WorldWideScience

Sample records for tubular flow-through electrodes

  1. A tubular electrode for radiofrequency ablation therapy

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Carlos Lemos Lemos Lemos

    2012-07-06

    Purpose – Due to its good mechanical and biocompatibility characteristics, nitinol SEMS is a popular endoprothesis used for relieving stricture problems in hollow organs due to carcinomas. Besides its mechanical application, SEMS can be regarded as well as potential electrode for performing RF ablation therapy on the tumor. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical and experimental analyses in order to characterize the lesion volume induced in biological tissue using this kind of tubular electrode. Design/methodology/approach – Data concerning electrical conductivity and dimension of the damaged tissue after RF ablation procedure were obtained from ex vivo samples. Next, numerical models using 3D finite element method were obtained reassembling the conditions considered at experimentation setup and results were compared. Findings – Numerical and experimental results show that a regular volume of damaged tissue can be obtained considering this type of electrode. Also, results obtained from numerical simulation are close to those obtained by experimentation. Originality/value – SEMSs, commonly used as devices to minimize obstruction problems due to the growth of tumors, may still be considered as an active electrode for RF ablation procedures. A method considering this observation is presented in this paper. Also, numerical simulation can be regarded in this case as a tool for determining the lesion volume.

  2. Removal of Contaminants from Waste Streams at Gas Evolving Flow-Through Porous Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud Saleh, M.

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques have been used for the removal of inorganic and organic toxic materials from industrial waste streams. One of the most important branch of these electrochemical techniques is the flow-through porous electrode. Such systems allow for the continuous operation and hence continuous removal of the contaminants from waste streams at high rates and high efficiency. However, when there is an evolution of gas bubbles with the removal process, the treatment process needs a much different treatment of both the design and the mathematical treatment of the such these systems. The evolving gas bubbles within the electrode decrease the pore electrolyte conductivity of the porous electrodes, decrease the efficiency and make the current more non-uniform. This cause the under utilization of the reaction area and finally make the electrode inoperable. In this work the harmful effects of the gas bubbles on the performance of the porous electrode will be modeled. The model accounts for the effects of kinetic, mass transfer and gas bubbles resistance on the overall performance of the electrode. This will help in optimizing the operating conditions and the cell design

  3. APPLICATION OF FLOW-THROUGH THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRODES FOR REGENERATION OF PLATING IRON ELECTROLYTES: 1. MATHEMATICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Kоshev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of electrochemical processes distribution within the three-dimensional flow-through electrode for the system Fe(III/Fe(II/Fe is described in this paper, considering also the electrochemical reactions of hydrogen and molecular oxygen reduction. Possible dynamic changes in the parameters of electrode, electrolyte and the process are taken into account in the mathematical model, such as electro-conductivity of electrode material, electrolyte flow rate, material porosity and specific electrode surface, concentrations of electro-active substances and other characteristics within the local volume of electrode. Electrode and process characteristics are treated as time and coordinate functions within the electrode volume. The results of calculations and experimental studies of iron electro-reduction are given, the analysis of the numerical modeling is provided.

  4. Rapid detection of defects in fuel-cell electrodes using infrared reactive-flow-through technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prodip K.; Weber, Adam Z.; Bender, Guido; Manak, Austin; Bittinat, Daniel; Herring, Andrew M.; Ulsh, Michael

    2014-09-01

    As fuel cells become more prominent, new manufacturing and production methods will need to be developed to deal efficiently and effectively with increased demand. One necessary component of this industrial growth is the accurate measurement of the variability in the manufacturing process. In this study, we present a diagnostic system that combines infrared thermography with a reactive-flow-through technique to detect catalyst-loading defects in fuel-cell gas-diffusion electrodes accurately with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Experimental results are compared with model predictions of thermal response with good agreement. Data analysis, operating-condition impacts, and detection limits are explored using both experiments and simulation. Overall, the results demonstrate the potential of this technique to measure defects on the millimeter length scale with temporal resolutions appropriate for use on a web-line. Thus we present the first development stage of a next-generation non-destructive diagnostic tool, which may be amenable to eventual use on roll-to-roll manufacturing lines.

  5. The monitoring of methane fermentation in sequencing batch bioreactor with flow-through array of miniaturized solid state electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowska, Agnieszka; Witkowska, Emilia; Górski, Lukasz; Zamojska, Anna; Szewczyk, Krzysztof W; Wróblewski, Wojciech; Ciosek, Patrycja

    2010-06-15

    Electronic tongues (ETs) based on potentiometric sensor arrays are often used for foodstuff classification, origin recognition, estimation of complex samples' properties, etc. In the last few years they were also applied for various fermentation monitoring, such as Aspergillus niger fermentation, light cheese production, batch Escherichia coli fermentation, as a devices capable of fast, inexpensive, automated and on-line control of the process. In this work a novel application for ET is proposed-flow-through array of solid state electrodes was used for the analysis of samples obtained during methane fermentation (anaerobic digestion) of whey in sequencing batch bioreactor, according to their volatile fatty acid (VFA) content and chemical oxygen demand (COD).

  6. Potentiometric determination of acetylsalicylic acid by sequential injection analysis (SIA) using a tubular salicylate-selective electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paseková, H; Sales, M G; Montenegro, M C; Araújo, A N; Polásek, M

    2001-03-01

    This paper deals with the development of an automated procedure for formulation assays and dissolution tests based on a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system involving an ion-selective electrode as sensing device. Construction of a tubular salicylate (Sal) selective electrode suitable for potentiometric determination of acetylsalicylic acid (Asa) in pharmaceutical formulations is described. The flow-through electrode is formed by a PVC membrane containing 29.2% (w/w) PVC, 5.8% (w/w) tetraoctylammonium salicylate (ionic sensor), 58.5% o-nitrophenyloctylether (plasticizer) and 6.5% (w/w) p-tert-octylphenol (stabilising additive which increases electrode selectivity). The calibration range is 0.05--10 mM Sal, the limit of detection (LOD) is 0.05 mM Sal, the slope is 56.0 mV per decade at 22 degrees C. The R.S.D. is 0.20% (15 readings) when determining 2.5 mM Sal in standard solution. The electrode is used for sensing Asa after its on-line chemical hydrolysis to Sal in a SIA system. The sampling rate is 6 h(-1) but for the dissolution tests the frequency is increased to 20 h(-1). The SIA set-up is employed for the assay of Asa in plain tablets, composed tablets and effervescent tablets and for performing dissolution tests of normal and sustained release tablets. Results obtained by this technique compare well with those required by the US Pharmacopoeia XXIV.

  7. Geometry optimization of tubular dielectric elastomer actuators with anisotropic metallic electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechenbach, Björn; Willatzen, Morten; Sarban, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimentally verified static three-dimensional model for core free tubular dielectric elastomer actuators with anisotropic compliant metal electrodes. Due to the anisotropy of the electrodes, the performance (force versus voltage, force versus stroke, and stroke versus...

  8. Hydrogen production from a rectangular horizontal filter press Divergent Electrode-Flow-Through (DEFT™) alkaline electrolysis stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, M. I.; Kriek, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    A membraneless Divergent Electrode-Flow-Through (DEFT™) alkaline electrolyser, for unlocking profitable hydrogen production by combining a simplistic, inexpensive, modular and durable design, capable of overcoming existing technology current density thresholds, is ideal for decentralised renewable hydrogen production, with the only requirement of electrolytic flow to facilitate high purity product gas separation. Scale-up of the technology was performed, representing a deviation from the original tested stack design, incorporating elongated electrodes housed in a filter press assembly. The pilot plant operating parameters were limited to a low flow velocity range (0.03 m s-1 -0.04 m s-1) with an electrode gap of 2.5 mm. Performance of this pilot plant demonstrated repeatability to results previously obtained. Mesh electrodes with geometric area of 344.32 cm2 were used for plant performance testing. A NiO anode and Ni cathode combination developed optimal performance yielding 508 mA cm-2 at 2 VDC in contrast to a Ni anode and cathode combination providing 467 mA cm-2 at 2.26 VDC at 0.04 m s-1, 30% KOH and 80 °C. An IrO2/RuO2/TiO2 anode and Pt cathode combination underwent catalyst deactivation. Owing to the nature of the gas/liquid separation system, gas qualities were inadequate compared to results achieved previously. Future improvements will provide qualities similar to results achieved before.

  9. Removal of Lead Ions From Waste streams Using Flowing-Through Porous Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deab, M.S.; Saleh, M.M.; El-Anadouli, B.E.; Ateya, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    Packed bed electrodes, made of stacked screens, have been used as cathodes for the removal of lead ions from flowing alkaline electrolytes. We consider the coulombic efficiency ξ =ipb/(ipb+iH), and the collection efficiency given by ψ=i L (exp)/nFvc, where i L (exp) is the geometric limiting current for lead deposition. Two regions are defined in the current-potential relations, depending on whether hydrogen evolution does, or does not, contribute to the measured current, corresponding to ξ less than, or equal to, 100%, respectively. The geometric limiting current, i L (exp), increases with increase of v. The collection efficiency ψ increases as v decreases and/or L increases. Operating the cell at higher flow rates increases the overall coulombic efficiency, over a broader range of cell currents

  10. The evaluation of the polarization resistance in a tubular electrode and its application to the hydrogen electrode reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, M.A.; Marozzi, C.A.; Chialvo, M.R. Gennero de; Chialvo, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    An alternative method for the determination of the kinetic parameters involved in the elementary steps of the reaction mechanism of the hydrogen electrode reaction is proposed. It is based on the determination of the variation of the polarization resistance in a tubular platinum electrode with a laminar flow of electrolyte as a function of the activity of protons of the electrolyte solution. A theoretical expression that relates the experimental variables and the equilibrium polarization resistance is developed, which takes into account the current distribution along the electrode surface. The results are compared with others obtained previously, contributing to the verification of the kinetic mechanism through a completely different experimental procedure

  11. Design, Preparation and Performance Study of On-Chip Flow-Through Amperometric Sensors with an Integrated Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the reference potential stability of on-chip amperometric sensors, we propose a novel integrated Ag/AgCl reference electrode structure. This structure can refresh the saturated potassium chloride filling solution surrounding the Ag/AgCl electrode. We then designed a flow-through amperometric sensor and a multilayer microfluidic chip based on the integrated reference electrode. In order to improve the detection signal strength of the flow-through sensor, a numerical simulation model was established. The simulation results showed that a combination of (1 using a step-type detection cell structure that maintains micro-channel width while reducing micro-channel height, and (2 controlling the sample flow rate to limit the mass transfer of the sensor surface effectively, improves the detection signal strength. The step-type detection cell structure had dimensions of 200 μm × 200 μm × 100 μm (length × width × height, and the electroosmotic flow driving voltage was 120 V/cm. Finally, successful trace detection of Mg2+ and Pb2+ in the water was achieved using the amperometric sensor and microfluidic chip: detection limits were 5 μmol/L and 84 μmol/L. The preparation of an on-chip flow-through amperometric sensor with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference electrode will facilitate improved portability of microfluidic detection technology.

  12. Measuring of electrical changes induced by in situ combustion through flow-through electrodes in a laboratory sample of core material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David O.; Montoya, Paul C.; Wayland, Jr., James R.

    1986-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for obtaining accurate dynamic measurements for passage of phase fronts through a core sample in a test fixture. Flow-through grid structures are provided for electrodes to permit data to be obtained before, during and after passage of a front therethrough. Such electrodes are incorporated in a test apparatus for obtaining electrical characteristics of the core sample. With the inventive structure a method is provided for measurement of instabilities in a phase front progressing through the medium. Availability of accurate dynamic data representing parameters descriptive of material characteristics before, during and after passage of a front provides a more efficient method for enhanced recovery of oil using a fire flood technique.

  13. Construction and evaluation of PVC conventional and tubular tripelennamine-selective electrodes: their application in pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J L; Montenegro, M C; Sales, M G

    1996-06-01

    The construction and evaluation of tripelennamine conventionally-shaped ion-selective electrodes and tubular detectors for the determination of this compound in pharmaceutical formulations are described. Electrodes with conventional configuration have been constructed without an internal reference solution, using several types of immobilized ionic sensors in PVC. The different electrode membranes were prepared by using tripelennamine tetraphenylborate as ionic-exchanger, dissolved in 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (type A), dibutylphthalate (type B) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (type C) as plasticizer solvents. The general working characteristics of the different types of conventional electrodes were evaluated in tripelennamine solutions, with adjusted ionic strength, showing a linear response in the concentration range of about 4 x 10(-5) - 1 x 10(-1) M and a slope near the theoretical value. The electrodes presented a fast response (> 20 s) and a high reproducibility (> or = 0.2 mV per day). The electrode selectivity in the presence of some interferents, such as sodium, potassium, lithium, ammonium, chlorpheniramine, diphenydramine, promethazine, meclizine and pentazocine, was good, particularly for those whose sensor membrane was prepared with tripelennamine tetraphenylborate dissolved in 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (type A). Tubular detectors were also prepared using the same sensor membrane and were evaluated in a low-dispersion flow-injection manifold. Under these conditions the detectors presented response characteristics similar to those of the corresponding conventionally-shaped electrodes. The analysis of different pharmaceutical forms (creams, syrups and gels) gave good results with mean recoveries of 99.8-100.6% when the experiments were conducted by direct potentiometry and 99.9-100.4% where the same determinations were conducted by flow-injection analysis with tubular detectors.

  14. Removal of Particulate Matter in a Tubular Wet Electrostatic Precipitator Using a Water Collection Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the effective control devices of air pollutants, the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP is an effective technique to eliminate acid mist and fine particles that are re-entrained in a collection electrode. However, its collection efficiency can deteriorate, as its operation is subject to water-induced corrosion of the collection electrode. To overcome this drawback, we modified the wet ESP system with the installation of a PVC dust precipitator wherein water is supplied as a replacement of the collection electrode. With this modification, we were able to construct a compact wet ESP with a small specific collection area (SCA, 0.83 m2/(m3/min that can acquire a high collection efficiency of fine particles (99.7%.

  15. Electrochemical Oxidation of l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine at a Thiol-Compound-Modified Gold Electrode: Its Application in a Flow-Through Voltammetric Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai-Hao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A flow-electrolytic cell that consists of a bare gold wire or of different thiol-compound-modified gold electrodes (such as 2,4-thiazolidinedione, 2-mercapto-5-thiazoline, 2-mercaptothiazoline, l-cysteine, thioglycolic acid was designed to be used in a voltammetric detector to identify l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Both l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine are more efficiently electrochemically oxidized on a thiol/gold than on a bare gold electrode. For the DC mode, and for measurements with suitable experimental parameters, a linear concentration from 10 to 1600 ng·mL−1 was found. The limits of quantification for l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine were below 10 ng·mL−1. The method can be applied to the quantitative determination of l-selenomethionine and Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine in commercial selenium-containing supplement products. Findings using high-performance liquid chromatography with a flow-through voltammetric detector and ultraviolet detector are comparable.

  16. On-line continuous monitoring of glucose or lactate by ultraslow microdialysis combined with a flow-through nanoliter biosensor based on poly(m-phenylenediamine) ultra-thin polymer membrane as enzyme electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhemrev-Boom, MM; Jonker, MA; Venema, K; Jobst, G; Tiessen, R; Korf, J

    2001-01-01

    A miniaturised flow-through biosensor with a cell volume of only a few nanoliters was developed in our laboratory. The biosensor can be directly coupled to a microdialysis or ultrafiltration probe. Sampling and continuous on-line monitoring can thus be carried out at submicroliter levels and as a

  17. Flow-through microsensor array based on semipermeable dialysis tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Sebastian; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    1999-11-01

    In this contribution, a flow-through potentiometric micro sensor is described which is based on semi-permeable tubing. Basically the proposed ion selective electrodes are of the liquid membrane type having an internal electrolyte. Sensors were constructed by guiding 0.3 mm diameter dialysis tube from an artificial kidney through a cavity, precision machined in PerspexTM.

  18. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  19. Determination of the effective thickness of a porous electrode in a flow-through reactor: effect of the specific surface area of stainless steel fibres, used as a porous cathode, during the deposition of Ag(I) ions

    OpenAIRE

    Nava Montes de Oca, José Luis; Oropeza Guzmán, Mercedes T.; Ponce de León Albarrán, Carlos; González García, José; Frías Ferrer, Ángel

    2007-01-01

    This study discusses the use of potential distribution analysis during the deposition of metal ions, at limiting current conditions and determines the optimum electrode thickness at which no hydrogen evolution occurs. The potential distribution studies were carried out on stainless-steel fibres of three different surface areas. The fibres were used as cathodic porous electrodes during the deposition of Ag(I) ions contained in 0.1 mol dm? 3 KNO3 and 0.6 mol dm? 3 NH4OH electrolyte. The compari...

  20. Modeling of Cavitating Flow through Waterjet Propulsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-18

    OCT-11 -31-DEC-14 To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modeling of Cavitating Flow through Waterjet Propulsors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-12...239-18 Modeling of Cavitating Flow through Waterjet Propulsors Jules W. Lindau The Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, State...flow nature, waterjets are expected to maintain resistance to cavitation , are amenable to ad- vanced concepts such as thrust vectoring, should

  1. A flow-through cell with integrated coulometric pH actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohm, S.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    1998-01-01

    A flow-through cell with integrated coulometric actuator capable of controlling the pH of a flowing liquid is presented. The cell, consisting of a rectangular channel with a noble metal actuator electrode deposited on the bottom, enables the titration of a moving liquid without the need for pumps

  2. A flow-through amperometric sensor based on dialysis tubing and free enzyme reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohm, S.; Pijanowska, D.G.; Pijanowska, D.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2001-01-01

    A generic flow-through amperometric microenzyme sensor is described, which is based on semi-permeable dialysis tubing carrying the sample to be analyzed. This tubing (300 μm OD) is led through a small cavity, containing the working and reference electrode. By filling this cavity with a few μl of an

  3. Bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus

    filters with specific degrading bacteria. However, degradation efficiency is often hampered by poor adhesion and a lack of sustained catabolic activity of the introduced bacteria. The overall objective of this thesis was to investigate the significance of selected bacterial surface properties...... for degradation performances in flow-through sand columns, with the aim of identifying a suitable inoculant strain for future environmental applications. Another aim was to identify a suitable genetic marker to monitor phenoxy acid degradation in strain Sphingobium sp. PM2. We were not able to link motility...... and biofilm formation to the strains´ ability to adhere to sand. Nevertheless, a correlation was found between cell surface hydrophobicity and adhesion and overall degradation performances in flow-through sand columns. We identified S phingobium sp. PM2 as a promising inoculant strain, displaying efficient...

  4. Flow-through shares for power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howie, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    Financial advantages will occur to power producers in Ontario provided that they are innovative in raising capital needed to take advantage of opportunities offered by the Energy Competition Act of 1998. In the new electricity regime, the availability of long term non-recourse debt financing supported by long term power purchasing from Ontario Hydro will probably decrease. The issuance of flow-through shares is a form of financing that could by available to them for certain projects, and there is the probability that greater equity financing will be needed. These flow-through shares can give investors immediate tax savings, a potential favorable return on their equity investment, and a means of financing certain kinds of power projects

  5. Wind flow through shrouded wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    velocity and model angle were varied . Additionally, static wall pressures and cross section flow were studied with the addition of a screen. The pressure...the geometry of a wind lens or flange on the shroud and a gradually diverging shape, proved to accelerate the flow through the duct. 14. SUBJECT...Tunnel velocity and model angle were varied . Additionally, static wall pressures and cross section flow were studied with the addition of a screen. The

  6. Development of a flow-through system to create occluding thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David N; Flannery, Conor J

    2007-01-01

    Occlusive thrombosis accounts for many heart attacks and strokes. These acute events are difficult to catch in patients and animal test methods may be misleading because anti-thrombotic therapeutics often do not cross-react with different species. This paper presents a new flow-through system that leads to rapid occlusive thrombosis in arterial flow conditions. Whole porcine blood is perfused through a tubular test section. The growing thrombus is visualized in real time from early platelet attachment, through accumulation, to occlusion. The progression of flow rate reduction provides a clear distinguishing parameter between thrombus formation and embolization. Thrombus growth rate is a linear function of very high shear rate beyond 40,000 s(-1). The histology of the thrombus reveals predominantly platelet accumulation and growth as a rough surface with tendrils. This flow-through system may be useful for the economic testing of new anti-thrombosis therapies.

  7. Gas and Oil Flow through Wellbore Flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatambeigi, M.; Anwar, I.; Reda Taha, M.; Bettin, G.; Chojnicki, K. N.; Stormont, J.

    2017-12-01

    We have measured gas and oil flow through laboratory samples that represent two important potential flow paths in wellbores associated with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR): cement-steel interfaces (microannuli) and cement fractures. Cement fractures were created by tensile splitting of cement cores. Samples to represent microannuli were created by placing thin steel sheets within split cement cores so flow is channeled along the cement-steel interface. The test sequence included alternating gas and oil flow measurements. The test fluids were nitrogen and silicone oil with properties similar to a typical crude oil stored in the SPR. After correcting for non-linear (inertial) flow when necessary, flows were interpreted as effective permeability and hydraulic aperture using the cubic law. For both samples with cement fractures and those with cement-steel interfaces, initial gas and oil permeabilities were comparable. Once saturated with oil, a displacement pressure had to be overcome to establish gas flow through a sample, and the subsequent gas permeability were reduced by more than 50% compared to its initial value. Keywords: wellbore integrity, leakage, fracture, microannulus, SPR. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of NTESS/Honeywell, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2017-8168 A

  8. Fluid flow through anisotropic porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telles, A.S.; Massarani, G.

    1975-01-01

    Darcy's equation represents a simplified form of the equation of motion for the fluid flowing through a porous medium. The simplifications concern the elimination of the acceleration, the divergence of the extra stress terms, and the assumption of existence of a linear form in the velocity for the resistive force the fluid exerts upon the solid. This hypothesis may not be valid for all anisotropic media. In some instances, measurements of directional resistivity suggest existence of the resistivity tensor, leaving entirely open the question of symmetry. In connection with this important question, an experimental scheme for the determination of the antisymmetric part of this tensor is suggested. The conclusion is that material symmetries is the only macroscopic concept that imposes restrictions on the form of the resistivity and extra stress tensors [pt

  9. Pressure drop of flow through perforated plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Filho, Jose A.; Navarro, Moyses A.; Magalhaes, Felipe A.P.; Santos, Andre A. Campagnole dos

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first part of a research program devised to develop and validate a CFD methodology to simulate the flow of water through perforated plates with geometry similar to the ones of the bottom end piece of a Pressurized Water Reactor. This component drives the coolant into the core, promotes an adequate mixing of dissolved substances and holds the fuel assembly mechanically. It accounts for a great part of the pressure loss through the core. The experimental pressure losses of water flow through 5 different perforated plates are presented here. The profile of the recovering of the pressure right downstream the plates was also measured. The experimental results were compared with numerical modeling performed with the commercial code CFX 10.0. Three different turbulence models of the two equation type were used in the simulations. The analysis of the results shows that the agreement between calculations and experiments decrease for flows with higher disturbance of the current. (author)

  10. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... glands that produce tears and saliva are destroyed Wilson disease , an inherited disorder in which there is too much copper in the body's tissues Vitamin D deficiency Symptoms Symptoms of proximal renal tubular acidosis include any ...

  11. Atlantic water flow through the Faroese Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hansen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the Faroese Channels – the collective name for a system of channels linking the Faroe–Shetland Channel, Wyville Thomson Basin, and Faroe Bank Channel – there is a deep flow of cold waters from Arctic regions that exit the system as overflow through the Faroe Bank Channel and across the Wyville Thomson Ridge. The upper layers, in contrast, are dominated by warm, saline water masses from the southwest, termed Atlantic water. In spite of intensive research over more than a century, there are still open questions on the passage of these waters through the system with conflicting views in recent literature. Of special note is the suggestion that there is a flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe–Shetland Channel through the Faroe Bank Channel, which circles the Faroes over the slope region in a clockwise direction. Here, we combine the observational evidence from ship-borne hydrography, moored current measurements, surface drifter tracks, and satellite altimetry to address these questions and propose a general scheme for the Atlantic water flow through this channel system. We find no evidence for a continuous flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe–Shetland Channel to the Faroe Bank Channel over the Faroese slope. Rather, the southwestward-flowing water over the Faroese slope of the Faroe–Shetland Channel is totally recirculated within the combined area of the Faroe–Shetland Channel and Wyville Thomson Basin, except possibly for a small release in the form of eddies. This does not exclude a possible westward flow over the southern tip of the Faroe Shelf, but even including that, we estimate that the average volume transport of a Circum-Faroe Current does not exceed 0.5 Sv (1 Sv  =  106 m3 s−1. Also, there seems to be a persistent flow of Atlantic water from the western part of the Faroe Bank Channel into the Faroe–Shetland Channel that joins the Slope Current over the Scottish slope. These conclusions will affect

  12. Atlantic water flow through the Faroese Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bogi; Poulsen, Turið; Margretha Húsgarð Larsen, Karin; Hátún, Hjálmar; Østerhus, Svein; Darelius, Elin; Berx, Barbara; Quadfasel, Detlef; Jochumsen, Kerstin

    2017-11-01

    Through the Faroese Channels - the collective name for a system of channels linking the Faroe-Shetland Channel, Wyville Thomson Basin, and Faroe Bank Channel - there is a deep flow of cold waters from Arctic regions that exit the system as overflow through the Faroe Bank Channel and across the Wyville Thomson Ridge. The upper layers, in contrast, are dominated by warm, saline water masses from the southwest, termed Atlantic water. In spite of intensive research over more than a century, there are still open questions on the passage of these waters through the system with conflicting views in recent literature. Of special note is the suggestion that there is a flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe-Shetland Channel through the Faroe Bank Channel, which circles the Faroes over the slope region in a clockwise direction. Here, we combine the observational evidence from ship-borne hydrography, moored current measurements, surface drifter tracks, and satellite altimetry to address these questions and propose a general scheme for the Atlantic water flow through this channel system. We find no evidence for a continuous flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe-Shetland Channel to the Faroe Bank Channel over the Faroese slope. Rather, the southwestward-flowing water over the Faroese slope of the Faroe-Shetland Channel is totally recirculated within the combined area of the Faroe-Shetland Channel and Wyville Thomson Basin, except possibly for a small release in the form of eddies. This does not exclude a possible westward flow over the southern tip of the Faroe Shelf, but even including that, we estimate that the average volume transport of a Circum-Faroe Current does not exceed 0.5 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1). Also, there seems to be a persistent flow of Atlantic water from the western part of the Faroe Bank Channel into the Faroe-Shetland Channel that joins the Slope Current over the Scottish slope. These conclusions will affect potential impacts from offshore activities in the

  13. Renal tubular acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fernando; Gil-Peña, Helena; Alvarez-Alvarez, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    To facilitate the understanding and knowledge of renal tubular acidosis by providing a summarized information on the known clinical and biochemical characteristics of this group of diseases, by updating the genetic and molecular bases of the primary forms renal tubular acidosis and by examining some issues regarding the diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) in the daily clinical practice. The manuscript presents recent findings on the potential of next-generation sequencing to disclose new pathogenic variants in patients with a clinical diagnosis of primary RTA and negative Sanger sequencing of known genes. The current review emphasizes the importance of measuring urinary ammonium for a correct clinical approach to the patients with metabolic acidosis and discusses the diagnosis of incomplete distal RTA. We briefly update the current information on RTA, put forward the need of additional studies in children to validate urinary indexes used in the diagnosis of RTA and offer a perspective on diagnostic genetic tests.

  14. Gamma flux responsive self-powered detector with a tubular emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    A gamma-sensitive flux detector comprises tubular emitter, an insulating core within the emitter and an insulating layer about the emitter, and a tubular conductive collector electrode about the insulating layer. The emitter material may be platinum, lead, bismuth, tantalum, tungsten; platinum preferred

  15. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue Wilson disease , an inherited disorder in which there is too much copper in the body's tissues Use of certain medicines, such as amphotericin B, lithium, and analgesics Symptoms Symptoms of distal renal tubular acidosis include any ...

  16. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by tests on tubular joints are presented. The joints are T-joints and the loading is static. It is the intention in continuation of these tests to perform tests on other types of joints (e.g. Y-joints) and also with dynamic loading. The purpose of th...

  17. Flow through a Two-Scale Porosity Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Andersson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow through a two-scale porous medium is here investigated by a unique comparison between simulations performed with computational fluid dynamics and the boundary element method with microparticle image velocimetry in model geometries.

  18. Micro-Drilling of Polymer Tubular Ultramicroelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels B. Larsen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT, a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 µm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 µm were reproducibly fabricated. The electrode dimensions were analyzed by SEM after deposition of silver dendrites to visualize the electroactive electrode area. The electrochemical applicability of the electrodes was demonstrated by voltammetric and amperometric detection of ferri-/ferrocyanide. Recorded signals were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM.

  19. Power generation characteristics of tubular type SOFC by wet process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, H.; Nakayama, T. [Kyushu Electric Power Company, Inc., Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroishi, M. [TOTO Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The development of a practical solid oxide fuel cell requires improvement of a cell performance and a cell manufacturing technology suitable for the mass production. In particular tubular type SOFC is thought to be superior in its reliability because its configuration can avoid the high temperature sealing and reduce the thermal stress resulting from the contact between cells. The authors have fabricated a tubular cell with an air electrode support by a wet processing technique, which is suitable for mass production in improving a power density. To enhance the power output of the module, the Integrated Tubular-Type (ITT) cell has been developed. This paper reports the performance of the single cells with various active anode areas and the bundle with series-connected 9-ITT cells with an active anode area of 840 cm{sup 2}.

  20. Boundary control of fluid flow through porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Agus; Foss, Bjarne; Sagatun, Svein Ivar

    2010-01-01

    The flow of fluids through porous media can be described by the Boussinesq’s equation with mixed boundary conditions; a Neumann’s boundary condition and a nonlinear boundary condition. The nonlinear boundary condition provides a means to control the fluid flow through porous media. In this paper...

  1. Modelling flow through unsaturated zones: Sensitivity to unsaturated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    MS received 13 October 1997; revised 20 November 2001. Abstract. A numerical model to simulate moisture flow through unsaturated zones is developed using the finite element method, and is validated by comparing the model results with those available in the literature. The sensitivities of different processes such as ...

  2. A flow-through amperometric sensor micro-analytical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijanowska, D.; Pijanowska, D.G.; Sprenkels, A.J.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of the flow-through amperometric sensor based on semi-permeable dialysis tubing implemented in silicon is presented. The sensor is designed in the form to be an integral component of a lab-on-a-chip systems and it has been successfully incorporated into an integrated

  3. Modelling flow through unsaturated zones: Sensitivity to unsaturated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    water flow through unsaturated zones and study the effect of unsaturated soil parameters on water movement during different processes such as gravity drainage and infiltration. 2. Modelling Richards equation for vertical unsaturated flow. For one-dimensional vertical flow in unsaturated soil, the pressure-head based ...

  4. Stability of Armour Units in Flow Through a Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; C. Thompson, Alex

    1984-01-01

    As part of a program to study the hydraulics of wave attack on rubble mound breakwaters tests were made on model armour units in a steady flow through a layer laid on a slope. The flow angle has little effect on stability for dolosse or rock layers. The head drop at failure across each type...

  5. Experimental studies on the flow through soft tubes and channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    studies were designed to examine whether the compliance of dolphin skins could cause either transition delay, that is, an increase in the Reynolds number for laminar-turbulent transition or a reduction in the turbulence intensities. The first experimental studies on internal flows through conduits bounded by soft walls was.

  6. Flow Through A Horizontal Porous Channel With A Harmonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research work we provide a finite element solution to the problem of the flow through a horizontal channel with a harmonic pressure gradient. Results obtained shows that the velocity and temperature increases with time and that a turning point occurs in the temperature profile due to the viscous dissipation effect.

  7. Hydraulic flow through a channel contraction: multiple steady states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akers, B.; Bokhove, Onno

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated shallow water flows through a channel with a contraction by experimental and theoretical means. The horizontal channel consists of a sluice gate and an upstream channel of constant width $b_0$ ending in a linear contraction of minimum width $b_c$. Experimentally, we observe

  8. Hydraulic flow through a contraction: multiple steady states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akers, B.; Bokhove, Onno

    We consider shallow water flows through a channel with a contraction by experimental and theoretical means. The horizontal channel consists of a sluice gate and an upstream channel of constant width $b_0$ ending in a linear contraction of minimum width $b_c$. Experimentally, we observe upstream

  9. Stability of fluid flow through deformable tubes and channels: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S¯adhan¯a Vol. 40, Part 3, May 2015, pp. 925–943. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Stability of fluid flow through deformable tubes and channels: An overview ... tic solid models. All these studies predict several types of instabilities in flow past deformable surfaces. This paper will attempt to place the various theoretical ...

  10. Modeling of air flow through a narrow crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojek, T.; Cechak, T.; Moucka, L.; Fronka, A.

    2004-01-01

    Radon transport in dwellings is governed to a significant extent by pressure differences and properties of transport pathways. A model of air flow through narrow cracks was created in order to facilitate prediction of air velocity and air flow. Theoretical calculations, based on numerical solution of a system of differential equations, were compared with measurements carried out on a window crack. (P.A.)

  11. Tubular closure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for closing the bore of a tube and releasably securing articles within the tube under longitudinal load. A latching member has a cylindrical section and several circumferentially-spaced elongated latches hanging down from one end of the cylinder. An elongated actuator has integral cam and spline and is partly located within the latch with the cam radially contacting the latches and the spline projecting into the circumferential spaces between the latches. The actuator is axially movable between a position in which the latches are locked to the tube walls and a position in which the latches are secured from contact with the tube walls. Means are provided for axially moving the actuator such that the cam positions the latches; and means are also provided for engaging the articles within the tube. The closure is particularly applicable to tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in reactors

  12. Excimer Lasers With Capacitively Excited Tubular Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Hans J.; Herweg, Helmut; de la Rosa, Jose

    1989-04-01

    The excitation of excimer lasers in tubular discharges results in simple and compact devices needing no preionization. Optical output energies are in the millijoule range. We investigated XeF, KrF and ArF lasers for various operating conditions. The lasers consist of capillary glass tubes with two internal electrodes at the ends and an aluminium-foil wrapped around the tube as capacitive electrode. A maximum output energy of 0.3 mJ has been achieved for the XeF laser. The good quality of the discharge is indicated by the observation of spontaneous mode locking. The detailed study of the discharge for different polarities of the electrodes has shown that efficient operation with a high gas lifetime can be obtained by a purely capacitively excited discharge. A gas lifetime of about 10,000 pulses for 3 litres gas mixture has been observed. Using a two stage Marx generator to generate 100 kV excitation voltage a maximum output energy of 0.7 mJ was obtained for a gas mixture of Kr, F2 and He with an efficiency of 0.17%. The KrF laser operates also without the buffer gas. Laser action in ArF has been achieved with 15 μJ pulse energy and 10 ns duration.

  13. Removal of organic carbon and nitrogen in a membraneless flow-through microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abid; Lebrun, Frédérique Matteau; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated performance of an upflow membraneless microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with flow-through electrodes for wastewater treatment. First, methane production and COD removal were evaluated in continuous flow experiments carried out using synthetic and municipal wastewater. A 29-75% increase in methane production was observed under bioelectrochemical conditions as compared to an anaerobic control. Next, simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen was studied under microaerobic conditions created by continuous air injection to the anodic compartment of the MEC. While the presence of oxygen decreased Coulombic efficiency due to aerobic degradation of COD, enhanced ammonium removal with near zero nitrite and nitrate effluent concentrations was observed. Evidence of direct ammonium oxidation at the anode as well as nitrite and nitrate reduction at the cathode was obtained by comparing performances of MECs operated under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions with the control reactor operated at zero applied voltage. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Numerical computational of fluid flow through a detached retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiann, Lim Yeou; Ismail, Zuhaila; Shafie, Sharidan; Fitt, Alistair

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a phenomenon of fluid flow through a detached retina is studied. Rhegmatogeneous retinal detachment happens when vitreous humour flow through a detached retina. The exact mechanism of Rhegmatogeneous retinal detachment is complex and remains incomplete. To understand the fluid flow, a paradigm mathematical model is developed and is approximated by the lubrication theory. The numerical results of the velocity profile and pressure distribution are computed by using Finite Element Method. The effects of fluid mechanical on the retinal detachment is discussed and analyzed. Based on the analysis, it is found that the retinal detachment deformation affects the pressure distribution. It is important to comprehend the development of the retinal detachment so that a new treatment method can be developed.

  15. On Numerical Simulation of Flow Through Oil Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Iliev, O.; Laptev, V.

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns numerical simulation of flow through oil filters. Oil filters consist of filter housing (filter box), and a porous filtering medium, which completely separates the inlet from the outlet. We discuss mathematical models, describing coupled flows in the pure liquid subregions and in the porous filter media, as well as interface conditions between them. Further, we reformulate the problem in fictitious regions method manner, and discuss peculiarities of the numerical algorithm...

  16. Spatial statistics for predicting flow through a rock fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coakley, K.J.

    1989-03-01

    Fluid flow through a single rock fracture depends on the shape of the space between the upper and lower pieces of rock which define the fracture. In this thesis, the normalized flow through a fracture, i.e. the equivalent permeability of a fracture, is predicted in terms of spatial statistics computed from the arrangement of voids, i.e. open spaces, and contact areas within the fracture. Patterns of voids and contact areas, with complexity typical of experimental data, are simulated by clipping a correlated Gaussian process defined on a N by N pixel square region. The voids have constant aperture; the distance between the upper and lower surfaces which define the fracture is either zero or a constant. Local flow is assumed to be proportional to local aperture cubed times local pressure gradient. The flow through a pattern of voids and contact areas is solved using a finite-difference method. After solving for the flow through simulated 10 by 10 by 30 pixel patterns of voids and contact areas, a model to predict equivalent permeability is developed. The first model is for patterns with 80% voids where all voids have the same aperture. The equivalent permeability of a pattern is predicted in terms of spatial statistics computed from the arrangement of voids and contact areas within the pattern. Four spatial statistics are examined. The change point statistic measures how often adjacent pixel alternate from void to contact area (or vice versa ) in the rows of the patterns which are parallel to the overall flow direction. 37 refs., 66 figs., 41 tabs

  17. SPH numerical simulation of fluid flow through a porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp-Escribano, Jaime; Mayoral-Villa, Estela; Rodriguez-Meza, Mario Alberto; de La Cruz-Sanchez, Eduardo; di G Sigalotti, Leonardo; Inin-Abacus Collaboration; Ivic Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    We have tested an improved a method for 3D SPH simulations of fluid flow through a porous media using an implementation of this method with the Dual-Physics code. This improvement makes it possible to simulate many particles (of the order of several million) in reasonable computer times because its execution on GPUs processors makes it possible to reduce considerably the simulation cost for large systems. Modifications in the initial configuration have been implemented in order to simulate different arrays and geometries for the porous media. The basic tests were reproduced and the performance was analyzed. Our 3D simulations of fluid flow through a saturated homogeneous porous media shows a discharge velocity proportional to the hydraulic gradient reproducing Darcy's law at small body forces. The results are comparable with values obtained in previous work and published in the literature for simulations of flow through periodic porous media. Our simulations for a non saturated porous media produce adequate qualitative results showing that a non steady state is generated. The relaxation time for these systems were obtained. Work partially supported by Cinvestav-ABACUS, CONACyT grant EDOMEX-2011-C01-165873.

  18. Micro-drilling of polymer tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays for electrochemical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan Robert; Skaarup, Steen; Geschke, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 μm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 μm were...... were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM....

  19. Entropy Generation in Laminar Fluid Flow through a Circular Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rached Ben-Mansour

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A numerical solution to the entropy generation in a circular pipe is made. Radial and axial variations are considered. Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates are used to solve the velocity and temperature fields. Uniform wall heat flux is considered as the thermal boundary condition. The distribution of the entropy generation rate is investigated throughout the volume of the fluid as it flows through the pipe. Engine oil is selected as the working fluid. In addition, water and Freon are used in a parametric study. The total entropy generation rate is calculated by integration over the various cross-sections as well as over the entire volume.

