haplotypes. tw12 is so close to tf that even with a large number of recombinants it was not possible to determine whether it is proximal or distal to tf. Southern blot analysis of DNA from T-tf recombinants with a separation of tw12 and tf indicated that tw12 is proximal to tf. The mapping of two allelic t-lethals, t0 and t6 with respect to tw12 and tf has also been a problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Platynosomum illiciens (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) in Captive Black-Tufted Marmoset Callithrix penicillata (Primates: Cebidae) from Brazil: A Morphometric Analyses with Taxonomic Comments on Species of Platynosomum from Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson A; Mati, Vitor L T; Pujoni, Diego G F; Melo, Alan L

    2017-02-01

    The trematodes belonging to the genus Platynosomum are biliary parasites of birds and mammals (domestic and wildlife) in tropical and subtropical areas of the globe. Despite several reports on platynosomosis in captive nonhuman primates, mainly in South America, the taxonomy of species of Platynosomum that infect these hosts remains confused, and it is not clear whether the species found in cats is the same that infects nonhuman primates. Because a detailed morphological study of Platynosomum from nonhuman primates is lacking, in this study we analyzed specimens of Platynosomum recovered from the biliary system of Callithrix penicillata kept in captivity in an animal facility. The helminths were submitted to morphological and morphometric analyses in a light microscope and measurements of 16 morphological traits were taken. A kernel density estimation (KDE) was used to estimate density distributions of the measurements obtained as well as the occurrence of overlap with the ranges of the measurements known to 2 other species of Platynosomum previously described from South American marmosets, Platynosomum amazonensis and Platynosomum marmoseti. A principal component analysis (PCA) was also performed in order to evaluate the position of each of the 3 species in the multivariate gradient of morphometric measurements. The occurrence of a growth gradient was also evaluated by analysis of correlation between the measurements. Besides a great morphological variability, all specimens obtained from marmosets in this study were identified as Platynosomum illiciens (Braun, 1901). In addition, the published ranges of the measurements of P. amazonensis and P. marmoseti were completely contained within the ranges found in this study as revealed by KDE. The PCA did not show the formation of groups, and the 3 species were distributed along a growth continuum, also corroborated by correlation analysis. Therefore, P. amazonensis and P. marmoseti are here synonymized with P. illiciens. The involvement of wildlife hosts to the epidemiology of feline platynosomosis and implications for its control are briefly discussed.

  4. Short Communication: A technique to quantify available above ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A technique to quantify available above-ground phytomass of grass tufts in defoliation studies is described. Highly significant correlations were found between tuft volume and above-ground phytomass in eighteen out of twenty-two species that were examined. Tuft volume can therefore be used to calculate the ...

  5. Heterochromia of the scalp hair following Blaschko lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2007-01-01

    Heterochromia of the scalp hair is characterized by the presence of tufts of hair of a color that differs from the general hair color. It is considered a disorder of pigmentation when the tufts are asymmetrically distributed. We report four patients with isolated congenital tufts of heterochromia in the scalp hair following the Blaschko lines of the head.

  6. Pushing Back the Origin of Bantu Lexicography: The Vocabularium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Kikongo, Kongo Kingdom, Congo, Angola, Capuchins, Jesuits, Bantu, Latin, Spanish, French, Flemish, Authorship, Compilation Strategy, Language, Dialect, Orthography, Base Letters, Diacritics, Phonetics, Proto-Bantu, Translation Equivalence, Meaning Extensions, Paraphrases, Loanwords, Misnamings, ...

  7. Densidade e tamanho populacional de mamíferos cinegéticos em duas Unidades de Conservação do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Density and population size of game mammals in two Conservation Units of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M. de Araújo

    2008-09-01

    hunting, loss of habitat, and wildlife trade. In the State of Rio de Janeiro there are only two Federal Biological Reserves of lowland Atlantic Rain Forest, the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve and the União Biological Reserve. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence and putative influence of illegal hunting on the mammals in these two Conservation Units. Surveys were conducted using a line-transect method; 375 kilometers were covered during the period between December 2003 and January 2005. The data for the population density estimate was analyzed using the program DISTANCE 5.0. Twelve species were confirmed through visual encounters during the surveys, whereas are regularly hunted in the region studied. The species that presented higher density were brown capuchin monkey (Cebus nigritus Erxleben, 1777, howler monkey (Alouatta guariba Lacépède, 1799, nine-banded long-nosed armadillo (Dasypus novemcintus Linnaeus, 1758, and the seven-banded long-nosed armadillo (Dasypus septemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758. The most rare or absent species were the brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris Brünnich, 1771, the red brocket deer (Mazama americana Rafinesque, 1817 and the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari Link, 1795. In these two study areas both direct and indirect evidence of illegal hunting was observed, indicating that hunting is a common practice inside these Biological Reserves. The long-term survival of the hunted species is questionable, because the remaining populations living in fragments that are small and isolated, making them more susceptible to extinction even under low hunting pressure.

  8. The effect of prolonged heavy grazing pressure on the regrowth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A clipping experiment was done in the field using T. triandra and U. mosambicensis tufts. Regrowth was lower (P0.01) in the heavy grazing sites for both species. This was more a function of tiller production rate, in terms of numbers of tillers, than of tiller extension rate. Rate of regrowth was not strongly affected by tuft ...

  9. A revision of Crossonophelis (Sapindaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1973-01-01

    Tress or shrubs, exceptionally scandent; monoecious or dioecious; indument either consisting of solitary simple hairs, sometimes intermingled with some pairs or small tufts, or mainly consisting of small stellate tufts; neither glandular-capitate hairs nor glandular scales present. Leaves either all

  10. Research Note Early survival and growth of vegetatively propagated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants from all species were alive after nine months, although the average survival rate varied between species (from 92% for Eragrostis curvula to 39% for E. racemosa). Tuft area differed between species. The often-invasive species E. curvula had the highest average survival rate and the largest tuft area.

  11. Leaf anatomy of Harpullia, Majidea, and Conchopetalum (Sapindaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsen, J.R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The leaf anatomical characters of Harpullia and the related genera Majidea and Conchopetalum are described in detail. Harpullia and Majidea both have stellate hair tufts together with solitary unicellular hairs, in Conchopetalum stellate hair tufts are absent. A high variability below the species

  12. Estimating genetic correlations based on phenotypic data: a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effects. [Zintzaras E. 2011 Estimating genetic correlations based on phenotypic data: a simulation-based method. J. Genet. 90, 51–58]. Introduction. The evolutionary ... Also affiliated to Institute for Clinical. Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University. School of Medicine, 800 Washington Street, ...

  13. Preliminary early evaluation of radiation acute syndrome severity in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, J.C.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R.; Nagle, C.; Dubner, D.; Di Rizzio, C.

    1992-01-01

    To improve the knowledge of Radiation Acute Syndrome radiopathological picture, whole body x-rays irradiation at 2Gy of a primate (Cebus apella paraguayanus) used as model has been performed. Early evaluations of clinical symptoms and dose and damage biological indicators have shown that this primate has given out similar responses to those of man. (author)

  14. Parallel evolution of cortical areas involved in skilled hand use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padberg, Jeffrey; Franca, João G; Cooke, Dylan F; Soares, Juliana G M; Rosa, Marcello G P; Fiorani, Mario; Gattass, Ricardo; Krubitzer, Leah

    2007-09-19

    Dexterous hands, used to manipulate food, tools, and other objects, are one of the hallmarks of primate evolution. However, the neural substrate of fine manual control necessary for these behaviors remains unclear. Here, we describe the functional organization of parietal cortical areas 2 and 5 in the cebus monkey. Whereas other New World monkeys can be quite dexterous, and possess a poorly developed area 5, cebus monkeys are the only New World primate known to use a precision grip, and thus have an extended repertoire of manual behaviors. Unlike other New World Monkeys, but much like the macaque monkey, cebus monkeys possess a proprioceptive cortical area 2 and a well developed area 5, which is associated with motor planning and the generation of internal body coordinates necessary for visually guided reaching, grasping, and manipulation. The similarity of these fields in cebus monkeys and distantly related macaque monkeys with similar manual abilities indicates that the range of cortical organizations that can emerge in primates is constrained, and those that emerge are the result of highly conserved developmental mechanisms that shape the boundaries and topographic organizations of cortical areas.

  15. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capuchin of propaganda Fide allowed Massaja to build another (Oromo) College in the Oromo country in 1868. As soon as he received the ... Viterbo an Italian scholar published Afaan Oromo grammar in Italian language under the title. Grammatica Della Lingua Oromonica in. Ermanno. The grammar consists of about 397.

  16. Whole-body prepulse inhibition protocol to test sensorymotor gating mechanisms in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletti, Patricia G; Maior, Rafael S; Hori, Etsuro; Almeida, Ricardo Miyasaka de; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is the decrease of startle reflex amplitude when a slight stimulus is previously generated. This paradigm may provide valuable information about sensorimotor gating functionality. Here we aimed at determining the inhibited and uninhibited startle response of capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.), and to evaluate the role of the superior colliculus in PPI. Capuchin monkeys were tested in a whole-body protocol, to determine the best startle amplitude and interstimuli interval. Additionally we tested two subjects with bilateral superior colliculus damage in this protocol. Results show that 115 dB auditory pulse has induced the best startle response. In contrast to reports in other species, no habituation to the auditory stimuli was observed here in capuchins. Also, startle reflex inhibition was optimal after 120 msec interstimuli interval. Finally, there was a downward tendency of percentage inhibition in superior colliculus-lesioned monkeys. Our data provides the possibility of further studies with whole-body protocol in capuchin monkeys and reinforces the importance of the superior colliculus in PPI.

  17. 47 A DISCUSSION OF JAMES 1: 27 AND ITS IMPACT ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    This move was largely led by Portuguese Augustinian and French Capuchin monks in Elmina. However, the reality of the slave trade, which was as a result of the Dutch conquest in 1637, frustrated these new attempts.11Later, new methods of evangelizing Ghanaian indigenes were adopted by the Dutch Moravians in 1742.

  18. Antibiotic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antibiotics www.healthsci.tufts.edu Georgia-Pacific Health Smart Institute www.gphealthsmart.com Special thanks to Rhonda ... effectiveness of other medications such as birth control pills? 7. Are there any possible adverse reactions if ...

  19. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    , I would definitely assign it and will recommend to those who still teach microbial genetics here that they do so. Abraham L Sonenshein. Professor. Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology. Tufts University School of Medicine, USA.

  20. Hair transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  1. Teaching Chemometrics: A Course on Application of Mathematical Techniques to Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Michael F.; Warren, F. Vincent, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a course in chemometrics offered at Tufts University which is designed to provide college chemistry majors with an understanding of potential roles which computers might play in chemical research. (CS)

  2. Dataset - Evaluation of Standardized Sample Collection, Packaging, and Decontamination Procedures to Assess Cross-Contamination Potential during Bacillus anthracis Incident Response Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Spore recovery data during sample packaging decontamination tests. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Calfee, W., J. Tufts, K. Meyer, K....

  3. Application of fibre reinforced plastic sandwich structures for automotive crashworthiness applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukaszewicz, D.; Blok, L.G.; Kratz, J.; Ward, C.; Kassapoglou, C.; Elmarakbi, A.; Araújo, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work the application of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) sandwich
    structures, with particular focus on aramid fibre tufted sandwiches is being studied for
    automotive crashworthiness applications using impact testing and numerical simulation.

  4. Making It in the Mainstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    With the aid of an innovative electronic device, the Tufts Interactive Communicator (TIC), a severely handicapped, cerebral palsied 16-year-old boy has been able to enter a regular sixth-grade classroom. (PHR)

  5. Epilepsy and the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Tufts University School of Medicine Boston, MA 02111 REPORT DATE: August 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and...Medical Campus Building 500 Mail Stop F428, PO Box 6508 Aurora, CO 80045 Tufts University School of Medicine Dept. of DMCB Jaharis 614 150...delineating a time course for Wnt signaling in mouse to complement Audrey Yee’s studies in the rat. We have complementary evidence for the increase

  6. Functional correlates of the position of the axis of rotation of the mandible during chewing in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Terhune, Claire E; Taylor, Andrea B; Ross, Callum F

    2017-10-01

    The location of the axis of rotation (AoR) of the mandible was quantified using the helical axis (HA) in eight individuals from three species of non-human primates: Papio anubis, Cebus apella, and Macaca mulatta. These data were used to test three hypotheses regarding the functional significance of anteroposterior condylar translation - an AoR located inferior to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) - during chewing: minimizing impingement of the gonial region on cervical soft tissue structures during jaw opening; avoiding stretching of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle (IANB); and increasing jaw-elevator muscle torques. The results reveal that the HA is located near the occlusal plane in Papio and Cebus, but closer to the condyle in Macaca; is located anteroinferior to the TMJ during both opening and closing in Papio, as well as during opening in Macaca and Cebus; and varies in its location during closing in Macaca and Cebus. The impingement hypothesis is not supported by interspecific variation in HA location: species with larger gonial angles like Cebus do not have more inferiorly located HAs than species with more obtuse mandibular angles like Papio. However, intraspecific variation provides some support for the impingement hypothesis. The HA seldom passes near or through the lingula, falsifying the hypothesis that its location is determined by the sphenomandibular ligament, and the magnitudes of strain associated with a HA at the TMJ would not be large enough to cause problematic stretching of the IANB. HA location does affect muscle moment arms about the TMJ, with implications for the torque generation capability of the jaw-elevator muscles. In Cebus, a HA farther away from the TMJ is associated with larger jaw-elevator muscle moment arms about the joint than if it were at the TMJ. The effects of HA location on muscle strain and muscle moment arms are largest at large gapes and smallest at low gapes, suggesting that if HA location is of functional

  7. The Effect of Human Development on Mammal Populations of the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Van Hulle; Christopher Vaughan

    2009-01-01

    The effect of human development on six diurnal mammal species was studied using transects in the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas, Costa Rica during the dry season months of March and April 2006. Individuals/km was recorded for each species in more developed (MD) (near paved roads, buildings, construction, or deforested trees) and less developed areas (LD) (secondary forest). The white-faced apuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) (n = 233), coatimundi (Nasua narica) (n = 46), and Cen...

  8. Comparative anatomy of the arm muscles of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with some comments on locomotor mechanics and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A G M F; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    The anatomical literature on the genus Macaca has focused mainly on the rhesus monkey. However, some aspects in the positional behaviors of the Japanese monkey may be different from those in rhesus monkey, suggesting that the anatomical details of these species are divergent. Four thoracic limbs of Macaca fuscata adults were dissected. The arm muscles in Japanese macaques are more similar to rhesus monkeys and Papio; these characteristics are closer to those of bearded capuchins than apes, indicating more proximity of this genus to New World primates. The anatomical features observed favor quadrupedal locomotor behaviors on the ground and in arboreal environments. Japanese monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and bearded capuchins, which share more primitive characteristics in their arm muscles, present features that favor both arboreal and quadrupedal locomotor behaviors, whereas apes, mainly Pan and Gorilla, which spend more time on the ground, present more quadrupedal specializations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Identification of the social and cognitive processes underlying human cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L G; Kendal, R L; Schapiro, S J; Thierry, B; Laland, K N

    2012-03-02

    The remarkable ecological and demographic success of humanity is largely attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture, with knowledge and technology accumulating over time, yet the social and cognitive capabilities that have enabled cumulative culture remain unclear. In a comparative study of sequential problem solving, we provided groups of capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees, and children with an experimental puzzlebox that could be solved in three stages to retrieve rewards of increasing desirability. The success of the children, but not of the chimpanzees or capuchins, in reaching higher-level solutions was strongly associated with a package of sociocognitive processes-including teaching through verbal instruction, imitation, and prosociality-that were observed only in the children and covaried with performance.

  10. Self-medication by orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus) using bioactive properties of Dracaena cantleyi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morrogh-Bernard, H.; Foitová, I.; Yeen, Z.; Wilkin, P.; De Martin, R.; Rárová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Nurcahyo, W.; Olšanský, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 30 (2017), č. článku 16653. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1163 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : STEROIDAL SAPONINS * CAPUCHIN MONKEYS * CHIMPANZEES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  11. An Experimental Analysis of Memory Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained and tested in visual and auditory list-memory tasks with sequences of four travel pictures or four natural/environmental sounds followed by single test items. Acquisitions of the visual list-memory task are presented. Visual recency (last item) memory diminished with retention delay, and primacy (first item) memory strengthened. Capuchin monkeys, pigeons, and humans showed similar visual-memory changes. Rhesus learned an auditory memory task and showed octave gener...

  12. Influence of personality on primate health, welfare, and happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Lauren Marie

    2017-01-01

    Is personality important for understanding the variation we see in animal welfare? In this thesis, I address that question by studying the association between personality and health, welfare, and happiness in three species of nonhuman primate: rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), brown capuchins (Sapajus apella), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). As part of this research I test a newly designed animal welfare questionnaire. In Chapter 1 I review how animal welfare questionnaires can be designed...

  13. Terrestriality of Wild Sapajus cay (Illiger, 1815) as Revealed by Camera Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirio, Grasiela; Santos, Filipe Martins; Foster, Vania; Nascimento, Leonardo França; Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Fonseca, Carlos; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia

    2017-01-01

    Although primarily arboreal, the capuchin monkey (Sapajus cay) descends to the ground for several reasons. We used terrestrial records obtained by camera-trapping surveys to investigate seasonality in the terrestriality of capuchin monkeys, reasons to descend to the ground, and periods of the day when terrestriality was more pronounced. We carried out the study in the Urucum Massif, Brazilian Pantanal. We obtained data from 2 camera-trapping surveys carried out in the dry and rainy seasons. Terrestrial behaviours were categorized, and terrestrial activity patterns were described using a kernel density approach. We observed a seasonal effect on the frequency of terrestrial behaviours of capuchin monkeys, who used the ground more during the dry season. We identified 6 different types of terrestrial behaviour, but travelling (33.3%), foraging (23.3%), and drinking water (23.3%) were the most frequently observed. All records occurred during the day, with 2 peaks in terrestrial activity. Seasonal terrestriality was mainly linked to ecological needs during periods of scarce food and water. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Dimorfismo em machos de Euglossa mandibularis Friese (Apidae, Euglossina Male dimorphism in Euglossa mandibularis Friese (Apidae, Euglossina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Carlos Peruquetti

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Males of Euglossa mandibularis Friese, 1899 can be categorized by (1 presence or (2 absence of scutellar tuft (a morphological feature of dense setae found in females' scutellum of the genera Euglossa Latreille, 1802 and Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841. A multivariate statistical analysis using six morphological measures (hindtibia length and width, head width, intertegular span, midbasitarsus length and scape length show that males of the categories 1 and 2 were significantly different in relation to such measures. The width head, hindtibia length and scape length were the measures that most influenced the observed differences. Levene test suggest there is not effect of stabilizing selection on males without scutellar tuft. Since there is a fluctuation in the proportion of males with scutellar tuft occurring in a single population, the observed morphological differences might be environmentally determined.

  15. Novel Image Analysis Method for Blade Aerodynamic Performance on Operational Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swytink-Binnema, Nigel; Johnson, David A.

    2014-06-01

    Tuft flow visualisation has been used to study aerodynamic stall on wind turbine blades for several decades. In recent years, advances in the processing power of personal computers have made digital image processing vastly more accessible. In this paper, therefore, a novel method is presented to digitally analyse tuft flow visualisation on the blade of an operating wind turbine. Examination of the outboard 40% of the blade of a 10 m diameter wind turbine revealed stalled flow in wind speeds from 5m/s to 20m/s. The region of stall at those speeds increased from 5% to 40% of the coverage area of the tufts. This increase in the amount of stalled flow is expected for stall-regulated wind turbines. Overall, the results are very promising and demonstrate potential for a wide range of aerodynamics applications including real-time blade stall determination and classical wind tunnel aerodynamics studies.

  16. Novel Image Analysis Method for Blade Aerodynamic Performance on Operational Turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swytink-Binnema, Nigel; Johnson, David A

    2014-01-01

    Tuft flow visualisation has been used to study aerodynamic stall on wind turbine blades for several decades. In recent years, advances in the processing power of personal computers have made digital image processing vastly more accessible. In this paper, therefore, a novel method is presented to digitally analyse tuft flow visualisation on the blade of an operating wind turbine. Examination of the outboard 40% of the blade of a 10 m diameter wind turbine revealed stalled flow in wind speeds from 5m/s to 20m/s. The region of stall at those speeds increased from 5% to 40% of the coverage area of the tufts. This increase in the amount of stalled flow is expected for stall-regulated wind turbines. Overall, the results are very promising and demonstrate potential for a wide range of aerodynamics applications including real-time blade stall determination and classical wind tunnel aerodynamics studies

  17. The effect of frequency of defoliation on Themeda triandra in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tufts of Themeda triandra were subjected to different frequencies of defoliation during a single season under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Frequent defoliation (> 5 times per year) severely reduced clipped yield on both moisture treatments. On irrigated treatments, root mass declined and shoot apex elevation was ...

  18. Integrative Microbiology–The Third Golden Age

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moselio Schaechter1 2. Biology Department, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA; Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 2 · Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 2. February 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues ...

  19. Patterns of plant selection by grazing cattle in two savanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of plant selection by grazing cattle in two savanna grasslands: A plant's eye view. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... had been previously grazed generally had a greater influence on the amount a tuft was grazed during an individual grazing event than species identity, location or moribund material.

  20. The hydroentanglement system of producing nonwoven fabrics of certain specific attributes and functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the traditional technologies and processes of producing fabric structures, via yarn spinning, weaving, knitting, lacing, tufting, or the like, continue to be the ‘major league’ players in textile manufacturing today, the modern hydroentanglement system, commonly known as “spunlacing,” has a...

  1. Calcium Signaling in Mitral Cell Dendrites of Olfactory Bulbs of Neonatal Rats and Mice during Olfactory Nerve Stimulation and Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Mutoh, Hiroki; Debarbieux, Franck; Knopfel, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing. Beta-adrenergic modulation of electrical…

  2. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to this, the eighth segment supports a pair of very large tufts of long black scent hairs. Female genitalia (Figure 23). Ovipositor slender. Posterior apophyses very slender and long - more than twice as. 19 long as the anterior apophyses. Antrum with a pair of dark. bodies laterally. Ductus bursae short and bears a.

  4. Integrative microbiology–the third Golden Age

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moselio Schaechter1. Biology Department, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Journal of Biosciences. Current Issue : Vol. 42, Issue 4 · Current Issue Volume 42 | Issue 4. December 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues ...

  5. Deaths among wild birds during highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus outbreak, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, van der Henk P.

