WorldWideScience

Sample records for tubular microbial fuel

  1. Electricity generation by a novel design tubular plant microbial fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.A.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    The tubular plant microbial fuel cell was designed to increase the feasibility of this technology. To test the new setup two anode materials were investigated, namely a graphite felt and graphite granules. The average power output based on membrane area was 10 mW m-2 for felt, and 12 mW m-2 for

  2. Spatiotemporal development of the bacterial community in a tubular longitudinal microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Rae; Premier, Giuliano C. [Glamorgan Univ., Pontypridd (United Kingdom). Faculty of Advnaced Technology; Beecroft, Nelli J.; Avignone-Rossa, Claudio [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Microbial Sciences; Varcoe, John R.; Slade, Robert C.T. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Chemical Sciences; Dinsdale, Richard M.; Guwy, Alan J. [Glamorgan Univ., Pontypridd (United Kingdom). Faculty of Health, Sport and Science; Thumser, Alfred [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Biochemical Sciences

    2011-05-15

    The spatiotemporal development of a bacterial community in an exoelectrogenic biofilm was investigated in sucrose-fed longitudinal tubular microbial fuel cell reactors, consisting of two serially connected modules. The proportional changes in the microbial community composition were assessed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing in order to relate them to the performance and stability of the bioelectrochemical system. The reproducibility of duplicated reactors, evaluated by cluster analysis and Jaccard's coefficient, shows 80-90% similarity in species composition. Biofilm development through fed-batch start-up and subsequent stable continuous operation results in a population shift from {gamma}-Proteobacteria- and Bacteroidetes- to Firmicutes-dominated communities, with other diverse species present at much lower relative proportions. DGGE patterns were analysed by range-weighted richness (Rr) and Pareto-Lorenz evenness distribution curves to investigate the evolution of the bacterial community. The first modules shifted from dominance by species closely related to Bacteroides graminisolvens, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Klebsiella sp. BM21 at the start of continuous-mode operation to a community dominated by Paludibacter propionicigenes-, Lactococcus sp.-, Pantoea agglomerans- and Klebsiella oxytoca-related species with stable power generation (6.0 W/m{sup 3}) at day 97. Operational strategies that consider the dynamics of the population will provide useful parameters for evaluating system performance in the practical application of microbial fuel cells. (orig.)

  3. Electricity production and benzene removal from groundwater using low-cost mini tubular microbial fuel cells in a monitoring well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Hsien; Wu, Chih-Hung; Wang, Ruei-Cyun; Lin, Chi-Wen

    2017-05-15

    A low-cost mini tubular microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed for treating groundwater that contained benzene in monitoring wells. Experimental results indicate that increasing the length and density, and reducing the size of the char particles in the anode effectively reduced the internal resistance. Additionally, a thinner polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel separator and PVA with a higher molecular weight improved electricity generation. The optimal parameters for the MFC were an anode density of 1.22 g cm -3 , a coke of 150 μm, an anode length of 6 cm, a PVA of 105,600 g mol -1 , and a separator thickness of 1 cm. Results of continuous-flow experiments reveal that the increasing the sets of MFCs and connecting them in parallel markedly improved the degradation of benzene. More than 95% of benzene was removed and electricity of 38 mW m -2 was generated. The MFC ran continuously up to 120 days without maintenance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of adding selective mixed culture of alternative electricity production based on tempe wastewater on tubular microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Elisabeth, Utami, Tania Surya; Arbianti, Rita; Hermansyah, Heri

    2017-05-01

    Bacteria has long been known could produce electricity. MFC (Microbial Fuel Cell) is a technology that uses bacteria. MFC is potential as producer of alternative renewable energy through the conversion of waste by bacteria into electrical energy. However, this technology cannot reach the target value of the minimum voltage. This research is focused on reviewing the effect of the addition of gram positive and negative bacteria (selective mixed culture) contained in tempe wastewater as well as the optimal volume additions gram using a tubular single chamber membranless reactor. The result shows that the addition of selective mixed culture can increase voltage of MFC. Gram negative bacteria dominate tempe wastewater and has better ability to transfer electrons than gram-positive. The voltage increases with increasing amount of bacteria up to a certain maximum point. Addition of 1 mL gram-negative bacteria improve electrical output and provide the most optimal results of 0.0697 mW/m2 mV or 92.14% excalation against the initial control experiment with the average power density of 0.0702 mW1m2. Additions of most optimum variation also give good results on the use of industrial waste, with electrical voltage and power density high of 8.90 mV and 0.02 mW/m2.

  5. Using a tubular photosynthetic microbial fuel cell to treat anaerobically digested effluent from kitchen waste: Mechanisms of organics and ammonium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Haiyan; Yang, Zhigang; Nie, Changliang; Hou, Qingjie; Zhang, Lijie; Wang, Yuting; Zhang, Shasha

    2018-05-01

    Anaerobically digested effluent from kitchen waste (ADE-KW) was used herein as the substrate of a tubular photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (PMFC) for power production, and also, after being diluted, as a medium for cultivation of algae in the cathodic chamber. Adding 3 mg/L phosphorus to the catholyte could efficiently enhance the algal growth and the PMFC performance. About 0.94 g/L algal biomass and 0.57 kWh/m 3 -ADE-KW bioelectricity were obtained from the PMFC. Soluble microbial byproduct-like material and aromatic proteins were the dominant organics in the ADE-KW, which were readily degradable in the system. About 79% of the 1550 mg/L ammonium in the anolyte transferred to the catholyte through the cation exchange membrane. The ammonium was removed mainly as electron acceptors at the cathode after being oxidized by oxygen, whereas algal assimilation only account for about 14.6% of the overall nitrogen. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  7. Biological and microbial fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen Hao; Ghangrekar, Makarand Madhao; Erable, Benjamin; Duţeanu, Narcis Mihai

    2012-01-01

    Biological fuel cells have attracted increasing interest in recent years because of their applications in environmental treatment, energy recovery, and small-scale power sources. Biological fuel cells are capable of producing electricity in the same way as a chemical fuel cell: there is a constant supply of fuel into the anode and a constant supply of oxidant into the cathode; however, typically the fuel is a hydrocarbon compound present in the wastewater, for example. Microbial fuel cells (M...

  8. Combustion Characterization and Model Fuel Development for Micro-tubular Flame-assisted Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcarek, Ryan J; Garrett, Michael J; Baskaran, Amrish; Ahn, Jeongmin

    2016-10-02

    Combustion based power generation has been accomplished for many years through a number of heat engine systems. Recently, a move towards small scale power generation and micro combustion as well as development in fuel cell research has created new means of power generation that combine solid oxide fuel cells with open flames and combustion exhaust. Instead of relying upon the heat of combustion, these solid oxide fuel cell systems rely on reforming of the fuel via combustion to generate syngas for electrochemical power generation. Procedures were developed to assess the combustion by-products under a wide range of conditions. While theoretical and computational procedures have been developed for assessing fuel-rich combustion exhaust in these applications, experimental techniques have also emerged. The experimental procedures often rely upon a gas chromatograph or mass spectrometer analysis of the flame and exhaust to assess the combustion process as a fuel reformer and means of heat generation. The experimental techniques developed in these areas have been applied anew for the development of the micro-tubular flame-assisted fuel cell. The protocol discussed in this work builds on past techniques to specify a procedure for characterizing fuel-rich combustion exhaust and developing a model fuel-rich combustion exhaust for use in flame-assisted fuel cell testing. The development of the procedure and its applications and limitations are discussed.

  9. Microbial acetate oxidation in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The microbial culture was not only grown in a suspension but also in the form of a biofilm on the interior surface of HRTB. Efficiency of the bioprocess was monitored by determination of the acetate concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). While acetate inlet concentration and feeding rate influenced efficiency of ...

  10. Design and performance of tubular flat-plate solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, T.; Ikeda, D.; Kanagawa, H. [NTT Integrated Information & Energy Systems Labs., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    With the growing interest in conserving the environmental conditions, much attention is being paid to Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), which has high energy-conversion efficiency. Many organizations have conducted studies on tubular and flat type SOFCs. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) has studied a combined tubular flat-plate SOFC, and already presented the I-V characteristics of a single cell. Here, we report the construction of a stack of this SOFC cell and successful generation tests results.

  11. The Test for Flow Characteristics of Tubular Fuel Assembly(II) - Experimental results and CFD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hark; Chae, H. T.; Park, C.; Kim, H

    2006-12-15

    A test facility had been established for the experiment of velocity distribution and pressure drop in a tubular fuel. A basic test had been conducted to examine the performance of the test loop and to verify the accuracy of measurement by pitot-tube. In this report, test results and CFD analysis for the hydraulic characteristics of a tubular fuel, following the previous tests, are described. Coolant velocities in all channels were measured using pitot-tube and the effect of flow rate change on the velocity distribution was also examined. The pressure drop through the tubular fuel was measured for various flow rates in range of 1 kg/s to 21 kg/s to obtain a correlation of pressure drop with variation of flow rate. In addition, a CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis was also done to find out the hydraulic characteristics of tubular fuel such as velocity distribution and pressure drop. As the results of CFD analysis can give us a detail insight on coolant flow in the tubular fuel, the CFD method is a very useful tool to understand the flow structure and phenomena induced by fluid flow. The CFX-10, a commercial CFD code, was used in this study. The two results by the experiment and the CFD analysis were investigated and compared with each other. Overall trend of velocity distribution by CFD analysis was somewhat different from that of experiment, but it would be reasonable considering measurement uncertainties. The CFD prediction for pressure drop of a tubular fuel shows a tolerably good agreement with experiment within 8% difference.

  12. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Tsouris, Constantino

    2013-12-03

    The present invention is directed to a method for cleansing fuel processing effluent containing carbonaceous compounds and inorganic salts, the method comprising contacting the fuel processing effluent with an anode of a microbial fuel ell, the anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of the carbonaceous compounds while producing electrical energy from the oxidative degradation, and directing the produced electrical energy to drive an electrosorption mechanism that operates to reduce the concentration of one or more inorganic salts in the fuel processing effluent, wherein the anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the microbial fuel cell. The invention is also directed to an apparatus for practicing the method.

  13. Advances in tubular solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, S.C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The design, materials and fabrication processes for the earlier technology Westinghouse tubular geometry cell have been described in detail previously. In that design, the active cell components were deposited in the form of thin layers on a ceramic porous support tube (PST). The tubular design of these cells and the materials used therein have been validated by successful electrical testing for over 65,000 h (>7 years). In these early technology PST cells, the support tube, although sufficiently porous, presented an inherent impedance to air flow toward air electrode. In order to reduce such impedance to air flow, the wall thickness of the PST was first decreased from the original 2 mm (the thick-wall PST) to 1.2 mm (the thin-wall PST). The calcia-stabilized zirconia support tube has now been completely eliminated and replaced by a doped lanthanum manganite tube in state-of-the-art SOFCs. This doped lanthanum manganite tube is extruded and sintered to about 30 to 35 percent porosity, and serves as the air electrode onto which the other cell components are fabricated in thin layer form. These latest technology cells are designated as air electrode supported (AES) cells.

  14. A novel tubular microbial electrolysis cell for high rate hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Prévoteau, Antonin; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-07-01

    Practical application of microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) for hydrogen production requires scalable reactors with low internal resistance, high current density, and high hydrogen recovery. This work reports a liter scale tubular MEC approaching these requirements. The tubular cell components (a platinum-coated titanium mesh cathode, an anion exchange membrane, and a pleated stainless steel felt anode) were arranged in a concentric configuration. The reactor had a low internal resistance (0.325 Ω, 19.5 mΩ m2) due to the high conductivity of the electrodes, a compact reactor configuration, and proper mixing. With acetate as electron donor, the MEC achieved a volumetric current density of 654 ± 22 mA L-1 (projected current density, 1.09 ± 0.04 mA cm-2) and a volumetric hydrogen production rate of 7.10 ± 0.01 L L-1 d-1 at an applied voltage of 1 V. The reactor also showed high hydrogen recovery (∼100%), high hydrogen purity (>98%), and excellent operational stability during the 3 weeks of operation. These results demonstrated that high hydrogen production rate could be achieved on larger scale MEC and this tubular MEC holds great potential for scaling up.

  15. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel

  16. Microbial fuel cells: Running on gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2017-06-01

    Methane is an abundant energy source that is used for power generation in thermal power plants via combustion, but direct conversion to electricity in fuel cells remains challenging. Now, a microbial fuel cell is demonstrated to efficiently convert methane directly to current by careful selection of a consortium of microorganisms.

  17. Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

    2013-06-18

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

  18. Current status of Westinghouse tubular solid oxide fuel cell program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W.G. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In the last ten years the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development program at Westinghouse has evolved from a focus on basic material science to the engineering of fully integrated electric power systems. Our endurance for this cell is 5 to 10 years. To date we have successfully operated at power for over six years. For power plants it is our goal to have operated before the end of this decade a MW class power plant. Progress toward these goals is described.

  19. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  20. Plant microbial fuel cell applied in wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, Koen; Liu, Jia; Buisman, Cees; Strik, David

    2015-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) has to be applied in wetlands to be able to generate electricity on a large scale. The objective of this PMFC application research is to clarify the differences in electricity generation between a Spartina anglica salt marsh and Phragmites australis peat soil

  1. Microbial Fuel Cells for Sulfide Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, K.; Sompel, van de S.; Maignien, L.; Boon, N.; Aelterman, P.; Clauwaert, P.; Schamphelaire, de L.; The Pham, H.; Vermeulen, J.; Verhaege, M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2006-01-01

    Thus far, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been used to convert carbon-based substrates to electricity. However, sulfur compounds are ubiquitously present in organic waste and wastewater. In this study, a MFC with a hexacyanoferrate cathodic electrolyte was used to convert dissolved sulfide to

  2. Microbial Fuel Cells: Methodology and Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logan, B.E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Rozendal, R.A.; Schröder, U.; Keller, J.; Freguia, S.; Aelterman, P.; Verstraete, W.; Rabaey, K.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) research is a rapidly evolving field that lacks established terminology and methods for the analysis of system performance. This makes it difficult for researchers to compare devices on an equivalent basis. The construction and analysis of MFCs requires knowledge of

  3. Mechanistic modelling of a cathode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanwarangkul, R.; Croiset, E.; Pritzker, M. D.; Fowler, M. W.; Douglas, P. L.; Entchev, E.

    A two-dimensional mechanistic model of a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) considering momentum, energy, mass and charge transport is developed. The model geometry of a single cell comprises an air-preheating tube, air channel, fuel channel, anode, cathode and electrolyte layers. The heat radiation between cell and air-preheating tube is also incorporated into the model. This allows the model to predict heat transfer between the cell and air-preheating tube accurately. The model is validated and shows good agreement with literature data. It is anticipated that this model can be used to help develop efficient fuel cell designs and set operating variables under practical conditions. The transport phenomena inside the cell, including gas flow behaviour, temperature, overpotential, current density and species concentration, are analysed and discussed in detail. Fuel and air velocities are found to vary along flow passages depending on the local temperature and species concentrations. This model demonstrates the importance of incorporating heat radiation into a tubular SOFC model. Furthermore, the model shows that the overall cell performance is limited by O 2 diffusion through the thick porous cathode and points to the development of new cathode materials and designs being important avenues to enhance cell performance.

  4. High pressure operation of tubular solid oxide fuel cells and their intergration with gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, C.; Wepfer, W.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fossil fuels continue to be used at a rate greater than that of their natural formation, and the current byproducts from their use are believed to have a detrimental effect on the environment (e.g. global warming). There is thus a significant impetus to have cleaner, more efficient fuel consumption alternatives. Recent progress has led to renewed vigor in the development of fuel cell technology, which has been shown to be capable of producing high efficiencies with relatively benign exhaust products. The tubular solid oxide fuel cell developed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation has shown significant promise. Modeling efforts have been and are underway to optimize and better understand this fuel cell technology. Thus far, the bulk of modeling efforts has been for operation at atmospheric pressure. There is now interest in developing high-efficiency integrated gas turbine/solid oxide fuel cell systems. Such operation of fuel cells would obviously occur at higher pressures. The fuel cells have been successfully modeled under high pressure operation and further investigated as integrated components of an open loop gas turbine cycle.

  5. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.A.; Rothballer, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Engel, M.; Schulz, M.; Hartmann, A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into

  6. Analysis of an active tubular liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Faghri, Amir

    2011-08-01

    A two-dimensional, two-phase, non-isothermal model was developed for an active, tubular, liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The liquid-gas, two-phase mass transport in the porous anode and cathode was formulated based on the multi-fluid approach in the porous media. The two-phase mass transport in the anode and cathode channels was modeled using the drift-flux and the homogeneous mist-flow models, respectively. Water and methanol crossovers through the membrane were considered due to the effects of diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and convection. The model enabled a numerical investigation of the effects of various operating parameters, such as current density, methanol flow rate, and oxygen flow rate, on the mass and heat transport characteristics in the tubular DMFC. It was shown that by choosing a proper tube radius and distance between the adjacent cells, a tubular DMFC stack can achieve a much higher energy density compared to its planar counterpart. The results also showed that a large anode flow rate is needed in order to avoid severe blockage of liquid methanol to the anode electrode due to the gas accumulation in the channel. Besides, lowering the flow rate of either the methanol solution or air can lead to a temperature increase along the flow channel. The methanol and water crossovers are nearly independent of the methanol flow rate and the air flow rate.

  7. Microbial fuel cells for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijia; Zhou, Minghua; Liu, Mengmeng; Yang, Weilu; Gu, Tingyue

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) face major hurdles for real-world applications as power generators with the exception of powering small sensor devices. Despite tremendous improvements made in the last two decades, MFCs are still too expensive to build and operate and their power output is still too small. In view of this, in recently years, intensive researches have been carried out to expand the applications into other areas such as acid and alkali production, bioremediation of aquatic sediments, desalination and biosensors. Unlike power applications, MFC sensors have the immediate prospect to be practical. This review covers the latest developments in various proposed biosensor applications using MFCs including monitoring microbial activity, testing biochemical oxygen demand, detection of toxicants and detection of microbial biofilms that cause biocorrosion.

  8. Design Mining Microbial Fuel Cell Cascades

    OpenAIRE

    Preen, Richard J.; You, Jiseon; Bull, Larry; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) perform wastewater treatment and electricity production through the conversion of organic matter using microorganisms. For practical applications, it has been suggested that greater efficiency can be achieved by arranging multiple MFC units into physical stacks in a cascade with feedstock flowing sequentially between units. In this paper, we investigate the use of computational intelligence to physically explore and optimise (potentially) heterogeneous MFC designs ...

  9. Simulation of tubular solid oxide fuel cell behavior for integration into gas turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Comas Lamar

    Models have been developed and validated for the characterization of tubular solid oxide fuel cells (TSOFCs) and a corresponding fuel cell/gas turbine (FC/GT) power cycle. This promising area of technology is expected to attain near-term commercialization (most notably the SiemensWestinghouse "SureCell" initiative). There is a need for continued conceptual design research in order for the full potential of these systems to be realized. Parametric studies were performed to delineate the impact of cell stack operating conditions on power generation, cell stack thermal management, independent cell load-following and performance quality. The diverse operating conditions included variations in physical cell design, stack pressure, operating voltage, stoichiometric number and stack fuel utilization. A number of novel findings are reported throughout the thesis. As an example, it has been shown that lowering cell stack fuel utilization has a number of benefits for both the simple TSOFC arrangement and the hybrid TSOFC/ GT scenario. The cell stack produces more power at lower fuel utilizations, because fuel supply to the stack actually increases. Additionally, fuel depletion issues (i.e., Nernst potential decrease and smaller limiting currents) are not as influential. A gas turbine bottoming engine would also increase in power production, at lower stack fuel utilizations, because a greater amount of fuel would then fire it. Note that power generation expense is measured per unit rating (e.g., $/kW). Increasing power capacity may then be a means of lowering cost, which is the key obstacle to commercialization. Another cost reduction may stein from the greater contribution of turbomachinery to system power generation, when stack fuel utilization is lowered. FC/GT system efficiency remains stable across a wide domain of cell stack fuel utilizations. This is a result of both the indirect internally reforming (IIR) fuel processor efficiency and Brayton cycle regeneration

  10. Photo-switchable microbial fuel-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Orr; Dandela, Rambabu; Bhagat, Ashok; Adepu, Raju; Meijler, Michael M; Xia, Lin; Alfonta, Lital

    2018-05-01

    Regulation of Bio-systems in a clean, simple, and efficient way is important for the design of smart bio-interfaces and bioelectronic devices. Light as a non-invasive mean to control the activity of a protein enables spatial and temporal control far superior to other chemical and physical methods. The ability to regulate the activity of a catalytic enzyme in a biofuel-cell reduces the waste of resources and energy and turns the fuel-cell into a smart and more efficient device for power generation. Here we present a microbial-fuel-cell based on a surface displayed, photo-switchable alcohol dehydrogenase. The enzyme was modified near the active site using non-canonical amino acids and a small photo-reactive molecule, which enables reversible control of enzymatic activity. Depending on the modification site, the enzyme exhibits reversible behavior upon irradiation with UV and visible light, in both biochemical, and electrochemical assays. The change observed in power output of a microbial fuel cell utilizing the modified enzyme was almost five-fold, between inactive and active states. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Microbial Fuel Cells, A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P. Nevin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are devices that can use bacterial metabolism to produce an electrical current from a wide range organic substrates. Due to the promise of sustainable energy production from organic wastes, research has intensified in this field in the last few years. While holding great promise only a few marine sediment MFCs have been used practically, providing current for low power devices. To further improve MFC technology an understanding of the limitations and microbiology of these systems is required. Some researchers are uncovering that the greatest value of MFC technology may not be the production of electricity but the ability of electrode associated microbes to degrade wastes and toxic chemicals. We conclude that for further development of MFC applications, a greater focus on understanding the microbial processes in MFC systems is required.

  12. Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-03-30

    There has been an increase in recent years in the number of reports of microorganisms that can generate electrical current in microbial fuel cells. Although many new strains have been identified, few strains individually produce power densities as high as strains from mixed communities. Enriched anodic biofilms have generated power densities as high as 6.9 W per m2 (projected anode area), and therefore are approaching theoretical limits. To understand bacterial versatility in mechanisms used for current generation, this Progress article explores the underlying reasons for exocellular electron transfer, including cellular respiration and possible cell-cell communication.

  13. Sampled-time control of a microbial fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghani, Hitesh C.; Dinsdale, Richard M.; Guwy, Alan J.; Premier, Giuliano C.

    2017-07-01

    Research into microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has reached the point where cubic metre-scale systems and stacks are being built and tested. Apart from performance enhancement through catalysis, materials and design, an important research area for industrial applicability is stack control, which can enhance MFCs stack power output. An MFC stack is controlled using a sampled-time digital control strategy, which has the advantage of intermittent operation with consequent power saving, and when used in a hybrid series stack connectivity, can avoid voltage reversals. A MFC stack comprising four tubular MFCs was operated hydraulically in series. Each MFC was connected to an independent controller and the stack was connected electrically in series, creating a hybrid-series connectivity. The voltage of each MFC in the stack was controlled such that the overall series stack voltage generated was the algebraic sum (1.26 V) of the individual MFC voltages (0.32, 0.32, 0.32 and 0.3). The controllers were able to control the individual voltages to the point where 2.52 mA was drawn from the stack at a load of 499.9 Ω (delivering 3.18 mW). The controllers were able to reject the disturbances and perturbations caused by electrical loading, temperature and substrate concentration.

  14. Microbial fuel cell as new technol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rahimnejad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, great attentions have been paid to microbial fuel cells (MFCs due to their mild operating conditions and using variety of biodegradable substrates as fuel. The traditional MFC consisted of anode and cathode compartments but there are single chamber MFCs. Microorganisms actively catabolize substrate, and bioelectricities are generated. MFCs could be utilized as power generator in small devices such as biosensor. Besides the advantages of this technology, it still faces practical barriers such as low power and current density. In the present article different parts of MFC such as anode, cathode and membrane have been reviewed and to overcome the practical challenges in this field some practical options have been suggested. Also, this research review demonstrates the improvement of MFCs with summarization of their advantageous and possible applications in future application. Also, Different key factors affecting bioelectricity generation on MFCs were investigated and these key parameters are fully discussed.

  15. Electricity production and microbial characterization of thermophilic microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kun; Wen, Jun-Li; Zhang, Fang; Ma, Xi-Wen; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Ting-Jia; Zeng, Raymond J

    2017-11-01

    Thermophilic microbial fuel cell (TMFC) offers many benefits, but the investigations on the diversity of exoelectrogenic bacteria are scarce. In this study, a two-chamber TMFC was constructed using ethanol as an electron donor, and the microbial dynamics were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing and 16S rRNA clone-library sequencing. The open-circuit potential of TMFC was approximately 650mV, while the maximum voltage was around 550mV. The maximum power density was 437mW/m 2 , and the columbic efficiency in this work was 20.5±6.0%. The Firmicutes bacteria, related to the uncultured bacterium clone A55_D21_H_B_C01 with a similarity of 99%, accounted for 90.9% of all bacteria in the TMFC biofilm. This unknown bacterium has the potential to become a new thermophilic exoelectrogenic bacterium that is yet to be cultured. The development of TMFC-involved biotechnologies will be beneficial for the production of valuable chemicals and generation of energy in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Meta-analysis of Microbial Fuel Cells Using Waste Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, F Ryan; Kawakita, Ryan; Lange, Matthew; Simmons, Christopher W

    2017-11-09

    Microbial fuel cell experimentation using waste streams is an increasingly popular field of study. One obstacle to comparing studies has been the lack of consistent conventions for reporting results such that meta-analysis can be used for large groups of experiments. Here, 134 unique microbial fuel cell experiments using waste substrates were compiled for analysis. Findings include that coulombic efficiency correlates positively with volumetric power density (p fuel cell datasets. Recommendations for future consistency in reporting results following a MIAMFCE convention (Minimum Information About a Microbial Fuel Cell Experiment) are included.

  17. Biotreatment of Slaughterhouse Wastewater Accompanied with Sustainable Electricity Generation in Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Z. Ismail

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC for simultaneous bioremediation of slaughterhouse wastewater and sustainable power generation. For the first time, an integrated system of tubular type microbial fuel cell (MFC was used in this study. The MFC consisted of three concentric Plexiglas tubes; the inner tube was the anaerobic anodic compartment, the mid tube was the aerobic biocathodic chamber, and the outer tube act as an aerobic bioreactor for extended nitrification process. The MFC system was connected to a complementary external anaerobic bioreactor for denitrification process. The microbial fuel cell was inoculated with freshly collected activated sludge and was continuously fueled with simulated slaughterhouse wastewater. Results revealed that the removal efficiency of the chemical oxygen demand (COD was up to 99%, and the power generation was 165 mW/m2. Also, results demonstrated that maximum removal of NO3- via the denitrification process in the final effluent was 94.7% when the initial concentration of NO3- in the effluent of the extended bioreactor was 15.2 mg/L. Approximately; complete recovery of nitrogen gas was obtained in the complementary external anaerobic bioreactor. These results indicated that MFC could be a promising approach for slaughterhouse wastewater bioremediation and renewable power generation.

  18. Test of Flow Characteristics in Tubular Fuel Assembly I - Establishment of test loop and measurement validation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hark; Chae, H. T.; Park, C.; Kim, H.

    2005-12-01

    Tubular type fuel has been developed as one of candidates for Advanced HANARO Reactor(AHR). It is necessary to test the flow characteristics such as velocity in each flow channels and pressure drop of tubular type fuel. A hydraulic test-loop to examine the hydraulic characteristics for a tubular type fuel has been designed and constructed. It consists of three parts; a) piping-loop including pump and motor, magnetic flow meter and valves etc, b) test-section part where a simulated tubular type fuel is located, and 3) data acquisition system to get reading signals from sensors or instruments. In this report, considerations during the design and installation of the facility and the selection of data acquisition sensors and instruments are described in detail. Before doing the experiment to measure the flow velocities in flow channels, a preliminary tests have been done for measuring the coolant velocities using pitot-tube and for validating the measurement accuracy as well. Local velocities of the radial direction in circular tubes are measured at regular intervals of 60 degrees by three pitot-tubes. Flow rate inside the circular flow channel can be obtained by integrating the velocity distribution in radial direction. The measured flow rate was compared to that of magnetic flow meter. According to the results, two values had a good agreement, which means that the measurement of coolant velocity by using pitot-tube and the flow rate measured by the magnetic flow meter are reliable. Uncertainty analysis showed that the error of velocity measurement by pitot-tube is less than ±2.21%. The hydraulic test-loop also can be adapted to others such as HANARO 18 and 36 fuel, in-pile system of FTL(Fuel Test Loop), etc

  19. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B.

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production froma phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73±1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m2 (277 W/m3) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m2 (215 W/m3) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Microbial Fuel Cells under Extreme Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon del Olmo, Oihane

    I developed a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) that unprecedentedly works (i.e., produces electricity) under extreme salinity (≈ 100 g/L NaCl). Many industries, such as oil and gas extraction, generate hypersaline wastewaters with high organic strength, accounting for about 5% of worldwide generated effluents, which represent a major challenge for pollution control and resource recovery. This study assesses the potential for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to treat such wastewaters and generate electricity under extreme saline conditions. Specifically, the focus is on the feasibility to treat hypersaline wastewater generated by the emerging unconventional oil and gas industry (hydraulic fracturing) and so, with mean salinity of 100 g/L NaCl (3-fold higher than sea water). The success of this novel technology strongly depends on finding a competent and resilient microbial community that can degrade the waste under extreme saline conditions and be able to use the anode as their terminal electron acceptor (exoelectrogenic capability). I demonstrated that MFCs can produce electricity at extremely high salinity (up to 250 g/l NaCl) with a power production of 71mW/m2. Pyrosequencing analysis of the anode population showed the predominance of Halanaerobium spp. (85%), which has been found in shale formations and oil reservoirs. Promoting Quorum sensing (QS, cell to cell communication between bacteria to control gene expression) was used as strategy to increase the attachment of bacteria to the anode and thus improve the MFC performance. Results show that the power output can be bolstered by adding 100nM of quinolone signal with an increase in power density of 30%, for the first time showing QS in Halanaerobium extremophiles. To make this technology closer to market applications, experiments with real wastewaters were also carried out. A sample of produced wastewater from Barnet Shale, Texas (86 g/L NaCl) produced electricity when fed in an MFC, leading to my discovery of another

  1. Evolving Microbial Communities in Cellulose-Fed Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Toczyłowska-Mamińska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of cellulosic wastes make them attractive source of energy for producing electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs. However, electricity production from cellulose requires obligate anaerobes that can degrade cellulose and transfer electrons to the electrode (exoelectrogens, and thus most previous MFC studies have been conducted using two-chamber systems to avoid oxygen contamination of the anode. Single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs typically produce higher power densities than aqueous catholyte MFCs and avoid energy input for the cathodic reaction. To better understand the bacterial communities that evolve in single-chamber air-cathode MFCs fed cellulose, we examined the changes in the bacterial consortium in an MFC fed cellulose over time. The most predominant bacteria shown to be capable electron generation was Firmicutes, with the fermenters decomposing cellulose Bacteroidetes. The main genera developed after extended operation of the cellulose-fed MFC were cellulolytic strains, fermenters and electrogens that included: Parabacteroides, Proteiniphilum, Catonella and Clostridium. These results demonstrate that different communities evolve in air-cathode MFCs fed cellulose than the previous two-chamber reactors.

  2. Microbial fuel cells: From fundamentals to applications. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Carlo; Arbizzani, Catia; Erable, Benjamin; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2017-07-15

    In the past 10-15 years, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has captured the attention of the scientific community for the possibility of transforming organic waste directly into electricity through microbially catalyzed anodic, and microbial/enzymatic/abiotic cathodic electrochemical reactions. In this review, several aspects of the technology are considered. Firstly, a brief history of abiotic to biological fuel cells and subsequently, microbial fuel cells is presented. Secondly, the development of the concept of microbial fuel cell into a wider range of derivative technologies, called bioelectrochemical systems, is described introducing briefly microbial electrolysis cells, microbial desalination cells and microbial electrosynthesis cells. The focus is then shifted to electroactive biofilms and electron transfer mechanisms involved with solid electrodes. Carbonaceous and metallic anode materials are then introduced, followed by an explanation of the electro catalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction and its behavior in neutral media, from recent studies. Cathode catalysts based on carbonaceous, platinum-group metal and platinum-group-metal-free materials are presented, along with membrane materials with a view to future directions. Finally, microbial fuel cell practical implementation, through the utilization of energy output for practical applications, is described.

  3. Critical heat fluxes in tubular fuel elements of nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, V.I.; Alekseev, G.V.; Peskov, O.L.

    1974-01-01

    The results of the experiments carried out show that with appropriate choice of tube, type and dimensions of intensifier the attainment of critical conditions at certain parameters is not accompanied by sharp or considerable increases in temperature of the heat removing surface. Increase in power to above critical under these conditions does not lead to considerable variation in temperature either. Thus, it appears possible to change from heat removal by steam-water mixture to convective heat removal by wet steam without manifestation of intolerable temperature conditions of the heating surface (Fig. 6). A change to convective heat removal by wet steam is possible at different levels of heat fluxes which depend during constant conditions at the inlet on tube length and the degree of the disturbing influence on the flow. This is especially important since in principle the possibility arises for developing a power reactor with tubular fuel elements, in which a once-through cycle with steam superheat involving no intermediate separation can be realised

  4. Microbial electro-catalysis in fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, Claire

    2007-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are devices that ensure the direct conversion of organic matter into electricity using bacterial bio-films as the catalysts of the electrochemical reactions. This study aims at improving the comprehension of the mechanisms involved in electron transfer pathways between the adhered bacteria and the electrodes. This optimization of the MFC power output could be done, for example, in exploring and characterizing various electrode materials. The electrolysis experiments carried out on Geobacter sulfurreducens deal with the microbial catalysis of the acetate oxidation, on the one hand, and the catalysis of the fumarate reduction on the other hand. On the anodic side, differences in current densities appeared on graphite, DSA R and stainless steel (8 A/m 2 , 5 A/m 2 and 0.7 A/m 2 respectively). These variations were explained more by materials roughness differences rather than their nature. Impedance spectroscopy study shows that the electro-active bio-film developed on stainless steel does not seem to modify the evolution of the stainless steel oxide layer, only the imposed potential remains determining. On the cathodic side, stainless steel sustained current densities more than twenty times higher than those obtained with graphite electrodes. The adhesion study of G. sulfurreducens on various materials in a flow cell, suggests that the bio-films resist to the hydrodynamic constraints and are not detached under a shear stress threshold value. The installation of two MFC prototypes, one in a sea station and the other directly in Genoa harbour (Italy) confirms some results obtained in laboratory and were promising for a MFC scale-up. (author) [fr

  5. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  6. Heterotrophic Anodic Denitrification in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Drewnowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pollution caused by energy production systems is a major environmental concern. Therefore, the development of sustainable energy sources is required. Amongst others, the microbial fuel cell (MFC seems to be a possible solution because it can produce clean energy at the same time that waste is stabilized. Unfortunately, mainly due to industrial discharges, the wastes could contain nitrates, or nitrates precursors such ammonia, which could lead to lower performance in terms of electricity production. In this work, the feasibility of coupling anodic denitrification process with electricity production in MFC and the effect of the nitrates over the MFC performance were studied. During the experiments, it was observed that the culture developed in the anodic chamber of the MFC presented a significant amount of denitrificative microorganisms. The MFC developed was able to denitrify up to 4 ppm, without affecting the current density exerted, of about 1 mA/cm2. Regarding the denitrification process, it must be highlighted that the maximum denitrification rate achieved with the culture was about 60 mg·NO3−·L−1·h−1. Based on these results, it can be stated that it is possible to remove nitrates and to produce energy, without negatively affecting the electrical performance, when the nitrate concentration is low.

  7. Microalgae-microbial fuel cell: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae-microbial fuel cells (mMFCs) are a device that can convert solar energy to electrical energy via biological pathways. This mini-review lists new research and development works on microalgae processes, microbial fuel cell (MFC) processes, and their combined version, mMFC. The substantial improvement and technological advancement are highlighted, with a discussion on the challenges and prospects for possible commercialization of mMFC technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A CFD analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Al-Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    A fuel cell is most interesting new power source because it solves not only the environment problem but also natural resource exhaustion problem. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a tubular-shaped proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.

  9. Protozoan grazing reduces the current output of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E; Nevin, Kelly P; Snoeyenbos-West, Oona L; Woodard, Trevor L; Strickland, Justin N; Lovley, Derek R

    2015-10-01

    Several experiments were conducted to determine whether protozoan grazing can reduce current output from sediment microbial fuel cells. When marine sediments were amended with eukaryotic inhibitors, the power output from the fuel cells increased 2-5-fold. Quantitative PCR showed that Geobacteraceae sequences were 120 times more abundant on anodes from treated fuel cells compared to untreated fuel cells, and that Spirotrichea sequences in untreated fuel cells were 200 times more abundant on anode surfaces than in the surrounding sediments. Defined studies with current-producing biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens and pure cultures of protozoa demonstrated that protozoa that were effective in consuming G. sulfurreducens reduced current production up to 91% when added to G. sulfurreducens fuel cells. These results suggest that anode biofilms are an attractive food source for protozoa and that protozoan grazing can be an important factor limiting the current output of sediment microbial fuel cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Generation of Electricity and Analysis of Microbial Communities in Wheat Straw Biomass-Powered Microbial Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Min, Booki; Huang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Electricity generation from wheat straw hydrolysate and the microbial ecology of electricity producing microbial communities developed in two chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated. Power density reached 123 mW/m2 with an initial hydrolysate concentration of 1000 mg-COD/L while...... to improve understanding and optimizing the electricity generation in microbial fuel cells....

  11. Microbial fuel cells using Cellulomonas spp. with cellulose as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yuya; Khawdas, Wichean; Aso, Yuji; Ohara, Hitomi

    2017-03-01

    Cellulomonas fimi, Cellulomonas biazotea, and Cellulomonas flavigena are cellulose-degrading microorganisms chosen to compare the degradation of cellulose. C. fimi degraded 2.5 g/L of cellulose within 4 days, which was the highest quantity among the three microorganisms. The electric current generation by the microbial fuel cell (MFC) using the cellulose-containing medium with C. fimi was measured over 7 days. The medium in the MFC was sampled every 24 h to quantify the degradation of cellulose, and the results showed that the electric current increased with the degradation of cellulose. The maximum electric power generated by the MFC was 38.7 mW/m 2 , and this numeric value was 63% of the electric power generated by an MFC with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a well-known current-generating microorganism. Our results showed that C. fimi was an excellent candidate to produce the electric current from cellulose via MFCs. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioelectricity from students' hostel waste water using microbial fuel cell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial fuel was constructed using two liter plastic transparent chambers representing the cathode and anode poles. The electrodes used were carbon and copper which were utilized in producing a carboncarbon and copper-copper fuel cells respectively. A 1% sodium chloride and 2% agar proton exchange membrane ...

  13. An Analysis of Microbial Contamination in Military Aviation Fuel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Relationship With Fuel Fouling,” Revista Argentina de Microbiologia 30:105-114. 1998. Finefrock, V. H. and London, S. A. Microbial...Hydrocarbon Fuels and Its Control,” Revista de Microbiologia 30:01-10. 1999. Geiss, K. T. and Frazier, J. M. “In Vitro Toxicities of Experimental

  14. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strik, David P B T B; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel cells is the pH membrane gradient which reduces cell voltage and power output. This problem is caused by acid production at the anode, alkaline production at the cathode, and the nonspecific proton exchange through the membrane. Here we report a solution for a new kind of solar energy powered microbial fuel cell via development of a reversible bioelectrode responsible for both biocatalyzed anodic and cathodic electron transfer. Anodic produced protons were used for the cathodic reduction reaction which held the formation of a pH membrane gradient. The microbial fuel cell continuously generated electricity and repeatedly reversed polarity dependent on aeration or solar energy exposure. Identified organisms within biocatalyzing biofilm of the reversible bioelectrode were algae, (cyano)bacteria and protozoa. These results encourage application of solar energy powered microbial fuel cells.

  15. Energy balance affected by electrolyte recirculation and operating modes in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Kyle S; Kelly, Patrick T; He, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    Energy recovery and consumption in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) can be significantly affected by the operating conditions. This study investigated the effects of electrolyte recirculation and operation mode (continuous vs sequence batch reactor) on the energy balance in a tubular MFC. It was found that decreasing the anolyte recirculation also decreased the energy recovery. Because of the open environment of the cathode electrode, the catholyte recirculation consumed 10 to 50 times more energy than the anolyte recirculation, and resulted in negative energy balances despite the reduction of the anolyte recirculation. Reducing the catholyte recirculation to 20% led to a positive energy balance of 0.0288 kWh m(-3). The MFC operated as a sequence batch reactor generated less energy and had a lower energy balance than the one with continuous operation. Those results encourage the further development of MFC technology to achieve neutral or even positive energy output.

  16. Electricity generation and microbial community response to substrate changes in microbial fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Min, Booki; Huang, L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of substrate changes on the performance and microbial community of two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was investigated in this study. The MFCs enriched with a single substrate (e.g., acetate, glucose, or butyrate) had different acclimatization capability to substrate changes....... The MFC enriched with glucose showed rapid and higher power generation, when glucose was switched with acetate or butyrate. However, the MFC enriched with acetate needed a longer adaptation time for utilizing glucose. Microbial community was also changed when the substrate was changed. Clostridium...... of substrate fed to MFC is a very important parameter for reactor performance and microbial community, and significantly affects power generation in MFCs....

  17. Graphene-Based Flexible Micrometer-Sized Microbial Fuel Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2013-10-23

    Microbial fuel cells harvest electrical energy produced by bacteria during the natural decomposition of organic matter. We report a micrometer-sized microbial fuel cell that is able to generate nanowatt-scale power from microliters of liquids. The sustainable design is comprised of a graphene anode, an air cathode, and a polymer-based substrate platform for flexibility. The graphene layer was grown on a nickel thin film by using chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure. Our demonstration provides a low-cost option to generate useful power for lab-on-chip applications and could be promising to rapidly screen and scale up microbial fuel cells for water purification without consuming excessive power (unlike other water treatment technologies).

  18. Microbial biofilm growth on irradiated, spent nuclear fuel cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, D. F.; Frank, S. M.; Roberto, F. F.; Pinhero, P. J.; Johnson, S. G.

    2009-02-01

    A fundamental criticism regarding the potential for microbial influenced corrosion in spent nuclear fuel cladding or storage containers concerns whether the required microorganisms can, in fact, survive radiation fields inherent in these materials. This study was performed to unequivocally answer this critique by addressing the potential for biofilm formation, the precursor to microbial-influenced corrosion, in radiation fields representative of spent nuclear fuel storage environments. This study involved the formation of a microbial biofilm on irradiated spent nuclear fuel cladding within a hot cell environment. This was accomplished by introducing 22 species of bacteria, in nutrient-rich media, to test vessels containing irradiated cladding sections and that was then surrounded by radioactive source material. The overall dose rate exceeded 2 Gy/h gamma/beta radiation with the total dose received by some of the bacteria reaching 5 × 10 3 Gy. This study provides evidence for the formation of biofilms on spent-fuel materials, and the implication of microbial influenced corrosion in the storage and permanent deposition of spent nuclear fuel in repository environments.

  19. Microbial contamination of stored hydrocarbon fuels and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaylarde Christine C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The major microbial problem in the petroleum refining industry is contamination of stored products, which can lead to loss of product quality, formation of sludge and deterioration of pipework and storage tanks, both in the refinery and at the end-user. Three major classes of fuel are discussed in this article - gasoline, aviation kerosene and diesel, corresponding to increasingly heavy petroleum fractions. The fuel that presents the most serious microbiological problems is diesel. The many microorganisms that have been isolated from hydrocarbon fuel systems are listed. The conditions required for microbial growth and the methods used to monitor and to control this activity are discussed. The effects of various fuel additives, including biocides, are considered.

  20. Functionally Stable and Phylogenetically Diverse Microbial Enrichments from Microbial Fuel Cells during Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Gorby, Yuri A.; Bretschger, Orianna

    2012-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to recover energy from organic matter in the form of electricity. One of the goals of MFC research is to develop the technology for cost-effective wastewater treatment. However, before practical MFC applications are implemented it is important to gain fundamental knowledge about long-term system performance, reproducibility, and the formation and maintenance of functionally-stable microbial communities. Here w...

  1. Capacitive Bioanodes Enable Renewable Energy Storage in Microbial Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deeke, A.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an integrated system for storage of renewable electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The system contained a capacitive electrode that was inserted into the anodic compartment of an MFC to form a capacitive bioanode. This capacitive bioanode was compared with a noncapacitive

  2. Scale up sediment microbial fuel cell for powering Led lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetendra Prasad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs are expected to be utilized as a sustainable power source for remote environmental observing 30 day’s investigations of experiment to understand the long-term performance of SMFCs. The point of this investigation is to increase power generation, 8 individual sediment microbial fuel cells is stacked together either in series or in hybrid connection. Two combinations, of the hybrid connection, are proving to be the more effective one, step-up both the voltage and current of the framework, mutually. Polarization curve tests are done for series and hybrid connected sediment microbial fuel cell. The maximum study state voltage and current are obtained 8.150V and 435.25µA from series and 4.078V and 870.75µA hybrid connected SMFC. This study suggests that power of SMFC scale-up by connecting series and hybrid for practical use of the device. Article History: Received : September 26th 2017; Received: December 24th 2017; Accepted: January 4th 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Prasad, J and Tripathi, R.K. (2018 Scale Up Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell For Powering Led Lighting. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 53-58. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.53-58

  3. The Microbial Fuel Cell as an Education Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Alim; Van Wie, Bernard; Beyenal, Haluk; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Many chemical engineering programs offer courses from a variety of disciplines to teach their students multidisciplinary concepts, but often these courses lack appropriate tools for linking newly learned concepts to principles learned in the core courses. This paper describes our experience of incorporating a microbial fuel cell education module…

  4. Microbial Fuel Cell Performance with a Pressurized Cathode Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) power densities are often constrained by the oxygen reduction reaction rate on the cathode electrode. One important factor for this is the normally low solubility of oxygen in the aqueous cathode solution creating mass transport limitations, which hinder oxygen reduction a...

  5. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...... of an effective system to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous recover energy....

  6. Compost in plant microbial fuel cell for bioelectricity generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moqsud, M.A.; Yoshitake, J.; Bushra, Q.S.; Hyodo, M.; Omine, K.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of organic waste is an important topic in developing countries as well as developed countries. Compost from organic waste has been used for soil conditioner. In this study, an experiment has been carried out to produce green energy (bioelectricity) by using paddy plant microbial fuel cells

  7. Performance improvement of whey-driven microbial fuel cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various methods are available for the recycling and treatment of cheese whey with the objective of enhancing sustainable manufacturing. Currently, an increasing interest is on the anaerobic bioremediation of whey with the added benefit of generating electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Since microorganisms are the ...

  8. Plant Microbial Fuel Cells; a new marine energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Helder, M.; Timmers, R.A.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide there is need for more clean, renewable, sustainable energy. Plant microbial fuel cells (Plant- MFCs) generate in-situ green electricity(Strik, Hamelers et al. 2008). How does this work? By photosynthesis the plant is capturing solar energy which is transformed into chemical energy as

  9. Effect of different substrate on performance of microbial fuel cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... electron donors by mixed culture of microorganisms in an anaerobic anode compartment. The maximum open circuit voltage achieved was 460 mV and the highest power and current density were 55.25 mW/m2 and 208.55 mA/m2, respectively. Key word: Biocatalysis, microbial fuel cell, substrate, palm oil, power density.

  10. Microbial Community Analysis of a Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Using Potato Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Li; Rishika Haynes; Eugene Sato; Malcolm Shields; Yoshiko Fujita; Chikashi Sato

    2014-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert chemical energy to electrical energy via bioelectrochemical reactions mediated by microorganisms. We investigated the diversity of the microbial community in an air cathode single chamber MFC that utilized potato-process wastewater as substrate. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) results indicated that the bacterial communities on the anode, cathode, control electrode, and MFC bulk fluid were similar, but differed dramatically from that of the anaerobic domestic sludge and potato wastewater inoculum. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that microbial species detected on the anode were predominantly within the phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Fluorescent microscopy results indicated that there was a clear enhancement of biofilm formation on the anode. Results of this study could help improve understanding of the complexity of microbial communities and optimize the microbial composition for generating electricity by MFCs that utilize potato wastewater.

  11. Microbial biocatalyst developments to upgrade fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbane, John J

    2006-06-01

    Steady increases in the average sulfur content of petroleum and stricter environmental regulations concerning the sulfur content have promoted studies of bioprocessing to upgrade fossil fuels. Bioprocesses can potentially provide a solution to the need for improved and expanded fuel upgrading worldwide, because bioprocesses for fuel upgrading do not require hydrogen and produce far less carbon dioxide than thermochemical processes. Recent advances have demonstrated that biodesulfurization is capable of removing sulfur from hydrotreated diesel to yield a product with an ultra-low sulfur concentration that meets current environmental regulations. However, the technology has not yet progressed beyond laboratory-scale testing, as more efficient biocatalysts are needed. Genetic studies to obtain improved biocatalysts for the selective removal of sulfur and nitrogen from petroleum provide the focus of current research efforts.

  12. Recent developments in microbial fuel cell technologies for sustainable bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya

    2008-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microbial catabolic activities to generate electricity from a variety of materials, including complex organic waste and renewable biomass. These sources provide MFCs with a great advantage over chemical fuel cells that can utilize only purified reactive fuels (e.g., hydrogen). A developing primary application of MFCs is its use in the production of sustainable bioenergy, e.g., organic waste treatment coupled with electricity generation, although further technical developments are necessary for its practical use. In this article, recent advances in MFC technologies that can become fundamentals for future practical MFC developments are summarized. Results of recent studies suggest that MFCs will be of practical use in the near future and will become a preferred option among sustainable bioenergy processes.

  13. Microbial Biotechnology 2020; microbiology of fossil fuel resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2016-09-01

    This roadmap examines the future of microbiology research and technology in fossil fuel energy recovery. Globally, the human population will be reliant on fossil fuels for energy and chemical feedstocks for at least the medium term. Microbiology is already important in many areas relevant to both upstream and downstream activities in the oil industry. However, the discipline has struggled for recognition in a world dominated by geophysicists and engineers despite widely known but still poorly understood microbially mediated processes e.g. reservoir biodegradation, reservoir souring and control, microbial enhanced oil recovery. The role of microbiology is even less understood in developing industries such as shale gas recovery by fracking or carbon capture by geological storage. In the future, innovative biotechnologies may offer new routes to reduced emissions pathways especially when applied to the vast unconventional heavy oil resources formed, paradoxically, from microbial activities in the geological past. However, despite this potential, recent low oil prices may make industry funding hard to come by and recruitment of microbiologists by the oil and gas industry may not be a high priority. With regards to public funded research and the imperative for cheap secure energy for economic growth in a growing world population, there are signs of inherent conflicts between policies aimed at a low carbon future using renewable technologies and policies which encourage technologies which maximize recovery from our conventional and unconventional fossil fuel assets. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Performance optimization and microbiological analysis of microbial fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun WANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the operation performance of microbial fuel cells, improved the degradation rate of nitrate and the power output of microbial fuel cell, a typical single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (AC-MFC is inoculated and operated with urban sewage treatment plant clarifier sludge as inoculum source and sodium nitrate as electron acceptor. It is successfully started by synthetic wastewater containing a phosphate buffered nutrient solution (PBS, 50 mmol/L and sodium acetate (1 g/L. After successful starting, the four factors of carbon source, C/N, nitrate concentration and temperature are considered to optimize the operation performance of MFC. The test result shows that the operation performance of MFC is best under the conditions of anhydrous sodium acetate as carbon source, C/N of 5∶1, 200 mg/L nitrate concentration and at 30 ℃, and the degradation rate of nitrate reaches more than 90% and the voltage of MFC is 0.462 V. After 6 cycles of operation, the voltage and power density of MFC reaches 0.62 V and 4.53 W /m2. AC impedance analysis indicates that the MFC resistance is 130 Ω. Scanning electron microscopy of electrode surface illustrates that the number of microbial species are significantly increased. The results indicate that MFC can be an effective technology for nitrate contained wastewater treatment and energy production.

  15. Assessment of Microbial Fuel Cell Configurations and Power Densities

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2015-07-30

    Different microbial electrochemical technologies are being developed for a many diverse applications, including wastewater treatment, biofuel production, water desalination, remote power sources, and as biosensors. Current and energy densities will always be limited relative to batteries and chemical fuel cells, but these technologies have other advantages based on the self-sustaining nature of the microorganisms that can donate or accept electrons from an electrode, the range of fuels that can be used, and versatility in the chemicals that can be produced. The high cost of membranes will likely limit applications of microbial electrochemical technologies that might require a membrane. For microbial fuel cells, which do not need a membrane, questions remain on whether larger-scale systems can produce power densities similar to those obtained in laboratory-scale systems. It is shown here that configuration and fuel (pure chemicals in laboratory media versus actual wastewaters) remain the key factors in power production, rather than the scale of the application. Systems must be scaled up through careful consideration of electrode spacing and packing per unit volume of reactor.

  16. Electricity generation from the mud by using microbial fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Sitinoor Adeib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs is a bio-electrochemical device that harnesses the power of respiring microbes to convert organic substrates directly into electrical energy. This is achieved when bacteria transfer electrons to an electrode rather than directly to an electron acceptor. Their technical feasibility has recently been proven and there is great enthusiasm in the scientific community that MFCs could provide a source of “green electricity”. Microbial fuel cells work by allowing bacteria to do what they do best, oxidize and reduce organic molecules. Bacterial respiration is basically one big redox reaction in which electrons are being moved around. The objective is to generate electricity throughout the biochemical process using chemical waste basically sludge, via microbial fuel cells. The methodology includes collecting sludge from different locations, set up microbial fuel cells with the aid of salt bridge and observing the results in voltage measurement. The microbial fuel cells consist of two chambers, iron electrodes, copper wire, air pump (to increase the efficiency of electron transfer, water, sludge and salt bridge. After several observations, it is seen that this MFC can achieve up until 202 milivolts (0.202volts with the presence of air pump. It is proven through the experiments that sludge from different locations gives different results in term of the voltage measurement. This is basically because in different locations of sludge contain different type and amount of nutrients to provide the growth of bacteria. Apart from that, salt bridge also play an important role in order to transport the proton from cathode to anode. A longer salt bridge will give a higher voltage compared to a short salt bridge. On the other hand, the limitations that this experiment facing is the voltage that being produced did not last long as the bacteria activity slows down gradually and the voltage produced are not really great in amount. Lastly to

  17. Development of the continuous casting technology for fabrication of the tubular fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, C. K.; Lee, D. B.; Oh, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    In the irradiation test of the U-Mo dispersed nuclear fuel that is used as nuclear fuels for research reactors, it was recognized that the swelling due to reaction between U-Mo particle and Al matrix caused some failures of the fuel claddings. The development of new style nuclear fuel that could minimize the reaction between U-Mo particles and Al matrix was needed. Tube style nuclear fuel was judged to be suitable as new style nuclear fuel. We targeted to make U-Mo tube of diameter 10mm, thinner than 1mm thick, because temperature distribution of tube style nuclear fuel will be expected to have a good performance. We used continuous casting technology to make tube style nuclear fuel. In this research, we have tried to make tube using copper before we make U-Mo tube style nuclear fuel by continuous casting method. As a result of the experiment, we succeeded to make copper tube of diameter 10mm, thickness 1mm

  18. Analysis and optimization of a tubular SOFC, using nuclear hydrogen as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Daniel G.; Parra, Lazaro R.G.; Fernandez, Carlos R.G., E-mail: dgr@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, Habana (Cuba). Dept. de Ingenieria Nuclear; Lira, Carlos A.B.O., E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    One of the main areas of hydrogen uses as an energy carrier is in fuel cells of high standards as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The SOFCs are fuel cells operate at high temperatures making them ideal for use in large power systems, suitable for distributed generation of electricity. Optimization and analysis of these electrochemical devices is an area of great current study. The computational fluid dynamics software (CFD) have unique advantages for analyzing the influence of design parameters on the efficiency of fuel cells. This paper presents a SOFC design cell which employ as fuel hydrogen produced by thermochemical water splitting cycle (I-S). There will be done the optimization of the main parameters thermodynamic and electrochemical cell operating to achieve top performance. Also will be estimate the cell efficiency and a production-consumption hydrogen system. (author)

  19. Analysis and optimization of a tubular SOFC, using nuclear hydrogen as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Daniel G.; Parra, Lazaro R.G.; Fernandez, Carlos R.G.; Lira, Carlos A.B.O.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main areas of hydrogen uses as an energy carrier is in fuel cells of high standards as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The SOFCs are fuel cells operate at high temperatures making them ideal for use in large power systems, suitable for distributed generation of electricity. Optimization and analysis of these electrochemical devices is an area of great current study. The computational fluid dynamics software (CFD) have unique advantages for analyzing the influence of design parameters on the efficiency of fuel cells. This paper presents a SOFC design cell which employ as fuel hydrogen produced by thermochemical water splitting cycle (I-S). There will be done the optimization of the main parameters thermodynamic and electrochemical cell operating to achieve top performance. Also will be estimate the cell efficiency and a production-consumption hydrogen system. (author)

  20. [Microbial fuel cells as an alternative power supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, V K; Smirnov, I A; Soldatov, P É; Korshunov, D V; Tiurin-Kuz'min, A Iu; Starkova, L V; Chumakov, P E; Emel'ianova, L K; Novikova, L M; Debabov, V G; Voeĭkova, T A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the work was designing and prototyping of microbial fuel cells (MFC) and comparative evaluation of the electrogenic activity of wastewater autochthonous microorganisms as well as bacterial monocultures. Objects were model electrogenic strain Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and an Ochrobactrum sp. strain isolated from the active anode biofilm of MFC composed as an electricity generating system. The study employed the methods typically used for aerobic and anaerobic strains, current measurement, identification of new electrogenic strains in microbial association of wastewater sludge and species definition by rRNA 16-S. As a result, two MFCs prototypes were tried out. Besides, it was shown that electrogenic activity of S. oneidensis MR-1 and Ochrobactrum sp. monocultures is similar but differs from that of the microbial association of the anode biofilm.