  20. Compressible fluid flow through rocks of variable permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1977-01-01

    The effectiveness of course-grained igneous rocks as shelters for burying radioactive waste can be assessed by determining the rock permeabilities at their in situ pressures and stresses. Analytical and numerical methods were used to solve differential equations of one-dimensional fluid flow through rocks with permeabilities from 10 4 to 1 nD. In these calculations, upstream and downstream reservoir volumes of 5, 50, and 500 cm 3 were used. The optimal size combinations of the two reservoirs were determined for measurements of permeability, stress, strain, acoustic velocity, and electrical conductivity on low-porosity, coarse-grained igneous rocks

  1. Characterization of frictional pressure drop for liquid flows through microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judy, J.; Maynes, D.; Webb, B.W. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-08-01

    This paper investigates pressure driven liquid flow through round and square microchannels fabricated from fused silica and stainless steel. Pressure drop data are used to characterize the friction factor for channel diameters in the range 15-150{mu}m and over a Reynolds number range 8-2300. Distilled water, methanol, and isopropanol were used in this study based on their distinct polarity and viscosity properties. Distinguishable deviation from Stokes flow theory was not observed for any channel cross-section, diameter, material, or fluid explored. (author)

  2. The use of air flow through water for water evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashin, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In water desalination system the productivity rate is improved by increasing the rate of eater evaporation either by heating the water or by forcing air to carry more vapor before condensation. This paper describe an experimental investigation into the effect of forcing the air to flow through a hot water contained in a closed tank through a perforated end of inlet tube. When the air bubbles pass through the water, it increases the rate of vaporization. The effect of some operating parameters are investigated and the results are presented and discussed. 6 figs

  3. A parametric model of radioisotopic tracer flow through the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahorski, Z.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the state of a kidney from radiological examination a dynamic model of flow of an isotopic tracer through the kidney, of a convolution type, is commonly used. It is a nonparametric model where the output is related to the input by an integral relation. In this paper a new parametric model of tracer flow through the kidney is presented. It takes to much bigger extent into account the physiology of the tracer flow in kidney than previously proposed compartmental models. It consists of the submodels of flow through nephrons which are in the form of ordinary differential equations with pure delays between input and the output flows. The delay is caused by the time of passage of the isotope through nephrons and depends on the nephron length. It is assumed that the distribution of nephrons of different length is exponential. The renal pelvis is described as the one-compartment model. The solutions of the equations are given for the assumed two-exponential decay of the isotope tracer in the blood following the bolus injection of the tracer. The formulae obtained are then used to simulate the influence of changes in the model parameters, representing the flow condition through the kidney, on the shape of the waveforms depicting time evolution of the amount of the isotope being in the kidney

  4. The influence of following on bidirectional flow through a doorway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Amy; Diamond, Rachel; Saakashvili, Eduard

    Pedestrian dynamics is a subset of the study of self-propelled particles. We simulate two species of pedestrians undergoing bidirectional flow through a narrow doorway. Using the Helbing-Monlár-Farkas-Vicsek Social Force Model, our pedestrians are soft discs that experience psychosocial and physical contact forces. We vary the ``following'' parameter which determines the degree to which a pedestrian matches its direction of movement to the average of nearby, same-species pedestrians. Current density, efficiency and statistics of bursts and lags are calculated. These indicate that choosing different following parameters for each species affects the efficacy of transport - greater following being associated with lower efficacy. The information entropy associated with velocity and the long time tails of the complementary CDF of lag times are additional indicators of the dynamical consequences of following during bidirectional flow. Acknowledgement is made to the donors of the ACS Petrolium Research Fund, and the Vandervelde-Cheung Fund of Swarthmore College.

  5. Bounds on fluid permeability for viscous flow through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    General properties of variational bounds on Darcy's constant for slow viscous flow through porous media are studied. The bounds are also evaluated numerically for the penetrable sphere model. The bound of Doi depending on two-point correlations and the analytical bound of Weissberg and Prager give comparable results in the low density limit but the analytical bound is superior for higher densities. Prager's bound depending on three-point correlation functions is worse than the analytical bound at low densities but better (although comparable to it) at high densities. A procedure for methodically improving Prager's three point bound is presented. By introducing a Gaussian trial function, the three-point bound is improved by an order of magnitude for moderate values of porosity. The new bounds are comparable in magnitude to the Kozeny--Carman empirical relation for porous materials

  6. Loss Prediction of Low Re Flow Through Quasiperiodic Serpentine Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sid

    2017-11-01

    Low Re internal flow through a complex structure whose geometry is regular (periodically uniform) will experience losses that are periodically regular and may be predicted using simple correlations. In many porous media applications this is represented by Darcy's Law. This study considers the prediction of losses through a channel whose geometry is periodic but with characteristic length scales that vary in the direction of bulk flow. Asymptotic expansions of the variation in the characteristic length are implemented in flow simulations in order to determine a correlation relating local hydraulic permeability to local channel geometry. In this way the local losses may be predicted without requiring the explicit solution of the flow field for every specific channel geometry. Several test cases are presented showing that using these correlations, the local pressure losses may predicted to within 0.5% agreement with the solution to the Navier-Stokes Equations.

  7. Flow-through biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Christopher D.; Liu, Chaogang; Bardsley, John

    2014-07-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for biologically converting carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass comprising the steps of: suspending lignocellulosic biomass in a flow-through reactor, passing a reaction solution into the reactor, wherein the solution is absorbed into the biomass substrate and at least a portion of the solution migrates through said biomass substrate to a liquid reservoir, recirculating the reaction solution in the liquid reservoir at least once to be absorbed into and migrate through the biomass substrate again. The biological converting of the may involve hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose, or a combination thereof to form oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof; fermenting oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof to produce ethanol, or a combination thereof. The process can further comprise removing the reaction solution and processing the solution to separate the ethanol produced from non-fermented solids.

  8. Simulation of blood flow through an artificial heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiris, Cetin; Chang, I-Dee; Rogers, Stuart E.; Kwak, Dochan

    1991-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the incompressible viscous flow through a prosthetic tilting disk heart valve is presented in order to demonstrate the current capability to model unsteady flows with moving boundaries. Both steady state and unsteady flow calculations are done by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in 3-D generalized curvilinear coordinates. In order to handle the moving boundary problems, the chimera grid embedding scheme which decomposes a complex computational domain into several simple subdomains is used. An algebraic turbulence model for internal flows is incorporated to reach the physiological values of Reynolds number. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical results and experimental measurements. It is found that the tilting disk valve causes large regions of separated flow, and regions of high shear.

  9. Turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, K.

    1978-04-01

    The turbulent flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle was investigated experimentally by means of hotwires und Pitot-tubes. The aim of this investigation was to get experimental information on the transport properties of turbulent flow especially on the momentum transport. Detailed data were measured of the distributions of the time-mean velocity, the turbulence intensities and, hence the kinetic of turbulence, of the shear stresses in the directions normal and parallel to the walls, and of the wall shear stresses. The pitch-to-diameter ratio of the rods equal to the wall-to-diameter ratio was 1.15, the Reynolds number of this investigation was Re = 1.23.10 5 . On the basis of the measurements the eddy viscosities normal and parallel to the walls were calculated. The eddy viscosities observed showed a considerable deviation from the data known up-to-now and from the assumptions introduced in the codes. (orig.) [de

  10. Numerical simulation of steady and unsteady flows through plane cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fořt, J.; Huněk, M.; Kozel, K.; Lain, J.; Šejna, M.; Vavřincová, M.

    This paper of a few co-authors presents some works of the group of the Department of Technical Mathematics, Faculty of Mechanical Eng., TU Prague, which deals with numerical methods in fluid dynamics. We present numerical methods for a solution of different physical and mathematical models of flow through plane cascades. We use the Mac Cormack's scheme, Ron — Ho — Ni's scheme and Runge — Kutta schemes on H — type structured grid and upwind schemes on an unstructured triangular grid. This methods are used for simulation of steady or unsteady inviscid flow and for simulation of viscous laminar flow. We deal with comparison of different methods mutually and with experimental data and with comparison of different physical and mathematical models of flow used for numerical simulation.

  11. Electrochemical Oxidation of Phenol using a Flow-through Micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrochemical oxidation of phenol to benzoquinone followed by the reduction to hydroquinone and catechol was demonstrated by constructing a three-dimensional porous micro-flow cell from lead dioxideand lead. The electrodes were made by using the principles of curing and formation of lead oxide material that ...

  12. Resistance coefficient during ice slurry flow through pipe sudden constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ł. Mika

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the adverse environmental effects of some commonly-used refrigerants, efforts are still underway to find new cooling mediumsthat would be safer to the ozone layer and would not increase the greenhouse effect. Ice slurry as a new ecological coolant suits theprocesses requiring the preservation of constant and equal temperature in the cooling process of the full section of the cooled solid. Thanks to that, ice slurry can find a wide potential application in such branches of industry, as heat treatment, materials engineering, or foundry. In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as diameter’s reductions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the slurry flow in which the flow qualities depend mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the resistance coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction. The volume fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The recommended and non-recommended range of the Reynolds number for the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction were presented in this paper. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common reductions of copper pipes. Further studies on the determination of the resistance coefficient in the remaining fittings elements of the pipeline were recommended in the paper as well as the further theoretical studies intended to determine the theoretical relations to calculate the resistance coefficient in all the fittings elements in the pipeline (on the basis of the experimental studies and to elaborate the calculation pattern of the entire ice slurry system.

  13. FEWA: a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report documents the implementation and demonstration of a Finite Element model of Water flow through Aquifers (FEWA). The particular features of FEWA are its versatility and flexibility to deal with as many real-world problems as possible. Point as well as distributed sources/sinks are included to represent recharges/pumpings and rainfall infiltrations. All sources/sinks can be transient or steady state. Prescribed hydraulic head on the Dirichlet boundaries and fluxes on Neumann or Cauchy boundaries can be time-dependent or constant. Source/sink strength over each element and node, hydraulic head at each Dirichlet boundary node, and flux at each boundary segment can vary independently of each other. Either completely confined or completely unconfined aquifers, or partially confined and partially unconfined aquifers can be dealt with effectively. Discretization of a compound region with very irregular curved boundaries is made easy by including both quadrilateral and triangular elements in the formulation. Large-field problems can be solved efficiently by including a pointwise iterative solution strategy as an optional alternative to the direct elimination solution method for the matrix equation approximating the partial differential equation of groundwater flow. FEWA also includes transient flow through confining leaky aquifers lying above and/or below the aquifer of interest. The model is verified against three simple cases to which analytical solutions are available. It is then demonstrated by two examples of how the model can be applied to heterogeneous and anisotropic aquifers with transient boundary conditions, time-dependent sources/sinks, and confining aquitards for a confined aquifer of variable thickness and for a free surface problem in an unconfined aquifer, respectively. 20 references, 25 figures, 8 tables

  14. Fabrication and characterization of an all-diamond tubular flow microelectrode for electroanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Laura A; Vidotti, Marcio; Iacobini, James G; Kelly, Chris; Newton, Mark E; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V

    2011-07-15

    The development of the first all-diamond hydrodynamic flow device for electroanalytical applications is described. Here alternate layers of intrinsic (insulating), conducting (heavily boron doped), and intrinsic polycrystalline diamond are grown to create a sandwich structure. By laser cutting a hole through the material, it is possible to produce a tubular flow ring electrode of a characteristic length defined by the thickness of the conducting layer (for these studies ∼90 μm). The inside of the tube can be polished to 17 ± 10 nm surface roughness using a diamond impregnanted wire resulting in a coplanar, smooth, all-diamond surface. The steady-state limiting current versus volume flow rate characteristics for the one electron oxidation of FcTMA(+) are in agreement with those expected for laminar flow in a tubular electrode geometry. For dopamine detection, it is shown that the combination of the reduced fouling properties of boron doped diamond, coupled with the flow geometry design where the products of electrolysis are washed away downstream of the electrode, completely eradicates fouling during electrolysis. This paves the way for incorporation of this flow design into online electroanalytical detection systems. Finally, the all diamond tubular flow electrode system described here provides a platform for future developments including the development of ultrathin ring electrodes, multiple apertures for increased current response, and multiple, individually addressable ring electrodes incorporated into the same flow tube.

  15. Advances in tubular solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, S.C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The design, materials and fabrication processes for the earlier technology Westinghouse tubular geometry cell have been described in detail previously. In that design, the active cell components were deposited in the form of thin layers on a ceramic porous support tube (PST). The tubular design of these cells and the materials used therein have been validated by successful electrical testing for over 65,000 h (>7 years). In these early technology PST cells, the support tube, although sufficiently porous, presented an inherent impedance to air flow toward air electrode. In order to reduce such impedance to air flow, the wall thickness of the PST was first decreased from the original 2 mm (the thick-wall PST) to 1.2 mm (the thin-wall PST). The calcia-stabilized zirconia support tube has now been completely eliminated and replaced by a doped lanthanum manganite tube in state-of-the-art SOFCs. This doped lanthanum manganite tube is extruded and sintered to about 30 to 35 percent porosity, and serves as the air electrode onto which the other cell components are fabricated in thin layer form. These latest technology cells are designated as air electrode supported (AES) cells.

  16. Water Desalination Using Capacitive Deionization with Microporous Carbon Electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Weinstein, L.; Dash, R.; Wal, van der A.F.; Bryjak, M.; Gogotsi, Y.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a water desalination technology in which salt ions are removed from brackish water by flowing through a spacer channel with porous electrodes on each side. Upon applying a voltage difference between the two electrodes, cations move to and are accumulated in

  17. Integral Transport Analysis Results for Ions Flowing Through Neutral Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Gilbert; Santarius, John

    2017-10-01

    Results of a computational model for the flow of energetic ions and neutrals through a background neutral gas will be presented. The method models reactions as creating a new source of ions or neutrals if the energy or charge state of the resulting particle is changed. For a given source boundary condition, the creation and annihilation of the various species is formulated as a 1-D Volterra integral equation that can quickly be solved numerically by finite differences. The present work focuses on multiple-pass, 1-D ion flow through neutral gas and a nearly transparent, concentric anode and cathode pair in spherical, cylindrical, or linear geometry. This has been implemented as a computer code for atomic (3He, 3He +, 3He + +) and molecular (D, D2, D-, D +, D2 +, D3 +) ion and neutral species, and applied to modeling inertial-electrostatic connement (IEC) devices. The code yields detailed energy spectra of the various ions and energetic neutral species. Calculations for several University of Wisconsin IEC and ion implantation devices will be presented. Research supported by US Dept. of Homeland Security Grant 2015-DN-077-ARI095, Dept. of Energy Grant DE-FG02-04ER54745, and the Grainger Foundation.

  18. Magnetohydraulic flow through a packed bed of electrically conducting spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The flow of an electrically conducting fluid through a packed bed of electrically conducting spheres in the presence of a strong magnetic field constitutes a very complex flow situation due to the constant turning of the fluid in and out of magnetic field lines. The interaction of the orthogonal components of the velocity and magnetic field will induce electric fields that are orthogonal to both and the electric fields in turn can cause currents that interact with the magnetic field to generate forces against the direction of flow. The strengths of these generated forces depend primarily upon the closure paths taken by the induced currents which, in turn, depend upon the relative ratio of the electrical resistance of the solid spheres to that of the fluid. Both experimental and analytical analyses of the slow flow of a eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium (NaK) through packed cylinders containing stainless steel spheres in the presence of a strong transverse magnetic field were completed. A theory of magnetohydraulic flow is developed by analogy with the development of hydraulic radius theories of flow through porous media. An exact regional analysis is successfully applied to an infinite bed of electrically conducting spheres with a conducting or non-conducting constraining wall on one side. The equations derived are solved for many different combinations of flowrate, magnetic field strength, porosity, and electrical resistance ratio

  19. A flow-through amperometric sensor based on dialysis tubing and free enzyme reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, S; Pijanowska, D; Olthuis, W; Bergveld, P

    2001-08-01

    A generic flow-through amperometric microenzyme sensor is described, which is based on semi-permeable dialysis tubing carrying the sample to be analyzed. This tubing (300 microm OD) is led through a small cavity, containing the working and reference electrode. By filling this cavity with a few microl of an appropriate enzyme solution, an amperometric enzyme sensor results. As the dialysis tubing is impermeable for large molecular species such as enzymes, this approach does not require any immobilization chemistry, and as a consequence the enzyme is present in its natural free form. Based on this principle, amperometric sensors for lactate, glucose, and glutamate were formed by filling cavities, precision machined in Perspex, with buffered solutions containing respectively, lactate-, glucose-, and glutamate-oxidase. All sensors showed a large linear range (0-35 mM for glucose, 0-3 mM for lactate, and 0-5 mM for glutamate) covering the complete physiological range. The lower detection limit was in the order of 15-50 microM. Applicability in flow injection analysis systems is demonstrated.

  20. Miopatias associadas a agregados tubulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Souza Carvalho

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam a caso de paciente de 58 anos de idade do sexo masculino, com quadro de características miastênicas tanto clínica como eletromiograficamente, no qual a biópsia muscular com histoquímica e microscopia eletrônica permitiu fazer o diagnostico de miopatia associada a agregados tubulares. É chamada a atenção para o fato de que as alterações anátomo-patológicas encontradas podem estar presentes em um grupo heterogêneo de pacientes com grande variedade de sintomas, não havendo portanto motivo para considerar-se a existência de uma miopatia com agregados tubulares, já que os achados anátomo-patológicos são inespecíficos e não configuram moléstia específica.

  1. Current challenges in quantifying preferential flow through the vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, John; Larsbo, Mats; Jarvis, Nick

    2017-04-01

    In this presentation, we give an overview of current challenges in quantifying preferential flow through the vadose zone. A review of the literature suggests that current generation models do not fully reflect the present state of process understanding and empirical knowledge of preferential flow. We believe that the development of improved models will be stimulated by the increasingly widespread application of novel imaging technologies as well as future advances in computational power and numerical techniques. One of the main challenges in this respect is to bridge the large gap between the scales at which preferential flow occurs (pore to Darcy scales) and the scale of interest for management (fields, catchments, regions). Studies at the pore scale are being supported by the development of 3-D non-invasive imaging and numerical simulation techniques. These studies are leading to a better understanding of how macropore network topology and initial/boundary conditions control key state variables like matric potential and thus the strength of preferential flow. Extrapolation of this knowledge to larger scales would require support from theoretical frameworks such as key concepts from percolation and network theory, since we lack measurement technologies to quantify macropore networks at these large scales. Linked hydro-geophysical measurement techniques that produce highly spatially and temporally resolved data enable investigation of the larger-scale heterogeneities that can generate preferential flow patterns at pedon, hillslope and field scales. At larger regional and global scales, improved methods of data-mining and analyses of large datasets (machine learning) may help in parameterizing models as well as lead to new insights into the relationships between soil susceptibility to preferential flow and site attributes (climate, land uses, soil types).

  2. Computing variational bounds for flow through random aggregates of Spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Known formulas for variational bounds on Darcy's constant for slow flow through porous media depend on two-point and three-poiint spatial correlation functions. Certain bounds due to Prager and Doi depending only a two-point correlation functions have been calculated for the first time for random aggregates of spheres with packing fractions (eta) up to eta = 0.64. Three radial distribution functions for hard spheres were tested for eta up to 0.49: (1) the uniform distribution or ''well-stirred approximation,'' (2) the Percus Yevick approximation, and (3) the semi-empirical distribution of Verlet and Weis. The empirical radial distribution functions of Benett andd Finney were used for packing fractions near the random-close-packing limit (eta/sub RCP/dapprox.0.64). An accurate multidimensional Monte Carlo integration method (VEGAS) developed by Lepage was used to compute the required two-point correlation functions. The results show that Doi's bounds are preferred for eta>0.10 while Prager's bounds are preferred for eta>0.10. The ''upper bounds'' computed using the well-stirred approximation actually become negative (which is physically impossible) as eta increases, indicating the very limited value of this approximation. The other two choices of radial distribution function give reasonable results for eta up to 0.49. However, these bounds do not decrease with eta as fast as expected for large eta. It is concluded that variational bounds dependent on three-point correlation functions are required to obtain more accurate bounds on Darcy's constant for large eta

  3. Modeling of Unsteady Flow through the Canals by Semiexact Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Ehsani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of free-surface and pressurized water flows in channels has many interesting application, one of the most important being the modeling of the phenomena in the area of natural water systems (rivers, estuaries as well as in that of man-made systems (canals, pipes. For the development of major river engineering projects, such as flood prevention and flood control, there is an essential need to have an instrument that be able to model and predict the consequences of any possible phenomenon on the environment and in particular the new hydraulic characteristics of the system. The basic equations expressing hydraulic principles were formulated in the 19th century by Barre de Saint Venant and Valentin Joseph Boussinesq. The original hydraulic model of the Saint Venant equations is written in the form of a system of two partial differential equations and it is derived under the assumption that the flow is one-dimensional, the cross-sectional velocity is uniform, the streamline curvature is small and the pressure distribution is hydrostatic. The St. Venant equations must be solved with continuity equation at the same time. Until now no analytical solution for Saint Venant equations is presented. In this paper the Saint Venant equations and continuity equation are solved with homotopy perturbation method (HPM and comparison by explicit forward finite difference method (FDM. For decreasing the present error between HPM and FDM, the st.venant equations and continuity equation are solved by HAM. The homotopy analysis method (HAM contains the auxiliary parameter ħ that allows us to adjust and control the convergence region of solution series. The study has highlighted the efficiency and capability of HAM in solving Saint Venant equations and modeling of unsteady flow through the rectangular canal that is the goal of this paper and other kinds of canals.

  4. Chevron Texaco wants Kazakh oil to flow through Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    Chevron Texaco is offering Slovakia an option for the diversification of its oil stocks. It plans to use the Druzba pipeline to transport about 3 million tons of Kazakhstan oil. Most of it should be delivered to the refinery in Czech Kralupy. Pipeline administrator, the company Transpetrol, rejects the proposal and argues that adjusting the pipeline designed for heavy Russian oil to allow the transmission of light oil would cost over SKK 2 billion (Eur 50.04 million). Transpetrol is managed by Russian concern Yukos. Russian oil companies view Caspian oil as competition and the reaction of Transpetrol only follows in line with this attitude. It may sound paradoxical, but letting Caspian oil flow through the Transpetrol pipelines would help Russian concerns expand to Western European markets. The refinery in Kralupy is connected to the IKL pipeline, which connects the Czech Republic to the German network close to the German refinery in Ingolstadt. The one-way pipeline that the Czech used to decrease their dependency on Russian oil and the Druzba pipeline in the nineties would remain unused and discussions about an investment in a change of flow direction to allow the transport of oil to Germany would take on an entirely new dimension. The interest of Chevron may therefore indicate major changes in the European oil distribution network. If the flow direction of the IKL pipeline were to change, it would not only be possible to transport Caspian oil, but also Russian oil. What's more, both US and Western European companies have their sights set on Czech and German refineries that get their oil form the Caspian region and they are also interested in capital entry to Russian oil concerns. This scenario is likely to come true in the case of Yukos

  5. Impact of normal stress on multiphase flow through rough fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves da Silva Junior, J.; Kang, P. K.; Yang, Z.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Fluid flow and transport through geologic fractures plays a key role in several areas such as groundwater hydrology, geothermal energy, oil and gas production, CO2 sequestration and nuclear waste disposal. High-permeability zones associated with fracture corridors often serve as fast fluid conduits for both single and multiphase flow in otherwise low-permeability media. When multiphase flow occurs, the presence of one phase interferes with the flow of the other phase, resulting in complex displacement patterns through the fracture, and macroscopic descriptors (such as fracture-scale capillary pressure and relative permeability) that depend on the phase concentration of both phases. Here, we investigate the impact of normal stress on single and multiphase flow through rough-walled fractures: (1) we generate synthetic aperture fields that honor the fractal roughness structure observed in real fractures; (2) we model the effect of normal stress on the fracture aperture geometry by solving the contact problem between fracture walls; and (3) we use invasion percolation with trapping to model immiscible fluid displacement and then compute relative permeability numerically for each stress scenario. Our results indicate that normal stress increases the amount of contact area in the fracture wall, which results in an increase of the tortuosity of the available path for fluid displacement. Increasing normal stress results in low relative permeability for the wetting phase due to a decrease of the available path for fluid flow, and therefore a small amount of non-wetting fluid has a large impact on the flow of the wetting fluid. We find that the relative permeability of the non-wetting fluid shows less variation with stress than the wetting fluid, and that both fluids exhibit strong phase interference at intermediate saturations. Finally, we show early results from our experimental work currently underway to validate the modeling results.

  6. Mercury flow through an Asian rice-based food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysinghe, Kasun S; Qiu, Guangle; Goodale, Eben; Anderson, Christopher W N; Bishop, Kevin; Evers, David C; Goodale, Morgan W; Hintelmann, Holger; Liu, Shengjie; Mammides, Christos; Quan, Rui-Chang; Wang, Jin; Wu, Pianpian; Xu, Xiao-Hang; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally-distributed pollutant, toxic to humans and animals. Emissions are particularly high in Asia, and the source of exposure for humans there may also be different from other regions, including rice as well as fish consumption, particularly in contaminated areas. Yet the threats Asian wildlife face in rice-based ecosystems are as yet unclear. We sought to understand how Hg flows through rice-based food webs in historic mining and non-mining regions of Guizhou, China. We measured total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in soil, rice, 38 animal species (27 for MeHg) spanning multiple trophic levels, and examined the relationship between stable isotopes and Hg concentrations. Our results confirm biomagnification of THg/MeHg, with a high trophic magnification slope. Invertivorous songbirds had concentrations of THg in their feathers that were 15x and 3x the concentration reported to significantly impair reproduction, at mining and non-mining sites, respectively. High concentrations in specialist rice consumers and in granivorous birds, the later as high as in piscivorous birds, suggest rice is a primary source of exposure. Spiders had the highest THg concentrations among invertebrates and may represent a vector through which Hg is passed to vertebrates, especially songbirds. Our findings suggest there could be significant population level health effects and consequent biodiversity loss in sensitive ecosystems, like agricultural wetlands, across Asia, and invertivorous songbirds would be good subjects for further studies investigating this possibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acoustic streaming in pulsating flows through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, J.M.; Dura'n-Olivencia, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    When a body immersed in a viscous fluid is subjected to a sound wave (or, equivalently, the body oscillates in the fluid otherwise at rest) a rotational fluid stream develops across a boundary layer nearby the fluid-body interphase. This so-called acoustic streaming phenomenon is responsible for a notable enhancement of heat, mass and momentum transfer and takes place in any process involving two phases subjected to relative oscillations. Understanding the fundamental mechanisms governing acoustic streaming in two-phase flows is of great interest for a wide range of applications such as sonoprocessed fluidized bed reactors, thermoacoustic refrigerators/engines, pulsatile flows through veins/arteries, hemodialysis devices, pipes in off-shore platforms, offshore piers, vibrating structures in the power-generating industry, lab-on-a-chip microfluidics and microgravity acoustic levitation, and solar thermal collectors to name a few. The aim of engineering studies on this vast diversity of systems is oriented towards maximizing the efficiency of each particular process. Even though practical problems are usually approached from disparate disciplines without any apparent linkage, the behavior of these systems is influenced by the same underlying physics. In general, acoustic streaming occurs within the interstices of porous media and usually in the presence of externally imposed steady fluid flows, which gives rise to important effects arising from the interference between viscous boundary layers developed around nearby solid surfaces and the nonlinear coupling between the oscillating and steady flows. This paper is mainly devoted to highlighting the fundamental physics behind acoustic streaming in porous media in order to provide a simple instrument to assess the relevance of this phenomenon in each particular application. The exact microscopic Navier-Stokes equations will be numerically solved for a simplified 2D system consisting of a regular array of oscillating

  8. ELECTROLYTIC-PLASMA TREATMENT OF INNER SURFACE OF TUBULAR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Alekseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While manufacturing a number of important tubular products stringent requirements have been imposed on quality of their inner surfaces. The well-known methods for inner surface treatment of pipes include sandblasting, chemical cleaning with acid reagents (oxalic, formic, sulfamic, orthophosphoric acids and electrochemical polishing. Disadvantages of the chemical method are cleaning-up irregularities, high metal removal, limited number of reagent application, complicated selection of reagent chemical composition and concentration, complicated and environmentally harmful recycling of waste chemicals, high cost of reagents. Low productivity at a high cost, as well as hazardous impact on personnel due to high dispersion of abrasive dust are considered as disadvantages of sandblasting. Electrochemical polishing is characterized by the following disadvantages: low processing productivity because supply of high currents is rather difficult due to electrolyte scattering capacity away from the main electrode action zone, limited length of the cavity to be treated due to heating of flexible current leads at operating current densities, application of expensive aggressive electrolytes and high costs of their recycling. A new method for polishing and cleaning of inner surfaces of tubular products based on electrolyte-plasma treatment has been developed. In comparison with the existing methods the proposed methods ensures quality processing with high intensity while applying non-toxic, environmentally friendly and cheap electrolytes. The paper presents results of investigations on technological specific features of electrolyte-plasma treatment for inner surfaces of tubular products: influence of slotted nozzle width, electrolyte flow and rate on stability of gas-vapor blanket, current density and productivity. Results of the research have made it possible to determine modes that provide stability and high productivity in the process of electrolyte

  9. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  10. Assembly and Stacking of Flow-through Enzymatic Bioelectrodes for High Power Glucose Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Caroline; Nedellec, Yannig; Gross, Andrew J; Ondel, Olivier; Buret, Francois; Goff, Alan Le; Holzinger, Michael; Cosnier, Serge

    2017-07-19

    Bioelectrocatalytic carbon nanotube based pellets comprising redox enzymes were directly integrated in a newly conceived flow-through fuel cell. Porous electrodes and a separating cellulose membrane were housed in a glucose/oxygen biofuel cell design with inlets and outlets allowing the flow of electrolyte through the entire fuel cell. Different flow setups were tested and the optimized single cell setup, exploiting only 5 mmol L -1 glucose, showed an open circuit voltage (OCV) of 0.663 V and provided 1.03 ± 0.05 mW at 0.34 V. Furthermore, different charge/discharge cycles at 500 Ω and 3 kΩ were applied to optimize long-term stability leading to 3.6 J (1 mW h) of produced electrical energy after 48 h. Under continuous discharge at 6 kΩ, about 0.7 mW h could be produced after a 24 h period. The biofuel cell design further allows a convenient assembly of several glucose biofuel cells in reduced volumes and their connection in parallel or in series. The configuration of two biofuel cells connected in series showed an OCV of 1.35 V and provided 1.82 ± 0.09 mW at 0.675 V, and when connected in parallel, showed an OCV of 0.669 V and provided 1.75 ± 0.09 mW at 0.381 V. The presented design is conceived to stack an unlimited amount of biofuel cells to reach the necessary voltage and power for portable electronic devices without the need for step-up converters or energy managing systems.

  11. A tubular dielectric elastomer actuator: Fabrication, characterization and active vibration isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarban, R.; Jones, R. W.; Mace, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the fabrication, characterization and active vibration isolation performance of a core-free rolled tubular dielectric elastomer (DE) actuator, which has been designed and developed by Danfoss PolyPower A/S. PolyPower DE material, PolyPower (TM), is produced in thin sheets...... of 80 mu m thickness with corrugated metallic electrodes on both sides. Tubular actuators are manufactured by rolling the DE sheets in a cylindrical shape. The electromechanical characteristics of such actuators are modeled based on equilibrium pressure equation. The model is validated with experimental...... measurements from 3 actuators. The dynamic characteristics of three tubular actuators fabricated from the same batch of manufactured DE material are presented and compared to: (a) provide insight into the ability of the fabrication process to produce actuators with similar characteristics and (b) highlight...

  12. Creating 3D Hierarchical Carbon Architectures with Micro-, Meso-, and Macropores via a Simple Self-Blowing Strategy for a Flow-through Deionization Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong

    2016-07-20

    In this work, 3D hierarchical carbon architectures (3DHCAs) with micro-, meso-, and macropores were prepared via a simple self-blowing strategy as highly efficient electrodes for a flow-through deionization capacitor (FTDC). The obtained 3DHCAs have a hierarchically porous structure, large accessible specific surface area (2061 m(2) g(-1)), and good wettability. The electrochemical tests show that the 3DHCA electrode has a high specific capacitance and good electric conductivity. The deionization experiments demonstrate that the 3DHCA electrodes possess a high deionization capacity of 17.83 mg g(-1) in a 500 mg L(-1) NaCl solution at 1.2 V. Moreover, the 3DHCA electrodes present a fast deionization rate in 100-500 mg L(-1) NaCl solutions at 0.8-1.4 V. The 3DHCA electrodes also present a good regeneration behavior in the reiterative regeneration test. These above factors render the 3DHCAs a promising FTDC electrode material.

  13. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  14. The addition of red lead to flat plate and tubular valve regulated miners cap lamp lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferg, E.E.; Loyson, P. [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Poorun, A. [Willard Batteries, P.O. Box 1844, Port Elizabeth 6000 (South Africa)

    2006-04-21

    The study looked at the use of red lead in the manufacturing of valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) miners cap lamp (MCL) batteries that were made with either flat plate or tubular positive electrodes. A problem with using only grey oxide in the manufacture of thick flat plate or tubular electrodes is the poor conversion of the active material to the desired lead dioxide. The addition of red lead to the initial starting material improves the formation efficiency but is considerably more expensive thereby increasing the cost of manufacturing. The study showed that by carefully controlling the formation conditions in terms of the voltage and temperature of a battery, good capacity performance can be achieved for cells made with flat plate electrodes that contain up to 25% red lead. The small amount of red lead in the active cured material reduces the effect of electrode surface sulphate formation and allows the battery to achieve its rated capacity within the first few cycles. Batteries made with flat plate positive electrodes that contained more that 50% red lead showed good initial capacity but had poor structural active material bonding. The study showed that MCL batteries made with tubular positive electrodes that contained less than 75% red lead resulted in a poorly formed electrode with limited capacity utilization. Pickling and soaking times of the tubular electrodes should be kept at a minimum thereby allowing higher active material utilization during subsequent capacity cycling. The study further showed that it is beneficial to use higher formation rates in order to reduce manufacturing time and to improve the active material characteristics. (author)

  15. Tubular bioreactor and its application; Tubular bioreactor to sono tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, I.; Nagamune, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yuki, K. [Nikka Whisky Distilling Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, H. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-05

    The loop type tubular bioreactor (TBR) was developed where biocatalysts are trapped in the reactor by membrane module. A UF membrane or MF membrane and crossflow filtration were adopted for the membrane module, and the reactor loop was composed of four membrane modules. The reactor was operated at 2-4 m/s in membrane surface velocity and 300-400 kPa in filtration pressure. As the result of the high-density culture of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, a biomass concentration was more than 10 times that in batch culture, suggesting the remarkable enhancement of a production efficiency. As the result of the continuous fermentation of cider, the fast fermentation more than 60 times that in conventional ones was obtained together with the same quality as conventional ones. Such a fast fermentation was probably achieved by yeast suspended in the fermenter of TBR, by yeast hardly affected physico-chemically as compared with immobilized reactors, and by small effect of mass transfer on reaction systems. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Global warming: Design of a flow-through shallow lake mesocosm climate experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liboriussen, L.; Landkildehus, F.; Meerhoff, M.

    2005-01-01

    design details, operating characteristics, and background information on a currently operating experimental flow-through mesocosm system that allows investigation of the interactions between simulated climate warming and eutrophication and their impacts on biological structure and ecosystem processes...

  17. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  18. Iatrogenic Digital Compromise with Tubular Dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corre, Kenneth A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This case report describes a digit amputation resulting from an improperly applied tubular dressing. The safe application of digital tubular dressings, and the rationale behind it, is detailed to raise emergency physician (EP awareness.Methods: We present a case report of a recent iatrogenic-induced digit ischemia caused by improperly applied tube gauze. We review the literature on the subject and the likely sources of poor outcomes presented. The proper application of tubular gauze dressings is then outlined.Conclusion: EPs and emergency department personnel must be educated on the safe application of tubular gauze dressings to avoid dire outcomes associated with improper applications.[WestJEM. 2009;10:190-192.

  19. A neglected case of Renal Tubular Acidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derakhshan, A.; Basiratnia, M.; Fallahzadeh, M.H.; Al-Hashemi, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present a case of a child with distal renal tubular acidosis, severe failure to thrive and profound rickets, who was only 7.8 Kg when presented at 6 years of age. His response to treatment and his follow up for four years is discussed. Although failure to thrive is a common finding in renal tubular acidosis but the physical and x-ray findings in our case were unique. (author)

  20. A Comparison of Flow-Through Versus Non-Flow-Through Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for NASA's Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), NASA is developing both primary fuel cell power systems and regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage systems within the fuel cell portion of the Energy Storage Project. This effort is being led by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and industrial partners. The development goals are to improve fuel cell and electrolysis stack electrical performance, reduce system mass, volume, and parasitic power requirements, and increase system life and reliability. A major focus of this effort has been the parallel development of both flow-through and non-flow-through proton exchange membrane (PEM) primary fuel cell power systems. The plan has been, at the appropriate time, to select a single primary fuel cell technology for eventual flight hardware development. Ideally, that appropriate time would occur after both technologies have achieved a technology readiness level (TRL) of six, which represents an engineering model fidelity PEM fuel cell system being successfully tested in a relevant environment. Budget constraints in fiscal year 2009 and beyond have prevented NASA from continuing to pursue the parallel development of both primary fuel cell options. Because very limited data exists for either system, a toplevel, qualitative assessment based on engineering judgement was performed expeditiously to provide guidance for a selection. At that time, the non-flow-through technology was selected for continued development because of potentially major advantages in terms of weight, volume, parasitic power, reliability, and life. This author believes that the advantages are significant enough, and the potential benefits great enough, to offset the higher state of technology readiness of flow-through technology. This paper

  1. Comparing flow-through and static ice cave models for Shoshone Ice Cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj E. Williams

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a new ice cave type: the “flow-through” ice cave. In a flow-through ice cave external winds blow into the cave and wet cave walls chill the incoming air to the wet-bulb temperature, thereby achieving extra cooling of the cave air. We have investigated an ice cave in Idaho, located in a lava tube that is reported to have airflow through porous wet end-walls and could therefore be a flow-through cave. We have instrumented the site and collected data for one year. In order to determine the actual ice cave type present at Shoshone, we have constructed numerical models for static and flow-through caves (dynamic is not relevant here. The models are driven with exterior measurements of air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The model output is interior air temperature and relative humidity. We then compare the output of both models to the measured interior air temperatures and relative humidity. While both the flow-through and static cave models are capable of preserving ice year-round (a net zero or positive ice mass balance, both models show very different cave air temperature and relative humidity output. We find the empirical data support a hybrid model of the static and flow-through models: permitting a static ice cave to have incoming air chilled to the wet-bulb temperature fits the data best for the Shoshone Ice Cave.

  2. The chromatographic performance of flow-through particles: A computational fluid dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Wim; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Desmet, Gert

    2016-01-15

    The performance of flow-through particles has been studied by computational fluid dynamics. Computational fluid dynamics simulations was used to calculate the flow behaviour around and inside the particles rather than estimate it. The obtained flow field has been used to accurately simulate plate heights generated by flow-through particles and compare them to standard fully porous particles. The effects of particle size, particle porosity and microparticle size on the intra-particle flow and plate heights is investigated. It is shown that the intra-particle flow generates mass transfer enhancement which lowers the total plate height. An empirical model is proposed for the mass transfer enhancement and it is compared to previously proposed models. Kinetic plots are constructed for the flow-through particles. Counter-intuitively, columns packed with flow-through particles have a higher flow resistance which counters the advantages of lower plate heights. Flow-through particles offer no significant gain in kinetic performance over fully porous particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Disposable and removable nucleic acid extraction and purification cartridges for automated flow-through systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John Frederick

    2014-09-09

    Removable cartridges are used on automated flow-through systems for the purpose of extracting and purifying genetic material from complex matrices. Different types of cartridges are paired with specific automated protocols to concentrate, extract, and purifying pathogenic or human genetic material. Their flow-through nature allows large quantities sample to be processed. Matrices may be filtered using size exclusion and/or affinity filters to concentrate the pathogen of interest. Lysed material is ultimately passed through a filter to remove the insoluble material before the soluble genetic material is delivered past a silica-like membrane that binds the genetic material, where it is washed, dried, and eluted. Cartridges are inserted into the housing areas of flow-through automated instruments, which are equipped with sensors to ensure proper placement and usage of the cartridges. Properly inserted cartridges create fluid- and air-tight seals with the flow lines of an automated instrument.