    2017-01-01

    During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks

  6. Deaths among Wild Birds during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Outbreak, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, Henk P. van der

    2017-01-01

    During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks

  7. Ringing and recovery data prove poor at detecting migratory short-stopping of diving ducks associated with climate change throughout Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tománková, Irena; Reid, Neil; Enlander, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has been shown to affect the distribution of many bird species. International Waterbird Census (IWC) data revealed that Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula and Goldeneye Bucephala clangula have shifted their European wintering distributions northeastwards as a direct response to increased...

  8. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Recommends leisurely reading for teachers: biographies on St. Augustine and Charles Lindbergh; novels by Edwidge Danticat, Kate Chopin, and Velma Allis; Edward Tufte's three volumes on the visual presentation of information; Jean Vanier's "Becoming Human;" the Harry Potter series, and Michael Tolkin's novel "The Player." (MLH)

  9. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/02/0191-0194. Keywords. Pedagogy; lecture; universtiy teaching. Author Affiliations. Moselio Schaechter1. Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Tufts University Boston, MA, Adjunct Professor San Diego State University and University of California San Diego, USA ...

  10. Comparison of the growth and biomass production of Miscanthus sinensis, Miscanthus floridulus and Saccharum arundinaceum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X.; He, Y.; Fang, J.; Fang, Z.; Jiang, B.; Brancourt-Hulmel, M.; Zheng, B.; Jiang, D.

    2015-07-01

    Miscanthus and Saccharum are considered excellent candidates for bioenergy feedstock production. A field experiment was conducted in Zhejiang province of China to characterize the phenotypic differences in three species, two of Miscanthus (M. sinensis and M. floridulus) and one of Saccharum (S. arundinaceum), each with two accessions collected from China. Agronomical traits, including plant height, culm number, tuft diameter and culm diameter, were monitored monthly for the first 3 years of growth. For each year of trail, flowering time was observed and biomass yield was harvested. M. floridulus produced a superior biomass yield with increasing plant age associated with higher yields (4.18, 24.16 and 29.01 t dry matter/hain November of years one to three, respectively). Higher culm diameter, plant height and tuft diameter values were observed for M. floridulus when compared to the other species. Biomass yield was positively correlated to tuft diameter, culm diameter, culm number and negatively to flowering time, but it showed no correlation with plant height. Tuft diameter and culm diameter could be suitable indicators in the selection of accessions for crop yield at the yield-building phase. Studies of the primary colonizers of Miscanthus and Saccharum in their original location may be of interest from the perspective of bioenergy germplasm resource collection. (Author)

  11. Using chemical markers to detect root disease in stressed ponderosa pine stands with a low incidence of disease in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick G. Kelsey; Walter G. Thies; Craig L. Schmitt

    2006-01-01

    A total of 284 ponderosa pine growing near the southern edge of the Blue Mountains in eastern Oregon were categorized into one of three crown classes based on the degree of "tufted", or "lion's tail" appearance of their branches, a potential symptom of black-stain root disease, then pushed over and their root systems examined for visual...

  12. Description of Pintomyia (Pifanomyia paleotrichia, a Miocene period new species from the Dominican Republic (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dilermando Andrade Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new fossil species of phlebotomine sandflies is described from Dominican amber based in one specimen. Pintomyia (Pifanomyia paleotrichia sp. nov. is distinguished from the other extant and extinct species by aspects of paramere and the basal tuft of bristles in the gonocoxite.

  13. Shaken but prepared: Analysis of disaster response at an academic medical centre following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Robert; Scanlon, Courtney; Jotwani, Rohan; Rodkey, Daniel; Arshanskiy, Maria; Salem, Deeb

    Over the last decade, there has been a rise in the number of mass casualty incidences (MCIs) and their subsequent effect on hospital systems. While there has been much discussion over improving procedures to treat victims of MCIs, there has not been a thorough, systems-based analysis concerning the costs incurred by hospitals during such events. Here the authors examine the history of the Hospital Incident Command Center and how its evolution at Tufts Medical Center helped mitigate the damage following the Boston Marathon Bombings. Tufts' unique variations to the Hospital Incident Command Center include strategic communication hierarchies and a 'zero cost centre' financial system which both provided for a quick and adaptive response. Operating in collaboration with the Conference of Boston Teaching Hospitals encouraged coordination and preparation during emergency situations such as mass casualty events. The direct and indirect effects on Tufts Medical Center stemming from the Boston Marathon Bombings were analysed. Tufts MC treated 36 victims immediately following the MCI. The estimated total cost during the week of April 15 to April 19, 2013 was $776,051. The cost was primarily comprised of lost revenue from cancelled outpatient and inpatient hospital services, as well as expenses incurred due to overtime pay, salary expenses, PPE kits and hospitality services. Finally, the authors examine ways to reduce the future costs during emergency situations through increasing communication with employees, understanding the source of all direct expenses, and mitigating excess risk by developing partnerships with other hospital systems.

  14. Mechanism of antibacterial activity of the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare colonizing wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Folman, L.B.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Svensson, T.; Bastviken, D.; Oberg, G.; Del Rio, J.C.; Boddy, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study it was shown that the number of wood-inhabiting bacteria was drastically reduced after colonization of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood blocks by the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare, or sulfur tuft (Folman et al. 2008). Here we report on the mechanisms of this fungal-induced

  15. D:\\African Health Sciences\\New

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Rachel Klein*. Tufts University, Community Health and Spanish Major, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, 50 Haven. Avenue, Box #266, Columbia University. The World Health Organization (WHO) announced in. September of 2003 that HIV / AIDS should be labeled. “global health emergency” rather ...

  16. New records of brown algae (Phaeophyta) from the Azores.

    OpenAIRE

    Parente, Manuela I.; Fletcher, Robert L.; Neto, Ana I.

    2000-01-01

    Copyright © 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. The following five species of microscopic tuft-forming/encrusting brown algae (Phaeophyta) are newly recorded for the Island of São Miguel (Azores): Nemoderma tingitana Schousboe ex Bornet. Pseudolithoderma roscoffense Loiseaux (Lithodermataceae), Hecatonema terminalis (Kutzing) Kylin (Punctariaceae), Compsonema saxicolum (Kuckuck) Kuckuck, and Microspongium gelatinosum Reinke (Scytosiphonaceae). The species are descr...

  17. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V. zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant ...

  18. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V. zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant ...

  19. 2018-03-20T19:34:14Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V. zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant ...

  20. [First record of Microsomacanthus tuvensis Spasskaya et Spasskii, 1961 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Kalisińska, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    During standard parasitological studies of the tufted duck Aythya fuligula, obtained from fishermen from West Pomerania in December 2007, three cestode specimens were found in the jejunum of one male host. They were determinated as Microsomacanthus tuvensis (Spasskaya et Spasskii, 1961) on the basis of the cirrus's and cirrus sac's size and vagina's shape. This is the first record of this species in Poland.

  1. 7 CFR 2902.33 - Carpets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... found on EPA's Web site http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/procure/products.htm and then clicking on the... Carpets. (a) Definition. Floor coverings composed of woven, tufted, or knitted fiber and a backing system... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, section 6002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

  2. Diversity of nuptial plumages in male ruffs Philomachus pugnax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rhijn, Johan; Jukema, Joop; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Nuptial ornament diversity was studied in 1814 individual male Ruffs that were caught in their spring staging areas in Friesland, The Netherlands. Ornaments (hereafter called plumages) comprised of a ruff, two head tufts and facial wattles. Individual feathers were found to be plain (white, black or

  3. Using Facebook Page Insights Data to Determine Posting Best Practices in an Academic Health Sciences Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Kathryn M.; Thornhill, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Tufts University Hirsh Health Sciences Library created a Facebook page and a corresponding managing committee in March 2010. Facebook Page Insights data collected from the library's Facebook page were statistically analyzed to investigate patterns of user engagement. The committee hoped to improve posting practices and increase user engagement…

  4. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria zizanioides root extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a ...

  5. Self-Expanding, Tough Biodegradable Elastomers for Wound Stasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine , North Graf- ton, MA) and maintained in a facility accredited by the Asso- ciated for the Assessment and...14) were allowed to acclimate for 2 d and exam- inedbya veterinarian toensure goodhealth. Foodwaswithheld the night before surgery but access to

  6. Climate Change and Variability: Implications for Household Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    causes of food insecurity. These are drought, low annual rainfall, high temperature, and water shortage. The econometric model estimation result revealed the important factors determining household food security. These are household perception of climate change, use of soil and water. 1 M&D Data Quality Manager; Tufts ...

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baccaurea courtallensis Muell.-Arg. of Euphorbiaceae is an evergreen tree that is very attractive when in flower. Leaves are alternate. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. Inflorescences bearing several flowers arise in tufts on tubercles on the stem. Fruits are crimson red in colour. Seeds are covered.

  8. Development and evaluation of a risk communication curriculum for medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, P.K.; Joekes, K.; Elwyn, G.; Mazor, K.M.; Thomson, R.; Sedgwick, P.; Ibison, J.; Wong, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop, pilot, and evaluate a curriculum for teaching clinical risk communication skills to medical students. METHODS: A new experience-based curriculum, "Risk Talk," was developed and piloted over a 1-year period among students at Tufts University School of Medicine. An experimental

  9. Veterinary Research Manpower Development for Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    J. Lindenmayer Effects of Vaccinating Goat Herds Against Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis (MAP) on Milk Production and Culling...cellular components of coagulation . The predictive use of thromboelastography for altered coagulation states has been demonstrated in dogs with a...describe the coagulation status in dogs undergoing splenectomy. A database search in FIRST at the Tufts Cummings School Foster Hospital for Small

  10. The effect of past grazing intensity on the vigour of Themeda triandra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , during a full season's rest, of tufts of Themeda triandra Forssk. and Tristachya leucothrix Nees, which (1) had not been grazed, (2) had been leniently, or (3) had been severely grazed during the previous two growing seasons. A sequential ...

  11. [Gingival abrasion and plaque removal with manual vs. electric toothbrushes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, M L; Ainamo, J; Etemadzadeh, H

    1988-03-01

    In a clinical study, the relative incidence of gingival injuries after standardized tooth brushing was tested by 22 volunteer dental assistants whose teeth were brushed with a soft multi-tufted toothbrush, a manual V-form toothbrush, and an electric toothbrush. At the beginning of the study, a dental hygienist cleaned the right or left side of the jaw of each subject with a manual V-form toothbrush or an electric toothbrush; the other side was manually cleaned with a multi-tufted toothbrush. At the second cleansing one week later, the same dental hygienist cleaned the side contralateral to that brushed in the first test week with the multi-tufted brush; the manual V-form brush was used instead of the electric toothbrush and vice versa. The number of new gingival lesions was recorded after each brushing. The cleansing effect was established by determining the amount of residual plaque. The subjects did not know which type of toothbrush was used to cleanse the evaluated side of the jaw. The results showed that the manual V-form toothbrush abraded the gingiva more than the electric toothbrush (p less than 0.005). A similar difference was found between the manual multi-tufted and the electric toothbrush (p less than 0.05). No significant differences could be established with respect to the plaque-removing properties of the three types of toothbrush tested.

  12. The Bottom Line For Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how the right type of flooring can help schools reduce indoor-air-quality problems. Using vinyl composition flooring to handle moisture and reduce fungi growth is examined as are the benefits of vinyl cushion tufted textile flooring for cost effectiveness, learning environment improvement, installation, and effectiveness in emergencies.…

  13. Sarah Frances Whiting: A foremother of American women physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Frieda A.

    2005-11-01

    Sarah Frances Whiting taught physics and astronomy at Wellesley College from 1876 to 1916 and developed the first physics laboratory classes for female students. She was elected a fellow of AAAS in 1883 and received an honorary D. Sc. from Tufts University in 1905. I review her accomplishments and discuss some of the barriers that she had to overcome.

  14. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1. Records Search, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Evening primrose Oenothera caespitosa Grass Types 3 1. Sedges, dry Carex spp. 2. Tufted Hairgrass Deschampsia caesritosa I 3. Blue grama Boutelous... rosea 4. Pussytoes Antennaria parulfolia 35. Bluebells Mertensia lanceolata 6. Stonecrop Sedum spp. 37. Wild onion Allium geyerl U8. Fleabane

  15. Workshop Physics and Related Curricula: "A 25-Year History of Collaborative Learning Enhanced by Computer Tools for Observation and Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Sokoloff, David R.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the 25-year history of development of the activity-based Workshop Physics (WP) at Dickinson College, its adaptation for use at Gettysburg Area High School, and its synergistic influence on curricular materials developed at the University of Oregon and Tufts University and vice versa. WP and these related curricula: 1) are…

  16. Cutaneous Markers Of Spina Bifida Occulta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R.R

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One four-year female child tuft of hair with underlying soft subcutaneous mass over lumbosacral region since birth. In the midline, there was a dimple with central sinus and peripheral folds of skin. Spina bifida occulta was suspected. Diagnosis was confirmed by x-ray and patient was advised corrective surgery.

  17. Glomerular parietal epithelial cells contribute to adult podocyte regeneration in experimental focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Diana G; Sunseri, Maria W; Kaverina, Natalya V; Roeder, Sebastian S; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Shankland, Stuart J

    2015-11-01

    As adult podocytes cannot adequately proliferate following depletion in disease states, there has been interest in the potential role of progenitors in podocyte repair and regeneration. To determine whether parietal epithelial cells (PECs) can serve as adult podocyte progenitors following disease-induced podocyte depletion, PECs were permanently labeled in adult PEC-rtTA/LC1/R26 reporter mice. In normal mice, labeled PECs were confined to Bowman's capsule, whereas in disease (cytotoxic sheep anti-podocyte antibody) labeled PECs were found in the glomerular tuft in progressively higher numbers by days 7, 14, and 28. Early in disease, the majority of PECs in the tuft coexpressed CD44. By day 28, when podocyte numbers were significantly higher and disease severity was significantly lower, the majority of labeled PECs coexpressed podocyte proteins but not CD44. Neither labeled PECs on the tuft nor podocytes stained for the proliferation marker BrdU. The de novo expression of phospho-ERK colocalized to CD44 expressing PECs, but not to PECs expressing podocyte markers. Thus, in a mouse model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis typified by abrupt podocyte depletion followed by regeneration, PECs undergo two phenotypic changes once they migrate to the glomerular tuft. Initially these cells are predominantly activated CD44 expressing cells coinciding with glomerulosclerosis, and later they predominantly exhibit a podocyte phenotype, which is likely reparative.

  18. Effect of vermicompost on manifestation of pesticide action on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to asses the implication of endosulfan in the soil amended with vermicompost, Zinnia elegans (Family Asteraceae) was grown, under strict laboratory conditions. Seed germination, size of internode, total length of the plant, leaf area of the plant, tufts of rootlets, which emerged, were measured and recorded.

  19. Centrolepidaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1955-01-01

    Plants small, annual or perennial, densely tufted, often of moss-like habit, some species forming cushions. Leaves radical or densely distichous on short, branched stems, narrowly linear, canaliculate, provided with a broadly membranous, sometimes apically auricled, mostly 1-nerved sheath. Scape

  20. Golgi analysis of tangential neurons in the lobula plate of Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    plate have been identified and characterized (Heisenberg et al 1978; Bulthoff and Buchner 1985; Bausenwein et ... provided by Heisenberg et al (1978) while studying op- tomotor-blindH31 (ombH31) mutation. ..... (c) A tangential element with three tufts of arbors (also see figure 3d). Two neurons of the twin vertical system ...

  1. Notice of release of Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass (selected germplasm, natural track)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass is a small, densely tufted short-lived perennial bunchgrass adapted to low elevation, semi-arid sites with long, hot growing seasons. Mountain Home's drought tolerance, competitive nature, and ease of establishment make it an excellent choice for post-fire restoration of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) dominated...

  2. 19 CFR 10.228 - Additional requirements for preferential treatment of brassieres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fabric. The verification of production records and work orders will be accomplished through analysis of.... (3) Fabrics formed in the United States. “Fabrics formed in the United States” means fabrics that were produced by a weaving, knitting, needling, tufting, felting, entangling or other fabric-making...

  3. Online Teaching as a Catalyst for Re-Examining Pedagogical Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Russell Tufts University This study examines the potential of designing and teaching online courses to prompt university faculty members to reflect on the essence of good teaching, and as a result reconsider their beliefs concerning effective pedagogy. A phenomenological investigation was conducted based on interviews with six long-time university…

  4. Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from inner Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, H.

    2011-01-01

    Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to the inner part of West Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to S. pamphylica and differs from that species in having a densely tufted habit with compact and much-branched woody base, subfleshy, narrowly...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  6. The effect of icepack cooling on skin and muscle temperature at rest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of icepack cooling on skin and muscle temperature at rest and after exercise. M Mars, B Hadebe, M Tufts. Abstract. Objective. To compare cooling of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle, produced by an icepack, at rest and after short-duration exhaustive exercise. Methods. Eight male subjects were studied. With the ...

  7. Phytomedication based on raw material from plants of the family gramineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Сергіївна Бурлака

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The healing properties of medicinal plants are conditioned by biologically active substances (BAS in their composition, which in humans cause some therapeutic effect. These promising crops are Reedgrass - Calamagrostis epigeios (L. Roth. and Tufted hairgrass - Deschampsia caespitosa (L. P. Beauv., family cereals - Poaceae Barnh., which are widely distributed in Ukraine and CIS countries.Aim. The aim of our study was to develop a method of making tincture of Reedgrass and , Tufted hairgrass standardization and definition of pharmacological activity.Methods. Technological parameters of raw material were identified, BAS group identification was made using a qualitative method of reactions and thin layer chromatography (TLC. Standardization by spectrophotometric method was conducted, pharmacological activity by biological methods was performed.Results. Method of obtaining the tincture of Reedgrass and Tufted hairgrass was substantiated, tincture was standardized and it`s acute toxicity, diuretic and anti-inflammatory activities were defined as a result of the study.Conclusions. Reedgrass and Tufted hairgrass are a promising plant materials to produce phytomedications based on them

  8. 1292-IJBCS-Article-Djibril Yonli

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T60

    Death of at least 80% of treated Loranthaceae tufts was recorded for doses of 15 g l-1 of glyphosate and 20 g l-1 of 2,4-D. The artificial infestation .... the National Institute of Environmental and. Agricultural ..... Table 2: Effect of Loranthaceae species, the pruning time and their interactions on the regeneration of Loranthaceae ...

  9. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moselio Schaechter1. Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Tufts University Boston, MA, Adjunct Professor San Diego State University and University of California San Diego, USA. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 3. March 2018. Home · Volumes & ...

  10. The vegetation of the S.A. Lombard Nature Reserve and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University, the National Herbarium and staff of the reserve over a period of 10 years. Collected specimens are housed in a small herbarium on the station. ..... these green leaves during winter and they were observed to pick green shoots from dry tufts of. T. triandra. All Sporobolus species provide excellent summer grazing ...

  11. Special edition summarizing the scientific discourse which took ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OHCEA membership includes 14 Central and Eastern African Schools of Public Health (7) and Schools of Veterinary Medicine (7); and US partner institutions, The University of Minnesota (UMN) and Tufts University. The overall goal of this collaboration is to enhance One Health policy formation and implementation, ...

  12. "Osmetrichia" in the grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmat, M T; Chamut, S; Black-Decima, P

    1999-12-01

    Osmetrichia have been defined as hairs specialized in the storage of secretions used in olfactory communication between conspecifics (Müller-Schwarze, et al. 1977). These authors found highly specialized osmetrichia in the tarsal gland tufts of black-tailed but not white-tailed deer. Chemical communication appears to be well developed in grey brocket deer: the bucks scent mark by rubbing their foreheads on bushes, and all deer urinate and defecate almost exclusively on dung heaps. Brocket deer also possess tarsal tufts. The purpose of this study was to examine hairs from several glandular areas in this species. Osmetrichia, similar to those found in black tailed deer, were found in tarsal tufts and in interdigital gland hairs; these hairs possessed open scales with deep pockets suitable for holding secretions, in comparison to the flat scales seen on control hairs. Hairs with different morphological characteristics (slightly open scales) were found over the frontal gland. Specialized hairs were not found in the tarsal tufts of one specimen of a related species, the red brocket deer (Mazama americana). The similarities in the hairs of grey brocket and black-tailed deer are remarkable in light of the ecological and behavioral differences between these two species.

  13. Joining Undergraduate Liberal Arts Colleges with a Graduate M.A.T. Program To Implement the Holmes and Carnegie Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Stephen S.

    This paper describes a combined B.A.-M.A.T. program, a project planned jointly by Kenyon College and Tufts University for the recruitment of outstanding liberal arts students who are interested in teaching careers. The program fulfills the requirements for teacher certification at the middle or secondary level in Massachusetts. The program offered…

  14. Aboveground phytomass productivity and morphological variability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diameter (r = 0.670) and tuft height (r = 0.637). Principal components analysis was carried out on all variables. For both dry matter and phenology, individuals differentiated strongly, but irrespective of their accession or eco-geographic origin. Keywords: arid zones, buffelgrass, grassland, Tunisia African Journal of Range ...

  15. The quantification of grazing capacity from grazing — and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relation between rangeland condition and grazing capacity was determined along a degradation gradient. In studying agronomic values of forage species, the average production per tuft was combined with its grazing preferences, to link grazing values for species in the semi-arid grasslands of southern Africa.

  16. Occurrence of Clinical Dermatophilosis in Zero-grazed Dairy Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dermatophilosis was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by isolation of Dermatophilus congolensis in three cows in a herd of seven zero-grazed dairy cattle. The lesions observed were matting together of hair into small tufts (greasy crusts) and discrete circumscribed lesions covered with creamy greasy crusts. The matting ...

  17. A Christian Fellowship's Ban on Gay Leaders Splits 2 Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Reports on conflicts between student religious groups and college nondiscrimination policies concerning homosexuality. Incidents involved the student Christian Fellowship chapters at Tufts University (Massachusetts) and Middlebury College (Vermont). Conflict focuses on freedom of religion versus the institution's right to withhold funding from…

  18. Scalp hair heterochromia in a 5-year-old child: rare somatic mosaicism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Filoni, Angela; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni; Foti, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Scalp hair heterochromia presenting in tufts with no underlying skin changes is rare and can be a sign of somatic mosaicism. We describe the case of a healthy 5-year-old boy with this condition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos; da Silva, Sandro P.; Vasconcelos, Janaina M.; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L. S. G.; Nunes, Marcio R. T.