  1. Electricity production from microbial fuel cell by using yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorasingha, A.; Souvakon, C.; Boonchom, K.

    2006-01-01

    The continuous search for methods to generate electricity from renewable sources such as water, solar energy, wind, nuclear or chemicals was discussed with particular focus on attaining the full power of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). Under ideal environmental conditions, the only byproducts of a biofuel cell would be water and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The production of energy from renewables such as biomass is important for sustainable development and reducing global emissions of CO 2 . Hydrogen can also be an important component of an energy infrastructure that reduces CO 2 emissions if the hydrogen is produced from renewable sources and used in fuel cells. Hydrogen gas can be biologically produced at high concentration from the fermentation of high sugar substrates such as glucose and sucrose. Some of the issues of MFC design were addressed, including the use of cheap substrates to derive microbial electricity. In the MFC, yeast donates electrons to a chemical electron mediator, which in turn transfers the electrons to an electrode, producing electricity. Experimental results showed that glucose yielded the highest peak voltage, but a semi-processed sugar and molasses were similar to glucose in the electricity production pattern. It was noted that this technology is only at the research stages, and more research is needed before household microbial fuel cells can be made available for producing power for prolonged periods of time. Future research efforts will focus on increasing the efficiency, finding alternatives to hazardous electron mediators and finding new microbes. 12 refs., 6 figs

  2. Microbial contamination control in fuels and fuel systems since 1980 - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passman, Frederick J. [Biodeterioration Control Associates, Inc (United States)], email: fredp@biodeterioration-control.com

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a review of microbial contamination control in fuel and fuel systems. Some examples of the biodeterioration of components of fuel systems are given. Root cause analysis (RCA) and modeling can help in condition monitoring of fuel systems. RCA is a systematic process that starts after symptoms become apparent and facilitates improvement. Modeling, by contrast, starts before the problem occurs and the objective is to improve understanding of the process. Some of the different areas creating risk due to the process are climate, microbiology, chemistry, maintenance, and engineering. Condition monitoring is explained in detail, using representative samples. Contamination control plays a very important role. Various aspects of microbial contamination control are design, inventory control, house keeping and remediation. These aspects are explained in detail, using various examples. Since the deterioration cost involved is very high, its is important to avoid this problem by reducing the quantity of water used and using better risk assessment models.

  3. Simulation of a tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack using AspenPlusTM unit operation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Croiset, E.; Douglas, P.L.; Fowler, M.W.; Entchev, E.

    2005-01-01

    The design of a fuel cell system involves both optimization of the fuel cell stack and the balance of plant with respect to efficiency and economics. Many commercially available process simulators, such as AspenPlus TM , can facilitate the analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. A SOFC system may include fuel pre-processors, heat exchangers, turbines, bottoming cycles, etc., all of which can be very effectively modelled in process simulation software. The current challenge is that AspenPlus TM or any other commercial process simulators do not have a model of a basic SOFC stack. Therefore, to enable performing SOFC system simulation using one of these simulators, one must construct an SOFC stack model that can be implemented in them. The most common approach is to develop a complete SOFC model in a programming language, such as Fortran, Visual Basic or C++, first and then link it to a commercial process simulator as a user defined model or subroutine. This paper introduces a different approach to the development of a SOFC model by utilizing existing AspenPlus TM functions and existing unit operation modules. The developed ''AspenPlus TM SOFC'' model is able to provide detailed thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the SOFC operation and can easily be extended to study the entire power plant consisting of the SOFC and the balance of plant without the requirement for linking with other software. Validation of this model is performed by comparison to a Siemens-Westinghouse 100 kW class tubular SOFC stack. Sensitivity analyses of major operating parameters, such as utilization factor (U f ), current density (I c ) and steam-carbon ratio (S/C), were performed using the developed model, and the results are discussed in this paper

  4. Segregation of the anodic microbial communities in a microbial fuel cell cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas eHodgson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic interactions within microbial communities are essential for the efficient degradation of complex organic compounds, and underpin natural phenomena driven by microorganisms, such as the recycling of carbon-, nitrogen-, and sulphur-containing molecules. These metabolic interactions ultimately determine the function, activity and stability of the community, and therefore their understanding would be essential to steer processes where microbial communities are involved. This is exploited in the design of microbial fuel cells (MFCs, bioelectrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy present in substrates into electrical energy through the metabolic activity of microorganisms, either single species or communities. In this work, we analysed the evolution of the microbial community structure in a cascade of microbial fuel cells (MFCs inoculated with an anaerobic microbial community and continuously fed with a complex medium. The analysis of the composition of the anodic communities revealed the establishment of different communities in the anodes of the hydraulically connected MFCs, with a decrease in the abundance of fermentative taxa and a concurrent increase in respiratory taxa along the cascade. The analysis of the metabolites in the anodic suspension showed a metabolic shift between the first and last MFC, confirming the segregation of the anodic communities. Those results suggest a metabolic interaction mechanism between the predominant fermentative bacteria at the first stages of the cascade and the anaerobic respiratory electrogenic population in the latter stages, which is reflected in the observed increase in power output. We show that our experimental system represents an ideal platform for optimization of processes where the degradation of complex substrates is involved, as well as a potential tool for the study of metabolic interactions in complex microbial communities.

  5. Microbial fuel cells for clogging assessment in constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbella, Clara; García, Joan; Puigagut, Jaume, E-mail: jaume.puigagut@upc.edu

    2016-11-01

    Clogging in HSSF CW may result in a reduction of system's life-span or treatment efficiency. Current available techniques to assess the degree of clogging in HSSF CW are time consuming and cannot be applied on a continuous basis. Main objective of this work was to assess the potential applicability of microbial fuel cells for continuous clogging assessment in HSSF CW. To this aim, two replicates of a membrane-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) were built up and operated under laboratory conditions for five weeks. The MFC anode was gravel-based to simulate the filter media of HSSF CW. MFC were weekly loaded with sludge that had been accumulating for several years in a pilot HSSF CW treating domestic wastewater. Sludge loading ranged from ca. 20 kg TS·m{sup −} {sup 3} CW·year{sup −} {sup 1} at the beginning of the study period up to ca. 250 kg TS·m{sup −} {sup 3} CW·year{sup −} {sup 1} at the end of the study period. Sludge loading applied resulted in sludge accumulated within the MFC equivalent to a clogging degree ranging from 0.2 years (ca. 0.5 kg TS·m{sup –3}CW) to ca. 5 years (ca. 10 kg TS·m{sup –3}CW). Results showed that the electric charge was negatively correlated to the amount of sludge accumulated (degree of clogging). Electron transference (expressed as electric charge) almost ceased when accumulated sludge within the MFC was equivalent to ca. 5 years of clogging (ca. 10 kg TS·m{sup –3}CW). This result suggests that, although longer study periods under more realistic conditions shall be further performed, HSSF CW operated as a MFC has great potential for clogging assessment. - Highlights: • Microbial fuel cells are used as tool for clogging assessment in constructed wetlands. • Microbial fuel cells were loaded with sludge from constructed wetlands. • Sludge retained within the systems simulated a clogging time ranging from 0.2 to ca. 5 years. • Electrons transferred decreased potentially as function of sludge loading.

  6. Microbial catalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction for microbial fuel cells: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erable, Benjamin; Féron, Damien; Bergel, Alain

    2012-06-01

    The slow kinetics of the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a crucial bottleneck in the development of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This article firstly gives an overview of the particular constraints imposed on ORR by MFC operating conditions: neutral pH, slow oxygen mass transfer, sensitivity to reactive oxygen species, fouling and biofouling. A review of the literature is then proposed to assess how microbial catalysis could afford suitable solutions. Actually, microbial catalysis of ORR occurs spontaneously on the surface of metallic materials and is an effective motor of microbial corrosion. In this framework, several mechanisms have been proposed, which are reviewed in the second part of the article. The last part describes the efforts made in the domain of MFCs to determine the microbial ecology of electroactive biofilms and define efficient protocols for the formation of microbial oxygen-reducing cathodes. Although no clear mechanism has been established yet, several promising solutions have been recently proposed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Microbial communities involved in electricity generation from sulfide oxidation in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Chen, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Feng; Mu, Zhe-Xuan; Wang, Hua-Lin; Zeng, Raymond J; Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Wei, Li; Ma, Fang

    2010-10-15

    Simultaneous electricity generation and sulfide removal can be achieved in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). In electricity harvesting from sulfide oxidation in such an MFC, various microbial communities are involved. It is essential to elucidate the microbial communities and their roles in the sulfide conversion and electricity generation. In this work, an MFC was constructed to enrich a microbial consortium, which could harvest electricity from sulfide oxidation. Electrochemical analysis demonstrated that microbial catalysis was involved in electricity output in the sulfide-fed MFC. The anode-attached and planktonic communities could perform catalysis independently, and synergistic interactions occurred when the two communities worked together. A 16S rRNA clone library analysis was employed to characterize the microbial communities in the MFC. The anode-attached and planktonic communities shared similar richness and diversity, while the LIBSHUFF analysis revealed that the two community structures were significantly different. The exoelectrogenic, sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria were found in the MFC anodic chamber. The discovery of these bacteria was consistent with the community characteristics for electricity generation from sulfide oxidation. The exoelectrogenic bacteria were found both on the anode and in the solution. The sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were present in greater abundance on the anode than in the solution, while the sulfate-reducing bacteria preferably lived in the solution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inocula selection in microbial fuel cells based on anodic biofilm abundance of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Guotao; Rodrigues, Diogo De Sacadura; Thygesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) rely on microbial conversion of organic substrates to electricity. The optimal performance depends on the establishment of a microbial community rich in electrogenic bacteria. Usually this microbial community is established from inoculation of the MFC anode chamber...

  9. Anode microbial communities produced by changing from microbial fuel cell to microbial electrolysis cell operation using two different wastewaters

    KAUST Repository

    Kiely, Patrick D.

    2011-01-01

    Conditions in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) differ from those in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) due to the intrusion of oxygen through the cathode and the release of H2 gas into solution. Based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, anode communities in reactors fed acetic acid decreased in species richness and diversity, and increased in numbers of Geobacter sulfurreducens, when reactors were shifted from MFCs to MECs. With a complex source of organic matter (potato wastewater), the proportion of Geobacteraceae remained constant when MFCs were converted into MECs, but the percentage of clones belonging to G. sulfurreducens decreased and the percentage of G. metallireducens clones increased. A dairy manure wastewater-fed MFC produced little power, and had more diverse microbial communities, but did not generate current in an MEC. These results show changes in Geobacter species in response to the MEC environment and that higher species diversity is not correlated with current. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Parametric exergy analysis of a tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack through finite-volume model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, F.; Ferruzzi, G.; Vanoli, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a very detailed local exergy analysis of a tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack. In particular, a complete parametric analysis has been carried out, in order to assess the effects of the synthesis/design parameters on the local irreversibilities in the components of the stack. A finite-volume axial-symmetric model of the tubular internal reforming Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stack under investigation has been used. The stack consists of: SOFC tubes, tube-in-tube pre-reformer and tube and shell catalytic burner. The model takes into account the effects of heat/mass transfer and chemical/electrochemical reactions. The model allows one to predict the performance of a SOFC stack once a series of design and operative parameters are fixed, but also to investigate the source and localization of inefficiency. To this scope, an exergy analysis was implemented. The SOFC tube, the pre-reformer and the catalytic burner are discretized along their longitudinal axes. Detailed models of the kinetics of the reforming, catalytic combustion and electrochemical reactions are implemented. Pressure drops, convection heat transfer and overvoltages are calculated on the basis of the work previously developed by the authors. The heat transfer model includes the contribution of thermal radiation, so improving the models previously used by the authors. Radiative heat transfer is calculated on the basis of the slice-to-slice configuration factors and corresponding radiosities. On the basis of this thermochemical model, an exergy analysis has been carried out, in order to localize the sources and the magnitude of irreversibilities along the components of the stack. In addition, the main synthesis/design variables were varied in order to assess their effect on the exergy destruction within the component to which the parameter directly refers ('endogenous' contribution) and on the exergy destruction of all remaining components ('exogenous' contribution). Then, this analysis

  11. Comparison of electrochemical performances and microbial community structures of two photosynthetic microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Cai, Teng; Huang, Manhong; Chen, Donghui

    2017-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have attracted intensive interest for their power generation and pollutants removal characteristics. Electrochemical performances and community structures of two algae cathode photosynthetic MFCs were investigated and compared. Microbial consortia of these two MFCs were taken from wetland sediment (named SMFC) and an up-flow anaerobic wastewater treatment reactor (named UMFC). Maximum power density of the SMFC and UMFC achieved 202.9 ± 18.1 mW/m 2 and 158.2±15.1 mW/m 2 , respectively. The SMFC displayed higher columbic efficiency but lower chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency than that of UMFC. The results also revealed the addition of riboflavin (RF) and neutral red (NR) decreased the redox current of the SMFC but promoted that of UMFC. Community structure analysis showed the SMFC was dominated by photosynthetic genus Rhodopseudomonas (61.25%), while bacterial genera in the UMFC were more evenly distributed. The difference of electrochemical activities of the two MFCs was caused by the different roles of exoelectrogens such as Rhodopseudomonas spp. and Citrobacter spp. in the electron transfer process. Newly developed photosynthetic microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) provide a suitable process to generate power and remove pollutants. The consortia have a significant role in the performance and microbial community of the system. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversity and function of the microbial community on anodes of sediment microbial fuel cells fueled by root exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas da Rosa, Angela

    2010-11-26

    Anode microbial communities are essential for current production in microbial fuel cells. Anode reducing bacteria are capable of using the anode as final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain. The electrons delivered to the anode travel through a circuit to the cathode where they reduce oxygen to water generating an electric current. A novel type of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) harvest energy from photosynthetically derived compounds released through the roots. Nothing is known about anode microbial communities of this type of microbial fuel cell. This work consists of three parts. The first part focuses on the study of bacterial and archaeal community compositions on anodes of SMFCs fueled by rice root exudates. By using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), a profiling technique, and cloning / sequencing of 16S rRNA, we determined that the support type used for the plant (vermiculite, potting soil or rice field soil) is an important factor determining the composition of the microbial community. Finally, by comparing microbial communities of current producing anodes and non-current producing controls we determined that Desulfobulbus- and Geobacter-related populations were probably most important for current production in potting soil and rice field soil SMFCs, respectively. However, {delta}-proteobacterial Anaeromyxobacter spp., unclassified {delta}-proteobacteria and Anaerolineae were also part of the anode biofilm in rice field soil SMFCs and these populations might also play a role in current production. Moreover, distinct clusters of Geobacter and Anaeromyxobacter populations were stimulated by rice root exudates. Regarding Archaea, uncultured Euryarchaea were abundant on anodes of potting soil SMFCs indicating a potential role in current production. In both, rice field soil and potting soil SMFCs, a decrease of Methanosaeta, an acetotrophic methanogen, was detected on current producing anodes. In the second part we focused

  13. Microbial transformations of radionuclides released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed. (author)

  14. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  15. An overview of electron acceptors in microbial fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucar, Deniz; Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) have recently received increasing attention due to their promising potential in sustainable wastewater treatment and contaminant removal. In general, contaminants can be removed either as an electron donor via microbial catalyzed oxidization at the anode or removed...... as an electron acceptor due to its high oxidation potential and ready availability. Recent studies, however, have begun to assess the use of different electron acceptors because of the (1) diversity of redox potential, (2) needs of alternative and more efficient cathode reaction, and (3) expanding of MFC based...... technologies in different areas. The aim of this review was to evaluate the performance and applicability of various electron acceptors and mediators used in MFCs. This review also evaluated the corresponding performance, advantages and disadvantages, and future potential applications of select electron...

  16. Engineering microbial electrocatalysis for chemical and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Miriam A; Henrich, Alexander W

    2014-10-01

    In many biotechnological areas, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have become core technologies for biocatalyst development. Microbial electrocatalysis for biochemical and fuel production is still in its infancy and reactions rates and the product spectrum are currently very low. Therefore, molecular engineering strategies will be crucial for the advancement and realization of many new bioproduction routes using electroactive microorganisms. The complex and unresolved biochemistry and physiology of extracellular electron transfer and the lack of molecular tools for these new non-model hosts for genetic engineering constitute the major challenges for this effort. This review is providing an insight into the current status, challenges and promising approaches of pathway engineering for microbial electrocatalysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Functionally stable and phylogenetically diverse microbial enrichments from microbial fuel cells during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Nealson, Kenneth H; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Gorby, Yuri A; Bretschger, Orianna

    2012-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to recover energy from organic matter in the form of electricity. One of the goals of MFC research is to develop the technology for cost-effective wastewater treatment. However, before practical MFC applications are implemented it is important to gain fundamental knowledge about long-term system performance, reproducibility, and the formation and maintenance of functionally-stable microbial communities. Here we report findings from a MFC operated for over 300 days using only primary clarifier effluent collected from a municipal wastewater treatment plant as the microbial resource and substrate. The system was operated in a repeat-batch mode, where the reactor solution was replaced once every two weeks with new primary effluent that consisted of different microbial and chemical compositions with every batch exchange. The turbidity of the primary clarifier effluent solution notably decreased, and 97% of biological oxygen demand (BOD) was removed after an 8-13 day residence time for each batch cycle. On average, the limiting current density was 1000 mA/m(2), the maximum power density was 13 mW/m(2), and coulombic efficiency was 25%. Interestingly, the electrochemical performance and BOD removal rates were very reproducible throughout MFC operation regardless of the sample variability associated with each wastewater exchange. While MFC performance was very reproducible, the phylogenetic analyses of anode-associated electricity-generating biofilms showed that the microbial populations temporally fluctuated and maintained a high biodiversity throughout the year-long experiment. These results suggest that MFC communities are both self-selecting and self-optimizing, thereby able to develop and maintain functional stability regardless of fluctuations in carbon source(s) and regular introduction of microbial competitors. These results contribute significantly toward the practical application

  18. Functionally stable and phylogenetically diverse microbial enrichments from microbial fuel cells during wastewater treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun'ichi Ishii

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are devices that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to recover energy from organic matter in the form of electricity. One of the goals of MFC research is to develop the technology for cost-effective wastewater treatment. However, before practical MFC applications are implemented it is important to gain fundamental knowledge about long-term system performance, reproducibility, and the formation and maintenance of functionally-stable microbial communities. Here we report findings from a MFC operated for over 300 days using only primary clarifier effluent collected from a municipal wastewater treatment plant as the microbial resource and substrate. The system was operated in a repeat-batch mode, where the reactor solution was replaced once every two weeks with new primary effluent that consisted of different microbial and chemical compositions with every batch exchange. The turbidity of the primary clarifier effluent solution notably decreased, and 97% of biological oxygen demand (BOD was removed after an 8-13 day residence time for each batch cycle. On average, the limiting current density was 1000 mA/m(2, the maximum power density was 13 mW/m(2, and coulombic efficiency was 25%. Interestingly, the electrochemical performance and BOD removal rates were very reproducible throughout MFC operation regardless of the sample variability associated with each wastewater exchange. While MFC performance was very reproducible, the phylogenetic analyses of anode-associated electricity-generating biofilms showed that the microbial populations temporally fluctuated and maintained a high biodiversity throughout the year-long experiment. These results suggest that MFC communities are both self-selecting and self-optimizing, thereby able to develop and maintain functional stability regardless of fluctuations in carbon source(s and regular introduction of microbial competitors. These results contribute significantly toward the

  19. Enhancement of electricity production by graphene oxide in soil microbial fuel cells and plant microbial fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko eGoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of graphene oxide (GO on electricity generation in soil microbial fuel cells (SMFCs and plant microbial fuel cell (PMFCs were investigated. GO at concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.9 g•kg-1 was added to soil and reduced for 10 days under anaerobic incubation. All SMFCs (GO-SMFCs utilizing the soils incubated with GO produced electricity at a greater rate and in higher quantities than the SMFCs which did not contain GO. In fed-batch operations, the overall average electricity generation in GO-SMFCs containing 1.0 g•kg-1 of GO was 40 ± 19 mW•m-2, which was significantly higher than the value of 6.6 ± 8.9 mW•m-2 generated from GO-free SMFCs (p -2 of electricity after 27 days of operation. Collectively, this study demonstrates that GO added to soil can be microbially reduced in soil, and facilitates electron transfer to the anode in both SMFCs and PMFCs.

  20. High-fidelity stack and system modeling for tubular solid oxide fuel cell system design and thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattke, K. J.; Braun, R. J.; Colclasure, A. M.; Goldin, G.

    Effective thermal integration of system components is critical to the performance of small-scale (design and simulation tool for a highly-integrated tubular SOFC system. The SOFC is modeled using a high fidelity, one-dimensional tube model coupled to a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Recuperative heat exchange between SOFC tail-gas and inlet cathode air and reformer air/fuel preheat processes are captured within the CFD model. Quasi one-dimensional thermal resistance models of the tail-gas combustor (TGC) and catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx) complete the balance of plant (BoP) and SOFC coupling. The simulation tool is demonstrated on a prototype 66-tube SOFC system with 650 W of nominal gross power. Stack cooling predominately occurs at the external surface of the tubes where radiation accounts for 66-92% of heat transfer. A strong relationship develops between the power output of a tube and its view factor to the relatively cold cylinder wall surrounding the bundle. The bundle geometry yields seven view factor groupings which correspond to seven power groupings with tube powers ranging from 7.6-10.8 W. Furthermore, the low effectiveness of the co-flow recuperator contributes to lower tube powers at the bundle outer periphery.

  1. Progress of air-breathing cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zejie; Mahadevan, Gurumurthy Dummi; Wu, Yicheng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging technology to produce green energy and vanquish the effects of environmental contaminants. Cathodic reactions are vital for high electrical power density generated from MFCs. Recently tremendous attentions were paid towards developing high performance air-breathing cathodes. A typical air-breathing cathode comprises of electrode substrate, catalyst layer, and air-diffusion layer. Prior researches demonstrated that each component influenced the performance of air-breathing cathode MFCs. This review summarized the progress in development of the individual component and elaborated main factors to the performance of air-breathing cathode.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of anode-supported micro-tubular solide oxide fuel cell by phase inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cong

    Nowadays, the micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs), especially the anode supported MT-SOFCs have been extensively developed to be applied for SOFC stacks designation, which can be potentially used for portable power sources and vehicle power supply. To prepare MT-SOFCs with high electrochemical performance, one of the main strategies is to optimize the microstructure of the anode support. Recently, a novel phase inversion method has been applied to prepare the anode support with a unique asymmetrical microstructure, which can improve the electrochemical performance of the MT-SOFCs. Since several process parameters of the phase inversion method can influence the pore formation mechanism and final microstructure, it is essential and necessary to systematically investigate the relationship between phase inversion process parameters and final microstructure of the anode supports. The objective of this study is aiming at correlating the process parameters and microstructure and further preparing MT-SOFCs with enhanced electrochemical performance. Non-solvent, which is used to trigger the phase separation process, can significantly influence the microstructure of the anode support fabricated by phase inversion method. To investigate the mechanism of non-solvent affecting the microstructure, water and ethanol/water mixture were selected for the NiO-YSZ anode supports fabrication. The presence of ethanol in non-solvent can inhibit the growth of the finger-like pores in the tubes. With the increasing of the ethanol concentration in the non-solvent, a relatively dense layer can be observed both in the outside and inside of the tubes. The mechanism of pores growth and morphology obtained by using non-solvent with high concentration ethanol was explained based on the inter-diffusivity between solvent and non-solvent. Solvent and non-solvent pair with larger Dm value is benefit for the growth of finger-like pores. Three cells with different anode geometries was

  3. Scalable microbial fuel cell (MFC) stack for continuous real wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Li; Zheng, Yu; Zhou, Shungui; Yuan, Yong; Yuan, Haoran; Chen, Yong

    2012-02-01

    A tubular air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) stack with high scalability and low material cost was constructed and the ability of simultaneous real wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation was investigated under continuous flow mode. At the two organic loading rates (ORLs) tested (1.2 and 4.9kg COD/m(3)d), five non-Pt MFCs connected in series and parallel circuit modes treating swine wastewater can enable an increase of the voltage and the current. The parallel stack retained high power output and the series connection underwent energy loss due to the substrate cross-conduction effect. With continuous electricity production, the parallel stack achieved 83.8% of COD removal and 90.8% of NH(4)(+)-N removal at 1.2kg COD/m(3)d, and 77.1% COD removal and 80.7% NH(4)(+)-N removal at 4.9kg COD/m(3)d. The MFC stack system in this study was demonstrated to be able to treat real wastewater with the added benefit of harvesting electricity energy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Construction and operation of microbial fuel cell with Chlorella vulgaris biocathode for electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia-yuan; Song, Tian-shun; Zhu, Xu-jun; Wei, Ping; Zhou, Charles C

    2013-12-01

    In this study, a modified microbial fuel cell (MFC) with a tubular photobioreactor (PHB) configuration as a cathode compartment was constructed by introducing Chlorella vulgaris to the cathode chamber used to generate oxygen in situ. Two types of cathode materials and light/dark cycles were used to test the effect on MFC with algae biocathode. Results showed that the use of algae is an effective approach because these organisms can act as efficient in situ oxygenators, thereby facilitating the cathodic reaction. Dissolved oxygen and voltage output displayed a clear light positive response and were drastically enhanced compared with the abiotic cathode. In particular, carbon paper-coated Pt used as a cathode electrode increased voltage output at a higher extent than carbon felt used as an electrode. The maximum power density of 24.4 mW/m2 was obtained from the MFC with algae biocathode which utilized the carbon paper-coated Pt as the cathode electrode under intermittent illumination. This density was 2.8 times higher than that of the abiotic cathode. Continuous illumination shortened the algal lifetime. These results demonstrated that intermittent illumination and cathode material-coated catalyst are beneficial to a more efficient and prolonged operation of MFC with C. vulgaris biocathode.

  5. Biotreatment of Slaughterhouse Wastewater Accompanied with Electrcity Generation and Nutrients Recovery in Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ziad Ismail

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years and decades, there is a great need for developing new alternative energy sources or renewable sustainable energy. On the other hand, new technology approaches are growing . towards benefits from the valuable nutrients in wastewater which are unrecoverable by traditional wastewater treatment processes. In the current study, a novel integrated system of microbial fuel cell and anoxic bioreactor (MFC-ANB was designed and constructed to investigate its potential for slaughterhouses wastewater treatment, nitrogen recovery, and power generation. The system consisted of a double-chamber tubular type MFC with biocathode inoculated with freshly collected activated sludge. The MFC-ANB system was continuously fed with real-field slaughterhouse wastewater, with initial concentrations of COD and ammonium were 990 mg/L and 200 mg-N/L, respectively. The MFC-ANB system was operated for a total period of 43 days. Maximum removal efficiencies of COD, ammonium, nitrate, nitrogen recovery, Columbic efficiency, and power generation were 99%, 99.3%, 100%, 100%, 13.37% and 162.22 mW/m2 , respectively.

  6. Power generation using an activated carbon fiber felt cathode in an upflow microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Qian

    2010-02-01

    An activated carbon fiber felt (ACFF) cathode lacking metal catalysts is used in an upflow microbial fuel cell (UMFC). The maximum power density with the ACFF cathode is 315 mW m-2, compared to lower values with cathodes made of plain carbon paper (67 mW m-2), carbon felt (77 mW m-2), or platinum-coated carbon paper (124 mW m-2, 0.2 mg-Pt cm-2). The addition of platinum to the ACFF cathode (0.2 mg-Pt cm-2) increases the maximum power density to 391 mW m-2. Power production is further increased to 784 mW m-2 by increasing the cathode surface area and shaping it into a tubular form. With ACFF cutting into granules, the maximum power is 481 mW m-2 (0.5 cm granules), and 667 mW m-2 (1.0 cm granules). These results show that ACFF cathodes lacking metal catalysts can be used to substantially increase power production in UMFC compared to traditional materials lacking a precious metal catalyst. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  7. High power density yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Rahul

    Microbial fuel cells leverage whole cell biocatalysis to convert the energy stored in energy-rich renewable biomolecules such as sugar, directly to electrical energy at high efficiencies. Advantages of the process include ambient temperature operation, operation in natural streams such as wastewater without the need to clean electrodes, minimal balance-of-plant requirements compared to conventional fuel cells, and environmentally friendly operation. These make the technology very attractive as portable power sources and waste-to-energy converters. The principal problem facing the technology is the low power densities compared to other conventional portable power sources such as batteries and traditional fuel cells. In this work we examined the yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cell and developed methods to increase the power density from such fuel cells. A combination of cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption measurements were used to establish significant adsorption of electron mediators by the microbes. Mediator adsorption was demonstrated to be an important limitation in achieving high power densities in yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cells. Specifically, the power densities are low for the length of time mediator adsorption continues to occur. Once the mediator adsorption stops, the power densities increase. Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used to extract reaction rate information, and a simple kinetic expression was developed for the current observed in the anodic half-cell. Since the rate expression showed that the current was directly related to microbe concentration close to the electrode, methods to increase cell mass attached to the anode was investigated. Electrically biased electrodes were demonstrated to develop biofilm-like layers of the Baker's yeast with a high concentration of cells directly connected to the electrode. The increased cell mass did increase the power density 2 times compared to a non biofilm fuel cell, but the power density

  8. Study of charge transfer reactions in a microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, E.; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique; National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.; Tartakovsky, B. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2008-07-01

    Electron transfer reactions in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) were evaluated. The MFC was inoculated with anaerobic mesophilic sludge and operated with carbon felt, carbon cloth, and platinum (Pt) coated carbon cloth. The MFC was then fed with either acetate or glucose as a source of fuel and operated at a temperature of 25 degrees C and a pH of 7. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs demonstrated that the micro-organisms colonized the anodes. Cyclic voltammetry and polarization tests were conducted using different fractions of the anodophilic biofilm in order to determine charge transfer routes. The study characterized the electron transfer mechanisms used by the exoelectrogenic micro-organisms to produce electricity. It was concluded that further research is needed to characterize reaction transfer routes. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Electrode materials for microbial fuel cells: nanomaterial approach

    KAUST Repository

    Mustakeem, Mustakeem

    2015-11-05

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has the potential to become a major renewable energy resource by degrading organic pollutants in wastewater. The performance of MFC directly depends on the kinetics of the electrode reactions within the fuel cell, with the performance of the electrodes heavily influenced by the materials they are made from. A wide range of materials have been tested to improve the performance of MFCs. In the past decade, carbon-based nanomaterials have emerged as promising materials for both anode and cathode construction. Composite materials have also shown to have the potential to become materials of choice for electrode manufacture. Various transition metal oxides have been investigated as alternatives to conventional expensive metals like platinum for oxygen reduction reaction. In this review, different carbon-based nanomaterials and composite materials are discussed for their potential use as MFC electrodes.

  10. SiC-CMC-Zircaloy-4 Nuclear Fuel Cladding Performance during 4-Point Tubular Bend Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IJ van Rooyen; WR Lloyd; TL Trowbridge; SR Novascone; KM Wendt; SM Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE NE) established the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to develop technologies and other solutions to improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development Pathway in the LWRS program encompasses strategic research focused on improving reactor core economics and safety margins through the development of an advanced fuel cladding system. Recent investigations of potential options for “accident tolerant” nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding. One of the proposed SiC-based fuel cladding designs being investigated incorporates a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) as a structural material supplementing an internal Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) liner tube, referred to as the hybrid clad design. Characterization of the advanced cladding designs will include a number of out-of-pile (nonnuclear) tests, followed by in-pile irradiation testing of the most promising designs. One of the out-of-pile characterization tests provides measurement of the mechanical properties of the cladding tube using four point bend testing. Although the material properties of the different subsystems (materials) will be determined separately, in this paper we present results of 4-point bending tests performed on fully assembled hybrid cladding tube mock-ups, an assembled Zr-4 cladding tube mock-up as a standard and initial testing results on bare SiC-CMC sleeves to assist in defining design parameters. The hybrid mock-up samples incorporated SiC-CMC sleeves fabricated with 7 polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) cycles. To provide comparative information; both 1- and 2-ply braided SiC-CMC sleeves were used in this development study. Preliminary stress simulations were performed using the BISON nuclear fuel performance code to show the stress distribution differences for varying lengths between loading points

  11. Waste to Watts and Water: Enabling Self-Contained Facilities Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    biofuels and biomass, hydrogen 5 fuel cells, protein - or enzyme-based fuel cells, solar power, wind power, and desalination plants. A brief...Waste to Watts and Water Enabling Self-Contained Facilities Using Microbial Fuel Cells Amanda Sue Birch, P. E. Major, USAFR Air Command and...Water: Enabling Self-Contained Facilities Using Microbial Fuel Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  12. Evaluation of total effort and risk of membraneless tubular fuel cell concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambace, Luis Antonio Waack [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: bambace@dem.inpe.br

    2010-07-01

    Traditionally people estimate project risks and duration by comparing predicted actions with similar ones. This methodology is rather difficult to apply in very innovative projects, as several of their Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) actions are quite new to a particular developer, even if this action is a standard procedure in another field or company. This paper proposes the use of an alternative methodology with fuel cell design example, which is inspired in Suh third axiom, Jelinsky-Moranda Model of software reliability (JMSRM). This model considers human error with JMRSR, relates the number of trials with entropy and search residual risk, feasibility with model uncertainty and acceptable and target risks, and the matching of search field and real solution field with statistical tools. (author)

  13. Copper removal and microbial community analysis in single-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yining; Zhao, Xin; Jin, Min; Li, Yan; Li, Shuai; Kong, Fanying; Nan, Jun; Wang, Aijie

    2018-04-01

    In this study, copper removal and electricity generation were investigated in a single-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC). Result showed that copper was efficiently removed in the membrane-less MFC with removal efficiency of 98.3% at the tolerable Cu 2+ concentration of 12.5 mg L -1 , the corresponding open circuit voltage and maximum power density were 0.78 V and 10.2 W m -3 , respectively. The mechanism analysis demonstrated that microbial electrochemical reduction contributed to the copper removal with the products of Cu and Cu 2 O deposited at biocathode. Moreover, the microbial community analysis indicated that microbial communities changed with different copper concentrations. The dominant phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes which could play key roles in electricity generation, while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were also observed which were responsible for Cu-resistant and copper removal. It will be of important guiding significance for the recovery of copper from low concentration wastewater through single-chamber MFC with simultaneous energy recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of temperature on a miniaturized microbial fuel cell (MFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hao; Jiang, Chenming; Chae, Junseok

    2017-12-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bioinspired energy converter which directly converts biomass into electricity through the catalytic activity of a specific species of bacteria. The effect of temperature on a miniaturized microbial fuel cell with Geobacter sulfurreducens dominated mixed inoculum is investigated in this paper for the first time. The miniaturized MFC warrants investigation due to its small thermal mass, and a customized setup is built for the temperature effect characterization. The experiment demonstrates that the optimal temperature for the miniaturized MFC is 322-326 K (49-53 °C). When the temperature is increased from 294 to 322 K, a remarkable current density improvement of 282% is observed, from 2.2 to 6.2 Am-2. Furthermore, we perform in depth analysis on the effect of temperature on the miniaturized MFC, and found that the activation energy for the current limiting mechanism of the MFC is approximately between 0.132 and 0.146 eV, and the result suggest that the electron transfer between cytochrome c is the limiting process for the miniaturized MFC.

  15. Nano-watt fueling from a micro-scale microbial fuel cell using black tea waste

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2016-02-03

    In this report, we show the rapid assessment of black tea as potential fuel to power up nanopower systems using a microsized, simplistic and sustainable air-cathode microbial fuel cell. It was found that tea produced more power compared with traditional sodium acetate media due in part to its acidophilic pH and its higher organics content. Although high internal resistance remains a big concern, this simple, curiosity-driven experiment gave us the preliminary results to say that energy could be extracted from the reuse of waste resources such the collection of our afternoon-tea\\'s leftovers.

  16. ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM SWINE WASTEWATER USING MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimezie Jason Ogugbue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity generation from swine wastewater using microbial fuel cell (MFC was investigated. Swine wastewater was collected into dual-chambered (aerobic and anaerobic fuel cell. The maximum power output using copper and carbon electrodes were 250.54 and 52.33 µW, while 10.0 and 5.0 cm salt bridge length between the cathode and anode were 279.50 and 355.26 µW, respectively. Potassium permanganate and ordinal water gave a maximum power output of 1287.8 and 13 9.18 µW. MFCs utilize microbial communities to degrade organic materials found within wastewater and converted stored chemical energy to electrical energy in a single step. The initial bacterial and fungal counts were 7.4×106 and 1.1×103 CFU ml-1. Bacterial counts steadily increased with time to 1.40×107 CFU ml-1 while fungal count declined to 4.4×106 CFU ml-1 after day 60. The declined in microbial counts may be attributed to the time necessary for acclimatization of microbes to the anode. The genera identified were Bacillus, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus and Rhizopus. These microbes acted as primary and secondary utilizers, utilizing carbon and other organics of the wastewater. Chemical parameters indicated that the biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 91.4–23.2 mg/L, giving 75% while the chemical oxygen demand ranged from 243.1–235.2 mg/L, representing 3.3%. Although, the metabolic activities of microbes were responsible for the observed degradation, leading to electricity, the overall power output depended on the distance between the anode and cathode compartment, types of electrode materials and mediators and oxygen reaction at the cathode.

  17. Electrochemical performance and microbial community profiles in microbial fuel cells in relation to electron transfer mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uria, Naroa; Ferrera, Isabel; Mas, Jordi

    2017-10-18

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operating with complex microbial communities have been extensively reported in the past, and are commonly used in applications such as wastewater treatment, bioremediation or in-situ powering of environmental sensors. However, our knowledge on how the composition of the microbial community and the different types of electron transfer to the anode affect the performance of these bioelectrochemical systems is far from complete. To fill this gap of knowledge, we designed a set of three MFCs with different constrains limiting direct and mediated electron transfer to the anode. The results obtained indicate that MFCs with a naked anode on which a biofilm was allowed unrestricted development (MFC-A) had the most diverse archaeal and bacterial community, and offered the best performance. In this MFC both, direct and mediated electron transfer, occurred simultaneously, but direct electron transfer was the predominant mechanism. Microbial fuel cells in which the anode was enclosed in a dialysis membrane and biofilm was not allowed to develop (MFC-D), had a much lower power output (about 60% lower), and a prevalence of dissolved redox species that acted as putative electron shuttles. In the anolyte of this MFC, Arcobacter and Methanosaeta were the prevalent bacteria and archaea respectively. In the third MFC, in which the anode had been covered by a cation selective nafion membrane (MFC-N), power output decreased a further 5% (95% less than MFC-A). In this MFC, conventional organic electron shuttles could not operate and the low power output obtained was presumably attributed to fermentation end-products produced by some of the organisms present in the anolyte, probably Pseudomonas or Methanosaeta. Electron transfer mechanisms have an impact on the development of different microbial communities and in turn on MFC performance. Although a stable current was achieved in all cases, direct electron transfer MFC showed the best performance concluding

  18. Ammonium recovery and energy production from urine by a microbial fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.; Smiech, K.M.; Bruning, H.; Zeeman, G.; Saakes, M.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen recovery through NH3 stripping is energy intensive and requires large amounts of chemicals. Therefore, a microbial fuel cell was developed to simultaneously produce energy and recover ammonium. The applied microbial fuel cell used a gas diffusion cathode. The ammonium transport to the

  19. Long-term performance of a plant microbial fuel cell with Spartina anglica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.A.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell is a sustainable and renewable way of electricity production. The plant is integrated in the anode of the microbial fuel cell which consists of a bed of graphite granules. In the anode, organic compounds deposited by plant roots are oxidized by electrochemically active

  20. Enhancement of electricity production by graphene oxide in soil microbial fuel cells and plant microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuko; Yoshida, Naoko; Umeyama, Yuto; Yamada, Takeshi; Tero, Ryugo; Hiraishi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The effects of graphene oxide (GO) on electricity generation in soil microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) and plant microbial fuel cell (PMFCs) were investigated. GO at concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.9 g⋅kg(-1) was added to soil and reduced for 10 days under anaerobic incubation. All SMFCs (GO-SMFCs) utilizing the soils incubated with GO produced electricity at a greater rate and in higher quantities than the SMFCs which did not contain GO. In fed-batch operations, the overall average electricity generation in GO-SMFCs containing 1.0 g⋅kg(-1) of GO was 40 ± 19 mW⋅m(-2), which was significantly higher than the value of 6.6 ± 8.9 mW⋅m(-2) generated from GO-free SMFCs (p < 0.05). The increase in catalytic current at the oxidative potential was observed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) for GO-SMFC, with the CV curve suggesting the enhancement of electron transfer from oxidation of organic substances in the soil by the reduced form of GO. The GO-containing PMFC also displayed a greater generation of electricity compared to the PMFC with no added GO, with GO-PMFC producing 49 mW⋅m(-2) of electricity after 27 days of operation. Collectively, this study demonstrates that GO added to soil can be microbially reduced in soil, and facilitates electron transfer to the anode in both SMFCs and PMFCs.

  1. Energy harvesting influences electrochemical performance of microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be effective power sources for remote sensing, wastewater treatment and environmental remediation, but their performance needs significant improvement. This study systematically analyzes how active harvesting using electrical circuits increased MFC system outputs as compared to passive resistors not only in the traditional maximal power point (MPP) but also in other desired operating points such as the maximum current point (MCP) and the maximum voltage point (MVP). Results show that active harvesting in MPP increased power output by 81-375% and active harvesting in MCP increased Coulombic efficiency by 207-805% compared with resisters operated at the same points. The cyclic voltammograms revealed redox potential shifts and supported the performance data. The findings demonstrate that active harvesting is a very effective approach to improve MFC performance across different operating points.

  2. Practical energy harvesting for microbial fuel cells: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Park, Jae-Do; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-03-17

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology offers sustainable solutions for distributed power systems and energy positive wastewater treatment, but the generation of practically usable power from MFCs remains a major challenge for system scale up and application. Commonly used external resistors will not harvest any usable energy, so energy-harvesting circuits are needed for real world applications. This review summarizes, explains, and discusses the different energy harvesting methods, components, and systems that can extract and condition the MFC energy for direct utilization. This study aims to assist environmental scientists and engineers to gain fundamental understandings of these electronic systems and algorithms, and it also offers research directions and insights on how to overcome the barriers, so the technology can be further advanced and applied in larger scale.

  3. Scaling up microbial fuel cells and other bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-12-15

    Scientific research has advanced on different microbial fuel cell (MFC) technologies in the laboratory at an amazing pace, with power densities having reached over 1 kW/m3 (reactor volume) and to 6.9 W/m2 (anode area) under optimal conditions. The main challenge is to bring these technologies out of the laboratory and engineer practical systems for bioenergy production at larger scales. Recent advances in new types of electrodes, a better understanding of the impact of membranes and separators on performance of these systems, and results from several new pilot-scale tests are all good indicators that commercialization of the technology could be possible within a few years. Some of the newest advances and future challenges are reviewed here with respect to practical applications of these MFCs for renewable energy production and other applications. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Applications of Graphene-Modified Electrodes in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Chengxian; Ma, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Graphene-modified materials have captured increasing attention for energy applications due to their superior physical and chemical properties, which can significantly enhance the electricity generation performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC). In this review, several typical synthesis methods of graphene-modified electrodes, such as graphite oxide reduction methods, self-assembly methods, and chemical vapor deposition, are summarized. According to the different functions of the graphene-modified materials in the MFC anode and cathode chambers, a series of design concepts for MFC electrodes are assembled, e.g., enhancing the biocompatibility and improving the extracellular electron transfer efficiency for anode electrodes and increasing the active sites and strengthening the reduction pathway for cathode electrodes. In spite of the challenges of MFC electrodes, graphene-modified electrodes are promising for MFC development to address the reduction in efficiency brought about by organic waste by converting it into electrical energy. PMID:28773929

  5. COD removal characteristics in air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Exoelectrogenic microorganisms in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) compete with other microorganisms for substrate. In order to understand how this affects removal rates, current generation, and coulombic efficiencies (CEs), substrate removal rates were compared in MFCs fed a single, readily biodegradable compound (acetate) or domestic wastewater (WW). Removal rates based on initial test conditions fit first-order kinetics, but rate constants varied with circuit resistance. With filtered WW (100Ω), the rate constant was 0.18h- 1, which was higher than acetate or filtered WW with an open circuit (0.10h- 1), but CEs were much lower (15-24%) than acetate. With raw WW (100Ω), COD removal proceeded in two stages: a fast removal stage with high current production, followed by a slower removal with little current. While using MFCs increased COD removal rate due to current generation, secondary processes will be needed to reduce COD to levels suitable for discharge.

  6. Innovative microbial fuel cell for electricity production from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was developed by immersing an anode electrode and a cathode chamber in an anaerobic reactor. Domestic wastewater was used as the medium and the inoculum in the experiments. The SMFC could successfully generate a stable voltage of 0.428 ± 0.003 V with a fixed...... 470 Ω resistor from acetate. From the polarization test, the maximum power density of 204 mW m−2 was obtained at current density of 595 mA m−2 (external resistance = 180 Ω). The power generation showed a saturation-type relationship as a function of wastewater strength, with a maximum power density...... (Pmax) of 218 mW m−2 and a saturation constant (Ks) of 244 mg L−1. The main limitations for achieving higher electricity production in the SMFC were identified as the high internal resistance at the electrolyte and the inefficient electron transfer at the cathode electrode. As the current increased...

  7. Applications of Graphene-Modified Electrodes in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-modified materials have captured increasing attention for energy applications due to their superior physical and chemical properties, which can significantly enhance the electricity generation performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC. In this review, several typical synthesis methods of graphene-modified electrodes, such as graphite oxide reduction methods, self-assembly methods, and chemical vapor deposition, are summarized. According to the different functions of the graphene-modified materials in the MFC anode and cathode chambers, a series of design concepts for MFC electrodes are assembled, e.g., enhancing the biocompatibility and improving the extracellular electron transfer efficiency for anode electrodes and increasing the active sites and strengthening the reduction pathway for cathode electrodes. In spite of the challenges of MFC electrodes, graphene-modified electrodes are promising for MFC development to address the reduction in efficiency brought about by organic waste by converting it into electrical energy.

  8. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [Knoxville, TN

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  9. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145± 5 mW/m2, 470 Ω) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190±5 mW/m2. The corresponding total...... system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy....... chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency was 78.1±0.2% with initial TCOD of 49.7 g/L. The power generation of SMFC was depended on the sludge concentration, while dilution of the raw sludge resulted in higher power density. The maximum power density was saturated at sludge concentration of 17 g...

  10. Performance of denitrifying microbial fuel cell with biocathode over nitrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao eHuimin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cell (MFC with nitrite as an electron acceptor in cathode provided a new technology for nitrogen removal and electricity production simultaneously. The influences of influent nitrite concentration and external resistance on the performance of denitrifying MFC were investigated. The optimal effectiveness were obtained with the maximum total nitrogen (TN removal rate of 54.80±0.01 g m-3 d-1. It would be rather desirable for the TN removal than electricity generation at lower external resistance. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum, accounting for 35.72%. Thiobacillus and Afipia might benefit to nitrite removal. The presence of nitrifying Devosia indicated that nitrite was oxidized to nitrate via a biochemical mechanism in the cathode. Ignavibacterium and Anaerolineaceae was found in the cathode as a heterotrophic bacterium with sodium acetate as substrate, which illustrated that sodium acetate in anode was likely permeated through proton exchange membrane to the cathode .

  11. Microbial Fuel Cell Possibilities on American Indian Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Kimberlynn [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a brief background of tribal reservations, the process of how Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) work, and the potential benefits of using MFCs on tribal reservations to convert waste water to energy as a means to sustainably generate electricity. There have been no known studies conducted on tribal lands that would be able to add to the estimated percentage of all renewable energy resources identified. Not only does MFC technology provide a compelling, innovative solution, it could also address better management of wastewater, using it as a form of energy generation. Using wastewater for clean energy generation could provide a viable addition to community infrastructure systems improvements.

  12. Microbial fuel cells: recent developments in design and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, G.; Venu, V.; Renganathan, S.

    2018-03-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are the promising devices which can produce electricity by anaerobic fermentation of organic / inorganic matter from easily metabolized biomass to complex wastewater using microbes as biocatalysts. MFC technology has been found as a potential technology for electricity generation and concomitant wastewater treatment. However, the high cost of the components and low efficiency are barricading the commercialization of MFC when compared with other energy generating systems. The performance of an MFC is largely relying on the reactor design and electrode materials. On the way to improve the efficiency of an MFC, tremendous exercises have been carried out to explore new electrode materials and reactor designs in recent decades. The current review is excogitated to amass the progress in design and electrode materials, which could bolster further investigations on MFCs to improve their performance, mitigate the cost and successful implementation of technology in field applications as well.

  13. Towards implementation of cellular automata in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail-Antisthenis I Tsompanas

    Full Text Available The Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC is a bio-electrochemical transducer converting waste products into electricity using microbial communities. Cellular Automaton (CA is a uniform array of finite-state machines that update their states in discrete time depending on states of their closest neighbors by the same rule. Arrays of MFCs could, in principle, act as massive-parallel computing devices with local connectivity between elementary processors. We provide a theoretical design of such a parallel processor by implementing CA in MFCs. We have chosen Conway's Game of Life as the 'benchmark' CA because this is the most popular CA which also exhibits an enormously rich spectrum of patterns. Each cell of the Game of Life CA is realized using two MFCs. The MFCs are linked electrically and hydraulically. The model is verified via simulation of an electrical circuit demonstrating equivalent behaviours. The design is a first step towards future implementations of fully autonomous biological computing devices with massive parallelism. The energy independence of such devices counteracts their somewhat slow transitions-compared to silicon circuitry-between the different states during computation.

  14. Electricity generation from tetrathionate in microbial fuel cells by acidophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulonen, Mira L K; Kokko, Marika E; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2015-03-02

    Inorganic sulfur compounds, such as tetrathionate, are often present in mining process and waste waters. The biodegradation of tetrathionate was studied under acidic conditions in aerobic batch cultivations and in anaerobic anodes of two-chamber flow-through microbial fuel cells (MFCs). All four cultures originating from biohydrometallurgical process waters from multimetal ore heap bioleaching oxidized tetrathionate aerobically at pH below 3 with sulfate as the main soluble metabolite. In addition, all cultures generated electricity from tetrathionate in MFCs at pH below 2.5 with ferric iron as the terminal cathodic electron acceptor. The maximum current and power densities during MFC operation and in the performance analysis were 79.6 mA m(-2) and 13.9 mW m(-2) and 433 mA m(-2) and 17.6 mW m(-2), respectively. However, the low coulombic efficiency (below 5%) indicates that most of the electrons were directed to other processes, such as aerobic oxidation of tetrathionate and unmeasured intermediates. The microbial community analysis revealed that the dominant species both in the anolyte and on the anode electrode surface of the MFCs were Acidithiobacillus spp. and Ferroplasma spp. This study provides a proof of concept that tetrathionate serves as electron donor for biological electricity production in the pH range of 1.2-2.5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy sustainability of Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC): A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Tonia; Lombardelli, Giorgia

    2017-07-01

    Energy sustainability analysis and durability of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) as energy source are necessary in order to move from the laboratory scale to full-scale application. This paper focus on these two aspects by considering the energy performances of an original experimental test with MFC conducted for six months under an external load of 1000 Ω. Energy sustainability is quantified using Energy Payback Time, the time necessary to produce the energy already spent to construct the MFC device. The results of experiment reveal that the energy sustainability of this specific MFC is never reached due to energy expenditure (i.e. for pumping) and to the low amount of energy produced. Hence, different MFC materials and architectures were analysed to find guidelines for future MFC development. Among these, only sedimentary fuel cells (Benthic MFCs) seem sustainable from an energetic point of view, with a minimum duration of 2.7 years. An energy balance approach highlights the importance of energy calculation. However, this is very often not taken into account in literature. This study outlines promising methodology for the design of an alternative layout of energy sustainable MFC and wastewater management systems.

  16. Identifying the microbial communities and operational conditions for optimized wastewater treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Wu, Angela; Yamanaka, Yuko; Nealson, Kenneth H; Bretschger, Orianna

    2013-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as "biocatalysts" to recover energy from organic matter in the form of electricity. MFCs have been explored as possible energy neutral wastewater treatment systems; however, fundamental knowledge is still required about how MFC-associated microbial communities are affected by different operational conditions and can be optimized for accelerated wastewater treatment rates. In this study, we explored how electricity-generating microbial biofilms were established at MFC anodes and responded to three different operational conditions during wastewater treatment: 1) MFC operation using a 750 Ω external resistor (0.3 mA current production); 2) set-potential (SP) operation with the anode electrode potentiostatically controlled to +100 mV vs SHE (4.0 mA current production); and 3) open circuit (OC) operation (zero current generation). For all reactors, primary clarifier effluent collected from a municipal wastewater plant was used as the sole carbon and microbial source. Batch operation demonstrated nearly complete organic matter consumption after a residence time of 8-12 days for the MFC condition, 4-6 days for the SP condition, and 15-20 days for the OC condition. These results indicate that higher current generation accelerates organic matter degradation during MFC wastewater treatment. The microbial community analysis was conducted for the three reactors using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although the inoculated wastewater was dominated by members of Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes species, the electricity-generating biofilms in MFC and SP reactors were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Within Deltaproteobacteria, phylotypes classified to family Desulfobulbaceae and Geobacteraceae increased significantly under the SP condition with higher current generation; however those phylotypes were not found in the OC reactor. These analyses suggest that species

  17. Long-term performance of a plant microbial fuel cell with Spartina anglica

    OpenAIRE

    Timmers, Ruud A.; Strik, David P. B. T. B.; Hamelers, Hubertus V. M.; Buisman, Cees J. N.

    2010-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell is a sustainable and renewable way of electricity production. The plant is integrated in the anode of the microbial fuel cell which consists of a bed of graphite granules. In the anode, organic compounds deposited by plant roots are oxidized by electrochemically active bacteria. In this research, salt marsh species Spartina anglica generated current for up to 119?days in a plant microbial fuel cell. Maximum power production was 100?mW?m?2 geometric anode area, hi...

  18. Long-term performance of a plant microbial fuel cell with Spartina anglica

    OpenAIRE

    Timmers, R.A.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell is a sustainable and renewable way of electricity production. The plant is integrated in the anode of the microbial fuel cell which consists of a bed of graphite granules. In the anode, organic compounds deposited by plant roots are oxidized by electrochemically active bacteria. In this research, salt marsh species Spartina anglica generated current for up to 119 days in a plant microbial fuel cell. Maximum power production was 100 mW m-2 geometric anode area, hi...

  19. Enrichment of Microbial Electrolysis Cell Biocathodes from Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell Bioanodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisciotta, JM; Zaybak, Z; Call, DF; Nam, JY; Logan, BE

    2012-07-18

    Electron-accepting (electrotrophic) biocathodes were produced by first enriching graphite fiber brush electrodes as the anodes in sediment-type microbial fuel cells (sMFCs) using two different marine sediments and then electrically inverting the anodes to function as cathodes in two-chamber bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). Electron consumption occurred at set potentials of -439 mV and -539 mV (versus the potential of a standard hydrogen electrode) but not at -339 mV in minimal media lacking organic sources of energy. Results at these different potentials were consistent with separate linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) scans that indicated enhanced activity (current consumption) below only ca. -400 mV. MFC bioanodes not originally acclimated at a set potential produced electron-accepting (electrotrophic) biocathodes, but bioanodes operated at a set potential (+11 mV) did not. CO, was removed from cathode headspace, indicating that the electrotrophic biocathodes were autotrophic. Hydrogen gas generation, followed by loss of hydrogen gas and methane production in one sample, suggested hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. There was abundant microbial growth in the biocathode chamber, as evidenced by an increase in turbidity and the presence of microorganisms on the cathode surface. Clone library analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated prominent sequences most similar to those of Eubacterium limosum (Butyribacterium methylotrophicum), Desulfovibrio sp. A2, Rhodococcus opacus, and Gemmata obscuriglobus. Transfer of the suspension to sterile cathodes made of graphite plates, carbon rods, or carbon brushes in new BESs resulted in enhanced current after 4 days, demonstrating growth by these microbial communities on a variety of cathode substrates. This report provides a simple and effective method for enriching autotrophic electrotrophs by the use of sMFCs without the need for set potentials, followed by the use of potentials more negative than -400 mV.

  20. Powering microbial electrolysis cells by capacitor circuits charged using microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2013-05-01

    A microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was powered by a capacitor based energy storage circuit using energy from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to increase MEC hydrogen production rates compared to that possible by the MFC alone. To prevent voltage reversal, MFCs charged the capacitors in a parallel configuration, and then the capacitors were discharged in series to boost the voltage that was used to power the MECs. The optimal capacitance for charging was found to be ∼0.01 F for each MFC. The use of the capacitor charging system increased energy recoveries from 9 to 13%, and hydrogen production rates increased from 0.31 to 0.72 m3 m-3-day-1, compared to coupled systems without capacitors. The circuit efficiency (the ratio of the energy that was discharged to the MEC to the energy provided to the capacitor from the MFCs) was ∼90%. These results provide an improved method for linking MFCs to MECs for renewable hydrogen gas production. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbial stratification structure within cathodic biofilm of the microbial fuel cell using the freezing microtome method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Lu, Yaobin; Luo, Haiping; Liu, Guangli; Zhang, Renduo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial stratification structure within cathodic biofilm of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) using the freezing microtome method. Experiments were conducted in a single-chamber air-cathode MFC with 0.8g/L maltodextrin as substrate for ∼30d operation. The maximum power density was 945±10mW/m 2 in the MFC. Maltodextrin resulted in the relative abundance of Candidatus Saccharibacteria of 37.0% in the anodic biofilm. Different bacterial communities were identified in different layers within the cathodic biofilm. The relative abundance of Enterococcus was 3.7%, 10.5%, and 1.6% in the top (100-150μm), middle (50-100μm), and bottom (0-50μm) layers, respectively. Higher bacterial viability was observed within the top and bottom layers of the cathodic biofilm. Understanding the stratification of bacterial community in cathodic biofilm should be important to control the cathodic biofilm in the MFC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial diversity structure in acetate single chamber microbial fuel cell for electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena Z. Khater

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the performance of acetate feed membrane less single chamber microbial fuel cell and physical characterization of the bio film present on the anode surface using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and 16S rRNA analyzer. The performance has been investigated using Teflon treated carbon paper with 0.3 mg/cm2 Pt/C loaded as a cathode and carbon paper as an anode. The maximum open circuit potential is noticed as 791 mV, the system successfully revealed a maximum power density of 86.1 mW m−2 at stable current density of 354 mA m−2 with high coulombic efficiency of 65% at maximum degradation rate of 96%. SEM showed the dense adherence of microorganisms on the anode. 16S rRNA sequencing results indicates phylogenetic mixture in the communities of anodic biofilm and there is no single dominant bacterial species. The dominant phyla are Firmicutes, Gamma Proteobacteria, Alpha Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, with ten dominant microbial strains: Bacillus firmus, Shewanella profunda, Bacillus isronensis, Brevundimonas bullata, Pseudomonas putida, Planococcus citreus, Micrococcus endophyticus, Acinetobacter tandoii, Bacillus safensis and Shewanella xiamenensis.