  4. Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell System Test Results and Demonstration on the SCARAB Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Brianne, T.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the demonstration of a non-flow-through PEM fuel cell as part of a power system on the SCARAB rover. A 16-cell non-flow-through fuel cell stack from Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc. was incorporated into a power system designed to act as a range extender by providing power to the rover s hotel loads. This work represents the first attempt at a ground demonstration of this new technology aboard a mobile test platform. Development and demonstration were supported by the Office of the Chief Technologist s Space Power Systems Project and the Advanced Exploration System Modular Power Systems Project.

  5. Test Methodologies for Hydrogen Sensor Performance Assessment: Chamber vs. Flow Through Test Apparatus: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartmann, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schmidt, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cebolla, Rafeal O [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Weidner, Eveline [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Bonato, Christian [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands

    2017-11-06

    Certification of hydrogen sensors to standards often prescribes using large-volume test chambers [1, 2]. However, feedback from stakeholders such as sensor manufacturers and end-users indicate that chamber test methods are often viewed as too slow and expensive for routine assessment. Flow through test methods potentially are an efficient, cost-effective alternative for sensor performance assessment. A large number of sensors can be simultaneously tested, in series or in parallel, with an appropriate flow through test fixture. The recent development of sensors with response times of less than 1s mandates improvements in equipment and methodology to properly capture the performance of this new generation of fast sensors; flow methods are a viable approach for accurate response and recovery time determinations, but there are potential drawbacks. According to ISO 26142 [1], flow through test methods may not properly simulate ambient applications. In chamber test methods, gas transport to the sensor can be dominated by diffusion which is viewed by some users as mimicking deployment in rooms and other confined spaces. Alternatively, in flow through methods, forced flow transports the gas to the sensing element. The advective flow dynamics may induce changes in the sensor behaviour relative to the quasi-quiescent condition that may prevail in chamber test methods. One goal of the current activity in the JRC and NREL sensor laboratories [3, 4] is to develop a validated flow through apparatus and methods for hydrogen sensor performance testing. In addition to minimizing the impact on sensor behaviour induced by differences in flow dynamics, challenges associated with flow through methods include the ability to control environmental parameters (humidity, pressure and temperature) during the test and changes in the test gas composition induced by chemical reactions with upstream sensors. Guidelines on flow through test apparatus design and protocols for the evaluation of

  6. Use of HPLC with flow-through radiometric detection for low level environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, J.; Fackler, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography with flow-through radiometric detection (HPLC-RAM) is increasingly becoming a standard analytical technique in pharmaceutical, agricultural and chemical industries for monitoring radiolabeled analytes. This paper focuses on the applications of this flow-through radiochromatographic technique for low level aquatic toxicology and environmental fate testing. Examples include parts per billion water, sediment/soil and fish tissue analyses using reverse phase as well as normal phase HPLC. The applications of both homogeneous (liquid) and heterogeneous (solid) flow cell scintillation counting are addressed. Compounds discussed are primarily pesticides and pharmaceuticals

  7. Transition piece for joining together tubular pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holko, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    A transition piece for joining together tubular pieces formed respectively from a low alloy or carbon steel and a high temperature alloy containing at least 16% chromium includes a plurality of tubular parts welded together and formed from materials of selected composition with a maximum chromium content difference of 5% between adjacent parts when the chromium content of each part is below 10% and a maximum chromium difference of 7% between adjacent parts when the chromium content of either part is above 10%. The transition parts are also graded as to such characteristics as thermal expansion coefficient. The transition parts at opposite ends of the transition joint have chromium percentages similar to the tubular pieces to which they are to be joined. The parts may be joined by fusion and/or friction welding and parts may be formed by fusion weld deposition. (author)

  8. Platform technologies for tubular organ regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Joydeep; Ludlow, John W

    2010-10-01

    As a result of recent successes in regenerative medicine approaches to engineering multiple disparate tubular organs, methodology commonalities are emerging. Principal themes include the importance of a biodegradable scaffold seeded with a population of smooth muscle cells. Such composites trigger a regenerative response following in vivo implantation, resulting in de novo organogenesis. In this review, we examine bladder regeneration as a foundational platform technology to highlight key principles applicable to the regeneration of any tubular organ, and illustrate how these general concepts underlie current strategies to regenerate components of gastrointestinal, vascular, pulmonary and genitourinary systems. We focus on identifying the elements of this platform that have facilitated the transition of tubular organ regeneration from academic proof-of-concept to commercial viability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here.

  10. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dows; this is the basis of on-road airconditioned buses and the airconditioning equipment is roof mounted. Both the capital cost and running cost are more. Because of this .... potassium permanganate or green/red ink into water. ... Air flow through the roof ventilators that are commonly provided on a bus was also studied.

  11. A flow-through potentiometric sensor for an integrated microdialysis system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijanowska, D.; Pijanowska, D.G.; Sprenkels, A.J.; van der Linden, H.J.; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert; Olthuis, Wouter

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of a flow-through potentiometric sensor based on a semi-permeable dialysis tubing implemented in silicon, is presented. The sensor is designed as part of a lab-on-a-chip system and has been successfully incorporated into an integrated microdialysis system. Results of a

  12. A flow-through potentiometric sensor for an integrated microdialysis system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijanowska, D.G.; Sprenkels, A.J.; van der Linden, H.J.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of a flow-through potentiometric sensor based on a semi-permeable dialysis tubing implemented in silicon, is presented. The sensor is designed as part of a lab-on-a-chip system and has been successfully incorporated into an integrated microdialysis system. Results of a

  13. Comparison of Flow-Through Cell and Paddle Methods for Testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of the flow-through cell apparatus for testing commercial vaginal tablets containing poorly water-soluble clotrimazole. Methods: The effect of experimental conditions (type of dissolution medium, flow rate and positioning of the tablet) on the dissolution profile of clotrimazole were ...

  14. Substance flows through the economy and environment of a region : Part I: Systems definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Voet, Ester; Kleijn, René; Van Oers, Lauran; Heijungs, Reinout; Huele, Ruben; Mulder, Paul

    1995-01-01

    In the tradition of the study of materials flows through society, the Substance Flow Analysis (SFA) method is presented. SFA aims at providing the relevant information for a country’s overall management strategy regarding single substances or coherent groups of substances. This article is dedicated

  15. Numerical solution of inviscid transonic flow through 3D axial blade row

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, J.; Fuerst, J.; Halama, J.; Kozel, K. [CTU Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Technical Mathematics

    2000-07-01

    Presented paper deals with numerical solution of 3D inviscid transonic flow through axial cascades. Two different finite volume methods are mentioned. Authors show a comparison of both methods using results computed for the stator and the rotor cascades. A role of inlet parameters and body forces in the case of a rotor flow has been also investigated. (orig.)

  16. Flow visualization analysis of two-phase flow through contraction using shadow-image and PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Morimoto, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Masaaki; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki

    2004-01-01

    Gas-liquid two-phase flow through contraction was visualized and analyzed using shadow-image and PIV. The flow channel has reducer, where the width was contracted from 50mm to 20mm. Bubble deformation and concurrent velocity fluctuation was investigated varying superficial liquid flow rate from 0.4m/s to 8.0m/s. (author)

  17. Ranitidine has no influence on tubular creatinine secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. G.; Koopman, M. G.; Arisz, L.

    1996-01-01

    Oral cimetidine competitively inhibits tubular secretion of creatinine. We investigated the potential of oral ranitidine, a comparable H2-receptor antagonist, to block tubular creatinine secretion. In 10 healthy subjects, clearances of inulin and endogenous creatinine were simultaneously measured

  18. Preparation of platinum-free tubular dye-sensitized solar cells by electrophoretic deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwanchit Wongcharee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tubular dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were developed by replacing expensive materials with lower cost materials as follows: (1 replacing conductive glass electrodes with titanium (Ti wires and (2 replacing platinum (Pt catalyst with the mixture of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs and Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate, PEDOT-PSS. Platinized counter electrodes were used as the standard counter electrodes for comparison. The effects of the chemical treatment of titanium wire substrate and electrophoretic deposition condition on the efficiency of DSSCs were also investigated. The chemical treatment of titanium wires was carried out by soaking the wires in HF-HNO3 solutions at three different concentrations of 0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 M and three different soaking durations of 5, 10 and 15 min. The optimum condition was found at HF-HNO3 concentration of 0.8 M and soaking duration of 10 min. Film coating on working electrodes was performed using electrophoretic technique at three different voltages of 5, 8 and 10 V and four different coating durations of 1, 3, 5 and 7 min. Then, the optimum condition at deposition voltage of 5 V and deposition duration of 5 min was applied for film deposition on counter electrodes. The efficiency of DSSC with CNTs/TiO2 counter electrode was 0.03%. The addition of PEDOT-PSS improved the efficiency of DSSC to 0.08%.

  19. DOES TUBULARIZED INCISED PLATE URETHROPLASTY FIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate prospectively our experience using tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty in primary and repeat penile shaft hypospadias. Patients and Methods Thirty-two boys with penile shaft hypospadias were selected to undergo TIP procedure. Their age ranged from 22 months to 9 years. Twenty-two cases ...

  20. Work tool in a tubular element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffaton, J.

    1991-01-01

    The stand, which is positioned in relation with the tubular element, has clutch disengagement means for a working rod in rotation, with at least two positioning regions on the rod. Application for laser welding a sleeve into PWR steam generator tubes [fr

  1. Renal Tubular Function in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creatinine clearance (Ccr), tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP) and maximum urinary osmolality. (OSM) 8 hours after injection of pitressin. Shaded are3.§ represent mean ± 2 SD of control values. was reduced in 2 patients, neither of whom showed evidence of hyperparathyroidism. Three patients were unable to ...

  2. Central Diabetes Insipidus, Central Hypothyroidism, Renal Tubular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diseases, primary hypothyroidism, and other disorders of the central nervous, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and orthopedic systems. In this report, we describe a 3‑month‑old Saudi boy with the rare association of DWS with central diabetes insipidus, congenital central hypothyroidism, and type‑2 renal tubular acidosis.

  3. TUBULAR DYSFUNCTION IN PROLIFERATIVE LUPUS NEPHRITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TERBORG, E.J.; DEJONG, P.E.; MEIJER, S.S.; Kallenberg, Cees

    1991-01-01

    We prospectively studied renal tubular function during 11 consecutive exacerbations of proliferative glomerulonephritis in 8 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We found a rise in the fractional excretion of beta-2-microglobulin (p less-than-or-equal-to 0.05) and dimercaptosuccinic

  4. Reliability Analysis of Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1987-01-01

    Reliability analysis of single tubular joints and offshore platforms with tubular joints is" presented. The failure modes considered are yielding, punching, buckling and fatigue failure. Element reliability as well as systems reliability approaches are used and illustrated by several examples....... Finally, optimal design of tubular.joints with reliability constraints is discussed and illustrated by an example....

  5. Twisted tubular photobioreactor fluid dynamics evaluation for energy consumption minimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Pérez, C.A.; Espinosa Oviedo, J.J.; Montenegro Ruiz, L.C.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses a new tubular PhotoBioReactor (PBR) called twisted tubular PBR. The geometry of a twisted tubular PBR induces swirl mixing to guarantee good exposure of microalgae to Light-Dark (LD) cycles and to the nutrients and dissolved CO 2 . The paper analyses the energy uptake for fluid

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention is the provision of a material capable of withstanding a high-temperature, corrosive and erosive environment for use as a ceramic-metal composite electrode current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic generator. (U.K.)

  7. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available...

  8. Performance comparison of the commercial CFD software for the prediction of turbulent flow through tube bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gong Hee; Bang, Young Seok; Woo, Sweng Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Because turbulent flow through tube bundles can be found in many important industrial applications, such as PWR reactor, steam generator, CANDU calandria and lower plenum of the VHTR, extensive studies have been made both experimentally and numerically. Although recently licensing applications supported by commercial CFD software are increasing, there is no commercial CFD software which obtains a licensing from the regulatory body until now. Therefore, it is necessary to perform the systematic assessment for the prediction performance of the commercial CFD software. The main objective of the present study is to numerically simulate turbulent flow through both staggered and in line tube bundle using the two popular commercial CFD software, ANSYS CFX and FLUENT and to compare the simulation results with the experimental data for the assessment of these software's prediction performance.

  9. A flow-through hydrothermal cell for in situ neutron diffraction studies of phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, Brian; Tenailleau, Christophe; Nogthai, Yung; Studer, Andrew; Brugger, Joel; Pring, Allan

    2006-01-01

    A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in situ neutron diffraction study of crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. It is specifically designed for use on the medium-resolution powder diffractometer (MRPD) at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the Polaris beamline at ISIS and the new high-intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The cell will operate in a flow-through mode over the temperature range from 25-300 deg. C and up to pressures of 100 bar. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite (Fe,Ni) 9 S 8 to violarite (Fe,Ni) 3 S 4 under mild conditions (pH∼4) at 120 deg. C and 3 bar using in situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented

  10. Klinkenberg effect in hydrodynamics of gas flow through anisotropic porous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wałowski Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses results of experiments on hydrodynamic assessment of gas flow through backbone (skeletal porous materials with an anisotropic structure. The research was conducted upon materials of diversified petrographic characteristics, both natural origin (rocky, pumice and process materials (char and coke. The study was conducted for a variety of hydrodynamic conditions, using air, as well as for nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The basis for assessing hydrodynamics of gas flow through porous material was a gas stream that results from the pressure forcing such flow. The results of measurements indicate a clear impact of the type of material on the gas permeability, and additionally – as a result of their anisotropic internal structure – to a significant effect of the flow direction on the value of gas stream.

  11. Development of a micro flow-through cell for high field NMR spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Todd Michael; McIntyre, Sarah K.

    2011-05-01

    A highly transportable micro flow-through detection cell for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been designed, fabricated and tested. This flow-through cell allows for the direct coupling between liquid chromatography (LC) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) resulting in the possibility of hyphenated LC-NMR and GPC-NMR. The advantage of the present flow cell design is that it is independent and unconnected to the detection probe electronics, is compatible with existing commercial high resolution NMR probes, and as such can be easily implemented at any NMR facility. Two different volumes were fabricated corresponding to between {approx}3.8 and 10 {micro}L detection volume. Examples of the performance of the cell on different NMR instruments, and using different NMR detection probes were demonstrated.

  12. How Important Is Connectivity for Surface Water Fluxes? A Generalized Expression for Flow Through Heterogeneous Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Ma, Jie; Kaplan, David

    2017-10-01

    How important is hydrologic connectivity for surface water fluxes through heterogeneous floodplains, deltas, and wetlands? While significant for management, this question remains poorly addressed. Here we adopt spatial resistance averaging, based on channel and patch configuration metrics quantifiable from aerial imagery, to produce an upscaled rate law for discharge. Our model suggests that patch coverage largely controls discharge sensitivity, with smaller effects from channel connectivity and vegetation patch fractal dimension. However, connectivity and patch configuration become increasingly important near the percolation threshold and at low water levels. These effects can establish positive feedbacks responsible for substantial flow change in evolving landscapes (14-36%, in our Everglades case study). Connectivity also interacts with other drivers; flow through poorly connected hydroscapes is less resilient to perturbations in other drivers. Finally, we found that flow through heterogeneous patches is alone sufficient to produce non-Manning flow-depth relationships commonly observed in wetlands but previously attributed to depth-varying roughness.

  13. Assessment of the biodegradability of dialkyldimethylammonium salts in flow through systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, C G; Hoenderboom, A; van Haperen, A M; Geurts, M G J

    2003-09-01

    A bacterium capable of utilizing the alkyl chains of didecyldimethylammonium salt was isolated from activated sludge. In addition, the isolate also utilized didodecyldimethylammonium salt, ditetradecyldimethylammonium salt and alkyltrimethylammonium salts (C10 to C18) as sole source of carbon and energy. The broad substrate with respect to the alkyl chain length was also demonstrated with oxidation rates of various quaternary ammonium salts by didecyldimethylammonium chloride-grown cells. The oxidation rate decreased with increasing alkyl chain lengths. The main factor impeding the biodegradation of dialkyldimethylammonium salts with long alkyl chains is probably the low bioavailability of water-insoluble chemicals. The biodegradability of dialkyldimethylammonium salts was therefore determined in flow-through columns at concentrations below their aqueous solubility. Dialkyldimethylammonium salts adsorbed on silica gel particles packed in flow-through columns were immediately metabolized by the isolate when dissolved. Microorganisms present in river water pumped through a sterile column degraded dissolved dicocodimethylammonium salts within a week.

  14. Simulation of the Flow Through Porous Layers Composed of Converging-Diverging Capillary Fissures or Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicka, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a porous medium is modelled by a network of converging-diverging capillaries which may be considered as fissures or tubes. This model makes it necessary to consider flows through capillary fissures or tubes. Therefore an analytical method for deriving the relationships between pressure drops, volumetric flow rates and velocities for the following fluids: Newtonian, polar, power-law, pseudoplastic (DeHaven and Sisko types) and Shulmanian, was developed. Next, considerations on the models of pore network for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were presented. The models, similar to the schemes of central finite differences may provide a good basis for transforming the governing equations of a flow through the porous medium into a set of linear or quasi-linear algebraic equations. It was shown that the some coefficients in these algebraic equations depend on the kind of the capillary convergence.

  15. Evacuated tubular collector utilizing a heat pipe. Progress report, May 1 1975--August 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortabasi, U.; Fehlner, F.P.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities performed by the Corning Glass Works solar group during the period from May 1, 1975 to August 31, 1975 are reported. The analytical studies encompassed optical modeling of a modified cusp reflector, fresnel losses from tubular enclosures as a function of orientation, preliminary work on a digital Monte-Carlo Ray Tracing Computer Code and the determination of U/sub L/ losses as a function of vacuum level and temperature of the absorber. Compatible enclosure materials, wicks and working fluids were selected to assemble heat pipes for use as solar collector absorbers. Cusp reflectors with good accuracy were fabricated from various commercial bright aluminum sheet and their optical properties determined. Evacuation techniques were developed and special bake-out procedures were worked out to assemble the evacuated tubular collectors. The work on selective coatings narrowed down the field of potential absorber films to ''black chrome'' which has good stability in vacuum and the necessary ..cap alpha../epsilon value. Six different heat pipes and one flow-through absorber were fabricated and were partially characterized for thermal performance. Indoor and outdoor test facilities were completed and calibrated within proposed NBS standards. They are now available for parametric as well as true-life experiments with solar radiation.

  16. A mathematical analysis of drug dissolution in the USP flow through apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, David; D'Arcy, D. M.; Crane, L. J.; Redmond, Brendan

    2018-03-01

    This paper applies boundary layer theory to the process of drug dissolution in the USP (United States Pharmacopeia) Flow Through Apparatus. The mass transfer rate from the vertical planar surface of a compact within the device is examined. The theoretical results obtained are then compared with those of experiment. The paper also examines the effect on the dissolution process caused by the interaction between natural and forced convection within the apparatus and the introduction of additional boundaries.

  17. A study on rarefied gas flows through in-line arrangements of cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    田口, 智清; Satoshi, Taguchi; 神大・研究環; Kobe University

    2007-01-01

    Rarefied gas flows through in-line arrangements of cylinders are considered on the basis of the Boltzmann equation employing the BGK collision operator for the gas phase and the heat-conduction equation for the temperature inside the cylinders. Under the condition where the size of the periodic unit cell is much smaller than the characteristic length of the global structure, a diffusion model describing the mass and heat transfer through the medium is obtained by homogenization in the case wh...

  18. Finite Element Prediction of Multi-Size Particulate Flow through Three-Dimensional Channel: Code Validation

    OpenAIRE

    K. V. Pagalthivarthi; R. J. Visintainer

    2013-01-01

    Multi-size particulate dense slurry flow through three-dimensional rectangular channel is modeled using penalty finite elements with 8-noded hexahedral elements. The methodology previously developed for two-dimensional channel is extended. The computed eddy viscosity of the pure carrier flow is modified to account for the presence of solid particles. Predictions from Spalart-Almaras and k-ε turbulence models are compared to show consistency of trends in results. Results are also found to comp...

  19. Experimental investigation of lateral forces induced by flow through model labyrinth glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Y. M. M. S.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The lateral forces induced by flow through model labyrinth glands were investigated. Circumferential pressure distributions, lateral forces and stiffness coefficients data obtained are discussed. The force system is represented as a negative spring and a tangential force orthogonal to eccentricity. The magnitude of these forces are dependent on eccentricity, entry swirl, rotor peripheral velocity and seal size. A pressure equalization chamber at midgland tests should in significantly reduced forces and stiffness coefficients.

  20. Kinetic Studies on Ni-YSZ Composite Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njodzefon, Jean-Claude; Hjelm, Johan; Graves, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Polarization of the Solid Oxide Cell (SOC) causes current to flow. If the fuel electrode is anodically polarized, the cell operates in fuel cell mode, oxidizing a fuel like hydrogen, carbon monoxide or hydrocarbons. In cathodic polarization the cell operates in electrolysis mode......, reducing steam, carbon dioxide or both at the fuel electrode. Independent of polarization direction, the current flowing through the electrodes of an SOC is limited by processes such as adsorption and desorption of reactants or products, diffusion through the porous electrodes, activation or charge...... transfer at the reaction sites gas conversion at the flow fields, and ohmic drop across the electrolyte. Since these processes occur in both electrodes and some of them with overlapping characteristic frequencies, it is particularly challenging to isolate and characterize a particular mechanism...

  1. Influence of flow-through and renewal exposures on the toxicity of copper to rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, P.G.; Lipton, J.; Mebane, C.A.; Marr, J.C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined changes in water chemistry and copper (Cu) toxicity in three paired renewal and flow-through acute bioassays with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Test exposure methodology influenced both exposure water chemistry and measured Cu toxicity. Ammonia and organic carbon concentrations were higher and the fraction of dissolved Cu lower in renewal tests than in paired flow-through tests. Cu toxicity was also lower in renewal tests; 96 h dissolved Cu LC50 values were 7-60% higher than LC50s from matching flow-through tests. LC50 values in both types of tests were related to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in exposure tanks. Increases in organic carbon concentrations in renewal tests were associated with reduced Cu toxicity, likely as a result of the lower bioavailability of Cu-organic carbon complexes. The biotic ligand model of acute Cu toxicity tended to underpredict toxicity in the presence of DOC. Model fits between predicted and observed toxicity were improved by assuming that only 50% of the measured DOC was reactive, and that this reactive fraction was present as fulvic acid. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental investigations of the steady flow through an idealized model of a femoral artery bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgea Corina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the steps taken by the authors in the first stage of an experimental program within a larger national research project whose objective is to characterize the flow through a femoral artery bypass with a view to finding solutions for its optimization. The objective of the stage is to investigate by means of the PIV method the stationary flow through a bypass model with an idealized geometry. A bypass assembly which reunites the idealized geometry models of the proximal and distal anastomoses, and which respects the lengths of a femoral artery bypass was constructed on the basis of data for a real patient provided by medical investigations. With the aim of testing the model and the established experimental set-up with regard to their suitability for the assessment of the velocity field associated to the steady flow through the bypass, three zones that can restore the whole distal anastomosis were PIV investigated. The measurements were taken in the conditions of maintained inflow at the bypass entry of 0.9 l / min (Re = 600. The article presents comparatively the flow spectra and the velocity fields for each zone obtained in two situations: with the femoral artery completely occluded and completely open.

  3. Permeameter studies of water flow through cement and clay borehole seals in granite, basalt and tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, D.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-10-01

    Boreholes near a repository must be sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide-contaminated water to the accessible environment. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. Flow through a sealed borehole is compared with flow through intact rock. Cement or bentonite seals have been tested in granite, basalt, and welded tuff. The main conclusion is that under laboratory conditions, existing commercial materials can form high quality seals. Triaxial stress changes about a borehole do not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal. Temperature but especially moisture variations (drying) significantly degrade the quality of cement seals. Performance partially recovers upon resaturation. A skillfully sealed borehole may be as impermeable as the host rock. Analysis of the influence of relative seal-rock permeabilities shows that a plug with permeability one order of magnitude greater than that of the rock results in a flow increase through the hole and surrounding rock of only 1-1/2 times compared to the undisturbed rock. Since a borehole is only a small part of the total rock mass, the total effect is even less pronounced. The simplest and most effective way to decrease flow through a rock-seal system is to increase the seal length, assuming it can be guaranteed that no dominant by-pass flowpath through the rock exists.

  4. Study of hydrodynamic characteristics in tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Wu, Xia; Xue, Shengzhang; Liang, Kehong; Cong, Wei

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the hydrodynamic characteristics in tubular photobioreactors with a series of helical static mixers built-in were numerically investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The influences of height and screw pitch of the helical static mixer and fluid inlet velocity on the cell trajectories, swirl numbers and energy consumption were examined. In order to verify the actual results for cultivation of microalgae, cultivation experiments of freshwater Chlorella sp. were carried out in photobioreactor with and without helical static mixer built-in at the same time. It was shown that with built-in helical static mixer, the mixing of fluid could be intensified, and the light/dark cycle could also be achieved which is of benefit for the growth of microalgae. The biomass productivity of Chlorella sp. in tubular photobioreactor with helical static mixer built-in was 37.26 % higher than that in the photobioreactor without helical static mixer.

  5. Equilibrium shapes of tubular lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelerčič, Urška

    2017-04-19

    Tubular vesicles represent abundant structural motifs which are observed both in experiments and in nature. We analyse them within the theory of bending elasticity and determine the equilibrium solutions at fixed volume, surface area, and segment length without imposing any specific symmetry or periodicity. We identify four different non-periodic equilibrium shapes. Depending on the precise value of the constraints or the corresponding Lagrange multipliers, these four shapes include: (i) snake-like and (ii) helical structures, (iii) tubes with a spherical body, and (iv) tubes with a discoidal body. However different in the details, all of the shapes have the same general cylindrical morphology which is either globally modulated or is a superposition of an additional structural motif and the cylinder. These results point to a great significance of the circular cylindrical shape and offer a comprehensive and general analysis of the shape of tubular vesicles.

  6. SOFC mini-tubulares basadas en YSZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campana, R.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Tubular SOFC have the advantage over planar SOFC of the low temperature sealing and more resistance to thermal shock. On the other hand the volumetric power density of tubular Fuel Cells goes with the inverse of the tube diameter which added to the faster warm-up kinetics makes low diameter tubular SOFC favorable for low power applications. Anode supported tubular SOFC of 3mm diameter and 150 mm length with YSZ electrolyte were fabricated and tested by V-I measurements using H2-Ar (5, 10, 100 vol% as fuel and air for the cathode. The NiO-YSZ tubes of about 400 μm thickness were produced by hydrostatic pressure and then coated with an YSZ film of 15-20 μm. The electrolyte was deposited using a manual aerograph. After sintering either Pt paste or LSF (with YSZ or SDC coatings of about 20-50 μm thickness were deposited for the cathode. The OCV of the cells were excellent, very close to the expected Nernst law prediction indicating that there were not gas leaks. The maximun electrical power of the cell was near to 500mW/cm2 at 850ºC operation temperature. Complex impedance measurements of the cells were performed in order to determine the resistance of the different cell components.

    La principal ventaja de las SOFC tubulares frente a las planares es el sellado de la cámara anódica y catódica a bajas temperaturas. Además la densidad de energía volumétrica de las pilas tubulares es inversamente proporcional al diámetro del tubo, que añadido a los tiempos cortos de encendido y apagado hacen que las mini-tubulares sean interesantes para usos de baja potencia. Se han fabricado y caracterizado SOFC tubulares soportadas en ánodo de 3mm de diámetro y de 150 mm de longitud, 400μm de espesor, con electrolito de YSZ depositado por spray de 15-20 μm. Los tubos de NiO-YSZ son producidos por prensado isostático. La caracterización eléctrica se ha realizado empleando H2-Ar como combustible an

  7. Early Mobilization after Free-flap Transfer to the Lower Extremities: Preferential Use of Flow-through Anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei Miyamoto, MD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates that early mobilization after free-flap transfer to the lower extremity is made possible by flow-through anastomosis for both arteries and veins. Flow-through flaps have stable circulation from the acute phase and can tolerate early dangling and ambulation.

  8. Forming of Polymeric Tubular Micro-components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Yi; Zhao, Jie; Anyasodor, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    platform for the production of functional polymeric tubular micro-components. The chapter gives background on the current market and process development trends, followed by description of materials, process configuration, tool design and machine development for each processing technology as well...... as strategy for integration of the technologies and equipment into a common platform. Finally, potential applications of the technologies and facilities developed are highlighted....

  9. Renal Tubular Toxicity Associated With Rosuvastatin Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Frank L; John, Rohan; Bargman, Joanne M; McQuillan, Rory F

    2017-03-01

    Preapproval clinical trials examining the safety and efficacy of rosuvastatin demonstrated an increased incidence of proteinuria, hematuria, rhabdomyolysis, and other acute kidney injury of unknown cause at high doses. The latter cases manifested with urine sediment findings and in some cases, renal histology, indicating renal tubular injury in the absence of rhabdomyolysis. Despite these provocative findings, there have been very few reports in the literature regarding non-rhabdomyolysis-mediated acute kidney injury associated with high-dose rosuvastatin since its widespread introduction more than a decade ago, suggesting that it is either a rare entity or systematically underdiagnosed and under-reported. We present a case of renal tubular toxicity attributable to the initiation of rosuvastatin treatment at a dose of 40mg in a patient with no prior evidence of kidney disease. Tubular toxicity should be considered in cases of unexplained kidney injury in the setting of exposure to a potent statin such as rosuvastatin, particularly at high dose. The limited evidence suggests a good kidney prognosis following withdrawal of the agent in these cases. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel tubular microbial electrolysis cell for high rate hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Prévoteau, Antonin; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-07-01

    Practical application of microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) for hydrogen production requires scalable reactors with low internal resistance, high current density, and high hydrogen recovery. This work reports a liter scale tubular MEC approaching these requirements. The tubular cell components (a platinum-coated titanium mesh cathode, an anion exchange membrane, and a pleated stainless steel felt anode) were arranged in a concentric configuration. The reactor had a low internal resistance (0.325 Ω, 19.5 mΩ m2) due to the high conductivity of the electrodes, a compact reactor configuration, and proper mixing. With acetate as electron donor, the MEC achieved a volumetric current density of 654 ± 22 mA L-1 (projected current density, 1.09 ± 0.04 mA cm-2) and a volumetric hydrogen production rate of 7.10 ± 0.01 L L-1 d-1 at an applied voltage of 1 V. The reactor also showed high hydrogen recovery (∼100%), high hydrogen purity (>98%), and excellent operational stability during the 3 weeks of operation. These results demonstrated that high hydrogen production rate could be achieved on larger scale MEC and this tubular MEC holds great potential for scaling up.

  11. Analysis of an active tubular liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Faghri, Amir

    2011-08-01

    A two-dimensional, two-phase, non-isothermal model was developed for an active, tubular, liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The liquid-gas, two-phase mass transport in the porous anode and cathode was formulated based on the multi-fluid approach in the porous media. The two-phase mass transport in the anode and cathode channels was modeled using the drift-flux and the homogeneous mist-flow models, respectively. Water and methanol crossovers through the membrane were considered due to the effects of diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and convection. The model enabled a numerical investigation of the effects of various operating parameters, such as current density, methanol flow rate, and oxygen flow rate, on the mass and heat transport characteristics in the tubular DMFC. It was shown that by choosing a proper tube radius and distance between the adjacent cells, a tubular DMFC stack can achieve a much higher energy density compared to its planar counterpart. The results also showed that a large anode flow rate is needed in order to avoid severe blockage of liquid methanol to the anode electrode due to the gas accumulation in the channel. Besides, lowering the flow rate of either the methanol solution or air can lead to a temperature increase along the flow channel. The methanol and water crossovers are nearly independent of the methanol flow rate and the air flow rate.

  12. Steel slag carbonation in a flow-through reactor system: the role of fluid-flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Eleanor J; Williams-Jones, Anthony E; Migdisov, Artashes A

    2015-01-01

    Steel production is currently the largest industrial source of atmospheric CO2. As annual steel production continues to grow, the need for effective methods of reducing its carbon footprint increases correspondingly. The carbonation of the calcium-bearing phases in steel slag generated during basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel production, in particular its major constituent, larnite {Ca2SiO4}, which is a structural analogue of olivine {(MgFe)2SiO4}, the main mineral subjected to natural carbonation in peridotites, offers the potential to offset some of these emissions. However, the controls on the nature and efficiency of steel slag carbonation are yet to be completely understood. Experiments were conducted exposing steel slag grains to a CO2-H2O mixture in both batch and flow-through reactors to investigate the impact of temperature, fluid flux, and reaction gradient on the dissolution and carbonation of steel slag. The results of these experiments show that dissolution and carbonation of BOF steel slag are more efficient in a flow-through reactor than in the batch reactors used in most previous studies. Moreover, they show that fluid flux needs to be optimized in addition to grain size, pressure, and temperature, in order to maximize the efficiency of carbonation. Based on these results, a two-stage reactor consisting of a high and a low fluid-flux chamber is proposed for CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation, allowing dissolution of the slag and precipitation of calcium carbonate to occur within a single flow-through system. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. A scalable variational inequality approach for flow through porous media models with pressure-dependent viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapakshi, N. K.; Chang, J.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2018-04-01

    Mathematical models for flow through porous media typically enjoy the so-called maximum principles, which place bounds on the pressure field. It is highly desirable to preserve these bounds on the pressure field in predictive numerical simulations, that is, one needs to satisfy discrete maximum principles (DMP). Unfortunately, many of the existing formulations for flow through porous media models do not satisfy DMP. This paper presents a robust, scalable numerical formulation based on variational inequalities (VI), to model non-linear flows through heterogeneous, anisotropic porous media without violating DMP. VI is an optimization technique that places bounds on the numerical solutions of partial differential equations. To crystallize the ideas, a modification to Darcy equations by taking into account pressure-dependent viscosity will be discretized using the lowest-order Raviart-Thomas (RT0) and Variational Multi-scale (VMS) finite element formulations. It will be shown that these formulations violate DMP, and, in fact, these violations increase with an increase in anisotropy. It will be shown that the proposed VI-based formulation provides a viable route to enforce DMP. Moreover, it will be shown that the proposed formulation is scalable, and can work with any numerical discretization and weak form. A series of numerical benchmark problems are solved to demonstrate the effects of heterogeneity, anisotropy and non-linearity on DMP violations under the two chosen formulations (RT0 and VMS), and that of non-linearity on solver convergence for the proposed VI-based formulation. Parallel scalability on modern computational platforms will be illustrated through strong-scaling studies, which will prove the efficiency of the proposed formulation in a parallel setting. Algorithmic scalability as the problem size is scaled up will be demonstrated through novel static-scaling studies. The performed static-scaling studies can serve as a guide for users to be able to select

  14. Investor Behavior and Flow-through Capability in the US Stock Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Carlos; Jareño, Francisco; Tolentino, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes investor behavior depending on the flow-through capability (FTC) in the US stock market, because investors seek protection from inflation rate changes, and the FTC (a firm's ability to transmit inflation shocks to the prices of its products and services) is a key factor in investment decisions. Our estimates of the FTC of firms listed on the US stock exchange at the sector level are significantly different among industries, and we demonstrate a direct relationship between changes in stock prices (at the sector level) and FTC. These results would be relevant because they have important implications on investor behavior.

  15. A highly energy-efficient flow-through electro-Fenton process for organic pollutants degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Liang; Zhou, Minghua; Ren, Gengbo; Yang, Weilu; Liang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A highly energy-efficient flow-through electro-Fenton reactor was designed. • It had high H 2 O 2 yield and low energy consumption for organic pollutants degradation. • The effect of operational parameters was optimized and possible process mechanism was studied. • The novel system performed wide practicability and potential for organic pollutants degradation. - Abstract: A highly energy-efficient flow-through Electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) reactor for oxidation of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was designed using a perforated DSA as anode and the graphite felt modified by carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as cathode for the in situ generation of H 2 O 2 . The modified cathode had a high H 2 O 2 production with low energy consumption, which was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption study and contact angle. The flow-through E-Fenton system was compared to the flow-by and regular one, and confirmed to be best on MB removal and TOC degradation. The operational parameters such as current density, pH, Fe 2+ concentration and flow rate were optimized. The MB and TOC removal efficiency of the effluents could keep above 90% and 50%, respectively, and the energy consumption was 23.0 kWh/kgTOC at the current density of 50 mA, pH 3, 0.3 mM Fe 2+ , and the flow rate of 7 mL/min. ·OH was proved to be the main oxidizing species in this system. After 5 times operation, the system, especially cathode, still showed good stability. Five more organic pollutants including orange II (OG), tartrazine, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), tetracycline (TC) and 2,4-dichlorophen (2,4-DCP) were investigated and the electric energy consumption (EEC) was compared with literatures. All results demonstrated that this flow-through E-Fenton system was energy-efficient and potential for degradation of organic pollutants.

  16. Finite Element Prediction of Multi-Size Particulate Flow through Three-Dimensional Channel: Code Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Pagalthivarthi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-size particulate dense slurry flow through three-dimensional rectangular channel is modeled using penalty finite elements with 8-noded hexahedral elements. The methodology previously developed for two-dimensional channel is extended. The computed eddy viscosity of the pure carrier flow is modified to account for the presence of solid particles. Predictions from Spalart-Almaras and k-ε turbulence models are compared to show consistency of trends in results. Results are also found to compare well with experimental results from the literature.

  17. Investor Behavior and Flow-through Capability in the US Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Carlos; Jareño, Francisco; Tolentino, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes investor behavior depending on the flow-through capability (FTC) in the US stock market, because investors seek protection from inflation rate changes, and the FTC (a firm's ability to transmit inflation shocks to the prices of its products and services) is a key factor in investment decisions. Our estimates of the FTC of firms listed on the US stock exchange at the sector level are significantly different among industries, and we demonstrate a direct relationship between changes in stock prices (at the sector level) and FTC. These results would be relevant because they have important implications on investor behavior. PMID:27242585

  18. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient...... (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available...

  19. Luminal nucleotides are tonic inhibitors of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular ATP is an essential local signaling molecule in all organ systems. In the kidney, purinergic signaling is involved in an array of functions and this review highlights those of relevance for renal tubular transport. RECENT FINDINGS: Purinergic receptors are expressed...... in all renal tubular segments and their stimulation generally leads to transport inhibition. Recent evidence has identified the tubular lumen as a restricted space for purinergic signaling. The concentrations of ATP in the luminal fluids are sufficiently high to inflict a tonic inhibition of renal...... tubular absorption via P2 receptors. The apical P2Y2 receptor plays a crucial role in this process. ATP is released continuously into the tubular lumen. The release is augmented in response to an increase of tubular flow and after stimulation of G-protein-coupled receptors. The primary cilium appears...