    2016-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru. PMID:27215299

  20. RCS MEDDH-288 (R1), Annual Progress Report, 1 July 1972 - 30 June 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-07-01

    lifecycle of this parasite. (4) rile hamster and guinea pig react si-ilarly and do not perpetuate the lifecycie. (4) A massive sin[gle dose of 3rd stage of...COMMON NAME) AT--.’U*-:S GFOFIFROYI (SPIDER MIXIXY 11~ 10 1 0 2 CAVIA ?ORCEELILUS ( GUINEA PIG )3 0 3 3 0 CEBUS CLPUCI.NUS (WHITE FACE MONLlKEY) 7 6 1 0 2...Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (V--), yellow fever, 2olivian hexscrihagic fever end other na.ural and experimentally induced diseases in

  1. Pesquisa de anticorpos reativos com antigenos virais da dengue e da febre amarela em sangue de simios de areas urbanas

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Anselmo Nunes Felippe

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Com o objetivo de verificar a existência de anticorpos reativos aos antígenos virais da dengue e da febre amarela no sangue de macacos prego (Cebus apella) cativos no Brasil, procedeu-se a coleta de sangue de 227 animais, oriundos de 17 cidades, (concentradas nas regiões sul e sudeste) de 4 estados do Brasil, no período compreendido entre os anos de 2000 e 2001. Para tanto realizamos o teste de inibição da hemaglutinação e também padronizamos um ELISA indireto utilizando um conjugado ...

  2. Isolation of Madre de Dios Virus (Orthobunyavirus; Bunyaviridae), an Oropouche Virus Species Reassortant, from a Monkey in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Hernandez, Rosa; Auguste, Albert J; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C; Montañez, Humberto; Liria, Jonathan; Lima, Anderson; Travassos da Rosa, Jorge Fernando Soares; da Silva, Sandro P; Vasconcelos, Janaina M; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Vianez, João L S G; Nunes, Marcio R T

    2016-08-03

    Oropouche virus (OROV), genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, is an important cause of human illness in tropical South America. Herein, we report the isolation, complete genome sequence, genetic characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of an OROV species reassortant, Madre de Dios virus (MDDV), obtained from a sick monkey (Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk) collected in a forest near Atapirire, a small rural village located in Anzoategui State, Venezuela. MDDV is one of a growing number of naturally occurring OROV species reassortants isolated in South America and was known previously only from southern Peru. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Pathological interstitial vascular proliferation adjacent to glomeruli in immunoglobulin a nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honami Mori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We detected an increase in small arterioles around glomeruli, particularly adjacent to tuft adhesive lesions in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN, for the 1 st time, as far as we know. We labeled these as periglomerular microarterioles (PGMAs. This study aimed to clarify the pathological significance of PGMAs. Sixty-two patients with IgAN and 19 controls with minor glomerular abnormalities without proteinuria were evaluated in this study. The number of PGMAs located between the Bowman′s capsule and the adjoining tubules was counted for each glomerulus. The mean number of PGMAs per glomerulus in cases of IgAN was significantly higher than those of the controls (0.530 ± 0.477 vs. 0.240 ± 0.182, P <0.05. Serial sections showed that most of the PGMAs were in contact with adjacent glomeruli (71.8%, through tuft adhesive lesions (52.1%, or the vascular pole (19.7%. By single regression analysis, the number of PGMAs was found to be positively correlated with the incidence of glomerular tuft adhesion, glomerular sclerosis, or the area of interstitial fibrosis in IgAN. By multiple regression analysis, the incidence of glomerular tuft adhesion was found to be the only independent pathological feature to correlate with the number of PGMAs (P = 0.0006. We have noticed the existence of PGMAs around glomeruli as a pathological finding of IgAN. Furthermore, the number of PGMAs was associated with the incidence of tuft adhesive lesion in glomeruli of IgAN although there was no relationship between the presence of PGMAs and clinical parameters including urinary protein excretion or creatinine clearance in the present study.

  4. Igreja e italianidade: Rio Grande do Sul (1875-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Possamai

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the position adopted by the catholic clergy concerning the italianità policy among the Italian immigrants in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. While the Carlists protected the Italian nationalism among the colonists and were inclined to a good relationship between the Catholic Church and the Kingdom of Italy, to the Capuchins the italianità was useful to preserve the catholic faith among the colonists, although they also supported the conservative point of view of the Vatican, that the liberal Italian State was the usurper of the papacy lands.

  5. The current status of the New World monkey phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHNEIDER HORACIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Four DNA datasets were combined in tandem (6700 bp and Maximum parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analyses were performed. The results suggest three groups emerging almost at the same time: Atelidae, Pitheciidae and Cebidae. The total analysis strongly supports the monophyly of the Cebidae family, grouping Aotus, Cebus and Saimiri with the small callitrichines. In the callitrichines, the data link Cebuela to Callithrix, place Callimico as a sister group of Callithrix/Cebuella, and show Saguinus to be the earliest offshoot of the callitrichines. In the family Pithecidae, Callicebus is the basal genus. Finally, combined molecular data showed congruent branching in the atelid clade, setting up Alouatta as the basal lineage and Brachyteles-Lagothrix as a sister group and the most derived branch. Two major points remain to be clarified in the platyrrhine phylogeny: (i what is the exact branching pattern of Aotus, Cebus, Saimiri and the small callitrichines, and (ii, which two of these three lineages, pitheciines, atelines or cebids, are more closely related?

  6. The primate community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia): a model to decipher ecological partitioning among extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdarshan, Anusha; Alloing-Séguier, Thomas; Merceron, Gildas; Marivaux, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate significant differences between taxa, but are somewhat insufficient when it comes to discriminating between ecologically similar taxa. The primates of Cachoeira Porteira all incorporate a certain amount of fruit in their diet, entailing a definite amount of inter-specific competition as they must share food resources. Alouatta is the most folivorous taxon of this community, which is corroborated by dental microwear analysis. Ateles, although of a similar size to Alouatta, limits inter-specific competition by incorporating more fruit in its diet. Cebus has a very diverse omnivorous diet, which is highlighted in this study, as it compares to both fruit and leaf eating taxa. In some cases, microwear results need to be supplemented by other methods. For example, dental microwear seems insufficient to distinguish between Pithecia and Chiropotes, which eat foods with similar physical properties. However, other methods (i.e. shearing quotients and body mass) provide enough complimentary information to be able to highlight differences between the two taxa. On the other hand, dental microwear can highlight differences between primates which have similar diets, such as Saimiri and Saguinus. In this case, differences could be due to other exogenous factors.

  7. Dental microwear texture analysis of late Pliocene Procynocephalus subhimalayanus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) of the Upper Siwaliks, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Holmes, Noelle A.

    2012-09-01

    Late Pliocene Procynocephalus subhimalayanus from the Upper Siwaliks, India is known from only three specimens. The dietary proclivities of this taxon have implications for reconstructing the paleoecology of the Upper Siwaliks. The dental microwear texture properties of Procynocephalus are compared to those from extant tropical forest primates including Alouatta palliata (n = 11), Cebus apella (n = 13), Gorilla gorilla (n = 9), Lophocebus albigena (n = 15) and Trachypithecus cristatus (n = 12). Dental microwear textures are generated by scanning the surface enamel of Facet 9 using white-light confocal microscopy at 100x. Four variables were extracted from scale-sensitive fractal analysis, and the data were ranked before ANOVA with post-hoc tests of significance and multivariate analyses were performed. Procynocephalus clusters closest to Lophocebus, Cebus and some Gorilla specimens suggesting hard-object feeding characterized a portion of its diet. The dental microwear texture of Procynocephalus supports interpretations of widespread grasslands of the Late Pliocene Kansal Formation (Pinjor zone). The extreme enamel complexity characterizing Procynocephalus may derive from consumption of underground storage organs, or other foods with high grit loads. Foods consumed near ground level carry a heavy load of abrasive minerals possibly contributing to greater enamel surface complexity and textural fill volume.

  8. Ocorrência de protozoários gastrintestinais em primatas mantidos em cativeiro na região sul do Brasil Occurrence of gastrointestinal protozoa in primates kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar o parasitismo gastrintestinal por protozoários em macacos mantidos em cativeiro na região Sul do Brasil. Foram analisadas amostras de fezes de 18 primatas de quatro espécies, Cebus apella, Macaca mulata, Callithrix jacchus e Callithrix penicillata pelo método de centrífugo flutuação com sulfato de zinco. Nos animais avaliados, foram verificados infecções simples e mistas pelos protozoários dos gêneros Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cystoisospora e Balantidium. Analisando a água oferecida aos primatas foi detectada a presença elevada de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp.This research aimed at evaluating the gastrointestinal parasitism by protozoa in monkeys kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples from 18 primates of the species Cebus apella, Macaca mulata, Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata were analyzed by the zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation method. Simple and mixed infections by protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Cystoisospora and Balantidium were observed. The water offered to the primates had elevated presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp.

  9. Antimicrobial effect of human serum on oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolates from humans and monkeys Atividade antimicrobiana do soro humano sobre isolados de Fusobacterium nucleatum obtidos de humanos e macacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elerson GAETTI-JARDIM JÚNIOR

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of eighty F. nucleatum isolates from periodontal patients, healthy subjects and Cebus apella monkeys to human pooled sera was tested. The resistance to serum bactericidal effects was observed in 46.9% of the isolates from periodontal patients, 28.6% of the healthy subjects and 40% of the monkeys. These results support the hypothesis that serum plays an ecological role by controlling the microbial population inside either the gingival crevice or periodontal pocket.Foi avaliada a susceptibilidade de oitenta isolados de F. nucleatum obtidos de pacientes com doença periodontal, indivíduos sadios e Cebus apella (macaco-prego frente ao soro humano. A resistência à atividade bactericida do soro foi observada em 46,9% das fusobactérias isoladas de pacientes com doença periodontal, 28,6% das obtidas de indivíduos sadios e em 40% das fusobactérias de primatas não humanos. Esses resultados suportam o conceito de que o soro possui um papel ecológico em controlar a população microbiana no interior do sulco gengival ou bolsa periodontal.

  10. Factors affecting breeding dispersal of European ducks on Engure Marsh, Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Lindberg, M.S.; Hines, J.E.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 35 years of capture-recapture data from nearly 3300 individual female ducks nesting on Engure Marsh, Latvia, and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on breeding dispersal probability within the marsh. 2. Analyses based on observed dispersal distances of common pochards and tufted ducks provided no evidence that breeding success in year t influenced dispersal distance between t and t + 1. 3. Breeding dispersal distances (year t to t + 1) of pochards and tufted ducks were associated with a delay in relative nest initiation dates in year t + 1. The delay was greater for pochards (c. 4 days) than for tufted ducks (c. 2 days) when females dispersed > 0.8 km. 4. Northern shovelers and tufted ducks moved from a large island to small islands at low water levels and from small islands to the large island at high water levels before the construction of elevated small islands (1960-82). Following this habitat management (1983-94). breeding fidelity was extremely high and not influenced by water level in the marsh for either species. 5. Because pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period, nesting females moved into and out of colonies with similar probabilities. Local survival probabilities and incubation body masses were higher for both yearlings (SY) and adults (ASY) nesting within gull colonies, suggesting that these females were of better quality than females nesting outside of the colonies. 6. Tufted ducks showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. However, rates of movement for a given water level were higher during the period before management than after. 7. Both pochards and tufted ducks exhibited asymmetric movement with respect to proximity to water, with higher movement probabilities to near-water nesting locations than

  11. Tipe Mating pada Empat Isolat Thanatephorus Cucumeris Anamorf: Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group (AG 1-IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmadi Priyatmojo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Four parent isolates (189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1 of Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IC were induced to produce basidiospores using soil-over culture method. All of four parent isolates could produce basidiospores. Colonies obtained from single basidiospore isolate of each parent isolate were paired on charcoal potato dextrose agar. Single basidiospore isolate having different mating type produced tuft at area of the junction of paired colonies. On the based of tuft formation, single basidiospore isolates of each parent isolate could be divided into two different mating types, therefore it is concluded that each of 189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1 isolate of T. cucumeris AG I-IC has bipolar mating type.

  12. Glomerular changes in trisomy 18-related horseshoe kidney: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Parodo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A case of horseshoe kidney is reported in a 11 week-old fetus affected by trisomy 18. Macroscopic examination did not show any other pathological change. The histological picture of the fused-kidney was characterized by architectural and glomerular changes. At x 100 magnification, large areas of metanephric mesenchyme, characterized by spindle cells surrounded by a loose oedematous stroma, were detected in the deep cortex and in the medulla. At higher power, multiple glomerular changes were observed. Maldeveloped glomeruli showed enlarged capsular spaces, adhesions between vascular tuft and capsular cells, podocytes in multiple layers, and large glomerular bodies formed by two vascular tufts. Our data confirm previous reports on glomerular changes in horseshoe kidney, and reinforce the hypothesis that horseshoe kidney should not be considered a simple fusion problem, but a complex developmental abnormality, possibly involving glomerular development.

  13. Role of golimumab, a TNF-alpha inhibitor, in the treatment of the psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Michelon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Melissa A Michelon1, Alice B Gottlieb1,21Tufts University School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA is an inflammatory arthritis that affects many psoriasis patients and can often have a debilitating disease progression. Golimumab is a new tumor necrosis factor (TNF antagonist recently approved by the FDA for controlling signs and symptoms of psoriatic arthritis. In a Phase III clinical trial in patients with PsA, patients receiving golimumab showed significant improvement in the signs and symptoms of disease. It was usually well tolerated, but adverse events generally occurred more in patients receiving golimumab compared to placebo. Golimumab has also recently shown efficacy in slowing structural damage in PsA. This new biologic therapy provides physicians with another option in the treatment of this inflammatory arthritis while offering patients certain advantages over other TNF antagonists.Keywords: golimumab, psoriatic arthritis, TNF-alpha inhibitor

  14. Radial arrangement of Janus-like setae permits friction control in spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic attachment is the key to move on steep surfaces, with mechanisms being still not well understood. The hunting spider Cupiennius salei (Arachnida, Ctenidae) possesses hairy attachment pads (claw tufts) at its distal legs, consisting of directional branched setae. The morphological investigation revealed that adhesive setae are arranged in a radial manner within the distal tarsus. Friction of claw tufts on smooth glass was measured to reveal the functional effect of seta arrangement within the pad. Measurements revealed frictional anisotropy in both longitudinal and transversal directions. Contact behaviour of adhesive setae was investigated in a reflection interference contrast microscope (RICM). Observations on living spiders showed, that only a small part of the hairy pads is in contact at the same time. Thus the direction of frictional forces is depending on leg placement and rotation. This may aid controlling the attachment to the substrate.

  15. Search for New Phenomena Using W/Z + (b)-Jets Measurements Performed with the ATLAS Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues

    2015-01-01

    The Project proposed to use data of the ATLAS experiment, obtained during the 2011 and 2012 data-taking campaigns, to pursue studies of the strong interaction (QCD) and to examine promising signatures for new physics. The Project also contains a service component dedicated to a detector development initiative. The objective of the strong interaction studies is to determine how various predictions from the main theory (QCD) compare to the data. Results of a set of measurements developed by the Tufts team indicate that the dominant factor of discrepancy between data and QCD predictions come from the mis-modeling of the low energy gluon radiation as described by algorithms called parton showers. The discrepancies introduced by parton showers on LHC predictions could even be larger than the effect due to completely new phenomena (dark matter, supersymmetry, etc.) and could thus block further discoveries at the LHC. Some of the results obtained in the course of this Project also specify how QCD predictions must be improved in order to open the possibility for the discovery of something completely new at the LHC during Run-II. This has been integrated in the Run-II ATLAS physics program. Another objective of Tufts studies of the strong interaction was to determine how the hypothesis about an intrinsic heavy-quark component of the proton (strange, charm or bottom quarks) could be tested at the LHC. This hypothesis has been proposed by theorists 30 years ago and is still controversial. The Tufts team demonstrated that intrinsic charms can be observed, or severely constrained, at the LHC, and determine how the measurement should be performed in order to maximize its sensitivity to such an intrinsic heavy-quark component of the proton. Tufts also embarked on performing the measurement that is in progress, but final results are not yet available. They should shade a light of understanding on the fundamental structure of the proton. Determining the nature of dark matter

  16. Cell renewal of glomerular cell types in normal rats. An autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, R.; Sterzel, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Normal adult Sprague-Dawley rats received either a single or repetitive injection of the DNA precursor 3 H-thymidine ( 3 H-TdR). For autoradiography semi-thin sections were prepared 2 hr to 14 days after labeling. The majority of labeled cells noted in glomerular tufts were endothelial cells. Mesangial cells had a lower production rate. Podocytes revealed no evidence of proliferation. Bowman's capsule cells showed a higher labeling index than tuft cells at all times. Neither the urinary nor the vascular pole was found to be a proliferative zone for Bowman's capsule cells. The flash and repetitive labeling experiments demonstrated a constant rate of cell renewal of about 1% per day, resulting in a long life span for endothelial and mesangial cells as well as Bowman's capsule cells. These data provide a basis for cell kinetic studies in models of glomerular diseases

  17. Biological and molecular characterization of Streptococcus crista strains isolated from human dental biofilm by means of arbitrary primers - PCR (AP-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelini Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus ssp are important components of the dental biofilm and Streptococcus crista is considered to be an interesting model of bacterial interactions taking place in this biofilm. In the present work, S. crista strains were isolated from the dental biofilm of Brazilian individuals and studied with respect to their biological characteristics and their molecular profile by means of AP-PCR techniques, using the RR2, 434, OPR2, OPR8, and OPR13 primers. Results allowed us to build a similarity dendrogram. Analysis of the similarity dendrogram allowed the separation of the studied strains into similarity groups. All isolates presented fibril tufts by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. These isolates were able to bind to salivary amylase and to adhere to mouth epithelial cells. Some strains displaying fibril tufts and positive adherence were not able to co-aggregate with Fusobacterium nucleatum, suggesting that different adhesin groups are present in these strains.

  18. Peripheral retinal degenerations and the risk of retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hilel

    2003-07-01

    To review the degenerative diseases of the peripheral retina in relationship with the risk to develop a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and to present recommendations for use in eyes at increased risk of developing a retinal detachment. Focused literature review and author's clinical experience. Retinal degenerations are common lesions involving the peripheral retina, and most of them are clinically insignificant. Lattice degeneration, degenerative retinoschisis, cystic retinal tufts, and, rarely, zonular traction tufts, can result in a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Therefore, these lesions have been considered for prophylactic therapy; however, adequate studies have not been performed to date. Well-designed, prospective, randomized clinical studies are necessary to determine the benefit-risk ratio of prophylactic treatment. In the meantime, the evidence available suggests that most of the peripheral retinal degenerations should not be treated except in rare, high-risk situations.

  19. [Peripheral retinal degenerations--treatment recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussen, A M; Kirchhof, B

    2004-10-01

    This report reviews the clinical appearance of degenerative diseases of the peripheral retina in relationship to the risk of developing a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. We present recommendations for preventive treatment in eyes at increased risk of developing retinal detachment. Retinal degenerations are common lesions involving the peripheral retina but most of them are clinically insignificant. Lattice degeneration, degenerative retinoschisis, cystic retinal tufts, and very rarely zonular traction tufts can result in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Therefore, these lesions have been considered for prophylactic treatment; however, adequate studies have not been performed to date. Most of the peripheral retinal degenerations may not require treatment except in rare, high-risk situations. According to current knowledge there is no higher incidence of secondary pucker or other side effects after laser coagulation. Therefore, generous laser indication is recommended if risk factors apply.

  20. Vascular anatomy of the pig kidney glomerulus: a qualitative study of corrosion casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B J; Holmes, K R; Xu, L X

    1992-09-01

    Pig kidney glomerular vascular anatomy was studied by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. A generalized vascular architecture is presented to describe the pig kidney glomerulus based upon the observation of 3,800 vascular cast glomeruli. The relative simplicity of the pig glomerular vascular architecture has allowed the characterization of different vascular segments more completely than has been possible in other mammals. Based upon relationships to the afferent arteriole, a nomenclature and definition of primary, secondary, tertiary and anastomotic vessels is proposed for the distributing vessels comprising the glomerular tuft. The existence and formation of a large central hemispheric vessel deep within the confines of a glomerular hemisphere is micrographically documented. Micrographic evidence is presented supporting the formation of the single efferent arteriole by the merging of two central hemispheric vessels within the confines of the glomerular tuft. Failure of the merging of these two vessels may result in multiple efferent arterioles.

  1. A New Tribological Test for Candidate Brush Seal Materials Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellenstein, James A.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700 C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  2. On arthropathic psoriasis: X-ray peculiarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomuto, M; Cammisa, M; Ditano, G

    1984-01-01

    A radiographic study of the hands, using the method of optical enlargement or 'microradioscopy', was carried out on a group of 58 psoriatic patients suffering from different clinical forms of the disease, but without clinical symptoms of arthropathy. A significant statistical incidence for the following lesions was revealed: (a) focal discontinuity and irregularity of the tuft cortical, similar to a nail-stroke; (b) focal lamellar thickening of the periosteum; (c) small intraspongous geodes; (d) increase of the intracortical striae; (e) small juxta-articular erosions. The radiological aspect of the hands, characterized by monolateral and variously combined lesions (with the almost constant presence of the erosions of the tuft cortical) is characteristic, enough to be recognized as a marker of the disease. The authors assume that psoriasis is a systemic disease characterized by accelerated turnover, and that cutaneous and bone lesions represent a different clinical expression of this same biological process.

  3. The role of rasagiline in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Leegwater-Kim, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Julie Leegwater-Kim1, Elena Bortan21Tufts University School of Medicine and Department of Neurology, Lahey Clinic, Burlington, MA, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Lahey Clinic, Burlington, MA, USAAbstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 1% to 2% of people older than 60 years. Treatment of PD consists of symptomatic therapies while neuroprotective strategies have remained elusive. Rasagiline is a novel, potent, and irreversible...

  4. The role of rasagiline in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Leegwater-Kim; Elena Bortan

    2010-01-01

    Julie Leegwater-Kim1, Elena Bortan21Tufts University School of Medicine and Department of Neurology, Lahey Clinic, Burlington, MA, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Lahey Clinic, Burlington, MA, USAAbstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 1% to 2% of people older than 60 years. Treatment of PD consists of symptomatic therapies while neuroprotective strategies have remained elusive. Rasagiline is a novel, potent, and irreversible...

  5. L'ÉGALITÉPOUR LES FEMMES ET LES FILLES L'ACTION DU CRDI

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    Si le talent et l'énergie de la moitié de la population mondiale sont galvaudés, nous en payons tous le prix. Le CRDI a toujours exigé que l'on .... l'Université Tufts estimant que, pour comprendre les économies de guerre et ce sur quoi se fondent ces conflits de même que leur mécanique, il faut abso- lument se pencher sur ...