  3. Microbial electricity generation in rice paddy fields: recent advances and perspectives in rhizosphere microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzuma, Atsushi; Kaku, Nobuo; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that use living microbes for the conversion of organic matter into electricity. MFC systems can be applied to the generation of electricity at water/sediment interfaces in the environment, such as bay areas, wetlands, and rice paddy fields. Using these systems, electricity generation in paddy fields as high as ∼80 mW m(-2) (based on the projected anode area) has been demonstrated, and evidence suggests that rhizosphere microbes preferentially utilize organic exudates from rice roots for generating electricity. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses have been conducted to identify the microbial species and catabolic pathways that are involved in the conversion of root exudates into electricity, suggesting the importance of syntrophic interactions. In parallel, pot cultures of rice and other aquatic plants have been used for rhizosphere MFC experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. The findings from these studies have demonstrated the potential of electricity generation for mitigating methane emission from the rhizosphere. Notably, however, the presence of large amounts of organics in the rhizosphere drastically reduces the effect of electricity generation on methane production. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential of these systems for mitigating methane emission from rice paddy fields. We suggest that paddy-field MFCs represent a promising approach for harvesting latent energy of the natural world.

  4. Two stage bioethanol refining with multi litre stacked microbial fuel cell and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel; Cachelin, Christian Pierre; Gloriod, Olivier; Huguenin, Gérald; Blatter, Maxime; Fischer, Fabian

    2016-12-01

    Ethanol, electricity, hydrogen and methane were produced in a two stage bioethanol refinery setup based on a 10L microbial fuel cell (MFC) and a 33L microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The MFC was a triple stack for ethanol and electricity co-generation. The stack configuration produced more ethanol with faster glucose consumption the higher the stack potential. Under electrolytic conditions ethanol productivity outperformed standard conditions and reached 96.3% of the theoretically best case. At lower external loads currents and working potentials oscillated in a self-synchronized manner over all three MFC units in the stack. In the second refining stage, fermentation waste was converted into methane, using the scale up MEC stack. The bioelectric methanisation reached 91% efficiency at room temperature with an applied voltage of 1.5V using nickel cathodes. The two stage bioethanol refining process employing bioelectrochemical reactors produces more energy vectors than is possible with today's ethanol distilleries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Microbial Fuel Cells at Microbially and Electrochemically Meaningful Time scales

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Zhiyong

    2011-03-15

    The variable biocatalyst density in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode biofilm is a unique feature of MFCs relative to other electrochemical systems, yet performance characterizations of MFCs typically involve analyses at electrochemically relevant time scales that are insufficient to account for these variable biocatalyst effects. This study investigated the electrochemical performance and the development of anode biofilm architecture under different external loadings, with duplicate acetate-fed singlechamber MFCs stabilized at each resistance for microbially relevant time scales. Power density curves from these steady-state reactors generally showed comparable profiles despite the fact that anode biofilm architectures and communities varied considerably, showing that steady-state biofilm differences had little influence on electrochemical performance until the steady-state external loading was much larger than the reactor internal resistance. Filamentous bacteria were dominant on the anodes under high external resistances (1000 and 5000 Ω), while more diverse rod-shaped cells formed dense biofilms under lower resistances (10, 50, and 265 Ω). Anode charge transfer resistance decreased with decreasing fixed external resistances, but was consistently 2 orders of magnitude higher than the resistance at the cathode. Cell counting showed an inverse exponential correlation between cell numbers and external resistances. This direct link ofMFCanode biofilm evolution with external resistance and electricity production offers several operational strategies for system optimization. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Convergent development of anodic bacterial communities in microbial fuel cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Yates, Matthew D

    2012-05-10

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are often inoculated from a single wastewater source. The extent that the inoculum affects community development or power production is unknown. The stable anodic microbial communities in MFCs were examined using three inocula: a wastewater treatment plant sample known to produce consistent power densities, a second wastewater treatment plant sample, and an anaerobic bog sediment. The bog-inoculated MFCs initially produced higher power densities than the wastewater-inoculated MFCs, but after 20 cycles all MFCs on average converged to similar voltages (470±20 mV) and maximum power densities (590±170 mW m(-2)). The power output from replicate bog-inoculated MFCs was not significantly different, but one wastewater-inoculated MFC (UAJA3 (UAJA, University Area Joint Authority Wastewater Treatment Plant)) produced substantially less power. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling showed a stable exoelectrogenic biofilm community in all samples after 11 cycles. After 16 cycles the predominance of Geobacter spp. in anode communities was identified using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (58±10%), fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) (63±6%) and pyrosequencing (81±4%). While the clone library analysis for the underperforming UAJA3 had a significantly lower percentage of Geobacter spp. sequences (36%), suggesting that a predominance of this microbe was needed for convergent power densities, the lower percentage of this species was not verified by FISH or pyrosequencing analyses. These results show that the predominance of Geobacter spp. in acetate-fed systems was consistent with good MFC performance and independent of the inoculum source.

  7. Design and characterization of a microbial fuel cell for the conversion of a lignocellulosic crop residue to electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, K P; Becker, J G

    2012-09-01

    Agricultural crop residues contain high amounts of biochemical energy as cellulose and lignin. A portion of this biomass could be sustainably harvested for conversion to bioenergy to help offset fossil fuel consumption. In this study, the potential for converting lignocellulosic biomass directly to electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was explored. Design elements of tubular air cathode MFCs and leach-bed bioreactors were integrated to develop a new solid-substrate MFC in which cellulose hydrolysis, fermentation, and anode respiration occurred in a single chamber. Electricity was produced continuously from untreated corncob pellets for >60 d. Addition of rumen fluid increased power production, presumably by providing growth factors to anode-respiring bacteria. Periodic exposure to oxygen also increased power production, presumably by limiting the diversion of electrons to methanogenesis. In the absence of methanogenesis, bioaugmentation with Geobacter metallireducens further improved MFC performance. Under these conditions, the maximum power density was 230 mW/m(3). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthetic Biology and Microbial Fuel Cells: Towards Self-Sustaining Life Support Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA ARC and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) collaborated to investigate the development of advanced microbial fuels cells (MFCs) for biological wastewater...

  9. Voltage balancing strategies for serial connection of microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Firas; Ondel, Olivier; Allard, Bruno; Buret, François

    2015-07-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) converts electrochemically organic matter into electricity by means of metabolisms of bacteria. The MFC power output is limited by low voltage and low current characteristics in the range of microwatts or milliwatts per litre. In order to produce a sufficient voltage level (>1.5 V) and sufficient power to supply real applications such as autonomous sensors, it is necessary to either scale-up one single unit or to connect multiple units together. Many topologies of connection are possible as the serial association to improve the output voltage, or the parallel connection to improve the output current or the series/parallel connection to step-up both voltage and current. The association of MFCs in series is a solution to increase the voltage to an acceptable value and to mutualize the unit's output power. The serial association of a large number of MFCs presents several issues. The first one is the hydraulic coupling among MFCs when they share the same substrate. The second one is the dispersion between generators that lead to a non-optimal stack efficiency because the maximum power point (MPP) operation of all MFCs is not permitted. Voltage balancing is a solution to compensate non-uniformities towards MPP. This paper presents solutions to improve the efficiency of a stack of serially connected MFCs through a voltage-balancing circuit. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014)", edited by Adel Razek

  10. Nanoparticle facilitated extracellular electron transfer in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaocheng; Hu, Jinsong; Lieber, Alexander M; Jackan, Charles S; Biffinger, Justin C; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Ringeisen, Bradley R; Lieber, Charles M

    2014-11-12

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been the focus of substantial research interest due to their potential for long-term, renewable electrical power generation via the metabolism of a broad spectrum of organic substrates, although the low power densities have limited their applications to date. Here, we demonstrate the potential to improve the power extraction by exploiting biogenic inorganic nanoparticles to facilitate extracellular electron transfer in MFCs. Simultaneous short-circuit current recording and optical imaging on a nanotechnology-enabled platform showed substantial current increase from Shewanella PV-4 after the formation of cell/iron sulfide nanoparticle aggregates. Detailed characterization of the structure and composition of the cell/nanoparticle interface revealed crystalline iron sulfide nanoparticles in intimate contact with and uniformly coating the cell membrane. In addition, studies designed to address the fundamental mechanisms of charge transport in this hybrid system showed that charge transport only occurred in the presence of live Shewanella, and moreover demonstrated that the enhanced current output can be attributed to improved electron transfer at cell/electrode interface and through the cellular-networks. Our approach of interconnecting and electrically contacting bacterial cells through biogenic nanoparticles represents a unique and promising direction in MFC research and has the potential to not only advance our fundamental knowledge about electron transfer processes in these biological systems but also overcome a key limitation in MFCs by constructing an electrically connected, three-dimensional cell network from the bottom-up.

  11. Models for Microbial Fuel Cells: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chengshuo; Zhang, Daxing; Pedrycz, Witold; Zhu, Yingmin; Guo, Yongxian

    2018-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been widely viewed as one of the most promising alternative sources of renewable energy. A recognition of needs of efficient development methods based on multidisciplinary research becomes crucial for the optimization of MFCs. Modeling of MFCs is an effective way for not only gaining a thorough understanding of the effects of operation conditions on the performance of power generation but also becomes of essential interest to the successful implementation of MFCs. The MFC models encompass the underlying reaction process and limiting factors of the MFC. The models come in various forms, such as the mathematical equations or the equivalent circuits. Different modeling focuses and approaches of the MFC have emerged. In this study, we present a state of the art of MFCs modeling; the past modeling methods are reviewed as well. Models and modeling methods are elaborated on based on the classification provided by Mechanism-based models and Application-based models. Mechanisms, advantages, drawbacks, and application fields of different models are illustrated as well. We exhibit a complete and comprehensive exposition of the different models for MFCs and offer further guidance to promote the performance of MFCs.

  12. Compost in plant microbial fuel cell for bioelectricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqsud, M A; Yoshitake, J; Bushra, Q S; Hyodo, M; Omine, K; Strik, David

    2015-02-01

    Recycling of organic waste is an important topic in developing countries as well as developed countries. Compost from organic waste has been used for soil conditioner. In this study, an experiment has been carried out to produce green energy (bioelectricity) by using paddy plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) in soil mixed with compost. A total of six buckets filled with the same soil were used with carbon fiber as the electrodes for the test. Rice plants were planted in five of the buckets, with the sixth bucket containing only soil and an external resistance of 100 ohm was used for all cases. It was observed that the cells with rice plants and compost showed higher values of voltage and power density with time. The highest value of voltage showed around 700 mV when a rice plant with 1% compost mixed soil was used, however it was more than 95% less in the case of no rice plant and without compost. Comparing cases with and without compost but with the same number of rice plants, cases with compost depicted higher voltage to as much as 2 times. The power density was also 3 times higher when the compost was used in the paddy PMFCs which indicated the influence of compost on bio-electricity generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Storing of exoelectrogenic anolyte for efficient microbial fuel cell recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavisto, Johanna M; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2018-01-17

    Starting up a microbial fuel cell (MFC) requires often a long-term culture enrichment period, which is a challenge after process upsets. The purpose of this study was to develop low-cost storage for MFC enrichment culture to enable prompt process recovery after upsets. Anolyte of an operating xylose-fed MFC was stored at different temperatures and for different time periods. Storing the anolyte for 1 week or 1 month at +4°C did not significantly affect power production, but the lag time for power production was increased from 2 days to 3 or 5 days, respectively. One month storing at -20°C increased the lag time to 7 days. The average power density in these MFCs varied between 1.2 and 1.7 W/m 3 . The share of dead cells (measured by live/dead staining) increased with storing time. After 6-month storage, the power production was insignificant. However, xylose removal remained similar in all cultures (99-100%) while volatile fatty acids production varied. The results indicate that fermentative organisms tolerated the long storage better than the exoelectrogens. As storing at +4°C is less energy intensive compared to freezing, anolyte storage at +4°C for a maximum of 1 month is recommended as start-up seed for MFC after process failure to enable efficient process recovery.

  14. Carbon nanotube modification of microbial fuel cell electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Alireza Ahmadian; D'Angelo, Lorenzo; Omer, Nada; Windiasti, Gracia; Lu, Xiaonan; Xu, Jie

    2016-11-15

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy harvesting devices is preferable due to their unique mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. On the other hand, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising devices to recover carbon-neutral energy from the organic matters, and have been hindered with major setbacks towards commercialization. Nanoengineered CNT-based materials show remarkable electrochemical properties, and therefore have provided routes towards highly effective modification of MFC compartments to ultimately reach the theoretical limits of biomass energy recovery, low-cost power production, and thus the commercialization of MFCs. Moreover, these CNT-based composites offer significant flexibility in the design of MFCs that enable their use for a broad spectrum of applications ranging from scaled-up power generation to medically related devices. This article reviews the recent advances in the modification of MFCs using CNTs and CNT-based composites, and the extent to which each modification route impacts MFC power and current generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Polymer coatings as separator layers for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2011-03-01

    Membrane separators reduce oxygen flux from the cathode into the anolyte in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but water accumulation and pH gradients between the separator and cathode reduces performance. Air cathodes were spray-coated (water-facing side) with anion exchange, cation exchange, and neutral polymer coatings of different thicknesses to incorporate the separator into the cathode. The anion exchange polymer coating resulted in greater power density (1167 ± 135 mW m-2) than a cation exchange coating (439 ± 2 mW m-2). This power output was similar to that produced by a Nafion-coated cathode (1114 ± 174 mW m-2), and slightly lower than the uncoated cathode (1384 ± 82 mW m-2). Thicker coatings reduced oxygen diffusion into the electrolyte and increased coulombic efficiency (CE = 56-64%) relative to an uncoated cathode (29 ± 8%), but decreased power production (255-574 mW m-2). Electrochemical characterization of the cathodes ex situ to the MFC showed that the cathodes with the lowest charge transfer resistance and the highest oxygen reduction activity produced the most power in MFC tests. The results on hydrophilic cathode separator layers revealed a trade off between power and CE. Cathodes coated with a thin coating of anion exchange polymer show promise for controlling oxygen transfer while minimally affecting power production. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous electricity production and antibiotics removal by microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Nengwu; Guo, Wenying; Wang, Yun; Huang, Xixian; Wu, Pingxiao; Dang, Zhi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xian, Jinchan

    2018-04-07

    The removal of antibiotics is crucial for improvement of water quality in animal wastewater treatment. In this paper, the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC) in terms of degradation of typical antibiotics was investigated. Electricity was successfully produced by using sludge supernatant mixtures and synthesized animal wastewater as inoculation in MFC. Results demonstrated that the stable voltage, the maximum power density and internal resistance of anaerobic self-electrolysis (ASE) -112 and ASE-116 without antibiotics addition were 0.574 V, 5.78 W m -3 and 28.06 Ω, and 0.565 V, 5.82 W m -3 and 29.38 Ω, respectively. Moreover, when adding aureomycin, sulfadimidine, roxithromycin and norfloxacin into the reactors, the performance of MFC was inhibited (0.51 V-0.41 V), while the output voltage was improved with the decreased concentration of antibiotics. However, the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N) and total phosphorus (TP) were both obviously enhanced. Simultaneously, LC-MS analysis showed that the removal efficiency of aureomycin, roxithromycin and norfloxacin were all 100% and the removal efficiency of sulfadimidine also reached 99.9%. These results indicated that antibiotics displayed significantly inhibitions for electricity performance but improved the quality of water simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cadmium recovery by coupling double microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chansoo; Hu, Naixu; Lim, Bongsu

    2014-10-01

    Cr(VI)-MFC of the double microbial fuel cell (d-MFC) arrangement could successfully complement the insufficient voltage and power needed to recover cadmium metal from Cd(II)-MFC, which operated as a redox-flow battery. It was also possible to drain electrical energy from the d-MFC by an additional passage. The highest maximum utilization power density (22.5Wm(-2)) of Cr(VI)-MFC, with the cathode optimized with sulfate buffer, was 11.3times higher than the highest power density directly supplied to Cd(II)-MFC (2.0Wm(-2)). Cr(VI)-MFC could generate 3times higher power with the additional passage than without it; and the current density for the former was 4.2times higher than the latter at the same maximum power point (38.0Am(-2) vs. 9.0Am(-2)). This boosting phenomenon could be explained by the Le Chatelier's principle, which addresses the rate of electron-hole pair formation that can be accelerated by quickly removing electrons generated by microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbon nanotube fiber mats for microbial fuel cell electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delord, Brigitte; Neri, Wilfrid; Bertaux, Karen; Derre, Alain; Ly, Isabelle; Mano, Nicolas; Poulin, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Novel carbon nanotube based electrodes of microbial fuel cells (MFC) have been developed. MFC is a promising technology for the wastewater treatment and the production of electrical energy from redox reactions of natural substrates. Performances of such bio-electrochemical systems depend critically on the structure and properties of the electrodes. The presently developed materials are made by weaving fibers solely comprised of carbon nanotubes. They exhibit a large scale porosity controlled by the weaving process. This porosity allows an easy colonization by electroactive bacteria. In addition, the fibers display a nanostructuration that promotes excellent growth and adhesion of the bacteria at the surface of the electrodes. This unique combination of large scale porosity and nanostructuration allows the present electrodes to perform better than carbon reference. When used as anode in a bioelectrochemical reactor in presence of Geobacter sulfurreducens bacteria, the present electrodes show a maximal current density of about 7.5mA/cm 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Copper anode corrosion affects power generation in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2013-07-16

    Non-corrosive, carbon-based materials are usually used as anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In some cases, however, metals have been used that can corrode (e.g. copper) or that are corrosion resistant (e.g. stainless steel, SS). Corrosion could increase current through galvanic (abiotic) current production or by increasing exposed surface area, or decrease current due to generation of toxic products from corrosion. In order to directly examine the effects of using corrodible metal anodes, MFCs with Cu were compared with reactors using SS and carbon cloth anodes. MFCs with Cu anodes initially showed high current generation similar to abiotic controls, but subsequently they produced little power (2 mW m-2). Higher power was produced with microbes using SS (12 mW m-2) or carbon cloth (880 mW m-2) anodes, with no power generated by abiotic controls. These results demonstrate that copper is an unsuitable anode material, due to corrosion and likely copper toxicity to microorganisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Metabolite Analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum: Fermentation in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    high levels of butyrate and acetate. An accumulation of fermentation products and a drop culture pH causes the cells to enter the solventogenic growth...Metabolite analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum: Fermentation in a microbial fuel cell Amethist S. Finch, Timothy D. Mackie, Christian J. Sund... Fermentation products Clostridium acetobutylicum Current generation a b s t r a c t Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to monitor metabolism

  1. Microbial contamination in diesel fuel. Are new problems arising from biodiesel blends?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegert, Wolfgang [Schuelke und Mayr GmbH, Norderstedt (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Standard diesel fuel is allowed to contain only 0.2 cm{sup 3} water per litre of fuel from which a third of this is dissolved. The rest of the water settles at the tank bottom and is sufficient to serve as a biosphere for the microorganisms. Microbial products of decomposition form an emulsion of water and fuel and make separation of the water more difficult. Microbes are the cause for operational problems like fouling of tanks, pipes, filters and tank corrosion. These microbial problems in mineral diesel have been known for over 70 years. But nowadays the diesel fuel is a blend with biodiesel such as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Since the widespread of biodiesel blends an increase of operational problems is observed. Does the addition of FAME increase the risk of microbial contamination? Is it enhancing microbial growth? The fatty acid esters, such as FAME, produce an environment in mineral diesel in which microbial growth is encouraged due to the ability of microorganisms to degrade natural fat and oil to yield energy for growth. The microbial growth can be enhanced at every stage in production, storage, distribution and in end users vehicles. Good housekeeping, monitoring and proper usage of an effective biocide are crucial measures for an anti-microbial strategy. A tailor-made fuel biocide for mineral diesel I FAME blends is introduced. (orig.)

  2. Increased electrical output when a bacterial ABTS oxidizer is used in a microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a technology that provides electrical energy from the microbial oxidation of organic compounds. Most MFCs use oxygen as the oxidant in the cathode chamber. The present study examined the formation in culture of an unidentified bacterial oxidant and investigated the ...

  3. Bioconversion of cellulose into electrical energy in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid

    In microbial fuel cells (MFCs), bacteria generate electricity by mediating the oxidation of organic compounds and transferring the resulting electrons to an anode electrode. The first objective of this study was to test the possibility of generating electricity with rumen microorganisms as biocatalysts and cellulose as the electron donor in two-compartment MFCs. Maximum power density reached 55 mW/m2 (1.5 mA, 313 mV) with cellulose as the electron donor. Cellulose hydrolysis and electrode reduction were shown to support the production of current. The electrical current was sustained for over two months with periodic cellulose addition. Clarified rumen fluid and a soluble carbohydrate mixture, serving as the electron donors, could also sustain power output. The second objective was to analyze the composition of the bacterial communities enriched in the cellulose-fed MFCs. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed that the microbial communities differed when different substrates were used in the MFCs. The anode-attached and the suspended consortia were shown to be different within the same MFC. Cloning and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the most predominant bacteria in the anode-attached consortia were related to Clostridium spp., while Comamonas spp. was abundant in the suspended consortia. The external resistance affects the characteristic outputs of MFCs by controlling the flow of electrons from the anode to the cathode. The third objective of this study was to determine the effect of various external resistances on power output and coulombic efficiency of cellulose-fed MFCs. Four external resistances (20, 249, 480, and 1000 ohms) were tested with a systematic approach of operating parallel MFCs independently at constant circuit loads for three months. A maximum power density of 66 mWm-2 was achieved by MFCs with 20 ohms circuit load, while MFCs with 249, 480 and1000 ohms external resistances produced 57

  4. Long-term performance of a plant microbial fuel cell with Spartina anglica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmers, Ruud A.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, Cees J.N. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Sub-dept. of Environmental Technology

    2010-04-15

    The plant microbial fuel cell is a sustainable and renewable way of electricity production. The plant is integrated in the anode of the microbial fuel cell which consists of a bed of graphite granules. In the anode, organic compounds deposited by plant roots are oxidized by electrochemically active bacteria. In this research, salt marsh species Spartina anglica generated current for up to 119 days in a plant microbial fuel cell. Maximum power production was 100 mW m{sup -2} geometric anode area, highest reported power output for a plant microbial fuel cell. Cathode overpotential was the main potential loss in the period of oxygen reduction due to slow oxygen reduction kinetics at the cathode. Ferricyanide reduction improved the kinetics at the cathode and increased current generation with a maximum of 254%. In the period of ferricyanide reduction, the main potential loss was transport loss. This research shows potential application of microbial fuel cell technology in salt marshes for bio-energy production with the plant microbial fuel cell. (orig.)

  5. A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-01

    Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

  6. Recent progress and continuing challenges in bio-fuel cells. Part II: Microbial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, M H; Shah, A A; Walsh, F C

    2010-11-15

    Recent key developments in microbial fuel cell technology are reviewed. Fuel sources, electron transfer mechanisms, anode materials and enhanced O(2) reduction are discussed in detail. A summary of recently developed microbial fuel cell systems, including performance measurements, is conveniently provided in tabular form. The current challenges involved in developing practical bio-fuel cell systems are described, with particular emphasis on a fundamental understanding of the reaction environment, the performance and stability requirements, modularity and scalability. This review is the second part of a review of bio-fuel cells. In Part 1 a general introduction to bio-fuel cells, including their operating principles and applications, was provided and enzymatic fuel cell technology was reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy Harvesting From River Sediment Using a Microbial Fuel Cell: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Namour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We have built a sedimentary fuel cell or Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC. The device works on the principle of microbial fuel cells by exploiting directly the energy contained in sedimentary organic matter. It converts in electricity the sediment potential, thanks to microorganisms able to waste electrons from their metabolism directly to a solid anode instead of their natural electron acceptors, such as oxygen or nitrate. The sediment microbial fuel cell was made of a non-corrodible anode (graphite buried in anoxic sediments layer and connected via an electrical circuit to a cathode installed in surface water. We present the first results of laboratory sedimentary fuel cell and a prototype installed in the river.

  8. Study of transient flow in fuel element of tubular plates. Accident: Shaft locking of primary cooling pump without opening the emergency gate; Estudio del regimen transitorio en el elemento combustible de placas tubulares. Accidente: Agarrotamiento de la bomba. No se abre la compuerta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilas, F.; Moneva, M. A.; Garcia Ramirez, L.; Lopez Jimenez, J.; Diaz Diaz, J.

    1971-07-01

    It is analysed the thermal distribution of a fuel element of tubular plates irradiated in the JEN-1 reactor in the case of shaft locking of the primary cooling pump without opening the emergency gate. The fuel element hottest channel is studied in the position of maximum neutronic flux for three reactor power levels: 3 Hw (maximum reactor power), 2 Mw and 1 Hw. (Author) 8 refs.

  9. The potential of whey in driving microbial fuel cells: A dual prospect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable and green energy resources are paramount to environmental sustainability. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are potential candidates for these alternatives but there is need to search for cheaper fuels to drive the MFCs for realistic large scale applications. A high strength effluent such as whey, which poses a serious ...

  10. Perspectives on research and development of microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Martinez, A.; Vazquez Larios, A.L.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Poggi Varaldo, H.M. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: hectorpoggi2001@gmail.com; rareli@hotmail.com

    2009-09-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC), is an anoxic electrochemical bioreactor where bacteria grow in the absence of oxygen in a chamber containing an anode which it may be covered by a biofilm. Microorganisms anoxically oxidize the organic substrate and electrons generated are released to the anode. Released protons are transferred to the cathode. Natural or forced aeration of the cathode supplies the oxygen for the final reaction 2H{sup +} + 2e{sup -} + (1/2) O{sub 2} = H{sub 2}O. In this work, we present a critical review on MFC focused on subjects that are receiving a growing interest from the research and technological communities: (i) types of MFC, their relative advantages and disadvantages and ranges of application; (ii) development of biocathodes; (iii) enrichment procedures of microbial communities in MFC. Recent research shows that one-chamber fitted with cathode aerated by natural aeration, and other special types of high performance MFC, have displaced the historical two-chamber MFC. Recent studies showed that electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) can be successfully enriched in MFC. The cost and eventual poisoning of the platinum catalyst used at the cathode is a major limitation to MFC application and economic viability. Researchers have started working on the concept of biocathodes that would use bacteria instead of platinum as a biocatalyst. Microbial enrichment of inocula seeded to MFC may provide a way to enrich the consortium with EAB, thus substantially increasing the transfer of electrons to the anode. Bioaugmentation of consortia in MFC with strains EAB, could contribute to the same goal. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible microbianas (CCM) son un biorrector anoxico donde las bacterias crecen en ausencia de oxigeno en una camara que contiene un anodo que puede cubrirse con una biopelicula. Los microorganismos oxidan onoxicamente el sustrato organico y los electrones generados se liberan al anodo. Los protones liberados se transfieren al catodo. La

  11. Neutral hydrophilic cathode catalyst binders for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saito, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Improving oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes requires a better understanding of the effects of the catalyst binder chemistry and properties on performance. A series of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) polymers with systematically varying hydrophilicity were designed to determine the effect of the hydrophilic character of the binder on cathode performance. Increasing the hydrophilicity of the PS-b-PEO binders enhanced the electrochemical response of the cathode and MFC power density by ∼15%, compared to the hydrophobic PS-OH binder. Increased cathode performance was likely a result of greater water uptake by the hydrophilic binder, which would increase the accessible surface area for oxygen reduction. Based on these results and due to the high cost of PS-b-PEO, the performance of an inexpensive hydrophilic neutral polymer, poly(bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) (BAEH), was examined in MFCs and compared to a hydrophilic sulfonated binder (Nafion). MFCs with BAEH-based cathodes with two different Pt loadings initially (after 2 cycles) had lower MFC performance (1360 and 630 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) than Nafion cathodes (1980 and 1080 mW m -2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2). However, after long-term operation (22 cycles, 40 days), power production of each cell was similar (∼1200 and 700-800 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) likely due to cathode biofouling that could not be completely reversed through physical cleaning. While binder chemistry could improve initial electrochemical cathode performance, binder materials had less impact on overall long-term MFC performance. This observation suggests that long-term operation of MFCs will require better methods to avoid cathode biofouling. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Ammonia removal via microbial fuel cell (MFC) dynamic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabiad, I.; Ali, U. F. M.; Zakarya, I. A.; Ibrahim, N.; Radzi, R. W.; Zulkurnai, N. Z.; Azmi, N. H.

    2017-06-01

    Landfill leachate is generally known as high-strength wastewater that is difficult to handle and contains dissolved extracts and suspended matter. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were designed to treat landfill leachate while continuously producing power (voltage output). Three different anodes were tested in MFC reactors: carbon black, activated carbon, and zinc electrodes. Movements in the MFC reactor during treatment were also a key factor for testing. Results showed a difference in ammonia levels in the three anodes used. The study compared the efficiency of static and dynamic modes of MFC in removing ammonia. Continual leachate movement in the reactor could increase the rate of removal of the ammonia components. The setup provided a viable condition for maximum removal because the reactor movement caused the sludge to disintegrate, which allowed ammonia to separate easily from the parent leachate. Ammonia removal also resulted from the transfer of ammonium through the membrane or from ammonia loss. Constant exchange of ionic content benefited the MFC performance by increasing power production and decreasing internal electrode material resistance. This paper presents the results of the analyses of leachate treatment from the solid waste landfill located in Padang Siding Landfill, Perlis. The performance of ammonia removal was enhanced using different types of electrodes. In both modes, activated carbon performed better than black carbon and zinc. The respective percentages of ammonia removal for activated carbon of dynamic over static were 96.6%, 66.6%, and 92.8% for activated carbon, zinc, and black carbon. The results provide further information on the possibility of using MFCs in landfill leachate treatment systems.

  13. Application of conductive polymers in biocathode of microbial fuel cells and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Ding, Lili; Cui, Hao; Zhang, Libin; Xu, Ke; Ren, Hongqiang

    2012-07-01

    Four kinds of conductive polymers, polyaniline (PANI) and its co-polymers poly (aniline-co-o-aminophenol) (PANOA), poly (aniline-co-2, 4-diaminophenol) (PANDAP) and poly (aniline-1, 8-diaminonaphthalene) (PANDAN) were applied to modify carbon felts as the aerobic abiotic cathodes and biocathodes in microbial fuel cells (MFC). Compare to unmodified, all the four polymers can significantly improve the power densities for both abiotic cathodes (increased by 300%) and biocathodes (increased by 180%). The co-polymers with different functional groups introduction had further special advantages in MFC performance: PANOA and PANDAP with -OH showed less sensitivity to DO and pH change in cathode; PANDAP and PANDAN with -NH(3) provided better attachment condition for biofilm which endowed them higher power output. With the help of conductive polymer coats, the cathode biofilm became thicker, and according to biodiversity analysis, the predominated phyla changed from β-Proteobacteria (unmodified) to α, γ-Proteobacteria (modified), which may be responsible for the superiority of the modified MFCs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHWINKENDORF, K.N.

    2006-05-12

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements. The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprising two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with ''green'' (fresh) fuel and one with spent fuel. Both the green and spent fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, 3 green fuel and 4 spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements can

  15. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE and AFTER IRRADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHWINKENDORF, K.N.

    2006-01-01

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements. The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprising two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with ''green'' (fresh) fuel and one with spent fuel. Both the green and spent fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k eff = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, 3 green fuel and 4 spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements can supply useful

  16. The Impact of Microbially Influenced Corrosion on Spent Nuclear Fuel and Storage Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J. H.; Mizia, R. E.; Jex, R.; Nelson, L.; Garcia, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate if microbial activity could be considered a threat to spent nuclear fuel integrity. The existing data regarding the impact of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on spent nuclear fuel storage does not allow a clear assessment to be made. In order to identify what further data are needed, a literature survey on MIC was accomplished with emphasis on materials used in nuclear fuel fabrication, e.g., A1, 304 SS, and zirconium. In addition, a survey was done at Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and the INEL on the condition of their wet storage facilities. The topics discussed were the SNF path forward, the types of fuel, ramifications of damaged fuel, involvement of microbial processes, dry storage scenarios, ability to identify microbial activity, definitions of water quality, and the use of biocides. Information was also obtained at international meetings in the area of biological mediated problems in spent fuel and high level wastes. Topics dis cussed included receiving foreign reactor research fuels into existing pools, synergism between different microbes and other forms of corrosion, and cross contamination

  17. Electricity generation by microbial fuel cells fuelled with wheat straw hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thygesen, Anders; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Angelidaki, Irini; Min, Booki; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda

    2011-01-01

    Electricity production from microbial fuel cells fueled with hydrolysate produced by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw can achieve both energy production and domestic wastewater purification. The hydrolysate contained mainly xylan, carboxylic acids, and phenolic compounds. Power generation and substrate utilization from the hydrolysate was compared with the ones obtained by defined synthetic substrates. The power density increased from 47 mW m −2 to 148 mW m −2 with the hydrolysate:wastewater ratio (R HW in m 3 m −3 ) increasing from 0 to 0.06 (corresponding to 0–0.7 g dm −3 of carbohydrates). The power density with the hydrolysate was higher than the one with only xylan (120 mW m −2 ) and carboxylic acids as fuel. The higher power density can be caused by the presence of phenolic compounds in the hydrolysates, which could mediate electron transport. Electricity generation with the hydrolysate resulted in 95% degradation of the xylan and glucan. The study demonstrates that lignocellulosic hydrolysate can be used for co-treatment with domestic wastewater for power generation in microbial fuel cells. -- Highlights: ► Electricity production in microbial fuel cells. ► Hydrolysate from hydrothermal treated wheat straw as fuel. ► Larger electricity production than with simple compounds as fuel. ► No need for detoxification and nutrients to the hydrolysate. ► Effective (95%) microbial utilization of the polymeric carbohydrates.

  18. The Impact of Microbially Influenced Corrosion on Spent Nuclear Fuel and Storage Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. H. Wolfram; R. E. Mizia; R. Jex; L. Nelson; K. M. Garcia

    1996-10-01

    A study was performed to evaluate if microbial activity could be considered a threat to spent nuclear fuel integrity. The existing data regarding the impact of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on spent nuclear fuel storage does not allow a clear assessment to be made. In order to identify what further data are needed, a literature survey on MIC was accomplished with emphasis on materials used in nuclear fuel fabrication, e.g., A1, 304 SS, and zirconium. In addition, a survey was done at Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and the INEL on the condition of their wet storage facilities. The topics discussed were the SNF path forward, the types of fuel, ramifications of damaged fuel, involvement of microbial processes, dry storage scenarios, ability to identify microbial activity, definitions of water quality, and the use of biocides. Information was also obtained at international meetings in the area of biological mediated problems in spent fuel and high level wastes. Topics dis cussed included receiving foreign reactor research fuels into existing pools, synergism between different microbes and other forms of corrosion, and cross contamination.

  19. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-07-18

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Fuel that had experienced a neutron environment in a reactor is known as spent, exposed, or irradiated fuel. In contrast fuel that has not yet been placed in a reactor is known as green, unexposed, or unirradiated fuel. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled (References 1 and 2) and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements (Reference 3). The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprised of two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with unirradiated fuel and one with irradiated fuel. Both the unirradiated and irradiated fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, three (3) green fuel

  20. A CFD analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    A fuel cell is most interesting new power source because it solves not only the environment problem but also natural resource exhaustion problem. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal co...

  1. KINERJA RANGKAIAN SERI SISTEM MICROBIAL FUEL CELL SEBAGAI PENGHASIL BIOLISTRIK DARI LIMBAH CAIR PERIKANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bustami - ibrahim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Listrik umumnya bersumber dari energi fosil yang merupakan sumber daya alam yang tidak dapat diperbaharui. Tingginya tingkat pemakaian energi yang tak terbarukan mendorong pencarian sumber energi alternatif baru. Salah satu teknologi yang dapat menjadi sumber energi alternatif baru adalah Microbial Fuel Cell. Microbial Fuel Cell adalah sistem yang memanfaatkan bakteri untuk mengoksidasi bahan organik dan anorganik. Teknologi tersebut dapat diaplikasikan pada limbah cair, misalnya limbah cair perikanan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja penggunaan rangkaian seri bejana terhadap daya listrik yang dihasilkan limbah cair perikanan berdasar sistem Microbial Fuel Cell. Penelitian ini terdiri dari empat tahap, yaitu pembuatan limbah cair buatan, pembuatan perangkat alat Microbial Fuel Cell, pengukuran daya listrik, dan analisis kualitas limbah cair. Hasil daya listrik selama 120 jam pengamatan adalah 0,115 V untuk dua bejana, 0,259 V untuk tiga bejana, dan 0,534 V untuk empat bejana yang seluruhnya dirangkaikan secara seri. Hasil uji beban limbah cair menunjukkan penurunan pada COD, BOD, TAN dan total nitrogen, sedangkan MLSS dan MLVSS mengalami peningkatan dalam lima hari pengamatan.Kata kunci: daya listrik, limbah cair perikanan, Microbial Fuel Cell, rangkaian seri

  2. Separator Characteristics for Increasing Performance of Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2009-11-01

    Two challenges for improving the performance of air cathode, single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) include increasing Coulombic efficiency (CE) and decreasing internal resistance. Nonbiodegradable glass fiber separators between the two electrodes were shown to increase power and CE, compared to cloth separators (J-cloth) that were degraded over time. MFCtestswereconductedusing glass fibermatswith thicknesses of 1.0mm (GF1) or 0.4 mm (GF0.4), a cation exchange membrane (CEM), and a J-cloth (JC), using reactors with different configurations. Higher power densities were obtained with either GF1 (46 ± 4 W/m3) or JC (46 ± 1 W/m3) in MFCs with a 2 cm electrode spacing, when the separator was placed against the cathode (S-configuration), rather than MFCs with GF0.4 (36 ± 1 W/m3) or CEM (14 ± 1 W/m3). Power was increased to 70 ± 2 W/m3 by placing the electrodes on either side of the GF1 separator (single separator electrode assembly, SSEA) and further to 150 ± 6 W/m3 using two sets of electrodes spaced 2 cm a part (double separator electrode assembly, DSEA). Reducing the DSEA electrode spacing to 0.3 cm increased power to 696 ± 26 W/m3 as a result of a decrease in the ohmic resistance from 5.9 to 2.2 Ω. The main advantages of a GF1 separator compared to JC were an improvement in the CE from 40% to 81% (S-configuration), compared to only 20-40% for JC under similar conditions, and the fact that GF1 was not biodegradable. The high CE for the GF1 separator was attributed to a low oxygen mass transfer coefficient (ko ) 5.0 x 10-5 cm/s). The GF1 andJCmaterials differed in the amount of biomass that accumulated on the separator and its biodegradability, which affected long-term power production and oxygen transport. These results show that materials and mass transfer properties of separators are important factors for improving power densities, CE, and long-term performance of MFCs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  3. Cationic fluorinated polymer binders for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Fluorinated quaternary ammonium-containing polymers were used as catalyst binders in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes. The performance of the cathodes was examined and compared to NAFION ® and other sulfonated aromatic cathode catalyst binders using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), impedance spectroscopy, and performance tests in single chamber air-cathode MFCs. The cathodes with quaternary ammonium functionalized fluorinated poly(arylene ether) (Q-FPAE) binders showed similar current density and charge transfer resistance (R ct) to cathodes with NAFION ® binders. Cathodes containing either of these fluorinated binders exhibited better electrochemical responses than cathodes with sulfonated or quaternary ammonium-functionalized RADEL ® poly(sulfone) (S-Radel or Q-Radel) binders. After 19 cycles (19 d), the power densities of all the MFCs declined compared to the initial cycles due to biofouling at the cathode. MFC cathodes with fluorinated polymer binders (1445 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-H; 1397 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-Cl; 1277 mW m -2, NAFION ®; and 1256 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) had better performance than those with non-fluorinated polymer binders (880 mW m -2, S-Radel; 670 mW m -2, Q-Radel). There was a 15% increase in the power density using the Q-FPAE binder with a 40% higher ion exchange capacity (Q-FPAE-1.4-H compared to Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) after 19 cycles of operation, but there was no effect on the power production due to counter ions in the binder (Cl -vs. HCO 3 -). The highest-performance cathodes (NAFION ® and Q-FPAE binders) had the lowest charge transfer resistances (R ct) in fresh and in fouled cathodes despite the presence of thick biofilms on the surface of the electrodes. These results show that fluorinated binders may decrease the penetration of the biofilm and associated biopolymers into the cathode structure, which helps to combat MFC performance loss over time. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Improved performance of microbial fuel cells enriched with natural microbial inocula and treated by electrical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hongjian; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Zhu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are increasingly attracting attention as a sustainable technology as they convert chemical energy in organic wastes to electricity. In this study, the effects of different inoculum sources (river sediment, activated sludge and anaerobic sludge) and electrical current stimulation were evaluated using single-chamber air-cathode MFCs as model reactors based on performance in enrichment process and electrochemical characteristics of the reactors. The result revealed the rapid anodic biofilm development and substrate utilization of the anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC. It was also found that the river sediment-inoculated MFC achieved the highest power output of 195 μW, or 98 mW m −2 , due to better developed anodic biofilm confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The current stimulation enhanced the anodic biofilm attachment over time, and therefore reduced the MFC internal resistance by 27%, increased the electrical capacitance by four folds, and improved the anodic biofilm resilience against substrate deprivation. For mature MFCs, a transient application of a negative voltage (−3 V) improved the cathode activity and maximum power output by 37%. This improvement was due to the bactericidal effect of the electrode potential higher than +1.5 V vs. SHE, demonstrating a substantial benefit of treating MFC cathode after long-term operation using suitable direct electrical current. -- Highlights: •Voltage stimulation (+2 V) during inoculation reduced MFC internal resistance and improved biofilm resilience. •Voltage stimulation increased biofilm electrical capacitance by 5-fold. •Negative voltage stimulation (−3 V) enhanced the maximum power output by 37%. •River sediment MFC obtained higher power due to better anodic biofilm coverage. •Anaerobic sludge quickly developed anodic biofilm for MFC and quickly utilized volatile fatty acids

  5. Development of biologically modified anodes for energy harvesting using microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, James J.; Ganguli, Rahul; Chmelka, Brad

    2012-06-01

    Biological fuel cells hold promise as an alternative energy source to batteries for unattended ground sensor applications due to the fact that they can be extremely long lived. This lifetime can be extended over batteries by scavenging fuel from the deployed environment. Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are one class of such sources that produce usable energy from small organic compounds (i.e. sugars, alcohols, organic acids, and biopolymers) which can be easily containerized or scavenged from the environment. The use of microorganisms as the anodic catalysts is what makes these systems unique from other biofuel cell designs. One of the main drawbacks of engineering a sensor system powered by an MFC is that power densities and current flux are extremely low in currently reported systems. The power density is limited by the mass transfer of the fuel source to the catalyst, the metabolism of the microbial catalysts and the electron transfer from the organism to the anode. This presentation will focus on the development of a new style of microbially-modified anodes which will increase power density to a level where a practical power source can be engineered. This is being achieved by developing a three dimensional matrix as an artificial, conductive biofilm. These artificial biofilms will allow the capture of a consortium of microbes designed for efficient metabolism of the available fuel source. Also it will keep the microbes close to the electrode allowing ready access by fuel and providing a low resistance passage of the liberated electrons from fuel oxidation.

  6. Inhibition of microbial growth on air cathodes of single chamber microbial fuel cells by incorporating enrofloxacin into the catalyst layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weifeng; Cheng, Shaoan; Sun, Dan; Huang, Haobin; Chen, Jie; Cen, Kefa

    2015-10-15

    The inevitable growth of aerobic bacteria on the surface of air cathodes is an important factor reducing the performance stability of air cathode single-chamber membrane-free microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Thus searching for effective methods to inhibit the cathodic microbial growth is critical for the practical application of MFCs. In this study, enrofloxacin (ENR), a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was incorporated into the catalyst layer of activated carbon air cathodes (ACACs) to inhibit the cathodic microbial growth. The biomass content on ACACs was substantially reduced by 60.2% with ENR treatment after 91 days of MFCs operation. As a result of the inhibited microbial growth, the oxygen reduction catalytic performance of the ENR treated ACACs was much stable compared to the fast performance decline of the untreated control. Consequently, a quite stable electricity production was obtained for the MFCs with the ENR treated ACACs, in contrast with a 22.5% decrease in maximum power density of the MFCs with the untreated cathode. ENR treatment of ACACs showed minimal effects on the anode performance. These results indicate that incorporating antibiotics into ACACs should be a simple and effective strategy to inhibit the microbial growth and improve the long-term stability of the performance of air cathode and the electricity production of MFCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of manifold design for 1 kW-class flat-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack operating on reformed natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Kashif; Dong, Sang Keun; Khan, Rashid Ali; Park, Seung Hwan

    2016-09-01

    This study focuses on optimizing the manifold design for a 1 kW-class flat-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack by performing extensive three-dimensional numerical simulations on numerous manifold designs. The stack flow uniformity and the standard flow deviation indexes are implemented to characterize the flow distributions in the stack and among the channels of FT-SOFC's, respectively. The results of the CFD calculations demonstrate that the remodeled manifold without diffuser inlets and 6 mm diffuser front is the best among investigated designs with uniformity index of 0.996 and maximum standard flow deviation of 0.423%. To understand the effect of manifold design on the performance of stack, both generic and developed manifold designs are investigated by applying electrochemical and internal reforming reactions modeling. The simulation results of the stack with generic manifold are validated using experimental data and then validated models are adopted to simulate the stack with the developed manifold design. The results reveal that the stack with developed manifold design achieves more uniform distribution of species, temperature, and current density with comparatively lower system pressure drop. In addition, the results also showed ∼8% increase in the maximum output power due to the implementation of uniform fuel velocity distributions in the cells.

  8. Sustainable Hypersaline Microbial Fuel Cells: Inexpensive Recyclable Polymer Supports for Carbon Nanotube Conductive Paint Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Shivel, Nelson D; Sifat, Iram; Bestetti, Massimiliano; Minteer, Shelley D

    2017-05-09

    Microbial fuel cells are an emerging technology for wastewater treatment, but to be commercially viable and sustainable, the electrode materials must be inexpensive, recyclable, and reliable. In this study, recyclable polymeric supports were explored for the development of anode electrodes to be applied in single-chamber microbial fuel cells operated in field under hypersaline conditions. The support was covered with a carbon nanotube (CNT) based conductive paint, and biofilms were able to colonize the electrodes. The single-chamber microbial fuel cells with Pt-free cathodes delivered a reproducible power output after 15 days of operation to achieve 12±1 mW m -2 at a current density of 69±7 mA m -2 . The decrease of the performance in long-term experiments was mostly related to inorganic precipitates on the cathode electrode and did not affect the performance of the anode, as shown by experiments in which the cathode was replaced and the fuel cell performance was regenerated. The results of these studies show the feasibility of polymeric supports coated with CNT-based paint for microbial fuel cell applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Electricity generation by microbial fuel cells fuelled with wheat straw hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Electricity production from microbial fuel cells fueled with hydrolysate produced by hydrothermal treatment of wheat straw can achieve both energy production and domestic wastewater purification. The hydrolysate contained mainly xylan, carboxylic acids, and phenolic compounds. Power generation...... in 95% degradation of the xylan and glucan. The study demonstrates that lignocellulosic hydrolysate can be used for co-treatment with domestic wastewater for power generation in microbial fuel cells....... density with the hydrolysate was higher than the one with only xylan (120 mW m−2) and carboxylic acids as fuel. The higher power density can be caused by the presence of phenolic compounds in the hydrolysates, which could mediate electron transport. Electricity generation with the hydrolysate resulted...

  10. Energy from plants and microorganisms: progress in plant-microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huan; Chen, Zheng; Zhao, Feng

    2012-06-01

    Plant-microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) are newly emerging devices, in which electricity can be generated by microorganisms that use root exudates as fuel. This review presents the development of PMFCs, with a summary of their power generation, configurations, plant types, anode and cathode materials, biofilm communities, potential applications, and future directions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Microbial fuel cells: a promising alternative for power generation and waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Larios, A. L.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    The current energy crisis has launched a renewed interest on alternative energy sources and non-fossil fuels. One promising technology is the direct production of electricity from organic matter or wastes in microbial fuel cells (MFC). A MFC can be envisioned as an bio-electrochemical reactor that converts the chemical energy stored in chemical bonds into electrical energy via the catalytic activity of microorganisms under anoxic conditions. (Author)

  12. High-efficiency, nickel-ceramic composite anode current collector for micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wu, Zhentao; Li, K.

    2015-04-01

    High manufacturing cost and low-efficient current collection have been the two major bottlenecks that prevent micro-tubular SOFCs from large-scale application. In this work, a new nickel-based composite anode current collector has been developed for anode-supported MT-SOFC, addressing reduced cost, manufacturability and current collection efficiencies. Triple-layer hollow fibers have been successfully fabricated via a phase inversion-assisted co-extrusion process, during which a thin nickel-based inner layer was uniformly coated throughout the interior anode surface for improved adhesion with superior process economy. 10 wt.% CGO was added into the inner layer to prevent the excessive shrinkage of pure NiO, thus helping to achieve the co-sintering process. The electrochemical performance tests illustrate that samples with the thinnest anodic current collector (15% of the anode thickness) displayed the highest power density (1.07 W cm-2). The impedance analysis and theoretical calculations suggest that inserting the anodic current collector could dramatically reduce the percentage of contact loss down to 6-10 % of the total ohmic loss (compared to 70% as reported in literatures), which proves the high efficiencies of new current collector design. Moreover, the superior manufacturability and process economy suggest this composite current collector suitable for mass-scale production.

  13. Degradation of Jet and Missile Fuels by Aquatic Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    opposite result. Fedorak and Westlake (Reference 6) examined the biodegradation of Prudhoe Bay crude oil under "shake-flask" conditions using a...8217 Salt Marsn," Marine Environmental Research, vol 5, pp. 125-143, 1981. 6. Fedorak , P.M. and Westlake, D.W.G., "Microbial I) ,raddtion of Arornatic and

  14. Coating-type three-dimensional acetate-driven microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin; Tang, Yulan

    2015-08-01

    This study uses sodium acetate as fuel to construct bioelectricity in coating-type three-dimensional microbial fuel cells anode. The coating-type three-dimensional anode was constructed using iron net as structural support, adhering a layer of carbon felt as primary coating and using carbon powder and 30% PTFE solution mixture as coating. The efficiency of electricity production and wastewater treatment were analyzed for the three-dimensional acetate-fed (C2H3NaO2) microbial fuel cells with the various ratio of the coating mixture. The results showed that the efficiency of electricity production was significantly improved when using the homemade coating-type microbial fuel cells anode compared with the one without coating on the iron net, which the apparent internal resistance was decreased by 59.4% and the maximum power density was increased by 1.5 times. It was found the electricity production was greatly influenced by the ratio of the carbon powder and PTFE in the coating. The electricity production was the highest with apparent internal resistance of 190 Ω, and maximum power density of 5189.4 mW m(-3) when 750 mg of carbon powder and 10 ml of PTFE (i.e., ratio 75:1) was used in the coating. With the efficiency of electricity production, wide distribution and low cost of the raw materials, the homemade acetate-fed microbial fuel cells provides a valuable reference to the development of the composition microbial fuel cell anode production. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbial degradation processes in radioactive waste repository and in nuclear fuel storage areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Gazso, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    The intent of the workshop organizers was to convene experts in the fields of corrosion and spent nuclear fuels. The major points which evolved from the interaction of microbiologists, material scientists, and fuel storage experts are as follows: Corrosion of basin components as well as fuel containers or cladding is occurring; Water chemistry monitoring, if done in the storage facility does not take into account the microbial component; Microbial influenced corrosion is an area that many have not considered to be an important contributor in the aging of metallurgical materials especially those exposed to a radiation field; Many observations indicate that there is a microbial or biological presence in the storage facilities but these observations have not been correlated with any deterioration or aging phenomena taking place in the storage facility; The sessions on the fundamentals of microbial influenced corrosion and biofilm pointed out that these phenomena are real, occurring on similar materials in other industries and probably are occurring in the wet storage of spent fuel; All agreed that more monitoring, testing, and education in the field of biological mediate processes be performed and financially supported; Loosing the integrity of fuel assemblies can only cause problems, relating to the future disposition of the fuel, safety concerns, and environmental issues; In other rad waste scenarios, biological processes may be playing a role, for instance in the mobility of radionuclides in soil, decomposition of organic materials of the rad waste, gas production, etc. The fundamental scientific presentations discussed the full gamut of microbial processes that relate to biological mediated effects on metallic and non-metallic materials used in the storage and containment of radioactive materials

  16. A Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Contamination in Aviation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    phylum ( Brock , 1987; Hugenholtz et al., 1998). Efforts using molecular biology to identify environmental microbes first occurred over thirty years...affecting aviation fuels. Advances in molecular biological techniques have allowed for the identification of microorganisms which were not identified by...be a subset of the JP-8 community. A small subset of microorganisms was found to exist across all three fuels while the majority of identified

  17. Resilience of roof-top Plant-Microbial Fuel Cells during Dutch winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Timmers, R.A.; Reas, S.M.T.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    The Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC) is in theory a technology that could produce sustainable electricity continuously. We operated two designs of the P-MFC under natural roof-top conditions in the Netherlands for 221 days, including winter, to test its resilience. Current and power densities are

  18. New plant-growth medium for increased power output of the Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Kuijken, R.C.P.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    In a Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell anode-conditions must be created that are favorable for plant growth and electricity production. One of the major aspects in this is the composition of the plant-growth medium. Hoagland medium has been used until now, with added phosphate buffer to reduce potential

  19. A viable electrode material for use in microbial fuel cells for tropical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offei, Felix; Thygesen, Anders; Mensah, Moses

    2016-01-01

    Electrode materials are critical for microbial fuel cells (MFC) since they influence the construction and operational costs. This study introduces a simple and efficient electrode material in the form of palm kernel shell activated carbon (AC) obtained in tropical regions. The novel introduction ...

  20. Microbially influenced corrosion communities associated with fuel-grade ethanol environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Charles H D; Jain, Luke A; Mishra, Brajendra; Olson, David L; Spear, John R

    2015-08-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is a costly problem that impacts hydrocarbon production and processing equipment, water distribution systems, ships, railcars, and other types of metallic infrastructure. In particular, MIC is known to cause considerable damage to hydrocarbon fuel infrastructure including production, transportation, and storage systems, often times with catastrophic environmental contamination results. As the production and use of alternative fuels such as fuel-grade ethanol (FGE) increase, it is important to consider MIC of engineered materials exposed to these "newer fuels" as they enter existing infrastructure. Reports of suspected MIC in systems handling FGE and water prompted an investigation of the microbial diversity associated with these environments. Small subunit ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing surveys indicate that acetic-acid-producing bacteria (Acetobacter spp. and Gluconacetobacter spp.) are prevalent in environments exposed to FGE and water. Other microbes previously implicated in corrosion, such as sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens, were also identified. In addition, acetic-acid-producing microbes and sulfate-reducing microbes were cultivated from sampled environments containing FGE and water. Results indicate that complex microbial communities form in these FGE environments and could cause significant MIC-related damage that may be difficult to control. How to better manage these microbial communities will be a defining aspect of improving mitigation of global infrastructure corrosion.

  1. On-line detection of toxic components using a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, N.E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Straten, van G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Safe drinking water without toxic chemicals is crucial for people's health. A recently developed sensor for the detection of toxic components in water is the microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensor. In this biosensor, substrate consumption rate and metabolic activity of bacteria are directly

  2. Power output of microbial fuel cell emphasizing interaction of anodic binder with bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Liao, Bo; Xiong, Juan; Zhou, Xingwang; Zhi, Huozhen; Liu, Xiang; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan

    2018-03-01

    Electrochemically active biofilm is necessary for the electron transfer between bacteria and anodic electrode in microbial fuel cells and selecting the type of anodic electrode material that favours formation of electrochemically active biofilm is crucial for the microbial fuel cell operation. We report a new finding that the interaction of anodic binder with bacteria plays more important role than its hydrophilicity for forming an electrochemically active biofilm, which is emphasized by applying poly(bisphenol A-co-epichorohydrin) as an anodic binder of the microbial fuel cell based on carbon nanotubes as anodic electrode and Escherichia coli as bacterium. The physical characterizations and electrochemical measurements demonstrate that poly(bisphenol A-co-epichorohydrin) exhibits a strong interaction with bacteria and thus provides the microbial fuel cell with excellent power density output. The MFC using poly(bisphenol A-co-epichorohydrin) reaches a maximum power density output of 3.8 W m-2. This value is larger than that of the MFCs using polytetrafluoroethylene that has poorer hydrophilicity, or polyvinyl alcohol that has better hydrophilicity but exhibits weaker interaction with bacteria than poly(bisphenol A-co-epichorohydrin).