  20. A Flow-Through Cell Electroporation Device for Rapidly and Efficiently Transfecting Massive Amounts of Cells in vitro and ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deyao; Huang, Dong; Li, Yang; Wu, Mengxi; Zhong, Wenfeng; Cheng, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Yidi; Zhou, Xiao; Wei, Zewen; Li, Zhihong; Liang, Zicai

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cell electroporation is an appealing non-viral approach for genetically transfecting a large number of cells. Yet the traditional macro-scale devices suffer from the unsatisfactory transfection efficiency and/or cell viability due to their high voltage, while the emerging microfluidic electroporation devices is still limited by their low cell processing speed. Here we present a flow-through cell electroporation device integrating large-sized flow tube and small-spaced distributed needle electrode array. Relatively large flow tube enables high flow rate, simple flow characterization and low shear force, while well-organized needle array electrodes produce an even-distributed electric field with low voltage. Thus the difficulties for seeking the fine balance between high flow rate and low electroporation voltage were steered clear. Efficient in vitro electrotransfection of plasmid DNA was demonstrated in several hard-to-transfect cell lines. Furthermore, we also explored ex vivo electroporated mouse erythrocyte as the carrier of RNA. The strong ability of RNA loading and short exposure time of freshly isolated cells jointly ensured a high yield of valid carrier erythrocytes, which further successfully delivered RNA into targeted tissue. Both in vitro and ex vivo electrotransfection could be accomplished at high cell processing speed (20 million cells per minute) which remarkably outperforms previous devices.

  1. Immobilization of Tyrosinase on (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane-Functionalized Carbon Felt-Based Flow-Through Detectors for Electrochemical Detection of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase (TYR was covalently immobilized onto amino-functionalized carbon felt (CF surface via glutaraldehyde (GA. Prior to the TYR-immobilization, primary amino group was introduced to the CF surface by treatment with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES. The resulting TYR-immobilized CF was used as a working electrode unit of an electrochemical flow-through detector for mono- and di-phenolic compounds (i.e., catechol, p-cresol, phenol and p-chlorophenol. Additionally, flow injection peaks based on electroreduction of the enzymatically produced o-quinone species were detected at −0.05 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The resulting TYR/GA/APTES/CF biosensor responded well to all compounds tested with limits of detection range from 7.5 to 35 nmol−1 (based on three times S/N ratio. Moreover, such modified electrode exhibits good stability and reproducibility for catechol. No serious degradation of the peak current was found over 30 consecutive injections.

  2. Simultaneous Analysis of Monovalent Anions and Cations with a Sub-Microliter Dead-Volume Flow-Through Potentiometric Detector for Ion Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanli, Rukiye; Attar, Azade; Erci, Vildan; Isildak, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    A microliter dead-volume flow-through cell as a potentiometric detector is described in this article for sensitive, selective and simultaneous detection of common monovalent anions and cations in single column ion chromatography for the first time. The detection cell consisted of less selective anion- and cation-selective composite membrane electrodes together with a solid-state composite matrix reference electrode. The simultaneous separation and sensitive detection of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), ammonium (NH4+), chloride (Cl−) and nitrate (NO3−) in a single run was achieved by using 98% 1.5 mM MgSO4 and 2% acetonitrile eluent with a mixed-bed ion-exchange separation column without suppressor column system. The separation and simultaneous detection of the anions and cations were completed in 6 min at the eluent flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. Detection limits, at S/N = 3, were ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 µM for the anions and 0.3 to 3.0 µM for the cations, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of monovalent anions and cations in several environmental and biological samples. PMID:26786906

  3. Hot Firing of a Full Scale Copper Tubular Combustion Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooley, C

    2002-01-01

    .... The AEC copper tubular design combines high material thermal conductivity and large effective surface area in a structurally compliant coolant channel configuration to achieve significant heat pick...

  4. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs in a blast furnace (BF coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgical site proves to be substantial, it could become a subject of environmental concern.

  5. Keyhole defect production in tubular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, H E; Gunther, W M

    2000-03-01

    Fracture characteristics, reported primarily for the cranium, are valuable indicators of bullet direction. A bullet striking the vault tangentially produces an irregular opening, termed a "keyhole defect." with the circular portion of the defect being the initial point of impact. Identifying this feature in tubular bone (long bone) can also demonstrate bullet direction and the position of the bone at the time of the shooting. This case study involving a tangential shot (i.e., a keyhole fracture) to the humerus demonstrates some of the same fracture mechanics seen in the cranium.

  6. Fractal solutions of recirculation tubular chemical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezowski, Marek

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of fractal solutions of model of recirculation non-adiabatic tubular chemical reactors are presented. The first kind concerns the structure of Feigenbaum's diagram on the limit of chaos. The second kind and the third one concern the effect of initial conditions on the dynamic solutions of models. In the course of computations two types of recirculation were considered, viz. the recirculation of mass (return of a part of products' stream) and recirculation of heat (heat exchange in the external heat exchanger)

  7. Analysis of efforts on a tubular chassis

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Ripa, Diego

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to design a tubular chassis of a speed car, based on a earlier design of this type of car. When it is designed, the aim is to design it with a finite element program, in this case, is going to be used the software Abaqus, for after establish a method of calculation in a manner in which can be measured all the parameters, like deformations and stresses, suffered by the chassis submited to the efforts supported by the chassis in different situatio...

  8. TUBULAR DISORDERS WITH RICKETS-LIKE SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Kartamysheva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Often under the guise of «ordinary» Rickets are more severe kidney diseases, developing as a result of inherited or acquired, primary or secondary defects in the renal tubules. Incorrect diagnosis leads to an inadequate therapy, rapid progression of disease and renal failure. The article describes the main approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of tubular rachitis similar syndrome, presents a number of clinical cases in author's practice.Key words: tubulopathy, acidosis, electrolyte disorders, rickets, rickets-like syndrome, diagnostics, treatment, children.

  9. A 3D velocimetry study of the flow through prosthetic heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, R.; Zenit, R.; Pulos, G.; Sanchez, E.; Juarez, A.

    2006-11-01

    Blood damage commonly appears in medical valve prothesis. It is a mayor concern for the designers and surgeons. It is well known that this damage and other complications result from the modified fluid dynamics through the replacement valve. To evaluate the performance of prosthetic heart valves, it is necessary to study the flow through them. To conduct this study , we have built a flow channel that emulates cardiac conditions and allows optical access such that a 3D-PIV velocimetry system could be used. The experiments are aimed to reconstruct the downstream structure of the flow through a mechanical and a bio-material tricuspid heart valve prothesis. Preliminary results show that the observed coherent structures can be related with haemolysis and trombosis, illnesses commonly found in valve prothesis recipients. The mean flow, the levels of strain rate and the turbulence intensity generated by the valves can also be directly related to blood damage. In general, bio-material made valves tend to reduce these complications.

  10. Experimental study and DEM simulation of granular flow through a new sphere discharge valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang He; Li Tianjin; Huang Zhiyong; Gao Zhi; Qi Weiwei; Bo Hanliang

    2015-01-01

    Experiments and DEM simulation have been conducted to investigate the granular flow through a new type of sphere discharge valve. The new sphere discharge valve was based on the principle of angle of repose. The glass sphere was used in the granular discharge experiments. Experimental results showed that the relation between the averaging sphere discharge mass flow rate and the stroke of the sphere discharge valve were consisted of three zones, i.e. the idle stroke zone, linearly zone and orifice restriction zone. The Beverloo's law was suitable for the granular flow through multi-orifices in the orifice restriction zone. The variation of averaging sphere discharge mass flow rate with the stroke of the sphere discharge valve was described by Beverloo's law with the modification based on the stroke of the sphere discharge valve. DEM simulation results showed that the drained angle of repose during granular flow in the sphere storage vessel remained 23 degrees with different stroke of the sphere discharge valve. (authors)

  11. Numerical Investigation of Oxygenated and Deoxygenated Blood Flow through a Tapered Stenosed Arteries in Magnetic Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Y Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

    Full Text Available Current paper is focused on transient modeling of blood flow through a tapered stenosed arteries surrounded a by solenoid under the presence of heat transfer. The oxygenated and deoxygenated blood are considered here by the Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluid (power law and Carreau-Yasuda models. The governing equations of bio magnetic fluid flow for an incompressible, laminar, homogeneous, non-Newtonian are solved by finite volume method with SIMPLE algorithm for structured grid. Both magnetization and electric current source terms are well thought-out in momentum and energy equations. The effects of fluid viscosity model, Hartmann number, and magnetic number on wall shear stress, shearing stress at the stenosis throat and maximum temperature of the system are investigated and are optimized. The current study results are in agreement with some of the existing findings in the literature and are useful in thermal and mechanical design of spatially varying magnets to control the drug delivery and biomagnetic fluid flows through tapered arteries.

  12. Computed tomography for the quantitative characterization of flow through a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzerais, F.M.; Dussan, E.B.; Reischer, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray computer tomography (CT) has become an increasingly popular research tool in petroleum engineering for characterizing porous media. Its highly detailed images have been used to construct maps of porosity, saturation and atomic composition, and to visualize the displacement of fluids. However, extracting data necessary to characterize flow through porous media is both time consuming and dependent on the availability of extensive computational resources - - a consequence of the large size of the image files. The authors of this paper applied to known technique, based upon the ability to recognize regions with similar features, which avoids these difficulties. It allows the authors to substitute for the image, the pixel location of the boundaries of the recognized regions, reducing considerably the computer storage requirements. The authors this technique to study the dynamics of two miscible liquids of different densities flowing through a porous medium where buoyancy plays an important role. The authors' specific concern is the movement of mud filtrate as it penetrates a permeable formation in the vicinity of a recently drilled wellbore. The authors quantify the manner in which impermeable horizontal barriers influence the movement of the filtrate

  13. Flow-Through Stream Modeling with MODFLOW and MT3D: Certainties and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Simon, Rose; Bernard, Stéphane; Meurville, Charles; Rebour, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess MODFLOW and MT3D capabilities for simulating the spread of contaminants from a river exhibiting an unusual relationship with an alluvial aquifer, with the groundwater head higher than the river head on one side and lower on the other (flow-through stream). A series of simulation tests is conducted using a simple hypothetical model so as to characterize and quantify these limitations. Simulation results show that the expected contaminant spread could be achieved with a specific configuration composed of two sets of parameters: (1) modeled object parameters (hydraulic groundwater gradient, hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer and streambed), and (2) modeling parameters (vertical discretization of aquifer, horizontal refinement of stream modeled with River [RIV] package). The influence of these various parameters on simulation results is investigated, and potential complications and errors are identified. Contaminant spread from stream to aquifer is not always reproduced by MT3D due to the RIV package's inability to simulate lateral exchange fluxes between stream and aquifer. This paper identifies the need for a MODFLOW streamflow package allowing lateral stream-aquifer interactions and streamflow routine calculations. Such developments could be of particular interest for modeling contaminated flow-through streams. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  14. A flow-through hydrothermal cell for in situ neutron diffraction studies of phase transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Brian [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Tenailleau, Christophe [Department of Mineralogy, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia); Nogthai, Yung [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Studer, Andrew [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, PMB 1 Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Brugger, Joel [Department of Mineralogy, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia): Department of Geology and Geophysics, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Pring, Allan [Department of Mineralogy, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia): Department of Geology and Geophysics, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)]. E-mail: pring.allan@saugov.sa.gov.au

    2006-11-15

    A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in situ neutron diffraction study of crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. It is specifically designed for use on the medium-resolution powder diffractometer (MRPD) at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the Polaris beamline at ISIS and the new high-intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The cell will operate in a flow-through mode over the temperature range from 25-300 deg. C and up to pressures of 100 bar. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite (Fe,Ni){sub 9}S{sub 8} to violarite (Fe,Ni){sub 3}S{sub 4} under mild conditions (pH{approx}4) at 120 deg. C and 3 bar using in situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented.

  15. The Design and Construction of Flow-through Hydrothermal Cells for in situ Neutron Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pring, A.; Tenailleau, C.; Wang, H.; Brugger, J.; Ngothai, Yung; ONeill, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in-situ neutron diffraction study of hydrothermal crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. New fundamental knowledge on the mechanisms of phase transitions can thus be determined. It is specifically designed for the use on the Medium Resolution Powder Diffractometer at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the new High intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The equipment has been initially created for the low temperature transformation study of Fe-Ni sulfide minerals. The design and use of the flow-through hydrothermal cell from 25 to 120degC are described. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite to violarite under mild conditions (pH 4) at 120degC and 3 bars using in-situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented. (authors)

  16. The Design and Construction of Flow-through Hydrothermal Cells for in situ Neutron Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pring, A.; Tenailleau, C.; Wang, H.; Brugger, J.; Ngothai, Yung; ONeill, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in-situ neutron diffraction study of hydrothermal crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. New fundamental knowledge on the mechanisms of phase transitions can thus be determined. It is specifically designed for the use on the Medium Resolution Powder Diffractometer at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the new High intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The equipment has been initially created for the low temperature transformation study of Fe-Ni sulfide minerals. The design and use of the flow-through hydrothermal cell from 25 to 120 deg C are described. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite to violarite under mild conditions (pH 4) at 120 deg C and 3 bars using in-situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented. (authors)

  17. Numerical simulation of water flow through the bottom end piece of a nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Moyses Alberto; Santos, Andre A.C. dos

    2007-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study was conducted on the pressure loss of flows through the bottom end piece of a nuclear fuel assembly. To determine an optimized numerical methodology using the commercial CFD code, CFX 10.0, a series of preliminary simulations of water flows through perforated plates in a square ducts were performed. A perforated plate is a predominant geometry of the bottom end piece, responsible for the majority of the flow's pressure drop. The numerical pressure loss applying an optimized mesh and the k-ε turbulence model showed good agreement when compared with a conventional methodology (Idelchik). Numerical results for the standard bottom end piece were obtained applying the previously determined mesh criteria and the k-ε turbulence model with some geometric simplifications. The agreement between the numerical simulations and experimental results can be considered satisfactory but suggest further numerical investigations with the bottom piece under real conditions of the experiment, without the geometric simplifications and with a gap between the piece and the wall of the flow channel. Additionally, other turbulence models should be appraised for this complex geometry. (author)

  18. Numerical Simulation of Water Flow through the Bottom End Piece of a Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Moysés A.; Santos, André A. C. Dos

    An experimental and numerical study was conducted on the pressure loss of flows through the bottom end piece of a nuclear fuel assembly. To determine an optimized numerical methodology using the commercial CFD code, CFX 10.0, a series of preliminary simulations of water flows through perforated plates in a square ducts were performed. A perforated plate is a predominant geometry of the bottom end piece, responsible for the majority of the flow's pressure drop. The numerical pressure loss applying an optimized mesh and the k-ɛ turbulence model showed good agreement when compared with a conventional methodology (Idelchik). Numerical results for the standard bottom end piece were obtained applying the previously determined mesh criteria and the k-ɛ turbulence model with some geometric simplifications. The agreement between the numerical simulations and experimental results can be considered satisfactory but suggests further numerical investigations with the bottom piece under real conditions of the experiment, without the geometric simplifications and with a gap between the piece and the wall of the flow channel. Additionally, other turbulence models should be appraised for this complex geometry.

  19. An optofluidic metasurface for lateral flow-through detection of breast cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Ali, Md Azahar; Chow, Edmond K C; Dong, Liang; Lu, Meng

    2018-02-17

    The rapid growth of point-of-care tests demands for biosensors with high sensitivity and small size. This paper demonstrates an optofluidic metasurface that combines silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanophotonics and nanofluidics to realize a high-performance, lateral flow-through biosensor. The metasurface is made of a periodic array of silicon nanoposts on an SOI substrate, and functionalized with specific receptor molecules. Bonding of a polydimethylsiloxane slab directly onto the surface results in an ultracompact biosensor, where analyte solutions are restricted to flow only in the space between the nanoposts. No flow exists above the nanoposts. This sensor design overcomes the issue with diffusion-limited detection of many other biosensors. The lateral flow-through feature, in conjunction with high-Q resonance modes associated with optical bound states of the metasurface, offers an improved sensitivity to subtle molecule-bonding induced changes in refractive index. The device exhibits a resonance mode around 1550 nm wavelength and provides an index sensitivity of 720 nm/RIU. Biosensing is conducted to detect the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2), a protein biomarker for early-stage breast cancer screening, by monitoring resonance wavelength shifts in response to specific analyte-ligand binding events at the metasurface. The limit of detection of the device is 0.7 ng mL -1 for ErbB2. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Temperature Prediction for High Pressure High Temperature Condensate Gas Flow Through Chokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a theoretical model for predicting the downstream temperatures of high pressure high temperature condensate gas flowing through chokes. The model is composed of three parts: the iso-enthalpy choke model derived from continuity equation and energy conservation equation; the liquid-vapor equilibrium model based on the SRK equation of state (EoS; and the enthalpy model based on the Lee-Kesler EoS. Pseudocritical properties of mixtures, which are obtained by mixing rules, are very important in the enthalpy model, so the Lee-Kesler, Plocker-Knapp, Wong-Sandler and Prausnitz-Gunn mixing rules were all researched, and the combination mixing rules with satisfactory accuracy for high pressure high temperature condensate gases were proposed. The temperature prediction model is valid for both the critical and subcritical flows through different kinds of choke valves. The applications show the model is reliable for predicting the downstream temperatures of condensate gases with upstream pressures up to 85.54 MPa and temperatures up to 93.23 °C. The average absolute errors between the measured and calculated temperatures are expected for less than 2 °C by using the model.

  1. Three-dimensional hierarchical porous tubular carbon as a host matrix for long-term lithium-selenium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Min; Lu, Shiyu; Chen, Yuming; Liu, Ting; Han, Jin; Shen, Bolei; Wu, Xiaoshuai; Bao, Shu-Juan; Jiang, Jian; Xu, Maowen

    2017-11-01

    Lithium-selenium (Li-Se) batteries are of great interest as a representative family of electrochemical energy storage systems because of their high theoretical volumetric capacity and considerable electronic conductivity. However, the main drawback of Se electrodes is the rapid capacity fading caused by the dissolution of polyselenides upon cycling. Here, we report a simple, economical, and effective method for the synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous carbon with a hollow tubular structure as a host matrix for loading Se and trapping polyselenides. The as-obtained porous tubular carbon shows a superior specific surface area of 1786 m2 g-1, a high pore volume of 0.79 cm3 g-1, and many nanostructured pores. Benefiting from the unique structural characteristics, the resulting hierarchical porous carbon/Se composite exhibits a high capacity of 515 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C. More importantly, a remarkable cycling stability over 900 cycles at 2 C with a capacity fading rate of merely 0.02% per cycle can be achieved. The 3D hollow porous tubular carbon can be also used for other high-performance electrodes of electrochemical energy storage.

  2. Tubular fluoropolymer arrays with high piezoelectric response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Sergey; Eder-Goy, Dagmar; Biethan, Corinna; Fedosov, Sergey; Xu, Bai-Xiang; von Seggern, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    Polymers with electrically charged internal air cavities called ferroelectrets exhibit a pronounced piezoelectric effect and are regarded as soft functional materials suitable for sensor and actuator applications. In this work, a simple method for fabricating piezoelectret arrays with open-tubular channels is introduced. A set of individual fluoroethylenepropylene (FEP) tubes is compressed between two heated metal plates. The squeezed FEP tubes are melted together at +270 °C. The resulting structure is a uniform, multi-tubular, flat array that reveals a strong piezoelectric response after a poling step. The fabricated arrays have a high ratio between piezoelectrically active and non-active areas. The optimal charging voltage and stability of the piezoelectric coefficients with pressures and frequency were experimentally investigated for two specific array structures with wall thickness of 50 and 120 μm. The array fabricated from 50 μm thick FEP tubes reveals a stable and high piezoelectric coefficient of {d}33 = 120-160 pC N-1 with a flat frequency response between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz for pressures between 1 and 100 kPa. An increase of wall thickness to 120 μm is accompanied by a more than twofold decrease in the piezoelectric coefficient as a result of a simultaneously higher effective array stiffness and lower remanent polarization. The obtained experimental results can be used to optimize the array design with regard to the electromechanical performance.

  3. Construção e avaliação de um eletrodo tubular sensível ao íon hidrogênio como detector em sistemas de análise em fluxo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martelli Patrícia B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a tubular hydrogen ion-selective potentiometric electrode without inner reference solution, based on the tridodecylamine (TDDA ionophore, and its evaluation in a flow system are described. TDDA was dissolved in 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether, dispersed in a PVC membrane and applied directly to a conducting support which consisted of an epoxy resin and graphite mixture. The electrode was designed with a tubular geometry to effort facilities to be coupled as part of a flow injection network. The main working characteristics such as response time, linear pH range, selectivity and life time were evaluated and compared with those obtained which a conventionally shaped electrode based on the same sensor. The electrode showed a slope of 51-52 mV dec-1 within a linear pH range from 4.0 up to 12.0.

  4. One-heater flow-through polymerase chain reaction device by heat pipes cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyh Jian; Liao, Ming Huei; Li, Kun Tze; Shen, Chia Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a novel microfluidic reactor capable of flow-through polymerase chain reactions (PCR). For one-heater PCR devices in previous studies, comprehensive simulations and experiments for the chip geometry and the heater arrangement were usually needed before the fabrication of the device. In order to improve the flexibility of the one-heater PCR device, two heat pipes with one fan are used to create the requisite temperature regions in our device. With the integration of one heater onto the chip, the high temperature required for the denaturation stage can be generated at the chip center. By arranging the heat pipes on the opposite sides of the chip, the low temperature needed for the annealing stage is easy to regulate. Numerical calculations and thermal measurements have shown that the temperature distribution in the five-temperature-region PCR chip would be suitable for DNA amplification. In order to ensure temperature uniformity at specific reaction regions, the Re of the sample flow is less than 1. When the microchannel width increases and then decreases gradually between the denaturation and annealing regions, the extension region located in the enlarged part of the channel can be observed numerically and experimentally. From the simulations, the residence time at the extension region with the enlarged channel is 4.25 times longer than that without an enlarged channel at a flow rate of 2 μl/min. The treated surfaces of the flow-through microchannel are characterized using the water contact angle, while the effects of the hydrophilicity of the treated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels on PCR efficiency are determined using gel electrophoresis. By increasing the hydrophilicity of the channel surface after immersing the PDMS substrates into Tween 20 (20%) or BSA (1 mg/ml) solutions, efficient amplifications of DNA segments were proved to occur in our chip device. To our knowledge, our group is the first to introduce heat pipes into

  5. Uma metodologia para análises comparativas da capacidade produtiva entre arames maciços (MIG/MAG e tubulares (eletrodo tubular A methodology for comparative analyses of the productive capacity between solid (GMAW and tubular wires (FCAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Paula Garcia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diante das diferenças operacionais existentes entre o processo Eletrodo Tubular e o processo MIG/MAG, dois processos de soldagem competitivos em termos de qualidade e produtividade, buscou-se avaliar com uma metodologia a capacidade produtiva de cada processo, sob diferentes aspectos. Realizou-se um estudo comparativo da taxa de fusão, taxa de deposição e rendimento de deposição, concluindo com uma análise da capacidade produtiva de cada arame em questão. Soldagens foram realizadas utilizando-se os arames E71T-1 e ER70S6, sob as proteções gasosas 100%CO2 e Ar+25%CO2 em diferentes níveis de corrente, usando chapas chanfradas. Para se possibilitar uma comparação próxima da realidade prática de cada consumível, procurou-se trabalhar com cada combinação arame/ gás de proteção em condições apropriadas de distância bico de contato-peça e de regulagem de tensão (no caso da faixa de corrente estudada, o arame maciço foi utilizado em curto-circuito, utilizando uma DBCP menor. Fixou-se ainda o mesmo volume do cordão de solda por metro para cada nível de corrente. De um modo geral, o arame tubular utilizado apresentou uma maior taxa de deposição do que o arame maciço, porém com um maior consumo de material para se formar um mesmo cordão. Uma análise econômica mostrou que com o tubular é possível realizar um dado comprimento de solda em menor tempo (maior produtividade, no que pese o maior custo em função do preço dos produtos no momento.Considering the operational differences between the process tubular electrode and GMAW process, two welding processes competitive in terms of quality and productivity, was evaluated a methodology to the productive capacity of each process under different aspects. It was realized a comparative study of melting rate, deposition rate and efficiency deposition, concluding with an analysis of the productive capacity of each wire in question. Welds beads were evaluated using the wire E71T

  6. Cyclosporine A induces senescence in renal tubular epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennings, Paul; Koppelstaetter, Christian; Aydin, Sonia; Abberger, Thomas; Wolf, Anna Maria; Mayer, Gert; Pfaller, Walter

    The nephrotoxic potential of the widely used immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CsA) is well recognized. However, the mechanism of renal tubular toxicity is not yet fully elucidated. Chronic CsA nephropathy and renal organ aging share some clinical features, such as renal fibrosis and tubular

  7. Intrarenal purinergic signaling in the control of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Helle; Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2010-01-01

    -reaching advances indicate that ATP is often used as a local transmitter for classical sensory transduction. This transmission apparently also applies to sensory functions in the kidney. Locally released ATP is involved in sensing of renal tubular flow or in detecting the distal tubular load of NaCl at the macula...

  8. Weingarten and Linear Weingarten Type Tubular Surfaces in E3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Tunçer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study tubular surfaces in Euclidean 3-space satisfying some equations in terms of the Gaussian curvature, the mean curvature, the second Gaussian curvature, and the second mean curvature. This paper is a completion of Weingarten and linear Weingarten tubular surfaces in Euclidean 3-space.

  9. Endothelial protein C receptor in renal tubular epithelial cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to investigate EPCR expression in renal tubular epithelial cells and related influencing factors. EPCR expression was assessed by flow cytometry in renal tubular epithelial cells. The effects of some reagents (high glucose, tumor necrosis factor–α and interleukin-1β) were measured by RT-PCR. The results ...

  10. Theoretical and experimental investigations of Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated.......Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated....

  11. Apoptotic tubular cell death during acute renal allograft rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, P. C.; Aten, J.; Rentenaar, R. J.; Hack, C. E.; Koopman, G.; Weening, J. J.; ten Berge, I. J.

    1998-01-01

    Tubular cells are important targets during acute renal allograft rejection and induction of apoptosis might be a mechanism of tubular cell destruction. Susceptibility to induction of apoptosis is regulated by the homologous Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax is regulated by p53,

  12. A Long Term Test of Differently Designed Evacuated Tubular Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    During three years seven differently designed evacuated tubular collectors (ETCs) utilizing solar radiation from all directions have been investigated experimentally. The evacuated tubular solar collectors investigated include one SLL all-glass ETC from Tshinghua Solar Co. Ltd, four heat pipe ETCs...

  13. Renal Tubular Function in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus | Jessop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal function is commonly assessed by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, defects in tubular function may still exist in the presence of a normal GFR. In 12 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 6 of whom had previously been shown to have renal impairment, glomerular and tubular ...

  14. Chemical Gardens as Flow-through Reactors Simulating Natural Hydrothermal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Laura M; Abedian, Yeghegis; Doloboff, Ivria J; Nuñez, Jessica E; Russell, Michael J; Kidd, Richard D; Kanik, Isik

    2015-11-18

    Here we report experimental simulations of hydrothermal chimney growth using injection chemical garden methods. The versatility of this type of experiment allows for testing of various proposed ocean / hydrothermal fluid chemistries that could have driven reactions toward the origin of life in environments on the early Earth, early Mars, or even other worlds such as the icy moons of the outer planets. We show experiments that include growth of chemical garden structures under anoxic conditions simulating the early Earth, inclusion of trace components of phosphates / organics in the injection solution to incorporate them into the structure, a switch of the injection solution to introduce a secondary precipitating anion, and the measurement of membrane potentials generated by chemical gardens. Using this method, self-assembling chemical garden structures were formed that mimic the natural chimneys precipitated at submarine hydrothermal springs, and these precipitates can be used successfully as flow-through reactors by feeding through multiple successive "hydrothermal" injections.

  15. Information Flow Through Stages of Complex Engineering Design Projects: A Dynamic Network Analysis Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parraguez, Pedro; Eppinger, Steven D.; Maier, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of information flow through the network of interdependent design activities is thought to be an important determinant of engineering design process results. A previously unexplored aspect of such patterns relates to the temporal dynamics of information transfer between activities...... information flows between activities in complex engineering design projects; 2) we show how the network of information flows in a large-scale engineering project evolved over time and how network analysis yields several managerial insights; and 3) we provide a useful new representation of the engineering...... as those activities are implemented through the network of people executing the project. To address this gap, we develop a dynamic modeling method that integrates both the network of people and the network of activities in the project. We then employ a large dataset collected from an industrial setting...

  16. Helium-air exchange flows through partitioned opening and two-opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, T. I.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes experimental investigations of helium-air exchange flows through partitioned opening and two-opening. Such exchange flows may occur following rupture accident of stand pipe in high temperature engineering test reactor. A test vessel with the two types of small opening on top of test cylinder is used for experiments. An estimation method of mass increment is developed to measure the exchange flow rate. Upward flow of the helium and downward flow of the air in partitioned opening system interact out of entrance and exit of the opening. Therefore, an experiment with two-opening system is made to investigate effect of the fluids interaction of partitioned opening system. As a result of comparison of the exchange flow rates between two types of the opening system, it is demonstrated that the exchange flow rate of the two-opening system is larger than that of the partitioned opening system because of absence of the effect of fluids interaction. (author)

  17. Modeling of sand-water slurry flow through horizontal pipe using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gopaliya Manoj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents three-dimensional CFD analysis of two-phase (sand-water slurry flows through 263 mm diameter pipe in horizontal orientation for mixture velocity range of 3.5-4.7 m/s and efflux concentration range of 9.95-34% with three particle sizes viz. 0.165 mm, 0.29 mm and 0.55 mm with density 2650 kg/m3. RNG k-ε turbulence closure equations with Eulerian multi-phase model is used to simulate various slurry flows. The simulated values of local solid concentration are compared with the experimental data and are found to be in good agreement for all particle sizes. Effects of particle size on various slurry flow parameters such as pressure drop, solid phase velocity distribution, friction factor, granular pressure, turbulent viscosity, turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation have been analyzed.

  18. Oxygen Transfer Model for a Flow-Through Hollow-Fiber Membrane Biofilm Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilmore, K. R.; Little, J. C.; Smets, Barth F.

    2009-01-01

    A mechanistic oxygen transfer model was developed and applied to a flow-through hollow-fiber membrane-aerated biofilm reactor. Model results are compared to conventional clean water test results as well as performance data obtained when an actively nitrifying biofilm was present on the fibers......-liquid interface was the most accurate of the predictive models (overpredicted by a factor of 1.1) while a coefficient determined by measuring bulk liquid dissolved oxygen underpredicted the oxygen transfer by a factor of 3. The mechanistic model was found to be an adequate tool for design because it used....... With the biofilm present, oxygen transfer efficiencies between 30 and 55% were calculated from the measured data including the outlet gas oxygen concentration, ammonia consumption stoichiometry, and oxidized nitrogen production stoichiometry, all of which were in reasonable agreement. The mechanistic model...

  19. Electro-osmotic flow through a thin channel with gradually varying wall potential and hydrodynamic slippage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng Chiuon; Zhou Qi

    2012-01-01

    The lubrication approximation is applied to electro-osmotic flow through a thin parallel-plate channel under the combined effect of charge and hydrodynamic slippage modulation on the walls. The walls are periodically patterned for the charge and slip distributions, with a wavelength much longer than the channel height. It is shown that the phase of the wall patterns will play a significant role in determining the section-averaged velocity as well as the local convection pattern, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The effect of the phase on the flow will be dramatically different, depending on whether the electric field is applied along or perpendicular to the varying direction of the patterns. The possibility of generating a net flow in a direction perpendicular to the applied field is demonstrated. (paper)

  20. Numerical simulation of water flow through the bottom en piece of a nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Moyses A.; Santos, Andre A. Campagnole dos

    2007-01-01

    The water flow through the bottom nozzle of a nuclear fuel assembly was simulated using a commercial CFD code, CFX 10.0. Previously, simulations with a perforated plate similar to the bottom nozzle plate were performed to define the appropriate mesh refinement and turbulence model (κ-ε or SST). Subsequently, the numerical simulation was performed with the optimized mesh using the turbulence model (κ-ε in a standard bottom nozzle with some geometric simplifications. The numerical results were compared with experimental results to determine the pressure drop through the bottom nozzle in the Reynolds range from ∼10500 to ∼95000. The agreement between the numerical simulations and experimental results may be considered satisfactory. The study indicated that the CFD codes can play an important role in the development of pieces with complex geometries, optimizing the planning of the experiments and aiding in the experimental analysis. (author)

  1. Mathematical Modelling of Blood Flow through a Tapered Overlapping Stenosed Artery with Variable Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Shit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical study of blood flow through a tapered and overlapping stenosed artery under the action of an externally applied magnetic field. The fluid (blood medium is assumed to be porous in nature. The variable viscosity of blood depending on hematocrit (percentage volume of erythrocytes is taken into account in order to improve resemblance to the real situation. The governing equation for laminar, incompressible and Newtonian fluid subject to the boundary conditions is solved by using a well known Frobenius method. The analytical expressions for velocity component, volumetric flow rate, wall shear stress and pressure gradient are obtained. The numerical values are extracted from these analytical expressions and are presented graphically. It is observed that the influence of hematocrit, magnetic field and the shape of artery have important impact on the velocity profile, pressure gradient and wall shear stress. Moreover, the effect of primary stenosis on the secondary one has been significantly observed.

  2. Synchrotron 4-dimensional imaging of two-phase flow through porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, F H; Penumadu, D; Patel, P; Xiao, X; Garboczi, E J; Moylan, S P; Donmez, M A

    2016-01-01

    Near real-time visualization of complex two-phase flow in a porous medium was demonstrated with dynamic 4-dimensional (4D) (3D + time) imaging at the 2-BM beam line of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. Advancing fluid fronts through tortuous flow paths and their interactions with sand grains were clearly captured, and formations of air bubbles and capillary bridges were visualized. The intense X-ray photon flux of the synchrotron facility made 4D imaging possible, capturing the dynamic evolution of both solid and fluid phases. Computed Tomography (CT) scans were collected every 12 s with a pixel size of 3.25 µm. The experiment was carried out to improve understanding of the physics associated with two-phase flow. The results provide a source of validation data for numerical simulation codes such as Lattice-Boltzmann, which are used to model multi-phase flow through porous media.

  3. Use of Continuous Magnetic Extraction for removal of feedstock contaminants in flow-through mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulus, Anja; Fischer, Ingo; Hobley, Timothy John

    2014-01-01

    for binding large amounts of product. It can also be especially interesting if obtaining a high product yield is secondary to other considerations. For example if an excess of a low value waste stream is available, it may be acceptable that some target is lost to the adsorbent during contaminant binding......During downstream processing, it may sometimes be more favorable to use adsorbents to bind the contaminants rather than the product. This so-called flow-through mode is especially useful for feed streams where contaminants are in low concentrations, because less adsorbent is required than......-Birk protease inhibitor which has an anti-carcinogenic effect. It was found that using anion exchange magnetic particles as the impurity adsorbing agent, Continuous Magnetic Extraction of contaminants led to a BBI preparation with purity approaching 97% and with yield of 55% in a 15L pilot scale system....

  4. The WUW ML bundle detector A flow through detector for alpha-emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Wenzel, U; Lochny, M

    1999-01-01

    Using conventional laboratory ware, we designed and manufactured a flow through cell for monitoring alpha-bearing solutions. The cell consists of a bundle of thermoplastic, transparent tubes coated with a thin layer of the meltable scintillator MELTILEX sup T sup M at the inner surface. With appropriate energy windows set, the detector can suppress beta-particles to a great extent due to its geometrical dimensions. For pure alpha-solutions, the detection limits are 5 Bq/ml, for composite nuclide mixtures, the detector is capable to monitor the decontamination of medium active waste (<=10 sup 7 Bq/ml) down to 100 Bq alpha/g solution. At a throughput of 1 ml/s, the pressure build-up amounts to approx 2 bar. We have developed a quality control program to ensure the regularity of the individual bundle loops.

  5. Air-water two-phase flow through a pipe junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suu, Tetsuo

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of the local void fraction across the section of the conduit was studied experimentally in air-water two-phase flow flowing through a pipe junction with the branching angle of 90deg and the area ratio of unity. As in the previous report, the main conduit of the junction was set up vertically and upward air-water bubbly and slug flows were arranged in the main upstream section. If the flow regime, the quality and the ratio of lateral mass flow discharge of water to total mass flow discharge of water are the same, the larger the Reynolds number is, the more violent the variety of the local void fraction distribution adjacent to the branching part in the lateral conduit is. However, the variety in the main downstream section is scarcely influenced by the Reynolds number. (author)

  6. Dynamic flow-through approaches for metal fractionation in environmentally relevant solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Chomchoei, Roongrat

    2005-01-01

    In the recent decades, batchwise equilibrium-based single or sequential extraction schemes have been consolidated as analytical tools for fractionation analyses to assess the ecotoxicological significance of metal ions in solid environmental samples. However, taking into account that naturally...... generations of flow-injection analysis. Special attention is also paid to a novel, robust, non-invasive approach for on-site continuous sampling of soil solutions, capitalizing on flow-through microdialysis, which presents itself as an appealing complementary approach to the conventional lysimeter experiments....... In addition, a critical comparison between the time-resolved analytical information provided by these novel dynamic extraction procedures and that of the traditional schemes is given and thoroughly discussed in the bulk of the text....

  7. Numerical simulation of 3-D turbulent flow through entire stage in a multistage centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.; Islam, M.F.; Liu, P.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional turbulent flow through a multistage centrifugal pump is numerically simulated using a commercial CFD software package. The simulation and analysis include flow fields in rotating impeller and stationary diffuser and is completed in a multiple reference frame. The standard k-ε turbulence model is applied. The analysis of the simulation reveals that the reverse flows exist in the zone near the impeller exit and diffuser entrance, resulting in flow field asymmetric and unsteady. There is a considerable interference on velocity field at impeller exit due to the interaction between impeller blades and diffuser vanes. The hydraulic performance is connected and evaluated with the 3-D computational flow field. The current computation is verified by comparing predicted and measured head. (author)

  8. Pulsatile turbulent flow through pipe bends at high Dean and Womersley numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalpakli, Athanasia; Örlü, Ramis; Tillmark, Nils; Alfredsson, P Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Turbulent pulsatile flows through pipe bends are prevalent in internal combustion engine components which consist of bent pipe sections and branching conduits. Nonetheless, most of the studies related to pulsatile flows in pipe bends focus on incompressible, low Womersley and low Dean number flows, primarily because they aim in modeling blood flow, while internal combustion engine related flows have mainly been addressed in terms of integral quantities and consist of single point measurements. The present study aims at bridging the gap between these two fields by means of time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements in a pipe bend with conditions that are close to those encountered in exhaust manifolds. The time/phase-resolved three-dimensional cross-sectional flow-field 3 pipe diameters downstream the pipe bend is captured and the interplay between different secondary motions throughout a pulse cycle is discussed.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Non-Equilibrium Two-Phase Wet Steam Flow through an Asymmetric Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah Md Ashraful Alam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study reported of the numerical investigation of a high-speed wet steam flow through an asymmetric nozzle. The spontaneous non-equilibrium homogeneous condensation of wet steam was numerically modeled based on the classical nucleation theory and droplet growth rate equation combined with the field conservations within the computational fluid dynamics (CFD code of ANSYS Fluent 13.0. The equations describing droplet formations and interphase change were solved sequentially after solving the main flow conservation equations. The calculations were carried out assuming the flow two-dimensional, compressible, turbulent, and viscous. The SST k-ω model was used for modeling the turbulence within an unstructured mesh solver. The validation of numerical model was accomplished, and the results showed a good agreement between the numerical simulation and experimental data. The effect of spontaneous non-equilibrium condensation on the jet and shock structures was revealed, and the condensation shown a great influence on the jet structure.