  6. Physiological Response and Habituation of Endangered Species to Military Training Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Resources Branch. Charles Pekins is a Wildlife Biologist and our primary installation point of contact for coordinating field activities. We would also...experiments. M. Dickens and N. Cyr assisted with hormone assays. J.M. Reed, Tufts University, assisted with corticosterone statistics. This project...Romero 2005, Walker et al. 2006, Cyr and Romero 2007, Dickens et al. 2009) have shown that long-term exposure to stressful stimuli can result in

  7. Providing a Theoretical Basis for Nanotoxicity Risk Analysis Departing from Traditional Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Glomerular Filtration Rate GI Gastrointestinal HA Head-Airways (region of the respiratory tract) KFEF Kidney Filtration Efficiency Factor LAF Liver...contains glomeruli, which are small tufts of blood capillaries. These capillaries have small fenestrations which allow glomerular filtration of blood...into blood or excreted. A particle diameter ɝ.5 nm is the threshold for glomerular filtration , hence the possible removal of nanoparticles through

  8. Diversity of the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium: Characterization of the Woods Hole Culture Collection and Quantification of Field Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Ehren- 6 reich, Sheean Haley, Whitney Krey, Justin Ladner, Naomi Levine, Emily Lorch, Misty Miller, Elizabeth Orchard , Adam Rivers, Emmanuel Vásquez...Island), Carolyn Holl (Georgia Institute of Tech- nology, currently Oceanic Institute), Elizabeth Orchard (WHOI), Jill Sohm (USC), and 7 Angelicque...tufts. Single colonies may also contain a variety of filaments, indicating that they are not 36 clonal and suggesting that colonies may coalesce from

  9. Mécénat ou partenariat : le renforcement des capacités locales lors ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 févr. 2011 ... Aboutissement de trois ans de recherches menées à l'Université Tufts dans le cadre du projet L'humanitarisme et la guerre, Protection ou partenariat porte sur les relations entre les organisations internationales de secours humanitaire et les organismes de la société civile dans les localités en cause.

  10. Foreword/Prólogo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in times of radical socio-cultural and political-economic transition. While the empirical emphasis of this book is on diasporic groups and their experiences with mainly new communication technologies, the topic is embedded in a broader set of questions that inform social sciences today. The book speaks...... to and analyses convergence cultures, community building, transnational connections and processes of identity formation in the midst of these processes and relations" - Thomas Tufte (Foreword)...

  11. Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Noelia Adelina; Tanzola, Ruben Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Necropsy on 15 specimens of white-tufted grebe, Rollandiarolland, caught in the Mar Chiquita and Chascomús lagoons (Buenos Aires province), revealed the presence of Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907). This nematode shows a marked specificity for podicipediform birds. The specimens were identified from morphological study on features such as cephalic and esophageal structures and caudal papillae, using both optical and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first record of C. ovale parasitizing R. rolland in Argentina.

  12. Central Xanthoma of the Jaw Bones: A Benign Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Rawal, Yeshwant B.; Chandra, Srinivasa R.; Hall, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Extragnathic xanthomas are seen in the bones or as soft tissue masses. They are often associated with hyperlipidemia and are considered as reactive or metabolic lesions. Only 19 cases of xanthomas of the jaws have been reported so far in the English literature. A total of ten cases of central xanthoma of the jaw bones were identified from the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology biopsy services of the University of Washington and the Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, between the years 2...

  13. High Reynolds Number Liquid Flow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    25. .n Fig. 25, the dotted line represents data taken from Eckelmann’s study in the thick viscous sublaver of an oil channel. Scatter in the...measurements of the fundamental physical quantities are not only an essencial part in an understanding of multiphase flows but also in the measurement process...technique. One of the most yloei’ used techniques, however, is some form of flow visualization. This includes the use o: tufts, oil paint films

  14. Male dimorphism in Euglossa mandibularis Friese (Apidae, Euglossina)

    OpenAIRE

    Peruquetti, Rui Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Males of Euglossa mandibularis Friese, 1899 can be categorized by (1) presence or (2) absence of scutellar tuft (a morphological feature of dense setae found in females' scutellum of the genera Euglossa Latreille, 1802 and Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841). A multivariate statistical analysis using six morphological measures (hindtibia length and width, head width, intertegular span, midbasitarsus length and scape length) show that males of the categories 1 and 2 were significantly different in relat...

  15. Clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Badowski ME; Perez SE

    2016-01-01

    Melissa E Badowski,1 Sarah E Perez2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Section of Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Infectious Diseases Clinic, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, weight loss has been a common complaint for patients. The use of various definitions defining HIV wasting syndrome has made it difficult to determine its actual prevalence. Despite ...

  16. Kangaroo grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... in Australia (Hayman, 1960) and is often used as a forage species for domestic and wild animals. It is also found in some parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific. It commonly grows in grassland and opens woodland communities. Kangaroo grass is a tufted perennial that can grow up to 1.5 m tall and 0.5 m ...

  17. Olfactory Information Processing in the Drosophila Antennal Lobe : Anything Goes?

    OpenAIRE

    Silbering, Ana F.; Okada, Ryuichi; Ito, Kei; Galizia, Cosmas Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    When an animal smells an odor, olfactory sensory neurons generate an activity pattern across olfactory glomeruli of the first sensory neuropil, the insect antennal lobe or the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Here, several networks of local neurons interact with sensory neurons and with output neurons-insect projection neurons, or vertebrate mitral/tufted cells. The extent and form of information processing taking place in these local networks has been subject of controversy. To investigate the ro...

  18. Economic Feasibility of a Siderostat-fed Liquid Mirror Telescope for Surveillance of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    telescopes ( ELTs ), will have diameters from 20-100 m, and would not be possible without the use of segmented mirrors. On a more modest scale, the SF...1998), The Navy prototype optical interferometer, The Astrophysical Journal , 496, 550. [16] Reynolds, R. J., Tufte, S. L., Haffner, L. M., Jaehnig, K...Telescope ( ELT ), A scientific opportunity; an engineering certainty, In Proceedings of the Backaskog workshop on extremely large telescopes, Vol. 57 of

  19. Posterior Lattice Degeneration Characterized by Spectral Domain Optical Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunath, Varsha; Taha, Mohammed; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To utilize high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the characterization of retinal and vitreal morphological changes overlying posterior lattice degeneration. METHODS: A cross-sectional, retrospective analysis was performed on 13 eyes of 13 nonconsecutive subjects with posterior lattice degeneration seen at the New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center between October 2009 and January 2010. SD-OCT images taken through the region of latti...

  20. Imperial Secrets. Remapping the Mind of Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    infi nitum until a whole day passed, spent with my playing a 167 Carl Jung , Memories, Dreams, Reflections, New York: Vintage Books, 1965, p. 4. 168...metropolitan archetypes like the British Museum, sug- gests the comprehensive nature of imperial intelligence. On one hand, this enterprise may...http://www.perseus. tuft s.edu/cgi-bin/text?doc=Perseus%3Aabo%3 Atlg%2C0526%2C004&query=init Jung , Carl. Memories, Dreams, Refl ections, New York

  1. Description of Micropygomyia brandaoi sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, a fossil phlebotomine from the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dilermando Andrade Filho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The description of Micropygomyia brandaoi, a new species of fossil phlebotomine sand fly, is based on one male specimen obtained from Dominican amber of the Miocene period (20 million years. In this new species, the fifth palpal segment is long, the coxite lacks a setal tuft and the style shows four well-developed spines. This set of characters allowed us to place the new species in the genus Micropygomyia Barretto.

  2. Dynamic computed tomography for the diagnosis of microadenoma, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Toshiaki; Andoh, Kazuo; Ito, Jyusuke

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic CT scan was used to study 20 normal pituitary glands. Eight were examined by means of a coronal dynamic CT scan, and 12, by means of an axial dynamic CT scan. In the anterior lobe, initially the secondary capillary bed (called the ''tuft'' by Bonneville) appeared as a high-density area located in the midline, beneath the upper surface of the anterior lobe. Subsequently, the high-density area located in the secondary capillary bed spread centrifugally into the anterior lobe. Finally, the entire anterior lobe became a homogeneous high-density area. Three patterns of the time-density curve were observed in the anterior lobe. Type 1, observed in the midline, beneath the upper surface of the anterior lobe, was a vascular pattern. It corresponded to the tuft topographically. Compared with the other venous system, the peak of Type 1 was somewhat delayed. This is attributable to the slower circulation in the hypophyseal portal system. Type 2, observed just below the tuft, represented the extravasation of the contrast material in a highly vascular tissue (hypervascular extravasation pattern). Type 3, observed at the bottom of the anterior lobe, represented the extravasation of the contrast material in a less vascular tissue (oligovascular extravasation pattern). The anterior lobe has no blood-brain barrier, and the sinusoid vessels are abundant in the following order: the upper surface of the anterior lobe, the area below the tuft, and the bottom of the anterior lobe. Taking these two facts into account, Type 1 (vascular pattern) is considered to be due to the abundant vascularity of the secondary capillary bed. Type 2 (hypervascular extravasation pattern) results from the extravasation of the contrast material at the site of highly vascular tissue without any blood-brain barrier. Type 3 (oligovascular extravasation pattern) seems to indicate the extravasation of the contrast material at the site of less vascular tissue without any blood-brain barrier. (J.P.N.)

  3. Summer birds in Arkhangai pr ovince, Mongolia, July-August 2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony S. Cheke

    2003-01-01

    A list of breeding birds for Tsetserleg and its surroundings is given for the first time, and additions are noted for the Khor go-T erkhiin Tsagaan Nuur National Park The presence of Eurasian Grif fons and Lammer geiers in the Khangai mountains is confirmed, and Black-headed Gulls suspected of breeding near Tsagaan Nuur , a new locality . An apparent marked increase in breeding/summering numbers of Tufted Duck and Velvet Scoter and a possib...

  4. Skn-1a/Pou2f3 functions as a master regulator to generate Trpm5-expressing chemosensory cells in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Junpei; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Hirota, Junji

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel M5 (Trpm5)-expressing cells, such as sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells in the oropharyngeal epithelium, solitary chemosensory cells in the nasal respiratory epithelium, and tuft cells in the small intestine, that express taste-related genes function as chemosensory cells. Previous studies demonstrated that Skn-1a/Pou2f3, a POU homeodomain transcription factor is expressed in these Trpm5-expressing chemosensory cells, and is necessary for their generatio...

  5. Mitigating the Risk of Environmental Hazards in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    October 10, 2011). Gallagher, Kevin P. Free Trade and the Environment: Mexico , NAFTA , and Beyond. http://www.ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp...Hazards in Mexico 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Terry E...government of Mexico is grappling with vicious cartels, global economic recession, a substantial decline in the country’s known oil reserves, and

  6. Comparative study of periodicity estimation methods using ultrasonic signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Kauati

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Various signal-processing techniques have been proposed to extract quantitative information about internal structures of tissues from the original radio frequency (RF signals instead of an ultrasound image. The quantifiable parameter called the mean scatterer spacing (MSS can be useful to detect changes in the quasi-periodic microstructure of tissues such as the liver or the spleen, using ultrasonic signals. Methods We evaluate and compare the performance of three classic methods of spectral estimation to calculate the MSS without operator intervention: Tufts-Kumaresan, SAC (Spectral Autocorrelation and MUSIC (MUltiple SIgnal Classification. Initially the evaluations were performed with 10,000 signals simulated from a model in which the variables of interest are controlled, and then, real signals from sponge phantoms were used. Results For the simulated signals, the performance of all three methods decreased with increasing Ad or jitter levels. For the sponges, none of the methods accurately estimated the pore size. Conclusion For the simulated signals, Tufts-Kumaresan had the lowest performance, whereas SAC and MUSIC had similar results. For sponges, only Tufts-Kumaresan was able to detect the increase in the size of the pores of the sponge, although most often, it estimated sizes larger than expected.

  7. The impact of wave exposure on the meiofauna of Gelidium pristoides (Turner) Kuetzing (Gelidiales: Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M. J.

    1988-12-01

    The impact of wave exposure on the meiofaunal communities colonising Gelidium pristoides, was examined on five shores around False Bay, South Africa. Under conditions of constant algal structure and mass, and in tufts with similar epiphyte and sediment loads, exposure had a profound impact on meiofaunal communities. Algae on sheltered shores supported significantly greater numbers of animals in the size range 63-280 μm (predominantly copepods, copepod nauplii and ostracods), while those on exposed shores supported a greater number of amphipods and bivalves. Total meiofaunal biomass per tuft remained constant irrespective of shore type. Differences between shores are discussed in terms of algal structure and animal size and morphology. Gelidium tufts are open-plan and offer little resistance to water movement; as the frond diameter is wider than the meiofauna are long, small animals are likely to be flushed more easily from exposed than sheltered shores. Differences in the abundance of permanent meiofauna between shores may, however, reflect ifferences in the organic content of sediments, although this was not examined. It is also suggested that meiofaunal communities on plants from different shores are influenced by the total algal and macrofaunal standing stocks, which act as banks of meiofauna and influence the regularity and magnitude of immigration. Extrapolating these data to the whole shore indicates that while the biomass of meiofauna may be greater on exposed than sheltered shores, the proportional contribution of meiofauna to total secondary production is greater under more sheltered conditions.

  8. The effect of osmocote fertilizers on growth and nutrient status of Carex buchananii Berggr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Henschke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the effect of Osmocote fertilizers on growth and nutrient status of Carex buchananii was conducted in the years 2008–2009. Carex buchananii is a dense-tufted sedge growing up to 60 cm in height, with very narrow, stiff, red, copper and olive colored leaves throughout the season. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in pots with peat substrate for 18 weeks. The differentiating factors included the type of fertilizer, i.e. Exact Standard 16:11:11 and Osmocote Exact High Start 11:11:19, and fertilizer application rates of 2 and 4 g dm−3, the phase of growth, i.e. 1 to 9 weeks and 9 to 18 weeks of culture. The greatest increment in the tuft circumference of C. buchananii was recorded in the first 9 weeks of culture, while that of the fresh weight of aboveground parts – in the period from 9 to 18 weeks. The application of Osmocote Exact High Start at 4 g dm−3 in the culture of C. buchananii resulted in the production of the desired quality of the plants with a greater tuft circumference and shorter leaves. It was shown that best quality plants contained in their aboveground parts the following amounts of macronutrients and sodium (g kg−1: N – 18.9, P – 3.5, K – 37.2, Ca – 5.8, Mg – 3.0, and Na – 0.3.

  9. The regenerative potential of parietal epithelial cells in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katja; Schulte, Kevin; Boor, Peter; Kuppe, Christoph; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we showed that some podocytes in juvenile mice are recruited from cells lining Bowman's capsule, suggesting that parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are a progenitor cell population for podocytes. To investigate whether PECs also replenish podocytes in adult mice, PECs were genetically labeled in an irreversible fashion in 5-week-old mice. No significant increase in labeled podocytes was observed, even after 18 months. To accelerate a potential regenerative mechanism, progressive glomerular hypertrophy was induced by progressive partial nephrectomies. Again, no significant podocyte replenishment was observed. Rather, labeled PECs exclusively invaded segments of the tuft affected by glomerulosclerosis, consistent with our previous findings. We next reassessed PEC recruitment in juvenile mice using a different reporter mouse and confirmed significant recruitment of labeled PECs onto the glomerular tuft. Moreover, some labeled cells on Bowman's capsule expressed podocyte markers, and cells on Bowman's capsule were also directly labeled in juvenile podocyte-specific Pod-rtTA transgenic mice. In 6-week-old mice, however, cells on Bowman's capsule no longer expressed podocyte-specific markers. Similarly, in human kidneys, some cells on Bowman's capsule expressed the podocyte marker synaptopodin from 2 weeks to 2 years of age but not at 7 years of age. In summary, podocyte regeneration from PECs could not be detected in aging mice or models of glomerular hypertrophy. We propose that a small fraction of committed podocytes reside on Bowman's capsule close to the vascular stalk and are recruited onto the glomerular tuft during infancy to adolescence in mice and humans.

  10. "We make the path by walking it": building an academic community partnership with Boston Chinatown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Carolyn Leung; Allukian, Nathan; Wang, Xingyue; Ghosh, Sujata; Huang, Chien-Chi; Wang, Jacy; Brugge, Doug; Wong, John B; Mark, Shirley; Dong, Sherry; Koch-Weser, Susan; Parsons, Susan K; Leslie, Laurel K; Freund, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    The potential for academic community partnerships are challenged in places where there is a history of conflict and mistrust. Addressing Disparities in Asian Populations through Translational Research (ADAPT) represents an academic community partnership between researchers and clinicians from Tufts Medical Center and Tufts University and community partners from Boston Chinatown. Based in principles of community-based participatory research and partnership research, this partnership is seeking to build a trusting relationship between Tufts and Boston Chinatown. This case study aims to provides a narrative story of the development and formation of ADAPT as well as discuss challenges to its future viability. Using case study research tools, this study draws upon a variety of data sources including interviews, program evaluation data and documents. Several contextual factors laid the foundation for ADAPT. Weaving these factors together helped to create synergy and led to ADAPT's formation. In its first year, ADAPT has conducted formative research, piloted an educational program for community partners and held stakeholder forums to build a broad base of support. ADAPT recognizes that long term sustainability requires bringing multiple stakeholders to the table even before a funding opportunity is released and attempting to build a diversified funding base.

  11. The great silk alternative: multiple co-evolution of web loss and sticky hairs in spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-01-01

    Spiders are the most important terrestrial predators among arthropods. Their ecological success is reflected by a high biodiversity and the conquest of nearly every terrestrial habitat. Spiders are closely associated with silk, a material, often seen to be responsible for their great ecological success and gaining high attention in life sciences. However, it is often overlooked that more than half of all Recent spider species have abandoned web building or never developed such an adaptation. These species must have found other, more economic solutions for prey capture and retention, compensating the higher energy costs of increased locomotion activity. Here we show that hairy adhesive pads (scopulae) are closely associated with the convergent evolution of a vagrant life style, resulting in highly diversified lineages of at least, equal importance as the derived web building taxa. Previous studies often highlighted the idea that scopulae have the primary function of assisting locomotion, neglecting the fact that only the distal most pads (claw tufts) are suitable for those purposes. The former observations, that scopulae are used in prey capture, are largely overlooked. Our results suggest the scopulae evolved as a substitute for silk in controlling prey and that the claw tufts are, in most cases, a secondary development. Evolutionary trends towards specialized claw tufts and their composition from a low number of enlarged setae to a dense array of slender ones, as well as the secondary loss of those pads are discussed further. Hypotheses about the origin of the adhesive setae and their diversification throughout evolution are provided.

  12. Habitat, density and group size of primates in a Brazilian tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, L P; Costa, C M; Strier, K B; da Fonseca, G A

    1993-01-01

    Habitats, population densities and group sizes of 5 primate species (Callithrix flaviceps, Callicebus personatus personatus, Cebus apella nigritus, Alouatta fusca clamitans, and Brachyteles arachnoides) were estimated, using the method of repeated transect sampling, in an area of montane pluvial forest in eastern Brazil (Atlantic forest). A. fusca and C. apella had the highest densities in terms of groups and individuals per square kilometer, respectively, while B. arachnoides was least abundant. The highest primate densities were observed in areas of secondary vegetation. Both group sizes and population densities for the 5 species were generally lower at the Reserva Biologica Augusto Ruschi than those reported in other areas of Atlantic forest. Hunting pressure and the different carrying capacity of the habitat are suggested as possible causes for the low number of sightings registered for these species.

  13. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  14. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A

    2002-12-01

    From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  15. Spatiotemporal structure of intracranial electric fields induced by transcranial electric stimulation in humans and nonhuman primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opitz, Alexander; Falchier, Arnaud; Yan, Chao-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial electric stimulation (TES) is an emerging technique, developed to non-invasively modulate brain function. However, the spatiotemporal distribution of the intracranial electric fields induced by TES remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how much current actually...... reaches the brain, and how it distributes across the brain. Lack of this basic information precludes a firm mechanistic understanding of TES effects. In this study we directly measure the spatial and temporal characteristics of the electric field generated by TES using stereotactic EEG (s-EEG) electrode...... arrays implanted in cebus monkeys and surgical epilepsy patients. We found a small frequency dependent decrease (10%) in magnitudes of TES induced potentials and negligible phase shifts over space. Electric field strengths were strongest in superficial brain regions with maximum values of about 0.5 m...

  16. The Effect of Human Development on Mammal Populations of the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Van Hulle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of human development on six diurnal mammal species was studied using transects in the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Puntarenas, Costa Rica during the dry season months of March and April 2006. Individuals/km was recorded for each species in more developed (MD (near paved roads, buildings, construction, or deforested trees and less developed areas (LD (secondary forest. The white-faced apuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus (n = 233, coatimundi (Nasua narica (n = 46, and Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi (n = 36 demonstrated a preference for less-developed habitats. The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus (n = 4, tamandua (Tamandua mexicana (n = 2 and variegated squirrel (Sciurus variegatoides (n = 5 were observed infrequently. White-faced monkeys avoided construction areas, but received artificial food daily in developed areas. Coatimundis also received artificial foods daily and showed aggression towards guests. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 441-449. Epub 2009 June 30.Se estudiaron seis especies de mamíferos mediante transectos durante la estación seca tardía (marzo y abril de 1996 en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre de Punta Leona, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Se registró la cantidad de animales por km en lugares con mucho efecto humano (cerca del caminos pavimentados, edificios, construcción, y deforestación y lugares con menos efecto. El mono carablanca (Cebus capucinus (n = 233, el pizote (Nasua narica (n = 46, y el mono araña centroamericano (Ateles geoffroyi (n = 36 prefirieron lugares con menos efecto. Se observó pocos armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus (n = 4, osos hormigueros (Tamandua mexicana (n = 2, y ardillas (Sciurus variegatoides (n = 5. Los monos carablancas y pizotes aceptan alimentos artificiales y los pizotes fueron agresivos con los turistas. Los carablancas evitan los lugares con construcciones y los caminos pavimentados.

  17. Caracterización del cariotipo del mono aullador colorado Alouatta seniculus que habita en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Olga María

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos cariotipos con bandas Q, G, R Y C del mono aullador colorado de Colombia, con base en el análisis de los cariotipos de 12 ejemplares cautivos y la reevaluación de los cariotipos de bandas Q de un macho y de una hembra publicados (Yunis et al. 1976. Reinterpretamos el mecanismo cromosómico de determinación del sexo y la morfología del cromosoma X de Alouatta seniculus seniculus. Los resultados indican que el cromosoma X es un metacéntrico de tamaño medio (4.85 % TCL similar al cromosoma X de otros primates de los géneros Cebus, Aotus y Ateles estudiados hasta la fecha, así como al cromosoma X humano. Además, los machos portan una translocación entre el cromosoma Y y el autosoma 3, demostrando un mecanismo cromosómico de  determinación del sexo XIXI X2X2 IXIX2 YIY2, diferente del convencional XX I XV. Todos los animales estudiados presentaron un número diploide de 44.This paper presents Q- G- R- and C-bands karyotypes ofred howler from Colombia, based on analyses of karyotypes oftwelve caught specimens besides a female and a male Q banding karyotypes (Yunis et al. 1976 reevaluated. We reappraisal X chromosome morphology and sex determination chromosome mechanism of Alouatta seniculus seniculus. This work shows X chromosome is a nearly metacentric médium sized chromosome (4.85 %TCL, similar to other primates X chromosome from Cebus, Aotus and Ateles genus up to now studied, as well as human X chromosome. Further in males, Y chromosome undergone a translocation onto autosome 3, named X1X2Y1Y2• Al! specimens studied shows 44 chromosomes diploid number.