  3. Increase of power output by change of ion transport direction in a plant microbial fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.A.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology for the production of renewable and clean bioenergy based on photosynthesis. To increase the power output of the PMFC, the internal resistance (IR) must be reduced. The objective of the present study was to reduce the membrane resistance by

  4. Electricity generation by a plant microbial fuel cell with an integrated oxygen reducing biocathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, K.; Sudirjo, E.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we show that a chemical ferricyanide cathode can be replaced by a biological oxygen reducing cathode in a plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) with a new record power output. A biocathode was successfully integrated in a PMFC and operated for 151 days. Plants growth continued and the power

  5. Electricity production from xylose using a mediator-less microbial fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Liping; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Electricity generation integrated with xylose degradation was investigated in a two-chamber mediator-less microbial fuel cell (MFC). Voltage output followed saturation kinetics as a function of xylose concentration for concentration below 9.7 mM, with a predicted maximum of 86 mV (6.3 mW m(-2...

  6. Use of a Burkholderia cenocepacia ABTS Oxidizer in a Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often use biological processes to generate electrons from organic material contained in the anode chamber and abiotic processes employing atmospheric oxygen as the oxidant in the cathode chamber. This study investigated the accumulation of an oxidant in bacterial cultures...

  7. A microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for the detection of toxic components in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    In a microbial fuel cell bacteria produce electricity. When water with a constant quality is lead passed the bacteria, a constant current will be measured. When toxic components enter the cell with the water, the bacteria are affected

  8. Performance of a scaled-up Microbial Fuel Cell with iron reduction as the cathode reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, ter A.; Liu, F.; Rijnsoever, van L.S.; Saakes, M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Scale-up studies of Microbial Fuel Cells are required before practical application comes into sight. We studied an MFC with a surface area of 0.5 m2 and a volume of 5 L. Ferric iron (Fe3+) was used as the electron acceptor to improve cathode performance. MFC performance increased in time as a

  9. Modelling microbial fuel cells with suspended cells and added electron transfer mediator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picoreanu, C.; Katuri, K.P.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Head, I.M.; Scott, K.

    2009-01-01

    Derivation of a mathematical model for microbial fuel cells (MFC) with suspended biomass and added electron-transfer mediator is described. The model is based on mass balances for several dissolved chemical species such as substrate, oxidized mediator and reduced mediator. Biological, chemical and

  10. Kinetic models for detection of toxicity in a microbial fuel cell based biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, N.E.; Keesman, K.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Straten, van G.

    2011-01-01

    Currently available models describing microbial fuel cell (MFC) polarization curves, do not describe the effect of the presence of toxic components. A bioelectrochemical model combined with enzyme inhibition kinetics, that describes the polarization curve of an MFC-based biosensor, was modified to

  11. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Terlouw, H.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a

  12. Improving the cathode of a microbial fuel cell for efficient electricity production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, ter A.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide demand for energy is increasing. At the same time, energy rich wastewaters are currently purified by oxygen supply, which costs a lot of energy. The Microbial Fuel Cell is a new technology that offers advantages in both directions: it produces electricity while purifying wastewaters.

  13. Cation accumulation leads to the electrode aging in soil microbial fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xiaojing; Li, Yue; Zhao, Xiaodong; Weng, Liping; Li, Yongtao

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The electrode aging in soil microbial fuel cells (MFCs) disturbed the removal of pollutants and sensitivity of electrophysiological signal. Therefore, surveying the causes of aging electrodes could assist to take the prevention measures for remediation and biosensor application of soil

  14. Nanomodification of the electrodes in microbial fuel cell: impact of nanoparticle density on electricity production and microbial community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    densities of gold (Au) nanoparticles were sputtered on carbon paper as electrodes of MFCs. The results show that power generation increased with Au nanoparticle density on the electrodes. The highest power density was obtained by depositing carbon paper with an Au thickness of 50 nm and 100 nm on each side......, respectively, which was 1.22-1.88 times higher than that obtained with plain carbon paper electrode (control). Furthermore, the Coulombic efficiency was increased with the Au density. Consequently, the maximum lag time before stable power generation was shortened by 1.22 times the lag time of the control......The nano-decoration of electrode with nanoparticles is one effective way to enhance power output of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the amount of nanoparticles used for decoration has not been optimized yet, and how it affects the microbial community is still unknown. In this study, different...

  15. C1-carbon sources for chemical and fuel production by microbial gas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürre, Peter; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2015-12-01

    Fossil resources for production of fuels and chemicals are finite and fuel use contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. Thus, sustainable fuel supply, security, and prices necessitate the implementation of alternative routes to the production of chemicals and fuels. Much attention has been focussed on use of cellulosic material, particularly through microbial-based processes. However, this is still costly and proving challenging, as are catalytic routes to biofuels from whole biomass. An alternative strategy is to directly capture carbon before incorporation into lignocellulosic biomass. Autotrophic acetogenic, carboxidotrophic, and methanotrophic bacteria are able to capture carbon as CO, CO2, or CH4, respectively, and reuse that carbon in products that displace their fossil-derived counterparts. Thus, gas fermentation represents a versatile industrial platform for the sustainable production of commodity chemicals and fuels from diverse gas resources derived from industrial processes, coal, biomass, municipal solid waste (MSW), and extracted natural gas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the U.K. measurements of temperature effects in tubular loose coated particle fuels in HECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, A.J.

    1972-06-15

    A series of measurements of reaction rates and reactivity changes with temperature were made in teh central region of HECTOR, using loose coated particle fuel provided by the Dragon project under the collaborative agrement between the Project and the UKAEA. A DP report giving the results of these experiments was issued in 1970 and an interim statement given at the 10th DCPM. Since that time, analysis of the reactivity changes with temperature in uranium fuelled cores has indicated significant discrepancies, which were not apparent from the earlier analysis of reaction rate measurements. This report documents the current analysis.

  17. Simultaneous efficient removal of oxyfluorfen with electricity generation in a microbial fuel cell and its microbial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Han; Jiang, Qinrui; Zhu, Xiaoyu

    2018-02-01

    The performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to degrade oxyfluorfen was investigated. Approximately 77% of 50 mg/L oxyfluorfen was degraded within 24 h by anodic biofilm. The temperature, pH, and initial oxyfluorfen concentration had a significant effect on oxyfluorfen degrading, and a maximum degradation rate of 94.95% could theoretically be achieved at 31.96 °C, a pH of 7.65, and an initial oxyfluorfen concentration of 120.05 mg/L. Oxyfluorfen was further catabolized through various microbial metabolism pathways. Moreover, the anodic biofilm exhibited multiple catabolic capacities to 4-nitrophenol, chloramphenicol, pyraclostrobin, and sulfamethoxazole. Microbial community analysis indicated that functional bacteria Arcobacter, Acinetobacter, Azospirillum, Azonexus, and Comamonas were the predominant genera in the anodic biofilm. In terms of the efficient removal of various organic compounds and energy recovery, the MFC seemed to be a promising approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Metagenomic Analysis of Electrogenic Microbial Communities in Differentially Inoculated Swine Wastewater-Fed Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Khilyas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs are promising new technologies for efficient removal of organic compounds from industrial wastewaters, including that generated from swine farming. We inoculated two pairs of laboratory-scale MFCs with sludge granules from a beer wastewater-treating anaerobic digester (IGBS or from sludge taken from the bottom of a tank receiving swine wastewater (SS. The SS-inoculated MFC outperformed the IGBS-inoculated MFC with regard to COD and VFA removal and electricity production. Using a metagenomic approach, we describe the microbial diversity of the MFC planktonic and anodic communities derived from the different inocula. Proteobacteria (mostly Deltaproteobacteria became the predominant phylum in both MFC anodic communities with amplification of the electrogenic genus Geobacter being the most pronounced. Eight dominant and three minor species of Geobacter were found in both MFC anodic communities. The anodic communities of the SS-inoculated MFCs had a higher proportion of Clostridium and Bacteroides relative to those of the IGBS-inoculated MFCs, which were enriched with Pelobacter. The archaeal populations of the SS- and IGBS-inoculated MFCs were dominated by Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, respectively. Our results show a long-term influence of inoculum type on the performance and microbial community composition of swine wastewater-treating MFCs.

  19. Continuous power generation and microbial community structure of the anode biofilms in a three-stage microbial fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyungmi; Okabe, Satoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Urban and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-15

    A mediator-less three-stage two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) system was developed and operated continuously for more than 1.5 years to evaluate continuous power generation while treating artificial wastewater containing glucose (10 mM) concurrently. A stable power density of 28 W/m3 was attained with an anode hydraulic retention time of 4.5 h and phosphate buffer as the cathode electrolyte. An overall dissolved organic carbon removal ratio was about 85%, and coulombic efficiency was about 46% in this MFC system. We also analyzed the microbial community structure of anode biofilms in each MFC. Since the environment in each MFC was different due to passing on the products to the next MFC in series, the microbial community structure was different accordingly. The anode biofilm in the first MFC consisted mainly of bacteria belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria, identified as Aeromonas sp., while the Firmicutes dominated the anode biofilms in the second and third MFCs that were mainly fed with acetate. Cyclic voltammetric results supported the presence of a redox compound(s) associated with the anode biofilm matrix, rather than mobile (dissolved) forms, which could be responsible for the electron transfer to the anode. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the anode biofilms were comprised of morphologically different cells that were firmly attached on the anode surface and interconnected each other with anchor-like filamentous appendages, which might support the results of cyclic voltammetry. (orig.)

  20. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  1. Biomimetic and microbial approaches to solar fuel generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Ann; Anderlund, Magnus; Johansson, Olof; Lindblad, Peter; Lomoth, Reiner; Polivka, Tomas; Ott, Sascha; Stensjö, Karin; Styring, Stenbjörn; Sundström, Villy; Hammarström, Leif

    2009-12-21

    Photosynthesis is performed by a multitude of organisms, but in nearly all cases, it is variations on a common theme: absorption of light followed by energy transfer to a reaction center where charge separation takes place. This initial form of chemical energy is stabilized by the biosynthesis of carbohydrates. To produce these energy-rich products, a substrate is needed that feeds in reductive equivalents. When photosynthetic microorganisms learned to use water as a substrate some 2 billion years ago, a fundamental barrier against unlimited use of solar energy was overcome. The possibility of solar energy use has inspired researchers to construct artificial photosynthetic systems that show analogy to parts of the intricate molecular machinery of photosynthesis. Recent years have seen a reorientation of efforts toward creating integrated light-to-fuel systems that can use solar energy for direct synthesis of energy-rich compounds, so-called solar fuels. Sustainable production of solar fuels is a long awaited development that promises extensive solar energy use combined with long-term storage. The stoichiometry of water splitting into molecular oxygen, protons, and electrons is deceptively simple; achieving it by chemical catalysis has proven remarkably difficult. The reaction center Photosystem II couples light-induced charge separation to an efficient molecular water-splitting catalyst, a Mn(4)Ca complex, and is thus an important template for biomimetic chemistry. In our aims to design biomimetic manganese complexes for light-driven water oxidation, we link photosensitizers and charge-separation motifs to potential catalysts in supramolecular assemblies. In photosynthesis, production of carbohydrates demands the delivery of multiple reducing equivalents to CO(2). In contrast, the two-electron reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen is much less demanding. Virtually all microorganisms have enzymes called hydrogenases that convert protons to hydrogen, many of

  2. Microbial fuel cells in saline and hypersaline environments: Advancements, challenges and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Minteer, Shelley D

    2018-04-01

    This review is aimed to report the possibility to utilize microbial fuel cells for the treatment of saline and hypersaline solutions. An introduction to the issues related with the biological treatment of saline and hypersaline wastewater is reported, discussing the limitation that characterizes classical aerobic and anaerobic digestions. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology, and the possibility to be applied in the presence of high salinity, is discussed before reviewing the most recent advancements in the development of MFCs operating in saline and hypersaline conditions, with their different and interesting applications. Specifically, the research performed in the last 5years will be the main focus of this review. Finally, the future perspectives for this technology, together with the most urgent research needs, are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Halotolerant extremophile bacteria from the Great Salt Lake for recycling pollutants in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Suvira, Milomir; Hasan, Kamrul; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2017-07-01

    The treatment of hypersaline wastewater (approximately 5% of the wastewater worldwide) cannot be performed by classical biological techniques. Herein the halotolerant extremophile bacteria obtained from the Great Salt Lake (Utah) were explored in single chamber microbial fuel cells with Pt-free cathodes for more than 18 days. The bacteria samples collected in two different locations of the lake (Stansbury Bay and Antelope Island) showed different electrochemical performances. The maximum achieved power output of 36 mW m-2 was from the microbial fuel cell based on the sample originated from Stansbury Bay, at a current density of 820 mA m-2. The performances throughout the long-term operation are discussed and a bioelectrochemical mechanism is proposed.

  4. Electricity generation of Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (PMFC using Cyperus Involucratus R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttawut Klaisongkram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is a study of microbial fuel cells produce electricity from plants using Cyperus involucratus R. called Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (PMFC. As a result of the polarization curve, by adjusting the external resistance between 10 to 12,000 ohms, it was found that the internal resistance of PMFC1 , PMFC2 , MFC1 and MFC2 was 9.78, 11.06, 9.47 and 11.92 ohms respectively. The results showed that the optimum size of the anode electrode is 242 square centimeters and adding soil by using the external resistance 100 ohms. The highest average power density equaled to 5.99 milliwatts per square meter of the anode electrode. Finally the wastewater in PMFC was reduced 53.5 percent in the period of 5 days compared with un-treated wastewater.

  5. Polymer Separators for High-Power, High-Efficiency Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang

    2012-12-26

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) separators showed higher Coulombic efficiencies (94%) and power densities (1220 mW m-2) than cells with porous glass fiber separators or reactors without a separator after 32 days of operation. These remarkable increases in both the coublomic efficiency and the power production of the microbial fuel cells were made possible by the separator\\'s unique characteristics of fouling mitigation of the air cathode without a large increase in ionic resistance in the cell. This new type of polymer gel-like separator design will be useful for improving MFC reactor performance by enabling compact cell designs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. Farm Deployable Microbial Bioreactor for Fuel Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict [Auburn Univ., Montgomery AL (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Research was conducted to develop a farm and field deployable microbial bioreactor for bioethanol production from biomass. Experiments were conducted to select the most efficient microorganisms for conversion of plant fiber to sugars for fermentation to ethanol. Mixtures of biomass and surface soil samples were collected from selected sites in Alabama black belt counties (Macon, Sumter, Choctaw, Dallas, Montgomery, Lowndes) and other areas within the state of Alabama. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of culture parameters on key biomass saccharifying enzymes (cellulase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase and beta-xylosidase). A wide-scale sampling of locally-grown fruits in Central Alabama was embarked to isolate potential xylose fermenting microorganisms. Yeast isolates were evaluated for xylose fermentation. Selected microorganisms were characterized by DNA based methods. Factors affecting enzyme production and biomass saccharification were examined and optimized in the laboratory. Methods of biomass pretreatment were compared. Co-production of amylolytic enzymes with celluloytic-xylanolytic enzymes was evaluated; and co-saccharification of a combination of biomass, and starch-rich materials was examined. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with and without pre-saccharifcation was studied. Whole culture broth and filtered culture broth simultaneous saccahrifcation and fermentation were compared. A bioreactor system was designed and constructed to employ laboratory results for scale up of biomass saccharification.

  7. Electron transfer mechanisms, new applications, and performance of biocathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Liping

    2011-01-01

    Broad application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires low cost and high operational sustainability. Microbial-cathode MFCs, or cathodes using only bacterial catalysts (biocathodes), can satisfy these demands and have gained considerable attention in recent years. Achievements with biocathodes over the past 3-4. years have been particularly impressive not only with respect to the biological aspects but also the system-wide considerations related to electrode materials and solution chemistry. The versatility of biocathodes enables us to use not only oxygen but also contaminants as possible electron acceptors, allowing nutrient removal and bioremediation in conjunction with electricity generation. Moreover, biocathodes create opportunities to convert electrical current into microbially generated reduced products. While many new experimental results with biocathodes have been reported, we are still in the infancy of their engineering development. This review highlights the opportunities, limits, and challenges of biocathodes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A cost-effective microbial fuel cell to detect and select for photosynthetic electrogenic activity in algae and cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luimstra, V.M.; Kennedy, S.J.; Güttler, J.; Wood, S.A.; Williams, D.E.; Packer, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the development of an easily constructed, cost-effective photosynthetic microbial fuel cell design with highly reproducible electrochemical characteristics that can be used to screen algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthetic electrogenic activity. It is especially suitable for

  9. Graphite anode surface modification with controlled reduction of specific aryl diazonium salts for improved microbial fuel cells power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Matthieu; Lapinsonnière, Laure; Rothballer, Michael; Barrière, Frédéric

    2011-10-15

    Graphite electrodes were modified with reduction of aryl diazonium salts and implemented as anodes in microbial fuel cells. First, reduction of 4-aminophenyl diazonium is considered using increased coulombic charge density from 16.5 to 200 mC/cm(2). This procedure introduced aryl amine functionalities at the surface which are neutral at neutral pH. These electrodes were implemented as anodes in "H" type microbial fuel cells inoculated with waste water, acetate as the substrate and using ferricyanide reduction at the cathode and a 1000 Ω external resistance. When the microbial anode had developed, the performances of the microbial fuel cells were measured under acetate saturation conditions and compared with those of control microbial fuel cells having an unmodified graphite anode. We found that the maximum power density of microbial fuel cell first increased as a function of the extent of modification, reaching an optimum after which it decreased for higher degree of surface modification, becoming even less performing than the control microbial fuel cell. Then, the effect of the introduction of charged groups at the surface was investigated at a low degree of surface modification. It was found that negatively charged groups at the surface (carboxylate) decreased microbial fuel cell power output while the introduction of positively charged groups doubled the power output. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microbial anode modified with positively charged groups was covered by a dense and homogeneous biofilm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses showed that this biofilm consisted to a large extent of bacteria from the known electroactive Geobacter genus. In summary, the extent of modification of the anode was found to be critical for the microbial fuel cell performance. The nature of the chemical group introduced at the electrode surface was also found to significantly affect the performance of the microbial fuel cells. The method used for

  10. Nano-structured textiles as high-performance aqueous cathodes for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Xing

    2011-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT)-textile-Pt cathode for aqueous-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was prepared by electrochemically depositing Pt nanoparticles on a CNT-textile. An MFC equipped with a CNT-textile-Pt cathode revealed a 2.14-fold maximum power density with only 19.3% Pt loading, compared to that with a commercial Pt coated carbon cloth cathode. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Lactose Bioelectricity on a Microbial Fuel Cell System Parallel Circuit Using Lactobacillus Bulgaricus

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Adi; Nuryanto, Rahmad; Suyati, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Electrical energy needs in Indonesia is estimated to continue growing by 4.6% per year, and if there is nothing to be done to increase the production of electric energy, this figure will increase threefold by 2030. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) is one way to produce alternative electric energy by utilizing organic material as a substrate for bacterial metabolic activity that generate electricity. The aim of this study is to examine lactose bioelectricity in a parallel circuit MFC system using La...

  12. Enhanced boron removal by electricity generation in a microbial fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Ping, Qingyun; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M.; He, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Boron needs to be removed during desalination, because excessive boron in the product water for irrigation can deteriorate plant growth. In this study, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) equipped with anion exchange membrane (AEM) was proposed and investigated to remove boron via two successive steps: boric acid is ionized to borate ions in the presence of high pH as a result of cathode reaction, and borate ions are transported across AEM driven by electricity generation. Two scenarios were examined...

  13. Simultaneous electricity generation and sulfide removal via a dual chamber microbial fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Paniz Izadi; Mostafa Rahimnejad

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently been used to alter different sources of substrates to produce bioelectricity. MFCs can also be used for wastewater treatment and electricity generation simultaneously. Sulfur compounds such as sulfides commonly exist in wastewater and organic waste. In this study a dual chamber MFC was constructed for power production. Sulfide was used as the electron donor in the anaerobic anode compartment. A mixed culture of microorganisms was used as an active bio...

  14. A microbial fuel cell with improved cathode reaction as a low biochemical oxygen demand sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kui Hyun; Jang, Jae Kyung; Pham, The Hai; Moon, Hyunsoo; Chang, In Seop; Kim, Byung Hong

    2003-08-01

    Mediator-less microbial fuel cells (MFC) enriched with oligotrophic microbes were optimized through enhancement of cathode reaction and lowering O2 diffusion into the anode compartment as a low BOD sensor. The optimization of the MFC has greatly improved the maximum current and coulomb yield. The oligotroph-type MFC could be used as a low BOD sensor with high operational stability, good repeatability and reproducibility.

  15. Graphene–sponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Xing

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode was constructed from inexpensive materials. Key components were a graphene-sponge (G-S) composite and a stainless-steel (SS) current collector. Anode fabrication is simple, scalable, and environmentally friendly, with low energy inputs. The SS current collector improved electrode conductivity and decreased voltage drop and power loss. The resulting G-S-SS composite electrode appears promising for large-scale applications. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Rapid Evaluation of Power Degradation in Series Connection of Single Feeding Microsized Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-07-08

    We have developed a sustainable, single feeding, microsized, air-cathode and membrane-free microbial fuel cells with a volume of 40 mu L each, which we have used for rapid evaluation of power generation and viability of a series array of three cells seeking higher voltage levels. Contrary to expectations, the achieved power density was modest (45 mWm(-3)), limited due to non-uniformities in assembly and the single-channel feeding system.

  17. Detecting Industrial Chemicals in Water With Microbial Fuel Cells and Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    was used on a wide variety of crops such as peanuts, potatoes , sorghum, soybeans, sweet potatoes , citrus fruits, and many others (USEPA, 2007...identification of four different readily-degradable substrates: acetate, butyrate, glucose, and corn starch . They accomplished this by creating...13997121&sit e=ehost-live Logan, B. E. (2008). Microbial fuel cells. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Logan, B. E. (2004). Extracting

  18. Evaluation of Kefir as a New Anodic Biocatalyst Consortium for Microbial Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Gustavo; Schneedorf, José Maurício

    2018-02-21

    Kefir, a combined consortium of bacteria and yeast encapsulated by a polymeric matrix of exopolysaccharides, was used as anodic biocatalyst in a two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC). Fermentation was followed during 72 h and polarization curves were obtained from linear sweep voltammetry. The effect of methylene blue as charge-transfer mediator in the kefir metabolism was evaluated. UV/Vis spectrophotometry and cyclic voltammetry were applied to evaluate the redox state of the mediator and to characterize the electrochemical activity, whereas current interruption was used for internal resistance determination. Aiming to establish a relationship between the microbial development inside the anodic chamber with the generated power in the MFC, total titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, carbohydrate assimilation, and microbial counting were assayed. The kefir-based MFC demonstrated a maximum power density of 54 mW m -2 after 24 h fermentation, revealing the potential use of kefir as a biocatalyst for microbial fuel cells.

  19. Microbial fuel cells applied to the metabolically based detection of extraterrestrial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Mauas, Pablo J D; Cortón, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    Since the 1970s, when the Viking spacecrafts carried out experiments to detect microbial metabolism on the surface of Mars, the search for nonspecific methods to detect life in situ has been one of the goals of astrobiology. It is usually required that a methodology detect life independently from its composition or form and that the chosen biological signature point to a feature common to all living systems, such as the presence of metabolism. In this paper, we evaluate the use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for the detection of microbial life in situ. MFCs are electrochemical devices originally developed as power electrical sources and can be described as fuel cells in which the anode is submerged in a medium that contains microorganisms. These microorganisms, as part of their metabolic process, oxidize organic material, releasing electrons that contribute to the electric current, which is therefore proportional to metabolic and other redox processes. We show that power and current density values measured in MFCs that use microorganism cultures or soil samples in the anode are much larger than those obtained with a medium free of microorganisms or sterilized soil samples, respectively. In particular, we found that this is true for extremophiles, which have been proposed as potential inhabitants of extraterrestrial environments. Therefore, our results show that MFCs have the potential to be used for in situ detection of microbial life.

  20. Electricity generation by Enterobacter cloacae SU-1 in mediator less microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samrot, Antony V.; Senthilkumar, P.; Pavankumar, K.; Akilandeswari, G.C. [Department of Biotechnology, Sathyabama University, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Rajalakshmi, N.; Dhathathreyan, K.S. [Center for Fuel Cell Technology ARCI, IITM Research Park, Phase I, 2nd Floor, 6 Kanagam Road, Tharamani, Chennai 600 113, Tamilnadu (India)

    2010-08-15

    We have investigated a Enterobacter cloacae SU-1, bacteria for mediator less microbial fuel cell with different carbon sources and is found to be more effective as the microorganism is able to transfer electrons directly (exo-electrogenic organism) via the cytochromes or the ubiquinone. These carriers of electrons are in form of stable reversible redox couples, not biologically degraded and not toxic to cell. The major advantage of mediator less microbial fuel cells emphasize that additives in the anolyte is not compatible with the purpose of water purification. The anode chamber with the bacteria is maintained under anaerobic conditions so that the bacteria will undergo anaerobic biochemical pathways like Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Electron Transport Chain (ETC) where electrons and protons are released. Here protons are released in TCA cycle and whereas electrons are released from ETC. The mediator less microbial fuel cell delivered an open circuit potential (OCP) of 0.93 V and power of 3 mW/sq cm. During power generation from the microbes, there was a drop in coulombic efficiency in terms of fluctuations during drawing power, as the carbon source is being utilized for the cell growth. (author)

  1. The significance of the initiation process parameters and reactor design for maximizing the efficiency of microbial fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Guotao; Thygesen, Anders; Ale, Marcel Tutor

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be used for electricity generation via bioconversion of wastewater and organic waste substrates. MFCs also hold potential for production of certain chemicals, such as H2 and H2O2. The studies of electricity generation in MFCs have mainly focused on the microbial co...

  2. Durability and regeneration of activated carbon air-cathodes in long-term operated microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enren; Wang, Feng; Yu, Qingling; Scott, Keith; Wang, Xu; Diao, Guowang

    2017-08-01

    The performance of activated carbon catalyst in air-cathodes in microbial fuel cells was investigated over one year. A maximum power of 1722 mW m-2 was produced within the initial one-month microbial fuel cell operation. The air-cathodes produced a maximum power >1200 mW m-2 within six months, but gradually became a limiting factor for the power output in prolonged microbial fuel cell operation. The maximum power decreased by 55% when microbial fuel cells were operated over one year due to deterioration in activated carbon air-cathodes. While salt/biofilm removal from cathodes experiencing one-year operation increased a limiting performance enhancement in cathodes, a washing-drying-pressing procedure could restore the cathode performance to its original levels, although the performance restoration was temporary. Durable cathodes could be regenerated by re-pressing activated carbon catalyst, recovered from one year deteriorated air-cathodes, with new gas diffusion layer, resulting in ∼1800 mW m-2 of maximum power production. The present study indicated that activated carbon was an effective catalyst in microbial fuel cell cathodes, and could be recovered for reuse in long-term operated microbial fuel cells by simple methods.

  3. Long-term cathode performance and the microbial communities that develop in microbial fuel cells fed different fermentation endproducts

    KAUST Repository

    Kiely, Patrick D.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand how cathode performance and substrates affected communities that evolved in these reactors over long periods of time, microbial fuel cells were operated for more than 1year with individual endproducts of lignocellulose fermentation (acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, or ethanol). Large variations in reactor performance were primarily due to the specific substrates, with power densities ranging from 835±21 to 62±1mW/m3. Cathodes performance degraded over time, as shown by an increase in power of up to 26% when the cathode biofilm was removed, and 118% using new cathodes. Communities that developed on the anodes included exoelectrogenic families, such as Rhodobacteraceae, Geobacteraceae, and Peptococcaceae, with the Deltaproteobacteria dominating most reactors. Pelobacter propionicus was the predominant member in reactors fed acetic acid, and it was abundant in several other MFCs. These results provide valuable insights into the effects of long-term MFC operation on reactor performance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Submersible microbial fuel cell sensor for monitoring microbial activity and BOD in groundwater: Focusing on impact of anodic biofilm on sensor applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell (SUMFC), was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Fresh anode was req....../L (∼233 ± 1 mA/m2), with a response time of...

  5. Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

  6. Microbial community composition and electricity generation in cattle manure slurry treatment using microbial fuel cells: effects of inoculum addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Binghan; Gong, Weijia; Ding, An; Yu, Huarong; Qu, Fangshu; Tang, Xiaobin; Yan, Zhongsen; Li, Guibai; Liang, Heng

    2017-10-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a sustainable technology to treat cattle manure slurry (CMS) for converting chemical energy to bioelectricity. In this work, two types of allochthonous inoculum including activated sludge (AS) and domestic sewage (DS) were added into the MFC systems to enhance anode biofilm formation and electricity generation. Results indicated that MFCs (AS + CMS) obtained the maximum electricity output with voltage approaching 577 ± 7 mV (~ 196 h), followed by MFCs (DS + CMS) (520 ± 21 mV, ~ 236 h) and then MFCs with autochthonous inoculum (429 ± 62 mV, ~ 263.5 h). Though the raw cattle manure slurry (RCMS) could facilitate electricity production in MFCs, the addition of allochthonous inoculum (AS/DS) significantly reduced the startup time and enhanced the output voltage. Moreover, the maximum power (1.259 ± 0.015 W/m 2 ) and the highest COD removal (84.72 ± 0.48%) were obtained in MFCs (AS + CMS). With regard to microbial community, Illumina HiSeq of the 16S rRNA gene was employed in this work and the exoelectrogens (Geobacter and Shewanella) were identified as the dominant members on all anode biofilms in MFCs. For anode microbial diversity, the MFCs (AS + CMS) outperformed MFCs (DS + CMS) and MFCs (RCMS), allowing the occurrence of the fermentative (e.g., Bacteroides) and nitrogen fixation bacteria (e.g., Azoarcus and Sterolibacterium) which enabled the efficient degradation of the slurry. This study provided a feasible strategy to analyze the anode biofilm formation by adding allochthonous inoculum and some implications for quick startup of MFC reactors for CMS treatment.

  7. Self-sustained reduction of multiple metals in a microbial fuel cell-microbial electrolysis cell hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wu, Yining; Liu, Bingchuan; Luan, Hongwei; Vadas, Timothy; Guo, Wanqian; Ding, Jie; Li, Baikun

    2015-09-01

    A self-sustained hybrid bioelectrochemical system consisting of microbial fuel cell (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was developed to reduce multiple metals simultaneously by utilizing different reaction potentials. Three heavy metals representing spontaneous reaction (chromium, Cr) and unspontaneous reaction (lead, Pb and nickel, Ni) were selected in this batch-mode study. The maximum power density of the MFC achieved 189.4 mW m(-2), and the energy recovery relative to the energy storage circuit (ESC) was ∼ 450%. At the initial concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the average reduction rate of Cr(VI) was 30.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), Pb(II) 32.7 mg L(-1) d(-1), and Ni(II) 8.9 mg L(-1) d(-1). An electrochemical model was developed to predict the change of metal concentration over time. The power output of the MFC was sufficient to meet the requirement of the ESC and MEC, and the "self-sustained metal reduction" was achieved in this hybrid system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Integrated hydrogen production process from cellulose by combining dark fermentation, microbial fuel cells, and a microbial electrolysis cell

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Aijie

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogen gas production from cellulose was investigated using an integrated hydrogen production process consisting of a dark fermentation reactor and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as power sources for a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Two MFCs (each 25mL) connected in series to an MEC (72mL) produced a maximum of 0.43V using fermentation effluent as a feed, achieving a hydrogen production rate from the MEC of 0.48m 3 H 2/m 3/d (based on the MEC volume), and a yield of 33.2mmol H 2/g COD removed in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production for the integrated system (fermentation, MFC and MEC) was increased by 41% compared with fermentation alone to 14.3mmol H 2/g cellulose, with a total hydrogen production rate of 0.24m 3 H 2/m 3/d and an overall energy recovery efficiency of 23% (based on cellulose removed) without the need for any external electrical energy input. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effect of separator and inoculum type on electricity generation and microbial community in single-chamber microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jaecheul; Park, Younghyun; Lee, Taeho

    2014-04-01

    Single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SMFC)-I consisted of 4 separator-electrode assemblies (SEAs) with two types of cation exchange membrane (CEM: Nafion and CMI 7000) and an anion exchange membrane (AEM: AMI 7001). SMFC-II consisted of 4 SEAs with Nafion and three types of nonwoven fabric. SMFC-I and -II were inoculated with anaerobic digested and activated sludge, respectively, and operated under fed-batch mode. In SMFC I, AEM-SEA showed a maximum power density (PDmax). Nafion-SEA showed a PDmax in SMFC II, which was similar to that of Nafion-SEA of SMFC I. Although different bacteria were developed in SMFC-I (Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes) and SMFC-II (Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes), the inoculum type little affects electricity generation. Variations of pH and oxygen in biofilm have influenced microbial community structure and electricity generation according to the electrode and separator material. Although the electricity generation of non-woven fabric-SEA was less than that of Nafion-SEA, the use of non-woven fabrics is expected to reduce the construction and operating costs of MFCs.

  10. Change in microbial communities in acetate- and glucose-fed microbial fuel cells in the presence of light

    KAUST Repository

    Xing, Defeng

    2009-09-01

    Power densities produced by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in natural systems are changed by exposure to light through the enrichment of photosynthetic microorganisms. When MFCs with brush anodes were exposed to light (4000 lx), power densities increased by 8-10% for glucose-fed reactors, and 34% for acetate-fed reactors. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that exposure to high light levels changed the microbial communities on the anodes. Based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of light-exposed systems the anode communities using glucose were also significantly different than those fed acetate. Dominant bacteria that are known exoelectrogens were identified in the anode biofilm, including a purple nonsulfur (PNS) photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens. Pure culture tests confirmed that PNS photosynthetic bacteria increased power production when exposed to high light intensities (4000 lx). These results demonstrate that power production and community composition are affected by light conditions as well as electron donors in single-chamber air-cathode MFCs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of biodiesel addition on microbial community structure in a simulated fuel storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan-Manuel; Bassi, Amarjeet; Rehmann, Lars; Thompson, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Understanding changes in microbial structure due to biodiesel storage is important both for protecting integrity of storage systems and fuel quality management. In this work a simulated storage system was used to study the effect of biodiesel (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) on a microbial population, which was followed by community level physiological profiling (CLPP), 16s rDNA analysis and plating in selective media. Results proved that structure and functionality were affected by biodiesel. CLPP showed at least three populations: one corresponding to diesel, one to biodiesel and one to blends of diesel and biodiesel. Analysis of 16s rDNA revealed that microbial composition was different for populations growing in diesel and biodiesel. Genera identified are known for degradation of hydrocarbons and emulsifier production. Maximum growth was obtained in biodiesel; however, microbial counts in standard media were lower for this samples. Acidification of culture media was observed at high biodiesel concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Challenges and opportunities of microbial fuel cells (MFCs technology development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Ramadan Bimastyaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian government has committed to realize the goals of sustainable development in the field of energy as stipulated in Government Regulation Number 79/2014 on national energy policy. A feasibility study of the utilization of alternative energy is important for developing countries like Indonesia. It is expected to reduce dependence on fossil fuel use and meet the energy needs on rural areas in Indonesia. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs is a potential source of electrical energy from waste that is rich in organic matter. Trends in research and development of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs technology are increasing every year due to great opportunity to address a wide range of issues related to renewable energy needs, restoration of contaminated environment, water treatment electricity generators in remote areas and many more. MFCs can be used to treat domestic waste, biomass, algae, landfill leachate, agricultural runoff, and industrial waste. MFCs technology is a technology solution for cheap, fast, simple. MFCs use of technical challenges including low electricity production, current instability, and high internal resistance. Many challenges must be address, including a more detailed analysis in energy production, consumption, and application, understanding the relationship between the amount of electricity and contaminant removal, promoting the elimination of nutrients and optimizing system configuration and operations.

  13. Influence of nitrogen limitation on performance of a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleville, P; Strong, P J; Dare, P H; Gapes, D J

    2011-01-01

    We describe the operation of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) system operating on a synthetic wastewater (acetic acid), under conditions of increasing nitrogen limitation. Two MFCs were operated under feed conditions which spanned a range of TKN/COD values of 1.6-28 mg/g. Stable operation was observed in all cases, even when no ammoniacal nitrogen was added to the cell. Improved electrochemical performance (measured as power density, W/m2) was observed as nitrogen limitation was imposed on the cells. Even with no ammonium addition, continuous function of the cell was maintained, at levels consistent with operation at balanced nutrient supplementation. The work has implicated biological nitrogen fixation as a potential source of nitrogen within the MFC. Whilst this hypothesis has yet to be confirmed, the work highlights the opportunity for continuous operation of microbial fuel cells utilising wastewaters with extremely low nitrogen levels, present in pulp and paper, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries. Further, the described increases in some of the electrochemical indices (e.g. power density) under application of nitrogen limitation may provide a new approach to increasing fuel cell performance. Finally, the lack of any need to add supplemental nitrogen to a MFC-based wastewater treatment technology holds potential for significant financial and environmental savings.

  14. Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, J.E.

    2014-03-07

    Micro-sized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are miniature energy harvesters that use bacteria to convert biomass from liquids into usable power. The key challenge is transitioning laboratory test beds into devices capable of producing high power using readily available fuel sources. Here, we present a pragmatic step toward advancing MFC applications through the fabrication of a uniquely mobile and inexpensive micro-sized device that can be fueled with human saliva. The 25-ll MFC was fabricated with graphene, a two-dimensional atomic crystal-structured material, as an anode for efficient current generation and with an air cathode for enabling the use of the oxygen present in air, making its operation completely mobile and free of the need for laboratory chemicals. With saliva as a fuel, the device produced higher current densities (1190 Am-3) than any previous aircathode micro-sized MFCs. The use of the graphene anode generated 40 times more power than that possible using a carbon cloth anode. Additional tests were performed using acetate, a conventional organic material, at high organic loadings that were comparable to those in saliva, and the results demonstrated a linear relationship between the organic loading and current. These findings open the door to saliva-powered applications of this fuel cell technology for Lab-on-a-Chip devices or portable point-of-care diagnostic devices. 2014 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved 1884-4057/14.

  15. Enhanced vanadium (V) reduction and bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells with biocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Baogang; Li, Jiaxin; Lv, Qing; Wang, Song; Gu, Qian

    2017-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a promising approach for remediation of toxic vanadium (V) contaminated environment. Herein, enhanced V(V) reduction and bioelectricity generation are realized in MFCs with biocathode. Synergistically electrochemical and microbial reductions result in the nearly complete removals of V(V) within 7 d operation with initial concentration of 200 mg L-1. Maximum power density of 529 ± 12 mW m-2 is obtained. Electrochemical tests reveal that biocathode promotes electron transfers and reduces charge transfer resistance. XPS analysis confirms that V(IV) is the main reduction product, which precipitates naturally under neutral conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicates that the newly appeared Dysgonomonas is responsible for V(V) reduction and Klebsiella contributes mainly to bioelectricity generation in MFCs with biocathode. This study further improves the performance of remediating V(V) contaminated environment based on MFC technology.

  16. A Microbial Fuel Cell Modified with Carbon Nanomaterials for Organic Removal and Denitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njud S. Alharbi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated microbial denitrification using electrochemical sources to replace organic matter as reductant. The work also involved developing a system that could be optimised for nitrate removal in applied situations such as water processing in fish farming or drinking water, where high nitrate levels represent a potential health problem. Consequently, the study examined a range of developments for the removal of nitrate from water based on the development of electrochemical biotransformation systems for nitrate removal. This also offers considerable scope for the potential application of these systems in broader bionanotechnology based processes. Furthermore, the work discussed the context of improved microbial fuel cell (MFC performance, potential analytic applications, and further innovations using a bionanotechnology approach to analyse cell-electrode interactions. High nitrate removal rate of more than 95% was successfully achieved by using a MFC system modified with carbon nanomaterials.

  17. Copper current collectors reduce long-term fouling of air cathodes in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Myung, Jaewook

    2018-02-05

    Long-term operation of wastewater-fed, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with cathodes made of activated carbon and stainless steel (SS) current collectors can result in decreased performance due to cathode fouling. Copper has good antimicrobial properties, and it is more electrically conductive than SS. To demonstrate that a copper current collector could produce a more fouling resistant cathode, MFCs with air cathodes using either SS or copper current collectors were operated using domestic wastewater for 27 weeks. The reduction in biofouling over time was shown by less biofilm formation on the copper cathode surface compared to SS cathodes, due to the antimicrobial properties of copper. Maximum power densities from 17–27 weeks were 440 ± 38 mW/m2 using copper and 370 ± 21 mW/m2 using SS cathodes. The main difference in the microbial community was a nitrifying community on the SS cathodes, which was not present on the copper cathodes.

  18. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE ELECTRIC CURRENT GENERATION IN A MICROBIAL FUEL CELL INOCULATED WITH MARINE SEDIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Teleken

    Full Text Available Abstract Microbial fuel cells (MFC are electrochemical devices that utilize the ability of some microorganisms to oxidize organic matter and transfer electrons resulting from their metabolism to an insoluble acceptor. The goal of the present study was to model the kinetics of electrical current generation from an MFC inoculated with marine sediment. For this purpose, a differential equation system was used, including the Nernst-Monod relationship and Ohm's Law, to describe the microbial metabolism and the mechanism of extracellular electron transfer (EET, respectively. The experimental data obtained by cyclic voltammetry analysis were properly described by the model. It was concluded that marine microorganisms preferably use a direct mechanism of EET by means of nanowires to establish the electrochemical contact with the anode. The mathematical modeling could help understand MFC operation and, consequently, contribute to improving power generation from this source.

  19. Engineering PQS biosynthesis pathway for enhancement of bioelectricity production in pseudomonas aeruginosa microbial fuel cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bochuan Wang

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of the redox shuttle, phenazines, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an ubiquitous microorganism in wastewater microflora, is regulated by the 2-heptyl-3,4-dihydroxyquinoline (PQS quorum-sensing system. However, PQS inhibits anaerobic growth of P. aeruginosa. We constructed a P. aeruginosa strain that produces higher concentrations of phenazines under anaerobic conditions by over-expressing the PqsE effector in a PQS negative ΔpqsC mutant. The engineered strain exhibited an improved electrical performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs and potentiostat-controlled electrochemical cells with an approximate five-fold increase of maximum current density relative to the parent strain. Electrochemical analysis showed that the current increase correlates with an over-synthesis of phenazines. These results therefore demonstrate that targeting microbial cell-to-cell communication by genetic engineering is a suitable technique to improve power output of bioelectrochemical systems.

  20. Hierarchical micro/nano structures of carbon composites as anodes for microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Watanabe, Kazuya; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2011-09-07

    We demonstrate the utility of hierarchical micro/nano structures of electrically conductive carbon composites as anodes for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). To construct the hierarchical structures, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were directly grown on micro-porous graphite felts at high densities. Using the CNT-modified felts as anodes, power outputs from MFCs were increased ∼7 fold compared to those with bare graphite-felt anodes. We also show that this power improvement is sustainable even in MFCs operated with naturally occurring microbial communities. These results suggest the wide utility of the hierarchical micro/nano structures of conductive carbon composites for bio-electrochemical processes. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  1. Formation of industrial mixed culture biofilm in chlorophenol cultivated medium of microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Huzairy; Jin, Bo; Dai, Sheng; Ngau, Cornelius

    2016-11-01

    The formation of microbial biofilm while maintaining the electricity output is a challenging topic in microbial fuel cell (MFC) studies. This MFC critical factor becomes more significant when handling with industrial wastewater which normally contains refractory and toxic compounds. This study explores the formation of industrial mixed culture biofilm in chlorophenol cultivated medium through observing and characterizing microscopically its establishment on MFC anode surface. The mixed culture was found to develop its biofilm on the anode surface in the chlorophenol environment and established its maturity and dispersal stages with concurrent electricity generation and phenolic degradation. The mixed culture biofilm engaged the electron transfer roles in MFC by generating current density of 1.4 mA/m2 and removing 53 % of 2,4-dichlorophenol. The results support further research especially on hazardous wastewater treatment using a benign and sustainable method.

  2. Resilience of roof-top Plant-Microbial Fuel Cells during Dutch winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helder, Marjolein; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Timmers, Ruud A.; Raes, Sanne M.T.; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2013-01-01

    The Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC) is in theory a technology that could produce sustainable electricity continuously. We operated two designs of the P-MFC under natural roof-top conditions in the Netherlands for 221 days, including winter, to test its resilience. Current and power densities are not stable under outdoor conditions. Highest obtained power density was 88 mW m −2 , which is lower than was achieved under lab-conditions (440 mW m −2 ). Cathode potential was in our case dependent on solar radiation, due to algae growth, making the power output dependent on a diurnal cycle. The anode potential of the P-MFC is influenced by temperature, leading to a decrease in electricity production during low temperature periods and no electricity production during frost periods. Due to freezing of the roots, plants did not survive winter and therefore did not regrow in spring. In order to make a sustainable, stable and weather independent electricity production system of the P-MFC attention should be paid to improving cathode stability and cold insulation of anode and cathode. Only when power output of the Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell can be increased under outdoor conditions and plant-vitality can be sustained over winter, it can be a promising sustainable electricity technology for the future. -- Highlights: ► Plant-Microbial Fuel Cells (P-MFCs) produce sustainable electricity under outdoor conditions. ► During frost periods no electricity is produced in P-MFCs. ► Cathodes limit performance of P-MFCs under outdoor conditions. ► Spartina anglica in P-MFCs does not survive on a roof-top during Dutch winter. ► The P-MFC needs optimization of power output to be a promising sustainable electricity technology

  3. Synthetic Biology and Microbial Fuel Cells: Towards Self-Sustaining Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    NASA ARC and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) collaborated to investigate the development of advanced microbial fuels cells (MFCs) for biological wastewater treatment and electricity production (electrogenesis). Synthetic biology techniques and integrated hardware advances were investigated to increase system efficiency and robustness, with the intent of increasing power self-sufficiency and potential product formation from carbon dioxide. MFCs possess numerous advantages for space missions, including rapid processing, reduced biomass and effective removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus. Project efforts include developing space-based MFC concepts, integration analyses, increasing energy efficiency, and investigating novel bioelectrochemical system applications

  4. Excellent endurance of MWCNT anode in micro-sized Microbial Fuel Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2012-08-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are a sustainable technology for energy production using bioelectrochemical reactions from bacteria. Microfabrication of micro-sized MFCs allows rapid and precise production of devices that can be integrated into Lab-on-a-chip or other ultra low power devices. We show a multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) integrated anode in a biocompatible and high power and current producing device. Long term testing of the MWCNT anode also reveals a high endurance and durable anode material that can be adapted as a long-lasting power source. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Microbial mediation of radionuclide transport -significance for the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champ, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The role that microbially catalyzed processes may play in determining, or altering, radionuclide migration is an unresolved question in the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. This report documents the results of a review of the available information on the existence and biochemical capabilities of micro-organisms and the potential for their involvement in processes affecting the migration of radionuclides of interest. The potential was judged sufficient to warrant conducting experiments to assess their role. The outline of an experimental program to address the role of micro-organisms is presented

  6. Deciphering synergistic characteristics of microbial fuel cell-assisted dye decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ke; Yueh, Pei-Lin; Qin, Lian-Jie; Hsueh, Chuan-Chung; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2015-11-01

    This study provided a novel evaluation scheme to quantitatively reveal "synergistic" stimulation of microbial fuel cell (MFC)-assisted dye decolorization for industrial practicability. This work also disclosed why dye decolorization was more electrochemically favorable during simultaneous bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization (SBG&DD). Quantitative assessment upon stimulating effects of different decolorized metabolites on BG and DD alone was also implemented for conclusive remarks. Apparently, using MFC as the method of dye decontamination could considerably increase ca. 40-70% of electron transfer capabilities for SBG&DD, thereby significantly improving the performance of dye decontamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EvoBot: Towards a Robot-Chemostat for Culturing and Maintaining Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodosiou, Pavlina; Faina, Andres; Nejatimoharrami, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present EvoBot, a RepRap open-source 3D-printer modified to operate like a robot for culturing and maintaining Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs). EvoBot is a modular liquid handling robot that has been adapted to host MFCs in its experimental layer, gather data from the MFCs and react......, which is akin to a chemostat. The chemostat is a well-known microbiology method for culturing bacterial cells under controlled conditions with continuous nutrient supply. EvoBot is perhaps the first pioneering attempt at functionalizing the 3D printing technology by combining it with the chemostat...

  8. Microbial fuel cell-based biosensors for environmental monitoring: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Zhong; Peter Kingori, Gakai; Si, Rong-Wei; Zhai, Dan-Dan; Liao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, De-Zhen; Zheng, Tao; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an innovative technology that was initially designed to harness energy from organic waste using microorganisms. It is striking how many promising applications beyond energy production have been explored in recent decades. In particular, MFC-based biosensors are considered to be the next generation biosensing technology for environmental monitoring. This review describes recent advances in this emerging technology of MFC-based biosensors, with a special emphasis on monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand and toxicity in the environment. The progress confirms that MFC-based biosensors could be used as self-powered portable biosensing devices with great potential in long-term and remote environmental monitoring.

  9. Microbial fuel cells - Applications for generation of electrical power and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathuriya, Abhilasha Singh; Yakhmi, J V

    2016-01-01

    A Microbial Fuel Cell is a bioelectrochemical device that exploits metabolic activities of living microorganisms for generation of electric current. The usefulness and unique and exclusive architecture of this device has received wide attention recently of engineers and researchers of various disciplines such as microbiologists, chemical engineers, biotechnologists, environment engineers and mechanical engineers, and the subject of MFCs has thereby progressed as a well-developed technology. Sustained innovations and continuous development efforts have established the usefulness of MFCs towards many specialized and value-added applications beyond electricity generation, such as wastewater treatment and implantable body devices. This review is an attempt to provide an update on this rapidly growing technology.

  10. The flat-plate plant-microbial fuel cell: the effect of a new design on internal resistances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Marjolein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to a growing world population and increasing welfare, energy demand worldwide is increasing. To meet the increasing energy demand in a sustainable way, new technologies are needed. The Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC is a technology that could produce sustainable bio-electricity and help meeting the increasing energy demand. Power output of the P-MFC, however, needs to be increased to make it attractive as a renewable and sustainable energy source. To increase power output of the P-MFC internal resistances need to be reduced. With a flat-plate P-MFC design we tried to minimize internal resistances compared to the previously used tubular P-MFC design. With the flat-plate design current and power density per geometric planting area were increased (from 0.15 A/m2 to 1.6 A/m2 and from 0.22 W/m2 to and 0.44 W/m2as were current and power output per volume (from 7.5 A/m3 to 122 A/m3 and from 1.3 W/m3 to 5.8 W/m3. Internal resistances times volume were decreased, even though internal resistances times membrane surface area were not. Since the membrane in the flat-plate design is placed vertically, membrane surface area per geometric planting area is increased, which allows for lower internal resistances times volume while not decreasing internal resistances times membrane surface area. Anode was split into three different sections on different depths of the system, allowing to calculate internal resistances on different depths. Most electricity was produced where internal resistances were lowest and where most roots were present; in the top section of the system. By measuring electricity production on different depths in the system, electricity production could be linked to root growth. This link offers opportunities for material-reduction in new designs. Concurrent reduction in material use and increase in power output brings the P-MFC a step closer to usable energy density and economic feasibility.

  11. A review on the effect of proton exchange membranes in microbial fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rahimnejad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms in microbial fuel cells (MFC liberate electrons while the electron donors are consumed. In the anaerobic anode compartment, substrates such as carbohydrates are utilized and as a result bioelectricity is produced in the MFC. MFCs may be utilized as electricity generators in small devices such as biosensors. MFCs still face practical barriers such as low generated power and current density. Recently, a great deal of attention has been given to MFCs due to their ability to operate at mild conditions and using different biodegradable substrates as fuel. The MFC consists of anode and cathode compartments. Active microorganisms are actively catabolized to carbon sources, therefore generating bioelectricity. The produced electron is transmitted to the anode surface but the generated protons must pass through the proton exchange membrane (PEM in order to reach the cathode compartment. PEM as a key factor affecting electricity generation in MFCs has been investigated here and its importance fully discussed.

  12. Investigating design criteria to build a performing microbial fuel cell running on swine liquid manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.Y.; Hogue, R.; Dube, P.; Jeanne, T.; Levesque, A. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Theriault, R.; Kaliaguine, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the bacterial and electro-chemical phenomena that takes place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating on swine liquid manure as fuel. An MFC converts the available energy in a bioconvertible substrate directly into electricity while decreasing its chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, a first single chamber MFC operating on swine liquid manure was constructed based on a literature review. Various support media filling the anodic chamber were tested in an effort to optimize the surface area on which bacteria may develop according to the hypothesis that large bacteria concentration will improve energy production and reduce treatment time. Bacterial communities extracted from the selected support media were analyzed using molecular technologies such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. The analyses showed that only a few bacteria species coming from raw liquid manure were responsible for electrical activities.

  13. Influence of diligent disintegration on anaerobic biomass and performance of microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyalakshmi, Palanisamy; Murugan, Devaraj; Rai, Chockalingam Lajapathi

    2017-12-01

    To enhance the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC) by increasing the surface area of cathode and diligent mechanical disintegration of anaerobic biomass. Tannery effluent and anaerobic biomass were used. The increase in surface area of the cathode resulted in 78% COD removal, with the potential, current density, power density and coulombic efficiency of 675 mV, 147 mA m -2 , 33 mW m -2 and 3.5%, respectively. The work coupled with increased surface area of the cathode with diligent mechanical disintegration of the biomass, led to a further increase in COD removal of 82% with the potential, current density, power density and coulombic efficiency of 748 mV, 229 mA m -2 , 78 mW m -2 and 6% respectively. Mechanical disintegration of the biomass along with increased surface area of cathode enhances power generation in vertical MFC reactors using tannery effluent as fuel.

  14. Performance improvement of microbial fuel cell (MFC) using suitable electrode and Bioengineered organisms: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Payel; Prasad Uday, Uma Shankar; Bandyopadhyay, Tarun Kanti; Ray, Rup Narayan; Bhunia, Biswanath

    2017-09-03

    There is an urgent need to find an environment friendly and sustainable technology for alternative energy due to rapid depletion of fossil fuel and industrialization. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) have operational and functional advantages over the current technologies for energy generation from organic matter as it directly converts electricity from substrate at ambient temperature. However, MFCs are still unsuitable for high energy demands due to practical limitations. The overall performance of an MFC depends on microorganism, appropriate electrode materials, suitable MFC designs, and optimizing process parameters which would accelerate commercialization of this technology in near future. In this review, we put forth the recent developments on microorganism and electrode material that are critical for the generation of bioelectricity generation. This would give a comprehensive insight into the characteristics, options, modifications, and evaluations of these parameters and their effects on process development of MFCs.

  15. The Role of Microfabrication and Nanotechnology in the Development of Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2015-09-23

    Innovative solutions are paramount to the identification and development of alternative energy resources, specifically for the production of potable water. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a trending emerging technology that promises green energy production while simultaneously treating wastewater. At present, several research efforts are working towards determining which bacteria, fuels, and materials are optimal for developing the most efficient MFCs; microsized MFCs have a key role in this goal. Therefore, in this Review, we summarize recent microfabrication techniques for building microsized cells and elaborate on their advantages and the challenges that need to be overcome. We will then focus on the integration of nanomaterials into MFCs and finish with an overview on the challenges to scale up MFCs and potential uses for these miniature cells.

  16. Essential Data and Techniques for Conducting Microbial Fuel Cell and other Types of Bioelectrochemical System Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-04-19

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and other bioelectrochemical systems are new technologies that require expertise in a variety of technical areas, ranging from electrochemistry to biological wastewater treatment. There are certain data and critical information that should be included in every MFC study, such as specific surface area of the electrodes, solution conductivity, and power densities normalized to electrode surface area and volumes. Electrochemical techniques such as linear sweep voltammetry can be used to understand the performance of the MFC, but extremely slow scans are required for these biological systems compared to more traditional fuel cells. In this Minireview, the critical information needed for MFC studies is provided with examples of how results can be better conveyed through a full description of materials, the use of proper controls, and inclusion of a more complete electrochemical analysis. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Global Inventory of Gas Geochemistry Data from Fossil Fuel, Microbial and Burning Sources, version 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Schwietzke, Stefan; Arling, Victoria A.; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    The concentration of atmospheric methane (CH4) has more than doubled over the industrial era. To help constrain global and regional CH4 budgets, inverse (top-down) models incorporate data on the concentration and stable carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotopic ratios of atmospheric CH4. These models depend on accurate δ13C and δ2H end-member source signatures for each of the main emissions categories. Compared with meticulous measurement and calibration of isotopic CH4 in the atmosphere, there has been relatively less effort to characterize globally representative isotopic source signatures, particularly for fossil fuel sources. Most global CH4 budget models have so far relied on outdated source signature values derived from globally nonrepresentative data. To correct this deficiency, we present a comprehensive, globally representative end-member database of the δ13C and δ2H of CH4 from fossil fuel (conventional natural gas, shale gas, and coal), modern microbial (wetlands, rice paddies, ruminants, termites, and landfills and/or waste) and biomass burning sources. Gas molecular compositional data for fossil fuel categories are also included with the database. The database comprises 10 706 samples (8734 fossil fuel, 1972 non-fossil) from 190 published references. Mean (unweighted) δ13C signatures for fossil fuel CH4 are significantly lighter than values commonly used in CH4 budget models, thus highlighting potential underestimation of fossil fuel CH4 emissions in previous CH4 budget models. This living database will be updated every 2-3 years to provide the atmospheric modeling community with the most complete CH4 source signature data possible. Database digital object identifier (DOI): https://doi.org/10.15138/G3201T.