  10. Calculating residual flows through a multiple-inlet system: the conundrum of the tidal period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Matute, Matias; Gerkema, Theo

    2015-11-01

    The concept of residual, i.e., tidally-averaged, flows through a multiple inlet system is reappraised. The evaluation of the residual through-flow depends on the time interval over which is integrated, in other words, on how one defines the tidal period. It is demonstrated that this definition is ambiguous and that different definitions (based on, e.g., high waters, slack tides, etc.) yield very different results for the residual, also in terms of their long-term statistical properties (median and standard deviation). A basin-wide applicable method of defining the tidal period, in terms of enclosed water volume, is analyzed. We compare the different methods on the basis of high-resolution model results for the Western Dutch Wadden Sea. The multitude of tidal constituents together with wind variability creates broad distributions for the residuals, with standard deviations much larger than the mean or median residual flows.

  11. A mathematical model for metastable condition determination in highly flashing liquid flows through expansion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, E.; Angelo, G.; Andrade, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A mathematical model to determine the metastable flow degree in expansions. ► This model is based on the evaporation wave theory and a pressure jump discontinuity condition. ► The proposed model is not appropriate in cases where is present a low intensity evaporation wave. - Abstract: The determination of the metastability condition in fluid flows through singularities (expansion devices) when flashing occurs is the key to determine the mass flow rate going through devices when there is a great pressure difference between upstream and downstream. An application of the evaporation waves considered together with a maximizing condition for the pressure jump through the wave to determine the metastable state is presented. The model results are compared to several outflows reported in the literature indicating values within engineering standards for those flows in which fluids are highly superheated (highly expanded flashing liquid jets).

  12. Oil-in-water emulsions flow through constricted micro-capillarities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Oswaldo Robles; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the oil concentration and the drop size distribution on the characteristics of the flow of an emulsion through a constricted capillary was experimentally analyzed and quantified by the ratio of the pressure drop of the continuous phase flow to the pressure drop of the emulsion flow, at the same flow rate. The results confirm that the ratio between the capillary constriction diameter and the oil drop size is one of the most important parameters for this flow. For large oil drop size emulsions, the deformation of the drop as it flows through the constriction leads to a high extra pressure drop at low capillary numbers. For small oil drop size emulsions, the extra pressure drop is a function of the viscosity ratio and the disperse phase concentration. (author)

  13. The Dynamic Behavior of Water Flowing Through Packed Bed of Different Particle Shapes and Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneen Ahmed Jasim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted on pressure drop of water flow through vertical cylindrical packed beds in turbulent region and the influence of the operating parameters on its behavior. The bed packing was made of spherical and non-spherical particles (spheres, Rasching rings and intalox saddle with aspect ratio range 3.46 D/dp 8.486 obtaining bed porosities 0.396 0.84 and Reynolds number 1217 21758. The system is consisted of 5 cm inside diameter Perspex column, 50 cm long; distilled water was pumped through the bed with flow rate 875, 1000, 1125, 1250,1375 and 1500 l/h and inlet water temperature 20, 30, 40 and 50 ˚C. The packed bed system was monitored by using LabVIEW program, were the results have been obtained from Data Acquisition Adaptor (DAQ.

  14. Aerodynamics of the Large-Volume, Flow-Through Detector System. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, H.; Saric, W.; Laananen, D.; Martinez, C.; Carrillo, R.; Myers, J.; Clevenger, D.

    1996-03-01

    The Large-Volume Flow-Through Detector System (LVFTDS) was designed to monitor alpha radiation from Pu, U, and Am in mixed-waste incinerator offgases; however, it can be adapted to other important monitoring uses that span a number of potential markets, including site remediation, indoor air quality, radon testing, and mine shaft monitoring. Goal of this effort was to provide mechanical design information for installation of LVFTDS in an incinerator, with emphasis on ability to withstand the high temperatures and high flow rates expected. The work was successfully carried out in three stages: calculation of pressure drop through the system, materials testing to determine surrogate materials for wind-tunnel testing, and wind-tunnel testing of an actual configuration

  15. Studies on transport phenomena in polymer solutions and suspensions flowing through tubes of tortuous wall geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, C. M.

    2014-02-01

    Attempts have been made to analyse the momentum and heat transfer characteristics in tortuous flow of non-Newtonian fluids such as suspensions and polymer solutions through tubes of diverging-converging geometry. The results of the study indicate that the transfer coefficients are significantly higher in such systems as compared to the conventional couette flow (through uniform cylindrical tubes). Moreover, the simultaneous increase in pressure drop due to the tortuous wall geometry has been observed to be relatively insignificant. Fluids with different rheological characteristics such as Bingham plastic fluids, pseudoplastic fluids, Ellis model fluids and fluids obeying Reiner-Philippoff rheology have been studied. The specific advantages of these geometries in providing enhanced performance efficiency have been effectively highlighted.

  16. Heat exchange effectiveness and pressure drop for air flow through perforated plates with and without crosswind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, C. F.

    1994-05-01

    Low-porosity perforated plates are being used as absorbers for heating ambient air in a new type of unglazed solar collector. This paper investigates the convective heat transfer effectiveness for low-speed air flow through thin, isothermal perforated plates with and without a crosswind on the upstream face. The objective of this work is to provide information that will allow designers to optimize hole size and spacing. In order to obtain performance data, a wind tunnel and small lamp array were designed and built. Experimental data were taken for a range of plate porosities from 0.1 to 5 percent, hole Reynolds numbers from 100 to 2000, and wind speeds from 0 to 4 m/s. Correlations were developed for heat exchange effectiveness and also for pressure drop. Infrared thermography was used to visualize the heat transfer taking place at the surface.

  17. A study of transcritical carbon dioxide flow through adiabatic capillary tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, Diogo L.; Hermes, Christian J.L.; Melo, Claudio [POLO Research Laboratories for Emerging Technologies in Cooling and Thermophysics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Goncalves, Joaquim M. [CEFET/SC, Rua Jose Lino Kretzer 608, 88103-310 Sao Jose, SC (Brazil); Weber, Gustavo C. [EMBRACO S.A., Rua Rui Barbosa 1020, 89219-901 Joinville, SC (Brazil)

    2009-08-15

    This paper advances a study of the transcritical expansion of carbon dioxide (R-744, CO{sub 2}) through adiabatic capillary tubes. The influence of both operating conditions (inlet and exit pressures, inlet temperature) and tube geometry (capillary diameter and tube length) on the CO{sub 2} mass flow rate was experimentally evaluated using a purpose-built testing facility with a strict control of the measured variables. A dimensionless correlation to predict the refrigerant mass flow rate as a function of tube geometry and operating conditions was developed. In addition, a theoretical model was put forward based on the mass, energy and momentum conservation principles. The model results were compared with experimental data, when it was found that the model predicts 95% of the measured refrigerant mass flow rate within an error band of {+-}10%. The model was also employed to advance the knowledge about the transcritical carbon dioxide flow through adiabatic capillary tubes. (author)

  18. Unsteady MHD blood flow through porous medium in a parallel plate channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, R.; Rushi Kumar, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we have analyzed heat and mass transfer effects on unsteady blood flow through parallel plate channel in a saturated porous medium in the presence of a transverse magnetic field with thermal radiation. The governing higher order nonlinear PDE’S are converted to dimensionless equations using dimensionless variables. The dimensionless equations are then solved analytically using boundary conditions by choosing the axial flow transport and the fields of concentration and temperature apart from the normal velocity as a function of y and t. The effects of different pertinent parameters appeared in this model viz thermal radiation, Prandtl number, Heat source parameter, Hartmann number, Permeability parameter, Decay parameter on axial flow transport and the normal velocity are analyzed in detail.

  19. Discussion on Flow-Through Phenomena in the Air Gauge Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermak Czesław Janusz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the flow-through phenomena in the air gauge are under discussion form the thermodynamic and gasodynamic perspective. The main elements of the cascade are considered the inlet nozzle (restriction, measuring chamber and the measuring nozzle with the measuring slot (displacement between the nozzle head and measured surface. The purpose of the analysis was to point out the impact on the metrological characteristics of the air gauge. In particular, attention was paid to the airflow through the measuring slot. Here, the complex phenomena take place, among others the supersonic areas and a “bubble ring,” which cause discontinuity and hysteresis in the static characteristic. On the other hand, the air stream expansion after the restriction (inlet nozzle is observed in the measuring chamber. The point of the above discussion was to work out some recommendation on the nozzles geometry and the localization of the back-pressure measuring point in the chamber.

  20. Flow-through column experiments to determine the geochemical behavior of common hydrological tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moola, P. S. N.; Sigfússon, B.; Stefansson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Tracer testing is one of the most effective methods used to study groundwater flow, reservoir characteristics and subsurface properties in geohydrology. Hydrological tracer tests were conducted with the basic assumption that the tracer is chemically inert and non-reactive. However, not all tracers behave non-reactive at different pH conditions, the particular tracer may interact with mineral surfaces in the reservoir. In order to study the geochemical behavior of some common hydrological tracers flow-through column experiments were conducted at 25°C. Six common hydrological tracers were investigated, amino G acid, fluorescein, napthionic acid, pyranine, rhodamine B and rhodamine G in porous rocks consisting of basaltic glass, quartz or rhyolite at pH 3, 6.5 and 9. Homogenous porous material of fixed grain size 45-125μm were dry packed in the column to conduct flow through column experiments. Tracers were pumped at fixed flow rates for 20 minutes and switched back to experimental blank solution and the tracer concentration monitored at the outlet. The measured break-through tracer curves were compared to theoretical 1-D reactive transport simulations calculated using the PHREEQC program (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). The data obtained from the breakthrough curves suggest that the tracers may be reactive, non-reactive and partially reactive depending on the rock type and solution pH. The tracers that were observed to be reactive showed the influence of adsorption and desorption. The results suggest that some tracers commonly used in ground water hydrology are not suitable under all conditions as they may react with the rocks of the groundwater system.

  1. Flow-through SIP - A novel stable isotope probing approach limiting cross-feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Kitzinger, Katharina; Schintlmeister, Arno; Kjedal, Henrik; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per; Wagner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) is a widely applied tool to link specific microbial populations to metabolic processes in the environment without the prerequisite of cultivation, which has greatly advanced our understanding of the role of microorganisms in biogeochemical cycling. SIP relies on tracing specific isotopically labeled substrates (e.g., 13C, 15N, 18O) into cellular biomarkers, such as DNA, RNA or phospholipid fatty acids, and is considered to be a robust technique to identify microbial populations that assimilate the labeled substrate. However, cross-feeding can occur when labeled metabolites are released from a primary consumer and then used by other microorganisms. This leads to erroneous identification of organisms that are not directly responsible for the process of interest, but are rather connected to primary consumers via a microbial food web. Here, we introduce a new approach that has the potential to eliminate the effect of cross-feeding in SIP studies and can thus also be used to distinguish primary consumers from other members of microbial food webs. In this approach, a monolayer of microbial cells are placed on a filter membrane, and labeled substrates are supplied by a continuous flow. By means of flow-through, labeled metabolites and degradation products are constantly removed, preventing secondary consumption of the substrate. We present results from a proof-of-concept experiment using nitrifiers from activated sludge as model system, in which we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for identification of nitrifiers in combination with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) for visualization of isotope incorporation at the single-cell level. Our results show that flow-through SIP is a promising approach to significantly reduce cross-feeding and secondary substrate consumption in SIP experiments.

  2. An experimental flow-through assessment of acidic Fe/Mg smectite formation on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Peretyazhko, T.; Garcia, A. H.; Ming, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Orbital observations have detected the phyllosilicate smectite in layered material hundreds of meters thick, intracrater depositional fans, and plains sediments on Mars; however, the detection of carbonate deposits is limited. Instead of neutral/alkaline conditions during the Noachian, early Mars may have experienced mildly acidic conditions derived from volcanic acid-sulfate solutions that allowed Fe/Mg smectite formation but prevented widespread carbonate formation. The detection of acid sulfates (e.g., jarosite) associated with smectite in Mawrth Vallis supports this hypothesis. Previous work demonstrated smectite (saponite) formation in closed hydrologic systems (batch reactor) from basaltic glass at pH 4 and 200°C (Peretyazhko et al., 2016 GCA). This work presents results from alteration of basaltic glass from alkaline to acidic conditions in open hydrologic systems (flow-through reactor). Preliminary experiments exposed basaltic glass to deionized water at 190°C at 0.25 ml/min where solution pH equilibrated to 9.5. These initial high pH experiments were conducted to evaluate the flow-through reactor system before working with lower pHs. Smectite at this pH was not produced and instead X-ray diffraction results consistent with serpentine was detected. Experiments are in progress exposing basaltic glass from pH 8 down to pH 3 to determine what range of pHs could allow for smectite formation in this experimental open-system. The production of smectite under an experimental open-system at low pHs if successful, would support a significant paradigm shift regarding the geochemical evolution of early Mars: Early Mars geochemical solutions were mildly acidic, not neutral/alkaline. This could have profound implications regarding early martain microbiology where acid conditions instead of neutral/alkaline conditions will require further research in terrestrial analogs to address the potential for biosignature preservation on Mars (Johnson et al., 2016, LPSC).

  3. Modeling constrained sintering of bi-layered tubular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Ni, De Wei

    2015-01-01

    Constrained sintering of tubular bi-layered structures is being used in the development of various technologies. Densification mismatch between the layers making the tubular bi-layer can generate stresses, which may create processing defects. An analytical model is presented to describe...... the densification and stress developments during sintering of tubular bi-layered samples. The correspondence between linear elastic and linear viscous theories is used as a basis for derivation of the model. The developed model is first verified by finite element simulation for sintering of tubular bi-layer system....... Furthermore, the model is validated using densification results from sintering of bi-layered tubular ceramic oxygen membrane based on porous MgO and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-d layers. Model input parameters, such as the shrinkage kinetics and viscous parameters are obtained experimentally using optical dilatometry...

  4. Inherited renal tubular defects with hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartter′s and Gitelman′s syndrome are two ends of a spectrum of inherited renal tubular disorders that present with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis of varying severity. Clinical features and associated calcium and magnesium ion abnormalities are used to diagnose these cases after excluding other commoner causes. We report on two cases, the first being a young boy, born of pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios, who had classical dysmorphic features, polyuria, hypokalemia and hypercalciuria and was diagnosed as having Bartter′s syndrome. The second patient is a lady who had recurrent tetany as the only manifestation of Gitelman′s syndrome, which is an unusual presentation. Potassium replacement with supplementation of other deficient ions led to satisfactory clinical and biochemical response.

  5. A review of stress concentration factors in tubular and non-tubular joints for design of offshore installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikshant Singh Saini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tubular structures are widely used in offshore installations, trusses, high rise buildings, towers for wind turbines, ski-lift installations, lightning, road pole signals etc., owing to their excellent structural performance and attractive appearance. Stress concentration, especially in the welded joints of these structures, is an important design consideration particularly for fatigue design. In the context of tubular and non-tubular joints, this paper provides a review of the experimental and numerical studies that have been carried out so far to determine the stress concentration factor (SCF. Emphasis is also placed on the complexity of capturing different types of stresses in tubular/non-tubular joints for estimation of SCF. Present code provisions for evaluation of SCF are also discussed. Further, a few issues, which require significant research effort to advance our understanding and to improve the current design guidelines, have been identified.

  6. Tubular adenoma of the urinary tract: a newly described entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Sui; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2013-09-01

    Tubular adenomas in the urinary tract with the same appearance as those in the gastrointestinal tract have not yet been described in the literature. We herein report 4 cases of tubular adenomas in the urinary tract encountered within our consult practice. This lesion was defined by the presence of a collection of small round tubular glands with intestinal-type epithelium showing moderate dysplasia, identical to the histology of tubular adenomas in the intestinal tract. Patients ranged in age from 37 to 63 years (mean, 45 years), with 3 of the 4 being male (male-to-female ratio, 3:1). The locations were urinary bladder, prostatic urethra and ureter with hematuria, polyps, and obstructive mass as their presentations, respectively. One lesion was large measuring 1.4 cm associated with pseudoinvasion as well as invasive adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tubular adenomas stained positive for CDX2 and CK20, while negative for GATA3 and CK7. One case showed positive nuclear β-catenin staining. Tubular adenoma of the urinary tract is a rare lesion, and recognition of this entity will encourage further reports and help to better understand the relation of tubular adenoma to concurrent and subsequent urinary tract malignancies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of chemical oxidation to remediate HCH-contaminated soil under batch and flow through conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad; Tascone, Oriane; Rybnikova, Victoria; Faure, Pierre; Hanna, Khalil

    2017-06-01

    This is the first study describing the chemical oxidation of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in contaminated soil under water saturated and unsaturated flow through conditions. Soil contaminated with β-HCH (45 mg kg -1 ) and γ-HCH (lindane, 25 mg kg -1 ) was sampled from former lindane waste storage site. Efficiency of following treatments was tested at circumneutral pH: H 2 O 2 alone, H 2 O 2 /Fe II , Na 2 S 2 O 8 alone, Na 2 S 2 O 8 /Fe II , and KMnO 4 . Experimental conditions (oxidant dose, liquid/solid ratio, and soil granulometry) were first optimized in batch experiments. Obtained results revealed that increasing dose of H 2 O 2 improved the oxidation efficiency while in Na 2 S 2 O 8 system, maximum HCHs were removed at 300 mM. However, oxidation efficiency was slightly improved by Fe II -activation. Increasing the solid/liquid ratio decreased HCH removal in soil samples crushed to 500 μm while an opposite trend was observed for 2-mm samples. Dynamic column experiments showed that oxidation efficiency followed the order KMnO 4  > Na 2 S 2 O 8 /Fe II  > Na 2 S 2 O 8 whatever the flow condition, whereas the removal extent declined at higher flow rate (e.g., ~50% by KMnO 4 at 0.5 mL/min as compared to ~30% at 2 mL/min). Both HCH removal and oxidant decomposition extents were found higher in saturated columns than the unsaturated ones. While no significant change in relative abundance of soil mineral constituents was observed before and after chemical oxidation, more than 60% of extractable organic matter was lost after chemical oxidation, thereby underscoring the non-selective behavior of chemical oxidation in soil. Due to the complexity of soil system, chemical oxidation has rarely been reported under flow through conditions, and therefore our findings will have promising implications in developing remediation techniques under dynamic conditions closer to field applications.

  8. Reduced blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses during exercise in lowlanders acclimatizing to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Lindsey M; Lovering, Andrew T; Tymko, Michael M; Day, Trevor A; Stembridge, Mike; Nguyen, Trang Anh; Ainslie, Philip N; Foster, Glen E

    2017-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim was to determine, using the technique of agitated saline contrast echocardiography, whether exercise after 4-7 days at 5050 m would affect blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (Q̇IPAVA) compared with exercise at sea level. What is the main finding and its importance? Despite a significant increase in both cardiac output and pulmonary pressure during exercise at high altitude, there is very little Q̇IPAVA at rest or during exercise after 4-7 days of acclimatization. Mathematical modelling suggests that bubble instability at high altitude is an unlikely explanation for the reduced Q̇IPAVA. Blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (Q̇IPAVA) is elevated during exercise at sea level (SL) and at rest in acute normobaric hypoxia. After high altitude (HA) acclimatization, resting Q̇IPAVA is similar to that at SL, but it is unknown whether this is true during exercise at HA. We reasoned that exercise at HA (5050 m) would exacerbate Q̇IPAVA as a result of heightened pulmonary arterial pressure. Using a supine cycle ergometer, seven healthy adults free from intracardiac shunts underwent an incremental exercise test at SL [25, 50 and 75% of SL peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2 peak )] and at HA (25 and 50% of SL V̇O2 peak ). Echocardiography was used to determine cardiac output (Q̇) and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), and agitated saline contrast was used to determine Q̇IPAVA (bubble score; 0-5). The principal findings were as follows: (i) Q̇ was similar at SL rest (3.9 ± 0.47 l min -1 ) compared with HA rest (4.5 ± 0.49 l min -1 ; P = 0.382), but increased from rest during both SL and HA exercise (P exercise (P = 0.003); (iii) Q̇IPAVA was increased from SL rest (0) to HA rest (median = 1; P = 0.04) and increased from resting values during SL exercise (P exercise (P = 0.91), despite significant increases in Q̇ and PASP. Theoretical

  9. Mechanical reliability of geometrically imperfect tubular oxygen transport membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Søgaard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    operation. This paper investigates numerically the failure risk of tubular oxygen transport membranes under industrial operating conditions using finite element modeling and Weibull strength analysis. The effects of component manufacturing defects on fracture probability are elucidated by explicit modeling...... of imperfections in the tubular membrane geometry. A supported membrane made of dense and porous Zr-doped-BSCF is studied as an illustrative example. It is shown that stresses induced by oxygen stoichiometry gradients relax over time due to creep and external pressure is the dominating source of stress in the long...... quality (in terms of specification of tolerable deviation from perfect tubular shape) that allows fail-safe operation are deduced....

  10. Flexible retinal electrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat [Albuquerque, NM; Wessendorf, Kurt O [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  11. Micromachined electrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  12. Improvement of mass transfer characteristics and productivities of inclined tubular photobioreactors by installation of internal static mixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, C U; Ogbonna, J C; Tanaka, H

    2002-04-01

    The feasibility of improving mass transfer characteristics of inclined tubular photobioreactors by installation of static mixers was investigated. The mass transfer characteristics of the tubular photobioreactor varied depending on the type (shape) and the number of static mixers. The volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient ( k(L)a) and gas hold up of the photobioreactor with internal static mixers were significantly higher than those of the photobioreactor without static mixers. The k(L)a and gas hold up increased with the number of static mixers but the mixing time became longer due to restricted liquid flow through the static mixers. By installing the static mixers, the liquid flow changed from plug flow to turbulent mixing so that cells were moved between the surface and bottom of the photobioreactor. In outdoor culture of Chlorella sorokiniana, the photobioreactor with static mixers gave higher biomass productivities irrespective of the standing biomass concentration and solar radiation. The effectiveness of the static mixers (average percentage increase in the productivities of the photobioreactor with static mixers over the productivities obtained without static mixers) was higher at higher standing biomass concentrations and on cloudy days (solar radiation below 6 MJ m(-2) day(-1)).

  13. Flow-through nanohole array based sensor implemented on analogue smartphone components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cruz, Juan; Nair, Srijit; Ascanio, Gabriel; Escobedo, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    Mobile communications have massively populated the consumer electronics market over the past few years and it is now ubiquitous, providing a timeless opportunity for the development of smartphone-based technologies as point-of-care (POC) diagnosis tools1 . The expectation for a fully integrated smartphone-based sensor that enables applications such as environmental monitoring, explosive detection and biomedical analysis has increased among the scientific community in the past few years2,3. The commercialization forecast for smartphone-based sensing technologies is very promising, but reliable, miniature and cost-effective sensing platforms that can adapt to portable electronics in still under development. In this work, we present an integrated sensing platform based on flow-through metallic nanohole arrays. The nanohole arrays are 260 nm in diameter and 520 nm in pitch, fabricated using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) lithography. A white LED resembling a smartphone flash LED serves as light source to excite surface plasmons and the signal is recorded via a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) module. The sensing abilities of the integrated sensing platform is demonstrated for the detection of (i) changes in bulk refractive index (RI), (ii) real-time monitoring of surface modification by receptor-analyte system of streptavidin-biotin.

  14. An investigation of sulfate production in clouds using a flow-through chemical reactor model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, M. S.; Carmichael, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    A flow-through chemical reactor model is developed to describe the mass transfer and chemical processes that atmospheric gases undergo in clouds. The model includes the simultaneous absorption of SO2, NH3, O3, NO(x), HNO3, CO2 and H2O2, the accompanying dissociation and oxidation reactions in cloud water, considers electrical neutrality, and includes qualitative parameterization of cloud microphysics. The model is used to assess the importance of the oxidation reactions H2O2-S(IV), O3-S(IV), and S(IV)-Mn(2+) catalysis, and the effects of cloud parameters such as drop size, rain intensity, liquid water content, and updraft velocity. Both precipitating and nonprecipitating clouds are studied. Model results predict sulfate production rates varying from 3 percent/hr to 230 percent/hr. The actual rate is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the uptake air and the physical conditions of the cloud. Model results also show that both the H2O2 and the O3 oxidation reactions can be significant.

  15. Self-sustained oscillations in blood flow through a honeycomb capillary network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Pozrikidis, C

    2014-09-01

    Numerical simulations of unsteady blood flow through a honeycomb network originating at multiple inlets and terminating at multiple outlets are presented and discussed under the assumption that blood behaves as a continuum with variable constitution. Unlike a tree network, the honeycomb network exhibits both diverging and converging bifurcations between branching capillary segments. Numerical results based on a finite difference method demonstrate that as in the case of tree networks considered in previous studies, the cell partitioning law at diverging bifurcations is an important parameter in both steady and unsteady flow. Specifically, a steady flow may spontaneously develop self-sustained oscillations at critical conditions by way of a Hopf bifurcation. Contrary to tree-like networks comprised entirely of diverging bifurcations, the critical parameters for instability in honeycomb networks depend weakly on the system size. The blockage of one or more network segments due to the presence of large cells or the occurrence of capillary constriction may cause flow reversal or trigger a transition to unsteady flow.

  16. Numerical simulation of strongly swirling turbulent flows through an abrupt expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Joongcheol; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2010-01-01

    Turbulent swirling flow through an abrupt axisymmetric expansion is investigated numerically using detached-eddy simulation at Reynolds numbers = 3.0 x 10 4 and 1.0 x 10 5 . The effects of swirl intensity on the coherent dynamics of the flow are systematically studied by carrying out numerical simulations over a range of swirl numbers from 0.17 to 1.23. Comparison of the computed solutions with the experimental measurements of shows that the numerical simulations resolve both the axial and swirl mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles with very good accuracy. Our simulations show that, along with moderate mesh refinement, critical prerequisite for accurate predictions of the flow downstream of the expansion is the specification of inlet conditions at a plane sufficiently far upstream of the expansion in order to avoid the spurious suppression of the low-frequency, large-scale precessing of the vortex core. Coherent structure visualizations with the q-criterion, friction lines and Lagrangian particle tracking are used to elucidate the rich dynamics of the flow as a function of the swirl number with emphasis on the onset of the spiral vortex breakdown, the onset and extent of the on-axis recirculation region and the large-scale instabilities along the shear layers and the pipe wall.

  17. Effect of deformability on fluid flow through a fractured-porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Noorishad, J.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    A permeable geologic medium containing interstitial fluids generally undergoes deformation as the fluid pressure changes. Depending on the nature of the medium, the strain ranges from infinitesimal to finite quantities. This response is the result of a coupled hydraulic-mechanical phenomenon which can basically be formulated in the generalized three-dimensional theory of consolidation. Dealing mainly with media of little deformability, traditional hydrogeology accounts for medium deformability as far as it affects the volume of pore spaces, through the introduction of a coefficient of specific storage in the fluid flow equation. This treatment can be justified on the basis of a one-dimensional effective stress law and the assumption of homogeneity of the total stress field throughout the medium. The present paper uses a numerical model called ROCMAS (Noorishad et al., 1982; Noorishad e al., 1984) which was developed to calculate fluid flow through a deformable fractured-porous medium. The code employs the Finite Element Method based on a variational approach. It has been verified against a number of simple analytic solutions. In this work, the code is used to address the role of medium deformability in continuous and pulse testing techniques. The errors that may result because of application of traditional fluid flow methods are discussed. It is found that low pressure continuous well testing or pulse testing procedures can reduce such errors. 16 references, 9 figures, 1 table

  18. Nonlinear dynamics in flow through unsaturated fractured-porous media: Status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    2002-11-27

    The need has long been recognized to improve predictions of flow and transport in partially saturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock of the vadose zone for many practical applications, such as remediation of contaminated sites, nuclear waste disposal in geological formations, and climate predictions. Until recently, flow and transport processes in heterogeneous subsurface media with oscillating irregularities were assumed to be random and were not analyzed using methods of nonlinear dynamics. The goals of this paper are to review the theoretical concepts, present the results, and provide perspectives on investigations of flow and transport in unsaturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock, using the methods of nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos. The results of laboratory and field investigations indicate that the nonlinear dynamics of flow and transport processes in unsaturated soils and fractured rocks arise from the dynamic feedback and competition between various nonlinear physical processes along with complex geometry of flow paths. Although direct measurements of variables characterizing the individual flow processes are not technically feasible, their cumulative effect can be characterized by analyzing time series data using the models and methods of nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Identifying flow through soil or rock as a nonlinear dynamical system is important for developing appropriate short- and long-time predictive models, evaluating prediction uncertainty, assessing the spatial distribution of flow characteristics from time series data, and improving chemical transport simulations. Inferring the nature of flow processes through the methods of nonlinear dynamics could become widely used in different areas of the earth sciences.

  19. A Rapid, Multiplexed, High-Throughput Flow-Through Membrane Immunoassay: A Convenient Alternative to ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J. Domingo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a rapid, high-throughput flow-through membrane immunoassay (FMIA platform. A nitrocellulose membrane was spotted in an array format with multiple capture and control reagents for each sample detection area, and assay steps were carried out by sequential aspiration of sample and reagents through each detection area using a 96-well vacuum manifold. The FMIA provides an alternate assay format with several advantages over ELISA. The high surface area of the membrane permits high label concentration using gold labels, and the small pores and vacuum control provide rapid diffusion to reduce total assay time to ~30 min. All reagents used in the FMIA are compatible with dry storage without refrigeration. The results appear as colored spots on the membrane that can be quantified using a flatbed scanner. We demonstrate the platform for detection of IgM specific to lipopolysaccharides (LPS derived from Salmonella Typhi. The FMIA format provides analytical results comparable to ELISA in less time, provides integrated assay controls, and allows compensation for specimen-to-specimen variability in background, which is a particular challenge for IgM assays.

  20. Modeling of Two-Phase Flow through a Rotating Tube with Twin Exit Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Wen Cheng

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model is proposed to determine the dynamic behavior of single-phase and twophase, two-component flows through a horizontal rotating tube with identical twin exit branches. The working fluid, oil, enters the tube through a radial duct attached at one end and exits into open air through the twin radial branches, one located at midway and the other at the end of the tube. The branch-to-tube diameter ratio, rotational speed, and total oil flow rate are varied. It is experimentally revealed in previous study that the air cavitation occurs at lower speeds, leading to a two-phase flow with the air-oil ratio (void fraction varying with the rotating speed. A unique characteristic in two-phase flow, i.e., hysteresis, is found to exist in both oil flow rates and inlet pressure. In theoretical modeling, the governing flow equations are incorporated by empirical equations for hydraulic head losses. The predicted and measured exit oil flow rates are compared with good agreement in both the single-phase and annular flow regimes. Only qualitative agreement is achieved in the bubbly and bubbly-slug flow regimes. The model can be applied to improve the design and thus enhance the performance of automatic transmission lines, and the cooling efficiency of rotating machines and petroleum drilling process.

  1. Measurement of the combined heat and water-vapour flow through clothing under transient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, B.; Nordli, B.

    1982-03-01

    A sweating hot plate for the study of combined heat and water-vapor flow through clothing under Transient conditions is described. The results are in good agreement with the mathematical model reported in a previous paper for several model clothing systems. The heat loss through wool clothing was found to be smaller than that through similar polyester clothing during periods of sweating and larger during subsequent periods of drying, because of the effects of absorption of water vapor by hygroscopic materials. A comparison was made of the heat and vapor transmission of the clothing systems by incorporating a vapor-impermeable fabric or the waterproof but vapor-permeable fabric Gore-TEx. Liquid water was observed to condence on the inner surface of both fabrics during periods of sweating but the Gore-TEx dried within a few minutes of the end of the sweating period. Gore-TEx was found to be vapor permeable even at temperatures below 0 degrees C when frost was forming on its inner surface.

  2. Novel flow-through bioremediation system for removing nitrate from nursery discharge water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Wilson, P; Albano, Joseph P

    2013-11-30

    Nitrate losses in surface runoff water from nursery production areas can be significant. This study evaluated the potential use of microbial-based (denitrification), flow-through bioreactors for their nitrate-remediation ability. Duplicate bioreactor systems were constructed at a local foliage plant nursery. Each bioreactor system consisted of four 242 L tanks with connections alternating between bottom and top. Each tank was filled with approximately 113 L of Kaldness media to provide surface area for attachment of native microflora. Molasses was supplied as a carbon source for denitrification and water flow rates through the systems ranged from 5 to 18 L min(-1) during tests. Automatic water samplers were used to collect composite samples every 15 min from both the inflow and the exit flow water. Results indicate consistent removal of 80-100% of the nitrate flowing into the systems. Accumulation of ammoniacal and nitrite nitrogen did not occur, indicating that the nitrate-nitrogen was removed from the water, and not simply transformed into another water-soluble species. Occasions where removal rates were less than 80% were usually traced to faulty delivery of the carbon source. Results indicate that modular microbial-based bioremediation systems may be a useful tool for helping water managers meet stringent nitrogen water quality regulations, especially at nurseries with limited space for expansion of water retention facilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Flow-through devices for the ac electrokinetic construction of microstructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodriguez, N.; Markx, G. H.

    2006-02-01

    With the aid of computer simulation, flow-through devices have been devised for the continuous construction of microstructured materials using non-uniform ac electric fields. Particles can be concentrated and guided along channels defined by non-uniform electric fields generated between microelectrodes. The resulting streams of particles emanating from the microelectrode structures can subsequently be immobilized to form materials with particles embedded in defined locations. Experiments with latex beads with a diameter of 6 µm, suspended in high purity low-melting agarose at a concentration of 0.75% and temperatures over 60 °C, showed that a linear stream of particles can be created by the combined application of negative dielectrophoresis and hydrodynamic flow forces. By guiding the stream of particles onto a conveyor, it was then possible to create a continuous film of agarose containing latex beads in defined positions. Potential applications of the method in the creation of biomaterials such as tissues and biofilms are discussed.

  4. On the Hydrodynamic Geometry of Flow-Through versus Restricted Lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Th. Fourniotis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The classification of a lagoon as a restricted lagoon is shown to depend not solely on its geometry but also on the tidal hydraulics. By numerically simulating the tidal exchange of two lagoons of similar geometrical dimensions, the Nidova lagoon and the Papas lagoon, in Western Greece, subject to very similar tidal forcing, applied to the two tidal inlets in the first case and three in the second, very different residence times are found, namely 2.5 days for the Nidova and 25–30 days for the Papas lagoon. This large difference is attributed to the fact that whereas the Papas lagoon functions as a typical restricted lagoon, in which the water renewal is achieved by mixing in the lagoon of the tidal prism water exchanged within a tidal cycle, the Nidova lagoon functions as a flow-through system because of the differential arrival of the tide at its two tidal inlets. It is suggested that this way of enhancing the flushing rate of a lagoon be considered, whenever possible, when creating a new tidal inlet to the lagoon.

  5. Study of pressure drop, void fraction and relative permeabilities of two phase flow through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.; Dhir, V.K.; Marshall, J.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of two phase flow through porous layers formed of non-heated glass particles (nominal diameter 1 to 6 mm) has been made. Particulate bed depths of 30 cm and 70 cm were used. The effect of particle size, particle size distribution and bed porosity on void fraction and pressure drop through a particulate bed formed in a cylindrical test section has been investigated. The superficial velocity of liquid (water) is varied from 1.83 to 18.3 mm/s while the superficial velocity of gas (air) is varied from 0 to 68.4 mm/s. These superficial velocities were chosen so that pressure drop and void fraction measurement could be made for the porous layer in fixed and fluidized states. A model based on drift flux approach has been developed for the void fraction. Using the two phase friction pressure drop data, the relative permeabilities of the two phases have been concluded with void fraction. The void fraction and two phase friction pressure gradient in beds composed of mixtures of spherical particles as well as sharps of different nominal sizes have also been examined. It is found that the models for single size particles are also applicable to mixtures of particles if a mean particle diameter for the mixture is defined

  6. Friction factor for water flow through packed beds of spherical and non-spherical particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaluđerović-Radoičić Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the experimental evaluation of different friction factor correlations for water flow through packed beds of spherical and non-spherical particles at ambient temperature. The experiments were performed by measuring the pressure drop across the bed. Packed beds made of monosized glass spherical particles of seven different diameters were used, as well as beds made of 16 fractions of quartz filtration sand obtained by sieving (polydisperse non-spherical particles. The range of bed voidages was 0.359–0.486, while the range of bed particle Reynolds numbers was from 0.3 to 286 for spherical particles and from 0.1 to 50 for non-spherical particles. The obtained results were compared using a number of available literature correlations. In order to improve the correlation results for spherical particles, a new simple equation was proposed in the form of Ergun’s equation, with modified coefficients. The new correlation had a mean absolute deviation between experimental and calculated values of pressure drop of 9.04%. For non-spherical quartz filtration sand particles the best fit was obtained using Ergun’s equation, with a mean absolute deviation of 10.36%. Surface-volume diameter (dSV necessary for correlating the data for filtration sand particles was calculated based on correlations for dV = f(dm and Ψ = f(dm. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. ON172022

  7. Experimental study on local resistance of two-phase flow through spacer grid with rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Chaoxing; Yan Changqi; Sun Licheng; Tian Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    The experimental study on local resistance of single-phase and two-phase flows through a spacer grid in a vertical channel with 3 × 3 rod bundle was carried out under the normal temperature and pressure. For the case of single-phase flow, the liquid Reynolds number covered the range of 290-18 007. For the case of two-phase flow, the ranges of gas and liquid superficial velocities were 0.013-3.763 m/s and 0.076-1.792 m/s, respectively. A correlation for predicting local resistance of single-phase flow was given based on experimental results. Eight classical two-phase viscosity formulae for homogeneous model were evaluated against the experimental data of two-phase flow. The results show that Dukler model predicts the experimental data well in the range of Re 1 < 9000 while McAdams correlation is the best one for Re 1 ≥ 9000. For all experimental data, Dukler model provides the best prediction with the mean relative error of 29.03%. A new correlation is fitted for the range of Re 1 < 9000 by considering mass quality, two- phase Reynolds number and liquid and gas densities, resulting in a good agreement with the experimental data. (authors)

  8. Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows Through Packed Bed Reactors in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Brian J.; Balakotaiah, Vemuri

    2001-01-01

    The simultaneous flow of gas and liquid through a fixed bed of particles occurs in many unit operations of interest to the designers of space-based as well as terrestrial equipment. Examples include separation columns, gas-liquid reactors, humidification, drying, extraction, and leaching. These operations are critical to a wide variety of industries such as petroleum, pharmaceutical, mining, biological, and chemical. NASA recognizes that similar operations will need to be performed in space and on planetary bodies such as Mars if we are to achieve our goals of human exploration and the development of space. The goal of this research is to understand how to apply our current understanding of two-phase fluid flow through fixed-bed reactors to zero- or partial-gravity environments. Previous experiments by NASA have shown that reactors designed to work on Earth do not necessarily function in a similar manner in space. Two experiments, the Water Processor Assembly and the Volatile Removal Assembly have encountered difficulties in predicting and controlling the distribution of the phases (a crucial element in the operation of this type of reactor) as well as the overall pressure drop.