  18. Wide distribution and ancient evolutionary history of simian foamy viruses in New World primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, Bruno M; Jia, Hongwei; Aiewsakun, Pakorn; Katzourakis, Aris; Mendoza, Patricia; Bausch, Daniel G; Kasper, Matthew R; Montgomery, Joel M; Switzer, William M

    2015-10-29

    Although simian foamy viruses (SFV) are the only exogenous retroviruses to infect New World monkeys (NWMs), little is known about their evolutionary history and epidemiology. Previous reports show distinct SFVs among NWMs but were limited to small numbers of captive or wild monkeys from five (Cebus, Saimiri, Ateles, Alouatta, and Callithrix) of the 15 NWM genera. Other studies also used only PCR testing or serological assays with limited validation and may have missed infection in some species. We developed and validated new serological and PCR assays to determine the prevalence of SFV in blood specimens from a large number of captive NWMs in the US (n = 274) and in captive and wild-caught NWMs (n = 236) in Peruvian zoos, rescue centers, and illegal trade markets. Phylogenetic and co-speciation reconciliation analyses of new SFV polymerase (pol) and host mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences, were performed to infer SFV and host co-evolutionary histories. 124/274 (45.2 %) of NWMs captive in the US and 59/157 (37.5 %) of captive and wild-caught NWMs in Peru were SFV WB-positive representing 11 different genera (Alouatta, Aotus, Ateles, Cacajao, Callithrix, Cebus, Lagothrix, Leontopithecus, Pithecia, Saguinus and Saimiri). Seroprevalences were lower at rescue centers (10/53, 18.9 %) compared to zoos (46/97, 47.4 %) and illegal trade markets (3/7, 8/19, 42.9 %) in Peru. Analyses showed that the trees of NWM hosts and SFVs have remarkably similar topologies at the level of species and sub-populations suggestive of co-speciation. Phylogenetic reconciliation confirmed 12 co-speciation events (p history of SFV in NWMs at the species level. Additional studies are necessary to further explore the epidemiology and natural history of SFV infection of NWMs and to determine the zoonotic potential for persons exposed to infected monkeys in captivity and in the wild.

  19. Genetic diversity of oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from patients with different clinical conditions Diversidade genética de Fusobacterium nucleatum orais isolados de pacientes com diferentes condições clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Avila-Campos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 23 oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from 15 periodontal patients, eight from seven healthy subjects, nine from nine AIDS patients and two from two Cebus apella monkeys were analyzed. EcoRI restricted the bacterial DNA and 28 ribotypes grouped from A to J groups were obtained. Isolates formed 24 ribotypes which were contained into A, B, C, D, E and F groups, and three reference strains and two clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans, and E. coli CDC formed four different ribotypes into the G, H, I and J groups. Moreover, from nine F. nucleatum from AIDS patients, six were ribotyped as group C and three as group D. By using ribotyping we distinguished F. nucleatum recovered from different sources. It is possible that isolates from AIDS patients may contain some phenotypic or genotypic factor did not observed in this study.Neste estudo foi avaliada a diversidade genética de 23 amostras de Fusobacterium nucleatum isoladas da cavidade bucal de 15 pacientes com doença periodontal, de oito cepas isoladas de sete indivíduos sadios, de nove isoladas de nove pacientes com AIDS e de duas isoladas de dois macacos Cebus apella. Pela ação da enzima EcoRI sobre o DNA bacteriano foram reconhecidos 28 ribotipos agrupados de A a J. Os isolados testados formaram 24 ribotipos os quais foram contidos nos grupos A, B, C, D, E e F, e as três cepas de referência e dois isolados clínicos de A. actinomycetemcomitans e E. coli CDC formaram quatro diferentes ribotipos contidos nos grupos G, H, I e J. Em adição, as nove cepas de F. nucleatum isoladas de pacientes com AIDS, seis pertenciam ao grupo C e três ao grupo D. Usando-se a ribotipagem foi possível distinguir F. nucleatum isolados de diferentes origens.

  20. Enamel microwear texture properties of IGF 11778 (Oreopithecus bambolii) from the late Miocene of Baccinello, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L' Engle Williams, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Late Miocene Oreopithecus bambolii has been posited as a folivore from its pronounced molar shearing crests. However, scanning electron microscopy yields conflicting results with one study of Oreopithecus showing folivory and another indicating a coarser diet was consumed. To address this debate, the dietary proclivities of the well-known IGF 11778 Oreopithecus bambolii specimen are reconstructed by comparing the enamel texture properties of this specimen to extant Alouatta palliata (n = 11), Cebus apella (n = 13), Gorilla gorilla (n = 9), Lophocebus albigena (n = 15), Pan troglodytes (n = 17) and Trachypithecus cristatus (n = 12). Dental microwear is captured by scanning facet 9, a Phase II facet on the hypoconid surface, using white-light confocal microscopy at 100x. The scanning was followed by scale-sensitive fractal analysis, yielding four texture characteristics. These were ranked before ANOVA with post-hoc tests of significance and multivariate analyses were conducted. Oreopithecus specimen IGF 11778 does not match any of the extant taxa consistently but in some analyses is associated with Lophocebus, and secondarily with Pan, Gorilla and Cebus outliers suggesting mixed-fruit and hard-object feeding characterized at least a portion of its diet. The partially open habitat of late Miocene Baccinello may have had resources with mechanically resistant foods, or foods found near ground level were consumed. Hard, brittle foods, insects, and or extraneous grit may have contributed to the greater use-wear complexity of the enamel surface observed in IGF 11778 compared to extant folivores. IGF 11778 does not exhibit the degree of anisotropy characterizing Trachypithecus and Alouatta. The partial resemblance of IGF 11778 to some great ape specimens may indicate intermittent extractive and or terrestrial foraging.

  1. A census of mammal populations in Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica

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    Joshua Timock

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Population sizes of six mammal species were estimated using the King method during the late dry season (March of 1996 in the Punta Leona Private Wildlife Refuge, Costa Rica. The white-faced monkey (Cebus capucinus, coati (Nasua narica and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus with 148, 46, and 8 sighted individuals, respectively, demonstrated the largest populations in the refuge. The Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi, tamandua anteater (Tamandua mexicana, and variegated squirrel (Sciurus variegatoides were also included in the census. Population densities are calculated, habitat types are describes, and habitat use and activity periods are discussed.Se estimó el tamaño poblacional de seis especies de mamíferos, usando el método de King, durante la estación seca tardía (marzo de 1996 en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre de Punta Leona, Costa Rica. El mono carablanca (Cebus capucinus, el pizote (Nasua narica y el armadillo de 9 bandas (Dasypus novecinctus presentaron las poblaciones más grandes en el refugio, con 148, 46, y 8 observaciones respectivamente. El mono araña centroamericano (Ateles geoffroyi, el tamandúa hormiguero (Tamandua mexicana y la ardilla (Sciurus variegatoides también se tomaron en cuenta durante el censo. Además se calculan las densidades poblacionales, se describen los tipos de hábitat y se discute el uso de estos, así como los periodos de actividad de las especies encontradas.

  2. Primate community of the tropical rain forests of Saracá-Taqüera National Forest, Pará, Brazil

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    LC. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Brazil is the richest country in the world in terms of primate species and the Amazonian rain forest is one of the richest biomes containing 15 (ca. 90% of the Neotropical primate genera. Although considered key elements in conservation strategies, there is only anecdotal information on primates for several protected areas within the region. Here we present new data on the community composition of the primates in the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest (429,600 ha, an actively mined, bauxite rich area, in Pará, Brazil. We used information from the literature, technical reports, museum data, and interviews conducted with agents from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Natural Renewable Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA and members of the local "Quilombo" community. In addition, from July 2003 to June 2007, we carried out 19 field trips ranging from 10 to15 days each, amounting to a total effort of 1,230 hours and 1,420 km of censuses, resulting in 1,034 records of eight primate species (Saguinus martinsi, Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Pithecia pithecia, Chiropotes sagulatus, Ateles paniscus, and Alouatta macconelli. Two other species (Cebus olivaceus and Aotus trivirgatus were recorded only indirectly, through interviews and literature data. In all, Alouatta macconelli was the most frequently recorded species (43% of all records; while Saguinus midas and P. pithecia were the least (ca. 0.4 and 0.6% of all records. Based on our results, we discuss group sizes as well as taxonomic problems concerning the genera Pithecia and Chiropotes, for which we registered individuals displaying phenotypic geographical variation and two different forms, respectively. Despite the deforestation inherent in bauxite mining, the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest still has a remarkable richness of primate species. Our study results place this National Forest amongst the richest

  3. Primate community of the tropical rain forests of Saracá-Taqüera National Forest, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L C; Loretto, D; Viana, L R; Silva, J S; Fernandes, W G

    2009-11-01

    Brazil is the richest country in the world in terms of primate species and the Amazonian rain forest is one of the richest biomes containing 15 (ca. 90%) of the Neotropical primate genera. Although considered key elements in conservation strategies, there is only anecdotal information on primates for several protected areas within the region. Here we present new data on the community composition of the primates in the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest (429,600 ha), an actively mined, bauxite rich area, in Pará, Brazil. We used information from the literature, technical reports, museum data, and interviews conducted with agents from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Natural Renewable Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA) and members of the local 'Quilombo' community. In addition, from July 2003 to June 2007, we carried out 19 field trips ranging from 10 to15 days each, amounting to a total effort of 1,230 hours and 1,420 km of censuses, resulting in 1,034 records of eight primate species (Saguinus martinsi, Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Pithecia pithecia, Chiropotes sagulatus, Ateles paniscus, and Alouatta macconelli). Two other species (Cebus olivaceus and Aotus trivirgatus) were recorded only indirectly, through interviews and literature data. In all, Alouatta macconelli was the most frequently recorded species (43% of all records); while Saguinus midas and P. pithecia were the least (ca. 0.4 and 0.6% of all records). Based on our results, we discuss group sizes as well as taxonomic problems concerning the genera Pithecia and Chiropotes, for which we registered individuals displaying phenotypic geographical variation and two different forms, respectively. Despite the deforestation inherent in bauxite mining, the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest still has a remarkable richness of primate species. Our study results place this National Forest amongst the richest reserves, in terms

  4. An experimental analysis of memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A

    2007-11-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained and tested in visual and auditory list-memory tasks with sequences of four travel pictures or four natural/environmental sounds followed by single test items. Acquisitions of the visual list-memory task are presented. Visual recency (last item) memory diminished with retention delay, and primacy (first item) memory strengthened. Capuchin monkeys, pigeons, and humans showed similar visual-memory changes. Rhesus learned an auditory memory task and showed octave generalization for some lists of notes--tonal, but not atonal, musical passages. In contrast with visual list memory, auditory primacy memory diminished with delay and auditory recency memory strengthened. Manipulations of interitem intervals, list length, and item presentation frequency revealed proactive and retroactive inhibition among items of individual auditory lists. Repeating visual items from prior lists produced interference (on nonmatching tests) revealing how far back memory extended. The possibility of using the interference function to separate familiarity vs. recollective memory processing is discussed.

  5. Abstract Knowledge in the Broken-String Problem: Evidence from Nonhuman Primates and Pre-Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Carolina; Call, Josep; Albiach-Serrano, Anna; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Sabbatini, Gloria; Seed, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    There is still large controversy about whether abstract knowledge of physical problems is uniquely human. We presented 9 capuchin monkeys, 6 bonobos, 6 chimpanzees and 48 children with two versions of a broken-string problem. In the standard condition, participants had to choose between an intact and a broken string as means to a reward. In the critical condition, the functional parts of the strings were covered up and replaced by perceptually similar, but non-functional cues. Apes, monkeys and young children performed significantly better in the standard condition in which the cues played a functional role, indicating knowledge of the functional properties involved. Moreover, a control experiment with chimpanzees and young children ruled out that this difference in performance could be accounted for by differences of perceptual feedback in the two conditions. We suggest that, similar to humans, nonhuman primates partly rely on abstract concepts in physical problem-solving. PMID:25272161

  6. Responses to the Assurance game in monkeys, apes, and humans using equivalent procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Parrish, Audrey; Beran, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    There is great interest in the evolution of economic behavior. In typical studies, species are asked to play one of a series of economic games, derived from game theory, and their responses are compared. The advantage of this approach is the relative level of consistency and control that emerges...... from the games themselves; however, in the typical experiment, procedures and conditions differ widely, particularly between humans and other species. Thus, in the current study, we investigated how three primate species, capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees, and humans, played the Assurance (or Stag Hunt......) game using procedures that were, to the best of our ability, the same across species, particularly with respect to training and pretesting. Our goal was to determine what, if any, differences existed in the ways in which these species made decisions in this game. We hypothesized differences along...

  7. A modular mind? A test using individual data from seven primate species.

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    Federica Amici

    Full Text Available It has long been debated whether the mind consists of specialized and independently evolving modules, or whether and to what extent a general factor accounts for the variance in performance across different cognitive domains. In this study, we used a hierarchical Bayesian model to re-analyse individual level data collected on seven primate species (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, gorillas, spider monkeys, brown capuchin monkeys and long-tailed macaques across 17 tasks within four domains (inhibition, memory, transposition and support. Our modelling approach evidenced the existence of both a domain-specific factor and a species factor, each accounting for the same amount (17% of the observed variance. In contrast, inter-individual differences played a minimal role. These results support the hypothesis that the mind of primates is (at least partially modular, with domain-specific cognitive skills undergoing different evolutionary pressures in different species in response to specific ecological and social demands.

  8. San Felipe de Jesús o las Capuchinas: un convento olvidado

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    Alejandro Tonatiuh Romero Contreras

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ancient Mexico city existed a little poor nun convent between La Celada and Acequia Real streets (now called Venustiano Carranza and 16 de Septiembre, respectively. Due to its total disappearance and the few documents about it, this convent is perhaps the less studied of all those that existed in the colony’s capital. This paper shows a part of the social history of the Capuchin order, as well as the architectonic and artistic evolution of this colonial jewel. Data was obtained from the colony’s archives and some other written sources (from the XVII c. until its disappearance in the second part of the XIX c.. The high price of the land is considered the cause of the convent’s demolition.

  9. BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTION OF Sapajus nigritus (GOLDFUSS, 1809 RAISED IN CAPTIVITY AT IPATINGA, MG

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    Felipe Santana Machado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of animals in captivity is one of the many ways of species preservation and allows studies that are often unattainable under natural conditions. Primate’s behavior and ecology studies supply tools for the development of conservation and management strategies. Consequently, the current research aimed to describe the patterns of behavior of a capuchin monkey, Sapajus nigritus, group raised in captivity at the Biodiversity Center of Associação Esportiva e Recreativa at Ipatinga, MG, Brazil. The Scan Sample was used with five minutes intervals. Ad libitum and Focal Animal were the complementary sampling. Twenty-three behavioral categories were recorded; this is considered average when compared to other ethograms. The behavioral class with greater prominence was foraging, however the different categories of behavior suggest a complex capacity of intra-specific interaction. The information serves as basic tools for the formulation of conservation strategies, management and to the comprehension of ecological interactions.

  10. Multidetector CT investigation of the mummy of Rosalia Lombardo (1918-1920).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Gill-Frerking, Heather; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Zink, Albert R; Piombino-Mascali, Dario

    2013-10-01

    Whole-body multidetector computed tomography (CT) was performed on the mummified corpse of two-year-old Rosalia Lombardo, an anthropogenic mummy displayed in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, Italy. Rosalia Lombardo reportedly died of bronchopneumonia in 1920 and was preserved by the embalmer and taxidermist Alfredo Salafia with a formaldehyde-based fluid. Rosalia Lombardo's body is still exhibited in the Capuchin Catacombs inside the original glass-topped coffin in which she was placed. Only her head is visible: the rest of her body is covered by a sheet. CT images of Rosalia's body within her coffin were of reduced quality because of distinct metal artifacts caused by the coffin itself. Nevertheless, a detailed radiological analysis was possible for most of the body. Analysis of the data from the CT examination revealed indicators for the historically-reported endovasal and intracavity treatment. Rosalia's entire body was preserved in a remarkable state. The exceptional preservation of her internal organs made it possible to consider a radiological diagnosis of pneumonia. For this study, CT was determined to be the ultimate method for investigation, since Rosalia's body had to be kept untouched in her sealed coffin for conservation purposes. The CT examination offered new insights into the current preservation status of the body, and the superior contrast of CT allowed detailed assessment of different tissues. Post-processing methods provided reconstructions on any desired plane, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction, for the best possible visualization and interpretation of the body. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and characterization of highly divergent simian foamy viruses in a wide range of new world primates from Brazil.

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    Cláudia P Muniz

    Full Text Available Foamy viruses naturally infect a wide range of mammals, including Old World (OWP and New World primates (NWP, which are collectively called simian foamy viruses (SFV. While NWP species in Central and South America are highly diverse, only SFV from captive marmoset, spider monkey, and squirrel monkey have been genetically characterized and the molecular epidemiology of SFV infection in NWPs remains unknown. We tested a large collection of genomic DNA (n = 332 comprising 14 genera of NWP species for the presence of SFV polymerase (pol sequences using generic PCR primers. Further molecular characterization of positive samples was carried out by LTR-gag and larger pol sequence analysis. We identified novel SFVs infecting nine NWP genera. Prevalence rates varied between 14-30% in different species for which at least 10 specimens were tested. High SFV genetic diversity among NWP up to 50% in LTR-gag and 40% in pol was revealed by intragenus and intrafamilial comparisons. Two different SFV strains infecting two captive yellow-breasted capuchins did not group in species-specific lineages but rather clustered with SFVs from marmoset and spider monkeys, indicating independent cross-species transmission events. We describe the first SFV epidemiology study of NWP, and the first evidence of SFV infection in wild NWPs. We also document a wide distribution of distinct SFVs in 14 NWP genera, including two novel co-speciating SFVs in capuchins and howler monkeys, suggestive of an ancient evolutionary history in NWPs for at least 28 million years. A high SFV genetic diversity was seen among NWP, yet these viruses seem able to jump between NWP species and even genera. Our results raise concerns for the risk of zoonotic transmission of NWP SFV to humans as these primates are regularly hunted for food or kept as pets in forest regions of South America.

  12. Impact of chronodisruption during primate pregnancy on the maternal and newborn temperature rhythms.

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    María Serón-Ferré

    Full Text Available Disruption of the maternal environment during pregnancy is a key contributor to offspring diseases that develop in adult life. To explore the impact of chronodisruption during pregnancy in primates, we exposed pregnant capuchin monkeys to constant light (eliminating the maternal melatonin rhythm from the last third of gestation to term. Maternal temperature and activity circadian rhythms were assessed as well as the newborn temperature rhythm. Additionally we studied the effect of daily maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy on these rhythms. Ten pregnant capuchin monkeys were exposed to constant light from 60% of gestation to term. Five received a daily oral dose of melatonin (250 µg kg/body weight at 1800 h (LL+Mel and the other five a placebo (LL. Six additional pregnant females were maintained in a 14∶10 light:dark cycles and their newborns were used as controls (LD. Rhythms were recorded 96 h before delivery in the mother and at 4-6 days of age in the newborn. Exposure to constant light had no effect on the maternal body temperature rhythm however it delayed the acrophase of the activity rhythm. Neither rhythm was affected by melatonin replacement. In contrast, maternal exposure to constant light affected the newborn body temperature rhythm. This rhythm was entrained in control newborns whereas LL newborns showed a random distribution of the acrophases over 24-h. In addition, mean temperature was decreased (34.0±0.6 vs 36.1±0.2°C, in LL and control, respectively P<0.05. Maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy re-synchronized the acrophases and restored mean temperature to the values in control newborns. Our findings demonstrate that prenatal melatonin is a Zeitgeber for the newborn temperature rhythm and supports normal body temperature maintenance. Altogether these prenatal melatonin effects highlight the physiological importance of the maternal melatonin rhythm during pregnancy for the newborn primate.

  13. Impact of carpet construction on fluid penetration: The case of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chengcheng; Michielsen, Stephen; Attinger, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Bloodstains and bloodstain patterns are often observed at crime scenes and their analysis through bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) can assist in reconstructing crime scenes. However, most published work related to BPA only deals with hard, non-porous surfaces and none of the studies have carefully characterized carpets. Soft and porous carpets are often encountered at crime scenes since they are common in American homes accounting for 51% of total U.S. flooring market; this has motivated the research described herein. To assess fluid penetration into tufted carpers, a new method for determining porosity and pore size distribution in tufted carpets has been developed for bloodstains on carpet. In this study, three kinds of nylon carpet were used: a low, a medium and a high face-weight carpet. Each carpet had an antistain treatment, which was removed from half of each carpet by steam-cleaning with a pH 12 NaOH solution. This resulted in six carpet samples. Yarn twist, carpet weight, pile height, water contact angles on carpets, water contact angles on individual fibers, and fiber cross-sectional shapes were characterized. Porosity and pore size distribution were analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Porcine blood was used as a human blood substitute at three liquid volumes (30μL, 10μL, and 2μL). Analysis showed that porous carpet construction and antistain finishing both affected penetration. The depth of blood penetration decreased with the increase of carpet face-weight but increased with increased drop height. The removal of antistain treatment increased blood penetration into the carpets and changed the pore size distribution. Effects of antistain treatment, porosity and pore size distribution of tufted carpet, and blood wicking behaviors on carpets were found to strongly affect blood penetration into the carpets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Energetic costs of surface swimming and diving of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, P J

    2000-01-01

    The energetic costs of swimming at the surface (swimming) and swimming underwater (diving) are compared in tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and three species of penguins, the gentoo (Pygoscelis papua), the king (Aptenodytes patagonicus), and the emperor (Aythya forsteri). Ducks swim on the surface and use their webbed feet as paddles, whereas penguins tend to swim just below the surface and use their flippers as hydrofoils, the latter being much more efficient. Penguins are more streamlined in shape. Thus, the amount of energy required to transport a given mass of bird a given distance (known as the cost of transport) is some two to three times greater in ducks than in penguins. Ducks are also very buoyant, and overcoming the force of buoyancy accounts for 60% and 85% of the cost of descent and remaining on the bottom, respectively, in these birds. The energy cost of a tufted duck diving to about 1.7 m is similar to that when it is swimming at its maximum sustainable speed at the surface (i.e., approximately 3.5 times the value when resting on water). Nonetheless, because of the relatively short duration of its dives, the tufted duck dives well within its calculated aerobic dive limit (cADL, usable O(2) stores per rate of O(2) usage when underwater). However, these three species of penguins have maximum dive durations ranging from 5 min to almost 16 min and maximum dive depths from 155 to 530 m. When these birds dive, they have to metabolise at no more than when resting in water in order for cADL to encompass the duration of most of their natural dives. In gentoo and king penguins, there is a fall in abdominal temperature during bouts of diving; this may reduce the oxygen requirements in the abdominal region, thus enabling dive duration to be extended further than would otherwise be the case.