  18. Operational, design and microbial aspects related to power production with microbial fuel cells implemented in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Clara; Guivernau, Miriam; Viñas, Marc; Puigagut, Jaume

    2015-11-01

    This work aimed at determining the amount of energy that can be harvested by implementing microbial fuel cells (MFC) in horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands (HSSF CWs) during the treatment of real domestic wastewater. To this aim, MFC were implemented in a pilot plant based on two HSSF CW, one fed with primary settled wastewater (Settler line) and the other fed with the effluent of a hydrolytic up-flow sludge blanket reactor (HUSB line). The eubacterial and archaeal community was profiled on wetland gravel, MFC electrodes and primary treated wastewater by means of 16S rRNA gene-based 454-pyrosequencing and qPCR of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes. Maximum current (219 mA/m(2)) and power (36 mW/m(2)) densities were obtained for the HUSB line. Power production pattern correlated well with water level fluctuations within the wetlands, whereas the type of primary treatment implemented had a significant impact on the diversity and relative abundance of eubacteria communities colonizing MFC. It is worth noticing the high predominance (13-16% of relative abundance) of one OTU belonging to Geobacter on active MFC of the HUSB line that was absent for the settler line MFC. Hence, MFC show promise for power production in constructed wetlands receiving the effluent of a HUSB reactor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New plant-growth medium for increased power output of the Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, M; Strik, D P B T B; Hamelers, H V M; Kuijken, R C P; Buisman, C J N

    2012-01-01

    In a Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell anode-conditions must be created that are favorable for plant growth and electricity production. One of the major aspects in this is the composition of the plant-growth medium. Hoagland medium has been used until now, with added phosphate buffer to reduce potential losses over the membrane because of differences in pH between anode and cathode. We developed a new, improved plant-growth medium that improves current production, while the plant keeps growing. This medium is a nitrate-less, ammonium-rich medium that contains all macro- and micro-nutrients necessary for plant growth, with a balanced amount of bicarbonate buffer. Sulphate presence in the plant-growth medium helps to keep a low anode-potential. With the new plant-growth medium the maximum current production of the Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell increased from 186 mA/m(2) to 469 mA/m(2). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Activated carbon derived from chitosan as air cathode catalyst for high performance in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhao, Yong; Li, Kexun; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Pei; Liu, Di; Yang, Tingting; Wang, Junjie

    2018-02-01

    Chitosan with rich of nitrogen is used as carbon precursor to synthesis activated carbon through directly heating method in this study. The obtained carbon is activated by different amount of KOH at different temperatures, and then prepared as air cathodes for microbial fuel cells. Carbon sample treated with double amount of KOH at 850 °C exhibits maximum power density (1435 ± 46 mW m-2), 1.01 times improved, which ascribes to the highest total surface area, moderate micropore and mesoporous structure and the introduction of nitrogen. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and powder resistivity state that carbon treated with double amount of KOH at 850 °C possesses lower resistance. The other electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the best kinetic activity make the above treated sample to show the best oxygen reduction reaction activity. Besides, the degree of graphitization of samples increases with the activated temperature increasing, which is tested by Raman. According to elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, all chitosan samples are nitrogen-doped carbon, and high content nitrogen (pyridinic-N) improves the electrochemical activity of carbon treated with KOH at 850 °C. Thus, carbon materials derived from chitosan would be an optimized catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cell.

  1. Treatment of Mineral Oil Refinery Wastewater in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Ionic Liquid Based Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Addi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are an environmentally friendly technology that can recover electricity directly from several wastes at ambient temperatures. This work explores the use of mineral oil refinery wastewater as feedstock in single-chamber air-cathode MFC devices. A polymer inclusion membrane based on the ionic liquid methyltrioctylammonium chloride, [MTOA+][Cl−], at a concentration of 70% w/w, was used as separator, showing a good efficiency in power production and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal. The power and the chemical oxygen demand removal reached values of 45 mW/m3 and over 80%, respectively. The evolution of other parameters of the wastewater including nitrites, phosphates and sulphates were also studied. Kjeldahl nitrogen and sulphates were significantly reduced during MFC operation. The results show that mineral oil refinery wastewater can be used as feedstock in air breathing cathode-microbial fuel cells based on polymer ionic liquid inclusion membranes. This configuration could represent a good alternative for wastewater depuration while producing energy during the process.

  2. A Terrestrial Microbial Fuel Cell for Powering a Single-Hop Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daxing; Zhu, Yingmin; Pedrycz, Witold; Guo, Yongxian

    2016-05-18

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are envisioned as one of the most promising alternative renewable energy sources because they can generate electric current continuously while treating waste. Terrestrial Microbial Fuel Cells (TMFCs) can be inoculated and work on the use of soil, which further extends the application areas of MFCs. Energy supply, as a primary influential factor determining the lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) nodes, remains an open challenge in sensor networks. In theory, sensor nodes powered by MFCs have an eternal life. However, low power density and high internal resistance of MFCs are two pronounced problems in their operation. A single-hop WSN powered by a TMFC experimental setup was designed and experimented with. Power generation performance of the proposed TMFC, the relationships between the performance of the power generation and the environment temperature, the water content of the soil by weight were measured by experiments. Results show that the TMFC can achieve good power generation performance under special environmental conditions. Furthermore, the experiments with sensor data acquisition and wireless transmission of the TMFC powering WSN were carried out. We demonstrate that the obtained experimental results validate the feasibility of TMFCs powering WSNs.

  3. Performance of microbial fuel cell double chamber using mozzarella cheese whey substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, M. D.; Hawa, L. C.; Argo, B. D.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays the availability of electric energy is decreasing, hence there is a need for innovation of electric energy producer alternative; one of them is microbial fuel cell (MFC). MFC is a bioelectrochemical system generated by bacterial metabolism that utilizes organic substrate. One of the substrates that can be used is whey, a waste generated from cheese production. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the power of potential current and voltage generated from the use of whey cheese as a substrate for bacterial metabolism. In this research, double chamber system was used in microbial fuel cell reactor by using cheese whey as substrate at anode and potassium permanganate as cathode and utilizing membrane nafion 212 as membrane of proton exchange. The variable of experiment was bacteria type. The types of bacteria used in this study were Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus casei. While the operating time used was 100 hours. The highest current produced was 74.6 μA and the highest voltage was 529.3 mV produced by Lactobacillus bulgaricus bacteria. In this study, it was also found that the death phase of the three bacteria was at 70-80 hours.

  4. A Terrestrial Microbial Fuel Cell for Powering a Single-Hop Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daxing; Zhu, Yingmin; Pedrycz, Witold; Guo, Yongxian

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are envisioned as one of the most promising alternative renewable energy sources because they can generate electric current continuously while treating waste. Terrestrial Microbial Fuel Cells (TMFCs) can be inoculated and work on the use of soil, which further extends the application areas of MFCs. Energy supply, as a primary influential factor determining the lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) nodes, remains an open challenge in sensor networks. In theory, sensor nodes powered by MFCs have an eternal life. However, low power density and high internal resistance of MFCs are two pronounced problems in their operation. A single-hop WSN powered by a TMFC experimental setup was designed and experimented with. Power generation performance of the proposed TMFC, the relationships between the performance of the power generation and the environment temperature, the water content of the soil by weight were measured by experiments. Results show that the TMFC can achieve good power generation performance under special environmental conditions. Furthermore, the experiments with sensor data acquisition and wireless transmission of the TMFC powering WSN were carried out. We demonstrate that the obtained experimental results validate the feasibility of TMFCs powering WSNs. PMID:27213346

  5. Treatment of Oil Wastewater and Electricity Generation by Integrating Constructed Wetland with Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiao; Wu, Zhenxing; Liu, Lifen; Zhang, Fengxiang; Liang, Shengna

    2016-01-01

    Conventional oil sewage treatment methods can achieve satisfactory removal efficiency, but energy consumption problems during the process of oil sewage treatment are worth attention. The integration of a constructed wetland reactor and a microbial fuel cell reactor (CW-MFC) to treat oil-contaminated wastewater, compared with a microbial fuel cell reactor (MFC) alone and a constructed wetland reactor (CW) alone, was explored in this research. Performances of the three reactors including chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil removal, and output voltage generation were continuously monitored. The COD removals of three reactors were between 73% and 75%, and oil removals were over 95.7%. Compared with MFC, the CW-MFC with a MnO2 modified cathode produced higher power density and output voltage. Maximum power densities of CW-MFC and MFC were 3868 mW/m3 (102 mW/m2) and 3044 mW/m3 (80 mW/m2), respectively. The plants in CW-MFC play a positive role for reactor cathode potential. Both plants and cathode modification can improve reactor performance of electricity generation. PMID:28774005

  6. Electricity generating capacity and performance deterioration of a microbial fuel cell fed with beer brewery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köroğlu, Emre Oğuz; Özkaya, Bestamin; Denktaş, Cenk; Çakmakci, Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    This study focused on using beer brewery wastewater (BBW) to evaluate membrane concentrate disposal and production of electricity in microbial fuel cells. In the membrane treatment of BBW, the membrane permeate concentration was 570 ± 30 mg/L corresponding to a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 75 ± 5%, and the flux values changed between 160 and 40 L/m(2)-h for all membrane runs. For electricity production from membrane concentrate, the highest current density in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) was observed to be 1950 mA/m(2) according to electrode surface area with 36% COD removal efficiency and 2.48% CE with 60% BBW membrane concentrate. The morphologies of the cation exchange membrane and the MFC deterioration were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). A decrease in the thermal stability of the sulfonate (-SO3H) groups was demonstrated and morphological changes were detected in the SEM analysis. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ammonium recovery and energy production from urine by a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntke, P; Smiech, K M; Bruning, H; Zeeman, G; Saakes, M; Sleutels, T H J A; Hamelers, H V M; Buisman, C J N

    2012-05-15

    Nitrogen recovery through NH(3) stripping is energy intensive and requires large amounts of chemicals. Therefore, a microbial fuel cell was developed to simultaneously produce energy and recover ammonium. The applied microbial fuel cell used a gas diffusion cathode. The ammonium transport to the cathode occurred due to migration of ammonium and diffusion of ammonia. In the cathode chamber ionic ammonium was converted to volatile ammonia due to the high pH. Ammonia was recovered from the liquid-gas boundary via volatilization and subsequent absorption into an acid solution. An ammonium recovery rate of 3.29 g(N) d(-1) m(-2) (vs. membrane surface area) was achieved at a current density of 0.50 A m(-2) (vs. membrane surface area). The energy balance showed a surplus of energy 3.46 kJ g(N)(-1), which means more energy was produced than needed for the ammonium recovery. Hence, ammonium recovery and simultaneous energy production from urine was proven possible by this novel approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy generation in a Microbial Fuel Cell using anaerobic sludge from a wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Fabiano Passos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In microbial fuel cells (MFCs, the oxidation of organic compounds catalyzed by microorganisms (anode generates electricity via electron transfer to an external circuit that acts as an electron acceptor (cathode. Microbial fuel cells differ in terms of the microorganisms employed and the nature of the oxidized organic compound. In this study, a consortium of anaerobic microorganisms helped to treat the secondary sludge obtained from a sewage treatment plant. The microorganisms were grown in a 250 mL bioreactor containing a carbon cloth. The reactor was fed with media containing acetate (as the carbon source for 48 days. Concomitantly, the electrochemical data were measured with the aid of a digital multimeter and data acquisition system. At the beginning of the MFC operation, power density was low, probably due to slow microorganism growth and adhesion. The power density increased from the 15th day of operation, reaching a value of 13.5 μW cm–2 after ca. 24 days of operation, and remained stable until the end of the process. Compared with data in the literature, this power density value is promising; improvements in the MFC design and operation could increase this value even further. The system investigated herein employed excess sludge as a biocatalyst in an MFC. This opens up the possibility of using organic acids and/or carbohydrate-rich effluents to feed MFCs, and thereby provide simultaneous effluent treatment and energy generation.

  9. Electricity and biomass production in a bacteria-Chlorella based microbial fuel cell treating wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commault, Audrey S.; Laczka, Olivier; Siboni, Nachshon; Tamburic, Bojan; Crosswell, Joseph R.; Seymour, Justin R.; Ralph, Peter J.

    2017-07-01

    The chlorophyte microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been exploited within bioindustrial settings to treat wastewater and produce oxygen at the cathode of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), thereby accumulating algal biomass and producing electricity. We aimed to couple these capacities by growing C. vulgaris at the cathode of MFCs in wastewater previously treated by anodic bacteria. The bioelectrochemical performance of the MFCs was investigated with different catholytes including phosphate buffer and anode effluent, either in the presence or absence of C. vulgaris. The power output fluctuated diurnally in the presence of the alga. The maximum power when C. vulgaris was present reached 34.2 ± 10.0 mW m-2, double that observed without the alga (15.6 ± 9.7 mW m-2), with a relaxation of 0.19 gL-1 d-1 chemical oxygen demand and 5 mg L-1 d-1 ammonium also removed. The microbial community associated with the algal biofilm included nitrogen-fixing (Rhizobiaceae), denitrifying (Pseudomonas stutzeri and Thauera sp., from Pseudomonadales and Rhodocyclales orders, respectively), and nitrate-reducing bacteria (Rheinheimera sp. from the Alteromonadales), all of which likely contributed to nitrogen cycling processes at the cathode. This paper highlights the importance of coupling microbial community screening to electrochemical and chemical analyses to better understand the processes involved in photo-cathode MFCs.

  10. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, João R M; Fávaro, Léia C L; Quirino, Betania F

    2012-07-18

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a "waste-stream" instead of a valuable "coproduct". The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  11. Two-stage pretreatment of excess sludge for electricity generation in microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Yang-Guo; Guo, Liang; Gao, Mengchun

    2018-01-12

    Thermophiles hydrolysis and acidogens fermentation were sequentially adopted to pretreat excess sludge for microbial fuel cell (MFC) electricity production. The results indicated that MFC fed with the thermophiles-acidogens pretreated sludge (MFC AB), reached a higher removal of ammonia nitrogen than the MFC fed with the heating hydrolysis and acidogens fermentation pretreated sludge (MFC NB). However, compared with the MFC AB, MFC NB presented a better performance for removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) (90.08%) and protein (82.42%). As for the electricity production, MFC NB obtained higher voltage of 0.632 V and maximum power density with 1.05 W/m 3 while MFC AB reached maximum voltage of 0.373 V and maximum power density of 0.58 W/m 3 . Bacterial 16S rRNA-based molecular microbial techniques showed that microbial communities on both MFC anode biofilms was diverse and different. The cooperation of fermentation bacteria and electricigen Shewanella baltica in the MFC NB may have contributed towards the improvement of electricity generation.

  12. Energy recovery from waste streams with microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.

    2012-09-15

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies are promising technologies for direct energy production from various wastewaters and waste streams. Beside electrical power production, more emphasis is recently devoted to alternative applications such as hydrogen production, bioremediation, seawater desalination, and biosensors. Although the technologies are promising, a number of hurdles need to be overcome before that field applications are economically feasible. The main purpose of this work was to improve the performance, reduce the construction cost, and expand the application scopes of MFC-based bio-electrochemical systems. To reduce the energy cost in nitrogen removal and during the same process achieve phosphorus elimination, a sediment-type photomicrobial fuel cell was developed based on the cooperation between microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) and electrochemically active bacteria. The main removal mechanism of nitrogen and phosphorus was algae biomass uptake, while nitrification and denitrification process contributed to part of nitrogen removal. The key factors such as algae concentration, COD/N ratios and photoperiod were systemically studied. A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. The hydrogen production increased along with acetate and buffer concentration. The hydrogen production rate of 32.2 mL/L/d and yield of 1.43 mol-H2/mol-acetate were achieved. Alternate exchanging the function between the two cell units was found to be an effective approach to inhibit methanogens. A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell, was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Temperature, pH, conductivity and inorganic solid content were significantly affecting the sensitivity of the sensor. The sensor showed

  13. Electricity generation and microbial community in response to short-term changes in stack connection of self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell powered by glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2017-02-01

    Stack connection (i.e., in series or parallel) of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an efficient way to boost the power output for practical application. However, there is little information available on short-term changes in stack connection and its effect on the electricity generation and microbial community. In this study, a self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) powered by glycerol was tested to elucidate this important issue. In series connection, the maximum voltage output reached to 1.15 V, while maximum current density was 5.73 mA in parallel. In both connections, the maximum power density increased with the initial glycerol concentration. However, the glycerol degradation was even faster in parallel connection. When the SSMFC was shifted from series to parallel connection, the reactor reached to a stable power output without any lag phase. Meanwhile, the anodic microbial community compositions were nearly stable. Comparatively, after changing parallel to series connection, there was a lag period for the system to get stable again and the microbial community compositions became greatly different. This study is the first attempt to elucidate the influence of short-term changes in connection on the performance of MFC stack, and could provide insight to the practical utilization of MFC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses of substrate-dependent bacterial temporal dynamics in microbial fuel cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husen Zhang

    Full Text Available Understanding the microbial community structure and genetic potential of anode biofilms is key to improve extracellular electron transfers in microbial fuel cells. We investigated effect of substrate and temporal dynamics of anodic biofilm communities using phylogenetic and metagenomic approaches in parallel with electrochemical characterizations. The startup non-steady state anodic bacterial structures were compared for a simple substrate, acetate, and for a complex substrate, landfill leachate, using a single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell. Principal coordinate analysis showed that distinct community structures were formed with each substrate type. The bacterial diversity measured as Shannon index decreased with time in acetate cycles, and was restored with the introduction of leachate. The change of diversity was accompanied by an opposite trend in the relative abundance of Geobacter-affiliated phylotypes, which were acclimated to over 40% of total Bacteria at the end of acetate-fed conditions then declined in the leachate cycles. The transition from acetate to leachate caused a decrease in output power density from 243±13 mW/m2 to 140±11 mW/m2, accompanied by a decrease in Coulombic electron recovery from 18±3% to 9±3%. The leachate cycles selected protein-degrading phylotypes within phylum Synergistetes. Metagenomic shotgun sequencing showed that leachate-fed communities had higher cell motility genes including bacterial chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, and increased gene abundance related to metal resistance, antibiotic resistance, and quorum sensing. These differentially represented genes suggested an altered anodic biofilm community in response to additional substrates and stress from the complex landfill leachate.

  15. Characterization of a filamentous biofilm community established in a cellulose-fed microbial fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotta Yasuaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are devices that exploit microorganisms to generate electric power from organic matter. Despite the development of efficient MFC reactors, the microbiology of electricity generation remains to be sufficiently understood. Results A laboratory-scale two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC was inoculated with rice paddy field soil and fed cellulose as the carbon and energy source. Electricity-generating microorganisms were enriched by subculturing biofilms that attached onto anode electrodes. An electric current of 0.2 mA was generated from the first enrichment culture, and ratios of the major metabolites (e.g., electric current, methane and acetate became stable after the forth enrichment. In order to investigate the electrogenic microbial community in the anode biofilm, it was morphologically analyzed by electron microscopy, and community members were phylogenetically identified by 16S rRNA gene clone-library analyses. Electron microscopy revealed that filamentous cells and rod-shaped cells with prosthecae-like filamentous appendages were abundantly present in the biofilm. Filamentous cells and appendages were interconnected via thin filaments. The clone library analyses frequently detected phylotypes affiliated with Clostridiales, Chloroflexi, Rhizobiales and Methanobacterium. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization revealed that the Rhizobiales population represented rod-shaped cells with filamentous appendages and constituted over 30% of the total population. Conclusion Bacteria affiliated with the Rhizobiales constituted the major population in the cellulose-fed MFC and exhibited unique morphology with filamentous appendages. They are considered to play important roles in the cellulose-degrading electrogenic community.

  16. Electricity generation from palm oil tree empty fruit bunch (EFB) using dual chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, N. F.; Mahmood, N. A. B. N.; Ibrahim, K. A.; Muhammad, S. A. F. S.; Amalina, N. S.

    2017-06-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been discovered and utilized in laboratory scale for electricity production based on microbial degradation of organic compound. However, various source of fuel has been tested and recently complex biomass such as lignocellulose biomass has been focused on. In the present research, oil palm tree empty fruit bunch (EFB) has been tested for power production using dual chamber MFC and power generation analysis has been conducted to address the performance of MFC. In addition, two microorganisms (electric harvesting microbe and cellulose degrading microbe) were used in the MFC operation. The analysis include voltage produced, calculated current and power. The first section in your paper

  17. Analysis of Anodes of Microbial Fuel Cells When Carbon Brushes Are Preheated at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The anode electrode is one of the most important components in all microbial electrochemical technologies (METs. Anode materials pretreatment and modification have been shown to be an effective method of improving anode performance. According to mass loss analysis during carbon fiber heating, five temperatures (300, 450, 500, 600, and 750 °C were selected as the pre-heating temperatures of carbon fiber brush anodes. Microbial fuel cell (MFC reactors built up with these pre-heated carbon brush anodes performed with different power densities and Coulombic efficiencies (CEs. Two kinds of measuring methods for power density were applied, and the numerical values of maximum power densities diverged greatly. Reactors with 450 °C anodes, using both methods, had the highest power densities, and the highest CEs were found using 500 °C anode reactors. The surface elements of heat-treated carbon fibers were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, and C, O, and N were the main constituents of the carbon fiber. There were four forms of N1s at the surface of the polyacrylonitrile (PAN-based carbon fiber, and their concentrations were different at different temperature samples. The microbial community of the anode surface was analyzed, and microbial species on anodes from every sample were similar. The differences in anode performance may be caused by mass loss and by the surface elements. For carbon brush anodes used in MFCs or other BESs, 450–500 °C preheating was the most suitable temperature range in terms of the power densities and CEs.

  18. Microbially influenced corrosion of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    1996-11-01

    An assessment of the potential for microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault is presented. The assessment is based on a consideration of the microbial activity within a disposal vault, the reported cases of MIC of Cu alloys in the literature and the known corrosion behaviour of Cu. Because of the critical role of biofilms in the reported cases of MIC, their formation and properties are discussed in detail. Next, the literature on the MIC of Cu alloys is briefly reviewed. The various MIC mechanisms proposed are critically discussed and the implications for the corrosion of Cu containers considered. In the majority of literature cases, MIC depends on alternating aerated and deaerated environments, with accelerated corrosion being observed when fresh aerated water replaces stagnant water, e.g., the MIC of Cu-Ni heat exchangers in polluted seawater and the microbially influenced pitting of Cu water pipes. Finally, because of the predominance of corrosion by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the MIC literature, the abiotic behaviour of Cu alloys in sulphide solutions is also reviewed. The effect of the evolving environment in a disposal vault on the extent and location of microbial activity is discussed. Biofilm formation on the container surface is considered unlikely throughout the container lifetime, but especially initially when the environmental conditions will be particularly aggressive. Microbial activity in areas of the vault away from the container is possible, however. Corrosion of the container could then occur if microbial metabolic by-products diffuse to the container surface. Sulphide, produced by the action of SRB are considered to be the most likely cause of container corrosion. It is concluded that the only likely form of MIC of Cu containers will result from sulphide produced by SRB diffusing to the container surface. A modelling procedure for predicting the extent of corrosion is

  19. Effects of ammonium concentration and charge exchange on ammonium recovery from high strength wastewater using a microbial fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.; Geleij, M.; Bruning, H.; Zeeman, G.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonium recovery using a 2 chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated at high ammonium concentration. Increasing the ammonium concentration (from 0.07 g to 4 g ammonium-nitrogen/L) by addition of ammonium chloride did not affect the performance of the MFC. The obtained current densities by

  20. The flat-plate plant-microbial fuel cell: the effect of a new design on internal resistances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a growing world population and increasing welfare, energy demand worldwide is increasing. To meet the increasing energy demand in a sustainable way, new technologies are needed. The Plant-Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC) is a technology that could produce sustainable bio-electricity and help

  1. Influence of the thickness of the capacitive layer on the performance of bioanodes in Microbial Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deeke, A.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Heijne, ter A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Earlier it was shown, that it is possible to operate a Microbial Fuel Cell with an integrated capacitive bio-anode with a thickness of 0.5 mm and thereby to increase the power output. The integrated capacitive bioanode enabled storage of electricity produced by microorganisms directly inside an MFC.

  2. Effect of Toxic Components on Microbial Fuel Cell-Polarization Curves and Estimation of the Type of Toxic Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, N.E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Straten, van G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Polarization curves are of paramount importance for the detection of toxic components in microbial fuel cell (MFC) based biosensors. In this study, polarization curves were made under non-toxic conditions and under toxic conditions after the addition of various concentrations of nickel, bentazon,

  3. Effect of toxic components on microbial fuel cell-polarization curves and estimation of the type of toxic inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, N.E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Straten, G. van; Keesman, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Polarization curves are of paramount importance for the detection of toxic components in microbial fuel cell (MFC) based biosensors. In this study, polarization curves were made under non-toxic conditions and under toxic conditions after the addition of various concentrations of nickel, bentazon,

  4. Increased power generation from primary sludge by a submersible microbial fuel cell and optimum operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vologni, Valentina; Kakarla, Ramesh; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have received attention as a promising renewable energy technology for waste treatment and energy recovery. We tested a submersible MFC with an innovative design capable of generating a stable voltage of 0.250 ± 0.008 V (with a fixed 470 Ω resistor) directly from primary...... sludge. In a polarization test, the maximum power density was 0.18 W/m2 at a current density of 0.8 A/m2 with an external resistor of 300 Ω. The anodic solution of the primary sludge needs to be adjusted to a pH 7 for high power generation. The modified primary sludge with an added phosphate buffer...

  5. Understanding energy loss in parallelly connected microbial fuel cells: Non-Faradaic current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Junyeong; Sim, Junyoung; Feng, Yujie; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the mechanisms of energy loss in parallel connection of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is explored using two MFC units producing different open circuit voltage (OCV) and current. In open circuit mode, non-Faradaic current flows in low OCV unit, implying energy loss caused by different OCVs in parallelly stacked MFCs. In a stacked MFC in parallel under close circuit mode, it is confirmed that energy loss occurs until the working voltage in high OCV unit becomes identical to the other unit having low OCV. This result indicates that different voltage between individual MFC units can cause energy loss due to both non-Faradic and Faradaic current that flow from high voltage unit to low voltage unit even in parallelly stacked MFCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Removable air-cathode to overcome cathode biofouling in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliot, Manon; Etcheverry, Luc; Bergel, Alain

    2016-12-01

    An innovative microbial fuel cell (MFC) design is described, which allows the air-cathode to be replaced easily without draining the electrolyte. MFCs equipped with 9-cm 2 or 50-cm 2 bioanodes provided 0.6 and 0.7W/m 2 (referred to the cathode surface area) and were boosted to 1.25 and 1.96W/m 2 , respectively, when the initial air-cathode was replaced by a new one. These results validate the practical interest of removable air-cathodes and evidence the importance of the cathode biofouling that takes place during the MFC starting phase. As this biofouling is compensated by the concomitant improvement of the bioanodes it cannot be detected on the power curves and may be a widespread cause of performance underestimation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stability characterization and modeling of robust distributed benthic microbial fuel cell (DBMFC) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Udayarka; Huang, Guoxian; Umaz, Ridvan; Tenaglier, Christopher; Wang, Lei; Li, Baikun

    2013-09-01

    A novel and robust distributed benthic microbial fuel cell (DBMFC) was developed to address the energy supply issues for oceanographic sensor network applications, especially under scouring and bioturbation by aquatic life. Multi-anode/cathode configuration was employed in the DBMFC system for enhanced robustness and stability in the harsh ocean environment. The results showed that the DBMFC system achieved peak power and current densities of 190mW/m(2) and 125mA/m(2) respectively. Stability characterization tests indicated the DBMFC with multiple anodes achieved higher power generation over the systems with single anode. A computational model that integrated physical, electrochemical and biological factors of MFCs was developed to validate the overall performance of the DBMFC system. The model simulation well corresponded with the experimental results, and confirmed the hypothesis that using a multi anode/cathode MFC configuration results in reliable and robust power generation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The performance of a thermophilic microbial fuel cell fed with synthesis gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A; Mehta, P; Raghavan, V; Wang, H; Guiot, S R; Tartakovsky, B

    2012-08-10

    This study demonstrated electricity generation in a thermophilic microbial fuel cell (MFC) operated on synthesis gas (syngas) as the sole electron donor. At 50°C, a volumetric power output of 30-35 mWL(R)(-1) and a syngas conversion efficiency of 87-98% was achieved. The observed pathway of syngas conversion to electricity primarily consisted of a two-step process, where the carbon monoxide and hydrogen were first converted to acetate, which was then consumed by the anodophilic bacteria to produce electricity. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the 16S rDNA revealed the presence of Geobacter species, Acetobacter, methanogens and several uncultured bacteria and archaea in the anodic chamber. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of multi-brush anode systems in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lanas, Vanessa

    2013-11-01

    The packing density of anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was examined here using four different graphite fiber brush anode configurations. The impact of anodes on performance was studied in terms of carbon fiber length (brush diameter), the number of brushes connected in parallel, and the wire current collector gage. MFCs with different numbers of brushes (one, three or six) set perpendicular to the cathode all produced similar power densities (1200±40mW/m2) and coulombic efficiencies (60%±5%). Reducing the number of brushes by either disconnecting or removing them reduced power, demonstrating the importance of anode projected area covering the cathode, and therefore the need to match electrode projected areas to maintain high performance. Multi-brush reactors had the same COD removal as single-brush systems (90%). The use of smaller Ti wire gages did not affect power generation, which will enable the use of less metal, reducing material costs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Alternation of Sediment Characteristics during Sediment Microbial Fuel Cells Amended Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xunan; Chen, Shanshan

    2018-01-01

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) are considered as a new technology in sediment remediation, while biochars can promote interspecies electron transfer in bioelectrochemical systems. We conducted the SMFCs amended with biochars to investigate their effects on of sediment characteristics. Results showed that the anode of SMFCs could oxidize the chemical oxidizable matter in sediments (by 4%-16%) correlating with the maximum power density (r=0.982, pbiochar, the ratio of recalcitrant carbon to total organic carbon did not change significantly in sediments while the ratio of recalcitrant nitrogen increased (2%-19%), suggesting that low quality of organic matter (C/N=24-32) were retained after remediation. The work took insight to sediment characteristic alternations under SMFC operation, which gave information on the element pool related to pollutants and the risk of the application of SMFCs.

  11. Continuous determination of biochemical oxygen demand using microbial fuel cell type biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, In Seop; Jang, Jae Kyung; Gil, Geun Cheol; Kim, Mia; Kim, Hyung Joo; Cho, Byung Won; Kim, Byung Hong

    2004-01-15

    A mediator-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) was used as a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor in an amperometric mode for real-time wastewater monitoring. At a hydraulic retention time of 1.05 h, BOD values of up to 100 mg/l were measured based on a linear relationship, while higher BOD values were measured using a lower feeding rate. About 60 min was required to reach a new steady-state current after the MFCs had been fed with different strength artificial wastewaters (Aws). The current generated from the MFCs fed with AW with a BOD of 100 mg/l was compared to determine the repeatability, and the difference was less than 10%. When the MFC was starved, the original current value was regained with a varying recovery time depending on the length of the starvation. During starvation, the MFC generated a background level current, probably due to an endogenous metabolism.

  12. Mesoporous nitrogen-rich carbon materials as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2014-12-01

    The high cost of the catalyst material used for the oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes is one of the factors limiting practical applications of this technology. Mesoporous nitrogen-rich carbon (MNC), prepared at different temperatures, was examined as an oxygen reduction catalyst, and compared in performance to Pt in MFCs and electrochemical cells. MNC calcined at 800 °C produced a maximum power density of 979 ± 131 mW m-2 in MFCs, which was 37% higher than that produced using MNC calined at 600 °C (715 ± 152 mW m-2), and only 14% lower than that obtained with Pt (1143 ± 54 mW m-2). The extent of COD removal and coulombic efficiencies were the same for all cathode materials. These results show that MNC could be used as an alternative to Pt in MFCs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Copper catalysis for enhancement of cobalt leaching and acid utilization efficiency in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaxuan; Shen, Jingya; Huang, Liping; Wu, Dan

    2013-11-15

    Enhancement of both cobalt leaching from LiCoO2 and acid utilization efficiency (AUE) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was successfully achieved by the addition of Cu(II). A dosage of 10mg/L Cu(II) improved both cobalt leaching up to 308% and AUE of 171% compared to the controls with no presence of Cu(II). The apparent activation energy of cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs was only 11.8 kJ/mol. These results demonstrate cobalt leaching in MFCs using Cu(II) as a catalyst may be an effective strategy for cobalt recovery and recycle of spent Li-ion batteries, and the evidence of influence factors including solid/liquid ratio, temperature, and pH and solution conductivity can contribute to improving understanding of and optimizing cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nonactivated and Activated Biochar Derived from Bananas as Alternative Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonactivated and activated biochars have been successfully prepared by bananas at different thermotreatment temperatures. The activated biochar generated at 900°C (Biochar-act900 exhibited improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR and oxygen evolution reaction (OER performances in alkaline media, in terms of the onset potential and generated current density. Rotating disk electron result shows that the average of 2.65 electrons per oxygen molecule was transferred during ORR of Biochar-act900. The highest power density of 528.2 mW/m2 and the maximum stable voltage of 0.47 V were obtained by employing Biochar-act900 as cathode catalyst, which is comparable to the Pt/C cathode. Owning to these advantages, it is expected that the banana-derived biochar cathode can find application in microbial fuel cell systems.

  15. Power generation using an activated carbon and metal mesh cathode in a microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2009-11-01

    An inexpensive activated carbon (AC) air cathode was developed as an alternative to a platinum-catalyzed electrode for oxygen reduction in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). AC was cold-pressed with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder to form the cathode around a Ni mesh current collector. This cathode construction avoided the need for carbon cloth or a metal catalyst, and produced a cathode with high activity for oxygen reduction at typical MFC current densities. Tests with the AC cathode produced a maximum power density of 1220 mW/m2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area; 36 W/m3 based on liquid volume) compared to 1060 mW/m2 obtained by Pt catalyzed carbon cloth cathode. The Coulombic efficiency ranged from 15% to 55%. These findings show that AC is a cost-effective material for achieving useful rates of oxygen reduction in air cathode MFCs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of real-time external resistance optimization on microbial fuel cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, R P; Srinivasan, B; Guiot, S R; Tartakovsky, B

    2011-02-01

    This work evaluates the impact of the external resistance (electrical load) on the long-term performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) and demonstrates the real-time optimization of the external resistance. For this purpose, acetate-fed MFCs were operated at external resistances, which were above, below, or equal to the internal resistance of a corresponding MFC. A perturbation/observation algorithm was used for the real-time optimal selection of the external resistance. MFC operation at the optimal external resistance resulted in increased power output, improved Coulombic efficiency, and low methane production. Furthermore, the efficiency of the perturbation/observation algorithm for maximizing long-term MFC performance was confirmed by operating an MFC fed with synthetic wastewater for over 40 days. In this test an average Coulombic efficiency of 29% was achieved. © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of soak liquor and bioelectricity generation in dual chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, Kuppusamy; Narenkumar, Jayaraman; Selvi, Adikesavan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Babujanarthanam, Ranganathan; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2018-02-08

    The discharge of untreated soak liquor from tannery industry causes severe environmental pollution. This study is characterizing the soak liquor as a substrate in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) for remediation along with electricity generation. The dual chamber MFC was constructed and operated. Potassium permanganate was used as cathode solution and carbon felt electrode as anodic and cathodic material, respectively. The soak liquor was characterized by electrochemical studies viz., cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and polarization studies, respectively. The removal percentage of protein, lipid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured before and after treatment with MFC. The results of MFC showed a highest current density of 300 mA/cm 2 and a power density of 92 mW/m 2 . The removal of COD, protein, and lipid were noted as 96, 81, and 97% respectively during MFC process. This MFC can be used in tannery industries for treating soak liquor and simultaneous electricity generation.

  18. Enhancing charge harvest from microbial fuel cells by controlling the charging and discharging frequency of capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shiting; Xia, Xue; Yuan, Lulu; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2013-10-01

    Capacitor is a storage device to harvest charge produced from microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In intermittent charging mode, the capacitor is charged by an MFC first, and then discharged through an external resistance. The charge harvested by capacitor is affected by the charging and discharging frequency. In the present study, the effect of the charging and discharging frequency on charge harvest was investigated. At the switching time (ts) of 100 s, the average current over each time segment reached its maximum value (1.59 mA) the earliest, higher than the other tested conditions, and the highest COD removal (63%) was also obtained, while the coulombic efficiency reached the highest of 67% at the ts of 400 s. Results suggested that lower ts led to higher current output and COD removal, but appropriate ts should be selected in consideration of charge recovery efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electricity generation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii in a mediatorless microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiche, Alison; Sivell, Jamie-Lynn; Kirkwood, Kathlyn M

    2016-01-01

    To test Propionibacterium freudenreichii as a novel biocatalyst in a glycerol-oxidizing microbial fuel cell (MFC). Two strains, P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii and P. freudenreichii ssp. freudenreichii, were screened as anodic biocatalysts and shown to produce power from glycerol in an MFC. Voltage was generated with and without resazurin in the medium, showing that both strains are exoelectrogenic. Polarization data showed that an MFC with P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii reached a maximum open circuit voltage of 485 mV and a maximum power density of 14.9 mW m(-2). Glycerol consumption was about 50 % lower in MFCs than in fermentations, indicating a metabolic shift in the MFC environment. P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii and P. freudenreichii ssp. freudenreichii were shown for the first time to act as exoelectrogenic anodic biocatalysts in MFCs.

  20. Electricity generation from carbon monoxide and syngas in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abid; Guiot, Serge R; Mehta, Punita; Raghavan, Vijaya; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2011-05-01

    Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been a subject of significant research efforts. MFCs employ the ability of electricigenic bacteria to oxidize organic substrates using an electrode as an electron acceptor. While MFC application for electricity production from a variety of organic sources has been demonstrated, very little research on electricity production from carbon monoxide and synthesis gas (syngas) in an MFC has been reported. Although most of the syngas today is produced from non-renewable sources, syngas production from renewable biomass or poorly degradable organic matter makes energy generation from syngas a sustainable process, which combines energy production with the reprocessing of solid wastes. An MFC-based process of syngas conversion to electricity might offer a number of advantages such as high Coulombic efficiency and biocatalytic activity in the presence of carbon monoxide and sulfur components. This paper presents a discussion on microorganisms and reactor designs that can be used for operating an MFC on syngas.

  1. Maximizing power production in a stack of microbial fuel cells using multiunit optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Lyne; Perrier, Michel; Srinivasan, Bala; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates real-time maximization of power production in a stack of two continuous flow microbial fuel cells (MFCs). To maximize power output, external resistances of two air-cathode membraneless MFCs were controlled by a multiunit optimization algorithm. Multiunit optimization is a recently proposed method that uses multiple similar units to optimize process performance. The experiment demonstrated fast convergence toward optimal external resistance and algorithm stability during external perturbations (e.g., temperature variations). Rate of the algorithm convergence was much faster than in traditional maximum power point tracking algorithms (MPPT), which are based on temporal perturbations. A power output of 81-84 mW/L(A) (A = anode volume) was achieved in each MFC. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  2. Water Quality Monitoring in Developing Countries; Can Microbial Fuel Cells be the Answer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Chouler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The provision of safe water and adequate sanitation in developing countries is a must. A range of chemical and biological methods are currently used to ensure the safety of water for consumption. These methods however suffer from high costs, complexity of use and inability to function onsite and in real time. The microbial fuel cell (MFC technology has great potential for the rapid and simple testing of the quality of water sources. MFCs have the advantages of high simplicity and possibility for onsite and real time monitoring. Depending on the choice of manufacturing materials, this technology can also be highly cost effective. This review covers the state-of-the-art research on MFC sensors for water quality monitoring, and explores enabling factors for their use in developing countries.

  3. Improving the dynamic response of a mediator-less microbial fuel cell as a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyunsoo; Chang, In Seop; Kang, Kui Hyun; Jang, Jae Kyung; Kim, Byung Hong

    2004-11-01

    The dynamic behavior of a mediator-less, microbial fuel cell (MFC) was studied as a continuous biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor. The response time and the sensitivity were analyzed through the step-change testing of the fuel concentration. The MFC of 25 ml had the shortest response time of 36 +/- 2 min at the fuel-feeding rate of 0.53 ml min(-1) and the resistance of 10 ohms. A smaller MFC of 5 ml had a response time of 5 +/- 1 min.

  4. Microbial Fuel Cells for Simultaneous Electricity Generation and Organic Degradation from Slaughterhouse Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelinus Christwardana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel Cell (MFC has gained a lot of attention in recent years due to its capability in simultaneously reducing organic component and generating electricity. Here multicultural rumen microbes (RM were used to reduce organic component of slaughterhouse wastewater in a self-fabricated MFC. The objectives of this study were to determine the MFC configuration and to find out its maximum capability in organic degradation and electricity generation. The experiments were conducted by employing, different types of electrode materials, electrode size, and substrate-RM ratio. Configuration of MFC with graphite-copper electrode 31.4 cm2 in size, and substrate-RM ratio 1:10 shows the best result with current density of 318 mA m-2, potential  2.4 V, and achieve maximum power density up to 700 mW m-2. In addition, self-fabricated MFC also shows its ability in reducing organic component by measuring the chemical oxygen demand (COD up to 67.9% followed by increasing pH from 5.9 to 7.5. MFC operating at ambient condition (29oC and pH 7.5, is emphasized as green-technology for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. Article History: Received March 26, 2016; Received in revised form June 20, 2016; Accepted June 25, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Prabowo, A.K., Tiarasukma, A.P., Christwardana, M. and Ariyanti, D. (2016 Microbial Fuel Cells for Simultaneous Electricity Generation and Organic Degradation from Slaughterhouse Wastewater. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 107-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.107-112 

  5. Preparatory Research of Microbial Fuel Cells Capable of Using the Organic waste in the Space Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Kong, L.

    In order to explore the way to treat and use the organic waste in the space base we designed a single chamber microbial fuel cell Through studying its character we discussed the facts that influence the power The Microbial Fuel Cells MFC consists of two electrode groups on the opposite sides Bacteria present in the anaerobic activated sludge were used as biocatalyst and glucose was tested as substrate The prototype MFC generated electrical power maximum of 133mW m2 while removing up to 88 of Chemical oxygen demand COD in 91h Through analyzing the facts that influence the power we found that increase of the electrode area could make the voltage and the power increase and the power density increased as available volume per electrode area increased Power generation was proportional to COD of the influent wastewater within a range of 129-1124 mg L The hydraulic retention time had an effect on the power over a range of 3-36h The power density reached the maximum of 110 8 mW m2 when the hydraulic retention time was 15 5h When the MFC was operated in the same way with Sequencing Batch Reactor the power density reached the maximum quickly but 40 hours later it decreased as COD deceased Oppositely pH decreased quickly to the minimum within first few hours then increased Process that can generate electricity during domestic and industrial wastewater treatment may provide a new method to offset wastewater treatment plant operating costs making advanced wastewater treatment more affordable for developing and industrial countries

  6. Preliminary investigation of single chamber single electrode microbial fuel cell using sewage sludge as a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Chaithanya, M.; Thakur, Somil; Sonu, Kumar; Das, Bhaskar

    2017-11-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) consists of a cathode and anode; micro-organisms transfer electrons acquired from the degradation of organic matter in the substrate to anode; and thereby to cathode; by using an external circuit to generate electricity. In the present study, a single chamber single electrode microbial fuel cell has been fabricated to generate electricity from the sludge of the sewage treatment plant at two different ambient temperature range of 25 ± 4°C and 32 ± 4°C under aerobic condition. No work has been done yet by using the single electrode in any MFC system; it is hypothesized that single electrode submerged partially in substrate and rest to atmosphere can function as both cathode and anode. The maximum voltage obtained was about 2890 mV after 80 (hrs) at temperature range of 25 ± 4°C, with surface power density of 1108.29 mW/m2. When the ambient temperature was 32 ± 4°C, maximum voltage obtained was 1652 mV after 40 (hrs.) surface power density reduced to 865.57 mW/m2. When amount of substrate was decreased for certain area of electrode at 25 ± 4°C range, electricity generation decreased and it also shortened the time to reach peak voltage. On the other hand, when the ambient temperature was increased to 32 ± 4°C, the maximum potential energy generated was less than that of previous experiment at 25 ± 4°C for the same substrate Also the time to reach peak voltage decreased to 40 hrs. When comparing with other single chamber single electrode MFC, the present model is generating more electricity that any MFC using sewage sludge as substrate except platinum electrode, which is much costlier that electrode used in the present study.

  7. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida João R M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a “waste-stream” instead of a valuable “coproduct”. The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of a microbial fuel cell treating artificial dialysis wastewater using graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuko; Yoshida, Naoko

    2016-02-01

    Artificial dialysis wastewater (ADWW) generally contains 800-2,200 mg L-1 of organic matter. Prior to its discharge to the sewage system, ADWW must be treated in order to reduce organic matter to less than 600 mg L-1. This study assesses the applicability of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to the reduction of organic matter in ADWW as an alternative pre-treatment system to aeration. In the MFC, conductive floccular aggregates microbially produced from graphene oxide (GO-flocs) were applied as an anode material in the MFC. The GO-flocs were obtained by anaerobic incubation of graphene oxide (GO) with microorganisms in ADWW at 28 °C for a minimum of 10 days. During incubation, GO in the mixture was transformed into black conductive floccular aggregates having 0.12 mS cm-1, suggesting the microbial reduction of GO to the reduced form. The produced GO-flocs were then used as the anode material in a cylindrical MFC, which was filled with ADWW and covered with a floating, platinum (Pt)-coated carbon cathode. The MFC was polarized via an external resistance of 10 Ω and applied for 120 days by replacing half of the supernatant of the MFC with fresh ADWW, every 6-9 days. As a result, the MFC achieved a 128 mg L-1 d-1 chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) removal rate. For example, the MFC contained 1,500 mg-CODCr L-1 just after replacement, with this concentration being reduced to 1,000 mg-CODCr L-1 after 6-9 days of incubation. At the same time, the MFC showed an average power density of 28 mW m-2 and a maximum power density of 291 mW m-2. These results suggest that a MFC packed with GO-flocs can be used as an alternative biotreatment system, replacing the energy-intensive aeration process.

  9. Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced electrode configurations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of refinery wastewater (RW) treatment using air-cathode, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was examined relative to previous tests based on completely anaerobic microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). MFCs were configured with separator electrode assembly (SEA) or spaced electrode (SPA) configurations to measure power production and relative impacts of oxygen crossover on organics removal. The SEA configuration produced a higher maximum power density (280±6mW/m2; 16.3±0.4W/m3) than the SPA arrangement (255±2mW/m2) due to lower internal resistance. Power production in both configurations was lower than that obtained with the domestic wastewater (positive control) due to less favorable (more positive) anode potentials, indicating poorer biodegradability of the RW. MFCs with RW achieved up to 84% total COD removal, 73% soluble COD removal and 92% HBOD removal. These removals were higher than those previously obtained in mini-MEC tests, as oxygen crossover from the cathode enhanced degradation in MFCs compared to MECs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A rapid selection strategy for an anodophilic consortium for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Aijie

    2010-07-01

    A rapid selection method was developed to enrich for a stable and efficient anodophilic consortium (AC) for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). A biofilm sample from a microbial electrolysis cell was serially diluted up to 10-9 in anaerobic phosphate buffer solution and incubated in an Fe(III)-acetate medium, and an Fe(III)-reducing AC was obtained for dilutions up to 10-6. The activity of MFC inoculated with the enrichment AC was compared with those inoculated with original biofilm or activated sludge. The power densities and Coulombic efficiencies of the AC (226 mW/m2, 34%) were higher than those of the original biofilm (209 mW/m2, 23%) and activated sludge (192 mW/m2, 19%). The start-up period of the AC (60 h) was also shorter than those obtained with the other inocula (biofilm, 95 h; activated sludge, 300 h). This indicated that such a strategy is highly efficient for obtaining an anodophilic consortium for improving the performance of an MFC. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of Laminaria-based microbial fuel cells (LbMs) for electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Belanger, Derek; Gardiner, Carly-Jeanne; Cummings, Anasha; Hynes, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Marine algae represents a sustainable feedstock in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) due to its low water and energy requirements for cultivation, higher capacity to sequester carbondioxide, and high carbohydrate content. Two-compartment MFCs were evaluated under batch-fed mode using Laminaria saccharina as the model for algae-based electron donor, and mixed microbial consortia as the biocatalyst, in the anode compartment. The Laminaria-based MFCs (LBMs) were studied with three different pretreatment conditions for the L. saccharina: (i) autoclaving (Auto), (ii) microwave irradiation (Micro), and (iii) as received treatment (No-Treat). A control was setup to establish base line performance for two-compartment MFCs using glucose as the electron donor in the anode. The performance of LBMs (250 mW/m(2) and 900 mA/m(2)) was on par with glucose-based MFCs. AC impedance analysis revealed that the charge transfer resistance was at least 50-fold higher than the corresponding ohmic losses in both LBMs and glucose-based MFCs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Facile in-situ fabrication of graphene/riboflavin electrode for microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Wu, Xia-Yuan; Yu, Yang-Yang; Sun, De-Zhen; Jia, Hong-Hua; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2017-01-01

    A novel graphene/riboflavin (RF) composite electrode was developed and its potential application as microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode was demonstrated. Graphene layers were first grown on the surface of graphite electrode by a one-step in-situ electrochemical exfoliation approach. Then, noncovalent functionalization of the graphene layers with RF was achieved by a simple spontaneous adsorption process. The graphene/RF electrode was extensively characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman analysis, and cyclic voltammetry analysis. Remarkably, when applied as the anode of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 inoculated MFCs, the graphene/RF electrode significantly decreased charge transfer over-potential and enhanced cell attachment, which in turn delivered about 5.3- and 2.5-fold higher power output, when compared with that produced by the bare graphite paper electrode and graphene electrode, respectively. These results demonstrated that electron shuttle immobilization on the electrode surface could be a promising and practical strategy for improving the performance of microbial electrochemical systems.

  13. Effect of nitrogen addition on the performance of microbial fuel cell anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Saito, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Carbon cloth anodes were modified with 4(N,N-dimethylamino)benzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate to increase nitrogen-containing functional groups at the anode surface in order to test whether the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could be improved by controllably modifying the anode surface chemistry. Anodes with the lowest extent of functionalization, based on a nitrogen/carbon ratio of 0.7 as measured by XPS, achieved the highest power density of 938mW/m2. This power density was 24% greater than an untreated anode, and similar to that obtained with an ammonia gas treatment previously shown to increase power. Increasing the nitrogen/carbon ratio to 3.8, however, decreased the power density to 707mW/m2. These results demonstrate that a small amount of nitrogen functionalization on the carbon cloth material is sufficient to enhance MFC performance, likely as a result of promoting bacterial adhesion to the surface without adversely affecting microbial viability or electron transfer to the surface. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Anodic Biofilms in Microbial Fuel Cells Fed with Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mora Collazos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the bacterial diversity associated with biofilms formed on the anode of microbial fuel cells (MFC, by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene and observations by scanning electron microscopy. Single chambered MFC were constructed and kept in operation for 30 days using environmental samples as inoculum and sole energy substrate; the MFC were monitored as a function of energy production in the course of the experiment; at endpoint, molecular characterization and observations using scanning electron microscopy was performed to the formed biofilms. Values of maximum power density of 4.85 mW/m2 for domestic wastewater and 1.85 mW/m2 in the case of industrial wastewater are reported, with declines of 71 % of the BOD for domestic wastewater and 59 % of the BOD in the case of industrial wastewater. Recovery of 15 unique sequences from the amplification of 16S rRNA gene obtained from the biofilms formed on the anodes was accomplished. Phylogenetic analysis placed these sequences in the Deltaproteobacteria class. The two environmental substrates contain an important and interesting microbial diversity, showing them very promising for the construction and operation of MFC and implementing biodegradation of organic material.

  15. Electricity generation using white and red wine lees in air cathode microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe Sciarria, Tommy; Merlino, Giuseppe; Scaglia, Barbara; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Mecheri, Barbara; Borin, Sara; Licoccia, Silvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a useful biotechnology to produce electrical energy from different organic substrates. This work reports for the first time results of the application of single chamber MFCs to generate electrical energy from diluted white wine (WWL) and red wine (RWL) lees. Power obtained was of 8.2 W m-3 (262 mW m-2; 500 Ω) and of 3.1 W m-3 (111 mW m-2; 500Ω) using white and red wine lees, respectively. Biological processes lead to a reduction of chemical oxygen (TCOD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) of 27% and 83% for RWL and of 90% and 95% for WWL, respectively. These results depended on the degradability of organic compounds contained, as suggest by BOD5/TCOD of WWL (0.93) vs BOD5/TCOD of RWL (0.33), and to the high presence of polyphenols in RWL that inhibited the process. Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 15 ± 0%, for WWL, was in line with those reported in the literature for other substrates, i.e. CE of 14.9 ± 11.3%. Different substrates led to different microbial consortia, particularly at the anode. Bacterial species responsible for the generation of electricity, were physically connected to the electrode, where the direct electron transfer took place.

  16. Bioaugmentation for Electricity Generation from Corn Stover Biomass Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin

    2009-08-01

    Corn stover is usually treated by an energy-intensive or expensive process to extract sugars for bioenergy production. However, it is possible to directly generate electricity from corn stover in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) through the addition of microbial consortia specifically acclimated for biomass breakdown. A mixed culture that was developed to have a high saccharification rate with corn stover was added to singlechamber, air-cathode MFCs acclimated for power production using glucose. The MFC produced a maximum power of 331 mW/ m 2 with the bioaugmented mixed culture and corn stover, compared to 510 mW/m2 using glucose. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed the communities continued to evolve on both the anode and corn stover biomass over 60 days, with several bacteria identified including Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The use of residual solids from the steam exploded corn stover produced 8% more power (406 mW/m2) than the raw corn stover. These results show that it is possible to directly generate electricity from waste corn stover in MFCs through bioaugmentation using naturally occurring bacteria. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  17. Electricity generation through a photo sediment microbial fuel cell using algae at the cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethu, B; Ghangrekar, M M

    2017-12-01

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) are bio-electrochemical devices generating electricity from redox gradients occurring across the sediment-water interface. Sediment microbial carbon-capture cell (SMCC), a modified SMFC, uses algae grown in the overlying water of sediment and is considered as a promising system for power generation along with algal cultivation. In this study, the performance of SMCC and SMFC was evaluated in terms of power generation, dissolved oxygen variations, sediment organic matter removal and algal growth. SMCC gave a maximum power density of 22.19 mW/m 2 , which was 3.65 times higher than the SMFC operated under similar conditions. Sediment organic matter removal efficiencies of 77.6 ± 2.1% and 61.0 ± 1.3% were obtained in SMCC and SMFC, respectively. With presence of algae at the cathode, a maximum chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen removal efficiencies of 63.3 ± 2.3% (8th day) and 81.6 ± 1.2% (10th day), respectively, were observed. The system appears to be favorable from a resources utilization perspective as it does not depend on external aeration or membranes and utilizes algae and organic matter present in sediment for power generation. Thus, SMCC has proven its applicability for installation in an existing oxidation pond for sediment remediation, algae growth, carbon conversion and power generation, simultaneously.