  9. Static and Continuous flow-through pulsed light technology for pesticide abatement in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranda, Ana Beatriz; Lasagabaster, Amaia; de Marañón, Iñigo Martínez

    2017-10-15

    Perspectives concerning pulsed light (PL) technology as a novel water decontamination treatment are overviewed in this work. Degradation of atrazine, malathion, chlorpyriphos-methyl and bromopropylate in aqueous solutions at different concentrations was performed employing static and continuous flow-through PL units. Results for both PL systems were compared in terms of efficacy of pesticides degradation and derived photoproducts formed. The pesticides degradation increased with the applied total fluence for both PL systems. In general, PL induced rapid degradation of all studied compounds although some differences were observed in the rate of degradation among them. The most intense treatment in the static unit (11J/cm 2 ) yielded degradations between 60 and 85% whereas degradations between 74 and 93% were observed after exposure to slightly lower fluences (10J/cm 2 ) in the dynamic unit. For both PL systems bromopropylate was the most affected compound. Photodegradation products arose from chemical reactions involving structural changes like dehalogenation, desulfuration, dealkylaytion and oxidation of the alkyl chains. Although further research is needed before an efficient application in full-scale systems, PL appears as a promising technology in order to reduce the presence of pesticides residues in process or waste waters, allowing thereby recirculation of these waters with the subsequent economic and environmental advantages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Perennial flow through convergent hillslopes explains chemodynamic solute behavior in a shale headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, E.; Steinhoefel, G.; Dere, A. L. D.; Sullivan, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    Streams experience changing hydrologic connectivity to heterogeneous water sources under different flow regimes. It remains unclear how seasonal flow paths link these different sources and regulate concentration-discharge behavior. Previous research at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) in central Pennsylvania, USA identified chemostatic solutes (e.g., K, Mg, Na, Cl) whose concentrations varied little across a wide range of discharge values and chemodynamic solutes (e.g., Fe and Mn) whose concentrations decreased sharply with increasing stream discharge. To elucidate inputs to the stream when concentrations of chemodynamic solutes were high, we investigated stream water and shallow groundwater (table remained over a meter below the stream bed along the rest of the channel. We conclude that well water sampled from the upper catchment is young, shallow interflow that upwells to generate metal-rich stream headwaters during the dry season. High concentrations of chemodynamic solutes measured during low discharge occur when metal-rich headwaters are flushed to the catchment outlet during periodic rain events. Interflow during the dry season originates from water that infiltrates through organic-rich swales; thus, metals in the stream at low flow are ultimately derived from convergent hillslopes where biological processes have concentrated chemodynamic elements. We infer that chemodynamic solutes are diluted at high discharge due to increased flow through planar hillslopes and inputs from regional groundwater that rises to enter the stream. This study highlights how spatially heterogeneous biogeochemistry and seasonally variable flow paths regulate concentration-discharge behavior within catchments.

  11. Identification of significant process variables for a flow-through supercritical water oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    The effects of four process variables on the destruction efficiency of a flow-through supercritical water oxidation reactor were investigated. These process variables included: (1) reactor throughput (GPH), (2) concentration of the surrogate waste (% acetone), (3) maximum reactor tube-wall temperature (OC), and (4) applied stoichiometric oxygen. The analysis was conducted utilizing two-level factorial experiments, steepest ascent methods, and central composite designs. This experimental protocol assures efficient experimentation and allows for an empirical response surface model of the system to be developed. This experimentation identified a significant positive effect for stoichiometric oxygen applied and temperature variations between 400 to 500 degrees C. The increase in destruction efficiency due to stoichiometric 0 2 provides strong evidence that supercritical water oxidations are catalyzed by excess oxygen, and the strong temperature effect is a result of large increases in the kinetic rates for this temperature range. However, increasing temperature between 550 to 650 degrees C does not provide substantial increases in destruction efficiency. In addition, destruction efficiency is significantly unproved by increasing the Reynolds number and residence time. The destruction efficiency of the reactor is also dependent upon the initial concentration of surrogate waste. This concentration dependence may indicate first-order supercritical CO kinetics is inadequate for describing all waste types and reactor configurations. Alternatively, it may indicate reactant mixing, caused by local turbulence at the oxidation fronts of these higher concentration waste streams, results in higher destruction efficiencies

  12. Simulating the effect of climate extremes on groundwater flow through a lakebed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdi, Makhan L.; Lee, Terrie M.; Swancar, Amy; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater exchanges with lakes resulting from cyclical wet and dry climate extremes maintain lake levels in the environment in ways that are not well understood, in part because they remain difficult to simulate. To better understand the atypical groundwater interactions with lakes caused by climatic extremes, an original conceptual approach is introduced using MODFLOW-2005 and a kinematic-wave approximation to variably saturated flow that allows lake size and position in the basin to change while accurately representing the daily lake volume and three-dimensional variably saturated groundwater flow responses in the basin. Daily groundwater interactions are simulated for a calibrated lake basin in Florida over a decade that included historic wet and dry departures from the average rainfall. The divergent climate extremes subjected nearly 70% of the maximum lakebed area and 75% of the maximum shoreline perimeter to both groundwater inflow and lake leakage. About half of the lakebed area subject to flow reversals also went dry. A flow-through pattern present for 73% of the decade caused net leakage from the lake 80% of the time. Runoff from the saturated lake margin offset the groundwater deficit only about half of that time. A centripetal flow pattern present for 6% of the decade was important for maintaining the lake stage and generated 30% of all net groundwater inflow. Pumping effects superimposed on dry climate extremes induced the least frequent but most cautionary flow pattern with leakage from over 90% of the actual lakebed area.

  13. Current-phase relation of a Bose-Einstein condensate flowing through a weak link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, F.; Smerzi, A.; Collins, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the current-phase relation of a Bose-Einstein condensate flowing through a repulsive square barrier by solving analytically the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The barrier height and width fix the current-phase relation j(δφ), which tends to j∼cos(δφ/2) for weak barriers and to the Josephson sinusoidal relation j∼sin(δφ) for strong barriers. Between these two limits, the current-phase relation depends on the barrier width. In particular, for wide-enough barriers, we observe two families of multivalued current-phase relations. Diagrams belonging to the first family, already known in the literature, can have two different positive values of the current at the same phase difference. The second family, new to our knowledge, can instead allow for three different positive currents still corresponding to the same phase difference. Finally, we show that the multivalued behavior arises from the competition between hydrodynamic and nonlinear-dispersive components of the flow, the latter due to the presence of a soliton inside the barrier region.

  14. Laser Doppler anemometry measurements of steady flow through two bi-leaflet prosthetic heart valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovandir Bazan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In vitro hydrodynamic characterization of prosthetic heart valves provides important information regarding their operation, especially if performed by noninvasive techniques of anemometry. Once velocity profiles for each valve are provided, it is possible to compare them in terms of hydrodynamic performance. In this first experimental study using laser doppler anemometry with mechanical valves, the simulations were performed at a steady flow workbench. OBJECTIVE: To compare unidimensional velocity profiles at the central plane of two bi-leaflet aortic prosthesis from St. Jude (AGN 21 - 751 and 21 AJ - 501 models exposed to a steady flow regime, on four distinct sections, three downstream and one upstream. METHODS: To provide similar conditions for the flow through each prosthesis by a steady flow workbench (water, flow rate of 17L/min. and, for the same sections and sweeps, to obtain the velocity profiles of each heart valve by unidimensional measurements. RESULTS: It was found that higher velocities correspond to the prosthesis with smaller inner diameter and instabilities of flow are larger as the section of interest is closer to the valve. Regions of recirculation, stagnation of flow, low pressure, and flow peak velocities were also found. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the hydrodynamic aspect and for every section measured, it could be concluded that the prosthesis model AGN 21 - 751 (RegentTM is superior to the 21 AJ - 501 model (Master Series. Based on the results, future studies can choose to focus on specific regions of the these valves.

  15. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flows Through a Novel Vascular Access Device for Hemodialysis Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obabko, Aleksandr; Tsyrulnykov, Eduard; Rainsberger, Robert; Torreira, Alvaro V.; Nagib, Hassan; Agarwal, Anil; Fischer, Paul F.

    2017-11-01

    The preferred vascular access in patients on hemodialysis (HD) is an arteriovenous (AV) fistula or graft. The majority of the HD patients in the US are dialyzed with an AV fistula where two needles are used for cannulation in most cases. However, this approach can be painfully invasive, extremely difficult to gain access in patients with challenging geometry of vascular access, and is often inadequate to provide optimal blood flow. This work attempts to address the shortcomings of the above procedure and introduces a novel cannulation device that allows less painful easy single access to difficult vessel geometries, and have a potential of improvement of overall increase in efficacy of HD and enhanced patient experience. We present the preliminary Nek5000 large-eddy simulations results of the flows through the device that employs a single 18-gauge needle for cannulation and is able to provide blood flow rates up to 600 ml/min. The range of flow rates and Reynolds numbers up to Re=2,600 are considered and blood recirculation rates are computed. This research used resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility and was supported in part by the U.S. DOE Office of Science under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  16. Experimental study of mixed convection flow through a horizontal orifice or vent linking two compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrall, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    To answer building issues and fire safety challenges, this thesis deals with the mixed convection flow through a horizontal orifice or vent linking two compartments. The aim is to improve the understanding and the modeling of the exchange of gas through the opening. A small scale experimental study and a theoretical approach are proposed. The study focuses first on the influence of the geometrical ratio L/D of the opening on the flow rate at the vent for free convection regime. Non-intrusive measurements, via the tracking of the interface between two non miscible liquids in an isothermal approach, and thanks to the SPIV in a thermal approach, permit to describe the bidirectional exchange process and to consolidate existing correlations. Experiments for mixed convection regime aim to study the impact of mechanical ventilation (in blowing and extracting modes) on the exchanged flow rates. The comparison between existing correlations and experimental data shows large differences. A modification of the correlation of Cooper is proposed. A theoretical approach from the simplified Navier Stokes equations and with the Boussinesq approximation permits to discuss the construction of existing correlations. From this theory, a more accurate model than those available in the literature is proposed thanks to an adjustment of discharge coefficients from experimental data. (author)

  17. Simulations of pulsatile suspension flow through bileaflet mechanical heart valves to quantify platelet damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Brian; Aidun, Cyrus; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2012-11-01

    Studies have shown that high shear stress and long exposure times on platelets have a strong impact on thromboembolic complications in bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs). This numerical study quantifies the platelet damage incurred in pulsatile flow through various BMHV designs. The lattice-Boltzmann method with external boundary force (LBM-EBF) was implemented to simulate pulsatile flow and capture the dynamics and surface shear stresses of modeled platelets with realistic geometry. The platelets are released in key regions of interest in the geometry as well as at various times of the cardiac cycle. The platelet damage is quantified using a linear shear stress-exposure time blood damage index (BDI) model. The multiscale computational method used to quantitatively measure the BDI during the pulsatile flow has been validated as being able to accurately capture bulk BMHV fluid flow and for accurately quantifying platelet damage in BMHV flows. These simulations will further knowledge of the geometric features and cardiac cycle times that most affect platelet damage. This study will ultimately lead to optimization of BMHV design in order to minimize thromboembolic complications.

  18. Laser Doppler anemometry measurements of steady flow through two bi-leaflet prosthetic heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, Ovandir; Ortiz, Jayme Pinto; Vieira Junior, Francisco Ubaldo; Vieira, Reinaldo Wilson; Antunes, Nilson; Tabacow, Fabio Bittencourt Dutra; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Petrucci Junior, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In vitro hydrodynamic characterization of prosthetic heart valves provides important information regarding their operation, especially if performed by noninvasive techniques of anemometry. Once velocity profiles for each valve are provided, it is possible to compare them in terms of hydrodynamic performance. In this first experimental study using laser doppler anemometry with mechanical valves, the simulations were performed at a steady flow workbench. Objective To compare unidimensional velocity profiles at the central plane of two bi-leaflet aortic prosthesis from St. Jude (AGN 21 - 751 and 21 AJ - 501 models) exposed to a steady flow regime, on four distinct sections, three downstream and one upstream. Methods To provide similar conditions for the flow through each prosthesis by a steady flow workbench (water, flow rate of 17L/min. ) and, for the same sections and sweeps, to obtain the velocity profiles of each heart valve by unidimensional measurements. Results It was found that higher velocities correspond to the prosthesis with smaller inner diameter and instabilities of flow are larger as the section of interest is closer to the valve. Regions of recirculation, stagnation of flow, low pressure, and flow peak velocities were also found. Conclusions Considering the hydrodynamic aspect and for every section measured, it could be concluded that the prosthesis model AGN 21 - 751 (RegentTM) is superior to the 21 AJ - 501 model (Master Series). Based on the results, future studies can choose to focus on specific regions of the these valves. PMID:24598950

  19. Three-dimensional modeling of flow through fractured tuff at Fran Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.R.; Ho, C.K.; Glass, R.J.; Nicholl, M.J.; Arnold, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical studies have been made of an infiltration experiment at Fran Ridge using the TOUGH2 code to aid in the selection of computational models for performance assessment. The exercise investigates the capabilities of TOUGH2 to model transient flows through highly fractured tuff and provides a possible means of calibration. Two distinctly different conceptual models were used in the TOUGH2 code, the dual permeability model and the equivalent continuum model. The infiltration test modeled involved the infiltration of dyed ponded water for 36 minutes. The 205 gallon filtration of water observed in the experiment was subsequently modeled using measured Fran Ridge fracture frequencies, and a specified fracture aperture of 285 μm. The dual permeability formulation predicted considerable infiltration along the fracture network, which was in agreement with the experimental observations. As expected, minimal fracture penetration of the infiltrating water was calculated using the equivalent continuum model, thus demonstrating that this model is not appropriate for modeling the highly transient experiment. It is therefore recommended that the dual permeability model be given priority when computing high-flux infiltration for use in performance assessment studies

  20. Three-dimensional modeling of flow through fractured tuff at Fran Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.R.; Ho, C.K.; Glass, RJ.; Nicholl, M.J.; Arnold, B.W.

    1996-09-01

    Numerical studies have been made of an infiltration experiment at Fran Ridge using the TOUGH2 code to aid in the selection of computational models for performance assessment. The exercise investigates the capabilities of TOUGH2 to model transient flows through highly fractured tuff and provides a possible means of calibration. Two distinctly different conceptual models were used in the TOUGH2 code, the dual permeability model and the equivalent continuum model. The infiltration test modeled involved the infiltration of dyed ponded water for 36 minutes. The 205 gallon infiltration of water observed in the experiment was subsequently modeled using measured Fran Ridge fracture frequencies, and a specified fracture aperture of 285 microm. The dual permeability formulation predicted considerable infiltration along the fracture network, which was in agreement with the experimental observations. As expected, al fracture penetration of the infiltrating water was calculated using the equivalent continuum model, thus demonstrating that this model is not appropriate for modeling the highly transient experiment. It is therefore recommended that the dual permeability model be given priority when computing high-flux infiltration for use in performance assessment studies

  1. Sensitive HPV Genotyping Based on the Flow-Through Hybridization and Gene Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV has been recognized as the direct cause of cervical carcinoma. Therefore, detection and genotyping of HPV are important to cervical-cancer screening. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of flow-through hybridization and gene chip (HybriMax on HPV genotyping through comparison of the results with Hybrid Capture II (HC-II and in situ hybridization (ISH. 591 women were classified into 6 groups according to their histological diagnoses. The overall accordance rate on 13 types of HPV genotypes between HybriMax and HC-II were 92.5% and 100% in the cancer group. The overall accordance was excellent with the Kappa index (KI of 0.814. The value of KI in each group was 0.750 (normal cytological diagnosis, 0.781 (chronic cervicitis, 0.80 (condyloma acuminatum, 0.755 (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I, 0.723 (CIN II, and 0.547 (CIN III (0.75>KI>0.4, good; KI≥0.75, excellent. The 10 most common HPV subtype detected by HybriMax were 16, 52/58, 18, 33, 31, 81, 53, 68, and 66 in patients, and 16, 68, 18, 52, 58, 11, 53, 31/39, and 33 in normal controls. In conclusion, HybriMax is an efficient method for HPV genotyping and more suitable for clinical use.

  2. Comparative study of Newtonian physiological blood flow through normal and stenosed carotid artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Matiur; Hossain, Md. Anwar; Mamun, Khairuzzaman; Akhter, Most. Nasrin

    2017-06-01

    A numerical simulation is performed to investigate Newtonian physiological flows behavior on three dimensional idealized carotid artery (CA) and single stenosed (75% by area) carotid artery(SCA). The wall vessel is set as rigid during simulation. Bifurcated blood vessel are simulated by using three-dimensional flow analysis. Physiological and parabolic velocity profiles are set out to fix the conditions of inlet boundaries of artery. In other hand, physiological waveform is an important part of compilation and it is successfully done by utilization of Fourier series having sixteen harmonics. The investigation has a Reynolds number range of 94 to 1120. Low Reynolds number k — ω model has been used as governing equation. The investigation has been carried out to characterize the flow behavior of blood in two geometry, namely, (i) Normal carotid artery (CA) and (ii) Stenosed carotid artery (SCA). The Newtonian model has been used to study the physics of fluid. The findings of the two models are thoroughly compared in order to observe there behavioral sequence of flows. The numerical results were presented in terms of velocity, pressure, wall shear stress distributions and cross sectional velocities as well as the streamlines contour. Stenosis disturbs the normal pattern of blood flow through the artery as reduced area. At stenosis region velocity and peak Reynolds number rapidly increase and Reynolds number reach transitional and turbulent region. These flow fluctuation and turbulence have bad effect to the blood vessel which makes to accelerate the progress of stenosis.

  3. Uranium Release from Acidic Weathered Hanford Sediments: Single-Pass Flow-Through and Column Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, South Korea; Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Reinoso-Maset, Estela [Sierra; Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Mueller, Karl T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Perdrial, Nicolas [Department; Department; O’Day, Peggy A. [Sierra; Chorover, Jon [Department

    2017-09-21

    The reaction of acidic radioactive waste with sediments can induce mineral transformation reactions that, in turn, control contaminant fate. Here, sediment weathering by synthetic uranium-containing acid solutions was investigated using bench-scale experiments to simulate waste disposal conditions at Hanford’s cribs, USA. During acid weathering, the presence of phosphate exerted a strong influence over uranium mineralogy and a rapidly precipitated, crystalline uranium phosphate phase (meta-ankoleite [K(UO2)(PO4)·3H2O]) was identified using spectroscopic and diffraction-based techniques. In phosphate-free system, uranium oxyhydroxide minerals such as K-compreignacite [K2(UO2)6O4(OH)6·7H2O] were formed. Single-pass flow-through (SPFT) and column leaching experiments using synthetic Hanford pore water showed that uranium precipitated as meta-ankoleite during acid weathering was strongly retained in the sediments, with an average release rate of 2.67E-12 mol g-1 s-1. In the absence of phosphate, uranium release was controlled by dissolution of uranium oxyhydroxide (compreignacite-type) mineral with a release rate of 1.05-2.42E-10 mol g-1 s-1. The uranium mineralogy and release rates determined for both systems in this study support the development of accurate U-release models for prediction of contaminant transport. These results suggest that phosphate minerals may be a good candidate for uranium remediation approaches at contaminated sites.

  4. Nonlinear dynamics in flow through unsaturated fractured porous media: Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    2002-01-01

    The need has long been recognized to improve predictions of flow and transport in partially saturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock of the vadose zone for many practical applications, such as remediation of contaminated sites, nuclear waste disposal in geological formations, and climate predictions. Until recently, flow and transport processes in heterogeneous subsurface media with oscillating irregularities were assumed to be random and were not analyzed using methods of nonlinear dynamics. The goals of this paper are to review the theoretical concepts, present the results, and provide perspectives on investigations of flow and transport in unsaturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock, using the methods of nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos. The results of laboratory and field investigations indicate that the nonlinear dynamics of flow and transport processes in unsaturated soils and fractured rocks arise from the dynamic feedback and competition between various nonlinear physical processes along with complex geometry of flow paths. Although direct measurements of variables characterizing the individual flow processes are not technically feasible, their cumulative effect can be characterized by analyzing time series data using the models and methods of nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Identifying flow through soil or rock as a nonlinear dynamical system is important for developing appropriate short- and long-time predictive models, evaluating prediction uncertainty, assessing the spatial distribution of flow characteristics from time series data, and improving chemical transport simulations. Inferring the nature of flow processes through the methods of nonlinear dynamics could become widely used in different areas of the earth sciences

  5. Numerical simulation of gas flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.A. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Water Resources Center

    1990-01-01

    Numerical analysis is used to identify the physical phenomena associated with barometrically driven gas (air and water vapor) flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Results from simple finite difference simulations indicate that for a fractured rock scenario, the maximum velocity of air out of an uncased 10 cm borehole is 0.002 m s{sub {minus}1}. An equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was incorporated into a multiphase, multicomponent simulator to test more complex conceptual models. Results indicate that for a typical June day, a diurnal pressure wave propagates about 160 m into the surrounding Tiva Canyon hydrogeologic unit. Dry air that enters the formation evaporates water around the borehole which reduces capillary pressure. Multiphase countercurrent flow develops in the vicinity of the hole; the gas phase flows into the formation while the liquid phase flows toward the borehole. The effect occurs within 0.5 m of the borehole. The amount of water vapor leaving the formation during 1 day is 900 cm{sup 3}. This is less than 0.1% of the total recharge into the formation, suggesting that the barometric effect may be insignificant in drying the unsaturated zone. However, gas phase velocities out of the borehole (3 m s{sup {minus}1}), indicating that observed flow rates from wells along the east flank of Yucca Mountain were able to be simulated with a barometric model.

  6. Validation of a flow-through sampler for pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hang; Hung, Hayley; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    At locations without access to the electrical grid, a flow-through sampler (FTS) collects large volumes of air for the analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). To test its performance under field conditions, an FTS and a traditional pumped high volume air sampler, both using polyurethane foam (PUF) as sampling medium, were co-deployed at the campus of the University of Toronto Scarborough from August 2006 to June 2007. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and various pesticides were quantified in the samples taken by both samplers to test the FTS's applicability to relatively non-volatile and slightly polar SVOCs. Air concentrations in samples taken with the FTS over five 2-week periods compare favourably with the average of the concentrations in several 24-h active high volume samples taken during the same period. In particular, time trends, temperature dependence relationships, and isomer ratios show a reasonable agreement between the two sampling techniques. An empirical linear solvation energy relationship for predicting the apparent theoretical plate number of the PUF assembly used in the FTS illustrates the effect of chemical properties, as well as temperature and wind speed, on sampling efficiency. In the absence of electrical power, the FTS can collect SVOCs from large air volumes as reliably and quantitatively as traditional HiVol samplers, although without separating gas and particle phase.

  7. Investigation and visualization of internal flow through particle aggregates and microbial flocs using particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Lam, Kit Ming; Li, Xiao-yan

    2013-05-01

    An advanced particle-tracking and flow-visualization technology, particle image velocimetry (PIV), was utilized to investigate the hydrodynamic properties of large aggregates in water. The laser-based PIV system was used together with a settling column to capture the streamlines around two types of aggregates: latex particle aggregates and activated sludge (AS) flocs. Both types of the aggregates were highly porous and fractal with fractal dimensions of 2.13±0.31 for the latex particle aggregates (1210-2144 μm) and 1.78±0.24 for the AS flocs (1265-3737 μm). The results show that PIV is a powerful flow visualization technique capable of determining flow field details at the micrometer scale around and through settling aggregates and flocs. The PIV streamlines provided direct experimental proof of internal flow through the aggregate interiors. According to the PIV images, fluid collection efficiency ranged from 0.052 to 0.174 for the latex particle aggregates and from 0.008 to 0.126 for AS flocs. AS flocs are apparently less permeable than the particle aggregates, probably due to the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) produced by bacteria clogging the pores within the flocs. The internal permeation of fractal aggregates and bio-flocs would enhance flocculation between particles and material transport into the aggregates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A constitutive model for the flow through an assembly of circular section rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1979-08-01

    The determination of the flow through an uniform array of rod bundle is made by means of the Continuum Theories of Mixtures, which gives balance equations for the system. The hypotheses of isothermal and fully developed turbulent flow are made. Constitutive equations for the resistive force are determined from Jakob's and Rowe's correlations, and its behaviour analysed for a standard case. Comparison of these equations with Bottgenbach's experiments shows good agreement of the direction of the pressure, although direct comparison between present theory and his theory is not possible. For the confirmation of the model an experiment is performed, this consisting of measuring pressure drop (Euler's Number) in the axial and transverse direction of a random array rod bundle at various angles as functions of velocity (Reynold's Number), which has good agreement, except on axial direction. At last, a sample problem is formulated with the purpose of showing the applicability of the model, this being the determination of pressure field due to the influence of a baffle. (Author) [pt

  9. Numerical simulation of gas flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical analysis is used to identify the physical phenomena associated with barometrically driven gas (air and water vapor) flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Results from simple finite difference simulations indicate that for a fractured rock scenario, the maximum velocity of air out of an uncased 10 cm borehole is 0.002 m s -1 . An equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was incorporated into a multiphase, multicomponent simulator to test more complex conceptual models. Results indicate that for a typical June day, a diurnal pressure wave propagates about 160 m into the surrounding Tiva Canyon hydrogeologic unit. Dry air that enters the formation evaporates water around the borehole which reduces capillary pressure. Multiphase countercurrent flow develops in the vicinity of the hole; the gas phase flows into the formation while the liquid phase flows toward the borehole. The effect occurs within 0.5 m of the borehole. The amount of water vapor leaving the formation during 1 day is 900 cm 3 . This is less than 0.1% of the total recharge into the formation, suggesting that the barometric effect may be insignificant in drying the unsaturated zone. However, gas phase velocities out of the borehole (3 m s -1 ), indicating that observed flow rates from wells along the east flank of Yucca Mountain were able to be simulated with a barometric model

  10. Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS's innovative Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom will provide revolutionary performance when compared to conventional state-of-the-art...

  11. Fatigue Life of High-Strength Steel Offshore Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Ingomar; Agerskov, Henning; Lopez Martinez, Luis

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high......-strength steel with a yield stress of 820-830 MPa and with high weldability and toughness properties. The test specimens of both series had the same geometry. The present report concentrates on the results obtained in the investigation on the high-strength steel tubular joints.The test specimens were fabricated...... amplitude fatigue test results showed shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, the fatigue tests on high-strength steel tubular joints showed slightly longer fatigue lives than those obtained...

  12. Rapidly Extending And Contracting Tubular (REACT) Boom System Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to create a prototype retractable, reel stored, tubular boom system with the capability to hold a magnetically sensitive science instrument or...

  13. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat...

  14. Scenario analysis of large scale algae production in tubular photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Beveren, van P.J.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae productivity in tubular photobioreactors depends on algae species, location, tube diameter, biomass concentration, distance between tubes and for vertically stacked systems, the number of horizontal tubes per stack. A simulation model for horizontal and vertically stacked horizontal

  15. Genetics Home Reference: renal tubular acidosis with deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders and Deafness Health Topic: Hearing Problems in Children Health Topic: Kidney Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Renal tubular acidosis with deafness Additional NIH Resources (2 ...

  16. Muscle MR imaging in tubular aggregate myopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Beltrame

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate with Magnetic Resonance (MR the degree of fatty replacement and edematous involvement in skeletal muscles in patients with Tubular Aggregate Myopathy (TAM. To asses the inter-observer agreement in evaluating muscle involvement and the symmetry index of fatty replacement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 13 patients were evaluated by MR to ascertain the degree of fatty replacement (T1W sequences according to Mercuri's scale, and edema score (STIR sequences according to extent and site. RESULTS: Fatty replacement mainly affects the posterior superficial compartment of the leg; the anterior compartment is generally spared. Edema was generally poor and almost only in the superficial compartment of the leg. The inter-observer agreement is very good with a Krippendorff's coefficient >0.9. Data show a total symmetry in the muscular replacement (McNemar-Bowker test with p = 1. CONCLUSIONS: MR reveals characteristic muscular involvement, and is a reproducible technique for evaluation of TAM. There may also be a characteristic involvement of the long and short heads of the biceps femoris. It is useful for aimed biopsies, diagnostic hypotheses and evaluation of disease progression.

  17. Renal tubular vasopressin receptors downregulated by dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Phillips, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Receptors for arginine vasopressin (AVP) were characterized in tubular epithelial basolateral membranes (BL membranes) prepared from the kidneys of male Spraque-Dawley rats. Association of [ 3 H]AVP was rapid, reversible, and specific. Saturation studies revealed a single class of saturable binding sites with a maximal binding (B max ) of 184 ± 15 fmol/mg protein. The V 2 receptor antagonist was more than 3,700 times as effective in displacing [ 3 H]AVP than was the V 1 antagonist. To investigate the physiological regulation of vasopressin receptors, the effects of elevated levels of circulating AVP on receptor characteristics were studied. Seventy-two-hour water deprivation significantly elevated plasma osmolality and caused an 11.5-fold increase in plasma [AVP]. Scatchard analysis revealed a 38% decreased in the number of AVP receptors on the BL membranes from dehydrated animals. The high-affinity binding sites on the BL membranes fit the pharmacological profile for adenylate cyclase-linked vasopressin receptors (V 2 ), which mediate the antidiuretic action of the hormone. The authors conclude that physiologically elevated levels of AVP can downregulate vasopressin receptors in the kidney

  18. The Fourier transform of tubular densities

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, C B

    2012-05-18

    We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Tubular Initial Conditions and Ridge Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Borysova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2D azimuth and rapidity structure of the two-particle correlations in relativistic A+A collisions is altered significantly by the presence of sharp inhomogeneities in superdense matter formed in such processes. The causality constraints enforce one to associate the long-range longitudinal correlations observed in a narrow angular interval, the so-called (soft ridge, with peculiarities of the initial conditions of collision process. This study's objective is to analyze whether multiform initial tubular structures, undergoing the subsequent hydrodynamic evolution and gradual decoupling, can form the soft ridges. Motivated by the flux-tube scenarios, the initial energy density distribution contains the different numbers of high density tube-like boost-invariant inclusions that form a bumpy structure in the transverse plane. The influence of various structures of such initial conditions in the most central A+A events on the collective evolution of matter, resulting spectra, angular particle correlations and vn-coefficients is studied in the framework of the hydrokinetic model (HKM.

  20. Tubular heart valves from decellularized engineered tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syedain, Zeeshan H; Meier, Lee A; Reimer, Jay M; Tranquillo, Robert T

    2013-12-01

    A novel tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) was fabricated from a decellularized tissue tube mounted on a frame with three struts, which upon back-pressure cause the tube to collapse into three coapting "leaflets." The tissue was completely biological, fabricated from ovine fibroblasts dispersed within a fibrin gel, compacted into a circumferentially aligned tube on a mandrel, and matured using a bioreactor system that applied cyclic distension. Following decellularization, the resulting tissue possessed tensile mechanical properties, mechanical anisotropy, and collagen content that were comparable to native pulmonary valve leaflets. When mounted on a custom frame and tested within a pulse duplicator system, the tubular TEHV displayed excellent function under both aortic and pulmonary conditions, with minimal regurgitant fractions and transvalvular pressure gradients at peak systole, as well as well as effective orifice areas exceeding those of current commercially available valve replacements. Short-term fatigue testing of one million cycles with pulmonary pressure gradients was conducted without significant change in mechanical properties and no observable macroscopic tissue deterioration. This study presents an attractive potential alternative to current tissue valve replacements due to its avoidance of chemical fixation and utilization of a tissue conducive to recellularization by host cell infiltration.

  1. Tubular Steel Arch Stabilized by Textile Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Svoboda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tubular steel arch supporting textile membrane roofing is investigated experimentally and numerically. The stabilization effects of the textile membrane on in-plane and out-of-plane behavior of the arch is of primary interest. First a model of a large membrane structure tested in laboratory is described. Prestressed membranes of PVC coated polyester fabric Ferrari® Précontraint 702S were used as a currently standard and excellent material. The test arrangement, loading and resulting load/deflection values are presented. The supporting structure consisted of two steel arch tubes, outer at edge of the membrane and inner supporting interior of the membrane roofing. The stability and strength behavior of the inner tube under both symmetrical and asymmetrical loading was monitored and is shown in some details. Second the SOFiSTiK software was employed to analyze the structural behavior in 3D, using geometrically nonlinear analysis with imperfections (GNIA. The numerical analysis, FE mesh sensitivity, the membrane prestressing and common boundary conditions are validated by test results. Finally a parametrical study concerning stability of mid arch with various geometries in a membrane structure with several supporting arches is presented, with recommendations for a practical design.

  2. Clinical profile of distal renal tubular acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Jha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the clinical profile and progression of renal dysfunction in distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA, we retrospectively studied 96 consecutive cases of dRTA diagnosed at our center. Patients with unexplained metabolic bone disease, short stature, hypokalemia, re-current renal stones, chronic obstructive uropathy or any primary autoimmune condition known to cause dRTA were screened. Distal RTA was diagnosed on the basis of systemic metabolic acidosis with urine pH >5.5 and positive urine anion gap. In those patients who had fasting urine pH >5.5 with normal baseline systemic pH and bicarbonate levels (incomplete RTA, acid load test with ammonium chloride was done. A cause of dRTA could be established in 53 (54% patients. Urological defect in children (22/44 and autoimmune disease in adults (11/52 were the commonest causes. Hypokalemic paralysis, proximal muscle weakness and voiding difficulty were the common modes of presentation. Doubling of serum creatinine during the study period was noted in 13 out of 27 patients who had GFR 60 mL/min (P <0.005. In conclusion, urological disorders were the commonest cause of dRTA in children while autoimmune disorders were the commonest asso-ciation in adults. Worse baseline renal function, longer duration of disease and greater frequency of nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis and urological disorders were noted in those who had wor-sening of renal dysfunction during the study period.

  3. Kinetic study of the hydrogen electrode reaction on a porous material in a flow cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, M.A; Marozi, C.A; Gennero de Chialvo, M.R; Chialvo, A.C

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with the determination of the electrocatalytic activity of porous electrodes.This problem cannot be appropriately treated with the conventional methods because the reaction is not uniform in the whole electrodic surface.Therefore, it is proposed the evaluation of the variation of the equilibrium polarization resistance with pH.As the current - potential dependences are obtained around the equilibrium condition, current values are very low, gaseous evolution is negligible and the ohmic effects can be avoided through a suitable electrolyte solution.In this context a simple model of a porous electrode was developed, consisting in a tubular electrode operating with a laminar flow of electrolyte, where the mass transfer processes towards and/or from the electrode surface are clearly defined as a function of the mean flow rate of the electrolyte.This method was applied to the study of the hydrogen electrode reaction.The experimental determinations were carried out in a flow cell with a platinum tubular electrode and a regulation of the electrolyte flow saturated with hydrogen gas.The apparent polarization resistance was calculated at different flow rate and pH.The application of the flow model together with a kinetic formalism corresponding to the Volmer - Heyrovsky - Tafel mechanism allowed the evaluation of the intrinsic electrocatalytic activity

  4. Residual stress effects in tubular K-joints crack growth

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, Claire; Nussbaumer, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Seeking light and transparent bridge designs, engineers and architects have found an efficient and artistic way to fulfill their requirements: steel tubular bridges. Like any other welded structure, the joints of this kind of bridge suffer from high tensile weld residual stresses. Combined with high stress concentrations, tensile residual stress is a relevant factor in fatigue crack development. Therefore, an experimental study has been carried out on tubular joints in order to characterize ...

  5. Electrolyte composition of renal tubular cells in gentamicin nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, O.; Beck, F.X.; Doerge, A.T.; Thurau, K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of long-term gentamicin administration on sodium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus concentrations was studied in individual rat renal tubular cells using electron microprobe analysis. Histological damage was apparent only in proximal tubular cells. The extent of damage was only mild after 7 days of gentamicin administration (60 mg/kg body wt/day) but much more pronounced after 10 days. GFR showed a progressive decline during gentamicin treatment. In non-necrotic proximal tubular cells, sodium was increased from 14.6 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM) in controls to 20.6 +/- 0.4 after 7 and 22.0 +/- 0.8 mmol/kg wet wt after 10 days of gentamicin administration. Chloride concentration was higher only after 10 days (20.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 17.3 +/- 0.2 mmol/kg wet wt). Both cell potassium and phosphorus concentrations were diminished by 6 and 15, and by 8 and 25 mmol/kg wet wt after 7 and 10 days of treatment, respectively. In contrast, no major alterations in distal tubular cell electrolyte concentrations could be observed after either 7 or 10 days of gentamicin administration. As in proximal tubular cells, distal tubular cell phosphorus concentrations were, however, lowered by gentamicin treatment. These results clearly indicate that gentamicin exerts its main effect on proximal tubular cells. Decreased potassium and increased sodium and chloride concentrations were observed in proximal tubular cells exhibiting only mild histological damage prior to the onset of advanced tissue injury. Necrotic cells, on the other hand, showed widely variable intracellular electrolyte concentration patterns

  6. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  7. Dynamic flow-through approach to evaluate readily bioaccessible antioxidants in solid food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Miguel A; Soares, Tânia R P; Mota, Ana I P; Rosende, María; Magalhães, Luís M; Miró, Manuel; Segundo, Marcela A

    2017-05-01

    Release of bioactive compounds from food matrices is regarded as the first step towards their human bioavailability. The objective of this work was the implementation of an affordable and robust flow-through device for expedient dynamic leaching experiments aiming at the assessment of readily bioaccessible antioxidant compounds in solid food commodities. A simple configuration is proposed using commercially available devices containing regenerated cellulose filters placed in polypropylene holders to entrap the solid sample, featuring a disposable, single use extraction chamber. The kinetic extraction profile of fast leachable antioxidants from different food matrices was evaluated using the ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assay, fitting a first-order reaction model for readily bioaccessible compounds (R>0.9). The leaching rate constant values associated to the fast leachable antioxidant compounds were 0.060-0.446min -1 and 0.105-0.210min -1 for water and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v) applied as extractants, respectively. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were found between the estimated values of bioaccessible antioxidant compounds by the kinetic model and the values attained using conventional batch-wise extraction methodology, ranging from 3.37 to 60.3 µmol of Trolox ((±)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid) per g of sample. Extension of the method using U. S. Pharmacopeia surrogate biological media (stomach (pH 1.2) and intestinal (pH 7.5) fluids without enzymes) to NIST-1570a spinach leaves provided gastrointestinal compartment-dependent kinetic leaching rates (0.120 and 0.198min -1 , respectively) and total antioxidant content (45.5 and 52.5µmol of Trolox per g of sample, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Numerical Study On Local Entropy Generation In Compressible Flow Through A Suddenly Expanding Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Bastürk

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study presents the investigation of the local entropy generation in compressible flow through a suddenly expanding pipe. Air is used as fluid. The air enters into the pipe with a turbulent profile using 1/7 th power law. The simulations are extended to include different expansion ratios reduced gradually from 5 to 1. To determine the effects of the mass flux, φ" the ambient heat transfer coefficient, hamb, and the inlet temperature, Tin, on the entropy generation rate, the compressible flow is examined for various cases of these parameters. The flow and temperature fields are computed numerically with the help of the Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD code. In addition to this CFD code, a computer program has been developed to calculate numerically the entropy generation and other thermodynamic parameters by using the results of the calculations performed for the flow and temperature fields. The values of thermodynamic parameters in the sudden expansion. (SE case are normalized by dividing by their base quantities obtained from the calculations in the uniform cross-section (UC case. The contraction of the radius of the throat (from 0.05 to 0.01 m increases significantly the maximum value of the volumetric entropy generation rate, (about 60% and raises exponentially 11 times the total entropy generation rate with respect to the its base value. The normalized merit number decreases 73% and 40% with the contraction of the cross-section and with the increase of the ambient heat transfer coefficient (from 20 to 100 W/m2-K, respectively, whereas it rises 226% and 43% with the decrease of the maximum mass flux (from 5 to 1 kg/m2-s and with the increase of the inlet temperature (from 400 to 1000 K, respectively. Consequently, the useful energy transfer rate to irreversibility rate improves as the mass flux decreases and as the inlet temperature increases.

  9. Space-charge-limited ion flow through an ionizing neutral layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvall, R.E.; Litwin, C.; Maron, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Space-charge-limited ion flow through an ionizing layer of neutral atoms is studied. The ion flow is between two parallel conducting plates (anode and cathode) with an externally applied voltage between them. An expanding layer of neutral atoms is adjacent to the anode surface, extending a finite distance into the anode--cathode gap. All ions originate either from the anode surface or from the ionization of neutrals; electrons originate only from ionization. Electrons are strongly magnetized by an externally applied, time-independent direct current (dc) magnetic field directed across the ion flow. The ions are unmagnetized, all motion being perpendicular to the conducting plates. Two different models of the anode layer were used to analyze this problem: a multifluid steady-state model and a single fluid time-dependent model. From both models it was found that the anode surface becomes shielded after the ion flux from the ionizing layer becomes larger than the space-charge-limited flux of the reduced gap between the neutral layer and cathode. Comparison was made between the time-dependent model and results from magnetically insulated ion beam diode (MID) experiments. Using an initial areal density of neutral hydrogen and carbon equal to the final observed electron areal density, comparison was made between calculated plasma shielding times and upper bounds on the shielding time observed in experiments. It was found that a layer of neutral hydrogen must contain a minimum of 15% carbon (by number density) to explain the rapid electric field screening observed in experiments

  10. A laboratory study of a flow-through fluorometer for measuring oil-in-water levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, P.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Pearson, L.; Collazzi, E.