  15. Steady-state dynamics and experience-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines of layer 4/5a pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Miquelajauregui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steady state dynamics and experience-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines of layer (L 2/3 and L5B cortical pyramidal neurons have recently been assessed using in vivo two-photon microscopy (Trachtenberg et al., 2002; Zuo et al., 2005; Holtmaat et al., 2006. In contrast, not much is known about spine dynamics in L4/5a neurons, regarded as direct recipients of thalamocortical input (Constantinople and Bruno, 2013. In the adult mouse somatosensory cortex (SCx, the transcription factor Ebf2 is enriched in excitatory neurons of L4/5a, including pyramidal neurons. We assessed the molecular and electrophysiological properties of these neurons as well as the morphology of their apical tufts (Scholl analysis and cortical outputs (optogenetics within the SCx. To test the hypothesis that L4/5a pyramidal neurons play an important role in sensory processing (given their key laminar position; soma depth ~450-480 µm, we successfully labeled them in Ebf2-Cre mice with EGFP by expressing recombinant rAAV vectors in utero. Using longitudinal in vivo two-photon microscopy through a craniotomy (Mostany and Portera-Cailliau, 2008, we repeatedly imaged spines in apical dendritic tufts of L4/5a neurons under basal conditions and after sensory deprivation. Under steady-state conditions in adults, the morphology of the apical tufts and the mean spine density were stable at 0.39 ± 0.05 spines/μm (comparable to L5B, Mostany et al., 2011. Interestingly, spine elimination increases 4-8 days after sensory deprivation, probably due to input loss. This suggests that Ebf2+ L4/5a neurons could be involved in early steps of processing of thalamocortical information.

  16. Contribution of glomerular morphometry to the diagnosis of pediatric nephropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barreto Marini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies describe histopathological changes in renal biopsies performed in pediatric patients. This study was conducted to identify an association between morphometric data in renal biopsies and renal function of these patients. Fifty-nine individuals with ages between 2 and 18 years old were selected, who were divided into six groups consisting of frequent nephropathies in children and adolescents and one control group. Proteinuria, urea, and creatinine values of the patients were recorded. Interactive image analysis software Leica QWin[®]was used for morpho- metric analysis of Bowman′s capsule, glomerular capillary tuft, and Bowman′s space area. The mean glomerular tuft area was higher in the membranous glomerulopathy group than in the podo- cytopathy group (57,101 ± 25,094 vs. 27,420 c ± 6279 µm2; P <0.05. The median of Bowman′s space area was higher in the control group than in the podocytopathy group and in the thin basement membrane/Alport syndrome group [12,210 (7676-26,945 vs. 5801 (3031-7852 µm2; P <0.01 and 12210 (7676-26,945 vs. 4183 (3797-7992 µm2; P <0.01, respectively]. There was a positive and significant correlation between Bowman′s capsule area and the levels of proteinuria, creatinine, and urea of the patients, as well as between the glomerular tuft area and the levels of proteinuria, creatinine, and urea in the patients, regardless of their nephropathy. Glomerular morphometry may contribute to the diagnosis of some glomerulopathies and the association between glomerular morphometric parameters, and laboratory data may promote a better understanding of the prognosis of these patients.

  17. Podocyte and Parietal Epithelial Cell Interactions in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hussain, Turki; Al Mana, Hadeel; Hussein, Maged H; Akhtar, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The glomerulus has 3 resident cells namely mesangial cells that produce the mesangial matrix, endothelial cells that line the glomerular capillaries, and podocytes that cover the outer surface of the glomerular basement membrane. Parietal epithelial cells (PrECs), which line the Bowman's capsule are not part of the glomerular tuft but may have an important role in the normal function of the glomerulus. A significant progress has been made in recent years regarding our understanding of the role and function of these cells in normal kidney and in kidneys with various types of glomerulopathy. In crescentic glomerulonephritis necrotizing injury of the glomerular tuft results in activation and leakage of fibrinogen which provides the trigger for excessive proliferation of PrECs giving rise to glomerular crescents. In cases of collapsing glomerulopathy, podocyte injury causes collapse of the glomerular capillaries and activation and proliferation of PrECs, which accumulate within the urinary space in the form of pseudocrescents. Many of the noninflammatory glomerular lesions such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and global glomerulosclerosis also result from podocyte injury which causes variable loss of podocytes. In these cases podocyte injury leads to activation of PrECs that extend on to the glomerular tuft where they cause segmental and/or global sclerosis by producing excess matrix, resulting in obliteration of the capillary lumina. In diabetic nephropathy, in addition to increased matrix production in the mesangium and glomerular basement membranes, increased loss of podocytes is an important determinant of long-term prognosis. Contrary to prior belief there is no convincing evidence for an active podocyte proliferation in any of the above mentioned glomerulopathies.

  18. Real-world outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    When working with discourse-based research in professional settings, one question invariably arises: How do we, as researchers, ensure that our findings are taken up by the professionals with whom analyses are carried out, leading to reflections on or even change in their social practices...... meeting. References Erickson, Frederick and Jeffrey Schultz. 1982. The Counsellor as Gatekeeper: Social Interaction in Interviews. New York: Academic Press. Nørreklit, Lennart, Stig L. Pedersen, Bo Prangsgaard and Kristian Tuft. 1987. Aktørsmetoden: En Indføring i Erhvervsøkonomisk Projektarbejde. Aalborg...

  19. The glomerulus: the sphere of influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Martin R; Quaggin, Susan E; Hoenig, Melanie P; Dworkin, Lance D

    2014-08-07

    The glomerulus, the filtering unit of the kidney, is a unique bundle of capillaries lined by delicate fenestrated endothelia, a complex mesh of proteins that serve as the glomerular basement membrane and specialized visceral epithelial cells that form the slit diaphragms between interdigitating foot processes. Taken together, this arrangement allows continuous filtration of the plasma volume. The dynamic physical forces that determine the single nephron glomerular filtration are considered. In addition, new insights into the cellular and molecular components of the glomerular tuft and their contribution to glomerular disorders are explored. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Adaptive Search through Constraint Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Carra atum o ComPam Som Sinwm PA 19312 MDM Wus=. Ruwrc C~m Tuft Unnowmq User Imfam ImNma. M~o MA OXUS Dr. Gwsoau S~s FAo am- 0 Dwoum t fCmma Ss Yonbowe...jaiia Tarno. Ornist M$S IM4 CANADA BOIS 65 Dr. Dlk Orpa nomYat0014 A#mirmo Rmm& Dr. 1"m P. Hoaiums nFakK Dqsm oa mamw at Delaa atum fP~x &fwo NLNDIIM r

  1. Summer birds in Arkhangai pr ovince, Mongolia, July-August 2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Cheke

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A list of breeding birds for Tsetserleg and its surroundings is given for the first time, and additions are noted for the Khor go-T erkhiin Tsagaan Nuur National Park The presence of Eurasian Grif fons and Lammer geiers in the Khangai mountains is confirmed, and Black-headed Gulls suspected of breeding near Tsagaan Nuur , a new locality . An apparent marked increase in breeding/summering numbers of Tufted Duck and Velvet Scoter and a possible range expansion of Daurian Redstarts was noted. Mass mortality was observed in House Sparrows from eating moths.

  2. Para-aortic lymph node radiation in advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emami, B.; Watring, W.G.; Tak, W.; Anderson, B.; Piro, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix and with iliac or para-aortic nodes interpreted as un-equivocally positive on lymphangiography have received radiation therapy to the para-aortic area at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology at Tufts-New England Medical Center Hospital. Of 29 patients who received para-aortic area irradiation as part of their initial treatment, local control was achieved in 18 patients (62%). Overall, four patients developed major complications requiring surgical intervention. Detailed results and our current pre-treatment evaluation policy including lymphangiography, percutaneous needle biopsy and selective extra-peritoneal lymph node biopsy will be discussed

  3. Radiation therapy of malignant melanomas: an evaluation of clinically used fractionation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, A.; Dritschilo, A.; Nathanson, L.; Piro, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the importance of radiation dose fraction size in the treatment of malignant melanomas, the records of 48 patients (83 sites) treated at Tufts-New England Medical Center from 1971 to 1979 have been retrospectively reviewed. During this period, the dose fractionation schemes evolved from standard fraction size to large-dose techniques. Radiation fraction size was observed to be the major factor in the clinical response of melanoma. Fractions of 600-800 rad resulted in the best overall response (80%). The rapid fractionation scheme of 800-400-400 rad on successive days resulted in intermediate response (58%) and may be useful for the palliative treatment of selected patients

  4. [Aythya fuligula--new host for Retinometra pittalugai Lopez-Neyra, 1932 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) recorded in Poland for the first time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kornyushin, Vadim V

    2008-01-01

    During standard parasitological studies of the tufted duck Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus, 1758), obtained from fishermen from West Pomerania, three cestode specimens were found in the jejunum of hosts. They were determined as Retinometra pittalugai (Lopez-Neyra, 1932) on the basis of the cirrus's size, shape of stylet and rostellar hooks. This is the first record of this species in Poland, since this parasite was earlier recorded only in Anas platyrhynchos f. dom., Aythya marila, A. ferina and Bucephala clangula in Spain, in Kamchatka and in Novosibirsk.

  5. Establishment of a new genus for Abraximorpha heringi and A. pieridoides (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae: Tagiadini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen-Fu; Chiba, Hideyuki; Wang, Min; Fan, Xiao-Ling

    2016-10-04

    A new hesperiid genus, Albiphasma gen. nov., is described with Abraximorpha heringi as the type species. The new genus consists of two species: Al. heringi comb. nov. and Al. pieridoides comb. nov. The genitalia and hair tuft on the hind tibiae suggest that the new genus is related to the genus Pintara rather than the genus Abraximorpha to which the two species have been assigned. The geographic distribution is currently restricted to southern China and Vietnam. The adult, hind leg, wing venation and male genitalia of Al. heringi as well as relevant species are illustrated.

  6. Afghanistan and Pakistan Reconstruction Opportunity Zones (ROZs), H.R. 1318/H.R. 1886/H.R. 2410 and S. 496: Issues and Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-09

    cotton dish towels 6,845,300 9.2 629,768 6302.91.0050 cotton woven towels 6,115,458 9.2 562,622 6302.32.2040 man-made fiber bed linens 6,072,055 11.4...more ROZs; (2) the article is yarn, thread, twine, cordage, rope, cable, or braiding, and the fibers are spun in or extruded in one or more ROZs; (3...the article is a fabric and the fibers , filaments, or yarns are woven, knitted, needled, tufted, felted, entangled, or transformed by any other

  7. Flowfield Characteristics on a Retreating Rotor Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    fixed wing, and then as a rotor blade in a low-speed wind tunnel . Fixed-wing results from load measurements and flow visualization showed that the sharp...wing airloads (Figure 1.3) and tuft visualization, to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) under a blade held fixed as part of a rotor in a wind tunnel [43...were performed in the 2.13m×2.74m John Harper wind tunnel at our institution. The untwisted rectangular blade has a NACA 0013 planform. The rotor used

  8. ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert S. Weber

    1999-01-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO(sub 2)-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO(sub 2)-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing

  9. A new species of Cogia from Oaxaca, Mexico (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Eudaminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Andrew D; Dolibaina, Diego R; Hernández-Mejía, Claudia

    2015-03-31

    A new species of Cogia A. Butler, 1870, is described from two localities ranging from 1470 to 2000 m elevation in the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca, Mexico; it occurs in cloud forest habitats and appears to be endemic to Mexico. Cogia buena, n. sp., is closely related to C. mala Evans, 1953 and C. aventinus (Godman & Salvin, 1894); these three species are the only known Cogia taxa whose males lack a hair tuft on the dorsal hindwing, and all have similar genitalia.

  10. A - a view in the invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow visualization is an important topic in, experimental and computational fluid dynamics and has been the subject of research for many years. This paper presents an overview of flow visualization techniques. The physical basis and applications of different visualization methods for subsonic, transonic and supersonic flow in wind and water tunnels are described: direct injection methods, (smoke, dye, fog and different small particles, gas and hydrogen bubbles, , flow visualization by tufts, oil, liquid crystals, pressure and temperature sensitive paints, shadow, schlieren, interferometry, Laser Doppler Anemometry, Particle Image Velocimetry and other special techniques. Almost all presented photos have been recorded during tests in laboratories of MTI Belgrade.

  11. Cirrus Particle Distribution Study. Part 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-28

    84.44 47. 19 1.00 1922.02 6.1 -32.2 .00004 .00024 100 73.65 1867. 230 .75 19122:17 6.1 -31.9 0.00000 .0002 100 91.96 51. 209 1.00 Verv titla,ver -nig m, f...413 .58 Verv thin stuff above us. 21:29:30 9.3 -40.5 .00l09 .00023 If# 53.05 4297. 230 .66 .. in, under a tuft in a minute. 22:29:45 9.3 -40.5

  12. Combined activity of COX-1 and COX-2 is increased in non-neoplastic colonic mucosa from colorectal neoplasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Thorbjørn Søren Rønn; Mahmood, Badar; Damm, Morten Bach; Backe, Marie Balslev; Dahllöf, Mattias Salling; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Hansen, Mark Berner; Bindslev, Niels

    2018-02-27

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) activity is increased in endoscopic normal colonic mucosa from patients with colorectal neoplasia (CRN). COX-2 is thought to be the predominant COX isozyme involved in neoplasia. Meanwhile, relative contributions of COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms are unknown. Knowledge about their mutual activity in colonic mucosa is important for diagnostics and targeted therapy for CRN. The aim of this study was to assess the relative function, expression and localization of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes in colonic non-neoplastic human mucosa and thereby to potentially reveal a mucosal disease predisposition for better treatment. Biopsies were pinched from normal appearing colonic mucosa in patients undergoing endoscopy. Ussing chamber technique was applied for an indirect assessment of epithelial activity, RT-qPCR for expression and immunohistochemistry for localization of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes in patients without (ctrls) and with a history of CRN (CRN-pts). Combined COX-1 and COX-2 activity was higher in CRN-pts, p = 0.036. COX-2 was primarily localized in absorptive cells, while COX-1 appeared to be restricted to nonenteroendocrine tuft cells of the colonic epithelium. In biopsies from endoscopic normal appearing colonic mucosa, combined activity of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes is increased in CRN-pts compared with ctrls. This indicates that COX-1 and COX-2 together contribute to an increased proliferation process. Of note, in colonic epithelial cell lining, the COX-1 enzyme seems localized in tuft cells.

  13. Parasitisme du safoutier par les Tapinanthus au plateau de Logbessou (Douala, Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mony, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Safou Parasitism by Tapinanthus on Logbessou's plateau (Douala, Cameroon. In Cameroon, parasitism by Loranthaceae is a limiting factor of the safou tree cultivation as well as the perishable nature of the fruit which reduces the shelf life. Inventories were carried out in the home gardens of Logbessou's plateau in Douala. All the safou trees likely to produce and located within a perimeter of 200 m x 25 m from the center to the periphery of the plateau were observed and characterized by the circumference of the trunk, the number of tufts of Loranthaceae present on the tree and the taxon of the parasite. Safou trees are primarily parasitized by two species of Tapinanthus. Parasitism rate (34% varied significantly between center and periphery of the plateau. The average number of tufts of Tapinanthus by tree was also significantly different according to the location of the trees and between the two species of Tapinanthus. It is important to investigate the age at which pests significantly affect Safou yields in order to be able to propose adequate control methods when the farmers want to limit the parasitism of this species.

  14. The Japanese alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) on the South Atlantic Ocean: first report of an invasive macroalga inhabiting oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M. Emilia; Parodi, Elisa R.

    2014-06-01

    Conspicuous tufts of the filamentous algae Polysiphonia Greville inhabit the reefs of Crassostrea gigas on the Atlantic Patagonian coast. The population was recorded for the first time in 1994 and identified as P. argentinica. This study exhaustively investigated the morphology and reproduction of specimens and the seasonality of the population. The results revealed the identity of the specimens as the invasive Japanese macroalga Polysiphonia morrowii Harvey, on the basis of several striking features: the setaceous and tufted thalli, the corymbose growing apices, the endogenous axillary branches, the urceolate cystocarps and the sharply pointed branches. Sexual reproduction was evidenced; however, fertile male gametophytes were absent in the samples. The population was found almost all year round, but its abundance became higher in autumn and winter. The present study constitutes the first record of this invasive macroalga on the South Atlantic Ocean; the fourth record of an exotic macroalgal species on the Atlantic Patagonian coast; and the first record of an invasive species related to the establishment of C. gigas in Atlantic Patagonia.

  15. Augmentation of transfer of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in mice by irradiation of recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.V.; Kyriakos, M.; Sharp, G.C.; Braley-Mullen, H.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) can be adoptively transferred to normal syngeneic recipients using spleen cells from susceptible strains of mice primed in vivo with mouse thyroglobulin (MTg) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following in vitro activation of spleen cells by culture with MTg. Irradiation of recipient animals markedly augments the severity of thyroiditis induced in this system. Irradiation of recipients does not alter the time course of the development of thyroiditis, nor does it alter the requirement for both in vivo priming and in vitro activation of spleen cells for the development of EAT. Spleen cells from EAT-resistant strains of mice (e.g., Balb/c) do not induce EAT in irradiated recipients. Irradiated recipients develop significant levels of anti-MTg antibodies while unirradiated recipients have little detectable antibody response. The augmenting effect of irradiation can be substantially reversed by transferring naive spleen cells to recipients prior to the transfer of MTg/LPS-primed in vitro-activated spleen cells. In addition athymic CBA/Tufts nude mice develop more severe EAT than CBA/Tufts nude/+ littermates following transfer of activated CBA/J spleen cells. These data suggest that natural suppressor cells may regulate the development of EAT at the effector cell level

  16. A direct contact between astrocyte and vitreous body is possible in the rabbit eye due to discontinuities in the basement membrane of the retinal inner limiting membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haddad

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Different from most mammalian species, the optic nerve of the rabbit eye is initially formed inside the retina where myelination of the axons of the ganglion cells starts and vascularization occurs. Astrocytes are confined to these regions. The aforementioned nerve fibers known as medullated nerve fibers form two bundles that may be identified with the naked eye. The blood vessels run on the inner surface of these nerve fiber bundles (epivascularization and, accordingly, the accompanying astrocytes lie mostly facing the vitreous body from which they are separated only by the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The arrangement of the astrocytes around blood vessels leads to the formation of structures known as glial tufts. Fragments (N = 3 or whole pieces (N = 3 of the medullated nerve fiber region of three-month-old male rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus were fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, and their thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Randomly located discontinuities (up to a few micrometers long of the basement membrane of the inner limiting membrane of the retina were observed in the glial tufts. As a consequence, a direct contact between the astrocyte plasma membrane and vitreous elements was demonstrated, making possible functional interactions such as macromolecular exchanges between this glial cell type and the components of the vitreous body.

  17. Diversity and activity patterns of sympatric animals among four types of forest habitat in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehua; Wu, Pengfeng; Shao, Xiaoming; Songer, Melissa; Cai, Qiong; He, Xiangbo; Zhu, Yun

    2017-07-01

    Environmental heterogeneity contributes to various habitats and may influence the diversity and activity patterns of wildlife among habitats. We used camera traps to assess wildlife habitat use in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve from 2009 to 2012. We focused on four types of habitat including open areas with gentle slope (wildlife migration passages (Type4). We analyzed the differences in species richness, relative abundance index (RAI), species diversity, and animals' activity pattern among habitats. Total six species were analyzed on activity pattern, which are Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus), Himalayan goral (Naemorhedus goral), wild boar (Sus scrofa), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus), and porcupine (Hystrix hodgsoni). The results are (1) that there were significant differences in richness and RAI t among habitats; (2) Type4 habitat had the highest richness and RAI t while Type2 had the highest species diversity; giant pandas were found in these two habitats; (3) there were significant differences in species' activity during daytime and nighttime; and (4) differences appeared in habitat preference of the most abundant species. Takin and tufted deer preferred Type1, Himalayan goral preferred Type2, and golden pheasant preferred Type3. Type4 habitat was used by most animals. All these revealed that habitat heterogeneity plays an important role in species diversity and the importance for conservation.

  18. Oxygen-Dependent Morphogenesis of Modern Clumped Photosynthetic Mats and Implications for the Archean Stromatolite Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R. Walter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Some modern filamentous oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria form macroscopic tufts, laminated cones and ridges that are very similar to some Archean and Proterozoic stromatolites. However, it remains unclear whether microbes that constructed Archean clumps, tufts, cones and ridges also produced oxygen. Here, we address this question by examining the physiology of cyanobacterial clumps, aggregates ~0.5 mm in diameter that initiate the growth of modern mm- and cm-scale cones. Clumps contain more particulate organic carbon in the form of denser, bowed and bent cyanobacterial filaments, abandoned sheaths and non-cyanobacterial cells relative to the surrounding areas. Increasing concentrations of oxygen in the solution enhance the bending of filaments and the persistence of clumps by reducing the lateral migration of filaments away from clumps. Clumped mats in oxic media also release less glycolate, a soluble photorespiration product, and retain a larger pool of carbon in the mat. Clumping thus benefits filamentous mat builders whose incorporation of inorganic carbon is sensitive to oxygen. The morphogenetic sequence of mm-scale clumps, reticulate ridges and conical stromatolites from the 2.7 Ga Tumbiana Formation likely records similar O2-dependent behaviors, preserving currently the oldest morphological signature of oxygenated environments on Early Earth.