  18. Simultaneous Cellulose Degradation and Electricity Production by Enterobacter cloacae in a Microbial Fuel Cell▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farzaneh; Xing, Defeng; Wagner, Rachel; Regan, John M.; Richard, Tom L.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    Electricity can be directly generated by bacteria in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) from many different biodegradable substrates. When cellulose is used as the substrate, electricity generation requires a microbial community with both cellulolytic and exoelectrogenic activities. Cellulose degradation with electricity production by a pure culture has not been previously demonstrated without addition of an exogenous mediator. Using a specially designed U-tube MFC, we enriched a consortium of exoelectrogenic bacteria capable of using cellulose as the sole electron donor. After 19 dilution-to-extinction serial transfers of the consortium, 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and band sequencing revealed that the dominant bacterium was Enterobacter cloacae. An isolate designated E. cloacae FR from the enrichment was found to be 100% identical to E. cloacae ATCC 13047T based on a partial 16S rRNA sequence. In polarization tests using the U-tube MFC and cellulose as a substrate, strain FR produced 4.9 ± 0.01 mW/m2, compared to 5.4 ± 0.3 mW/m2 for strain ATCC 13047T. These results demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to generate electricity from cellulose using a single bacterial strain without exogenous mediators. PMID:19346362

  19. Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube−Textile Anode for High-Performance Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Xing

    2011-01-12

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of microorganisms, converting chemical energy into electrical energy. Anode performance is an important factor limiting the power density of MFCs for practical application. Improving the anode design is thus important for enhancing the MFC performance, but only a little development has been reported. Here, we describe a biocompatible, highly conductive, two-scale porous anode fabricated from a carbon nanotube-textile (CNT-textile) composite for high-performance MFCs. The macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT-textile fibers creates an open 3D space for efficient substrate transport and internal colonization by a diverse microflora, resulting in a 10-fold-larger anolyte-biofilm-anode interfacial area than the projective surface area of the CNT-textile. The conformally coated microscale porous CNT layer displays strong interaction with the microbial biofilm, facilitating electron transfer from exoelectrogens to the CNT-textile anode. An MFC equipped with a CNT-textile anode has a 10-fold-lower charge-transfer resistance and achieves considerably better performance than one equipped with a traditional carbon cloth anode: the maximum current density is 157% higher, the maximum power density is 68% higher, and the energy recovery is 141% greater. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Carbon nanotube-coated macroporous sponge for microbial fuel cell electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Xing

    2012-01-01

    The materials that are used to make electrodes and their internal structures significantly affect microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. In this study, we describe a carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge composite prepared by coating a sponge with CNTs. Compared to the CNT-coated textile electrodes evaluated in prior studies, CNT-sponge electrodes had lower internal resistance, greater stability, more tunable and uniform macroporous structure (pores up to 1 mm in diameter), and improved mechanical properties. The CNT-sponge composite also provided a three-dimensional scaffold that was favorable for microbial colonization and catalytic decoration. Using a batch-fed H-shaped MFC outfitted with CNT-sponge electrodes, an areal power density of 1.24 W m -2 was achieved when treating domestic wastewater. The maximum volumetric power density of a continuously fed plate-shaped MFC was 182 W m -3. To our knowledge, these are the highest values obtained to date for MFCs fed domestic wastewater: 2.5 times the previously reported maximum areal power density and 12 times the previously reported maximum volumetric power density. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Community structure dynamics during startup in microbial fuel cells - The effect of phosphate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuka-Golub, Keren; Reshef, Leah; Rishpon, Judith; Gophna, Uri

    2016-07-01

    For microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to become a cost-effective wastewater treatment technology, they must produce a stable electro-active microbial community quickly and operate under realistic wastewater nutrient conditions. The composition of the anodic-biofilm and planktonic-cells communities was followed temporally for MFCs operated under typical laboratory phosphate concentrations (134mgL(-1)P) versus wastewater phosphate concentrations (16mgL(-1)P). A stable peak voltage was attained two-fold faster in MFCs operating under lower phosphate concentration. All anodic-biofilms were composed of well-known exoelectrogenic bacterial families; however, MFCs showing faster startup and a stable voltage had a Desulfuromonadaceae-dominated-biofilm, while biofilms co-dominated by Desulfuromonadaceae and Geobacteraceae characterized slower or less stable MFCs. Interestingly,planktonic-cell concentrations of these bacteria followed a similar trend as the anodic-biofilm and could therefore serve as a biomarker for its formation. These results demonstrate that wastewater-phosphate concentrations do not compromise MFCs efficiency, and considerably speed up startup times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In situ formation of graphene layers on graphite surfaces for efficient anodes of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiahuan; Chen, Shanshan; Yuan, Yong; Cai, Xixi; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-09-15

    Graphene can be used to improve the performance of the anode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) due to its good biocompatibility, high electrical conductivity and large surface area. However, the chemical production and modification of the graphene on the anode are environmentally hazardous because of the use of various harmful chemicals. This study reports a novel method based on the electrochemical exfoliation of a graphite plate (GP) for the in situ formation of graphene layers on the surface of a graphite electrode. When the resultant graphene-layer-based graphite plate electrode (GL/GP) was used as an anode in an MFC, a maximum power density of 0.67 ± 0.034 W/m(2) was achieved. This value corresponds to 1.72-, 1.56- and 1.26-times the maximum power densities of the original GP, exfoliated-graphene-modified GP (EG/GP) and chemically-reduced-graphene-modified GP (rGO/GP) anodes, respectively. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the high performance of the GL/GP anode was attributable to its macroporous structure, improved electron transfer and high electrochemical capacitance. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis technique for the fabrication of high-performance graphene-based electrodes for use in microbial energy harvesting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting the effects of microbial activity on the corrosion of copper nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    1996-08-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers may occur in a disposal vault located 500-1000 m underground in the granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The extent and diversity of microbial activity in the vault is expected to be limited initially because of the aggressive conditions produced by γ-radiation, elevated temperatures and desiccation of the clay-based buffer in which the containers will be embedded. Experimental results on the heat- and radiation-sensitivity of the natural microbiota in buffer material are presented. The data suggest that the low water activity in the buffer material will severely limit the growth of microbes near the container. The most likely form of MIC involves sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Electrochemical experiments using a clay-covered copper electrode have shown that sulphide ions produced by SRB could diffuse through buffer material and induce corrosion of the container. A method to predict the long-term corrosion behaviour is presented. (author)

  4. Performance of Klebsiella oxytoca to generate electricity from POME in microbial fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md. Amirul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to evaluate the electricity generation from microbial fuel cell (MFC and to analyze the microbial community structure of city wastewater and anaerobic sludge to enhance the MFC performance. MFCs, enriched with palm oil mill effluent (POME were employed to harvest electricity by innoculating of Klebsiella oxytoca, collected from city wastewater and other microbes from anaerobic sludge (AS. The MFC showed maximum power density of 207.28 mW/m3 with continuous feeding of POME using microbes from AS. Subsequent replacement with Klebsiella oxytoca resulted maximum power density of 1236 mW/m3 by utilizing complex substrate POME which was six times higher as compared to MFC operated with AS. Based on Biolog gene III analysis, relatively higher abundance of Klebsiella oxytoca was detected in the city wastewater. Predominant microorganisms such as Gammaproteobacteria, Azospiraoryzae, Acetobacterperoxydans and Solimonasvariicoloris were isolated from palm oil anaerobic sludge as well as from biofilm of MFC. Enriched electrochemically active bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca showed better performance to generate electricity from complex POME substrates compare to AS. These results demonstrate that the power output of MFCs can be increased significantly using Klebsiella oxytoca.

  5. Examination of microbial fuel cell start-up times with domestic wastewater and additional amendments

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Guangli

    2011-08-01

    Rapid startup of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and other bioreactors is desirable when treating wastewaters. The startup time with unamended wastewater (118h) was similar to that obtained by adding acetate or fumarate (110-115h), and less than that with glucose (181h) or Fe(III) (353h). Initial current production took longer when phosphate buffer was added, with startup times increasing with concentration from 149h (25mM) to 251h (50mM) and 526h (100mM). Microbial communities that developed in the reactors contained Betaproteobacteria, Acetoanaerobium noterae, and Chlorobium sp. Anode biomass densities ranged from 200 to 600μg/cm2 for all amendments except Fe(Sh{cyrillic}) (1650μg/cm2). Wastewater produced 91mW/m2, with the other MFCs producing 50mW/m2 (fumarate) to 103mW/m2 (Fe(III)) when amendments were removed. These experiments show that wastewater alone is sufficient to acclimate the reactor without the need for additional chemical amendments. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Immobilization of anode-attached microbes in a microbial fuel cell.

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Rachel C

    2012-01-03

    Current-generating (exoelectrogenic) bacteria in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) may not be culturable using standard in vitro agar-plating techniques, making isolation of new microbes a challenge. More in vivo like conditions are needed where bacteria can be grown and directly isolated on an electrode. While colonies can be developed from single cells on an electrode, the cells must be immobilized after being placed on the surface. Here we present a proof-of-concept immobilization approach that allows exoelectrogenic activity of cells on an electrode based on applying a layer of latex to hold bacteria on surfaces. The effectiveness of this procedure to immobilize particles was first demonstrated using fluorescent microspheres as bacterial analogs. The latex coating was then shown to not substantially affect the exoelectrogenic activity of well-developed anode biofilms in two different systems. A single layer of airbrushed coating did not reduce the voltage produced by a biofilm in a microbial fuel cell (MFC), and more easily applied dip-and-blot coating reduced voltage by only 11% in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). This latex immobilization procedure will enable future testing of single cells for exoelectrogenic activity on electrodes in BESs.

  7. Evaluation of electricity production from alkaline pretreated sludge using two-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Benyi; Yang, Fang; Liu, Junxin

    2013-06-15

    Electricity production from alkaline pretreated sludge was evaluated using a two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC). The electricity production was found to be stable over a long period of time (approximately 17 d) with voltage outputs and power densities of 0.47-0.52 V and 46.80-55.88 mW/m(2), respectively. The anode resistance was the main internal resistance (73.2%) of MFC in the stable stage. Most soluble organic matters (proteins and carbohydrates) in the anode chamber were first degraded and converted into volatile fatty acids (0-15 d), which were then degraded and converted into electricity and methane (15-29 d). The insoluble organics were solubilized thereby decreasing the sludge concentration and reducing the sludge mass. Methane was produced in the anode chamber owing to the growth of methanogens, which did not obviously affect the electricity production. The change in humic-like substances displayed a positive correlation with the electricity production of the MFC. Microbial analysis showed that methanogens and electricity-producing bacteria co-existed mostly on the surface as well as inside the anode. Decreasing the anode resistance and increasing the anode utilization could enhance the electricity production. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment Associated with Renewable Energy Generation in Microbial Fuel Cell Based on Mobilized Electroactive Biofilm on Zeolite Bearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ziad Ismail

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel application of lab-scale dual chambered air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC has been developed for simultaneous bio-treatment of real pharmaceutical wastewater and renewable electricity generation. The microbial fuel cell (MFC was provided with zeolite-packed anodic compartment and a cation exchange membrane (CEM to separate the anode and cathode. The performance of the proposed MFC was evaluated in terms of COD removal and power generation based on the activity of the bacterial consortium in the biofilm mobilized on zeolite bearer. The MFC was fueled with real pharmaceutical wastewater having an initial COD concentration equal to 800 mg/L and inoculated with anaerobic aged sludge. Results demonstrated that the COD removal efficiency, power density and current density were 66%, 2.4 mW/m2 and 10 mA/m2, respectively.

  9. Enhanced electrode-reducing rate during the enrichment process in an air-cathode microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shun' ichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Bio-Medical Research Inst.; J. Craig Venter Institute, San Diego, CA (United States); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Tokyo (Japan); Logan, Bruce E. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Sekiguchi, Yuji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Bio-Medical Research Inst.

    2012-05-15

    The improvement in electricity generation during the enrichment process of a microbial consortium was analyzed using an air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) repeatedly fed with acetate that was originally inoculated with sludge from an anaerobic digester. The anodic maximum current density produced by the anode biofilm increased from 0.12 mA/cm{sup 2} at day 28 to 1.12 mA/cm{sup 2} at day 105. However, the microbial cell density on the carbon cloth anode increased only three times throughout this same time period from 0.21 to 0.69 mg protein/cm{sup 2}, indicating that the biocatalytic activity of the consortium was also enhanced. The microbial activity was calculated to have a per biomass anode-reducing rate of 374 {mu}mol electron g protein{sup -1} min{sup -1} at day 28 and 1,002 {mu}mol electron g protein{sup -1} min{sup -1} at day 105. A bacterial community analysis of the anode biofilm revealed that the dominant phylotype, which was closely related to the known exoelectrogenic bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens, showed an increase in abundance from 32% to 70% of the total microbial cells. Fluorescent in situ hybridization observation also showed the increase of Geobacter-like phylotypes from 53% to 72%. These results suggest that the improvement of microbial current generation in microbial fuel cells is a function of both microbial cell growth on the electrode and changes in the bacterial community highly dominated by a known exoelectrogenic bacterium during the enrichment process. (orig.)

  10. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catal, Tunc [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 97331, Corvallis, OR (United States); Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Fan, Yanzhen; Liu, Hong [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Li, Kaichang [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 97331, Corvallis, OR (United States); Bermek, Hakan [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-05-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains. (author)

  11. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Tunc; Fan, Yanzhen; Li, Kaichang; Bermek, Hakan; Liu, Hong

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains.

  12. Power Generation Enhancement by Utilizing Plant Photosynthate in Microbial Fuel Cell Coupled Constructed Wetland System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shentan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new technology that coupled constructed wetland (CW with microbial fuel cell (MFC (CW-MFC was developed to convert solar energy into electricity on the principles of photosynthetic MFC by utilizing root exudates of Ipomoea aquatica as part of fuel. The maximum power density of 12.42 mW m−2 produced from the CW-MFC planted with Ipomoea aquatica was 142% higher than that of 5.13 mW m−2 obtained from the unplanted CW-MFC. The maximum power output for the planted CW-MFC could be divided into two parts: the maximum power yield from in the water body was 66.05 KJ Kg−1  , and the maximum power transformation from plant photosynthesis was 2.31 GJ ha−1 year−1. The average COD removal efficiencies were 92.1% and 94.8% in the unplanted CW-MFC and planted CW-MFC, respectively; the average TN removal efficiencies amounted to 54.4% and 90.8% in the unplanted CW-MFC and planted CW-MFC. This research demonstrates that planting Ipomoea aquatica in the CW-MFC achieved a higher power density and nutrient removal of nitrogen simultaneously.

  13. Electricity Generation in Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) by Bacterium Isolated from Rice Paddy Field Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhirruddin, Fakhriah; Amid, Azura; Salim, Wan Wardatul Amani Wan; Suhaida Azmi, Azlin

    2018-03-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an alternative approach in generating renewable energy by utilising bacteria that will oxidize organic or inorganic substrates, producing electrons yielded as electrical energy. Different species of exoelectrogenic bacteria capable of generating significant amount of electricity in MFC has been identified, using various organic compounds for fuel. Soil sample taken from rice paddy field is proven to contain exoelectrogenic bacteria, thus electricity generation using mixed culture originally found in the soil, and pure culture isolated from the soil is studied. This research will isolate the exoelectrogenic bacterial species in the rice paddy field soil responsible for energy generation. Growth of bacteria isolated from the MFC is observed by measuring the optical density (OD), cell density weight (CDW) and viable cell count. Mixed bacterial species found in paddy field soil generates maximum power of 77.62 μW and 0.70 mA of current. In addition, the research also shows that the pure bacterium in rice paddy field soil can produce maximum power and current at 51.32 μW and 0.28 mA respectively.

  14. Microbial Fuel Cells using Mixed Cultures of Wastewater for Electricity Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zain, S.M; Roslani, N.S.; Hashim, R.; Anuar, N.; Suja, F.; Basi, N.E.A.; Anuar, N.; Daud, W.R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas and coal) are the main resources for generating electricity. However, they have been major contributors to environmental problems. One potential alternative to explore is the use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which generate electricity using microorganisms. MFCs uses catalytic reactions activated by microorganisms to convert energy preserved in the chemical bonds between organic molecules into electrical energy. MFC has the ability to generate electricity during the wastewater treatment process while simultaneously treating the pollutants. This study investigated the potential of using different types of mixed cultures (raw sewage, mixed liquor from the aeration tank and return waste activated sludge) from an activated sludge treatment plant in MFCs for electricity generation and pollutant removals (COD and total kjeldahl nitrogen, TKN). The MFC in this study was designed as a dual-chambered system, in which the chambers were separated by a Nafion TM membrane using a mixed culture of wastewater as a bio catalyst. The maximum power density generated using activated sludge was 9.053 mW/ cm 2 , with 26.8 % COD removal and 40 % TKN removal. It is demonstrated that MFC offers great potential to optimize power generation using mixed cultures of wastewater. (author)

  15. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... glands that produce tears and saliva are destroyed Wilson disease , an inherited disorder in which there is too much copper in the body's tissues Vitamin D deficiency Symptoms Symptoms of proximal renal tubular acidosis include any ...

  16. Electricity generation and microbial community structure of air-cathode microbial fuel cells powered with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and inoculated with different seeds

    KAUST Repository

    El-Chakhtoura, Joline

    2014-08-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), normally exceeding 60% of the waste stream in developing countries, could constitute a valuable source of feed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study tested the start-up of two sets of OFMSW-fed air-cathode MFCs inoculated with wastewater sludge or cattle manure. The maximum power density obtained was 123±41mWm-2 in the manure-seeded MFCs and 116±29mWm-2 in the wastewater-seeded MFCs. Coulombic efficiencies ranged between 24±5% (manure-seeded MFCs) and 23±2% (wastewater-seeded MFCs). Chemical oxygen demand removal was >86% in all the MFCs and carbohydrate removal >98%. Microbial community analysis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing demonstrated the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes (67%) on the anode suggesting the possible role of members of this phylum in electricity generation. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the microbial community structure in replicate MFCs converged regardless of the inoculum source. This study demonstrates efficient electricity production coupled with organic treatment in OFMSW-fueled MFCs inoculated with manure or wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of microbial triglyceride oil purification requirements for the CelTherm process: an efficient biochemical pathway to renewable fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Michael; Seames, Wayne; Kubatova, Alena; Menon, Suresh; Alisala, Kashinatham; Hash, Sara

    2014-10-01

    CelTherm is a biochemical process to produce renewable fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. The present study's objective was to determine the level of treatment/purity of the microbial triacylglyceride oil (TAG) necessary to facilitate fuel production. After a unique microbe aerobically synthesizes TAG from biomass-derived sugars, the microbes were harvested and dried then crude TAG was chemically extracted from the residual biomass. Some TAGs were further purified to hydrotreating process requirements. Both grades were then noncatalytically cracked into a petroleum-like intermediate characterized by gas chromatography. Experiments were repeated using refined soybean oil for comparison to previous studies. The products from crude microbial TAG cracking were then further refined into a jet fuel product. Fuel tests indicate that this jet fuel corresponds to specifications for JP-8 military turbine fuel. It was thus concluded that the crude microbial TAG is a suitable feedstock with no further purification required, demonstrating CelTherm's commercial potential.

  18. Suitability of granular carbon as an anode material for sediment microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, Jan B.A.; Blondeel, Evelyne; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Faculty of Bioscience Engineering; Tennison, Steve R. [Mast Carbon International Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Sediment microbial fuel cells (S-MFCs) are bio-electrochemical devices that are able to oxidize organic matter directly into harvestable electrical power. The flux of organic matter into the sediment is rather low; therefore, other researchers have introduced plants for a continuous supply of organic matter to the anode electrode. Until now only interconnected materials have been considered as anode materials in S-MFCs. Here, granular carbon materials were investigated for their suitability as an anode material in S-MFCs. Materials and methods: Laboratory microcosms with eight different electrode materials (granules, felts and cloths) were examined with controlled organic matter addition under brackish conditions. Current density, organic matter removal and microbial community composition were monitored using 16S rRNA gene PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The main parameters investigated were the influence of the amount of electrode material applied to the sediment, the size of the granular material and the electrode configuration. Results and discussion: Felt material had an overall superior performance in terms of current density per amount of applied electrode material; felt and granular anode obtained similar current densities (approx. 50-60 mA m{sup -2}), but felt materials required 29 % less material to be applied. Yet, when growing plants, granular carbon is more suited because it is considered to restore, upon disturbance, the electrical connectivity within the anode compartment. Small granules (0.25-0.5 mm) gave the highest current density compared to larger granules (1-5 mm) of the same material. Granules with a rough surface had a better performance compared to smooth granules of the same size. The different granular materials lead to a selection of distinct microbial communities for each material, as shown by DGGE. Conclusions: Granular carbon is suitable as an anode material for S-MFCs. This opens the possibility

  19. Microbial activities in hydrocarbon-laden wastewaters: Impact on diesel fuel stability and the biocorrosion of carbon steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Renxing; Duncan, Kathleen E; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Davidova, Irene; Yakimov, Michail M; Suflita, Joseph M

    2017-08-20

    Anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation not only diminishes fuel quality, but also exacerbates the biocorrosion of the metallic infrastructure. While successional events in marine microbial ecosystems impacted by petroleum are well documented, far less is known about the response of communities chronically exposed to hydrocarbons. Shipboard oily wastewater was used to assess the biotransformation of different diesel fuels and their propensity to impact carbon steel corrosion. When amended with sulfate and an F76 military diesel fuel, the sulfate removal rate in the assay mixtures was elevated (26.8μM/d) relative to incubations receiving a hydroprocessed biofuel (16.1μM/d) or a fuel-unamended control (17.8μM/d). Microbial community analysis revealed the predominance of Anaerolineae and Deltaproteobacteria in F76-amended incubations, in contrast to the Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria in the original wastewater. The dominant Smithella-like sequences suggested the potential for syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism. The general corrosion rate was relatively low (0.83 - 1.29±0.12mpy) and independent of the particular fuel, but pitting corrosion was more pronounced in F76-amended incubations. Desulfovibrionaceae constituted 50-77% of the sessile organisms on carbon steel coupons. Thus, chronically exposed microflora in oily wastewater were differentially acclimated to the syntrophic metabolism of traditional hydrocarbons but tended to resist isoalkane-laden biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbial development in distillers wet grains produced during fuel ethanol production from corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, R Michael; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2007-09-01

    Distillers grains are coproduced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG) over a 9 day period following their production at an industrial fuel ethanol plant. Freshly produced DWG had a pH of about 4.4, a moisture content of about 53.5% (wet mass basis), and 4 x 10(5) total yeast cells/g dry mass, of which about 0.1% were viable. Total bacterial cells were initially below detection limits (ca. 10(6) cells/g dry mass) and then were estimated to be approximately 5 x 10(7) cells/g dry mass during the first 4 days following production. Culturable aerobic heterotrophic organisms (fungi plus bacteria) ranged between 10(4) and 10(5) CFU/g dry mass during the initial 4 day period, and lactic acid bacteria increased from 36 to 10(3) CFU/g dry mass over this same period. At 9 days, total viable bacteria and yeasts and (or) molds topped 10(8) CFU/g dry mass and lactic acid bacteria approached 10(6) CFU/g dry mass. Community phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated a stable microbial community over the first 4 days of storage. Thirteen morphologically distinct isolates were recovered, of which 10 were yeasts and molds from 6 different genera, 2 were strains of the lactic-acid-producing Pediococcus pentosaceus and only one was an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Micrococcus luteus. The microbiology of DWG is fundamental to the assessment of spoilage, deleterious effects (e.g., toxins), or beneficial effects (e.g., probiotics) in its use as feed or in alternative applications.

  1. Exploring optimal supplement strategy of medicinal herbs and tea extracts for bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Liao, Jia-Hui; Hsu, An-Wei; Tsai, Po-Wei; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan

    2018-05-01

    This first-attempt study used extracts of appropriate antioxidant abundant Camellia and non-Camellia tea and medicinal herbs as model ESs to stably intensify bioelectricity generation performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). As electron shuttles (ESs) could stimulate electron transport phenomena by significant reduction of electron transfer resistance, the efficiency of power generation for energy extraction in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) could be appreciably augmented. Using environmentally friendly natural bioresource as green bioresource of ESs is the most promising to sustainable practicability. As comparison of power-density profiles indicated, supplement of Camellia tea extracts would be the most appropriate, then followed non-Camellia Chrysanthemum tea and medicinal herbs. Antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents and power stimulating activities were all electrochemically associated. In particular, the extract of unfermented Camellia tea (i.e., green tea) was the most promising ESs to augment bioenergy extraction compared to other refreshing medicinal herb extracts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Renal tubular acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fernando; Gil-Peña, Helena; Alvarez-Alvarez, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    To facilitate the understanding and knowledge of renal tubular acidosis by providing a summarized information on the known clinical and biochemical characteristics of this group of diseases, by updating the genetic and molecular bases of the primary forms renal tubular acidosis and by examining some issues regarding the diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) in the daily clinical practice. The manuscript presents recent findings on the potential of next-generation sequencing to disclose new pathogenic variants in patients with a clinical diagnosis of primary RTA and negative Sanger sequencing of known genes. The current review emphasizes the importance of measuring urinary ammonium for a correct clinical approach to the patients with metabolic acidosis and discusses the diagnosis of incomplete distal RTA. We briefly update the current information on RTA, put forward the need of additional studies in children to validate urinary indexes used in the diagnosis of RTA and offer a perspective on diagnostic genetic tests.

  3. Characterization of Electricity Generated by Soil in Microbial Fuel Cells and the Isolation of Soil Source Exoelectrogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Bin Jiang; Yun-Bin Jiang; Wen-Hui Zhong; Wen-Hui Zhong; Cheng Han; Cheng Han; Huan Deng; Huan Deng; Huan Deng

    2016-01-01

    Soil has been used to generate electrical power in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and exhibited several potential applications. This study aimed to reveal the effect of soil properties on the generated electricity and the diversity of soil source exoelectrogenic bacteria. Seven soil samples were collected across China and packed into air-cathode MFCs to generate electricity over a 270 d period. The Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in soil were enriched and sequenced by Illumina pyrosequencing. Culturab...

  4. Incredibly Versatile Microbial Fuel Cells Innovative Ideas at HES-SO Valais-Wallis for Solving Topical Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2016-01-01

    At HES-SO Valais-Wallis, Prof. Fabian Fischer is specialized in microbial fuel cells for novel applications that meet the challenge of producing renewable energies. He and his team possess a unique expertise in bioelectric energy vector generation, phosphate extraction (CHIMIA 2015, 69, 296) and the testing of antimicrobial surfaces. Let's take a look behind the scenes of the Institute of Life Technologies in Sion.

  5. Ammonia inhibition of electricity generation in single-chambered microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Shin, Hang-Sik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 335 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea); Kim, Hyun-Woo [Center for Environmental Biotechnology, The Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, P. O. Box 875701, Tempe, AZ 85287-5701 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Batch experiments are conducted at various concentrations of initial total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) with acetate as an electron donor to examine the effects of free ammonia (NH{sub 3}) inhibition on electricity production in single-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This research demonstrates that initial TAN concentrations of over 500 mg N L{sup -1} significantly inhibit electricity generation in MFCs. The maximum power density of 4240 mW m{sup -3} at 500 mg N L{sup -1} drastically decreases to 1700 mW m{sup -3} as the initial TAN increases up to 4000 mg N L{sup -1}. Nitrite and nitrate analysis confirms that nitrification after complete acetate removal consumes some TAN. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) are also inhibited by increasing the initial TAN concentrations. Another batch experiment verifies the strong inhibitory effect of TAN with only small differences between the half-maximum effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) for TAN (894 mg N L{sup -1} equivalent to 10 mg N L{sup -1} as NH{sub 3}) and optimum TAN conditions; it requires careful monitoring of the TAN for MFCs. In addition, abiotic control experiments reveal that granular activated carbon, which is used as an auxiliary anode material, adsorbs a significant amount of ammonia at each TAN concentration in batch MFCs. (author)

  6. Microbial Fuels Cell-Based Biosensor for Toxicity Detection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuoyu Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the unprecedented deterioration of environmental quality, rapid recognition of toxic compounds is paramount for performing in situ real-time monitoring. Although several analytical techniques based on electrochemistry or biosensors have been developed for the detection of toxic compounds, most of them are time-consuming, inaccurate, or cumbersome for practical applications. More recently, microbial fuel cell (MFC-based biosensors have drawn increasing interest due to their sustainability and cost-effectiveness, with applications ranging from the monitoring of anaerobic digestion process parameters (VFA to water quality detection (e.g., COD, BOD. When a MFC runs under correct conditions, the voltage generated is correlated with the amount of a given substrate. Based on this linear relationship, several studies have demonstrated that MFC-based biosensors could detect heavy metals such as copper, chromium, or zinc, as well as organic compounds, including p-nitrophenol (PNP, formaldehyde and levofloxacin. Both bacterial consortia and single strains can be used to develop MFC-based biosensors. Biosensors with single strains show several advantages over systems integrating bacterial consortia, such as selectivity and stability. One of the limitations of such sensors is that the detection range usually exceeds the actual pollution level. Therefore, improving their sensitivity is the most important for widespread application. Nonetheless, MFC-based biosensors represent a promising approach towards single pollutant detection.

  7. Mesh optimization for microbial fuel cell cathodes constructed around stainless steel mesh current collectors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2011-02-01

    Mesh current collectors made of stainless steel (SS) can be integrated into microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes constructed of a reactive carbon black and Pt catalyst mixture and a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) diffusion layer. It is shown here that the mesh properties of these cathodes can significantly affect performance. Cathodes made from the coarsest mesh (30-mesh) achieved the highest maximum power of 1616 ± 25 mW m-2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area; 47.1 ± 0.7 W m-3 based on liquid volume), while the finest mesh (120-mesh) had the lowest power density (599 ± 57 mW m-2). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that charge transfer and diffusion resistances decreased with increasing mesh opening size. In MFC tests, the cathode performance was primarily limited by reaction kinetics, and not mass transfer. Oxygen permeability increased with mesh opening size, accounting for the decreased diffusion resistance. At higher current densities, diffusion became a limiting factor, especially for fine mesh with low oxygen transfer coefficients. These results demonstrate the critical nature of the mesh size used for constructing MFC cathodes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production: A novel approach in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy, E-mail: saravana732@gmail.com [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai (China); MubarakAli, Davoodbasha [Microbial Genetic Engineering Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering, College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Songdo 406772, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, School of Lifesciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Kathiresan, Kandasamy [Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai 608 502, Tamil Nadu (India); Thajuddin, Nooruddin [Department of Microbiology, School of Lifesciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, Naiyf S. [Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Chen, Jie, E-mail: jiechen59@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Trichoderma sp., showed an abilities to synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs with an excellent stability. • AuNPs significantly enhanced the bioelectricity production by MFC of anaerobic fermentation as catalyst. • Maximum bioelectricity production was optimized and obtained the voltage of 432.80 mA using RSM. - Abstract: The present work aimed to use the biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cell (MFC) approach under anaerobic condition. Silver and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized using Trichoderma sp. Particle size and cystallinity were measured by X-ray diffraction revealed the crystalline structure with average size of 36.17 nm. Electron microscopic studies showed spherical shaped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and cubical shaped AuNPs with size ranges from 50 to 150 nm. The concentration of biogenic metallic nanoparticles as catalyst for enhanced bioelectricity generations and estimated by response surface methodology (RSM) and found at the greatest of 342.80 mA under optimized conditions are time interval, temperature, nanoparticles used as 63 h, 28 ± 2.0 °C, 22.54 mg l{sup −1} (AgNPs) and 25.62 mg l{sup −1} (AuNPs) in a batch reactor. AuNPs acted as an excellent catalyst to enhance the bioelectricity production. This novel technique could be used for eco-friendly, economically feasible and facile electricity production.

  9. Electro-osmotic-based catholyte production by Microbial Fuel Cells for carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Iwona; Greenman, John; Melhuish, Chris; Santoro, Carlo; Li, Baikun; Cristiani, Pierangela; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2015-12-01

    In Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs), the recovery of water can be achieved with the help of both active (electro-osmosis), and passive (osmosis) transport pathways of electrolyte through the semi-permeable selective separator. The electrical current-dependent transport, results in cations and electro-osmotically dragged water molecules reaching the cathode. The present study reports on the production of catholyte on the surface of the cathode, which was achieved as a direct result of electricity generation using MFCs fed with wastewater, and employing Pt-free carbon based cathode electrodes. The highest pH levels (>13) of produced liquid were achieved by the MFCs with the activated carbon cathodes producing the highest power (309 μW). Caustic catholyte formation is presented in the context of beneficial cathode flooding and transport mechanisms, in an attempt to understand the effects of active and passive diffusion. Active transport was dominant under closed circuit conditions and showed a linear correlation with power performance, whereas osmotic (passive) transport was governing the passive flux of liquid in open circuit conditions. Caustic catholyte was mineralised to a mixture of carbonate and bicarbonate salts (trona) thus demonstrating an active carbon capture mechanism as a result of the MFC energy-generating performance. Carbon capture would be valuable for establishing a carbon negative economy and environmental sustainability of the wastewater treatment process. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Electroactive and Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox Biofilms from Digestate in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Gino Di Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial Fuel cells (MFCs have been proposed for nutrient removal and energy recovery from different wastes. In this study the anaerobic digestate was used to feed H-type MFC reactors, one with a graphite anode preconditioned with Geobacter sulfurreducens and the other with an unconditioned graphite anode. The data demonstrate that the digestate acts as a carbon source, and even in the absence of anode preconditioning, electroactive bacteria colonise the anodic chamber, producing a maximum power density of 172.2 mW/m2. The carbon content was also reduced by up to 60%, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox bacteria, which were found in the anodic compartment of the reactors, contributed to nitrogen removal from the digestate. Overall, these results demonstrate that MFCs can be used to recover anammox bacteria from natural sources, and it may represent a promising bioremediation unit in anaerobic digestor plants for the simultaneous nitrogen removal and electricity generation using digestate as substrate.

  11. Energy extraction from a large-scale microbial fuel cell system treating municipal wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zheng; Wu, Liao; Zhang, Fei; He, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    Development of microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology must address the challenges associated with energy extraction from large-scale MFC systems consisting of multiple modules. Herein, energy extraction is investigated with a 200-L MFC system (effective volume of 100 L for this study) treating actual municipal wastewater. A commercially available energy harvesting device (BQ 25504) is used successfully to convert 0.8-2.4 V from the MFCs to 5 V for charging ultracapacitors and running a DC motor. Four different types of serial connection containing different numbers of MFC modules are examined for energy extraction and conversion efficiency. The connection containing three rows of the MFCs has exhibited the best performance with the highest power output of ∼114 mW and the conversion efficiency of ∼80%. The weak performance of one-row MFCs negatively affects the overall performance of the connected MFCs in terms of both energy production and conversion. Those results indicate that an MFC system with balanced performance among individual modules will be critical to energy extraction. Future work will focus on application of the extracted energy to support MFC operation.

  12. Capturing power at higher voltages from arrays of microbial fuel cells without voltage reversal

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2011-01-01

    Voltages produced by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) cannot be sustainably increased by linking them in series due to voltage reversal, which substantially reduces stack voltages. It was shown here that MFC voltages can be increased with continuous power production using an electronic circuit containing two sets of multiple capacitors that were alternately charged and discharged (every one second). Capacitors were charged in parallel by the MFCs, but linked in series while discharging to the circuit load (resistor). The parallel charging of the capacitors avoided voltage reversal, while discharging the capacitors in series produced up to 2.5 V with four capacitors. There were negligible energy losses in the circuit compared to 20-40% losses typically obtained with MFCs using DC-DC converters to increase voltage. Coulombic efficiencies were 67% when power was generated via four capacitors, compared to only 38% when individual MFCs were operated with a fixed resistance of 250 Ω. The maximum power produced using the capacitors was not adversely affected by variable performance of the MFCs, showing that power generation can be maintained even if individual MFCs perform differently. Longer capacitor charging and discharging cycles of up to 4 min maintained the average power but increased peak power by up to 2.6 times. These results show that capacitors can be used to easily obtain higher voltages from MFCs, allowing for more useful capture of energy from arrays of MFCs. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Characterization of wastewater treatment by two microbial fuel cells in continuous flow operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Keiichi; Watanabe, Tomohide; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    A two serially connected single-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was applied to the treatment of diluted molasses wastewater in a continuous operation mode. In addition, the effect of series and parallel connection between the anodes and the cathode on power generation was investigated experimentally. The two serially connected MFC process achieved 79.8% of chemical oxygen demand removal and 11.6% of Coulombic efficiency when the hydraulic retention time of the whole process was 26 h. The power densities were 0.54, 0.34 and 0.40 W m(-3) when electrodes were in individual connection, serial connection and parallel connection modes, respectively. A high open circuit voltage was obtained in the serial connection. Power density decreased at low organic loading rates (OLR) due to the shortage of organic matter. Power generation efficiency tended to decrease as a result of enhancement of methane fermentation at high OLRs. Therefore, high power density and efficiency can be achieved by using a suitable OLR range.

  14. Simultaneous electricity generation and sulfide removal via a dual chamber microbial fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniz Izadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs have recently been used to alter different sources of substrates to produce bioelectricity. MFCs can also be used for wastewater treatment and electricity generation simultaneously. Sulfur compounds such as sulfides commonly exist in wastewater and organic waste. In this study a dual chamber MFC was constructed for power production. Sulfide was used as the electron donor in the anaerobic anode compartment. A mixed culture of microorganisms was used as an active biocatalyst to convert the substrate into electricity. The obtained experimental results illustrated that the MFC can successfully alter sulfide to elementary sulfur while generating power. The initial concentration of sulfide in the anode compartment was 0.4 g l-1 and it was completely removed after 3 days of MFC operation. The influence of oxygen was examined in the cathode chamber and the cell voltage gradually increased during aeration, reaching 480 mV after 1200 s. Hexacyanoferrate was added to the cathodic solution in different concentrations and its effects were investigated. The maximum generated voltage, power and current density were 988.9145 mV, 346.746 mW.m-2, 1285.64 mA.m-2, respectively and they were obtained in the presence of 1.4 g l-1 of mediator.

  15. A Viable Electrode Material for Use in Microbial Fuel Cells for Tropical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Offei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrode materials are critical for microbial fuel cells (MFC since they influence the construction and operational costs. This study introduces a simple and efficient electrode material in the form of palm kernel shell activated carbon (AC obtained in tropical regions. The novel introduction of this material is also targeted at introducing an inexpensive and durable electrode material, which can be produced in rural communities to improve the viability of MFCs. The maximum voltage and power density obtained (under 1000 Ω load using an H-shaped MFC with AC as both anode and cathode electrode material was 0.66 V and 1.74 W/m3, respectively. The power generated by AC was as high as 86% of the value obtained with the extensively used carbon paper. Scanning electron microscopy and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE analysis of AC anode biofilms confirmed that electrogenic bacteria were present on the electrode surface for substrate oxidation and the formation of nanowires.

  16. A novel low cost polyvinyl alcohol-Nafion-borosilicate membrane separator for microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, B.R. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Noori, Md.T. [Department of Agriculture and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Ghangrekar, M.M., E-mail: ghangrekar@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2016-10-01

    Composite membranes were developed from PVA-borosilicate (MP) and PVA-Nafion-borosilicate (MPN) for application in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The membranes were characterized in terms of water uptake, PBS uptake, oxygen diffusion and proton conductivity. Proton conductivity for MPN (0.07 Scm{sup −1}) was found to be higher as compared to that of MP (0.03 Scm{sup −1}). Oxygen diffusion coefficient for MPN was 1.47 fold lower than that for MP. As a result, MFC with PVA-Nafion-borosilicate membrane exhibited maximum power density of 6.8 Wm{sup −3}, which was 151% higher than the power produced by MFC having PVA-borosilicate membrane and it was comparable with MFC using Nafion 117 (7.1 Wm{sup −3}) membrane separator. This study demonstrates that borosilicate glass membrane incorporated with PVA-Nafion matrix can be a suitable alternative to costly polymeric membrane to increase power output of MFC. Using such membranes MFC can be fabricated at around 11 fold reduced cost as compared to Nafion 117. - Highlights: • Novel membranes using PVA and borosilicate composite were fabricated. • Proton diffusion for MPN was comparable with Nafion117. • MFC-PN produced power density comparable to MFC with Nafion 117 membrane. • MPN was fabricated at almost 11 times reduced cost than Nafion 117 membranes.

  17. Demonstration of the SeptiStrand benthic microbial fuel cell powering a magnetometer for ship detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Thode, Y. Meriah; Hsu, Lewis; Anderson, Greg; Babauta, Jerome; Fransham, Roy; Obraztsova, Anna; Tukeman, Gabriel; Chadwick, D. Bart

    2017-07-01

    The Navy has a need for monitoring conditions and gathering information in marine environments. Sensors can monitor and report environmental parameters and potential activities such as animal movements, ships, or personnel. However, there has to be a means to power these sensors. One promising enabling technology that has been shown to provide long-term power production in underwater environments is the benthic microbial fuel cells (BMFC). BMFCs are devices that generate energy by coupling bioanodes and biocathodes through an external energy harvester. Recent studies have demonstrated success for usage of BMFCs in powering small instruments and other devices on the seafloor over limited periods of time. In this effort, a seven-stranded BMFC linear array of 30 m was designed to power a seafloor magnetometer to detect passing ship movements through Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The BMFC system was connected to a flyback energy harvesting circuit that charged the battery powering the magnetometer. The deployment was demonstrated the BMFC supplied power to the battery for approximately 38 days. This is the first large-scale demonstration system for usage of the SeptiStrand BMFC technology to power a relevant sensor.

  18. Electrosorption driven by microbial fuel cells to remove phenol without external power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zhou, Minghua; Zhao, Yingying; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Youshuang

    2013-12-01

    This work studied the operating parameters (pH, electrolyte concentration, initial phenol concentration, MFCs connection numbers and mode), adsorption isotherms and kinetics of a novel electrosorption driven by microbial fuel cells (MFC-Sorption) to remove phenol without external electric grid energy supply. It proved that high electrolyte concentration and low solution pH promoted the performance of phenol removal. 3 MFCs connections in series achieved a adsorption capacity of 1.76 mmol/g, which was much higher than that in parallel connection (1.46 mmol/g). Well fitted with Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity by MFC-Sorption and electrosorption was observed 48% and 65% higher than that by conventional adsorption. The phenol removal by MFC-Sorption was supposed to be more suitable for a pseudo-second-order kinetics, and with the increase of initial phenol concentration from 20 mg/L to 300 mg/L, the initial adsorption rate increased 26.99-fold. It concluded that the MFC-Sorption system could cost-effectively remove pollutant of phenol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A microbial fuel cell as power supply for implantable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yufeng; Yu, Chaoling; Liu, Hong

    2010-05-15

    This study seeks a new way to provide lasting and secure power for implantable medical devices (IMDs) using a microbial fuel cell (MFC) which was proposed to be placed in human large intestine and could utilize intestinal contents and microorganisms to generate electricity. Based on the anatomic structure and inner environmental conditions of large intestine, transverse colon was chosen to be the appropriate location for the implantation of MFC. The performance of the MFC which simulated the environmental features of transverse colon by controlling dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH and was inoculated with simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was investigated. Stable power generation of MFC was obtained after two months operation with open circuit voltage (OCV) of 552.2 mV, maximum power density of 73.3 mW/m(2), and average voltage output of 308 mV (with external resistance of 500 Omega). Moreover, the changes of environmental conditions in the chambers of MFC did not have a significant impact on human body based on the analysis of pH and DO values. Further studies on internal resistance and power density showed that the MFC could generate power of 7-10 mW according to the size of intestinal surface area, which was enough for IMDs. These results suggested that MFCs located in large intestine could be a promising power source for IMDs. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of flavin electron shuttles in microbial fuel cells current production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences; Newcastle Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials; Head, Ian M.; Curtis, Thomas P. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences; Scott, Keith [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials; Lloyd, Jonathan R.; Canstein, Harald von [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences

    2010-02-15

    The effect of electron shuttles on electron transfer to microbial fuel cell (MFC) anodes was studied in systems where direct contact with the anode was precluded. MFCs were inoculated with Shewanella cells, and flavins used as the electron shuttling compound. In MFCs with no added electron shuttles, flavin concentrations monitored in the MFCs' bulk liquid increased continuously with FMN as the predominant flavin. The maximum concentrations were 0.6 {mu}M for flavin mononucleotide and 0.2 {mu}M for riboflavin. In MFCs with added flavins, micro-molar concentrations were shown to increase current and power output. The peak current was at least four times higher in MFCs with high concentrations of flavins (4.5-5.5 {mu}M) than in MFCs with low concentrations (0.2-0.6 {mu}M). Although high power outputs (around 150 mW/m{sup 2}) were achieved in MFCs with high concentrations of flavins, a Clostridium-like bacterium along with other reactor limitations affected overall coulombic efficiencies (CE) obtained, achieving a maximum CE of 13%. Electron shuttle compounds (flavins) permitted bacteria to utilise a remote electron acceptor (anode) that was not accessible to the cells allowing current production until the electron donor (lactate) was consumed. (orig.)

  1. Controlling methanogenesis and improving power production of microbial fuel cell by lauric acid dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P P; Noori, Md T; Ghangrekar, M M

    2014-01-01

    Methanogens compete with anodophiles for substrate and thus reduce the power generation and coulombic efficiency (CE) of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). Performance of a baked clayware membrane MFC inoculated with mixed anaerobic sludge pretreated with lauric acid was investigated in order to enhance power recovery by controlling methanogenesis. In the presence of lauric acid pretreated inoculum, MFC produced maximum volumetric power density of 4.8 W/m(3) and the CE increased from 3.6% (for untreated inoculum) to 11.6%. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electro-kinetic evaluation indicated a higher bio-catalytic activity at the anode of the MFC inoculated with lauric acid pretreated sludge. With the lauric acid pretreated inoculum a higher catalytic current of 114 mA, exchange current density of 40.78 mA/m(2) and lower charge transfer resistance of 0.00016 Ωm(2) were observed during oxidation at the anode. Addition of lauric acid significantly achieved suppression of methanogenesis and enhanced the sustainable power generation of MFC by 3.9 times as compared with control MFC inoculated with sludge without any pretreatment.

  2. Bio-analytical applications of microbial fuel cell-based biosensors for onsite water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMekawy, A; Hegab, H M; Pant, D; Saint, C P

    2018-01-01

    Globally, sustainable provision of high-quality safe water is a major challenge of the 21st century. Various chemical and biological monitoring analytics are presently utilized to guarantee the availability of high-quality water. However, these techniques still face some challenges including high costs, complex design and onsite and online limitations. The recent technology of using microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensors holds outstanding potential for the rapid and real-time monitoring of water source quality. MFCs have the advantages of simplicity in design and efficiency for onsite sensing. Even though some sensing applications of MFCs were previously studied, e.g. biochemical oxygen demand sensor, recently numerous research groups around the world have presented new practical applications of this technique, which combine multidisciplinary scientific knowledge in materials science, microbiology and electrochemistry fields. This review presents the most updated research on the utilization of MFCs as potential biosensors for monitoring water quality and considers the range of potentially toxic analytes that have so far been detected using this methodology. The advantages of MFCs over established technology are also considered as well as future work required to establish their routine use. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Electrochemical analysis of separators used in single-chamber, air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Bin

    2013-02-01

    Polarization, solution-separator, charge transfer, and diffusion resistances of clean and used separator electrode assemblies were examined in microbial fuel cells using current-voltage curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Current-voltage curves showed the total resistance was reduced at low cathode potentials. EIS results revealed that at a set cathode potential of 0.3 V diffusion resistance was predominant, and it substantially increased when adding separators. However, at a lower cathode potential of 0.1 V all resistances showed only slight differences with and without separators. Used separator electrode assemblies with biofilms had increased charge transfer and diffusion resistances (0.1 V) when one separator was used; however, charge transfer resistance increased, and diffusion resistance did not appreciably change with four separators. Adding a plastic mesh to compress the separators improved maximum power densities. These results show the importance of pressing separators against the cathode, and the adverse impacts of biofilm formation on electrochemical performance. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

  4. A novel biosensor for p-nitrophenol based on an aerobic anode microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengjun; Niu, Yongyan; Zhao, Shuai; Khan, Aman; Ling, Zhenmin; Chen, Yong; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-11-15

    P-nitrophenol is one of the most common contaminants in chemical industrial wastewater, and in situ real-time monitoring of PNP cannot be achieved by conventional analytical techniques. Here, a two-chamber microbial fuel cell with an aerobic anode chamber was tested as a biosensor for in situ real-time monitoring of PNP. Pseudomonas monteilii LZU-3, which was used as the biological recognition element, can form a biofilm on the anode electrode using PNP as a sole substrate. The optimal operation parameters of the biosensor were as follows: external resistance 1000Ω, pH 7.8, temperature 30°C, and maximum PNP concentration 50mgL(-1). Under these conditions, the maximum voltages showed a linear relationship with PNP concentrations ranging from 15±5 to 44±4.5mgL(-1). Furthermore, we developed a novel portable device for in situ real-time monitoring of PNP. When the device was applied to measure PNP in wastewater containing various additional aromatic compounds and metal ions, the performance of the biosensor was not affected and the correlation between the maximum voltages and the PNP concentrations ranging from 9±4mgL(-1) to 36 ± 5mgL(-1) was conserved. The results demonstrated that the MFC biosensor provides a rapid and cost-efficient analytical method for real-time monitoring of toxic and recalcitrant pollutants in environmental samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Macroscale porous carbonized polydopamine-modified cotton textile for application as electrode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lizhen; Zhao, Shaofei; He, Miao

    2018-02-01

    The anode material is a crucial factor that significantly affects the cost and performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, a novel macroscale porous, biocompatible, highly conductive and low cost electrode, carbonized polydopamine-modified cotton textile (NC@CCT), is fabricated by using normal cheap waste cotton textiles as raw material via a simple in situ polymerization and carbonization treatment as anode of MFCs. The physical and chemical characterizations show that the macroscale porous and biocompatible NC@CCT electrode is coated by nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles and offers a large specific surface area (888.67 m2 g-1) for bacterial cells growth, accordingly greatly increases the loading amount of bacterial cells and facilitates extracellular electron transfer (EET). As a result, the MFC equipped with the NC@CCT anode achieves a maximum power density of 931 ± 61 mW m-2, which is 80.5% higher than that of commercial carbon felt (516 ± 27 mW m-2) anode. Moreover, making full use of the normal cheap waste cotton textiles can greatly reduce the cost of MFCs and the environmental pollution problem.

  6. Comparison in performance of sediment microbial fuel cells according to depth of embedded anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Junyeong; Kim, Bongkyu; Nam, Jonghyeon; Ng, How Yong; Chang, In Seop

    2013-01-01

    Five rigid graphite plates were embedded in evenly divided sections of sediment, ranging from 2 cm (A1) to 10 cm (A5) below the top sediment layer. The maximum power and current of the MFCs increased in depth order; however, despite the increase in the internal resistance, the power and current density of the A5 MFC were 2.2 and 3.5 times higher, respectively, than those of the A1 MFC. In addition, the anode open circuit potentials (OCPs) of the sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) became more negative with sediment depth. Based on these results, it could be then concluded that as the anode-embedding depth increases, that the anode environment is thermodynamically and kinetically favorable to anodophiles or electrophiles. Therefore, the anode-embedding depth should be considered an important parameter that determines the performance of SMFCs, and we posit that the anode potential could be one indicator for selecting the anode-embedding depth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxygen reduction kinetics on graphite cathodes in sediment microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renslow, Ryan; Donovan, Conrad; Shim, Matthew; Babauta, Jerome; Nannapaneni, Srilekha; Schenk, James; Beyenal, Haluk

    2011-12-28

    Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) have been used as renewable power sources for sensors in fresh and ocean waters. Organic compounds at the anode drive anodic reactions, while oxygen drives cathodic reactions. An understanding of oxygen reduction kinetics and the factors that determine graphite cathode performance is needed to predict cathodic current and potential losses, and eventually to estimate the power production of SMFCs. Our goals were to (1) experimentally quantify the dependence of oxygen reduction kinetics on temperature, electrode potential, and dissolved oxygen concentration for the graphite cathodes of SMFCs and (2) develop a mechanistic model. To accomplish this, we monitored current on polarized cathodes in river and ocean SMFCs. We found that (1) after oxygen reduction is initiated, the current density is linearly dependent on polarization potential for both SMFC types; (2) current density magnitude increases linearly with temperature in river SMFCs but remains constant with temperature in ocean SMFCs; (3) the standard heterogeneous rate constant controls the current density temperature dependence; (4) river and ocean SMFC graphite cathodes have large potential losses, estimated by the model to be 470 mV and 614 mV, respectively; and (5) the electrochemical potential available at the cathode is the primary factor controlling reduction kinetic rates. The mechanistic model based on thermodynamic and electrochemical principles successfully fit and predicted the data. The data, experimental system, and model can be used in future studies to guide SMFC design and deployment, assess SMFC current production, test cathode material performance, and predict cathode contamination.

  8. A hybrid microbial fuel cell membrane bioreactor with a conductive ultrafiltration membrane biocathode for wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2013-10-15

    A new hybrid, air-biocathode microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system was developed to achieve simultaneous wastewater treatment and ultrafiltration to produce water for direct reclamation. The combined advantages of this system were achieved by using an electrically conductive ultrafiltration membrane as both the cathode and the membrane for wastewater filtration. The MFC-MBR used an air-biocathode, and it was shown to have good performance relative to an otherwise identical cathode containing a platinum catalyst. With 0.1 mm prefiltered domestic wastewater as the feed, the maximum power density was 0.38 W/m2 (6.8 W/m3) with the biocathode, compared to 0.82 W/m2 (14.5 W/m3) using the platinum cathode. The permeate quality from the biocathode reactor was comparable to that of a conventional MBR, with removals of 97% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand, 97% NH3-N, and 91% of total bacteria (based on flow cytometry). The permeate turbidity was <0.1 nephelometric turbidity units. These results show that a biocathode MFC-MBR system can achieve high levels of wastewater treatment with a low energy input due to the lack of a need for wastewater aeration. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. A microbial fuel cell–membrane bioreactor integrated system for cost-effective wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yong-Peng; Liu, Xian-Wei; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Feng; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Raymond J.; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An MFC–MBR integrated system for wastewater treatment and electricity generation. ► Stable electricity generation during 1000-h continuous operation. ► Low-cost electrode, separator and filter materials were adopted. -- Abstract: Microbial fuel cell (MFC) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) are both promising technologies for wastewater treatment, but both with limitations. In this study, a novel MFC–MBR integrated system, which combines the advantages of the individual systems, was proposed for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery. The system favored a better utilization of the oxygen in the aeration tank of MBR by the MFC biocathode, and enabled a high effluent quality. Continuous and stable electricity generation, with the average current of 1.9 ± 0.4 mA, was achieved over a long period of about 40 days. The maximum power density reached 6.0 W m −3 . Moreover, low-cost materials were used for the reactor construction. This integrated system shows great promise for practical wastewater treatment application.

  10. Cathode Assessment for Maximizing Current Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells Utilizing Bioethanol Effluent as Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Guotao; Thygesen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    using bioethanol effluent, containing 20.5 g/L xylose, 1.8 g/L arabinose and 2.5 g/L propionic acid. In each set-up the anode and cathode had an electrode surface area of 88 cm(2), which was used for calculation of the current density. Electricity generation was evaluated by quantifying current......Implementation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity production requires effective current generation from waste products via robust cathode reduction. Three cathode types using dissolved oxygen cathodes (DOCs), ferricyanide cathodes (FeCs) and air cathodes (AiCs) were therefore assessed...... responses to substrate loading rates and external resistance. At the lowest external resistance of 27 and highest substrate loading rate of 2 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) per Lday, FeC-MFC generated highest average current density (1630 mA/m(2)) followed by AiC-MFC (802 mA/m(2)) and DOC-MFC (184 mA/m(2...

  11. Biological capacitance studies of anodes in microbial fuel cells using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhihao; Girguis, Peter; Liang, Peng; Shi, Haifeng; Huang, Guangtuan; Cai, Lankun; Zhang, Lehua

    2015-07-01

    It is known that cell potential increases while anode resistance decreases during the start-up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Biological capacitance, defined as the apparent capacitance attributed to biological activity including biofilm production, plays a role in this phenomenon. In this research, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to study anode capacitance and resistance during the start-up period of MFCs so that the role of biological capacitance was revealed in electricity generation by MFCs. It was observed that the anode capacitance ranged from 3.29 to 120 mF which increased by 16.8% to 18-20 times over 10-12 days. Notably, lowering the temperature and arresting biological activity via fixation by 4% para formaldehyde resulted in the decrease of biological capacitance by 16.9 and 62.6%, indicating a negative correlation between anode capacitance and anode resistance of MFCs. Thus, biological capacitance of anode should play an important role in power generation by MFCs. We suggest that MFCs are not only biological reactors and/or electrochemical cells, but also biological capacitors, extending the vision on mechanism exploration of electron transfer, reactor structure design and electrode materials development of MFCs.

  12. Analytical applications of microbial fuel cells. Part I: Biochemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Sacco, Natalia J; Bonetto, Maria C; Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Cortón, Eduardo

    2015-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bio-electrochemical devices, where usually the anode (but sometimes the cathode, or both) contains microorganisms able to generate and sustain an electrochemical gradient which is used typically to generate electrical power. In the more studied set-up, the anode contains heterotrophic bacteria in anaerobic conditions, capable to oxidize organic molecules releasing protons and electrons, as well as other by-products. Released protons could reach the cathode (through a membrane or not) whereas electrons travel across an external circuit originating an easily measurable direct current flow. MFCs have been proposed fundamentally as electric power producing devices or more recently as hydrogen producing devices. Here we will review the still incipient development of analytical uses of MFCs or related devices or set-ups, in the light of a non-restrictive MFC definition, as promising tools to asset water quality or other measurable parameters. An introduction to biological based analytical methods, including bioassays and biosensors, as well as MFCs design and operating principles, will also be included. Besides, the use of MFCs as biochemical oxygen demand sensors (perhaps the main analytical application of MFCs) is discussed. In a companion review (Part 2), other new analytical applications are reviewed used for toxicity sensors, metabolic sensors, life detectors, and other proposed applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electricity Generation and Wastewater Treatment of Oil Refinery in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Pseudomonas putida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Dip; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Tseng, Min-Jen; Nimje, Vanita Roshan; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Young-Fo; Yang, Tsui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a novel platform for treating wastewater and at the same time generating electricity. Using Pseudomonas putida (BCRC 1059), a wild-type bacterium, we demonstrated that the refinery wastewater could be treated and also generate electric current in an air-cathode chamber over four-batch cycles for 63 cumulative days. Our study indicated that the oil refinery wastewater containing 2213 mg/L (ppm) chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be used as a substrate for electricity generation in the reactor of the MFC. A maximum voltage of 355 mV was obtained with the highest power density of 0.005 mW/cm2 in the third cycle with a maximum current density of 0.015 mA/cm2 in regard to the external resistor of 1000 Ω. A maximum coulombic efficiency of 6 × 10−2% was obtained in the fourth cycle. The removal efficiency of the COD reached 30% as a function of time. Electron transfer mechanism was studied using cyclic voltammetry, which indicated the presence of a soluble electron shuttle in the reactor. Our study demonstrated that oil refinery wastewater could be used as a substrate for electricity generation. PMID:25247576

  14. Electricity generation by Pyrococcus furiosus in microbial fuel cells operated at 90°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Narendran; Wu, Chang-Hao; Adams, Michael W W; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P

    2017-07-01

    Hyperthermophiles are microorganisms that thrive in extremely hot environments with temperatures near and even above 100°C. They are the most deeply rooted microorganisms on phylogenetic trees suggesting they may have evolved to survive in the early hostile earth. The simple respiratory systems of some of these hyperthermophiles make them potential candidates to develop microbial fuel cells (MFC) that can generate power at temperatures approaching the boiling point. We explored extracellular electron transfer in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf) by studying its ability to generate electricity in a two-chamber MFC. Pf growing in defined medium functioned as an anolyte in a MFC operated at 90°C, generating a maximum current density of 2 A m -2 and a peak power density of 225 mW m -2 without the addition of any external redox mediator. Electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the anode with the attached Pf biofilm demonstrated bio-electrochemical behavior that led to electricity generation in the MFC via direct electron transfer. This proof of concept study reveals for the first time that a hyperthermophile such as Pf can generate electricity in MFC at extreme temperatures. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1419-1427. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Urea removal coupled with enhanced electricity generation in single-chambered microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luguang; Xie, Beizhen; Gao, Ningshengjie; Min, Booki; Liu, Hong

    2017-09-01

    High concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) in the form of urea is known to inhibit the performance of many biological wastewater treatment processes. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have great potential for TAN removal due to its unique oxic/anoxic environment. In this study, we demonstrated that increased urea (TAN) concentration up to 3940 mg/L did not inhibit power output of single-chambered MFCs, but enhanced power generation by 67% and improved coulombic efficiency by 78% compared to those obtained at 80 mg/L of TAN. Over 80% of nitrogen removal was achieved at TAN concentration of 2630 mg/L. The increased nitrogen removal coupled with significantly enhanced coulombic efficiency, which was observed for the first time, indicates the possibility of a new electricity generation mechanism in MFCs: direct oxidation of ammonia for power generation. This study also demonstrates the great potential of using one MFC reactor to achieve simultaneous electricity generation and urea removal from wastewater.