    2001-01-01

    An extensive bench-scale test program was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Turner Instruments flow-through model 10AU and model 10 fluorometers for measuring real-time concentrations of oil in water. The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of the fluorometer resulting from different weathered states of a particular oil. The study, in turn, lead to a review of the influence of an oil's chemical composition on the instrument and detection technique. The results were compared with alternative total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) methods. It was determined that several factors in addition to an oil's chemical composition can effect the response of the fluorometer. The 10AU model was equipped with a long wavelength optical kit, the other with the short wavelength optical kit for diesel fuels and light refined oil products. A total of 8 oils were tested, including Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend crude oil, Prudhoe Bay crude oil, Bunker C fuel oil and diesel fuel. A study of the chemical composition of the selected oils found that the results of the fluorometer could not be directly linked to the concentration of any specific aromatic hydrocarbon such as napthalene or to the sum of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) compounds. The results showed that the fluorescence signal is generated by a combination of PAH compounds and that the relative contribution of each PAH compound is not equal. It was also determined that the response of the fluorometers may be influenced by the presence of volatile organic compounds such as BTEX and C3-benzenes in combination with PAH compounds. 14 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs

  11. FY2016 ILAW Glass Corrosion Testing with the Single-Pass Flow-Through Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parruzot, Benjamin PG [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, Erin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    The inventory of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) produced at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will be disposed of at the near-surface, on-site Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). When groundwater comes into contact with the waste form, the glass will corrode and radionuclides will be released into the near-field environment. Because the release of the radionuclides is dependent on the dissolution rate of the glass, it is important that the performance assessment (PA) model accounts for the dissolution rate of the glass as a function of various chemical conditions. To accomplish this, an IDF PA model based on Transition State Theory (TST) can be employed. The model is able to account for changes in temperature, exposed surface area, and pH of the contacting solution as well as the effect of silicon concentrations in solution, specifically the activity of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4), whose concentration is directly linked to the glass dissolution rate. In addition, the IDF PA model accounts for the alkali-ion exchange process as sodium is leached from the glass and into solution. The effect of temperature, pH, H4SiO4 activity, and the rate of ion-exchange can be parameterized and implemented directly into the PA rate law model. The rate law parameters are derived from laboratory tests with the single-pass flow-through (SPFT) method. To date, rate law parameters have been determined for seven ILAW glass compositions, thus additional rate law parameters on a wider range of compositions will supplement the existing body of data for PA maintenance activities. The data provided in this report can be used by ILAW glass scientists to further the understanding of ILAW glass behavior, by IDF PA modelers to use the rate law parameters in PA modeling efforts, and by Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and decision makers as they assess the IDF PA program.

  12. Numerical analysis of liquid metal MHD flows through circular pipes based on a fully developed modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiujie; Pan, Chuanjie; Xu, Zengyu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► 2D MHD code based on a fully developed modeling is developed and validated by Samad analytical results. ► The results of MHD effect of liquid metal through circular pipes at high Hartmann numbers are given. ► M type velocity profile is observed for MHD circular pipe flow at high wall conductance ratio condition. ► Non-uniform wall electrical conductivity leads to high jet velocity in Robert layers. -- Abstract: Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) laminar flows through circular pipes are studied in this paper by numerical simulation under the conditions of Hartmann numbers from 18 to 10000. The code is developed based on a fully developed modeling and validated by Samad's analytical solution and Chang's asymptotic results. After the code validation, numerical simulation is extended to high Hartmann number for MHD circular pipe flows with conducting walls, and numerical results such as velocity distribution and MHD pressure gradient are obtained. Typical M-type velocity is observed but there is not such a big velocity jet as that of MHD rectangular duct flows even under the conditions of high Hartmann numbers and big wall conductance ratio. The over speed region in Robert layers becomes smaller when Hartmann numbers increase. When Hartmann number is fixed and wall conductance ratios change, the dimensionless velocity is through one point which is in agreement with Samad's results, the locus of maximum value of velocity jet is same and effects of wall conductance ratio only on the maximum value of velocity jet. In case of Robert walls are treated as insulating and Hartmann walls as conducting for circular pipe MHD flows, there is big velocity jet like as MHD rectangular duct flows of Hunt's case 2

  13. Leaf litter processing and energy flow through macroinvertebrates in a woodland pond (Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertli, B

    1993-12-01

    Energy generated by leaf litter processing and its flow through the associated macroinvertebrate community was quantified in a pond near Geneva (Switzerland). Annual density, biomass, and production on oak (Quercus robur) leaf litter were assessed for all macroinvertebrate taxa with emphasis on predators. Empirical energetic relations provided an energy budget for the macroinvertebrate community. On 1 m 2 of pond bottom, the processing of 5641 kJ of oak leaf litter resulted in 8.5% of leachate (6 days), and after 1 year 32% of material remained; the other 59.5% was biologically (animal or microbial) converted, including 11.2% processed by shredders. The mean annual density of associated macroinvertebrates was 51374 individuals, mean biomass was 3.53 g (dry mass) and production was about 1451 kJ (or 65 g). Predator production was 170 kJ/m 2 , non-chironomid primary consumer production was 101 kJ/m 2 (including 57 kJ from shredders) and chironomid primary consumer production was estimated at 1180 kJ/m 2 . Predators contributed to a high proportion of total biomass (39%) but to a smaller amount of production (12%) or density (6%). In this two-stepped food-chain mainly based on detritus, the transfer coefficient between first level (detritus + primary producers) and third level (secondary consumers) was high (2-2.5%) and indicated efficient conversion of energy. This high efficiency was partly related to the reutilization of fine particulate organic matter by the collectors. The production estimate measured on leaf litter was compared with two other predominant substrates (Typha latifolia stems and Chara sp.), and exhibited the highest value. This study shows how leaf litter can constitute a direct source for high secondary production and be an efficient energy source in freshwater ecosystems. It is also demonstrated that a woodland pond can support a high macroinvertebrate production as compared with other freshwater ecosystems.

  14. Foam Flow Through a 2D Porous Medium: Evolution of the Bubble Size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meheust, Y.; Géraud, B.; Cantat, I.; Dollet, B.

    2017-12-01

    Foams have been used for decades as displacing fluids for EOR and aquifer remediation, and more recently as carriers of chemical amendments for remediation of the vadose zone. Bulk foams are shear-thinning fluids; but for foams with bubbles of order at least the typical pore size of the porous medium, the rheology cannot be described at the continuum scale, as viscous dissipation occurs mostly at the contact between soap films and solid walls. We have investigated the flow of an initially monodisperse foam through a transparent 2D porous medium[1]. The resulting complex flow phenomenology has been characterized quantitatively from optical measurements of the bubble dynamics. In addition to preferential flow path and local flow intermittency, we observe an irreversible evolution of the probability density function (PDF) for bubbles size as bubbles travel along the porous medium. This evolution is due to bubble fragmentation by lamella division, which is by far the dominant mechanism of film creation/destruction. We measure and characterize this evolution of the PDF as a function of the experimental parameters, and model it numerically based on a fragmentation equation, with excellent agreement. The model uses two ingredients obtained from the experimental data, namely the statistics of the bubble fragmentation rate and of the fragment size distributions[2]. It predicts a nearly-universal scaling of all PDFs as a function of the bubble area normalized by the initial mean bubble area. All the PDFs measured in various experiments, with different mean flow velocities, initial bubble sizes and foam qualities, collapse on a master distribution which is only dependent on the geometry of the medium.References:[1] B. Géraud, S. A. Jones, I. Cantat, B. Dollet & Y. Méheust (2016), WRR 52(2), 773-790. [2] B. Géraud, Y. Méheust, I. Cantat & B. Dollet (2017), Lamella division in a foam flowing through a two-dimensional porous medium: A model fragmentation process, PRL 118

  15. Modelling capillary hysteresis effects on preferential flow through melting and cold layered snowpacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Nicolas R.; Pomeroy, John W.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate estimation of the amount and timing of water flux through melting snowpacks is important for runoff prediction in cold regions. Most existing snowmelt models only account for one-dimensional matrix flow and neglect to simulate the formation of preferential flow paths. Consideration of lateral and preferential flows has proven critical to improve the performance of soil and groundwater porous media flow models. A two-dimensional physically-based snowpack model that simulates snowmelt, refreezing of meltwater, heat and water flows, and preferential flow paths is presented. The model assumes thermal equilibrium between solid and liquid phases and uses recent snow physics advances to estimate snowpack hydraulic and thermal properties. For the first time, capillary hysteresis is accounted in a snowmelt model. A finite volume method is applied to solve for the 2D coupled heat and mass transfer equations. The model with capillary hysteresis provided better simulations of water suction at the wet to dry snow interface in a wetting snow sample than did a model that only accounted for the boundary drying curve. Capillary hysteresis also improved simulations of preferential flow path dynamics and the snowpack discharge hydrograph. Simulating preferential flow in a subfreezing snowpack allowed the model to generate ice layers, and increased the vertical exchange of energy, thus modelling a faster warming of the snowpack than would be possible without preferential flow. The model is thus capable of simulating many attributes of heterogeneous natural melting snowpacks. These features not only qualitatively improve water flow simulations, but improve the understanding of snowmelt flow processes for both level and sloping terrain, and illuminate how uncertainty in snowmelt-derived runoff calculations might be reduced through the inclusion of more realistic preferential flow through snowpacks.

  16. Development of a numerical model for fluid-structure interaction analysis of flow through and around an aquaculture net cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we developed a numerical model for fluid-structure interaction analysis of flow through and around an aquaculture net cage. The numerical model is based on the coupling between the porous media model and the lumped mass structural model. A novel interface was implemented...

  17. CARBON AND NUTRIENT FLOW THROUGH MULTIPLE TROPHIC LEVELS IN A CO2-ENRICHED SOUTHERN PINE FOREST COMMUNITY - FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to predict the consequences of global change is predicated on our understanding of controls of energy and material flows through ecosystems. Research was conducted at the Forest Atmosphere CO2 Transfer and Storage-1 (FACTS-1) site at Duke University. This is a flagship experiment of the ...

  18. Evaluation of vertical and lateral flow through agricultural loessial hillslopes using a two-dimensional computer simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, C.J.; Oostindie, K.; Stolte, J.

    1996-01-01

    On four hill-slopes in the loess region of the Netherlands pressure heads were monitored during rain events with time intervals of five minutes. Water flow through these hill-slopes during erosive rain events in summer and winter was simulated two-dimensionally. These simulations showed that

  19. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  20. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  1. Imposed Work of Breathing for Flow Meters with In-Line versus Flow-Through Technique during Simulated Neonatal Breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snorri Donaldsson

    Full Text Available The ability to determine airflow during nasal CPAP (NCPAP treatment without adding dead space or resistance would be useful when investigating the physiologic effects of different NCPAP systems on breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on pressure stability of different flow measuring devices at the in-line and flow-through position, using simulated neonatal breathing.Six different flow measure devices were evaluated by recording pressure changes and imposed work of breathing for breaths with 16 and 32 ml tidal volumes. The tests were performed initially with the devices in an in line position and with 5 and 10 L/min using flow through technique, without CPAP. The flow meters were then subsequently tested with an Infant Flow CPAP system at 3, 5 and 8 cm H2O pressure using flow through technique. The quality of the recorded signals was compared graphically.The resistance of the measuring devices generated pressure swings and imposed work of breathing. With bias flow, the resistance also generated CPAP pressure. Three of the devices had low resistance and generated no changes in pressure stability or CPAP pressure. The two devices intended for neonatal use had the highest measured resistance.The importance of pressure stability and increased work of breathing during non-invasive respiratory support are insufficiently studied. Clinical trials using flow-through technique have not focused on pressure stability. Our results indicate that a flow-through technique might be a way forward in obtaining a sufficiently high signal quality without the added effects of rebreathing and increased work of breathing. The results should stimulate further research and the development of equipment for dynamic flow measurements in neonates.

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of acute tubular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esson, Matthew L; Schrier, Robert W

    2002-11-05

    Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is common in hospitalized patients, particularly in the intensive care unit. Over the past four decades, the mortality rate from ATN has remained at 50% to 80%. To review recent studies of diagnosis and treatment strategies for ATN. MEDLINE search for all clinical studies of therapies for ATN, supplemented by a review of the references of the identified articles. Prospective studies and major retrospective studies evaluating therapies for ATN. Data on the study sample, interventions performed, results, side effects, and duration of follow-up. Early diagnosis of ATN by exclusion of prerenal and postrenal causes of acute renal failure, examination of urinary sediment, and analysis of urine measures (for example, fractional excretion of sodium in the absence of diuretics) can allow the early involvement of nephrologists and improve survival. Enteral rather than parenteral hyperalimentation in severely malnourished patients may improve survival. Sepsis causes 30% to 70% of deaths in patients with ATN; therefore, avoidance of intravenous lines, bladder catheters, and respirators is recommended. Because septic patients are vasodilated, large volumes of administered fluid accumulate in the lung interstitium of these patients. This condition necessitates ventilatory support, which when prolonged leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan failure, and increased mortality. More aggressive dialysis (for example, given daily) with biocompatible membranes may improve survival in some patients with acute renal failure. New information about the importance of early diagnosis and supportive care for patients with ATN has emerged. However, randomized trials of these interventions are needed to test their effect on the morbidity and mortality of ATN.

  3. Flow-through 3D biofuel cell anode for NAD+-dependent enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, Rosalba A.; Lau, Carolin; Garcia, Kristen E.; Atanassov, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    NAD + -dependent enzymes require the presence of catalysts for cofactor regeneration in order to be employed in enzymatic biofuel cells. Poly-(methylene green) catalysts have proven to help the oxidation reaction of NADH allowing for the use of such enzymes in electrocatalytic oxidation reactions. In this paper we present the development of 3D anode based on NAD + -dependent malate dehydrogenase. The 3D material chosen was reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) which was modified with poly-(MG) for NADH oxidation and it also accommodated the porous immobilization matrix for MDH consisting of MWCNTs embedded in chitosan; allowing for mass transport of the substrate to the electrode. Scanning electron microscopy was used in order to characterize the poly-(MG)-modified RVC, and electrochemical evaluation of the anode was performed.

  4. Florfenicol residues in rainbow trout after oral dosing in recirculating and flow-through culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J R; Hess, K R; Bernardy, J A; Gaikowski, M P; Whitsel, M; Endris, R G

    2014-12-01

    Aquaflor is a feed premix for fish containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol (FFC) incorporated at a ratio of 50% (w/w). To enhance the effectiveness of FFC for salmonids infected with certain isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum causing cold water disease, the FFC dose must be increased from the standard 10 mg·kg⁻¹ body weight (BW)·d⁻¹ for 10 consecutive days. A residue depletion study was conducted to determine whether FFC residues remaining in the fillet tissue after treating fish at an increased dose would be safe for human consumption. Groups of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (total n = 144; weight range, 126-617 g) were treated with FFC at 20 mg·kg⁻¹ BW·d⁻¹ for 10 d in a flow-through system (FTS) and a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) each with a water temperature of ∼13°C. The two-tank RAS included a nontreated tank containing 77 fish. Fish were taken from each tank (treated tank, n = 16; nontreated tank, n = 8) at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 120, 240, 360, and 480 h posttreatment. Florfenicol amine (FFA) concentrations (the FFC marker residue) in skin-on fillets from treated fish were greatest at 12 h posttreatment (11.58 μg/g) in the RAS and were greatest at 6 h posttreatment (11.09 μg/g) in the FTS. The half-lives for FFA in skin-on fillets from the RAS and FTS were 20.3 and 19.7 h, respectively. Assimilation of FFC residues in the fillets of nontreated fish sharing the RAS with FFC-treated fish was minimal. Florfenicol water concentrations peaked in the RAS-treated tank and nontreated tanks at 10 h (453 μg/L) and 11 h (442 μg/L) posttreatment, respectively. Monitoring of nitrite concentrations throughout the study indicated the nitrogen oxidation efficiency of the RAS biofilter was minimally impacted by the FFC treatment.

  5. Length Scales of Reactive Transport in Basalt: Hydrothermal Flow-through Experiments and Anhydrite Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, C.; Kahl, W. A.; Bach, W.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal circulation is a large contributor to mass and heat exchange between oceanic lithosphere and hydrosphere. Cold, unaltered seawater infiltrates in the shallow basaltic crust, leading to sulfate precipitation and clogging of fluid pathways. Anhydrite (CaSO4) veins are common in hydrothermal discharge zones, where entrained seawater is heated and anhydrite quickly forms. Anhydrite is also found in hydrothermal recharge zones, but questions regarding time and length scale in this setting remain. To investigate element transport and anhydrite precipitation we have conducted flow-through experiments using a gypsum-undersaturated CaSO4 solution in pre-fractured basalt at 95, 110 and 140°C. Each run was terminated upon clogging of the input tubes, which took 2-8 weeks. The rock core was scanned before the run and weekly during the experiment using X-ray tomography. Fluid major element chemistry was analyzed using ICP-OES. Geochemical modeling with the software package EQ3/6 showed that the starting solution became supersaturated in anhydrite (SI=IAP/K of 2.5 or higher) in all cases upon heating to the experimental temperature. The software CRUNCH FLOW was used to analyze chemical effects over the length of the core (3cm). The 95°C run and a first run at 110°C did not show any anhydrite. Instead, hematite rosettes and sulfur-bearing (maximum of 1 wt.%) globular Fe-rich structures were present. Tomography images showed that fractures and pores were slightly thinned over the whole core length. Single pores in a second 110°C run and fractures in the 140°C run did show formation of anhydrite and quartz close to the outlet. CRUNCH FLOW modeling predicts the observed release of Mg, Fe, Si, Al, Na and K due to silicate dissolution close to the inlet, while the outlet area should contain some anhydrite. No other sulfur-bearing phases were predicted. The results of this study show that anhydrite needs a large supersaturation (SI>2.5) to precipitate at temperatures

  6. The control of blood flow through human forearm muscles following brief isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, A R; Williams, C A

    1979-03-01

    1. The blood flow through the forearm was measured 2 sec after single, brief isometric hand-grip contractions. The tension and duration of those contractions varied from 10 to 100% of the maximal voluntary contraction (m.v.c.) and from 2 to 12 sec, respectively. 2. The blood flow increased linearly with tension up to about 60% m.v.c. but further increases in tension, up to 100% m.v.c., did not elicit higher blood flows than were found at 60% m.v.c. The same relationship between tension and the resultant blood flow held for all durations of contractions, from 2 to 12 sec. The blood flow immediately after (2 sec) contractions at a given tension increased linearly with the duration of the contraction, from 2 to 12 sec. Maximal exercise blood flow was approached only in response to the longest contractions (12 sec) at tensions of 60% m.v.c. or higher. 3. Brief alterations (2--5 sec) of transmural pressure across blood vessels did not result in a significant change of blood flow, either in the resting forearm or when the vessels were dilated by brief, isometric contractions. When the tension was applied or released either rapidly or gradually ('ramp' contractions) there was no correlation between the rate of change of stretch on arterial vessels and the resultant blood flow. However, there was a direct relationship between a force--time integral (duration of contraction x peak tension) and blood flow. All these results make it clear that changes in blood flow in the forearm elicited by brief isometric contractions are not the result of a myogenic reflex but are metabolically induced. 4. Successive contractions exerted at 60% m.v.c. for 4 sec induced a blood flow of 21.2 +/- 1.6 ml.min-1.100 ml.-1 when a rest interval of 8 sec was allowed between the contractions. Blood flows remained constant at this submaximal level, even when muscular fatigue was induced, and when there was an accompanying large increase in blood pressure. 5. Isometric muscular activity by the

  7. Florfenicol residues in Rainbow Trout after oral dosing in recirculating and flow-through culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Hess, Karina R.; Bernady, Jeffry A.; Gaikowski, M. P.; Whitsel, Melissa; Endris, R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaflor is a feed premix for fish containing the broad spectrum antibacterial agent florfenicol (FFC) incorporated at a ratio of 50% (w/w). To enhance the effectiveness of FFC for salmonids infected with certain isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum causing coldwater disease, the FFC dose must be increased from the standard 10 mg·kg−1 body weight (BW)·d−1 for 10 consecutive days. A residue depletion study was conducted to determine whether FFC residues remaining in the fillet tissue after treating fish at an increased dose would be safe for human consumption. Groups of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (total n = 144; weight range, 126–617 g) were treated with FFC at 20 mg·kg−1 BW·d−1 for 10 d in a flow-through system (FTS) and a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) each with a water temperature of ∼13°C. The two-tank RAS included a nontreated tank containing 77 fish. Fish were taken from each tank (treated tank, n = 16; nontreated tank, n = 8) at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 120, 240, 360, and 480 h posttreatment. Florfenicol amine (FFA) concentrations (the FFC marker residue) in skin-on fillets from treated fish were greatest at 12 h posttreatment (11.58 μg/g) in the RAS and were greatest at 6 h posttreatment (11.09 μg/g) in the FTS. The half-lives for FFA in skin-on fillets from the RAS and FTS were 20.3 and 19.7 h, respectively. Assimilation of FFC residues in the fillets of nontreated fish sharing the RAS with FFC-treated fish was minimal. Florfenicol water concentrations peaked in the RAS-treated tank and nontreated tanks at 10 h (453 μg/L) and 11 h (442 μg/L) posttreatment, respectively. Monitoring of nitrite concentrations throughout the study indicated the nitrogen oxidation efficiency of the RAS biofilter was minimally impacted by the FFC treatment.

  8. Heating in vascular tissue and flow-through tissue phantoms induced by focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinlan

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be used to control bleeding, both from individual blood vessels as well as from gross damage to the capillary bed. This process, called acoustic hemostasis, is being studied in the hope that such a method would ultimately provide a lifesaving treatment during the so-called "golden hour", a brief grace period after a severe trauma in which prompt therapy can save the life of an injured person. Thermal effects play a major role in occlusion of small vessels and also appear to contribute to the sealing of punctures in major blood vessels. However, aggressive ultrasound-induced tissue heating can also impact healthy tissue and can lead to deleterious mechanical bioeffects. Moreover, the presence of vascularity can limit one's ability to elevate the temperature of blood vessel walls owing to convective heat transport. In an effort to better understand the heating process in tissues with vascular structure we have developed a numerical simulation that couples models for ultrasound propagation, acoustic streaming, ultrasound heating and blood cooling in Newtonian viscous media. The 3-D simulation allows for the study of complicated biological structures and insonation geometries. We have also undertaken a series of in vitro experiments, in non-uniform flow-through tissue phantoms, designed to provide a ground truth verification of the model predictions. The calculated and measured results were compared over a range of values for insonation pressure, insonation time, and flow rate; we show good agreement between predictions and measurements. We then conducted a series of simulations that address two limiting problems of interest: hemostasis in small and large vessels. We employed realistic human tissue properties and considered more complex geometries. Results show that the heating pattern in and around a blood vessel is different for different vessel sizes, flow rates and for varying beam orientations relative to the flow axis

  9. Stereotactic minimally invasive tubular retractor system for deep brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Jeffrey P; Cobb, William S; Tsouris, A John; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2008-10-01

    Deep-seated supratentorial intraparenchymal and intraventricular brain lesions can be difficult to access without causing significant trauma to the overlying cortex and intervening white matter tracts. Traditional brain retractors use multiple blades, which do not exert pressure in an equally distributed fashion. Tubular retractors offer an advantage. Although a commercially available frame-based tubular retractor system is on the market (COMPASS; Compass, Inc., Rochester, MN), we modified existing off-the-shelf equipment at our institution into a frameless tubular brain retractor. We used 14- to 22-mm METRx (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) tubular retractors in combination with a frameless stereotactic navigation system to remove 10 deep lesions. Histological findings included 6 periventricular metastases, 1 insular glioblastoma multiforme, 1 periventricular glioblastoma multiforme, 1 intraventricular meningioma, and 1 hippocampal cavernous malformation. Radiographic gross total resection was achieved in all patients. One patient experienced a transient worsening of an existing preoperative Wernicke's aphasia; otherwise, there were no intra- or postoperative complications. One patient with radiographic gross total resection of a metastatic lesion experienced a local recurrence of disease, requiring stereotactic radiosurgery. A frameless stereotactic tubular retractor system for deep brain lesions can be assembled with equipment already available at many institutions. Use of this system can decrease incision and craniotomy size, decrease retractor-induced trauma to overlying cortex, and help prevent damage to underlying white matter tracts.

  10. Proximal tubular dysfunction as an indicator of chronic graft dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O.S. Câmara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available New strategies are being devised to limit the impact of renal sclerosis on graft function. Individualization of immunosuppression, specifically the interruption of calcineurin-inhibitors has been tried in order to promote better graft survival once chronic graft dysfunction has been established. However, the long-term impact of these approaches is still not totally clear. Nevertheless, patients at higher risk for tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (TA/IF development should be carefully monitored for tubular function as well as glomerular performance. Since tubular-interstitial impairment is an early event in TA/IF pathogenesis and associated with graft function, it seems reasonable that strategies directed at assessing tubular structural integrity and function would yield important functional and prognostic data. The measurement of small proteins in urine such as α-1-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha/pi S-glutathione transferases, β-2 microglobulin, and retinol binding protein is associated with proximal tubular cell dysfunction. Therefore, its straightforward assessment could provide a powerful tool in patient monitoring and ongoing clinical assessment of graft function, ultimately helping to facilitate longer patient and graft survival associated with good graft function.

  11. Mathematical rationalization for the renal tubular transport: revised concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioni, Roberto; Marega, Alessandra; Romano, Giulio; Montanaro, Domenico

    2017-09-01

    The current emphasis on kinetics and in situ control of molecular exchanges, across the tubular membrane, has not been paralleled by corresponding improvements in our understanding of tubular behaviour at the macroscopic level of classical physiology. In this paper, we propose a mathematical rationalization of macroscopic tubular transport by means of a principal transport equation, originating from the law of mass action between substrate and carrier. The other equations, derived from the main one, demonstrate the possibility of distinguishing between transporters with low affinity and high capacity and transporters with high affinity and low capacity. Moreover, our model formalizes both tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion. Regarding the renal calcium handling, our model confirms the two-compartment system proposed by Mioni in 1971, with some important variants, which are in agreement with the fractional reabsorptions of this cation along the tubule, as verified by micro-puncture technique. To obtain the frequency distribution of saturated tubules, we have utilized the infinitesimal analysis method, starting from the equations proposed by Smith in 1943, concluding that all titration curves result from the combined effect of enzymatic approach and anatomical heterogeneity of the nephrons. The theoretical equations included in our manuscript reflect substantial and palpable physiological mechanisms able to suggest diagnosis and therapy of some electrolyte and hormonal disorders. At the end of this paper, we highlight advantages and disadvantages detectable by comparing our mathematical approach with Marshall's and Bijvoet's methods, proposed, respectively, in 1976 and 1984.

  12. Design of a Flow-Through Voltammetric Sensor Based on an Antimony-Modified Silver Electrode for Determining Lithol Rubine B in Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lai-Hao, Wang; Shu-Juan, Huang

    2011-01-01

    Lithol Rubine B (LRB; the disodium salt of 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-methyl-2-sulfophenyl) azo]-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid) was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical (antimony film on silver) detector (HPLC-ECD). For direct current (DC) mode, with the current at a constant potential, and measurements with suitable experimental parameters, a linear concentration from 0.125 to 1.80 μg/mL was found. The detection limit of our method was approximately 2.0 ng/mL. An...

  13. Comparação do desempenho operacional e das características do cordão na soldagem com diferentes arames tubulares Comparison of operational performance and bead characteristics when welding with different tubular wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Murta Diniz Starling

    2009-03-01

    feed rate (7 and 9 m/min were changed, and other process variables, including electrode polarity (CC+, electrode and arc lengths (16 mm and 3.5 mm, respectively were kept constant throughout the experimental program. Weld bead geometry parameters (penetration depth, reinforcement, width, fused and deposited areas, and weld dilution, presence of weld discontinuities, fusion zone microstructure and hardness were measured and compared for the different tubular wires. Operational conditions that yielded weld bead characteristics favored for the welding of thick plates of structural steels were determined.

  14. History independence of steady state in simultaneous two-phase flow through two-dimensional porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Marion; Sinha, Santanu; Tallakstad, Ken Tore; Hansen, Alex; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that the transient behavior during drainage or imbibition in multiphase flow in porous media strongly depends on the history and initial condition of the system. However, when the steady-state regime is reached and both drainage and imbibition take place at the pore level, the influence of the evolution history and initial preparation is an open question. Here, we present an extensive experimental and numerical work investigating the history dependence of simultaneous steady-state two-phase flow through porous media. Our experimental system consists of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads which we model numerically by a network of disordered pores transporting two immiscible fluids. From measurements of global pressure evolution, histograms of saturation, and cluster-size distributions, we find that when both phases are flowing through the porous medium, the steady state does not depend on the initial preparation of the system or on the way it has been reached.

  15. Parallel array of nanochannels grafted with polymer-brushes-stabilized Au nanoparticles for flow-through catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxi; Ma, Shuanhong; Wei, Qiangbing; Jia, Lei; Yu, Bo; Wang, Daoai; Zhou, Feng

    2013-12-07

    Smart systems on the nanometer scale for continuous flow-through reaction present fascinating advantages in heterogeneous catalysis, in which a parallel array of straight nanochannels offers a platform with high surface area for assembling and stabilizing metallic nanoparticles working as catalysts. Herein we demonstrate a method for finely modifying the nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), and further integration of nanoreactors. By using atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), polymer brushes were successfully grafted on the inner wall of the nanochannels of the AAO membrane, followed by exchanging counter ions with a precursor for nanoparticles (NPs), and used as the template for deposition of well-defined Au NPs. The membrane was used as a functional nanochannel for novel flow-through catalysis. High catalytic performance and instantaneous separation of products from the reaction system was achieved in reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

  16. A numerical model for self-compacting concrete flow through reinforced sections. A porous medium analogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilic, Ksenija

    2016-05-01

    This thesis addresses numerical simulations of self-compacting concrete (SCC) castings and suggests a novel modelling approach that treats reinforcement zones in a formwork as porous media. As a relatively new field in concrete technology, numerical simulations of fresh concrete flow can be a promising aid to optimise casting processes and to avoid on-site casting incidents by predicting the flow behaviour of concrete during the casting process. The simulations of fresh concrete flow generally involve complex mathematical modelling and time-consuming computations. In case of a casting prediction, the simulation time is additionally significantly increased because each reinforcement bar occurring in succession has to be considered one by one. This is particularly problematic when simulating SCC casting, since this type of concrete is typically used for heavily reinforced structural members. However, the wide use of numerical tools for casting prediction in practice is possible only if the tools are user-friendly and simulations are time-saving. In order to shorten simulation time and to come closer to a practical tool for casting prediction, instead to model steel bars one by one, this thesis suggests to model zones with arrays of steel bars as porous media. Consequently, one models the flow of SCC through a reinforcement zone as a free-surface flow of a non-Newtonian fluid, propagating through the medium. By defining characteristic parameters of the porous medium, the influence on the flow and the changed (apparent) behaviour of concrete in the porous matrix can be predicted. This enables modelling of any reinforcement network as a porous zone and thus significantly simplifies and fastens simulations of reinforced components' castings. Within the thesis, a computational model for SCC flow through reinforced sections was developed. This model couples a fluid dynamics model for fresh concrete and the macroscopic approach for the influence of the porous medium

  17. A numerical model for self-compacting concrete flow through reinforced sections. A porous medium analogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilic, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses numerical simulations of self-compacting concrete (SCC) castings and suggests a novel modelling approach that treats reinforcement zones in a formwork as porous media. As a relatively new field in concrete technology, numerical simulations of fresh concrete flow can be a promising aid to optimise casting processes and to avoid on-site casting incidents by predicting the flow behaviour of concrete during the casting process. The simulations of fresh concrete flow generally involve complex mathematical modelling and time-consuming computations. In case of a casting prediction, the simulation time is additionally significantly increased because each reinforcement bar occurring in succession has to be considered one by one. This is particularly problematic when simulating SCC casting, since this type of concrete is typically used for heavily reinforced structural members. However, the wide use of numerical tools for casting prediction in practice is possible only if the tools are user-friendly and simulations are time-saving. In order to shorten simulation time and to come closer to a practical tool for casting prediction, instead to model steel bars one by one, this thesis suggests to model zones with arrays of steel bars as porous media. Consequently, one models the flow of SCC through a reinforcement zone as a free-surface flow of a non-Newtonian fluid, propagating through the medium. By defining characteristic parameters of the porous medium, the influence on the flow and the changed (apparent) behaviour of concrete in the porous matrix can be predicted. This enables modelling of any reinforcement network as a porous zone and thus significantly simplifies and fastens simulations of reinforced components' castings. Within the thesis, a computational model for SCC flow through reinforced sections was developed. This model couples a fluid dynamics model for fresh concrete and the macroscopic approach for the influence of the porous medium

  18. Transesterification by lipase entrapped in electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers and its application to a flow-through reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinji; Antoku, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Tetsu; Kawakami, Koei

    2008-06-01

    We entrapped lipase in electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers of approximately 1 mum in diameter and evaluated the transesterification activity by converting (s)-glycidol to glycidyl n-butyrate with vinyl n-butyrate. The initial transesterification rate of the entrapped lipase was 5.2-fold faster than that of non-treated lipase. The fibrous membrane could be used as a component of a flow-through reactor for continuous transesterification.

  19. Entropy analysis on MHD pseudo-plastic nanofluid flow through a vertical porous channel with convective heating

    OpenAIRE

    Das, S.; Banu, A.S.; Jana, R.N.; Makinde, O.D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the entropy generation in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pseudo-plastic nanofluid flow through a porous channel with convective heating. Three different types of nanoparticles, namely copper, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide are considered with pseudo-plastic carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)–water used as base fluids. The governing equations are solved numerically by shooting technique coupled with Runge–Kutta scheme. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the fl...

  20. An Investigation of Parallel Post-Laminar Flow through Coarse Granular Porous Media with the Wilkins Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashes Banerjee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour of flow resistance with velocity is still undefined for post-laminar flow through coarse granular media. This can cause considerable errors during flow measurements in situations like rock fill dams, water filters, pumping wells, oil and gas exploration, and so on. Keeping the non-deviating nature of Wilkins coefficients with the hydraulic radius of media in mind, the present study further explores their behaviour to independently varying media size and porosity, subjected to parallel post-laminar flow through granular media. Furthermore, an attempt is made to simulate the post-laminar flow conditions with the help of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD Model in ANSYS FLUENT, since conducting large-scale experiments are often costly and time-consuming. The model output and the experimental results are found to be in good agreement. Percentage deviations between the experimental and numerical results are found to be in the considerable range. Furthermore, the simulation results are statistically validated with the experimental results using the standard ‘Z-test’. The output from the model advocates the importance and applicability of CFD modelling in understanding post-laminar flow through granular media.

  1. Disposable lateral flow-through strip for smartphone-camera to quantitatively detect alkaline phosphatase activity in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Shi, ZhuanZhuan; Fang, Can; Zhang, YuanYuan; Liu, YingShuai; Li, ChangMing

    2015-07-15

    A disposable lateral flow-through strip was developed for smartphone to fast one-step quantitatively detect alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in raw milk. The strip comprises two functional components, a conjugation pad loaded with phosphotyrosine-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs@Cys-Try-p) and a testing line coated with anti-phosphotryosine antibody (anti-Tyr-p mAb). The dephosphorylation activity of ALP at the testing zone can be quantitatively assayed by monitoring the accumulated AuNPs-induced color changes by smartphone camera, thus providing a highly convenient portable detection method. A trace amount of ALP as low as 0.1UL(-1) with a linear dynamic range of 0.1-150UL(-1) (R(2)=0.999) in pasteurized milk and raw milk can be one-step detected by the developed flow-through strip within 10min, demonstrating the potential of smartphone-based portable sensing device for pathogen detection. This bio-hazards free lateral flow-through testing strip can be also used to fabricate rapid, sensitive and inexpensive enzyme or immunosensors for broad portable clinic diagnosis and food contamination analysis, particularly in point-of-care and daily food quality inspection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mathematical models for tubular structures in the family of Papovaviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarock, R

    2005-09-01

    An important part of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that protects the viral genome. While the viral capsids of viruses in the family of Papovaviridae are usually spherical, their protein building blocks are known to assemble also as tubular structures [Kiselev, N.A., Klug, A., 1969. J. Mol. Biol. 40, 155]. In Twarock [2004. J. Theor. Biol. 226, 477] Viral Tiling Theory has been introduced for the structural description of the protein stoichiometry of the spherical capsids in this family. This approach is extended here to the tubular case and is used to classify the surface lattices of tubular structures in the family of Papovaviridae. The predictions of the theory are compared with the experimental results in Kiselev and Klug [1969. J. Mol. Biol. 40, 155].

  3. Effect of corrosion on the buckling capacity of tubular members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øyasæter, F. H.; Aeran, A.; Siriwardane, S. C.; Mikkelsen, O.

    2017-12-01

    Offshore installations are subjected to harsh marine environment and often have damages from corrosion. Several experimental and numerical studies were performed in the past to estimate buckling capacity of corroded tubular members. However, these studies were either based on limited experimental tests or numerical analyses of few cases resulting in semi-empirical relations. Also, there are no guidelines and recommendations in the currently available design standards. To fulfil this research gap, a new formula is proposed to estimate the residual strength of tubular members considering corrosion and initial geometrical imperfections. The proposed formula is verified with results from finite element analyses performed on several members and for varying corrosion patch parameters. The members are selected to represent the most relevant Eurocode buckling curve for tubular members. It is concluded that corrosion reduces the buckling capacity significantly and the proposed formula can be easily applied by practicing engineers without performing detailed numerical analyses.

  4. MODELING OF TUBULAR ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTOR FOR DYE REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. VIJAYAKUMAR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to model a tubular electrochemical reactor for the treatment of synthetic dye wastewater. The tubular reactor was modeled and solved by finite difference method. For the model solution, the column was divided into 11 nodes in the axial direction and the variation in the radial direction has been neglected. An initial dye concentration of 200 mg L-1was taken in the reservoir. The reactor was operated in a batch with recirculation operation. Based on preliminary experiments all parameters have been optimized. The model simulation is compared with the experimental value and it is observed that the model fairly matches well with the experiment. The modeling of tubular electrochemical reactors for dye waste water treatment could be useful in the design and scale up of electrochemical process.

  5. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  6. The origin of tubular lava stalactites and other related forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Allred

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubular lava stalactites are often found in lava tubes. Field observations, sample analysis, and comparative studies indicate that these are segregations extruded during cooling from partially crystallized lava al about 1,070 - 1,000 °C. Retrograde boiling (gas pressure within the lava provides a mechanism to expel the interstitial liquid. In addition to tubular lava stalactites, a variety of other lava features can also result, such as lava helictites, lava coralloids, barnacle-like stretched lava, runners, runner channels, and some lava blisters and squeeze-ups.