  19. A systematic review of health economic evaluation in adjuvant breast radiotherapy: Quality counted by numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Chris; Veldeman, Liv; Verhaeghe, Nick; Lievens, Yolande

    2017-11-01

    Evolving practice in adjuvant breast radiotherapy inevitably impacts healthcare budgets. This is reflected in a rise of health economic evaluations (HEE) in this domain. The available HEE literature was analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, using available instruments. HEEs published between 1/1/2000 and 31/10/2016 were retrieved through a systematic search in Medline, Cochrane and Embase. A quality-assessment using CHEERS (Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards) was translated into a quantitative score and compared with Tufts Medical Centre CEA registry and Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) results. Twenty cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) and thirteen cost comparisons (CC) were analysed. In qualitative evaluation, valuation or justification of data sources, population heterogeneity and discussion on generalizability, in addition to declaration on funding, were often absent or incomplete. After quantification, the average CHEERS-scores were 74% (CI 66.9-81.1%) and 75.6% (CI 70.7-80.5%) for CEAs and CCs respectively. CEA-scores did not differ significantly from Tufts and QHES-scores. Quantitative CHEERS evaluation is feasible and yields comparable results to validated instruments. HEE in adjuvant breast radiotherapy is of acceptable quality, however, further efforts are needed to improve comprehensive reporting of all data, indispensable for assessing relevance, reliability and generalizability of results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Heliotropism in modern stromatolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awramik, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three different examples of modern microbial mats and stromatolites have been discovered that exhibit a preferred orientation towards specular sunlight. In Hamelin Pool of Shark Bay, Western Australia, subtidal decimeter-sized discrete columns and intertidal centimeter-sized tufts were found pointing north. In thermal spring effluents and pools of Yellowstone National Park, columnar and conical centimeter-sized microbial structures were found to be inclined to the south. None of these inclined structures show growth orientation in response to prevailing fluid directions. Each example occurs in markedly different environments and each has different photosynthetic microbes: (1) the subtidal Shark Bay columns are dominated by surficial diatoms: (2) the intertidal Shark Bay tufts constructed by a filamentous cyanobacterium; and (3) the cones and columns in Yellowstone are built by filamentous flexibacteria and cyanobacteria. Sunlight must be considered a major driving force in stromatolite morphogenesis. Extrapolation of these modern heliotropic columnar stromatolites to fossil examples supports the paleolatitude hypothesis of Vologdin (1961) and of Nordeng (1963) and the days per year hypothesis of Vanyo and Awramik (1982). Taken together, and especially when combined with paleomagnetic analyses, the procedures yield an impressive array of data on Earth and Earth-Sun-Moon histories.

  1. Hand fractures: A study of their site and type in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, Arumugam; Basu, Avi K.; Vaidhyanath, Ramachandran; Finlay, David

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the study was to document the site and type of fractures of the hand in children up to 16 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radiographs of 280 children who were found to have a fracture in Accident and Emergency over a one-year period were reviewed. A total of 293 fractures of the hand and 3 distal interphalangeal joint dislocations without fracture were identified. There were 293 fractures as some children had more than one fracture. RESULTS: Distal tuft fractures were commonest in the 0 to 4-year age-group; fractures of distal phalanx (both transverse and tuft) in the 5 to 8-year age-group; transverse fractures of the proximal phalanx of little finger in the 9 to 12-year age-group and transverse fractures of neck of the fifth metacarpal in the 13 to 16-year age-groups. CONCLUSION: Hand fractures are more common in older children, with a male preponderance in most groups except in the 0-4 age-group. The site of injury is different in the various corresponding age-groups, reflecting the differing mechanisms of injury. The management of hand fractures rely on a correct diagnosis and a knowledge of their common site in each age-group should aid diagnosis. Rajesh, A. et al. (2001)

  2. Morphological analysis of the vestibular system of guinea pigs poisoned by organophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Lícia Assunção; Santos Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins dos; Murashima, Adriana de Andrade Batista; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo; Silveira, Aron Ferreira da

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular system is responsible for body balance. There are substances that damage it, causing dizziness; these are termed vestibulotoxic substances. Agrochemicals have been investigated for ototoxicity because of studies that identified dizziness as a recurrent symptom among rural workers' complaints. To histopathologically evaluate the vestibular system in guinea pigs exposed to an organophosphate, and to identify the drug's effects on this system. Experimental clinical study. Eighteen guinea pigs were used; six of them poisoned with the organophosphate chlorpyrifos at doses of 0.5mg/kg/day and seven of them at 1mg/kg/day; and a control group of five guinea pigs was exposed to distilled water, all for 10 consecutive days. Later, ciliary tufts of saccule and utricle maculae were counted by scanning electron microscopy. Comparing the groups, a one-way ANOVA test for the variable "saccule" (p=0.0569) and a Kruskal-Wallis test for the variable "utricle" (p=0.8958) were performed, revealing no difference among groups in both variables. The histopathologic analysis of the vestibular system of guinea pigs exposed to an organophosphate showed no difference in the amount of ciliary tufts of saccule and utricle maculae at the doses tested, although the result for the variable "saccule" was considered borderline, showing a trend for significance. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreational pack stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David N.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Moore, Peggy E.; McDougald, Neil K.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer's reed grass (Calamagrostis breweri Thurber), and tufted hairgrass [Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv.]. Horses and mules grazed experimental plots at intensities of 15 to 69% utilization for 4 seasons. In all 3 meadows, grazing caused decreases in productivity. The mean reduction after 4 years of grazing was 18% in the shorthair sedge meadow, 17% in the Brewer's reed grass meadow, and 22% in the tufted hairgrass meadow. Grazing also caused shifts in basal groundcover (usually a reduction in vegetation cover and increase in bare soil cover), and changes in species composition. Productivity and vegetation cover decreased as percent utilization increased, while bare soil cover increased as utilization increased. Changes in species composition were less predictably related to differences in grazing intensity. Passive management of grazing is insufficient in wilderness areas that are regularly used by groups with recreational stock. Wilderness managers need to monitor meadow conditions and the grazing intensities that occur. Our study suggests that biomass and ground cover are more sensitive indicators of grazing impact than species composition. Managers must make decisions about maximum acceptable levels of grazing impact and then develop guidelines for maximum use levels, based on data such as ours that relates grazing intensity to meadow response.

  4. Enamel ultrastructure of fossil and modern pinnipeds: evaluating hypotheses of feeding adaptations in the extinct walrus Pelagiarctos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Carolina; Boessenecker, Robert W.; Churchill, Morgan; Kieser, Jules

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the enamel ultrastructure in modern otariid pinnipeds and in the extinct walrus Pelagiarctos. Teeth of the New Zealand fur seal ( Arctocephalus forsteri), sea lion ( Phocarctos hookeri), and fossil walrus Pelagiarctos thomasi were embedded, sectioned, etched, and analyzed via scanning electron microscopy. The enamel of NZ otariids and Pelagiarctos was prismatic and moderately thick, measuring 150-450 μm on average. It consisted of transversely oriented Hunter-Schreger bands (HSBs) from the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to near the outer surface, where it faded into prismless enamel less than 10 μm thick. The width of HSB was variable and averaged between 6 and 10 prisms, and they presented an undulating course both in longitudinal and cross sections. The overall organization of the enamel was similar in all teeth sampled; however, the enamel was thicker in canines and postcanines than in incisors. The crowns of all teeth sampled were uniformly covered by enamel; however, the grooved incisors lacked an enamel cover on the posterior side of the buccal face. Large tubules and tuft-like structures were seen at the EDJ. HSB enamel as well as tubules and tufts at the EDJ suggest increased occlusal loads during feeding, a biomechanical adaptation to avoid enamel cracking and failure. Despite overall simplification in tooth morphology and reduced mastication, the fossil and modern pinnipeds analyzed here retained the complex undulating HSB structure of other fossils and living Carnivora, while other marine mammals such as cetaceans developed simplified radial enamel.

  5. The phenotypes of podocytes and parietal epithelial cells may overlap in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andeen, Nicole K; Nguyen, Tri Q; Steegh, Floor; Hudkins, Kelly L; Najafian, Behzad; Alpers, Charles E

    2015-11-01

    Reversal of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has been achieved in humans and mice, but only rarely and under special circumstances. As progression of DN is related to podocyte loss, reversal of DN requires restoration of podocytes. Here, we identified and quantified potential glomerular progenitor cells that could be a source for restored podocytes. DN was identified in 31 human renal biopsy cases and separated into morphologically early or advanced lesions. Markers of podocytes (WT-1, p57), parietal epithelial cells (PECs) (claudin-1), and cell proliferation (Ki-67) were identified by immunohistochemistry. Podocyte density was progressively reduced with DN. Cells marking as podocytes (p57) were present infrequently on Bowman's capsule in controls, but significantly increased in histologically early DN. Ki-67-expressing cells were identified on the glomerular tuft and Bowman's capsule in DN, but rarely in controls. Cells marking as PECs were present on the glomerular tuft, particularly in morphologically advanced DN. These findings show evidence of phenotypic plasticity in podocyte and PEC populations and are consistent with studies in the BTBR ob/ob murine model in which reversibility of DN occurs with podocytes potentially regenerating from PEC precursors. Thus, our findings support, but do not prove, that podocytes may regenerate from PEC progenitors in human DN. If so, progression of DN may represent a modifiable net balance between podocyte loss and regeneration.

  6. Compound effects of aging and experimental FSGS on glomerular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Remington R S; Eng, Diana G; Kutz, J Nathan; Sweetwyne, Mariya T; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Shankland, Stuart J

    2017-02-17

    Advanced age portends a poorer prognosis in FSGS. To understand the impact of age on glomerular podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs), experimental FSGS was induced in 3m-old mice (20-year old human age) and 27m-old mice (78-year old human age) by abruptly depleting podocytes with a cytopathic anti-podocyte antibody. Despite similar binding of the disease-inducing antibody, podocyte density was lower in aged FSGS mice compared to young FSGS mice. Activated PEC density was higher in aged versus young FSGS mice, as was the percentage of total activated PECs. Additionally, the percentage of glomeruli containing PECs with evidence of phosphorylated ERK and EMT was higher in aged FSGS mice. Extracellular matrix, measured by collagen IV and silver staining, was higher in aged FSGS mice along Bowman's capsule. However, collagen IV accumulation in the glomerular tufts alone and in glomeruli with both tuft and Bowman's capsule accumulation were similar in young FSGS and aged FSGS mice. Thus, the major difference in collagen IV staining in FSGS was along Bowman's capsule in aged mice. The significant differences in podocytes, PECs and extracellular matrix accumulation between young mice and old mice with FSGS might explain the differences in outcomes in FSGS based on age.

  7. The New England Space Science Initiative in Education (NESSIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, W. H.; Clemens, C. M.; Sneider, C. I.

    2002-12-01

    Founded in January 2002, NESSIE is the NASA/OSS broker/facilitator for education and public outreach (E/PO) within the six-state New England region. NESSIE is charged with catalyzing and fostering collaborations among space scientists and educators within both the formal and informal education communities. NESSIE itself is a collaboration of scientists and science educators at the Museum of Science, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and Tufts University. Its primary goals are to 1) broker partnerships among space scientists and educators, 2) facilitate a wide range of educational and public outreach activities, and 3) examine and improve space science education methods. NESSIE's unique strengths reside in its prime location (the Museum of Science), its diverse mix of scientists and educators, and its dedicated board of advisors. NESSIE's role as a clearinghouse and facilitator of space science education is being realized through its interactive web site and via targeted meetings, workshops, and conferences involving scientists and educators. Special efforts are being made to reach underserved groups by tailoring programs to their particular educational needs and interests. These efforts are building on the experiences of prior and ongoing programs in space science education at the Museum of Science, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Tufts University, and NASA.

  8. Membranes with charged nanopores from the assembly of random copolymer micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatekin, Ayse

    In this study, we aimed to prepare synthetic polymer membranes that can separate small molecule solutes based on charge by mimicking biological pores like ion channels: Pores 1-5 nm in diameter, lined with functional groups that interact with the target. We found that random copolymers that combine highly hydrophobic fluorinated repeat units of trifluoroethyl methacrylate with ionizable repeat units of methacrylic acid form micelles and vesicles in methanol. When these micelles are coated onto the surface of a porous support membrane whose pores are smaller than the micelles and then immersed into water, a selective layer of micelles packed together is formed. The gaps between the micelles act as carboxylate-functional nanochannels. The membrane showed charge-based selectivity between organic molecules, rejecting anionic solutes while passing neutral ones. The carboxyl groups can be post-functionalized to alter the selectivity of the membrane for desired separations. This shows the potential of using polymer self-assembly and functionality to design membranes that mimic biological pores while maintaining scalable manufacturing methods. We believe these approaches will eventually lead to novel membranes that can separate molecules of similar size but different chemical structure. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from Tufts University, the Tufts Collaborates program, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) under Grant No. CBET-1553661.

  9. Sequential generation of olfactory bulb glutamatergic neurons by Neurog2-expressing precursor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brill Monika S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the diversity and spatio-temporal origin of olfactory bulb (OB GABAergic interneurons has been studied in detail, much less is known about the subtypes of glutamatergic OB interneurons. Results We studied the temporal generation and diversity of Neurog2-positive precursor progeny using an inducible genetic fate mapping approach. We show that all subtypes of glutamatergic neurons derive from Neurog2 positive progenitors during development of the OB. Projection neurons, that is, mitral and tufted cells, are produced at early embryonic stages, while a heterogeneous population of glutamatergic juxtaglomerular neurons are generated at later embryonic as well as at perinatal stages. While most juxtaglomerular neurons express the T-Box protein Tbr2, those generated later also express Tbr1. Based on morphological features, these juxtaglomerular cells can be identified as tufted interneurons and short axon cells, respectively. Finally, targeted electroporation experiments provide evidence that while the majority of OB glutamatergic neurons are generated from intrabulbar progenitors, a small portion of them originate from extrabulbar regions at perinatal ages. Conclusions We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the temporal and spatial generation of OB glutamatergic neurons and identify distinct populations of juxtaglomerular interneurons that differ in their antigenic properties and time of origin.

  10. Ultrastructure of Sarcocystis bertrami sarcocysts from a naturally infected donkey (Equus asinus) from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; VAN Wilpe, E; Verma, S K; Hilali, M

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning Sarcocystis species in equids. Little is known of Sarcocystis infections in donkeys (Equus asinus). Here we describe the structure of Sarcocystis bertrami-like from the donkey by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nineteen sarcocysts from the tongue of a donkey from Egypt were studied both by LM and TEM. By LM, all sarcocysts had variably shaped and sized projections on the sarcocyst walls, giving it a thin-walled to thick-walled appearance, depending on individual sarcocyst and plane of section. By TEM, sarcocysts walls had villar protrusions (vp) of type 11. The sarcocyst wall had conical to slender vp, up to 6 µm long and 1 µm wide; the vp were folded over the sarcocyst wall. The total thickness of the sarcocyst wall with ground substance layer (gs) was 1-3 µm. The vp had microtubules (mt) that originated deeper in the gs and continued up to the tip. The apical part of the vp had electron dense granules. The mt were configured into 3 types: a tuft of electron dense mt1 extending the entire length of the vp with a tuft of medium electron dense mt2 appearing in parallel, and fine mt3 present only in the villar tips. The gs was mainly smooth with few indistinct granules. All sarcocysts were mature and contained metrocytes and bradyzoites. Bradyzoites were approximately 11-15 × 2-3 µm in size with typical organelles.

  11. Ethyl Pyruvate Inhibits Retinal Pathogenic Neovascularization by Downregulating HMGB1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mi Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in the eyes is a causative factor in retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. This study was designed to examine the pathogenic role of the high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 protein and the inhibitory effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP, a well-known antioxidant substance, in retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR, one of the animal models of proliferative ischemic retinopathy. The OIR mouse model was used for our in vivo studies. The mice were exposed to 75% oxygen from postnatal day 7 (P7 to P11, after which the mice were brought to room air and intraperitoneally injected with EP (50 mg/kg, or 100 mg/kg for five days. At P17, the mice were perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, and flat-mounted retinas were used to measure nonperfused and neovascular tufts. In OIR mice, an intraperitoneal injection of EP reduced the nonperfused retinal area in the treatment group and significantly reduced the retinal neovascular tufts. In addition, EP inhibited the overexpression of HMGB1 in the retinas of OIR mice. These data suggest that EP could serve as an innovative pharmaceutical agent to prevent retinal neovascularization through inhibiting HMGB1 expression.

  12. Spatial and temporal patterns of diversification on the Amazon: A test of the riverine hypothesis for all diurnal primates of Rio Negro and Rio Branco in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubli, Jean P; Ribas, Camila; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Alfaro, Michael E; da Silva, Maria Nazareth F; Pinho, Gabriela M; Farias, Izeni P

    2015-01-01

    The role of Amazonian rivers as drivers of speciation through vicariance remains controversial. Here we explore the riverine hypothesis by comparing spatial and temporal concordances in pattern of diversification for all diurnal primates of Rio Negro and its largest tributary, Rio Branco. We built a comprehensive comparative phylogenetic timetree to identify sister lineages of primates based on mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences from 94 samples, including 19 of the 20 species of diurnal primates from our study region and 17 related taxa from elsewhere. Of the ten primate genera found in this region, three had populations on opposite banks of Rio Negro that formed reciprocally monophyletic clades, with roughly similar divergence times (Cebus: 1.85 Ma, HPD 95% 1.19-2.62; Callicebus: 0.83 Ma HPD 95% 0.36-1.32, Cacajao: 1.09 Ma, 95% HPD 0.58-1.77). This also coincided with time of divergence of several allopatric species of Amazonian birds separated by this river as reported by other authors. Our data offer support for the riverine hypothesis and for a Plio-Pleistocene time of origin for Amazonian drainage system. We showed that Rio Branco was an important geographical barrier, limiting the distribution of six primate genera: Cacajao, Callicebus, Cebus to the west and Pithecia, Saguinus, Sapajus to the east. The role of this river as a vicariant agent however, was less clear. For example, Chiropotes sagulata on the left bank of the Rio Branco formed a clade with C. chiropotes from the Amazonas Department of Venezuela, north of Rio Branco headwaters, with C. israelita on the right bank of the Rio Branco as the sister taxon to C. chiropotes+C. sagulata. Although we showed that the formation of the Rio Negro was important in driving diversification in some of our studied taxa, future studies including more extensive sampling of markers across the genome would help determine what processes contributed to the evolutionary history of the remaining primate genera

  13. System for the automation of building's lighting; Sistema para la automatizacion de la iluminacion en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Vazquez, Jose de Jesus

    1996-06-01

    With this work it is desired to diminish the energy consumption, by means of the automation of the building's lighting, implementing for this purpose a pilot network, using as communication media the electrical supply lines (127 ACV) of the building, since they are a communication media of wide coverage, do not cause modifications to the facilities already established and facilitate the access through a mechanical interface in plug form. The communication protocol used in the control network, comes near to the CEBus. In order to carry out the communication media, there is the Master-Slave protocol, applied to a local area network (LAN = Local Area Network), using a bus topology, with the technique of modulation by Frequency-Shift Keying (FSK). In addition to performing the control and regulation functions of the illumination, natural light and occupation sensors are used, to turn on and turn off the lamps in sequential form, according to the amount of light that is needed in the controlled area, with the purpose of maintaining the space illumination as constant as possible. [Spanish] Con este trabajo se desea disminuir el consumo energetico, mediante la automatizacion de la iluminacion en los edificios, implementando para ello una red piloto, utilizando como medio de comunicacion las lineas de suministro electrico (127 VCA) del edificio, ya que son un medio de comunicacion de amplia cobertura, no ocasionan modificaciones a las instalaciones ya establecidas y facilitan el acceso a traves de una interfaz mecanica en forma de clavija. El protocolo de comunicacion empleado en la red de control, se aproxima al CEBus. Para llevar a cabo el acceso al medio de comunicacion, se cuenta con el protocolo de comunicacion Maestro-Esclavo aplicado a una red de area local (LAN= Local Area Network), utilizando una topologia de cana (Bus), con la tecnica de modulacion por corrimiento en la frecuencia (FSK: Frequency-Shift Keying). Ademas para realizar las funciones de control y

  14. Bacteriocin-like activity of oral Fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from human and non-human primates Atividade semelhante a bacteriocina de Fusobacterium nucleatum orais isolados de primatas humanos e não-humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elerson Gaetti-Jardim Júnior

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium nucleatum is indigenous of the human oral cavity and has been involved in different infectious processes. The production of bacteriocin-like substances may be important in regulation of bacterial microbiota in oral cavity. The ability to produce bacteriocin-like substances by 80 oral F. nucleatum isolates obtained from periodontal patients, healthy individuals and Cebus apella monkeys, was examinated. 17.5% of all tested isolates showed auto-antagonism and 78.8% iso- or hetero-antagonism. No isolate from monkey was capable to produce auto-inhibition. In this study, the antagonistic substances production was variable in all tested isolates. Most of the F. nucleatum showed antagonistic activity against tested reference strains. These data suggest a possible participation of these substances on the oral microbial ecology in humans and animals. However, the role of bacteriocins in regulating dental plaque microbiota in vivo is discussed.Fusobacterium nucleatum é indígena da cavidade oral humana e tem sido envolvido em diferentes processos infecciosos. A produção de substâncias semelhantes a bacteriocinas pode ser importante na regulação da microbiota bacteriana da cavidade oral. A capacidade de produzir substâncias tipo bacteriocina de 80 isolados de F. nucleatum orais, obtidos de pacientes com doença periodontal, indivíduos sadios e macaco Cebus apella, foi avaliada. 17,5% de todos os isolados mostrou auto-antagonismo e 78,8% iso- ou hetero-antagonismo. Nenhum isolado de macaco foi capaz de produzir auto-inibição. Neste estudo, a produção de substâncias antagonístas foi variável em todos os isolados testados. A maioria dos F. nucleatum mostrou atividade antagonísta para as cepas de referência testadas. Esses dados sugerem a possível participação dessas substâncias sobre a ecologia microbiana em humanos e animais. Entretanto, o papel das bacteriocinas na regulação da microbiota da placa dental in vivo

  15. Contribución al conocimiento de los reservorios del Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas,1909 en la Provincia de Corrientes, Argentina Contribution to knowledge of reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909 in Corrientes Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Bar

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de identificar a reservorios del Trypanosoma cruzi se investigaron 60 mamíferos en los Departamentos Capital y San Luis del Palmar. Se examinaron: primates, roedores, marsupiales, carnívoros y edentados; 40 vivían en cautiverio y 20 fueron capturados mediante trampas en una comunidad rural forestal. Los mamíferos fueron analizados por xenodiagnóstico, empleándose ninfas de 3o o 4o estadío de Triatoma infestans ayunadas durante 2 semanas. Las heces de los triatominos fueron observadas al microscopio (400x a los 30, 60 y 90 días post-alimentación. En 2 Saimiri sciureus y en 1 Cebus apella se constató infección por tripanosomas cruziformes. Se concluye que la parasitemia detectada fue baja. La presencia de Didelphis albiventris, reservorio potencial del Trypanosoma cruzi , en una zona de transmisión activa del parásito representa un factor de riesgo, por lo que son necesarias futuras investigaciones epidemiológicas para determinar la real diagnosis de esta parasitosis en la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina.In order to identify Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs in transmission areas, 60 mammals in Capital and San Luis del Palmar Departments, Corrientes, Argentina were studied. Primates, rodents, carnivores, marsupials and edentates were investigated, 40 of them living in captivity and 20 caught with traps in a rural area. The mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis and third or fourth instars nymphs of Triatoma infestans starved for 2 weeks were used. The feces were microscopically observed (400x for Trypanosoma cruzi infection at 30, 60 and 90 days after feeding. Trypanosoma cruzi-like parasites were identified in 2 Saimiri sciureus and 1 Cebus apella analyzed by xenodiagnosis. It was concluded that parasitemia was low. Howewer, the presence in a forest area of Didelphis albiventris, potential reservoir of the parasite, indicates a risk factor and deserves further epidemiological study for a true diagnosis of this

  16. Dental microwear and diets of African early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Peter S; Grine, Frederick E; Teaford, Mark F; El Zaatari, Sireen

    2006-01-01

    Conventional wisdom ties the origin and early evolution of the genus Homo to environmental changes that occurred near the end of the Pliocene. The basic idea is that changing habitats led to new diets emphasizing savanna resources, such as herd mammals or underground storage organs. Fossil teeth provide the most direct evidence available for evaluating this theory. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of dental microwear in Plio-Pleistocene Homo from Africa. We examined all available cheek teeth from Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa and found 18 that preserved antemortem microwear. Microwear features were measured and compared for these specimens and a baseline series of five extant primate species (Cebus apella, Gorilla gorilla, Lophocebus albigena, Pan troglodytes, and Papio ursinus) and two protohistoric human foraging groups (Aleut and Arikara) with documented differences in diet and subsistence strategies. Results confirmed that dental microwear reflects diet, such that hard-object specialists tend to have more large microwear pits, whereas tough food eaters usually have more striations and smaller microwear features. Early Homo specimens clustered with baseline groups that do not prefer fracture resistant foods. Still, Homo erectus and individuals from Swartkrans Member 1 had more small pits than Homo habilis and specimens from Sterkfontein Member 5C. These results suggest that none of the early Homo groups specialized on very hard or tough foods, but that H. erectus and Swartkrans Member 1 individuals ate, at least occasionally, more brittle or tough items than other fossil hominins studied.