  16. Enhanced performance of microbial fuel cell with a bacteria/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Jia; Qu, Youpeng; Zhang, Jian; Zhong, Yingjuan; Feng, Yujie

    2017-09-01

    The biofilm on the anode of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a vital component in system, and its formation and characteristic determines the performance of the system. In this study, a bacteria/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid biofilm is fabricated by effectively inserting the MWCNTs into the anode biofilm via an adsorption-filtration method. This hybrid biofilm has been demonstrated to be an efficient structure for improving an anode biofilm performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that the hybrid biofilm takes advantage of the conductivity and structure of MWCNT to enhance the electron transfer and substrate diffusion of the biofilm. With this hybrid biofilm, the current density, power density and coulombic efficiency are increased by 46.2%, 58.8% and 84.6%, respectively, relative to naturally grown biofilm. Furthermore, the start-up time is reduced by 53.8% compared with naturally grown biofilm. The perturbation test demonstrates that this type of hybrid biofilm exhibits strong adsorption ability and enhances the biofilm's resistance to a sudden change of substrate concentration. The superior performance of the hybrid biofilm with MWCNT ;nanowire; matrix compared with naturally grown biofilm demonstrates its great potential for boosting the performance of MFCs.

  17. Use of Novel Reinforced Cation Exchange Membranes for Microbial Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaraj, Sathish-Kumar; Romano, Sergio Mollá; Moreno, Vicente Compañ; Poggi-Varaldo, H.M.; Solorza-Feria, O.

    2015-01-01

    This work has been focused on the synthesis and characterization of different blended membranes SPEEK-35PVA (Water), SPEEK-35PVA (DMAc) prepared by casting and nanofiber-reinforced proton exchange membranes Nafion-PVA-15, Nafion-PVA-23 and SPEEK/PVA-PVB. The two first reinforced membranes were made up of Nafion® polymer deposited between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers. The last composite membrane is considered because the PVA is a hydrophilic polymer which forms homogeneous blends with SPEEK suitable to obtain high proton conductivity, while the hydrophobic PVB can produce blends in a phase separation morphology in which very low water uptake can be found. The synthesized membranes showed an outstanding stability, high proton conductivity, and enhanced mechanical and barrier properties. The membranes were characterized in single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs) using electrochemically enriched high sodic saline hybrid H-inocula (Geobacter metallireducen, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus, and Marinobacter adhaerens) as biocatalyst. The best performance was obtained with Nafion-PVA-15 membrane, which achieved a maximum power density of 1053 mW/m 3 at a cell voltage of 340 mV and displayed the lowest total internal resistance (Rint ≈ 522 Ω). This result is in agreement with the low oxygen permeability and the moderate conductivity found in this kind of membranes. These results are encouraging towards obtaining high concentrated sodic saline model wastewater exploiting MFCs

  18. Changes in Carbon Electrode Morphology Affect Microbial Fuel Cell Performance with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. P. Sanchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of biofilm-electrodes is crucial for microbial fuel cell current production because optimal performance is often associated with thick biofilms. However, the influence of the electrode structure and morphology on biofilm formation is only beginning to be investigated. This study provides insight on how changing the electrode morphology affects current production of a pure culture of anode-respiring bacteria. Specifically, an analysis of the effects of carbon fiber electrodes with drastically different morphologies on biofilm formation and anode respiration by a pure culture (Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were examined. Results showed that carbon nanofiber mats had ~10 fold higher current than plain carbon microfiber paper and that the increase was not due to an increase in electrode surface area, conductivity, or the size of the constituent material. Cyclic voltammograms reveal that electron transfer from the carbon nanofiber mats was biofilm-based suggesting that decreasing the diameter of the constituent carbon material from a few microns to a few hundred nanometers is beneficial for electricity production solely because the electrode surface creates a more relevant mesh for biofilm formation by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

  19. Novel bufferless photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (PMFCs) for enhanced electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Tsan; Huang, Yan-Sian; Sangeetha, Thangavel; Chen, Yen-Ming; Chong, Wen-Tong; Ong, Hwai-Chyuan; Zhao, Feng; Yan, Wei-Mon

    2018-05-01

    Photosynthetic microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) are novel bioelectrochemical transducers that employ microalgae to generate oxygen, organic metabolites and electrons. Conventional PMFCs employ non-eco-friendly membranes, catalysts and phosphate buffer solution. Eliminating the membrane, buffer and catalyst can make the MFC a practical possibility. Therefore, single chambered (SPMFC) were constructed and operated at different recirculation flow rates (0, 40 and 240 ml/min) under bufferless conditions. Furthermore, maximum power density of 4.06 mW/m 2 , current density of 46.34 mA/m 2 and open circuit potential of 0.43 V and low internal resistance of 611.8 Ω were obtained at 40 ml/min. Based on the results it was decided that SPMFC was better for operation at 40 ml/min. Therefore, these findings provided progressive insights for future pilot and industrial scale studies of PMFCs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New insights in photosynthetic microbial fuel cell using anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiang; Ren, Yiwei; Liang, Peng; Wang, Xingzu

    2018-06-01

    Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (APB) pay a key role in biogeochemical cycles, and it can convert light energy to chemical energy by photosynthesis process. Photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (photo-MFC) is regarded as a promising energy-harvesting technology, which is also applied to environment treatment in recent years. The previous studies show that photo-MFC with APB have higher power putout than other bioelectrochemical systems. However, photo-MFC with APB is not reviewed due to some limited factors in the development process. In this review, photo-MFC with APB is treated according to its electron transfer pathways, the current understanding, APB strains, application, influence of substrates, and economic assessment. Meanwhile, knowledge of photosynthesis components and electron transfer pathways of APB is crucial for developing new energy and easing the serious energy crisis. Moreover, some new insights (the optimization of light source and self-sustaining bioelectricity generation) are proposed for the future explorations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A screen-printed paper microbial fuel cell biosensor for detection of toxic compounds in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouler, Jon; Cruz-Izquierdo, Álvaro; Rengaraj, Saravanan; Scott, Janet L; Di Lorenzo, Mirella

    2018-04-15

    Access to safe drinking water is a human right, crucial to combat inequalities, reduce poverty and allow sustainable development. In many areas of the world, however, this right is not guaranteed, in part because of the lack of easily deployable diagnostic tools. Low-cost and simple methods to test water supplies onsite can protect vulnerable communities from the impact of contaminants in drinking water. Ideally such devices would also be easy to dispose of so as to leave no trace, or have a detrimental effect on the environment. To this aim, we here report the first paper microbial fuel cell (pMFC) fabricated by screen-printing biodegradable carbon-based electrodes onto a single sheet of paper, and demonstrate its use as a shock sensor for bioactive compounds (e.g. formaldehyde) in water. We also show a simple route to enhance the sensor performance by folding back-to-back two pMFCs electrically connected in parallel. This promising proof of concept work can lead to a revolutionizing way of testing water at point of use, which is not only green, easy-to-operate and rapid, but is also affordable to all. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of expanded polystyrene as a separator in microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathuriya, Abhilasha Singh; Pant, Deepak

    2018-02-15

    Separators are considered as an important component in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to facilitate ion transport and to prevent electrode short circuiting. In the present study, expanded polystyrene (EPS) was evaluated for the first time as a separator in a single-chamber air cathode and dual chamber aqueous cathode MFCs. The characteristics and performance of EPS were analyzed and compared with other conventionally used separators used in MFCs and was found to be competitive. Initially, the EPS was less impermeable to protons, resulting in delayed process startup (17 days) and stabilization (57 days), but gradually exhibited improved and stable performance. In the air cathode MFC with the EPS as the separator and domestic wastewater as the substrate, power production was 391 mW/m 2 , while power output of the aqueous cathode MFC was 328 mW/m 2 . The characteristics and cost analysis of EPS indicate that it can be a potential candidate as a separator in scaled-up MFC applications.

  3. Synthesis of low cost organometallic-type catalysts for their application in microbial fuel cell technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrouki, A; Salar-García, M J; Ortiz-Martínez, V M; Guendouz, S; Ilikti, H; de Los Ríos, A P; Hernández-Fernández, F J; Kameche, M

    2018-03-05

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising technology that generates electricity from several biodegradable substrates and wastes. The main drawback of these devices is the need of using a catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode, which makes the process relatively expensive. In this work, two low cost materials are tested as catalysts in MFCs. A novel iron complex based on the ligand n-phenyledenparaethoxy aniline has been synthesized and its performance as catalyst in single chamber MFCs containing ionic liquids has been compared with a commercial inorganic material such as Raney nickel. The results show that both materials are suitable for bioenergy production and wastewater treatment in the systems. Raney nickel cathodes allow MFCs to reach a maximum power output of 160 mW.m -3 anode , while the iron complex offers lower values. Regarding the wastewater treatment capacity, MFCs working with Raney nickel-based cathodes reach higher values of chemical oxygen demand removal (76%) compared with the performance displayed by the cathodes based on Fe-complex (56%).

  4. Selection of electrogenic bacteria for microbial fuel cell in removing Victoria blue R from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Wu, Pei-Ssu; Tsao, Shuo-En; Huang, Yu-Shan; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2018-01-28

    This study was conducted to select electrogenic bacteria from wastewater sludge. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) during the decomposition process of organic pollutants. Five culturable bacteria strains - namely, Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium sp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, and Stenotrophomonas sp. - have a double potential in dye removal and electricity generation. We inoculated the mixed electrogenic bacteria at a specific ratio and treated them with a triphenylmethane dye, Victoria blue R (VBR), to evaluate their electricity generation ability for the artificial and real wastewater. The results of the VBR shock-loading experiment indicated that the inoculated MFC could adapt to shock loading in 1-2 days and exhibited high removal efficiency (95-100%) for 100-800 mg L -1 VBR with a power density of 8.62 ± 0.10 to 34.81 ± 0.25 mW m -2 . The selected electrogenic bacteria in the MFC could use VBR as only electron donor for power generation. The matrix effects of the real wastewater on VBR removal and electricity generation of MFC were insignificant. VBR degradation by the electrogenic bacteria involves a stepwise demethylation process to yield partially dealkylated VBR species. In addition, these results demonstrate the feasibility of inoculating culturable bacteria strains to develop an efficient MFC for purifying wastewater.

  5. Phasic availability of terminal electron acceptor on oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi Sravan, J; Butti, Sai Kishore; Verma, Anil; Venkata Mohan, S

    2017-10-01

    Oxygen-reduction reactions (ORR) plays a pivotal role in determining microbial fuel cells (MFC) performance. In this study, an attempt to determine the influence of the phasic availability of terminal electron acceptor (TEA) on ORR was made. Two MFCs operated with dissolved oxygen (MFC-DC) and air (MFC-SC) as TEA were constructed and analyzed in continuous mode under open and closed circuit conditions. The bio-electrochemical analysis showed a marked influence of dissolved oxygen resulting in a maximum power density with MFC-DC (769mW/m 2 ) compared to MFC-SC (684mW/m 2 ). The availability of O 2 in dissolved phase has lowered the activation losses during the MFC operation as a result of effective ORR. The cyclic voltammetry analysis revealed the TEA dependent biocatalyst activity of NADH and cytochrome complex which enabled electron transfer kinetics and improved substrate utilization. Finally, the study evidenced the critical role of TEA phasic availability to regulate the bio-electrogenic and substrate degradation potential in MFC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Graphene-Graphene Oxide Modified Anode on the Performance of Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Ren, Yueping; Li, Xiufen; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    The inferior hydrophilicity of graphene is an adverse factor to the performance of the graphene modified anodes (G anodes) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this paper, different amounts of hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) were doped into the modification layers to elevate the hydrophilicity of the G anodes so as to further improve their performance. Increasing the GO doped ratio from 0.15 mg·mg−1 to 0.2 mg·mg−1 and 0.25 mg·mg−1, the static water contact angle (θc) of the G-GO anodes decreased from 74.2 ± 0.52° to 64.6 ± 2.75° and 41.7 ± 3.69°, respectively. The G-GO0.2 anode with GO doped ratio of 0.2 mg·mg−1 exhibited the optimal performance and the maximum power density (Pmax) of the corresponding MFC was 1100.18 mW·m−2, 1.51 times higher than that of the MFC with the G anode. PMID:28335302

  7. Carbon filtration cathode in microbial fuel cell to enhance wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Kuichang; Liang, Shuai; Liang, Peng; Zhou, Xuechen; Sun, Dongya; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xia

    2015-06-01

    A homogeneous carbon membrane with multi-functions of microfiltration, electron conduction, and oxygen reduction catalysis was fabricated without using noble metals. The produced carbon membrane has a pore size of 553nm, a resistance of 6.0±0.4Ωcm(2)/cm, and a specific surface area of 32.2m(2)/g. After it was assembled in microbial fuel cell (MFC) as filtration air cathode, a power density of 581.5mW/m(2) and a current density of 1671.4mA/m(2) were achieved, comparable with previous Pt air cathode MFCs. The filtration MFC was continuously operated for 20days and excellent wastewater treatment performance was also achieved with removal efficiencies of TOC (93.6%), NH4(+)-N (97.2%), and total nitrogen (91.6%). In addition, the carbon membrane was much cheaper than traditional microfiltration membrane, suggesting a promising multi-functional material in wastewater treatment field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-Performance Carbon Aerogel Air Cathodes for Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; He, Weihua; Zhang, Rufan; Wang, Qiuying; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E; Fellinger, Tim-Patrick

    2016-10-06

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can generate electricity from the oxidation of organic substrates using anodic exoelectrogenic bacteria and have great potential for harvesting electric energy from wastewater. Improving oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance at a neutral pH is needed for efficient energy production. Here we show a nitrogen doped (≈4 wt%) ionothermal carbon aerogel (NDC) with a high surface area, large pore volume, and hierarchical porosity, with good electrocatalytic properties for ORR in MFCs. The MFCs using NDC air cathodes achieved a high maximum power density of 2300 mW m -2 , which was 1.7 times higher than the most commonly used Pt/C air cathodes and also higher than most state-of-the-art ORR catalyst air cathodes. Rotating disk electrode measurements verified the superior electrocatalytic activity of NDC with an efficient four-electron transfer pathway (n=3.9). These findings highlight NDC as a better-performing and cost-efficient catalyst compared with Pt/C, making it highly viable for MFC applications. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Gas Diffusion Electrodes Manufactured by Casting Evaluation as Air Cathodes for Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipam Srikanth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most intriguing renewable energy production methods being explored currently is electrical power generation by microbial fuel cells (MFCs. However, to make MFC technology economically feasible, cost efficient electrode manufacturing processes need to be proposed and demonstrated. In this context, VITO has developed an innovative electrode manufacturing process based on film casting and phase inversion. The screening and selection process of electrode compositions was done based on physicochemical properties of the active layer, which in turn maintained a close relation with their composition A dual hydrophilic-hydrophobic character in the active layer was achieved with values of εhydrophilic up to 10% while εTOTAL remained in the range 65 wt % to 75 wt %. Eventually, selected electrodes were tested as air cathodes for MFC in half cell and full cell modes. Reduction currents, up to −0.14 mA·cm2− at −100 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl were reached in long term experiments in the cathode half-cell. In full MFC, a maximum power density of 380 mW·m−2 was observed at 100 Ω external load.

  10. Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2013-08-01

    Catalysts and catalyst binders are significant portions of the cost of microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes. Many materials have been tested as aqueous cathodes, but air-cathodes are needed to avoid energy demands for water aeration. Packed-bed air-cathodes were constructed without expensive binders or diffusion layers using four inexpensive carbon-based materials. Cathodes made from activated carbon produced the largest maximum power density of 676±93mW/m2, followed by semi-coke (376±47mW/m2), graphite (122±14mW/m2) and carbon felt (60±43mW/m2). Increasing the mass of activated carbon and semi-coke from 5 to ≥15g significantly reduced power generation because of a reduction in oxygen transfer due to a thicker water layer in the cathode (~3 or ~6cm). These results indicate that a thin packed layer of activated carbon or semi-coke can be used to make inexpensive air-cathodes for MFCs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Electricity generation from food wastes and characteristics of organic matters in microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Tian, Yu; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Xiaoyue; Li, Lipin; Su, Xinying

    2016-04-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) was evaluated as an alternative way to recover electricity from canteen based food waste. Characteristics of the organics in food waste before and after the MFC treatment were analyzed to investigate how the organic matters were biodegraded and transformed during the MFC treatment. A maximum power density of 5.6W/m(3) and an average output voltage of 0.51V were obtained. During the MFC operation, the hydrophilic and acidic fractions were more readily degraded, compared to the neutral fractions. Additionally, aromatic compounds in the hydrophilic fraction were more preferentially removed than non-aromatic compounds. The MFC could easily remove the tryptophan protein-like substances in all fractions and aromatic proteins in hydrophilic and hydrophobic neutral fractions. Additionally, the hydrophobic amide-1 proteins and aliphatic components were readily hydrolyzed and biodegraded in the MFC. These findings may facilitate the pretreatment and posttreatment choices for MFC system fed with food waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Saline catholytes as alternatives to phosphate buffers in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2013-03-01

    Highly saline solutions were examined as alternatives to chemical buffers in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The performance of two-chamber MFCs with different concentrations of saline solutions in the cathode chamber was compared to those with a buffered catholyte (50mM PBS). The use of a NaCl catholyte improved the CE to 43-60% (28% with no membrane) due to a reduction in oxygen transfer into the anolyte. The saline catholyte also reduced the membrane and solution resistance to 23Ω (41Ω without a membrane). The maximum power density of 491mW/m2 (240mM NaCl) was only 17% less than the MFC with 50mM PBS. The decrease in power output with highest salinity was due to reduced proton transfer due to the ion exchange membrane, and pH changes in the two solutions. These results show that MFC performance can be improved by using a saline catholyte without pH control. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Improving startup performance with carbon mesh anodes in separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xia, Xue; Luo, Yong; Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas F; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-04-01

    In a separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cell, oxygen crossover from the cathode inhibits current generation by exoelectrogenic bacteria, resulting in poor reactor startup and performance. To determine the best approach for improving startup performance, the effect of acclimation to a low set potential (-0.2V, versus standard hydrogen electrode) was compared to startup at a higher potential (+0.2 V) or no set potential, and inoculation with wastewater or pre-acclimated cultures. Anodes acclimated to -0.2 V produced the highest power of 1330±60 mW m(-2) for these different anode conditions, but unacclimated wastewater inocula produced inconsistent results despite the use of this set potential. By inoculating reactors with transferred cell suspensions, however, startup time was reduced and high power was consistently produced. These results show that pre-acclimation at -0.2 V consistently improves power production compared to use of a more positive potential or the lack of a set potential. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electricity generation and treatment of paper recycling wastewater using a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Logan, Bruce E

    2008-08-01

    Increased interest in sustainable agriculture and bio-based industries requires that we find more energy-efficient methods for treating cellulose-containing wastewaters. We examined the effectiveness of simultaneous electricity production and treatment of a paper recycling plant wastewater using microbial fuel cells. Treatment efficiency was limited by wastewater conductivity. When a 50 mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS, 5.9 mS/cm) was added to the wastewater, power densities reached 501+/-20 mW/m2, with a coulombic efficiency of 16+/-2%. There was efficient removal of soluble organic matter, with 73+/-1% removed based on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and only slightly greater total removal (76+/-4%) based on total COD (TCOD) over a 500-h batch cycle. Cellulose was nearly completely removed (96+/-1%) during treatment. Further increasing the conductivity (100 mM PBS) increased power to 672+/-27 mW/m2. In contrast, only 144+/-7 mW/m2 was produced using an unamended wastewater (0.8 mS/cm) with TCOD, SCOD, and cellulose removals of 29+/-1%, 51+/-2%, and 16+/-1% (350-h batch cycle). These results demonstrate limitations to treatment efficiencies with actual wastewaters caused by solution conductivity compared to laboratory experiments under more optimal conditions.

  15. A New Method for Sensing Soil Water Content in Green Roofs Using Plant Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Natalia F; Rojas, Claudia; Bonilla, Carlos A; Vargas, Ignacio T

    2017-12-28

    Green roofs have many benefits, but in countries with semiarid climates the amount of water needed for irrigation is a limiting factor for their maintenance. The use of drought-tolerant plants such as Sedum species, reduces the water requirements in the dry season, but, even so, in semiarid environments these can reach up to 60 L m -2 per day. Continuous substrate/soil water content monitoring would facilitate the efficient use of this critical resource. In this context, the use of plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) emerges as a suitable and more sustainable alternative for monitoring water content in green roofs in semiarid climates. In this study, bench and pilot-scale experiments using seven Sedum species showed a positive relationship between current generation and water content in the substrate. PMFC reactors with higher water content (around 27% vs. 17.5% v / v ) showed larger power density (114.6 and 82.3 μW m -2 vs. 32.5 μW m -2 ). Moreover, a correlation coefficient of 0.95 (±0.01) between current density and water content was observed. The results of this research represent the first effort of using PMFCs as low-cost water content biosensors for green roofs.

  16. Improving startup performance with carbon mesh anodes in separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2013-04-01

    In a separator electrode assembly microbial fuel cell, oxygen crossover from the cathode inhibits current generation by exoelectrogenic bacteria, resulting in poor reactor startup and performance. To determine the best approach for improving startup performance, the effect of acclimation to a low set potential (-0.2V, versus standard hydrogen electrode) was compared to startup at a higher potential (+0.2V) or no set potential, and inoculation with wastewater or pre-acclimated cultures. Anodes acclimated to -0.2V produced the highest power of 1330±60mWm-2 for these different anode conditions, but unacclimated wastewater inocula produced inconsistent results despite the use of this set potential. By inoculating reactors with transferred cell suspensions, however, startup time was reduced and high power was consistently produced. These results show that pre-acclimation at -0.2V consistently improves power production compared to use of a more positive potential or the lack of a set potential. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Biomass production from electricity using ammonia as an electron carrier in a reverse microbial fuel cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell O Khunjar

    Full Text Available The storage of renewable electrical energy within chemical bonds of biofuels and other chemicals is a route to decreasing petroleum usage. A critical challenge is the efficient transfer of electrons into a biological host that can covert this energy into high energy organic compounds. In this paper, we describe an approach whereby biomass is grown using energy obtained from a soluble mediator that is regenerated electrochemically. The net result is a separate-stage reverse microbial fuel cell (rMFC that fixes CO₂ into biomass using electrical energy. We selected ammonia as a low cost, abundant, safe, and soluble redox mediator that facilitated energy transfer to biomass. Nitrosomonas europaea, a chemolithoautotroph, was used as the biocatalyst due to its inherent capability to utilize ammonia as its sole energy source for growth. An electrochemical reactor was designed for the regeneration of ammonia from nitrite, and current efficiencies of 100% were achieved. Calculations indicated that overall bioproduction efficiency could approach 2.7±0.2% under optimal electrolysis conditions. The application of chemolithoautotrophy for industrial bioproduction has been largely unexplored, and results suggest that this and related rMFC platforms may enable biofuel and related biochemical production.

  18. Biomass production from electricity using ammonia as an electron carrier in a reverse microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunjar, Wendell O; Sahin, Asli; West, Alan C; Chandran, Kartik; Banta, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The storage of renewable electrical energy within chemical bonds of biofuels and other chemicals is a route to decreasing petroleum usage. A critical challenge is the efficient transfer of electrons into a biological host that can covert this energy into high energy organic compounds. In this paper, we describe an approach whereby biomass is grown using energy obtained from a soluble mediator that is regenerated electrochemically. The net result is a separate-stage reverse microbial fuel cell (rMFC) that fixes CO₂ into biomass using electrical energy. We selected ammonia as a low cost, abundant, safe, and soluble redox mediator that facilitated energy transfer to biomass. Nitrosomonas europaea, a chemolithoautotroph, was used as the biocatalyst due to its inherent capability to utilize ammonia as its sole energy source for growth. An electrochemical reactor was designed for the regeneration of ammonia from nitrite, and current efficiencies of 100% were achieved. Calculations indicated that overall bioproduction efficiency could approach 2.7±0.2% under optimal electrolysis conditions. The application of chemolithoautotrophy for industrial bioproduction has been largely unexplored, and results suggest that this and related rMFC platforms may enable biofuel and related biochemical production.

  19. Stability and reliability of anodic biofilms under different feedstock conditions: Towards microbial fuel cell sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiseon You

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stability and reliability of microbial fuel cell anodic biofilms, consisting of mixed cultures, were investigated in a continuously fed system. Two groups of anodic biofilm matured with different substrates, acetate and casein for 20–25 days, reached steady states and produced 80–87 μW and 20–29 μW consistently for 3 weeks, respectively. When the substrates were swapped, the casein-enriched group showed faster response to acetate and higher power output, compared to the acetate-enriched group. Also when the substrates were switched back to their original groups, the power output of both groups returned to the previous levels more quickly than when the substrates were swapped the first time. During the substrate change, both MFC groups showed stable power output once they reached their steady states and the output of each group with different substrates was reproducible within the same group. Community level physiological profiling also revealed the possibility of manipulating anodic biofilm metabolisms through exposure to different feedstock conditions.

  20. EVALUASI PENGGUNAAN METILEN BIRU SEBAGAI MEDIATOR ELEKTRON PADA MICROBIAL FUEL CELL DENGAN BIOKATALIS ACETOBACTER ACETI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Permana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cell (MFC merupakan salah satu teknologi sel bahan bakar alternatif yang dapat diperbarui. MFC memanfaatkan proses oksidasi senyawa kimia oleh biokatalis untuk menghasilkan energi listrik daya rendah. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui kinerja MFC dengan dan tanpa mediator elektron metilen biru (MB menggunakan biokatalis Acetobacter aceti dan substrat glukosa agar diperoleh energi listrik. Metode yang dilakukan adalah peremajaan kultur A. aceti, persiapan inokulum, persiapan reaktor MFC, persiapan media MFC dengan substrat glukosa 2% dengan dan tanpa mediator MB, pencuplikan secara periodik, penentuan kurva pertumbuhan, arus, potensial, kerapatan daya, energi, kadar glukosa dan tingkat keasaman (pH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa MFC dengan mediator menghasilkan kuat arus sebesar 0,040 mA, potensial 878 mV, kerapatan daya 0,395 mW/cm2, energi maksimum 3,685 kJ, pemanfaatan glukosa 93,02% dan pH akhir 3,33, sedangkan MFC tanpa mediator menghasilkan kuat arus 0,035 mA, potensial 773 mV, kerapatan daya 0,290 mW/cm2, energi maksimum 2,434 kJ, pemanfaatan glukosa 90,16% dan pH akhir 3,24. Perolehan kerapatan daya pada kedua jenis MFC masih tergolong kecil dan tidak berbeda secara signifikan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan mediator MB hanya berpengaruh terhadap perolehan potensial pada MFC dengan kondisi perlakuan yang diterapkan dalam penelitian ini.

  1. Addition of acetate improves stability of power generation using microbial fuel cells treating domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, Jennifer L; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Logan, Bruce E

    2017-12-01

    Power generation using microbial fuel cells (MFCs) must provide stable, continuous conversion of organic matter in wastewaters into electricity. However, when relatively small diameter (0.8cm) graphite fiber brush anodes were placed close to the cathodes in MFCs, power generation was unstable during treatment of low strength domestic wastewater. One reactor produced 149mW/m 2 before power generation failed, while the other reactor produced 257mW/m 2 , with both reactors exhibiting severe power overshoot in polarization tests. Using separators or activated carbon cathodes did not result in stable operation as the reactors continued to exhibit power overshoot based on polarization tests. However, adding acetate (1g/L) to the wastewater produced stable performance during fed batch and continuous flow operation, and there was no power overshoot in polarization tests. These results highlight the importance of wastewater strength and brush anode size for producing stable and continuous power in compact MFCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bio-Electron-Fenton (BEF) process driven by microbial fuel cells for triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Xiao-Yu; Gu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Yuan-Dong; Yan, Zhi-Ying; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Xia-Yuan; Wei, Ping; Jia, Hong-Hua; Zheng, Tao; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2017-02-15

    The intensive use of triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) has caused serious environmental pollution. In this study, an effective method for TPTC degradation was proposed based on the Bio-Electron-Fenton process in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The maximum voltage of the MFC with graphite felt as electrode was 278.47% higher than that of carbon cloth. The electricity generated by MFC can be used for in situ generation of H 2 O 2 to a maximum of 135.96μmolL -1 at the Fe@Fe 2 O 3(*) /graphite felt composite cathode, which further reacted with leached Fe 2+ to produce hydroxyl radicals. While 100μmolL -1 TPTC was added to the cathodic chamber, the degradation efficiency of TPTC reached 78.32±2.07%, with a rate of 0.775±0.021μmolL -1 h -1 . This Bio-Electron-Fenton driving TPTC degradation might involve in SnC bonds breaking and the main process is probably a stepwise dephenylation until the formation of inorganic tin and CO 2 . This study provides an energy saving and efficient approach for TPTC degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bio-electro-Fenton process driven by microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chun-Hua; Li, Fang-Bai; Mai, Hong-Jian; Li, Xiang-Zhong

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we proposed a new concept of utilizing the biological electrons produced from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to power an E-Fenton process to treat wastewater at neutral pH as a bioelectro-Fenton (Bio-E-Fenton) process. This process can be achieved in a dual-chamber MFC from which electrons were generated via the catalyzation of Shewanella decolorationis S12 in its anaerobic anode chamber and transferred to its aerated cathode chamber equipped with a carbon nanotube (CNT)/gamma-FeOOH composite cathode. In the cathode chamber, the Fenton's reagents including hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and ferrous irons (Fe(2+)) were in situ generated. This Bio-E-Fenton process led to the complete decolorization and mineralization of Orange II at pH 7.0 with the apparent first-order rate constants, k(app) = 0.212 h(-1) and k(TOC) = 0.0827 h(-1), respectively, and simultaneously produced a maximum power output of 230 mW m(-2) (normalized to the cathode surface area). The apparent mineralization current efficiency was calculated to be as high as 89%. The cathode composition was an important factor in governing system performance. When the ratio of CNT to gamma-FeOOH in the composite cathode was 1:1, the system demonstrated the fastest rate of Orange II degradation, corresponding to the highest amount of H(2)O(2) formed.

  4. PTFE effect on the electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction in membraneless microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Edoardo; Grattieri, Matteo; Faggianelli, Alessio; Cristiani, Pierangela; Trasatti, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Influence of PTFE in the external Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) of open-air cathodes applied to membraneless microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is investigated in this work. Electrochemical measurements on cathodes with different PTFE contents (200%, 100%, 80% and 60%) were carried out to characterize cathodic oxygen reduction reaction, to study the reaction kinetics. It is demonstrated that ORR is not under diffusion-limiting conditions in the tested systems. Based on cyclic voltammetry, an increase of the cathodic electrochemical active area took place with the decrease of PTFE content. This was not directly related to MFC productivity, but to the cathode wettability and the biocathode development. Low electrodic interface resistances (from 1 to 1.5 Ω at the start, to near 0.1 Ω at day 61) indicated a negligible ohmic drop. A decrease of the Tafel slopes from 120 to 80 mV during productive periods of MFCs followed the biological activity in the whole MFC system. A high PTFE content in the cathode showed a detrimental effect on the MFC productivity, acting as an inhibitor of ORR electrocatalysis in the triple contact zone.

  5. Power generation using carbon mesh cathodes with different diffusion layers in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Yong

    2011-11-01

    An inexpensive carbon material, carbon mesh, was examined to replace the more expensive carbon cloth usually used to make cathodes in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Three different diffusion layers were tested using carbon mesh: poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and Goretex cloth. Carbon mesh with a mixture of PDMS and carbon black as a diffusion layer produced a maximum power density of 1355 ± 62 mW m -2 (normalized to the projected cathode area), which was similar to that obtained with a carbon cloth cathode (1390 ± 72 mW m-2). Carbon mesh with a PTFE diffusion layer produced only a slightly lower (6.6%) maximum power density (1303 ± 48 mW m-2). The Coulombic efficiencies were a function of current density, with the highest value for the carbon mesh and PDMS (79%) larger than that for carbon cloth (63%). The cost of the carbon mesh cathode with PDMS/Carbon or PTFE (excluding catalyst and binder costs) is only 2.5% of the cost of the carbon cloth cathode. These results show that low cost carbon materials such as carbon mesh can be used as the cathode in an MFC without reducing the performance compared to more expensive carbon cloth. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Research on treatment of wastewater containing heavy metal by microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zixuan; Lu, Xun; Yin, Ruixia; Luo, Yunyi; Mai, Hanjian; Zhang, Nan; Xiong, Jingfang; Zhang, Hongguo; Tang, Jinfeng; Luo, Dinggui

    2018-02-01

    With rapid development of social economy, serious problem has been caused by wastewater containing heavy metals, which was difficult to be treated by many kinds of traditional treatment methods, such as complex processes, high cost or easy to cause secondary pollution. As a novel biological treatment technology, microbial fuel cells (MFC) can generate electric energy while dealing with wastewater, which was proposed and extensively studied. This paper introduced the working principle of MFC, the classification of cathode, and the research progress on the treatment of wastewater containing Cr(VI), Cu(II), Ag(I), Mn(II) and Cd(II) by MFC. The study found that different cathode, different heavy metals anddifferent hybrid systems would affect the performance of the system and removal effect for heavy metal in MFC. MFC was a highly potential pollution control technology. Until now, the research was still in the laboratory stage. Its industrial application for recovery of heavy metal ion, improving the energy recovery rate and improvement or innovation of system were worthy of further research.

  7. Relaxing the formation of hypoxic bottom water with sediment microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touch, Narong; Hibino, Tadashi; Morimoto, Yuki; Kinjo, Nobutaka

    2017-12-01

    The method of improving bottom water environment using industrial wastes to suppress diffusion substances from bottom sediment has recently captured the attention of many researchers. In this study, wastewater discharge-derived sediment was used to examine an alternative approach involving the use of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) in relaxing the formation of hypoxic bottom water, and removing reduced substances from sediment. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) and other ions were measured in overlying water and sediment pore water with and without the application of SMFCs. The results suggest that SMFCs can markedly reduce hydrogen sulfide and manganese ion concentrations in overlying water, and decrease the depletions of redox potential and DO concentration. In addition, SMFCs can dissolve ferric compounds in the sediment and thereby release the ferric ion available to fix phosphate in the sediment. Our results indicate that SMFCs can be used as an alternative method to relax the formation of hypoxic bottom water and to remove reduced substances from the sediment, thus improving the quality of both water and sediment environments.

  8. Raoultella electrica sp. nov., isolated from anodic biofilms of a glucose-fed microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Chung, Kyung Mi; Itoh, Hiroaki; Hiraishi, Akira; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain 1GB(T), was isolated from anodic biofilms of a glucose-fed microbial fuel cell. Strain 1GB(T) was facultatively anaerobic and chemo-organotrophic, having both a respiratory and a fermentative type of metabolism, and utilized a wide variety of sugars as carbon and energy sources. Cells grown aerobically contained Q-8 as the major quinone, but excreted Q-9 and a small amount of Q-10 when cultured with an electrode serving as the sole electron acceptor. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of 1GB(T) was 54.5 mol%. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed that strain 1GB(T) represented a distinct lineage within the genus Raoultella (98.5-99.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and 94.0-96.5 % sequence similarity based on the three concatenated housekeeping genes gyrA, rpoB and parC. Strain 1GB(T) exhibited DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness of 7-43 % with type strains of all established species of the genus Raoultella. On the basis of these phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic data, the name Raoultella electrica sp. nov. is proposed for strain 1GB(T). The type strain is 1GB(T) ( = NBRC 109676(T) = KCTC 32430(T)).

  9. Variation of power generation at different buffer types and conductivities in single chamber microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn

    2010-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are operated with solutions containing various chemical species required for the growth of electrochemically active microorganisms including nutrients and vitamins, substrates, and chemical buffers. Many different buffers are used in laboratory media, but the effects of these buffers and their inherent electrolyte conductivities have not been examined relative to current generation in MFCs. We investigated the effect of several common buffers (phosphate, MES, HEPES, and PIPES) on power production in single chambered MFCs compared to a non-buffered control. At the same concentrations the buffers produced different solution conductivities which resulted in different ohmic resistances and power densities. Increasing the solution conductivities to the same values using NaCl produced comparable power densities for all buffers. Very large increases in conductivity resulted in a rapid voltage drop at high current densities. Our results suggest that solution conductivity at a specific pH for each buffer is more important in MFC studies than the buffer itself given relatively constant pH conditions. Based on our analysis of internal resistance and a set neutral pH, phosphate and PIPES are the most useful buffers of those examined here because pH was maintained close to the pKa of the buffer, maximizing the ability of the buffer to contribute to increase current generation at high power densities. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electricity generation from fermented primary sludge using single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to generate electricity from fermented primary sludge. Fermentation (30°C, 9days) decreased total suspended solids (26.1-16.5g/L), volatile suspended solids (24.1-15.3g/L) and pH (5.7-4.5), and increased conductivity (2.4-4.7mS/cm), soluble COD (2.66-15.5g/L), and volatile fatty acids (1.9-10.1g/L). To lower the COD and increase pH, fermentation supernatant was diluted with primary effluent before being used in the MFCs. The maximum power density was 0.32±0.01W/m2, compared to 0.24±0.03W/m2 with only primary effluent. Power densities were higher with phosphate buffer added to the supernatant (1.03±0.06W/m2) or the solution (0.87±0.05W/m2). Coulombic efficiencies ranged from 18% to 57%, and sCOD removals from 84% to 94%. These results demonstrated that sludge can effectively be used for power generation when fermented and then diluted with only primary effluent. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Analysis of carbon fiber brush loading in anodes on startup and performance of microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hutchinson, Adam J.

    2011-11-01

    Flat carbon anodes placed near a cathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) are adversely affected by oxygen crossover, but graphite fiber brush anodes placed near the cathode produce high power densities. The impact of the brush size and electrode spacing was examined by varying the distance of the brush end from the cathode and solution conductivity in multiple MFCs. The startup time was increased from 8 ± 1 days with full brushes (all buffer concentrations) to 13 days (50 mM), 14 days (25 mM) and 21 days (8 mM) when 75% of the brush anode was removed. When MFCs were all first acclimated with a full brush, up to 65% of the brush material could be removed without appreciably altering maximum power. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the main source of internal resistance (IR) was diffusion resistance, which together with solution resistance reached 100 Ω. The IR using EIS compared well with that obtained using the polarization data slope method, indicating no major components of IR were missed. These results show that using full brush anodes avoids adverse effects of oxygen crossover during startup, although brushes are much larger than needed to sustain high power. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Variation of power generation at different buffer types and conductivities in single chamber microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Kyeong-Ho; Shin, Hang-Sik; Logan, Bruce E

    2010-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are operated with solutions containing various chemical species required for the growth of electrochemically active microorganisms including nutrients and vitamins, substrates, and chemical buffers. Many different buffers are used in laboratory media, but the effects of these buffers and their inherent electrolyte conductivities have not been examined relative to current generation in MFCs. We investigated the effect of several common buffers (phosphate, MES, HEPES, and PIPES) on power production in single chambered MFCs compared to a non-buffered control. At the same concentrations the buffers produced different solution conductivities which resulted in different ohmic resistances and power densities. Increasing the solution conductivities to the same values using NaCl produced comparable power densities for all buffers. Very large increases in conductivity resulted in a rapid voltage drop at high current densities. Our results suggest that solution conductivity at a specific pH for each buffer is more important in MFC studies than the buffer itself given relatively constant pH conditions. Based on our analysis of internal resistance and a set neutral pH, phosphate and PIPES are the most useful buffers of those examined here because pH was maintained close to the pK(a) of the buffer, maximizing the ability of the buffer to contribute to increase current generation at high power densities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increasing power generation for scaling up single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Shaoan

    2011-03-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires a better understanding the importance of the different factors such as electrode surface area and reactor geometry relative to solution conditions such as conductivity and substrate concentration. It is shown here that the substrate concentration has significant effect on anode but not cathode performance, while the solution conductivity has a significant effect on the cathode but not the anode. The cathode surface area is always important for increasing power. Doubling the cathode size can increase power by 62% with domestic wastewater, but doubling the anode size increases power by 12%. Volumetric power density was shown to be a linear function of cathode specific surface area (ratio of cathode surface area to reactor volume), but the impact of cathode size on power generation depended on the substrate strength (COD) and conductivity. These results demonstrate the cathode specific surface area is the most critical factor for scaling-up MFCs to obtain high power densities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Analysis of polarization methods for elimination of power overshoot in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2011-01-01

    Polarization curves from microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often show an unexpectedly large drop in voltage with increased current densities, leading to a phenomenon in the power density curve referred to as "power overshoot". Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV, 1 mV s- 1) and variable external resistances (at fixed intervals of 20 min) over a single fed-batch cycle in an MFC both resulted in power overshoot in power density curves due to anode potentials. Increasing the anode enrichment time from 30 days to 100 days did not eliminate overshoot, suggesting that insufficient enrichment of the anode biofilm was not the primary cause. Running the reactor at a fixed resistance for a full fed-batch cycle (~ 1 to 2 days), however, completely eliminated the overshoot in the power density curve. These results show that long times at a fixed resistance are needed to stabilize current generation by bacteria in MFCs, and that even relatively slow LSV scan rates and long times between switching circuit loads during a fed-batch cycle may produce inaccurate polarization and power density results for these biological systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2012-11-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was investigated as an alternative to Nafion as an air cathode catalyst binder in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Cathodes were constructed around either stainless steel (SS) mesh or copper mesh using PDMS as both catalyst binder and diffusion layer, and compared to cathodes of the same structure having a Nafion binder. With PDMS binder, copper mesh cathodes produced a maximum power of 1710 ± 1 mW m -2, while SS mesh had a slightly lower power of 1680 ± 12 mW m -2, with both values comparable to those obtained with Nafion binder. Cathodes with PDMS binder had stable power production of 1510 ± 22 mW m -2 (copper) and 1480 ± 56 mW m -2 (SS) over 15 days at cycle 15, compared to a 40% decrease in power with the Nafion binder. Cathodes with the PDMS binder had lower total cathode impedance than those with Nafion. This is due to a large decrease in diffusion resistance, because hydrophobic PDMS effectively prevented catalyst sites from filling up with water, improving oxygen mass transfer. The cost of PDMS is only 0.23% of that of Nafion. These results showed that PDMS is a very effective and low-cost alternative to Nafion binder that will be useful for large scale construction of these cathodes for MFC applications. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Controlling the occurrence of power overshoot by adapting microbial fuel cells to high anode potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2013-04-01

    Power density curves for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often show power overshoot, resulting in inaccurate estimation of MFC performance at high current densities. The reasons for power overshoot are not well understood, but biofilm acclimation and development are known factors. In order to better explore the reasons for power overshoot, exoelectrogenic biofilms were developed at four different anode potentials (-0.46 V, -0.24 V, 0 V, and 0.50 V vs. Ag/AgCl), and then the properties of the biofilms were examined using polarization tests and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The maximum power density of the MFCs was 1200±100 mW/m2. Power overshoot was observed in MFCs incubated at -0.46 V, but not those acclimated atmore positive potentials, indicating that bacterial activitywas significantly influenced by the anode acclimation potential. CV results further indicated that power overshoot of MFCs incubated at the lowest anode potential was associatedwith a decreasing electroactivity of the anodic biofilm in the high potential region,which resulted from a lack of sufficient electron transfer components to shuttle electrons at rates needed for these more positive potentials. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Manganese dioxide as a new cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Hu, Boxun; Suib, Steven; Lei, Yu; Li, Baikun

    This study focused on manganese oxides with a cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) structure to replace platinum as a cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Undoped (ud-OSM-2) and three catalysts doped with cobalt (Co-OMS-2), copper (Cu-OMS-2), and cerium (Ce-OMS-2) to enhance their catalytic performances were investigated. The novel OMS-2 cathodes were examined in granular activated carbon MFC (GACMFC) with sodium acetate as the anode reagent and oxygen in air as the cathode reagent. The results showed that after 400 h of operation, the Co-OMS-2 and Cu-OMS-2 exhibited good catalytic performance in an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The voltage of the Co-OMS-2 GACMFC was 217 mV, and the power density was 180 mW m -2. The voltage of the Cu-OMS-2 GACMFC was 214 mV and the power density was 165 mW m -2. The internal resistance (R in) of the OMS-2 GACMFCs (18 ± 1 Ω) was similar to that of the platinum GACMFCs (17 Ω). Furthermore, the degradation rates of organic substrates in the OMS-2 GACMFCs were twice those in the platinum GACMFCs, which enhance their wastewater treatment efficiencies. This study indicated that using OMS-2 manganese oxides to replace platinum as a cathodic catalyst enhances power generation, increases contaminant removal, and substantially reduces the cost of MFCs.

  18. Minimum Performance Requirements for Microbial Fuel Cells to Achieve Energy-Neutral Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A. Stoll

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs have recently achieved energy-positive wastewater treatment at pilot scale. Despite these achievements, there is still a limited understanding as to whether all wastewaters contain sufficient amounts of energy and, if so, whether MFCs can capture a sufficient amount of energy to offset electrical energy requirements in the wastewater treatment process. Currently, there are no tools or methods available that can determine whether an MFC can be energy-neutral a priori. To address this, we derived a simple relationship by setting the electrical energy requirements of a wastewater treatment facility equal to the net energy output of the MFC, such that the resulting expression describes the minimum chemical oxygen demand (COD removal needed to achieve energy-neutral treatment. The resulting equation is simply a function of electrical energy requirements, Coulombic Efficiency, and cell voltage. This work provides the first ever quantitative method for determining if the MFCs are feasible to achieve energy-neutral treatment for a given wastewater and what level of performance is needed.

  19. Electricity Generation and Wastewater Treatment of Oil Refinery in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Pseudomonas putida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dip Majumder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs represent a novel platform for treating wastewater and at the same time generating electricity. Using Pseudomonas putida (BCRC 1059, a wild-type bacterium, we demonstrated that the refinery wastewater could be treated and also generate electric current in an air-cathode chamber over four-batch cycles for 63 cumulative days. Our study indicated that the oil refinery wastewater containing 2213 mg/L (ppm chemical oxygen demand (COD could be used as a substrate for electricity generation in the reactor of the MFC. A maximum voltage of 355 mV was obtained with the highest power density of 0.005 mW/cm2 in the third cycle with a maximum current density of 0.015 mA/cm2 in regard to the external resistor of 1000 Ω. A maximum coulombic efficiency of 6 × 10−2% was obtained in the fourth cycle. The removal efficiency of the COD reached 30% as a function of time. Electron transfer mechanism was studied using cyclic voltammetry, which indicated the presence of a soluble electron shuttle in the reactor. Our study demonstrated that oil refinery wastewater could be used as a substrate for electricity generation.

  20. Electric energy production from food waste: Microbial fuel cells versus anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaodong; Ma, Yingqun; Liu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    A food waste resourceful process was developed by integrating the ultra-fast hydrolysis and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for energy and resource recovery. Food waste was first ultra-fast hydrolyzed by fungal mash rich in hydrolytic enzymes in-situ produced from food waste. After which, the separated solids were readily converted to biofertilizer, while the liquid was fed to MFCs for direct electricity generation with a conversion efficiency of 0.245 kWh/kg food waste. It was estimated that about 192.5 million kWh of electricity could be produced from the food waste annually generated in Singapore, together with 74,390 tonnes of dry biofertilizer. Compared to anaerobic digestion, the proposed approach was more environmentally friendly and economically viable in terms of both electricity conversion and process cost. It is expected that this study may lead to the paradigm shift in food waste management towards ultra-fast concurrent recovery of resource and electricity with zero-solid discharge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance of air-cathode stacked microbial fuel cells systems for wastewater treatment and electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Arriaga, Edson Baltazar; Guillen-Alonso, Yvonne; Morales-Morales, Cornelio; García-Sánchez, Liliana; Bahena-Bahena, Erick Obed; Guadarrama-Pérez, Oscar; Loyola-Morales, Félix

    2017-07-01

    Two different air-cathode stacked microbial fuel cell (MFC) configurations were evaluated under continuous flow during the treatment of municipal wastewater and electricity production at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3, 1, and 0.5 d. Stacked MFC 1 was formed by 20 individual air-cathode MFC units. The second stacked MFC (stacked MFC 2) consisted of 40 air-cathode MFC units placed in a shared reactor. The maximum voltages produced at closed circuit (1,000 Ω) were 170 mV for stacked MFC 1 and 94 mV for stacked MFC 2. Different power densities in each MFC unit were obtained due to a potential drop phenomenon and to a change in chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations inside reactors. The maximum power densities from individual MFC units were up to 1,107 mW/m 2 for stacked MFC 1 and up to 472 mW/m 2 for stacked MFC 2. The maximum power densities in stacked MFC 1 and MFC 2 connected in series were 79 mW/m 2 and 4 mW/m 2 , respectively. Electricity generation and COD removal efficiencies were reduced when the HRT was decreased. High removal efficiencies of 84% of COD, 47% of total nitrogen, and 30% of total phosphorus were obtained during municipal wastewater treatment.

  2. Effect of static magnetic field on electricity production and wastewater treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qinqin; Zhou, Shaoqi

    2014-12-01

    The effect of a magnetic field (MF) on electricity production and wastewater treatment in two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been investigated. Electricity production capacity could be improved by the application of a low-intensity static MF. When a MF of 50 mT was applied to MFCs, the maximum voltage, total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency increased from 523 ± 2 to 553 ± 2 mV, ∼93 to ∼96 %, and ∼80 to >90 %, respectively, while the start-up time and coulombic efficiency decreased from 16 to 10 days and ∼50 to ∼43 %, respectively. The MF effects were immediate, reversible, and not long lasting, and negative effects on electricity generation and COD removal seemed to occur after the MF was removed. The start-up and voltage output were less affected by the MF direction. Nitrogen compounds in magnetic MFCs were nitrified more thoroughly; furthermore, a higher proportion of electrochemically inactive microorganisms were found in magnetic systems. TP was effectively removed by the co-effects of microbe absorption and chemical precipitation. Chemical precipitates were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope capable of energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) to be a mixture of phosphate, carbonate, and hydroxyl compounds.

  3. Understanding electricity generation in osmotic microbial fuel cells through integrated experimental investigation and mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Mohan; Ping, Qingyun; Lu, Yaobin; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    Osmotic microbial fuel cells (OsMFCs) are a new type of MFCs with integrating forward osmosis (FO). However, it is not well understood why electricity generation is improved in OsMFCs compared to regular MFCs. Herein, an approach integrating experimental investigation and mathematical model was adopted to address the question. Both an OsMFC and an MFC achieved similar organic removal efficiency, but the OsMFC generated higher current than the MFC with or without water flux, resulting from the lower resistance of FO membrane. Combining NaCl and glucose as a catholyte demonstrated that the catholyte conductivity affected the electricity generation in the OsMFC. A mathematical model of OsMFCs was developed and validated with the experimental data. The model predicated the variation of internal resistance with increasing water flux, and confirmed the importance of membrane resistance. Increasing water flux with higher catholyte conductivity could decrease the membrane resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electricity production and sludge reduction by integrating microbial fuel cells in anoxic-oxic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Benyi; Luo, Meng; Wang, Xiao; Li, Zuoxing; Chen, Hong; Liu, Junxin; Guo, Xuesong

    2017-11-01

    To produce energy and reduce sludge production from the treatment of municipal wastewater, four identical microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were constructed in an anoxic-oxic (A/O) process (MFCs-A/O system). Experimental results indicated that this system enhance the removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN). The electricity produced by each MFC were ranged from 0.371 to 0.477V (voltage) and from 138 to 227mW/m 3 (power density) at the stable stage, when the external resistance was fixed at 1000Ω. The coulombic efficiency of the MFCs-A/O system ranged from 0.31% to 1.68% (mean=0.72%) at the stable stage, respectively. The removals of COD and TN in the MFCs-A/O system were slightly higher than those in the control system. Compared with the control system, the MFCs-A/O system can reduce waste activated sludge production and sludge yield by 24.0% and 24.2%, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the MFC constructed in A/O system improves wastewater treatment and the MFCs-A/O system can produce electricity while reducing sludge production and increasing wastewater treatment efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electricity generation from cattle manure slurry by cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kengo; Ito, Toshihiro; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Iguchi, Atsushi; Miyahara, Morio; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2013-11-01

    Cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells (CE-MFCs) are efficient and scalable devices for electricity production from organic waste. Previous studies have demonstrated that CE-MFCs are capable of generating electricity from artificial wastewater at relatively high efficiencies. In this study, a single-cassette CE-MFC was constructed, and its capacity for electricity generation from cattle manure suspended in water (solid to water ratio of 1:50) was examined. The CE-MFC reactor was operated in batch mode for 49 days; electricity generation became stable 2 weeks after initiating the operation. The maximum power density was measured at 16.3 W m⁻³ on day 26. Sequencing analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from the original manure and from anode biofilms suggested that Chloroflexi and Geobacteraceae were abundant in the anode biofilm (29% and 18%, respectively), whereas no Geobacteraceae sequences were detected in the original manure sample. The results of this study suggest that CE-MFCs can be used to generate electricity from water-suspended cattle manure in a scalable MFC system. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of electricity generation and biodegradation in tidal river sludge-used microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touch, Narong; Hibino, Tadashi; Nagatsu, Yoshiyuki; Tachiuchi, Kouhei

    2014-04-01

    The electricity generation behavior of microbial fuel cell (MFC) using the sludge collected from the riverbank of a tidal river, and the biodegradation of the sludge by the electricity generation are evaluated. Although the maximum current density (150-300 mA/m(2)) was higher than that of MFC using freshwater sediment (30 mA/m(2)), the output current was greatly restricted by the mass transfer limitation. However, our results also indicate that placing the anode in different locations in the sludge could reduce the mass transfer limitation. After approximately 3 months, the removal efficiency of organic carbon was approximately 10%, demonstrated that MFC could also enhance the biodegradation of the sludge by nearly 10-fold comparing with the natural biodegradation. We also found that the biodegradation could be identified by the behavior of oxygen consumption of the sludge. Importantly, the oxygen consumption of the sludge became higher along with the electricity generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using cathode spacers to minimize reactor size in air cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Qiao

    2012-04-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require more compact reactor designs. Spacers can be used to minimize the reactor size without adversely affecting performance. A single 1.5mm expanded plastic spacer (S1.5) produced a maximum power density (973±26mWm -2) that was similar to that of an MFC with the cathode exposed directly to air (no spacer). However, a very thin spacer (1.3mm) reduced power by 33%. Completely covering the air cathode with a solid plate did not eliminate power generation, indicating oxygen leakage into the reactor. The S1.5 spacer slightly increased columbic efficiencies (from 20% to 24%) as a result of reduced oxygen transfer into the system. Based on operating conditions (1000ς, CE=20%), it was estimated that 0.9Lh -1 of air would be needed for 1m 2 of cathode area suggesting active air flow may be needed for larger scale MFCs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Floating microbial fuel cells as energy harvesters for signal transmission from natural water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Colombo, Alessandra; Grattieri, Matteo; Trasatti, Stefano P.; Liberale, Alessandro; Tremolada, Paolo; Pino, Claudio; Cristiani, Pierangela

    2017-02-01

    A new type of floating microbial fuel cell (fMFC) was developed for power supply of remote environmental sensors and data transmission. Ten operating fMFCs generated a cell potential in the range 100-800 mV depending on the external resistance applied. Power production peaked around 3-3.5 mW (power density of 22-28 mW m-2 cathode) after about 20-30 days of start-up period. The average of daily electrical energy harvested ranged between 10 and 35 mWh/d. Long-term performances were ensured in the presence of dense rice plants (Oryza Sativa). A power management system, based on a step-up DC/DC converter and a low-power data transmission system via SIGFOX™ technology, have been set up for the fMFCs. The tested fMFCs systems allowed to: i) harvest produced energy, ii) supply electronic devices (intermittent LED-light and a buzzer); iii) transmit remote data at low speed (three message of 12 bites each, in 6 s). Several 'floating garden' MFCs were set in the context of demonstrative events at EXPO2015 world exposition held in Milan between May-October 2015. Some of the 'floating garden' MFCs were operating for more than one year.

  9. Evaluation Of Electricity Generation From Animal Based Wastes In A Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duduyemi Oladejo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Electric current from organic waste of poultry droppings were generated with A Microbial Fuel Cell MFC technology to evaluate affects of temperature 30 to 50oC 100gl 300gl and 500gl slurry concentrations prepared with the distilled water and inoculated when introduced into the anodic chamber. A constant concentration of 50gl of the oxidizing agent Potassium ferricyanide at the cathode chamber was prepared to evaluate the voltage and current generated by the set up for 7 days in each case. Higher slurry concentrations were observed to generate higher initial current and voltage than in lower concentrations. Higher slurry concentrations also demonstrated sustained power generation up to the day 6 before decline. A maximum current of 1.1V and 0.15 mA was achieved while the temperature variation was observed to have minimal effect within the range considered at low concentration. A MFC is a biochemical-catalyzed system capable of generating electricity as a by-product also providing an alternative method of waste treatment. Application Alternative power source and waste treatment.

  10. Bioelectrochemical desalination and electricity generation in microbial desalination cell with dewatered sludge as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanyu; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Guodong; Fan, Qingxin; Wei, Liangliang; Ding, Jing; Zheng, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) with common liquid anodic substrate exhibit a slow startup and destructive pH drop, and abiotic cathodes have high cost and low sustainability. A biocathode MDC with dewatered sludge as fuel was developed for synergistic desalination, electricity generation and sludge stabilization. Experimental results indicated that the startup period was reduced to 3d, anodic pH was maintained between 6.6 and 7.6, and high stability was shown under long-term operation (300d). When initial NaCl concentrations were 5 and 10g/L, the desalinization rates during stable operation were 46.37±1.14% and 40.74±0.89%, respectively. The maximum power output of 3.178W/m(3) with open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.118V was produced on 130d. After 300d, 25.71±0.15% of organic matter was removed. These results demonstrated that dewatered sludge was an appropriate anodic substrate to enhance MDC stability for desalination and electricity generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of platinum group metal-free catalyst synthesis on microbial fuel cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Carlo; Rojas-Carbonell, Santiago; Awais, Roxanne; Gokhale, Rohan; Kodali, Mounika; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen

    2018-01-01

    Platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) ORR catalysts from the Fe-N-C family were synthesized using sacrificial support method (SSM) technique. Six experimental steps were used during the synthesis: 1) mixing the precursor, the metal salt, and the silica template; 2) first pyrolysis in hydrogen rich atmosphere; 3) ball milling; 4) etching the silica template using harsh acids environment; 5) the second pyrolysis in ammonia rich atmosphere; 6) final ball milling. Three independent batches were fabricated following the same procedure. The effect of each synthetic parameters on the surface chemistry and the electrocatalytic performance in neutral media was studied. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) experiment showed an increase in half wave potential and limiting current after the pyrolysis steps. The additional improvement was observed after etching and performing the second pyrolysis. A similar trend was seen in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), in which the power output increased from 167 ± 2 μW cm-2 to 214 ± 5 μW cm-2. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was used to evaluate surface chemistry of catalysts obtained after each synthetic step. The changes in chemical composition were directly correlated with the improvements in performance. We report outstanding reproducibility in both composition and performance among the three different batches.