  17. Ensaio laboratorial e clínico com Hycanthone, nôvo agente esquistossomicida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1967-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir do Miracil D, um derivado hidroximetílico (Hycanthone pode ser obtido através da atividade biológica do Aspergillus sclerotiorum. Êste derivado mostrou-se muito ativo quando administrado a camundongos, hamsters e macacos Cebus experimentalmente infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. Ensaios clínicos com o Hycanthone foram feitos em 52 pacientes com esquistossomose mansoni ativa. A droga foi administrada, nas doses de 2 e 3 mg/kg/ dia, junto com um anti-ácido, duas vêzes ao dia, durante 5 dias consecutivos. Com exceção de 2 casos, todos os pacientes completaram o tratamento. Náusea e/ou vômito, anorexia, tonturas e cefaléia foram os efeitos colaterais mais comuns. Atividade terapêutica foi avaliada através de repetidos exames de fezes (4 a 6 e uma biópsia retal realizada a partir do 4.° mês após o tratamento. As percentagens de cura foram de 83,3 e 80,0% com o esquema de 2 e 3 mg/kg, respectivamente. Os dados laboratoriais e clínicos sôbre a atividade esquistossomicida do Hycanthone até agora obtidos mostram a necessidade de novos ensaios com êste promissor medicamento.

  18. The LiveWire Project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.D.; Nelson, T.T. [Enova Technology, San Diego, CA (United States); Kelly, J.C.; Dominguez, H.A. [Paragon Consulting Services, La Verne, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Utilities across the US have begun pilot testing a variety of hardware and software products to develop a two-way communications system between themselves and their customers. Their purpose is to reduce utility operating costs and to provide new and improved services for customers in light of pending changes in the electric industry being brought about by deregulation. A consortium including utilities, national labs, consultants, and contractors, with the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), initiated a project that utilized a hybrid fiber-coax (HFC) wide-area network integrated with a CEBus based local area network within the customers home. The system combined energy consumption data taken within the home, and home automation features to provide a suite of energy management services for residential customers. The information was transferred via the Internet through the HFC network, and presented to the customer on their personal computer. This final project report discusses the design, prototype testing, and system deployment planning of the energy management system.

  19. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifalli-Iughetti, Cristiani; Koiffmann, Célia P

    2009-10-01

    In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus,Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates.

  20. Divergent evolution and purifying selection of the H (FUT1 gene in New World monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara do Nascimento Borges

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the coding region of the H gene was sequenced and analyzed in fourteen genera of New World primates (Alouatta, Aotus, Ateles, Brachyteles, Cacajao, Callicebus, Callithrix, Cebus, Chiropotes, Lagothrix, Leontopithecus, Pithecia, Saguinus, and Saimiri, in order to investigate the evolution of the gene. The analyses revealed that this coding region contains 1,101 nucleotides, with the exception of Brachyteles, the callitrichines (Callithrix, Leontopithecus, and Saguinus and one species of Callicebus (moloch, in which one codon was deleted. In the primates studied, the high GC content (63%, the nonrandom distribution of codons and the low evolution rate of the gene (0.513 substitutions/site/MA in the order Primates suggest the action of a purifying type of selective pressure, confirmed by the Z-test. Our analyses did not identify mutations equivalent to those responsible for the H-deficient phenotypes found in humans, nor any other alteration that might explain the lack of expression of the gene in the erythrocytes of Neotropical monkeys. The phylogenetic trees obtained for the H gene and the distance matrix data suggest the occurrence of divergent evolution in the primates.

  1. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus,Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates. PMID:21637455

  2. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Gifalli-Iughetti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus, Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62. The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates.

  3. Response of frugivorous primates to changes in fruit supply in a northern Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourthé, I

    2014-08-01

    Few attempts have been made to understand how spatiotemporal changes in fruit supply influence frugivores in tropical forests. The marked spatiotemporal variation in fruit supply can affect frugivore abundance and distribution, but studies addressing the effects of this variation on primates are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate how the spatiotemporal distribution of fruits influences the local distribution of three frugivorous primates in the eastern part of the Maracá Ecological Station, a highly seasonal Amazonian rainforest. Specifically, it was hypothesised that primate distribution will track changes in fruit supply, resulting that sites with high fruit availability should be heavily used by primates. During a 1-year study, fruit supply (ground fruit surveys) and primate density (line-transects) were monitored in twelve 2 km-long transects at monthly intervals. Fruit supply varied seasonally, being low during the dry season. The density of Ateles belzebuth was positively related to fruit supply during fruit shortage, but Cebus olivaceus and Alouatta macconnelli did not follow the same pattern. The supply of Sapotaceae fruit was an important component determining local distribution of A. belzebuth during the overall fruit shortage. Highly frugivorous primates such as A. belzebuth respond to seasonal decline in fruit supply by congregating at places with high fruit supply in this forest, particularly, those with many individuals of species of Sapotaceae. This study underscores the importance of small-scale spatiotemporal changes of fruit supply as a key component of frugivorous primate ecology in highly seasonal environments.

  4. Dietary proclivities of Paranthropus robustus from Swartkrans, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L’Engle Williams Frank

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene Paranthropus robustus fossils from Swartkrans have yielded stable isotope values suggesting some foraging on C4 plants possibly including underground storage organs. Dental microwear texture analysis on P. robustus (SK 6, SK 34 and SK 47 from Swartkrans Member 1 is performed to examine whether tooth surface damage from mastication agrees with prior dietary inferences from carbon isotopes. There is considerable variation in textural characteristics among the P. robustus specimens. Specifically, adult SK 34 stands apart from the two subadult specimens, SK 6 and SK 47, suggesting life history could be reflected in patterns of dental microwear texture characteristics, although seasonality and availability of fallback foods may also explain the variation observed in P. robustus. The fossils all exhibit elevated surface texture complexity, resembling the values for Lophocebus albigena and Cebus apella, and to a lesser extent, Pan troglodytes. Paranthropus robustus is dissimilar to primary folivores, such as Trachypithecus cristatus or folivore- frugivores such as Alouatta palliata suggesting leaves comprised very little of its diet. The textural fill volume of P. robustus differs from that observed in extant primates from tropical forests indicating extreme durophagy, perhaps a function of differences in habitat. Ingestion of extraneous grit on the underground parts of plants and from terrestrial resources, perhaps as fallback foods or as dietary staples, may account for these enamel textural properties and may help explain the mixed C3/C4 isotopic signal in P. robustus.

  5. "Paracoccidioidomicose-infecção" em Primatas brasileiros, mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Oliveira da Costa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos da epidemiologia desta micose, pesquisando a ocorrência de paracoccidioidomicose-infecção em animais da Ordem Primata, uma vez que são filogeneticamente os mais próximos ao homem, único hospedeiro naturalmente susceptível a esta micose sistêmica, no atual estágio de conhecimento. Foram realizados testes de hipersensibilidade do tipo tardio com paracoccidioidina em 33 exemplares de Cebus apella (macaco prego, obtendo-se 33,33% de positividade. Foram também executadas biópsias de reações intradêrmicas para exame histológico, testes sorológicos, de fixação de complemento e precipitação em meio líquido no soro destes animais. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar a ocorrência de paracoccidioidomicose-infecção em primatas não humanos, sugerindo a possível participação destes animais na epidemiologia da paracoccidioidomicose.

  6. Evolutionary modifications of human milk composition: evidence from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of anthropoid milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Lauren A; Bazinet, Richard P

    2008-12-01

    Brain growth in mammals is associated with increased accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in brain phospholipids. The period of maximum accumulation is during the brain growth spurt. Humans have a perinatal brain growth spurt, selectively accumulating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other LCPUFA from the third trimester through the second year of life. The emphasis on rapid postnatal brain growth and LCPUFA transfer during lactation has led to the suggestion that human milk LCPUFA composition may be unique. Our study tests this hypothesis by determining fatty acid composition for 11 species of captive anthropoids (n=53; Callithrix jacchus, Cebus apella, Gorilla gorilla, Hylobates lar, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca mulatta, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Pongo pygmaeus, Saimiri boliviensis, and Symphalangus syndactylus). Results are compared to previously published data on five species of wild anthropoids (n=28; Alouatta paliatta, Callithrix jacchus, Gorilla beringei, Leontopithecus rosalia, and Macaca sinica) and human milk fatty acid profiles. Milk LCPUFA profiles of captive anthropoids (consuming diets with a preformed source of DHA) are similar to milk from women on a Western diet, and those of wild anthropoids are similar to milk from vegan women. Collectively, the range of DHA percent composition values from nonhuman anthropoid milks (0.03-1.1) is nearly identical to that from a cross-cultural analysis of human milk (0.06-1.4). Humans do not appear to be unique in their ability to secrete LCPUFA in milk but may be unique in their access to dietary LCPUFA.

  7. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.

  8. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  9. Pay-off-biased social learning underlies the diffusion of novel extractive foraging traditions in a wild primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The type and variety of learning strategies used by individuals to acquire behaviours in the wild are poorly understood, despite the presence of behavioural traditions in diverse taxa. Social learning strategies such as conformity can be broadly adaptive, but may also retard the spread of adaptive innovations. Strategies like pay-off-biased learning, by contrast, are effective at diffusing new behaviour but may perform poorly when adaptive behaviour is common. We present a field experiment in a wild primate, Cebus capucinus, that introduced a novel food item and documented the innovation and diffusion of successful extraction techniques. We develop a multilevel, Bayesian statistical analysis that allows us to quantify individual-level evidence for different social and individual learning strategies. We find that pay-off-biased and age-biased social learning are primarily responsible for the diffusion of new techniques. We find no evidence of conformity; instead rare techniques receive slightly increased attention. We also find substantial and important variation in individual learning strategies that is patterned by age, with younger individuals being more influenced by both social information and their own individual experience. The aggregate cultural dynamics in turn depend upon the variation in learning strategies and the age structure of the wild population. PMID:28592681

  10. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

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    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  11. Evaluación del impacto de la caza en mamíferos de la cuenca del río Alto Itaya, Amazonía peruana

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    Rolando Aquino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se informa sobre la abundancia, presión de caza y el impacto de la caza en mamíferos que habitan los bosques de la cuenca del río Alto Itaya. La información procede de censos por transectos y registros de caza llevados a cabo en seis comunidades. Entre los mamíferos de caza, el choro (Lagothrix poeppigii Schinz fue el más abundante con 15,4 individuos/km², mientras que el mono aullador (Alouatta seniculus Linnaeus y el venado colorado (Mazama americana Erxleben fueron los menos abundantes con 0,15 individuos/km² y 0,5 individuos/ km2, respectivamente. Por otro lado, del área fueron cosechados un promedio anual de 1176 mamíferos, equivalente a 14184,6 kg. Finalmente, el modelo de cosecha sugiere sobrecaza del tapir (Tapirus terrestris Linnaeus, huangana (Tayassu pecari Link, choro (L. poeppigii, mono aullador (A. seniculus y machín negro (Cebus apella Linnaeus, cuyas cosechas en algunos casos alcanzaron el 100% de la producción anual.

  12. Antipsychotic-like effect of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist BuTAC in non-human primates.

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    Maibritt B Andersen

    Full Text Available Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4-preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  13. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS - UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.

  14. Ultra-Widefield Steering-Based Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Retinal Periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Netan; Golding, John; Manry, Matthew W; Rao, Rajesh C

    2016-06-01

    To describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) features of peripheral retinal findings using an ultra-widefield (UWF) steering technique to image the retinal periphery. Observational study. A total of 68 patients (68 eyes) with 19 peripheral retinal features. Spectral-domain OCT-based structural features. Nineteen peripheral retinal features, including vortex vein, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, pars plana, ora serrata pearl, typical cystoid degeneration (TCD), cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice and cobblestone degeneration, retinal hole, retinal tear, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, typical degenerative senile retinoschisis, peripheral laser coagulation scars, ora tooth, cryopexy scars (retinal tear and treated retinoblastoma scar), bone spicules, white without pressure, and peripheral drusen, were identified by peripheral clinical examination. Near-infrared scanning laser ophthalmoscopy images and SD OCT of these entities were registered to UWF color photographs. Spectral-domain OCT resolved structural features of all peripheral findings. Dilated hyporeflective tubular structures within the choroid were observed in the vortex vein. Loss of retinal lamination, neural retinal attenuation, retinal pigment epithelium loss, or hypertrophy was seen in several entities, including congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, ora serrata pearl, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice, and cobblestone degenerations. Hyporeflective intraretinal spaces, indicating cystoid or schitic fluid, were seen in ora serrata pearl, ora tooth, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, retinal hole, and typical degenerative senile retinoschisis. The vitreoretinal interface, which often consisted of lamellae-like structures of the condensed cortical vitreous near or adherent to the neural retina, appeared clearly in most peripheral findings, confirming its association with many low-risk and vision

  15. Ultra-Widefield Steering-Based SD-OCT Imaging of the Retinal Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Netan; Golding, John; Manry, Matthew W.; Rao, Rajesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features of peripheral retinal findings using an ultra-widefield (UWF) steering technique to image the retinal periphery. Design Observational study. Participants 68 patients (68 eyes) with 19 peripheral retinal features. Main Outcome Measures SD-OCT-based structural features. Methods Nineteen peripheral retinal features including: vortex vein, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), pars plana, ora serrata pearl, typical cystoid degeneration (TCD), cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice and cobblestone degeneration, retinal hole, retinal tear, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), typical degenerative senile retinoschisis, peripheral laser coagulation scars, ora tooth, cryopexy scars (retinal tear and treated retinoblastoma scar), bone spicules, white without pressure, and peripheral drusen were identified by peripheral clinical examination. Near infrared (NIR) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) images and SD-OCT of these entities were registered to UWF color photographs. Results SD-OCT resolved structural features of all peripheral findings. Dilated hyporeflective tubular structures within the choroid were observed in the vortex vein. Loss of retinal lamination, neural retinal attenuation, RPE loss or hypertrophy were seen in several entities including CHRPE, ora serrata pearl, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice and cobblestone degenerations. Hyporeflective intraretinal spaces, indicating cystoid or schitic fluid, were seen in ora serrata pearl, ora tooth, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, retinal hole, and typical degenerative senile retinoschisis. The vitreoretinal interface, which often consisted of lamellae-like structures of the condensed cortical vitreous near or adherent to the neural retina, appeared clearly in most peripheral findings, confirming its association with many low-risk and vision-threatening pathologies

  16. Prevalence and cost of imaging in inpatient falls: the rising cost of falling

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    Fields J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jessica Fields,1 Tahani Alturkistani,2 Neal Kumar,3 Arjun Kanuri,3 Deeb N Salem,1 Samson Munn,2 Deborah Blazey-Martin1 1Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Radiology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 3Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Objective: To quantify the type, prevalence, and cost of imaging following inpatient falls, identify factors associated with post-fall imaging, and determine correlates of positive versus negative imaging. Design: Single-center retrospective cohort study of inpatient falls. Data were collected from the hospital's adverse event reporting system, DrQuality. Age, sex, date, time, and location of fall, clinical service, Morse Fall Scale/fall protocol, admitting diagnosis, and fall-related imaging studies were reviewed. Cost included professional and facilities fees for each study. Setting: Four hundred and fifteen bed urban academic hospital over 3 years (2008–2010. Patients: All adult inpatient falls during the study period were included. Falls experienced by patients aged <18 years, outpatient and emergency patients, visitors to the hospital, and staff were excluded. Measurements and main results: Five hundred and thirty inpatient falls occurred during the study period, average patient age 60.7 years (range 20–98. More than half of falls were men (55% and patients considered at risk of falls (56%. Falls were evenly distributed across morning (33%, evening (34%, and night (33% shifts. Of 530 falls, 178 (34% patients were imaged with 262 studies. Twenty percent of patients imaged had at least one positive imaging study attributed to the fall and 82% of studies were negative. Total cost of imaging was $160,897, 63% ($100,700 from head computed tomography (CT. Conclusion: Inpatient falls affect patients of both sexes, all ages, occur at any time of day and lead to expensive imaging, mainly from head CTs. Further study should be targeted toward

  17. Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies.

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    Stephanie Panzer

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a checklist for standardized assessment of soft tissue preservation in human mummies based on whole-body computed tomography examinations, and to add a scoring system to facilitate quantitative comparison of mummies. Computed tomography examinations of 23 mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily (17 adults, 6 children; 17 anthropogenically and 6 naturally mummified and 7 mummies from the crypt of the Dominican Church of the Holy Spirit of Vilnius, Lithuania (5 adults, 2 children; all naturally mummified were used to develop the checklist following previously published guidelines. The scoring system was developed by assigning equal scores for checkpoints with equivalent quality. The checklist was evaluated by intra- and inter-observer reliability. The finalized checklist was applied to compare the groups of anthropogenically and naturally mummified bodies. The finalized checklist contains 97 checkpoints and was divided into two main categories, "A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System" and "B. Organs and Organ Systems", each including various subcategories. The complete checklist had an intra-observer reliability of 98% and an inter-observer reliability of 93%. Statistical comparison revealed significantly higher values in anthropogenically compared to naturally mummified bodies for the total score and for three subcategories. In conclusion, the developed checklist allows for a standardized assessment and documentation of soft tissue preservation in whole-body computed tomography examinations of human mummies. The scoring system facilitates a quantitative comparison of the soft tissue preservation status between single mummies or mummy collections.

  18. [The mummification in Sicily during the late Modern Age (XVIII-XIX century)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciari, Antonio; Giuffra, Valentina

    2006-01-01

    Sicily is one of the Italian regions richest in mummified corpses. In addition to the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, a true unicum for their exceptional number of individuals, several other mummies collections, dated back to the late Modern Age, are present in many churches, convents and funerary chapels. The Sicilian mummies are the result of a particular treatment, obtained by drying the body in favourable microclimatic conditions without evisceration, a method which permitted equally to achieve a good state of preservation. The mummification was an extremely diffuse phenomenon in Sicily during the 18th and 19th centuries, not only among the privileged classes, but also among the middle-class. Besides the "Cappuccini Catacombs" of Palermo, at present the sites of Sicilian mummies known in scientific literature are restricted to Comiso (Ragusa) and Savoca (Messina); up to now in fact this historical-biological heritage has not been properly surveyed. In this article we present the first results of a survey carried out in the Messina's province during July 2005. The research enabled us to investigate this cultural phenomenon, to document the architectural structures appointed to the mummification process and to enrich the knowledge about the presence of mummified bodies in eastern Sicily during the Modern Age.

  19. Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Mc Coy, Mark R; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Zink, Albert R; Augat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a checklist for standardized assessment of soft tissue preservation in human mummies based on whole-body computed tomography examinations, and to add a scoring system to facilitate quantitative comparison of mummies. Computed tomography examinations of 23 mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily (17 adults, 6 children; 17 anthropogenically and 6 naturally mummified) and 7 mummies from the crypt of the Dominican Church of the Holy Spirit of Vilnius, Lithuania (5 adults, 2 children; all naturally mummified) were used to develop the checklist following previously published guidelines. The scoring system was developed by assigning equal scores for checkpoints with equivalent quality. The checklist was evaluated by intra- and inter-observer reliability. The finalized checklist was applied to compare the groups of anthropogenically and naturally mummified bodies. The finalized checklist contains 97 checkpoints and was divided into two main categories, "A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System" and "B. Organs and Organ Systems", each including various subcategories. The complete checklist had an intra-observer reliability of 98% and an inter-observer reliability of 93%. Statistical comparison revealed significantly higher values in anthropogenically compared to naturally mummified bodies for the total score and for three subcategories. In conclusion, the developed checklist allows for a standardized assessment and documentation of soft tissue preservation in whole-body computed tomography examinations of human mummies. The scoring system facilitates a quantitative comparison of the soft tissue preservation status between single mummies or mummy collections.

  20. Neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons in the cerebral cortex of humans and other haplorrhine primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghanti, Mary Ann; Conley, Tiffini; Sudduth, Jessica; Erwin, Joseph M.; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the distribution of neurons immunoreactive for neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the posterior part of the superior temporal cortex (Brodmann's area 22 or area Tpt) of humans and nonhuman haplorrhine primates. NPY has been implicated in learning and memory and the density of NPY-expressing cortical neurons and axons is reduced in depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Due to the role that NPY plays in both cognition and neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that the density of cortical and interstitial neurons expressing NPY was increased in humans relative to other primate species. The study sample included great apes (chimpanzee and gorilla), Old World monkeys (pigtailed macaque, moor macaque, and baboon) and New World monkeys (squirrel monkey and capuchin). Stereologic methods were used to estimate the density of NPY-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in layers I-VI of area Tpt and the subjacent white matter. Adjacent Nissl-stained sections were used to calculate local densities of all neurons. The ratio of NPY-ir neurons to total neurons within area Tpt and the total density of NPY-ir neurons within the white matter were compared among species. Overall, NPY-ir neurons represented only an average of 0.006% of the total neuron population. While there were significant differences among species, phylogenetic trends in NPY-ir neuron distributions were not observed and humans did not differ from other primates. However, variation among species warrants further investigation into the distribution of this neuromodulator system. PMID:23042407