  12. Coupling of anaerobic digester and microbial fuel cell for COD removal and ammonia recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyoung; An, Junyeong; Jang, Jae Kyung; Chang, In Seop

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated for use in removing total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and residual COD from effluent digested in an anaerobic digester (AD) fed with actual swine wastewater for 32 days in batch mode. Cumulative COD removal in the AD was as high as 59,647±2096 mg/L (80.5% removed), whereas TAN removal in the AD was negligible at 296±116 mg-N/L (5.8% removed), causing a decrease in the COD/TAN ratio from 14.5 to 3.0. In a subsequent MFC system, 77.5% of TAN was removed at 36 days, leading to an increase in COD/TAN ratio from 4.6 to 8.1. As a result, the COD in the anode was further reduced from 19,319±417 mg/L to 7519±554 mg/L (61.1% removed). From these results, removing the TAN in MFCs was found to increase the COD/TAN ratio, with the COD being further degraded. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature and Humidity Sensor Powered by an Individual Microbial Fuel Cell in a Power Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are of increasing interest as bioelectrochemical systems for decomposing organic materials and converting chemical energy into electricity. The main challenge for this technology is that the low power and voltage of the devices restricts the use of MFCs in practical applications. In this paper, a power management system (PMS is developed to store the energy and export an increased voltage. The designed PMS successfully increases the low voltage generated by an individual MFC to a high potential of 5 V, capable of driving a wireless temperature and humidity sensor based on nRF24L01 data transmission modules. With the PMS, MFCs can intermittently power the sensor for data transmission to a remote receiver. It is concluded that even an individual MFC can supply the energy required to power the sensor and telemetry system with the designed PMS. The presented PMS can be widely used for unmanned environmental monitoring such as wild rivers, lakes, and adjacent water areas, and offers promise for further advances in MFC technology.

  14. Intelligent energy harvesting scheme for microbial fuel cells: Maximum power point tracking and voltage overshoot avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraj, Muhannad; Radenkovic, Miloje; Park, Jae-Do

    2017-02-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are renewable and sustainable energy sources that can be used for various applications. The MFC output power depends on its biochemical conditions as well as the terminal operating points in terms of output voltage and current. There exists one operating point that gives the maximum possible power from the MFC, maximum power point (MPP), for a given operating condition. However, this MPP may vary and needs to be tracked in order to maintain the maximum power extraction from the MFC. Furthermore, MFC reactors often develop voltage overshoots that cause drastic drops in the terminal voltage, current, and the output power. When the voltage overshoot happens, an additional control measure is necessary as conventional MPPT algorithms will fail because of the change in the voltage-current relationship. In this paper, the extremum seeking (ES) algorithm was used to track the varying MPP and a voltage overshoot avoidance (VOA) algorithm is developed to manage the voltage overshoot conditions. The proposed ES-MPPT with VOA algorithm was able to extract 197.2 mJ during 10-min operation avoiding voltage overshoot, while the ES MPPT-only scheme stopped harvesting after only 18.75 mJ because of the voltage overshoot happened at 0.4 min.

  15. Pressurized air cathodes for enhanced stability and power generation by microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    He, Weihua

    2016-09-30

    Large differences between the water and air pressure in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can deform and damage cathodes. To avoid deformation, the cathode air pressure was controlled to balance pressure differences between the air and water. Raising the air pressures from 0 to 10 kPa at a set cathode potential of −0.3 V (versus Ag/AgCl) enhanced cathode performance by 17%, but pressures ≥25 kPa decreased current and resulted in air leakage into the solution. Matching the air pressure with the water pressure avoided cathode deformation and improved performance. The maximum power density increased by 15%, from 1070 ± 20 to 1230 ± 70 mW m, with balanced air and water pressures of 10–25 kPa. Oxygen partial pressures ≥12.5 kPa in the cathode compartment maintained the oxygen reduction rate to be within 92 ± 1% of that in ambient air. The use of pressurized air flow through the cathode compartments can enable closer spacing of the cathodes compared to passive gas transfer systems, which could make the reactor design more compact. The energy cost of pressurizing the cathodes was estimated to be smaller than the increase in power that resulted from the use of pressurized cathodes.

  16. Oxygen-Reducing Biocathodes Operating with Passive Oxygen Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Xue

    2013-02-19

    Oxygen-reducing biocathodes previously developed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have required energy-intensive aeration of the catholyte. To avoid the need for aeration, the ability of biocathodes to function with passive oxygen transfer was examined here using air cathode MFCs. Two-chamber, air cathode MFCs with biocathodes produced a maximum power density of 554 ± 0 mW/m 2, which was comparable to that obtained with a Pt cathode (576 ± 16 mW/m2), and 38 times higher than that produced without a catalyst (14 ± 3 mW/m2). The maximum current density with biocathodes in this air-cathode MFC was 1.0 A/m2, compared to 0.49 A/m2 originally produced in a two-chamber MFC with an aqueous cathode (with cathode chamber aeration). Single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs with the same biocathodes initially produced higher voltages than those with Pt cathodes, but after several cycles the catalytic activity of the biocathodes was lost. This change in cathode performance resulted from direct exposure of the cathodes to solutions containing high concentrations of organic matter in the single-chamber configuration. Biocathode performance was not impaired in two-chamber designs where the cathode was kept separated from the anode solution. These results demonstrate that direct-air biocathodes can work very well, but only under conditions that minimize heterotrophic growth of microorganisms on the cathodes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Enhanced nitrogen removal in single-chamber microbial fuel cells with increased gas diffusion areas

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Hengjing

    2012-11-23

    Single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with nitrifiers pre-enriched at the air cathodes have previously been demonstrated as a passive strategy for integrating nitrogen removal into current-generating bioelectrochemical systems. To further define system design parameters for this strategy, we investigated in this study the effects of oxygen diffusion area and COD/N ratio in continuous-flow reactors. Doubling the gas diffusion area by adding an additional air cathode or a diffusion cloth significantly increased the ammonia and COD removal rates (by up to 115% and 39%), ammonia removal efficiency (by up to 134%), the cell voltage and cathode potentials, and the power densities (by a factor of approximately 2). When the COD/N ratio was lowered from 13 to 3, we found up to 244% higher ammonia removal rate but at least 19% lower ammonia removal efficiency. An increase of COD removal rate by up to 27% was also found when the COD/N ratio was lowered from 11 to 3. The Coulombic efficiency was not affected by the additional air cathode, but decreased by an average of 11% with the addition of a diffusion cloth. Ammonia removal by assimilation was also estimated to understand the ammonia removal mechanism in these systems. These results showed that the doubling of gas diffusion area enhanced N and COD removal rates without compromising electrochemical performance. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. High-Performance Carbon Aerogel Air Cathodes for Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2016-08-11

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can generate electricity from the oxidation of organic substrates using anodic exoelectrogenic bacteria and have great potential for harvesting electric energy from wastewater. Improving oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance at a neutral pH is needed for efficient energy production. Here we show a nitrogen doped (≈4 wt%) ionothermal carbon aerogel (NDC) with a high surface area, large pore volume, and hierarchical porosity, with good electrocatalytic properties for ORR in MFCs. The MFCs using NDC air cathodes achieved a high maximum power density of 2300 mW m−2, which was 1.7 times higher than the most commonly used Pt/C air cathodes and also higher than most state-of-the-art ORR catalyst air cathodes. Rotating disk electrode measurements verified the superior electrocatalytic activity of NDC with an efficient four-electron transfer pathway (n=3.9). These findings highlight NDC as a better-performing and cost-efficient catalyst compared with Pt/C, making it highly viable for MFC applications.

  19. Acid Water Neutralization Using Microbial Fuel Cells: An Alternative for Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Leiva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a complex environmental problem, which has adverse effects on surface and ground waters due to low pH, high toxic metals, and dissolved salts. New bioremediation approach based on microbial fuel cells (MFC can be a novel and sustainable alternative for AMD treatment. We studied the potential of MFC for acidic synthetic water treatment through pH neutralization in batch-mode and continuous-flow operation. We observed a marked pH increase, from ~3.7 to ~7.9 under batch conditions and to ~5.8 under continuous-flow operation. Likewise, batch reactors (non-MFC inoculated with different MFC-enriched biofilms showed a very similar pH increase, suggesting that the neutralization observed for batch operation was due to a synergistic influence of these communities. These preliminary results support the idea of using MFC technologies for AMD remediation, which could help to reduce costs associated with conventional technologies. Advances in this configuration could even be extrapolated to the recovery of heavy metals by precipitation or adsorption processes due to the acid neutralization.

  20. Electricity Production and Characterization of High-Strength Industrial Wastewaters in Microbial Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Afsin Y; Ozdemir, Oguz Kaan; Demir, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Bestami

    2017-06-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert electrochemical energy into electrical energy immediately and have a big potential usage for the same time wastewater treatment and energy recovery via electro-active microorganisms. However, MFCs must be efficiently optimized due to its limitations such as high cost and low power production. Finding new materials to increase the cell performance and reduce cost for MFC anodes is mandatory. In the first step of this study, different inoculation sludges such as anaerobic gum industry wastewater, anaerobic brewery wastewater and anaerobic phosphate were tested, and MFC that was set up with anaerobic gum industry wastewater inoculation sludge exhibited the highest performance. In the second step of this study, various wastewaters such as chocolate industry, gum industry and slaughterhouse industry were investigated for anode bacteria sources. Several electrochemical techniques have been employed to elucidate how wastewaters affect the MFCs' performance. Among all the mentioned wastewaters, the best performance was achieved by the MFCs fed with slaughterhouse wastewater; this device produced a maximum power density of 267 mW·m -2 .

  1. Improved performance of single-chamber microbial fuel cells through control of membrane deformation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2010-03-01

    Cation (CEMs) and anion exchange membrane (AEMs) are commonly used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to enhance Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) by reducing thefluxof oxygen through the cathode to bacteriaonthe anode. AEMs typically work better than CEMs, but in initial experiments we observed the opposite using a membrane electrode assembly MFC. The reason was identified to be membrane deformation, which resulted in water and gas trapped between the membrane and cathode. To correct this, stainless steel mesh was used to press the membrane flat against the cathode. With the steel mesh, AEM performance increased to 46±4W/m3 in a single cathode MFC, and 98±14W/m3 in a double-cathode MFC. These power densities were higher than those using a CEM of 32±2W/m3 (single cathode) and 63±6W/m3 (double cathode). Higher pH gradients across the membrane and salt precipitation on the cathode were responsible for the reduced performance of the CEM compared to the AEM. CEs reached over 90% for both membranes at >2A/m2. These results demonstrate the importance of avoiding water accumulation in thin films between membranes and electrodes, and explain additional reasons for poorer performance of CEMs compared to AEMs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Microbial fuel cell coupled to biohydrogen reactor: a feasible technology to increase energy yield from cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, J; Fuentes, L; Cabezas, A; Etchebehere, C

    2017-06-01

    An important pollutant produced during the cheese making process is cheese whey which is a liquid by-product with high content of organic matter, composed mainly by lactose and proteins. Hydrogen can be produced from cheese whey by dark fermentation but, organic matter is not completely removed producing an effluent rich in volatile fatty acids. Here we demonstrate that this effluent can be further used to produce energy in microbial fuel cells. Moreover, current production was not feasible when using raw cheese whey directly to feed the microbial fuel cell. A maximal power density of 439 mW/m 2 was obtained from the reactor effluent which was 1000 times more than when using raw cheese whey as substrate. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that potential electroactive populations (Geobacter, Pseudomonas and Thauera) were enriched on anodes of MFCs fed with reactor effluent while fermentative populations (Clostridium and Lactobacillus) were predominant on the MFC anode fed directly with raw cheese whey. This result was further demonstrated using culture techniques. A total of 45 strains were isolated belonging to 10 different genera including known electrogenic populations like Geobacter (in MFC with reactor effluent) and known fermentative populations like Lactobacillus (in MFC with cheese whey). Our results show that microbial fuel cells are an attractive technology to gain extra energy from cheese whey as a second stage process during raw cheese whey treatment by dark fermentation process.

  3. Improvement of power generation of microbial fuel cell by integrating tungsten oxide electrocatalyst with pure or mixed culture biocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varanasi, Jhansi L.; Nayak, Arpan K.; Sohn, Youngku; Pradhan, Debabrata; Das, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • WO 3 as an efficient electrocatalyst for microbial fuel cell. • Effect of nanocatalyst depends on the type of biocatalyst used. • Significant improvement in biocatalysis with WO 3 modified electrodes. • Amendment of WO 3 improves capacitive properties of anodes. • Pt/WO 3 composites provide maximum power densities. - Abstract: The anode of microbial fuel cell was impregnated with tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) and platinum-tungsten oxide (Pt/WO 3 ) nanocomposites to improve its power generation. The amended anodes were tested against pure and mixed culture type of biocatalysts. Improved performance was exhibited by the modified electrodes as compared to the uncatalyzed electrodes using both biocatalysts. However, pure culture showed higher power outputs as compared to the enriched mixed consortia. The maximum power density up to 0.15 mW cm −2 (1.46 W m −2 ) was obtained using pure culture which was almost 45% higher as compared to uncatalyzed electrodes. The anode modification also helped in lowering the charge transfer resistance and improving the coulombic efficiencies of the MFCs. High capacitance with nanostructure catalysts implied their role in holding an electric charge while SEM and epifluorescent images revealed enhanced bacterial adhesion. The high electrode conductivity, stability, and biocompatibility of the modified anodes make them more attractive for practical microbial fuel cell applications.

  4. Concurrent Phosphorus Recovery and Energy Generation in Mediator-Less Dual Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells: Mechanisms and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Almatouq

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanism and key factors influencing concurrent phosphorus (P recovery and energy generation in microbial fuel cells (MFC during wastewater treatment. Using a mediator-less dual chamber microbial fuel cell operated for 120 days; P was shown to precipitate as struvite when ammonium and magnesium chloride solutions were added to the cathode chamber. Monitoring data for chemical oxygen demand (COD, pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP and aeration flow rate showed that a maximum 38% P recovery was achieved; and this corresponds to 1.5 g/L, pH > 8, −550 ± 10 mV and 50 mL/min respectively, for COD, pHcathode, ORP and cathode aeration flow rate. More importantly, COD and aeration flow rate were shown to be the key influencing factors for the P recovery and energy generation. Results further show that the maximum P recovery corresponds to 72 mW/m2 power density. However, the energy generated at maximum P recovery was not the optimum; this shows that whilst P recovery and energy generation can be concurrently achieved in a microbial fuel cell, neither can be at the optimal value.

  5. Removal of sulfide and production of methane from carbon dioxide in microbial fuel cells-microbial electrolysis cell (MFCs-MEC) coupled system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Su, Min; Li, Daping

    2014-03-01

    Removal of sulfide and production of methane from carbon dioxide in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) at the applied voltage of 0.7 V was achieved using sulfide and organic compound as electron donors. The removal rate of sulfide was 72% and the Faraday efficiency of methane formation was 57% within 70 h of operation. Microbial fuel cell (MFCs) can be connected in series to supply power and drive the reaction in MECs. Removal of sulfide and production of methane from carbon dioxide in MFCs-MEC coupled system was achieved. The sulfide removal rates were 62.5, 60.4, and 57.7%, respectively, in the three anode compartments. Methane accumulated at a rate of 0.354 mL h(-1) L(-1) and the Faraday efficiency was 51%. Microbial characterization revealed that the biocathode of MEC was dominated by relatives of Methanobacterium palustre, Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus, and Methanocorpusculum parvum. This technology has a potential for wastewater treatments and biofuel production from carbon dioxide.

  6. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue Wilson disease , an inherited disorder in which there is too much copper in the body's tissues Use of certain medicines, such as amphotericin B, lithium, and analgesics Symptoms Symptoms of distal renal tubular acidosis include any ...

  7. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by tests on tubular joints are presented. The joints are T-joints and the loading is static. It is the intention in continuation of these tests to perform tests on other types of joints (e.g. Y-joints) and also with dynamic loading. The purpose of th...

  8. Simultaneous processes of electricity generation and ceftriaxone sodium degradation in an air-cathode single chamber microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qing; Kong, Fanying; Zheng, Hongtao; Yin, Jinling; Cao, Dianxue; Ren, Yueming; Wang, Guiling

    2011-03-01

    A single chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) with an air-cathode is successfully demonstrated using glucose-ceftriaxone sodium mixtures or ceftriaxone sodium as fuel. Results show that the ceftriaxone sodium can be biodegraded and produce electricity simultaneously. Interestingly, these ceftriaxone sodium-glucose mixtures play an active role in production of electricity. The maximum power density is increased in comparison to 1000 mg L-1 glucose (19 W m-3) by 495% for 50 mg L-1 ceftriaxone sodium + 1000 mg L-1 glucose (113 W m-3), while the maximum power density is 11 W m-3 using 50 mg L-1 ceftriaxone sodium as the sole fuel. Moreover, ceftriaxone sodium biodegradation rate reaches 91% within 24 h using the MFC in comparison with 51% using the traditional anaerobic reactor. These results indicate that some toxic and bio-refractory organics such as antibiotic wastewater might be suitable resources for electricity generation using the MFC technology.

  9. Effect of biofilm formation on the performance of microbial fuel cell for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranitharan, E; Khan, Maksudur R; Prasad, D M R; Teo, Wee Fei Aaron; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie; Jose, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    Anode biofilm is a crucial component in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electrogenesis. Better knowledge about the biofilm development process on electrode surface is believed to improve MFC performance. In this study, double-chamber microbial fuel cell was operated with diluted POME (initial COD = 1,000 mg L(-1)) and polyacrylonitrile carbon felt was used as electrode. The maximum power density, COD removal efficiency and Coulombic efficiency were found as 22 mW m(-2), 70 and 24 %, respectively. FTIR and TGA analysis confirmed the formation of biofilm on the electrode surface during MFC operation. The impact of anode biofilm on anodic polarization resistance was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and microbial community changes during MFC operation using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The EIS-simulated results showed the reduction of charge transfer resistance (R ct) by 16.9 % after 14 days of operation of the cell, which confirms that the development of the microbial biofilm on the anode decreases the R ct and therefore improves power generation. DGGE analysis showed the variation in the biofilm composition during the biofilm growth until it forms an initial stable microbial community, thereafter the change in the diversity would be less. The power density showed was directly dependent on the biofilm development and increased significantly during the initial biofilm development period. Furthermore, DGGE patterns obtained from 7th and 14th day suggest the presence of less diversity and probable functional redundancy within the anodic communities possibly responsible for the stable MFC performance in changing environmental conditions.

  10. Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-02-04

    Activated carbon (AC) is a useful and environmentally sustainable catalyst for oxygen reduction in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but there is great interest in improving its performance and longevity. To enhance the performance of AC cathodes, carbon black (CB) was added into AC at CB:AC ratios of 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15 wt % to increase electrical conductivity and facilitate electron transfer. AC cathodes were then evaluated in both MFCs and electrochemical cells and compared to reactors with cathodes made with Pt. Maximum power densities of MFCs were increased by 9-16% with CB compared to the plain AC in the first week. The optimal CB:AC ratio was 10% based on both MFC polarization tests and three electrode electrochemical tests. The maximum power density of the 10% CB cathode was initially 1560 ± 40 mW/m2 and decreased by only 7% after 5 months of operation compared to a 61% decrease for the control (Pt catalyst, 570 ± 30 mW/m2 after 5 months). The catalytic activities of Pt and AC (plain or with 10% CB) were further examined in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests that minimized mass transfer limitations. The RDE tests showed that the limiting current of the AC with 10% CB was improved by up to 21% primarily due to a decrease in charge transfer resistance (25%). These results show that blending CB in AC is a simple and effective strategy to enhance AC cathode performance in MFCs and that further improvement in performance could be obtained by reducing mass transfer limitations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  11. Bio-Electron-Fenton (BEF) process driven by microbial fuel cells for triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Xiao-Yu; Gu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Yuan-Dong [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Bioenergy Research Institute, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Yan, Zhi-Ying [Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology, Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhou, Jun; Wu, Xia-Yuan [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Bioenergy Research Institute, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Wei, Ping [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Jia, Hong-Hua [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Bioenergy Research Institute, Nanjing TECH University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Zheng, Tao, E-mail: zhengtao@ms.giec.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Nengyuan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yong, Yang-Chun, E-mail: ycyong@ujs.edu.cn [Biofuels Institute, School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the Bio-Electron-Fenton (BEF) process for TPTC degradation. - Highlights: • A Bio-Electro-Fenton process was performed for TPTC degradation. • TPTC removal efficiency achieved 78.32 ± 2.07% within 100 h. • The TPTC degradation rate (0.775 ± 0.021 μmol L{sup −1} h{sup −1}) was much higher than previous reports. - Abstract: The intensive use of triphenyltin chloride (TPTC) has caused serious environmental pollution. In this study, an effective method for TPTC degradation was proposed based on the Bio-Electron-Fenton process in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The maximum voltage of the MFC with graphite felt as electrode was 278.47% higher than that of carbon cloth. The electricity generated by MFC can be used for in situ generation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to a maximum of 135.96 μmol L{sup −1} at the Fe@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3(*)}/graphite felt composite cathode, which further reacted with leached Fe{sup 2+} to produce hydroxyl radicals. While 100 μmol L{sup −1} TPTC was added to the cathodic chamber, the degradation efficiency of TPTC reached 78.32 ± 2.07%, with a rate of 0.775 ± 0.021 μmol L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. This Bio-Electron-Fenton driving TPTC degradation might involve in Sn−C bonds breaking and the main process is probably a stepwise dephenylation until the formation of inorganic tin and CO{sub 2}. This study provides an energy saving and efficient approach for TPTC degradation.

  12. Substrate-enhanced microbial fuel cells for improved remote power generation from sediment-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farzaneh; Richard, Tom L; Brennan, Rachel A; Logan, Bruce E

    2007-06-01

    A sediment microbial fuel cell (MFC) produces electricity through the bacterial oxidation of organic matter contained in the sediment. The power density is limited, however, due in part to the low organic matter content of most marine sediments. To increase power generation from these devices, particulate substrates were added to the anode compartment. Three materials were tested: two commercially available chitin products differing in particle size and biodegradability (Chitin 20 and Chitin 80) and cellulose powder. Maximum power densities using chitin in this substrate-enhanced sediment MFC (SEM) were 76 +/- 25 and 84 +/- 10 mW/m2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area) for Chitin 20 and Chitin 80, respectively, versus less than 2 mW/m2 for an unamended control. Power generation over a 10 day period averaged 64 +/- 27 mW/ m2 (Chitin 20) and 76 +/- 15 mW/m2 (Chitin 80). With cellulose, a similar maximum power was initially generated (83 +/- 3 mW/m2), but power rapidly decreased after only 20 h. Maximum power densities over the next 5 days varied substantially among replicate cellulose-fed reactors, ranging from 29 +/- 12 to 62 +/- 23 mW/m2. These results suggest a new approach to power generation in remote areas based on the use of particulate substrates. While the longevity of the SEM was relatively short in these studies, it is possible to increase operation times by controlling particle size, mass, and type of material needed to achieve desired power levels that could theoretically be sustained over periods of years or even decades.

  13. A comparison of bioelectricity in microbial fuel cells with aerobic and anaerobic anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2014-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can, besides running on wastewater, also derive energy directly from certain aquatic plants. However, few studies have focussed on electricity generation using aerobic anodes. This study presents a comparison of the MFC performances of an anaerobic-anode MFC (ana-MFC) and an aerobic-anode MFC (aa-MFC), and shows their individual conditions for optimal operation. Results show that the maximum power density of 7.07 +/- 0.45 mW/m2 for the ana-MFC occurred at 500 omega, whereas the aa-MFC had a maximum power density of 2.34 +/- 0.16 mW/m2 at 2200 omega. The ana-MFC generally achieved high electricity generation, and the aa-MFC achieved relatively high electricity generation when fed with a diluted substrate. In the ana-MFC, the optimal substrate for electricity generation was glucose (fermentable substrate); however, glucose and acetic acid (non-fermentable substrate) were both suitable substrates for the aa-MFC. The optimal gas retention times of the ana-MFC and the aa-MFC were 9 and 120 s, respectively. This retention time is an important limiting factor of electricity generation for the ana-MFC. The aa-MFCs fed with different substrates exhibited non-significant differences between bacterial communities. We observed the relative diversities of bacterial communities in the ana-MFC fed with various substrates. The results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis suggest that Ochrobactrum intermedium, Delftia acidovorans, and Citrobacterfreundii may be potential electrogenic bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing the MFC performances of anaerobic and aerobic anodes.

  14. Effects of evolving quality of landfill leachate on microbial fuel cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Simeng; Chen, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a novel technology for landfill leachate treatment with simultaneous electric power generation. In recent years, more and more modern landfills are operating as bioreactors to shorten the time required for landfill stabilization and improve the leachate quality. For landfills to operate as biofilters, leachate is recirculated back to the landfill, during which time the organics of the leachate can be decomposed. Continuous recirculation typically results in evolving leachate quality, which chronologically corresponds to evolution stages such as hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, methanogenesis, and maturation. In this research, variable power generation (160 to 230 mW m -2 ) by MFC was observed when leachate of various evolutionary stages was used as the feed. The power density followed a Monod-type kinetic model with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) equivalent of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) ( p < 0.001). The coulombic efficiency decreased from 20% to 14% as the leachate evolved towards maturation. The maximum power density linearly decreased with the increase of internal resistance, resulting from the change of the conductivity of the solution. The decreased conductivity boosted the internal resistance and consequently limited the power generation. COD removal as high as 90% could be achieved with leachate extracted from appropriate evolutionary stages, with a maximum energy yield of 0.9 kWh m -3 of leachate. This study demonstrated the importance of the evolving leachate quality in different evolutionary stages for the performance of leachate-fed MFCs. The leachate extracted from acidogenesis and acetogenesis were optimal for both COD reduction and energy production in MFCs.

  15. Air-cathode structure optimization in separator-coupled microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2011-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) with 30% wet-proofed air cathodes have previously been optimized to have 4 diffusion layers (DLs) in order to limit oxygen transfer into the anode chamber and optimize performance. Newer MFC designs that allow close electrode spacing have a separator that can also reduce oxygen transfer into the anode chamber, and there are many types of carbon wet-proofed materials available. Additional analysis of conditions that optimize performance is therefore needed for separator-coupled MFCs in terms of the number of DLs and the percent of wet proofing used for the cathode. The number of DLs on a 50% wet-proofed carbon cloth cathode significantly affected MFC performance, with the maximum power density decreasing from 1427 to 855mW/m 2 for 1-4 DLs. A commonly used cathode (30% wet-proofed, 4 DLs) produced a maximum power density (988mW/m 2) that was 31% less than that produced by the 50% wet-proofed cathode (1 DL). It was shown that the cathode performance with different materials and numbers of DLs was directly related to conditions that increased oxygen transfer. The coulombic efficiency (CE) was more affected by the current density than the oxygen transfer coefficient for the cathode. MFCs with the 50% wet-proofed cathode (2 DLs) had a CE of >84% (6.8A/m 2), which was substantially larger than that previously obtained using carbon cloth air-cathodes lacking separators. These results demonstrate that MFCs constructed with separators should have the minimum number of DLs that prevent water leakage and maximize oxygen transfer to the cathode. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Impact of salinity on cathode catalyst performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs)

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xi

    2011-10-01

    Several alternative cathode catalysts have been proposed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but effects of salinity (sodium chloride) on catalyst performance, separate from those of conductivity on internal resistance, have not been previously examined. Three different types of cathode materials were tested here with increasingly saline solutions using single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs. The best MFC performance was obtained using a Co catalyst (cobalt tetramethoxyphenyl porphyrin; CoTMPP), with power increasing by 24 ± 1% to 1062 ± 9 mW/m2 (normalized to the projected cathode surface area) when 250 mM NaCl (final conductivity of 31.3 mS/cm) was added (initial conductivity of 7.5 mS/cm). This power density was 25 ± 1% higher than that achieved with Pt on carbon cloth, and 27 ± 1% more than that produced using an activated carbon/nickel mesh (AC) cathode in the highest salinity solution. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) was used to separate changes in performance due to solution conductivity from those produced by reductions in ohmic resistance with the higher conductivity solutions. The potential of the cathode with CoTMPP increased by 17-20 mV in LSVs when the NaCl addition was increased from 0 to 250 mM independent of solution conductivity changes. Increases in current were observed with salinity increases in LSVs for AC, but not for Pt cathodes. Cathodes with CoTMPP had increased catalytic activity at higher salt concentrations in cyclic voltammograms compared to Pt and AC. These results suggest that special consideration should be given to the type of catalyst used with more saline wastewaters. While Pt oxygen reduction activity is reduced, CoTMPP cathode performance will be improved at higher salt concentrations expected for wastewaters containing seawater. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptation to high current using low external resistances eliminates power overshoot in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Yiying

    2011-10-01

    One form of power overshoot commonly observed with mixed culture microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is doubling back of the power density curve at higher current densities, but the reasons for this type of overshoot have not been well explored. To investigate this, MFCs were acclimated to different external resistances, producing a range of anode potentials and current densities. Power overshoot was observed for reactors acclimated to higher (500 and 5000. Ω) but not lower (5 and 50. Ω) resistances. Acclimation of the high external resistance reactors for a few cycles to low external resistance (5. Ω), and therefore higher current densities, eliminated power overshoot. MFCs initially acclimated to low external resistances exhibited both higher current in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and higher levels of redox activity over a broader range of anode potentials (-0.4 to 0. V; vs. a Ag/AgCl electrode) based on first derivative cyclic voltammetry (DCV) plots. Reactors acclimated to higher external resistances produced lower current in CVs, exhibited lower redox activity over a narrower anode potential range (-0.4 to -0.2. V vs. Ag/AgCl), and failed to produce higher currents above ∼-0.3. V (vs. Ag/AgCl). After the higher resistance reactors were acclimated to the lowest resistance they also exhibited similar CV and DCV profiles. Our findings show that to avoid overshoot, prior to the polarization and power density tests the anode biofilm must adapt to low external resistances to be capable of higher currents. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Comparative metagenomics of anode-associated microbiomes developed in rice paddy-field microbial fuel cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kouzuma

    Full Text Available In sediment-type microbial fuel cells (sMFCs operating in rice paddy fields, rice-root exudates are converted to electricity by anode-associated rhizosphere microbes. Previous studies have shown that members of the family Geobacteraceae are enriched on the anodes of rhizosphere sMFCs. To deepen our understanding of rhizosphere microbes involved in electricity generation in sMFCs, here, we conducted comparative analyses of anode-associated microbiomes in three MFC systems: a rice paddy-field sMFC, and acetate- and glucose-fed MFCs in which pieces of graphite felt that had functioned as anodes in rice paddy-field sMFC were used as rhizosphere microbe-bearing anodes. After electric outputs became stable, microbiomes associated with the anodes of these MFC systems were analyzed by pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and Illumina shotgun metagenomics. Pyrotag sequencing showed that Geobacteraceae bacteria were associated with the anodes of all three systems, but the dominant Geobacter species in each MFC were different. Specifically, species closely related to G. metallireducens comprised 90% of the anode Geobacteraceae in the acetate-fed MFC, but were only relatively minor components of the rhizosphere sMFC and glucose-fed MFC, whereas species closely related to G. psychrophilus were abundantly detected. This trend was confirmed by the phylogenetic assignments of predicted genes in shotgun metagenome sequences of the anode microbiomes. Our findings suggest that G. psychrophilus and its related species preferentially grow on the anodes of rhizosphere sMFCs and generate electricity through syntrophic interactions with organisms that excrete electron donors.

  19. Open external circuit for microbial fuel cell sensor to monitor the nitrate in aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donglin; Liang, Peng; Jiang, Yong; Liu, Panpan; Miao, Bo; Hao, Wen; Huang, Xia

    2018-07-15

    This study employed an open external circuit, rather than a closed circuit applied in previous studies, to operate an microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor for real-time nitrate monitoring, and achieved surprisingly greater sensitivity (4.42 ± 0.3-6.66 ± 0.4 mV/(mg/L)) when the nitrate was at a concentration of 10-40 mg/L, compared to that of the MFC sensor with a closed circuit (0.8 ± 0.05-1.6 ± 0.1 mV/(mg/L)). The MFC sensor operated in open circuit (O-MFC sensor) delivered much more stable performance than that operated in closed circuit (C-MFC sensor) when affected by organic matter (NaAc). The sensitivity of O-MFC sensor was twice that of C-MFC sensor at a low background concentration of organic matter. When organic matter reached a high concentration, the sensitivity of O-MFC sensor remained at an acceptable level, while that of C-MFC sensor dropped to almost zero. Challenged by a combined shock of organic matter and nitrate, O-MFC sensor delivered evident electrical signals for nitrate warning, while C-MFC failed. Another novel feature of this study lies in a new mathematical model to examine the bioanode process of nitrate monitoring. It revealed that lower capacitance of the bioanode in O-MFC was the major contributor to the improved sensitivity of the device. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Diffusion layer characteristics for increasing the performance of activated carbon air cathodes in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of several different types of diffusion layers were systematically examined to improve the performance of activated carbon air cathodes used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). A diffusion layer of carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (CB + PTFE) that was pressed onto a stainless steel mesh current collector achieved the highest cathode performance. This cathode also had a high oxygen mass transfer coefficient and high water pressure tolerance (>2 m), and it had the highest current densities in abiotic chronoamperometry tests compared to cathodes with other diffusion layers. In MFC tests, this cathode also produced maximum power densities (1610 ± 90 mW m−2) that were greater than those of cathodes with other diffusion layers, by 19% compared to Gore-Tex (1350 ± 20 mW m−2), 22% for a cloth wipe with PDMS (1320 ± 70 mW m−2), 45% with plain PTFE (1110 ± 20 mW m−2), and 19% higher than those of cathodes made with a Pt catalyst and a PTFE diffusion layer (1350 ± 50 mW m−2). The highly porous diffusion layer structure of the CB + PTFE had a relatively high oxygen mass transfer coefficient (1.07 × 10−3 cm s−1) which enhanced oxygen transport to the catalyst. The addition of CB enhanced cathode performance by increasing the conductivity of the diffusion layer. Oxygen mass transfer coefficient, water pressure tolerance, and the addition of conductive particles were therefore critical features for achieving higher performance AC air cathodes.

  1. Investigation and Taguchi Optimization of Microbial Fuel Cell Salt Bridge Dimensional Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Dhrupad; Barua, Parimal Bakul; Dey, Nabendu; Nath, Sumitro; Thakuria, Mrinmay; Mallick, Synthia

    2018-01-01

    One major problem of two chamber salt bridge microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is the high resistance offered by the salt bridge to anion flow. Many researchers who have studied and optimized various parameters related to salt bridge MFC, have not shed much light on the effect of salt bridge dimensional parameters on the MFC performance. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of length and cross sectional area of salt bridge and the effect of solar radiation and atmospheric temperature on MFC current output. An experiment has been designed using Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, taking length and cross sectional area of salt bridge as factors having three levels. Nine MFCs were fabricated as per the nine trial conditions. Trials were conducted for 3 days and output current of each of the MFCs along with solar insolation and atmospheric temperature were recorded. Analysis of variance shows that salt bridge length has significant effect both on mean (with 53.90% contribution at 95% CL) and variance (with 56.46% contribution at 87% CL), whereas the effect of cross sectional area of the salt bridge and the interaction of these two factors is significant on mean only (with 95% CL). Optimum combination was found at 260 mm salt bridge length and 506.7 mm2 cross sectional area with 4.75 mA of mean output current. The temperature and solar insolation data when correlated with each of the MFCs average output current, revealed that both external factors have significant impact on MFC current output but the correlation coefficient varies from MFC to MFC depending on salt bridge dimensional parameters.

  2. Electricity generation of single-chamber microbial fuel cells at low temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Shaoan

    2011-01-01

    Practical applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for wastewater treatment will require operation of these systems over a wide range of wastewater temperatures. MFCs at room or higher temperatures (20-35°C) are relatively well studied compared those at lower temperatures. MFC performance was examined here over a temperature range of 4-30°C in terms of startup time needed for reproducible power cycles, and performance. MFCs initially operated at 15°C or higher all attained a reproducible cycles of power generation, but the startup time to reach stable operation increased from 50h at 30°C to 210h at 15°C. At temperatures below 15°C, MFCs did not produce appreciable power even after one month of operation. If an MFC was first started up at temperature of 30°C, however, reproducible cycles of power generation could then be achieved at even the two lowest temperatures of 4°C and 10°C. Power production increased linearly with temperature at a rate of 33±4mW°C-1, from 425±2mWm-2 at 4°C to 1260±10mWm-2 at 30°C. Coulombic efficiency decreased by 45% over this same temperature range, or from CE=31% at 4°C to CE=17% at 30°C. These results demonstrate that MFCs can effectively be operated over a wide range of temperatures, but our findings have important implications for the startup of larger scale reactors where low wastewater temperatures could delay or prevent adequate startup of the system. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Power generation from organic substrate in batch and continuous flow microbial fuel cell operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Ghoreyshi, Ali Asghar; Najafpour, Ghasem; Jafary, Tahereh

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Power generation was investigated in a single MFC at batch and continuous modes. → Continuous MFCs offer some advantages over batch systems for practical applications. → Polarity and cyclic voltammetry, were adopted to analyze experimental data. → OCV was stable for the duration of 72 h of operation time in batch system. → At optimum HRT (6.7 h), maximum output were 1210 mA m -2 and 283 mW m -2 , respectively. -- Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are biochemical-catalyzed systems in which electricity is produced by oxidizing biodegradable organic matters in presence of either bacteria or enzyme. This system can serve as a device for generating clean energy and, also wastewater treatment unit. In this paper, production of bioelectricity in MFC in batch and continuous systems were investigated. A dual chambered air-cathode MFC was fabricated for this purpose. Graphite plates were used as electrodes and glucose as a substrate with initial concentration of 30 g l -1 was used. Cubic MFC reactor was fabricated and inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae PTCC 5269 as active biocatalyst. Neutral red with concentration of 200 μmol l -1 was selected as electron shuttle in anaerobic anode chamber. In order to enhance the performance of MFC, potassium permanganate at 400 μmol l -1 concentration as oxidizer was used. The performance of MFC was analyzed by the measurement of polarization curve and cyclic volatmmetric data as well. Closed circuit voltage was obtained using a 1 kΩ resistance. The voltage at steady-state condition was 440 mV and it was stable for the entire operation time. In a continuous system, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on performance of MFC was examined. The optimum HRT was found to be around 7 h. Maximum produced power and current density at optimum HRT were 1210 mA m -2 and 283 mW m -2 , respectively.

  4. Simultaneous energy generation and UV quencher removal from landfill leachate using a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Novak, John T; Brazil, Brian; He, Zhen

    2017-11-01

    The presence of UV quenching compounds in landfill leachate can negatively affect UV disinfection in a wastewater treatment plant when leachate is co-treated. Herein, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated to remove UV quenchers from a landfill leachate with simultaneous bioelectricity generation. The key operating parameters including hydraulic retention time (HRT), anolyte recirculation rate, and external resistance were systematically studied to maximize energy recovery and UV absorbance reduction. It was found that nearly 50% UV absorbance was reduced under a condition of HRT 40 days, continuous anolyte recirculation, and 10 Ω external resistance. Further analysis showed a total reduction of organics by 75.3%, including the reduction of humic acids, fulvic acids, and hydrophilic fraction concentration as TOC. The MFC consumed 0.056 kWh m -3 by its pump system for recirculation and oxygen supply. A reduced HRT of 20 days with periodical anode recirculation (1 hour in every 24 hours) and 39 Ω external resistance (equal to the internal resistance of the MFC) resulted in the highest net energy of 0.123 kWh m -3 . Granular activated carbon (GAC) was used as an effective post-treatment step and could achieve 89.1% UV absorbance reduction with 40 g L -1 . The combined MFC and GAC treatment could reduce 92.9% of the UV absorbance and remove 89.7% of the UV quenchers. The results of this study would encourage further exploration of using MFCs as an energy-efficient method for removing UV quenchers from landfill leachate.

  5. Altering Anode Thickness To Improve Power Production in Microbial Fuel Cells with Different Electrode Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2013-01-17

    A better understanding of how anode and separator physical properties affect power production is needed to improve energy and power production by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Oxygen crossover from the cathode can limit power production by bacteria on the anode when using closely spaced electrodes [separator electrode assembly (SEA)]. Thick graphite fiber brush anodes, as opposed to thin carbon cloth, and separators have previously been examined as methods to reduce the impact of oxygen crossover on power generation. We examined here whether the thickness of the anode could be an important factor in reducing the effect of oxygen crossover on power production, because bacteria deep in the electrode could better maintain anaerobic conditions. Carbon felt anodes with three different thicknesses were examined to see the effects of thicker anodes in two configurations: widely spaced electrodes and SEA. Power increased with anode thickness, with maximum power densities (604 mW/m 2, 0.32 cm; 764 mW/m2, 0.64 cm; and 1048 mW/m2, 1.27 cm), when widely spaced electrodes (4 cm) were used, where oxygen crossover does not affect power generation. Performance improved slightly using thicker anodes in the SEA configuration, but power was lower (maximum of 689 mW/m2) than with widely spaced electrodes, despite a reduction in ohmic resistance to 10 Ω (SEA) from 51-62 Ω (widely spaced electrodes). These results show that thicker anodes can work better than thinner anodes but only when the anodes are not adversely affected by proximity to the cathode. This suggests that reducing oxygen crossover and improving SEA MFC performance will require better separators. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. High performance monolithic power management system with dynamic maximum power point tracking for microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbay, Celal; Carreon-Bautista, Salvador; Sanchez-Sinencio, Edgar; Han, Arum

    2014-12-02

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) that can directly generate electricity from organic waste or biomass is a promising renewable and clean technology. However, low power and low voltage output of MFCs typically do not allow directly operating most electrical applications, whether it is supplementing electricity to wastewater treatment plants or for powering autonomous wireless sensor networks. Power management systems (PMSs) can overcome this limitation by boosting the MFC output voltage and managing the power for maximum efficiency. We present a monolithic low-power-consuming PMS integrated circuit (IC) chip capable of dynamic maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to maximize the extracted power from MFCs, regardless of the power and voltage fluctuations from MFCs over time. The proposed PMS continuously detects the maximum power point (MPP) of the MFC and matches the load impedance of the PMS for maximum efficiency. The system also operates autonomously by directly drawing power from the MFC itself without any external power. The overall system efficiency, defined as the ratio between input energy from the MFC and output energy stored into the supercapacitor of the PMS, was 30%. As a demonstration, the PMS connected to a 240 mL two-chamber MFC (generating 0.4 V and 512 μW at MPP) successfully powered a wireless temperature sensor that requires a voltage of 2.5 V and consumes power of 85 mW each time it transmit the sensor data, and successfully transmitted a sensor reading every 7.5 min. The PMS also efficiently managed the power output of a lower-power producing MFC, demonstrating that the PMS works efficiently at various MFC power output level.

  7. Life cycle assessment of constructed wetland systems for wastewater treatment coupled with microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Clara; Puigagut, Jaume; Garfí, Marianna

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental impact of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) implemented in constructed wetlands (CWs). To this aim a life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out comparing three scenarios: 1) a conventional CW system (without MFC implementation); 2) a CW system coupled with a gravel-based anode MFC, and 3) a CW system coupled with a graphite-based anode MFC. All systems served a population equivalent of 1500 p.e. They were designed to meet the same effluent quality. Since MFCs implemented in CWs improve treatment efficiency, the CWs coupled with MFCs had lower specific area requirement compared to the conventional CW system. The functional unit was 1m 3 of wastewater. The LCA was performed with the software SimaPro® 8, using the CML-IA baseline method. The three scenarios considered showed similar environmental performance in all the categories considered, with the exception of Abiotic Depletion Potential. In this impact category, the potential environmental impact of the CW system coupled with a gravel-based anode MFC was around 2 times higher than that generated by the conventional CW system and the CW system coupled with a graphite-based anode MFC. It was attributed to the large amount of less environmentally friendly materials (e.g. metals, graphite) for MFCs implementation, especially in the case of gravel-based anode MFCs. Therefore, the CW system coupled with graphite-based anode MFC appeared as the most environmentally friendly solution which can replace conventional CWs reducing system footprint by up to 20%. An economic assessment showed that this system was around 1.5 times more expensive than the conventional CW system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomass-derived heteroatoms-doped mesoporous carbon for efficient oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Zhu, Nengwu; Yin, Fuhua; Yang, Tingting; Wu, Pingxiao; Dang, Zhi; Liu, Meilin; Wei, Xiaorong

    2017-12-15

    Currently, the development of less expensive, more active and more stable catalysts like heteroatom-doped carbon based non-precious metal materials are highly desired for the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Comparing with heteroatom sources from chemical reagents, biomass is notably inexpensive and abundant, containing more elements which contribute to ORR activity. Herein, we demonstrate an easy operating one-step and low-cost way to synthesize egg-derived heteroatoms-doped mesoporous carbon (EGC) catalysts utilizing egg as the biomass carbon and other elements source (sulphur, phosphorus, boron and iron), and porous g-C 3 N 4 as both template and nitrogen source. After carbonized, such hybrid materials possess an outstanding electrocatalytic activity towards ORR comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst in neutral media. Electrochemical detections as cyclic voltammogram and rotating ring-disk electrode tests show that the potential of oxygen reduction peak of EGC1-10-2 is at + 0.10V, onset potential is at + 0.257V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and electron transfer number of that is 3.84-3.92, which indicate that EGC1-10-2 via a four-electron pathway. Reactor operation shows that the maximum power density of MFC-EGC1-10-2 (737.1mWm -2 ), which is slightly higher than MFC-Pt/C (20%) (704mWm -2 ). The low cost (0.049 $g -1 ), high yield (20.26%) and high performance of EGC1-10-2 provide a promising alternative to noble metal catalysts by using abundant natural biological resources, which contribute a lot to expansion and commercialization of MFCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Use of Boron-doped Diamond Electrode on Yeast-based Microbial Fuel Cell for Electricity Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzhola, G.; Tribidasari, A. I.; Endang, S.

    2018-01-01

    The dependency of fossil energy in Indonesia caused the crude oil production to be drastically decreased since 2001, while energy consumption increased. In addition, The use of fossil energy can cause several environmental problems. Therefore, we need an alternative environment-friendly energy as solution for these problems. A microbial fuel cell is one of the prospective alternative source of an environment-friendly energy source to be developed. In this study, Boron-doped diamond electrode was used as working electrode and Candida fukuyamaensis as biocatalyst in microbial fuel cell. Different pH of anode compartment (pH 6.5-7.5) and mediator concentration (10-100 μM) was used to produce an optimal electricity. MFC was operated for 3 hours. During operation, the current and voltage density was measured with potensiostat. The maximum power and current density are 425,82 mW/m2 and 440 mA/m2, respectively, for MFC using pH 7.5 at anode compartment without addition of methylene blue. The addition of redox mediator is lowering the produced electricity because of its anti microbial properties that can kill the microbe.

  10. Effects of inoculation sources on the enrichment and performance of anode bacterial consortia in sensor typed microbial fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Tran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells are a recently emerging technology that promises a number of applications in energy recovery, environmental treatment and monitoring. In this study, we investigated the effect of inoculating sources on the enrichment of electrochemically active bacterial consortia in sensor-typed microbial fuel cells (MFCs. Several MFCs were constructed, operated with modified artificial wastewater and inoculated with different microbial sources from natural soil, natural mud, activated sludge, wastewater and a mixture of those sources. After enrichment, the MFCs inoculated with the natural soil source generated higher and more stable currents (0.53±0.03 mA, in comparisons with the MFCs inoculated with the other sources. The results from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE showed that there were significant changes in bacterial composition from the original inocula to the enriched consortia. Even more interestingly, Pseudomonas sp. was found dominant in the natural soil source and also in the corresponding enriched consortium. The interactions between Pseudomonas sp. and other species in such a community are probably the key for the effective and stable performance of the MFCs.

  11. Nanoporous Mo2C functionalized 3D carbon architecture anode for boosting flavins mediated interfacial bioelectrocatalysis in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Long; Lu, Zhisong; Huang, Yunhong; Long, Zhong-er; Qiao, Yan

    2017-08-01

    An efficient microbial electrocatalysis in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) needs both high loading of microbes (biocatalysts) and robust interfacial electron transfer from microbes to electrode. Herein a nanoporous molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) functionalized carbon felt electrode with rich 3D hierarchical porous architecture is applied as MFC anode to achieve superior electrocatalytic performance. The nanoporous Mo2C functionalized anode exhibits strikingly improved microbial electrocatalysis in MFCs with 5-fold higher power density and long-term stability of electricity production. The great enhancement is attributed to the introduction of rough Mo2C nanostructural interface into macroporous carbon architecture for promoting microbial growth with great excretion of endogenous electron shuttles (flavins) and rich available nanopores for enlarging electrochemically active surface area. Importantly, the nanoporous Mo2C functionalized anode is revealed for the first time to have unique electrocatalytic activity towards redox reaction of flavins with more negative redox potential, indicating a more favourable thermodynamic driving force for anodic electron transfer. This work not only provides a promising electrode for high performance MFCs but also brings up a new insight into the effect of nanostructured materials on interfacial bioelectrocatalysis.

  12. Analysis of organic compounds' degradation and electricity generation in anaerobic fluidized bed microbial fuel cell for coking wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Wu, Jianjun; Guo, Qingjie

    2017-12-01

    A single-chambered packing-type anaerobic fluidized microbial fuel cell (AFBMFC) with coking wastewater (CWW) as fuel was built to treat CWW, which not only has high treating efficiency, but also can convert organic matter in wastewater into electricity. AFBMFC was constructed by using anaerobic sludge that was domesticated as inoculation sludge, which was used to biochemically treat CWW. The organic compounds in CWW were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction step by step every day. The extraction phase was concentrated by a rotary evaporator and a nitrogen sweeping device and was analyzed by GC-MS. And the electricity-generation performances of AFBMFC were investigated. The results show that the composition of CWW was complicated, which mainly contains hydrocarbons, phenols, nitrogenous organic compounds, alcohols and aldehydes, esters and acids and so on. After a cycle of anaerobic biochemical treatment, the content of organic compounds in the effluent decreased significantly. After the treatment of AFBMFC, 99.9% phenols, 98.4% alcohol and aldehydes and 95.3% nitrogenous compounds were biodegraded. In the effluent, some new compounds (such as tricosane and dibutyl phthalate) were produced. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of CWW decreased from 3372 to 559 mg/L in the closed-circuit microbial fuel cell, and the COD removal was 83.4 ± 1.0%. The maximum power density of AFBMFC was 2.13 ± 0.01 mW m -2 .

  13. The significance of the initiation process parameters and reactor design for maximizing the efficiency of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guotao; Thygesen, Anders; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mensah, Moses; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Meyer, Anne S

    2014-03-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be used for electricity generation via bioconversion of wastewater and organic waste substrates. MFCs also hold potential for production of certain chemicals, such as H2 and H2O2. The studies of electricity generation in MFCs have mainly focused on the microbial community formation, substrate effect on the anode reaction, and the cathode's catalytic properties. To improve the performance of MFCs, the initiation process requires more investigation because of its significant effect on the anodic biofilm formation. This review explores the factors which affect the initiation process, including inoculum, substrate, and reactor configuration. The key messages are that optimal performance of MFCs for electricity production requires (1) understanding of the electrogenic bacterial biofilm formation, (2) proper substrates at the initiation stage, (3) focus on operational conditions affecting initial biofilm formation, and (4) attention to the reactor configuration.

  14. Strategies for merging microbial fuel cell technologies in water desalination processes: Start-up protocol and desalination efficiency assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, Zulema; Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Ortiz, Juan Manuel

    2017-07-01

    Microbial Desalination Cells constitute an innovative technology where microbial fuel cell and electrodialysis merge in the same device for obtaining fresh water from saline water with no energy-associated cost for the user. In this work, an anodic biofilm of the electroactive bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens was able to efficiently convert the acetate present in synthetic waste water into electric current (j = 0.32 mA cm-2) able to desalinate water. .Moreover, we implemented an efficient start-up protocol where desalination up to 90% occurred in a desalination cycle (water production:0.308 L m-2 h-1, initial salinity: 9 mS cm-1, final salinity: optimized for time but also simplifies operational procedures making it a more feasible strategy for future scaling-up of MDCs either as a single process or as a pre-treatment method combined with other well established desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO) or reverse electrodialysis.

  15. Increased Power in Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell: Facilitated Mass Transfer via a Water-Layer Anode Embedded in Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yoo Seok; An, Junyeong; Kim, Bongkyu; Park, HyunJun; Kim, Jisu; Chang, In Seop

    2015-01-01

    We report a methodology for enhancing the mass transfer at the anode electrode of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs), by employing a fabric baffle to create a separate water-layer for installing the anode electrode in sediment. The maximum power in an SMFC with the anode installed in the separate water-layer (SMFC-wFB) was improved by factor of 6.6 compared to an SMFC having the anode embedded in the sediment (SMFC-woFB). The maximum current density in the SMFC-wFB was also 3.9 times highe...

  16. Role of metal/silicon semiconductor contact engineering for enhanced output current in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2013-11-25

    We show that contact engineering plays an important role to extract the maximum performance from energy harvesters like microbial fuel cells (MFCs). We experimented with Schottky and Ohmic methods of fabricating contact areas on silicon in an MFC contact material study. We utilized the industry standard contact material, aluminum, as well as a metal, whose silicide has recently been recognized for its improved performance in smallest scale integration requirements, cobalt. Our study shows that improvements in contact engineering are not only important for device engineering but also for microsystems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Architecture engineering of hierarchically porous chitosan/vacuum-stripped graphene scaffold as bioanode for high performance microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Qiao, Yan; Li, Chang Ming; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2012-09-12

    The bioanode is the defining feature of microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology and often limits its performance. In the current work, we report the engineering of a novel hierarchically porous architecture as an efficient bioanode, consisting of biocompatible chitosan and vacuum-stripped graphene (CHI/VSG). With the hierarchical pores and unique VSG, an optimized bioanode delivered a remarkable maximum power density of 1530 mW m(-2) in a mediator-less MFC, 78 times higher than a carbon cloth anode.

  18. Bacterial community shift and incurred performance in response to in situ microbial self-assembly graphene and polarity reversion in microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfeng; Zhang, Lihua; Hu, Yongyou; Huang, Wantang; Niu, Zhuyu; Sun, Jian

    2017-10-01

    In this work, bacterial community shift and incurred performance of graphene modified bioelectrode (GM-BE) in microbial fuel cell (MFC) were illustrated by high throughput sequencing technology and electrochemical analysis. The results showed that Firmicutes occupied 48.75% in graphene modified bioanode (GM-BA), while Proteobacteria occupied 62.99% in graphene modified biocathode (GM-BC), both were dominant bacteria in phylum level respectively. Typical exoelectrogens, including Geobacter, Clostridium, Pseudomonas, Geothrix and Hydrogenophaga, were counted 26.66% and 17.53% in GM-BA and GM-BC. GM-BE was tended to decrease the bacterial diversity and enrich the dominant species. Because of the enrichment of exoelectrogens and excellent electrical conductivity of graphene, the maximum power density of MFC with GM-BA and GM-BC increased 33.1% and 21.6% respectively, and the transfer resistance decreased 83.8% and 73.6% compared with blank bioelectrode. This study aimed to enrich the microbial study in MFC and broaden the development and application for bioelectrode. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improved petroleum refinery wastewater treatment and seawater desalination performance by combining osmotic microbial fuel cell and up-flow microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevda, Surajbhan; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M

    2017-12-09

    The petroleum refinery wastewater which is a product of petroleum refinery has a high organic content. This study explores the utilization of petroleum refinery wastewater collected from petroleum refinery as a resource for bioelectricity generation and using this energy for salt removal from seawater in a hydraulically connected osmotic microbial fuel cell (OsMFC) and up flow microbial desalination cell (UMDC). Anaerobic mixed sludge was used in the anodic chamber of OsMFC and UMDC. Petroleum refinery wastewater was fed first into the OsMFC and then transferred to the UMDC. The OsMFC and UMDC were connected to 1000 and 100 Ω external resistance respectively. Experimental results showed that the combined system could remove 93% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the petroleum refinery wastewater whilst 48% salts were removed from the seawater. Experimental results showed that this complex wastewater can be treated and produce bioelectricity, with COD removal and salt removal. The hydraulically connected OsMFC and up flow MDC provide a suitable platform for wastewater treatment and seawater desalination.

  20. Two-stage conversion of crude glycerol to energy using dark fermentation linked with microbial fuel cell or microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chookaew, Teera; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-03-25

    Crude glycerol is a main byproduct of the biodiesel industry, and the beneficial use of waste glycerol has been a major challenge. This study characterises the conversion of crude glycerol into bioenergy such as H2 and electricity using a two-stage process linking dark fermentation with a microbial fuel cell (MFC) or microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The results showed that fermentation achieved a maximum H2 rate of 332 mL/L and a yield of 0.55 mol H2/mol glycerol, accompanied by 20% of organic removal. Fed with the raw fermentation products with an initial COD of 7610 mg/L, a two-chamber MFC produced 92 mW/m(2) in power density and removed 50% of COD. The Columbic efficiency was 14%. When fed with 50% diluted fermentation product, a similar power output (90m W/m(2)) and COD removal (49%) were obtained, but the CE doubled to 27%. Similar substrates were used to produce H2 in two-chamber MECs, and the diluted influent had a higher performance, with the highest yield at 106 mL H2/g COD and a CE of 24%. These results demonstrate that dark fermentation linked with MFC/MEC can be a feasible option for conversion of waste glycerol into bioenergy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.