  7. Glycated hemoglobin biosensing integration formed on Au nanoparticle-dotted tubular TiO{sub 2} nanoarray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Utkarsh [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, 201303, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Anamika [Department of Biotechnology, UIET, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, 136 119, Haryana (India); Kuchhal, Naresh Kumar [Clinical Biochemistry Department, Bio-Diagnostics, Rohini, Delhi, 110085 (India); Chauhan, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhichauhan2007@rediffmail.com [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, 201303, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-11-16

    Excessive glucose present in the blood of diabetic patients binds with the hemoglobin of red blood cells resulting in the formation of glycated hemoglobin (HbA{sub 1c}). Measurement of HbA{sub 1c} levels may help in identifying the efficacy of the ongoing treatment and hence provide a better control over the disease. In the present study, we have synthesized a sensitive and stable scaffold, which consists of Au nanoparticles (GNPs)-dotted tubular TiO{sub 2}, for the construction of an electrochemical HbA{sub 1c} biosensor. 12-phosphotungstic acid has been used as a reducer after depositing well-dispersed GNPs on TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TiO{sub 2} NTs) and an electron mediator by accelerating the electron transfer between the conductor and protein. The fabricated electrode was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis (EIS). Biosensor exhibited low detection limit (0.5 μM), fast response time (3 s) and wide linearity (from 0.5 to 2000 μM). The working electrode was used 100 times over 4 months, when stored at 4 °C. The HbA1c biosensor was then effectively used to measure the % of HbA{sub 1c} in the blood of apparently healthy persons and diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Fabrication of a highly sensitive and stable sensing interface consisting of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and tubular TiO2. • Biosensor exhibited low detection limit (0.5 μM). • The half life of electrode was 4 months. • Biosensor was suitable for detection of glycated hemoglobin in whole blood.

  8. Disposable biomedical electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Hillman, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Reusable recording cap equipped with compressible snap-on bioelectronic electrodes is worn by patient to allow remote monitoring of electroencephalogram and electro-oculogram waveforms. Electrodes can be attached to inside surface of stretch-textile cap at twelve monitoring positions and at one or two ground positions.

  9. Durable fuel electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    the composite. The invention also relates to the use of the composite as a fuel electrode, solid oxide fuel cell, and/or solid oxide electrolyser. The invention discloses a composite for an electrode, comprising a three-dimensional network of dispersed metal particles, stabilised zirconia particles and pores...

  10. Versatility of tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The outcomes of urethroplasty in the management of different types of hypospadias have continued to improve since the introduction of the tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty (Snodgrass method). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and applicability of TIP urethroplasty in the ...

  11. Tubularized Incised Plate (TIP) Urethroplasty: Extended Use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Recently, tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty (Snodgrass repair) has gained popularity for the primary repair of distal and proximal hypospadias. This study was carried out to evaluate TIP urethroplasty in the repair of failed and complicated hypospadias cases. Patients and Methods: This study was ...

  12. Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty repair in adult hypospadias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Most studies published in the literature report on the results of tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIPU) for hypospadias repair in children. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the results of TIPU repair in adults. Patients and methods: The records of 60 adult patients with primary hypospadias ...

  13. Renal pathophysiologic role of cortical tubular inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Zaher A; Stewart, Zachary S; Grzemski, Felicity A; Bobrowski, Walter F

    2013-01-01

    Renal tubular inclusion bodies are rarely associated with drug administration. The authors describe the finding of renal cortical tubular intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with the oral administration of a norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor (NSRI) test article in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats were given an NSRI daily for 4 weeks, and kidney histopathologic, ultrastructural pathology, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Round eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed histologically in the tubular epithelial cells of the renal cortex in male and female SD rats given the NSRI compound. No evidence of degeneration or necrosis was noted in the inclusion-containing renal cells. By ultrastructural pathology, inclusion bodies consisted of finely granular, amorphous, and uniformly stained nonmembrane-bound material. By immunohistochemistry, inclusion bodies stained positive for d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) protein. In addition, similar inclusion bodies were noted in the cytoplasmic tubular epithelial compartment by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination.  This is the first description of these renal inclusion bodies after an NSRI test article administration in SD rats. Such drug-induced renal inclusion bodies are rat-specific, do not represent an expression of nephrotoxicity, represent altered metabolism of d-amino acids, and are not relevant to human safety risk assessment.

  14. Tubularized incised plate technique for recurrent hypospadias: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Pediatric Surgery 2012, 8:80–85. Keywords: recurrent hypospadias, salvage hypospadias, tubularized incised plate. aDepartment of Surgery, Division of Pediatric and Plastic Surgery, Faculty of. Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia and bDepartment of Surgery, Faculty of. Medicine, Menoufia University ...

  15. Predominant Tubular Interleukin-18 Expression in Polyomavirus-Associated Nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, Geurt; Kers, Jesper; Yapici, Ünsal; Hoelbeek, Joris J.; Claessen, Nike; de Boer, Onno J.; Netea, Mihai G.; Hilbrands, Luuk; Bemelman, Fréderike J.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.; Florquin, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) occurs in a significant percentage of renal transplant recipients, with BK virus reactivation as the main causative agent. PVAN leads to tubular damage and may result in allograft loss. In this study, we analyzed the antiviral immune response in PVAN.

  16. Albumin Is Recycled from the Primary Urine by Tubular Transcytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenten, Verena; Menzel, Sylvia; Kunter, Uta; Sicking, Eva-Maria; van Roeyen, Claudia R. C.; Sanden, Silja K.; Kaldenbach, Michaela; Boor, Peter; Fuss, Astrid; Uhlig, Sandra; Lanzmich, Regina; Willemsen, Brigith; Dijkman, Henry; Grepl, Martin; Wild, Klemens; Kriz, Wilhelm; Smeets, Bart; Floege, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Under physiologic conditions, significant amounts of plasma protein pass the renal filter and are reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, but it is not clear whether the endocytosed protein, particularly albumin, is degraded in lysosomes or returned to the circulatory system intact. To resolve this question, a transgenic mouse with podocyte-specific expression of doxycycline-inducible tagged murine albumin was developed. To assess potential glomerular backfiltration, two types of albumin with different charges were expressed. On administration of doxycycline, podocytes expressed either of the two types of transgenic albumin, which were secreted into the primary filtrate and reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, resulting in serum accumulation. Renal transplantation experiments confirmed that extrarenal transcription of transgenic albumin was unlikely to account for these results. Genetic deletion of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), which rescues albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, abolished transcytosis of both types of transgenic albumin and IgG in proximal tubular cells. In summary, we provide evidence of a transcytosis within the kidney tubular system that protects albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, allowing these proteins to be recycled intact. PMID:23970123

  17. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis, an Uncommonly diagnosed Cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five cases of distal renal tubular acidosis aged between 2½ weeks and 2½ months are described. The presenting features included lethargy, refusal to feed, high density of periodic respiration, vomiting and recurrent episodes of unexplained metabolic acidosis. A constant feature was failure to thrive despite caloric intakes ...

  18. Some asymptotic properties of functions holomorphic in tubular domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavialov, B.I.

    1988-10-01

    For the function holomorphic in curved tubular domain the connection between asymptotic behaviour of real part of its boundary value at a given point of base manifold and asymptotic behaviour of the whole function from the inside of this domain is studied. (author). 3 refs

  19. Hemodynamic and tubular changes induced by contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazza, Antonella; Russo, Luigi; Sabbatini, Massimo; Russo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury induced by contrast media (CI-AKI) is the third cause of AKI in hospitalized patients. Contrast media cause relevant alterations both in renal hemodynamics and in renal tubular cell function that lead to CI-AKI. The vasoconstriction of intrarenal vasculature is the main hemodynamic change induced by contrast media; the vasoconstriction is accompanied by a cascade of events leading to ischemia and reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Cytotoxicity of contrast media causes apoptosis of tubular cells with consequent formation of casts and worsening of ischemia. There is an interplay between the negative effects of contrast media on renal hemodynamics and on tubular cell function that leads to activation of renin-angiotensin system and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the kidney. Production of ROS intensifies cellular hypoxia through endothelial dysfunction and alteration of mechanisms regulating tubular cells transport. The physiochemical characteristics of contrast media play a critical role in the incidence of CI-AKI. Guidelines suggest the use of either isoosmolar or low-osmolar contrast media rather than high-osmolar contrast media particularly in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI. Older age, presence of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease, nephrotoxic drugs, and diuretics may multiply the risk of CI-AKI.

  20. Importance of early audiologic assessment in distal renal tubular acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Norgett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anand P Swayamprakasam1, Elizabeth Stover1, Elizabeth Norgett1, Katherine G Blake-Palmer1, Michael J Cunningham2, Fiona E Karet11Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Cambridge, UK; 2Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Autosomal recessive distal renal tubular acidosis is usually a severe disease of childhood, often presenting as failure to thrive in infancy. It is often, but not always, accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss, the clinical severity and age of onset of which may be different from the other clinical features. Mutations in either ATP6V1B1 or ATP6V0A4 are the chief causes of primary distal renal tubular acidosis with or without hearing loss, although the loss is often milder in the latter. We describe a kindred with compound heterozygous alterations in ATP6V0A4, where hearing loss was formally diagnosed late in both siblings such that they missed early opportunities for hearing support. This kindred highlights the importance of routine audiologic assessments of all children with distal renal tubular acidosis, irrespective either of age at diagnosis or of which gene is mutated. In addition, when diagnostic genetic testing is undertaken, both genes should be screened irrespective of current hearing status. A strategy for this is outlined.Keywords: sensorineural hearing loss, renal tubular acidosis, recessive, genetics, mutation

  1. Finite element analysis of tubular joints in offshore structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... representing a 2-D model of the joint between the brace and the chord walls. This was subsequently followed but finite element analysis of six tubular joints. A global analysis was initially undertaken, then the submodel analysis carried in the areas of stress concentration. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT (2001) Vol 6, ...

  2. Template Synthesis of Tubular Nanostructures for Loading Biologically Active Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Aysegul; Algan, Aslıhan Hilal

    2017-01-01

    The template synthesis is a low cost, simple and versatile nanofabrication method to produce cylindrical/tubular nanostructures with controllable dimensions such as length, diameter and aspect ratio. This method utilizes nanoporous membranes such as anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) or polycarbonate (PC) as templates which have nanosized specific, cylindrical and uniform inner pores to be coated with the desired material. Template synthesized nanotubular structures have been produced from variety of materials including ceramics, polymers and proteins for loading biologically active molecules. Available procedures of material deposition into the template nanopores consist of several techniques like wetting (melt or solution wetting), layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly and sol-gel chemistry. Template synthesis enables not only control of the geometry of the resulting nanostructures but also provides nanovehicles having separated inner and outer surfaces which can be variously functionalized. Tubular nanostructures fabricated by this method have numerous potential applications including delivery of biologically active molecules such as drugs, gene, enzymes and proteins. In this review we aimed to present up-to-date works on the template based synthesis which has greatly facilitated the fabrication of polymer and protein tubular nanostructures, principally. The strategies regarding the synthesis and designing of these promising tubular nanostructures together with recent approaches relevant of drug delivery was also presented. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Start up of an industrial adiabatic tubular reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Verwijs, J.W.; van den Berg, Henderikus; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of an adiabatic tubular plant reactor during the startup is demonstrated, together with the impact of a feed-pump failure of one of the reactants. A dynamic model of the reactor system is presented, and the system response is calculated as a function of

  4. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN. These urinary tubular markers may increase in diabetic patients, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing early markers of normoalbuminuric DN. In this review we summarized some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG, alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M, beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M, and retinol binding protein (RBP associated with early DN.

  5. Characterization of Foam Catalysts as Packing for Tubular Reactors.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lali, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 105, JUL 2016 (2016), s. 1-9 ISSN 0255-2701 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : overall mass transfer * foam catalyst * tubular reactor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.234, year: 2016

  6. Phorbol esters inhibit gluconeogenesis in canine renal proximal tubular segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S; Gavin, J R; Hammerman, M R

    1985-08-01

    Gluconeogenesis is a major metabolic function of the renal proximal tubular cell. To characterize the regulation of this process in proximal tubule, glucose production from gluconeogenic precursors was measured in proximal tubular segments prepared from dog kidney. Production of glucose was a linear function of time for up to 120 min of incubation at 37 degrees C under a variety of conditions. Lowering the pH of incubation media from 7.5 to 7.0 increased glucose synthesis. Production of glucose was inhibited by 3-mercaptopicolinate. Incubation of proximal tubular segments with insulin diminished synthesis of glucose. Incubation of segments with tumor-promoting phorbol esters, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, resulted in decreased production of glucose. This effect was not observed following incubation with the inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol. Changes in glucose synthesis could not be attributed to alterations in cell viability or in rates of glucose oxidation induced by experimental maneuvers. Our findings confirm the usefulness of proximal tubular segments for characterization of metabolic processes in this portion of the nephron. The experimental results are consistent with a role for protein kinase C in the control of gluconeogenesis in proximal tubule.

  7. Modelling the cardiac transverse-axial tubular system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pásek, Michal; Šimurda, J.; Christé, G.; Orchard, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 96, - (2008), s. 226-246 ISSN 0079-6107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : cardiac cell * transverse-axial tubular system * quantitative modelling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.388, year: 2008

  8. Subanalytic Bundles and Tubular Neighbourhoods of Zero-Loci

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We introduce the natural and fairly general notion of a subanalytic bundle (with a finite dimensional vector space of sections) on a subanalytic subset of a real analytic manifold , and prove that when is compact, there is a Baire subset of sections in whose zero-loci in have tubular neighbourhoods, ...

  9. STEREOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF TUBULAR LENGTH FROM THIN VERTICAL SECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle V Clausen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study tubular structures are represented by stem villous arteries of the human placenta. The architecture of the vascular tree in the human placenta makes it appropriate to use vertical histological sections. Describing tubules, estimates of total length and diameter are informative. The aim of the study was to derive a new stereological estimator of the total length of circular tubules observed in thin vertical sections. Design: Dual perfusion fixed human placentas. Systematic, uniformly random sampling of vertical sections. Five-μm-sections were stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and the vertical axis was identified in all sections. A test system with cycloid test lines was used. Since tubular surface area is proportional to length and diameter, S ∝ πdL, surface-weightening is equivalent to diameter×lengthweightening. As each diameter (extra weight is known, one may eliminate the diameter-weightening by computing the harmonic mean diameter, which is thus the correct, length-weighted mean tubular diameter, dL = d hS . Surface area is estimated in the ordinary way from vertical sections, and with unbiased and robust estimates of S and dL respectively, total length may be estimated L = S / πdhs Conclusion: A new stereological estimator of total length of a circular tubular structure observed in thin vertical sections is presented.

  10. Coiled sheet metal strip opens into tubular configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    Copper alloy is converted into a spring material that can be rolled into a compact coil which will spontaneously open to form a tube in the long direction of the strip. The copper alloy is passed through a furnace at a prescribed temperature while restraining the strip in the desired tubular configuration.

  11. Cultivation of micro-algae in closed tubular reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudin, C.; Bernard, A.; Chaumont, D.

    1983-11-01

    A description is presented of the three culture pilot utilities in activity under natural light, including glass tubular solar collector (30 mm diameter) in which the microalgae culture circulates. The utility is controled automatically (thermal regulation, gaseous transfers, continuous culture organization). The tests were conducted for the production of polysaccharides (Porphyridium cruentum, chlamydomonas mexicana) or hydrocarbons (Botriococcus braunii).

  12. An Improved Design of a Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfour, Abdul-Fattah A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment which: (1) examines the effect of residence time on conversion in a tubular flow reactor; and (2) compares the experimental conversions with those obtained from plug-flow and laminar-flow reactor models. (JN)

  13. Expansion of Tubular with Elastomers in Multilateral Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Velden

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid expandable tubular technology during the last decade has focused on solving many challenges in well drilling and delivery including zonal isolation, deep drilling, conservation of hole sizes, etc. not only as pioneered solution but also providing cost effective and long lasting solutions. Concurrently, the technology was extended for construction of multilateral in typical wells. The process of horizontal tubular expansion is similar to the vertical expansion of expandable tubular in down-hole environment with the addition of uniformly distributed force due to its weight. The expansion is targeted to increase its diameter such that post expansion characteristics remain within allowable limits. In this study a typical expandable tubular of 57.15 mm outer diameter and 6.35 mm wall thickness was used with two different elastomer seals of 5 and 7 mm thickness placed at equal spacing of 200 mm. The developed stress contours during expansion process clearly showed the high stress areas in the vicinity of expansion region which lies around the mandrel. These high stresses may result in excessive wear of the mandrel. It was also found out that the drawing force increases as the mandrel angle, expansion ratio, and friction coefficient increases. A mandrel angle of 20o  requires minimum expansion force and can be considered as an optimum geometrical parameter to lower the power required for expansion.

  14. A high-performance carbon nanoparticle-decorated graphite felt electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.; Zhao, T.S.; Zhao, G.; An, L.; Zeng, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose a carbon nanoparticle-decorated graphite felt electrode for VRFBs. • The energy efficiency is up to 84.8% at 100 mA cm −2 . • The new electrode allows the peak power density to reach 508 mW cm −2 . - Abstract: Increasing the performance of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs), especially the energy efficiency and power density, is critically important to reduce the system cost to a level for widespread commercialization. Unlike conventional VRFBs with flow-through structure, in this work we create a VRFB featuring a flow-field structure with a carbon nanoparticle-decorated graphite felt electrode for the battery. This novel structure, exhibiting a significantly reduced ohmic loss through reducing electrode thickness, an increased surface area and improved electrocatalytic activity by coating carbon nanoparticles, allows the energy efficiency up to 84.8% at a current density of as high as 100 mA cm −2 and the peak power density to reach a value of 508 mW cm −2 . In addition, it is demonstrated that the battery with this proposed structure exhibits a substantially improved rate capability and capacity retention as opposed to conventional flow-through structured battery with thick graphite felt electrodes.

  15. Influence of Reynolds number on coalescence of droplets with particle in flow through a tube at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Masahiro; Yatagawa, Yuta; Kumagai, Yuki

    2016-07-01

    The coalescence of droplets in flow through a tube at low Reynolds number is potentially useful for different purposes including the handling of fluids, control of chemical reaction, and in drug delivery systems. The phenomenon is also the basis for analyzing the flow of multiphase fluids through porous media such as in enhanced oil recovery and the breaking of emulsions in porous coalescers. With regard to examples of studies on the creeping motion of droplets in a flow through a tube, Hetsroni G. et al.[1] theoretically examined the motion of a spherical droplet or bubble with small d/D, where d is the undeformed diameter of the droplet or bubble, and D is the tube diameter. Higdon J.J.L. and Muldowney G.P. [2] numerically obtained the resistance functions for a spherical particle, droplet, and bubble. Olbricht, W.L. and Kung D.M.[3] and Aul R.W. and Olbricht, W.L.[4] mainly investigated the coalescence time of droplets. Aul R.W. and Olbricht W.L. proposed a semi-theoretical formula of the coalescence time. Based on the formula by them, Muraoka, M. et al.[5] proposed other semi-theoretical formulas of the coalescence time in terms of the resistance experienced by the liquid droplet in creeping flow through a tube. The latter formulas take the eccentricity of the following droplets into consideration. In the present study, a glass tube of inner diameter 2.0mm, outer diameter 7.0mm, and length 1500 mm was used as the test tube. Silicon oil with a kinematic viscosity of 3000cSt was employed as the test fluid of the droplet. A mixture of glycerol and pure water was used as the surrounding fluid of the creeping flow through a tube. A large volumetric syringe pump was used to maintain steady flow through the tube at a designated average velocity. The test tube was immersed in temperature-controlled water contained in a tank to maintain constant temperature of the system. The droplets were injected into the test tube. The behaviors of the droplets were monitored by a

  16. Renal tubular function in patients treated with high-dose cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Abildgaard, U; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    The effect of three cycles of high-dose cisplatin (40 mg/m2 day for 5 days) on renal tubular function was evaluated in 30 patients. A significant impairment of proximal tubular salt and water reabsorption rates was observed, but also distal tubular function seemed to be affected. These changes were...... and water reabsorption during cisplatin administration....

  17. Stem Cell Factor Expression after Renal Ischemia Promotes Tubular Epithelial Survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, Geurt; Stroo, Ingrid; Claessen, Nike; Teske, Gwendoline J. D.; Weening, Jan J.; Leemans, Jaklien C.; Florquin, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    Background: Renal ischemia leads to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells and results in decreased renal function. Tissue repair involves re-epithelialization of the tubular basement membrane. Survival of the tubular epithelium following ischemia is therefore important in the successful regeneration

  18. Numerical Modeling of Interstitial Fluid Flow Coupled with Blood Flow through a Remodeled Solid Tumor Microvascular Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, M; Chen, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of interstitial fluid flow involves processes such as fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. To date, majority of microvascular flow modeling has been done at different levels and scales mostly on simple tumor shapes with their capillaries. However, with our proposed numerical model, more complex and realistic tumor shapes and capillary networks can be studied. Both blood flow through a capillary network, which is induced by a solid tumor, and fluid flow in tumor's surrounding tissue are formulated. First, governing equations of angiogenesis are implemented to specify the different domains for the network and interstitium. Then, governing equations for flow modeling are introduced for different domains. The conservation laws for mass and momentum (including continuity equation, Darcy's law for tissue, and simplified Navier-Stokes equation for blood flow through capillaries) are used for simulating interstitial and intravascular flows and Starling's law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. This is the first study of flow modeling in solid tumors to naturalistically couple intravascular and extravascular flow through a network. This network is generated by sprouting angiogenesis and consisting of one parent vessel connected to the network while taking into account the non-continuous behavior of blood, adaptability of capillary diameter to hemodynamics and metabolic stimuli, non-Newtonian blood flow, and phase separation of blood flow in capillary bifurcation. The incorporation of the outlined components beyond the previous models provides a more realistic prediction of interstitial fluid flow pattern in solid tumors and surrounding tissues. Results predict higher interstitial pressure, almost two times, for realistic model compared to the simplified model.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Interstitial Fluid Flow Coupled with Blood Flow through a Remodeled Solid Tumor Microvascular Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltani

    Full Text Available Modeling of interstitial fluid flow involves processes such as fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. To date, majority of microvascular flow modeling has been done at different levels and scales mostly on simple tumor shapes with their capillaries. However, with our proposed numerical model, more complex and realistic tumor shapes and capillary networks can be studied. Both blood flow through a capillary network, which is induced by a solid tumor, and fluid flow in tumor's surrounding tissue are formulated. First, governing equations of angiogenesis are implemented to specify the different domains for the network and interstitium. Then, governing equations for flow modeling are introduced for different domains. The conservation laws for mass and momentum (including continuity equation, Darcy's law for tissue, and simplified Navier-Stokes equation for blood flow through capillaries are used for simulating interstitial and intravascular flows and Starling's law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. This is the first study of flow modeling in solid tumors to naturalistically couple intravascular and extravascular flow through a network. This network is generated by sprouting angiogenesis and consisting of one parent vessel connected to the network while taking into account the non-continuous behavior of blood, adaptability of capillary diameter to hemodynamics and metabolic stimuli, non-Newtonian blood flow, and phase separation of blood flow in capillary bifurcation. The incorporation of the outlined components beyond the previous models provides a more realistic prediction of interstitial fluid flow pattern in solid tumors and surrounding tissues. Results predict higher interstitial pressure, almost two times, for realistic model compared to the simplified model.

  20. Liquid-metal flow through a thin-walled elbow in a plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.S.

    1986-04-01

    This paper presents analytical solutions for the liquid-metal flow through two straight pipes connected by a smooth elbow with the same inside radius. The pipes and the elbow lie in a plane which is perpendicular to a uniform, applied magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field is assumed to be sufficiently strong that inertial and viscous effects are negligible. This assumption is appropriate for the liquid-lithium flow in the blanket of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor, such as a tokamak. The pipes and the elbow have thin metal walls

  1. New model and field data on estimates of Antarctic Bottom Water flow through the deep Vema Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, D. I.; Fomin, V. V.; Diansky, N. A.; Morozov, E. G.; Neiman, V. G.

    2017-05-01

    We used a numerical model of the ocean circulation with a high spatial resolution to obtain estimates of the kinematic characteristics of Antarctic Bottom Water flow through the abyssal Vema Channel in the southwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean. The results of simulations correspond to the data of direct velocity measurements made at several locations in the channel. The high horizontal and vertical resolution of the model in the bottom layer allowed us to study in detail the hydrodynamics of this flow over its entire length.

  2. Effect of fluid friction on interstitial fluid flow coupled with blood flow through solid tumor microvascular network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefidgar, Mostafa; Soltani, M; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Bazmara, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    A solid tumor is investigated as porous media for fluid flow simulation. Most of the studies use Darcy model for porous media. In Darcy model, the fluid friction is neglected and a few simplified assumptions are implemented. In this study, the effect of these assumptions is studied by considering Brinkman model. A multiscale mathematical method which calculates fluid flow to a solid tumor is used in this study to investigate how neglecting fluid friction affects the solid tumor simulation. The mathematical method involves processes such as blood flow through vessels and solute and fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network and then fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network. Finally, the two models of porous media are used for modeling fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues in three different shapes of tumors. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a solid tumor demonstrate that the simplifications used in Darcy model affect the interstitial velocity and Brinkman model predicts a lower value for interstitial velocity than the values that Darcy model predicts.

  3. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-26

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing (13)C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or (13)C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  4. The development of flow-through bio-catalyst microreactors from silica micro structured fibers for lipid transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Sabiqah Tuan; Villegas, Carla; Mugo, Samuel M; Curtis, Jonathan M

    2011-06-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of a flow-through enzyme immobilized silica microreactor for lipid transformations. A silica micro structured fiber (MSF) consisting of 168 channels of internal diameter 4-5 μm provided a large surface area for the covalent immobilization of Candida antartica lipase. The specific activity of the immobilized lipase was determined by hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate and calculated to be 0.81 U/mg. The catalytic performance of the lipase microreactor was demonstrated by the efficient ethanolysis of canola oil. The parameters affecting the performance of the MSF microreactor, including temperature and reaction flow rate, were investigated. Characterization of the lipid products exiting the microreactor was performed by non-aqueous reversed-phased liquid chromatography (NARP-LC) with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC). Under optimized conditions of 1 μL/min flow rate of 5 mg/mL trioleoylglycerol (TO) in ethanol and 50 °C reaction temperature, 2-monooleoylglycerol was the main product at > 90% reaction yield. The regioselectivity of the Candida antartica lipase immobilized MSF microreactor in the presence of ethanol was found to be comparable to that obtained under conventional conditions. The ability of these reusable flow-through microreactors to regioselectively form monoacylglycerides in high yield from triacylglycerides demonstrate their potential use in small-scale lipid transformations or analytical lipids profiling.

  5. Measurement and modeling of flow through unsaturated heterogeneous rock in the context of geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Green, R.T.; Stothoff, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high-level and transuranic waste is currently being pursued vigorously. Assessing long-term performance of such repositories involves laboratory and field measurements, and numerical modeling. There exist two primary characteristics, associated with assessing repository performance, that define problems of modeling and measurement of non-isothermal flow through geologic media exposed to variable boundary conditions (e.g., climatic changes). These are: (1) the large time scale (tens of thousands of years) and highly variable space scale (from one meter to 10 5 meters); and (2) the hierarchy of heterogeneities and discontinuities characterizing the medium. This paper provides an overview of recent work, conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), related to laboratory experiments, consideration of similitude, and numerical modeling of flow through heterogeneous media under non-homogeneous boundary conditions. As discussed, there exist neither good methods of measuring flows at these scales nor are there adequate similitude analyses that would allow reasonable scaling up of laboratory-scale experiments. Reliable assessment of long-term geologic repositories will require sophisticated geostatistical models capable of addressing variables scales of heterogeneities conditioned with observed results from adequately sized field-scale experiments conducted for sufficiently long durations

  6. X-ray computed-tomography observations of water flow through anisotropic methane hydrate-bearing sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

    2009-06-01

    We used X-ray computed tomography (CT) to image and quantify the effect of a heterogeneous sand grain-size distribution on the formation and dissociation of methane hydrate, as well as the effect on water flow through the heterogeneous hydrate-bearing sand. A 28 cm long sand column was packed with several segments having vertical and horizontal layers with sands of different grain-size distributions. During the hydrate formation, water redistribution occurred. Observations of water flow through the hydrate-bearing sands showed that water was imbibed more readily into the fine sand, and that higher hydrate saturation increased water imbibition in the coarse sand due to increased capillary strength. Hydrate dissociation induced by depressurization resulted in different flow patterns with the different grain sizes and hydrate saturations, but the relationships between dissociation rates and the grain sizes could not be identified using the CT images. The formation, presence, and dissociation of hydrate in the pore space dramatically impact water saturation and flow in the system.

  7. A CFD analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Al-Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    A fuel cell is most interesting new power source because it solves not only the environment problem but also natural resource exhaustion problem. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a tubular-shaped proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.

  8. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  9. Syngas (CO-H2) production using high temperature micro-tubular solid oxide electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiminger, L.; Li, T.; Li, K.; Kelsall, G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CO 2 and/or H 2 O reduced to CO/H 2 in micro-tubular solid oxide electrolyser (MT-SOE). • MT-SOE: CO 2 , H 2 O | Ni-(ZrO 2 ) 0.92 (Y 2 O 3 ) 0.08 (YSZ) | YSZ | YSZ- La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3-δ |O 2. • −0.76 A cm −2 achieved at 1.5V and ca. 820°C for H 2 O electrolysis. • Ni wire cathode current collector gave better performance than (Ag wire+Ag paste). • C 18 O 2 in co-electrolysis could not distinguish cathodic and chemical reduction. - Abstract: CO 2 and/or H 2 O were reduced to CO/H 2 in micro-tubular solid oxide electrolysers with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, Ni-YSZ cermet cathode and strontium(II)-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) oxygen-evolving anode. At 822 °C, the kinetics of CO 2 reduction were slower (ca. −0.49 A cm −2 at 1.8 V) than H 2 O reduction or co-reduction of CO 2 and H 2 O, which were comparable (ca. −0.83 to −0.77 A cm −2 at 1.8 V). Performances were improved (−0.85 and −1.1 A cm −2 for CO 2 and H 2 O electrolysis, respectively) by substituting the silver current collector with nickel and avoiding blockage of entrances to pores on the inner lumen of micro-tubes induced by silver paste applied previously to decrease contact losses. The change in current collector materials increased ohmic potential losses due to substituting the lower resistance Ag with Ni wire, but decreased electrode polarization losses by 80–93%. For co-electrolysis of CO 2 and H 2 O, isotopically-labelled C 18 O 2 was used to try to distinguish between direct cathodic reduction of CO 2 and its Ni-catalysed chemical reaction with hydrogen from reduction of steam. Unfortunately, oxygen was exchanged between C 18 O 2 and H 2 16 O, enriching oxygen-18 in the steam and substituting oxygen-16 in the carbon dioxide, so the anode off-gas isotopic fractions were meaningless. This occurred even in alumina and YSZ tubes without the micro-tubular reactor, i.e. in the absence of Ni catalyst, though not in quartz tubes

  10. Segmental tubular sodium reabsorption in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, H; Eshøj, O; Leyssac, P P

    1993-01-01

    Segmental tubular sodium reabsorption in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes was measured in 36 patients in a cross-sectional study including one group (n = 13) without significant albuminuria (UalbV 1), one group (n = 16) with albuminuria in the range from 30 to 300 mg 24 h-1......, and a group (n = 7) with nephropathy (UalbV > 300 mg 24 h-1). Lithium clearance was used to measure end proximal delivery. From end proximal delivery, 51Cr-EDTA clearance (GFR) and sodium clearance, segmental tubular reabsorption was calculated. For all patients, GFR was directly correlated with end proximal...... delivery (r = 0.62, p 1, the direct correlation between GFR and end proximal delivery was also significant (r = 0.77, p

  11. Luminous effectiveness of tubular light-guides in tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darula, Stanislav; Kittler, Richard; Kocifaj, Miroslav [ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 9, Dubravska Road, 845 03 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-11-15

    Novel tubular light-guides with a transparent hemispherical cupola placed on an unobstructed flat roof collect all sunlight and skylight available at ground level year round. This advantage is heightened in the dry and sunny tropical regions where the sun rises to very high altitudes and often the hours of sunshine last throughout the whole day. Hollow light-guides with very high inner specular reflectances can transport sunbeams downward into the windowless building core very effectively. Due to the tube's diameter and length and multiple reflections, complex illuminance patterns are produced on the underside of the tube, i.e. on top of the glazed ceiling aperture that illuminates the interior space or its working plane. This paper discusses several daylight conditions in tropical interiors illuminated by tubular light-guides. The recently published HOLIGILM calculation program and the user-friendly tool HOLIGILM 4.2 have facilitated the production of this paper. (author)

  12. Tubular separate first wall for ITER-EDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzuto, A.; Riccardi, B.; Salpietro, E.; Malavasi, G.

    1994-01-01

    The tubular solution first wall is the most suitable one to cope with the thermal stresses, the use of double wall reduces the risk of leaks inside the vacuum vessel by avoiding the growth of a crack through both walls: the soft brazing in between wall stops the growth of a crack from one tube to the other. The eddy currents induced in the tubes are low and the Halo current flowing poloidally in the tubes exert a radial pressure which is supported by the blanket box via ad hoc supporting points provided in between first wall and blanket. The tubes can be made of steel to resist a heat flux of up to 1 MW/m 2 . For higher heat loads copper or vanadium can be used. The tubular first wall can be replaced independently from the blanket. The thermo-hydraulic electro-magnetic and dynamic analysis confirm the viability of the solution proposed

  13. Experimental extrusion of tubular multilayer materials for Oxygen Transport Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan

    membrane based on gadolinia doped ceria oxide, (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95−δ), (CGO) was developed on a tubular, porous support structure based on cost-efficient magnesium oxide (MgO). The porous support structure was prepared by thermoplastic extrusion using MgO powder, thermoplastic binders and graphite pore former....... The results revealed sufficiently high bending strength values of 60 MPa for the MgO support at an operation temperature of 850 °C, whereas the strength at room temperature was 77 MPa. The oxygen permeation flux on an asymmetric tubular CGO membrane, consisting of an MgO support (porous), catalytic layer...

  14. Tubular phase of self-avoiding anisotropic crystalline membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowick, M.; Travesset, A.

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the tubular phase of self-avoiding anisotropic crystalline membranes. A careful analysis using renormalization group arguments together with symmetry requirements motivates the simplest form of the large-distance free energy describing fluctuations of tubular configurations. The non-self-avoiding limit of the model is shown to be exactly solvable. For the full self-avoiding model we compute the critical exponents using an var-epsilon expansion about the upper critical embedding dimension for general internal dimension D and embedding dimension d. We then exhibit various methods for reliably extrapolating to the physical point (D=2,d=3). Our most accurate estimates are ν=0.62 for the Flory exponent and ζ=0.80 for the roughness exponent. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  15. Acute tubular necrosis in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eranga S Wijewickrama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a well-recognized complication of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. The predominant mechanism is intravascular hemolysis resulting in massive hemoglobinuria ARF. We report a case of acute tubular necrosis (ATN developed in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis in a 21-year-old man with anemia, who was eventually diagnosed to have PNH. The patient presented with rapidly deteriorating renal functions in the background of iron deficiency anemia, which was attributed to reflux esophagitis. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of intravascular hemolysis. Renal biopsy revealed ATN with deposition of hemosiderin in the proximal tubular epithelial cells. Diagnosis of PNH was confirmed with a positive Ham′s test and flow cytometry. Our case emphasizes the need to consider ATN as a possible cause for ARF in patients suspected to have PNH even in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis.

  16. Kinetics of carbendazim degradation in a horizontal tubular biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Gutiérrez, María Luisa; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo; García-Mena, Jaime; Ahuatzi-Chacón, Deifilia

    2017-04-01

    The fungicide carbendazim is an ecotoxic agent affecting aquatic biota. Due to its suspected hormone-disrupting effects, it is considered a "priority hazard substance" by the Water Framework Directive of the European Commission, and its degradation is of major concern. In this work, a horizontal tubular biofilm reactor (HTBR) operating in plug-flow regime was used to study the kinetics of carbendazim removal by an acclimated microbial consortium. The reactor was operated in steady state continuous culture at eight different carbendazim loading rates. The concentrations of the fungicide were determined at several distances of the HTBR. At the loading rates tested, the highest instantaneous removal rates were observed in the first section of the tubular biofilm reactor. No evidence of inhibition of the catabolic activity of the microbial community was found. Strains of the genera Flectobacillus, Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, and Flavobacterium were identified in the biofilm; the last three degrade carbendazim in axenic culture.

  17. Water desalination using capacitive deionization with microporous carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, S; Weinstein, L; Dash, R; van der Wal, A; Bryjak, M; Gogotsi, Y; Biesheuvel, P M

    2012-03-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a water desalination technology in which salt ions are removed from brackish water by flowing through a spacer channel with porous electrodes on each side. Upon applying a voltage difference between the two electrodes, cations move to and are accumulated in electrostatic double layers inside the negatively charged cathode and the anions are removed by the positively charged anode. One of the key parameters for commercial realization of CDI is the salt adsorption capacity of the electrodes. State-of-the-art electrode materials are based on porous activated carbon particles or carbon aerogels. Here we report the use for CDI of carbide-derived carbon (CDC), a porous material with well-defined and tunable pore sizes in the sub-nanometer range. When comparing electrodes made with CDC with electrodes based on activated carbon, we find a significantly higher salt adsorption capacity in the relevant cell voltage window of 1.2-1.4 V. The measured adsorption capacity for four materials tested negatively correlates with known metrics for pore structure of the carbon powders such as total pore volume and BET-area, but is positively correlated with the volume of pores of sizes <1 nm, suggesting the relevance of these sub-nanometer pores for ion adsorption. The charge efficiency, being the ratio of equilibrium salt adsorption over charge, does not depend much on the type of material, indicating that materials that have been identified for high charge storage capacity can also be highly suitable for CDI. This work shows the potential of materials with well-defined sub-nanometer pore sizes for energy-efficient water desalination. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. Ultra-fine Pt nanoparticles on graphene aerogel as a porous electrode with high stability for microfluidic methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Y. H.; Tsang, Alpha C. H.; Wang, Yifei; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2017-05-01

    Platinum-decorated graphene aerogel as a porous electrode for flow-through direct methanol microfluidic fuel cell is introduced. Ultra-fine platinum nanoparticles with size ranged from diameter 1.5 nm-3 nm are evenly anchored on the graphene nanosheets without agglomeration. The electrode is characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Catalytic activity is confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. The electroactive surface area and catalytic activity of platinum on graphene oxide (Pt/GO) are much larger than commercial platinum on carbon black (Pt/C). A counterflow microfluidic fuel cell is designed for contrasting the cell performance between flow-over type and flow-through type electrodes using Pt/C on carbon paper and Pt/GO, respectively. The Pt/GO electrode shows 358% increment in specific power compared with Pt/C anode. Apart from catalytic activity, the effect of porous electrode conductivity to cell performance is also studied. The conductivity of the porous electrode should be further enhanced to achieve higher cell performance.

  19. Analysis and design of offshore tubular members against ship impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhaolong; Amdahl, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    Ship collisions may be critical to the operational safety of ships and offshore structures, and should be carefully designed against. This paper investigates the response of offshore tubular members subjected to vessel bow and stern impacts with the nonlinear finite element code LS-DYNA. Two 7500 tons displacement supply vessels of modern design are modeled. Force-displacement curves for bow and stern indentation by rigid tubes are compared with design curves in the DNV-GL RP C204. Next, both...

  20. Refractory rickets caused by mild distal renal tubular acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Ho Lee; Joo Hyun Park; Tae-Sun Ha; Heon-Seok Han

    2013-01-01

    Type I (distal) renal tubular acidosis (RTA) is a disorder associated with the failure to excrete hydrogen ions from the distal renal tubule. It is characterized by hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, an abnormal increase in urine pH, reduced urinary excretion of ammonium and bicarbonate ions, and mild deterioration in renal function. Hypercalciuria is common in distal RTA because of bone resorption, which increases as a buffer against metabolic acidosis. This can result in intractable rickets...

  1. The Temperature Response of Compact Tubular Microalgae Protobioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Robert Luis Lara; Mariano, André Bellin; Dilay, Emerson; Souza, Jeferson Avila; Ordonez, Juan Carlos; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical and computational modeling of a photobioreactor for the determination of the transient temperature behavior in compact tubular microalgae photobioreactors is presented. The model combines theoretical concepts of thermodynamics with classical theoretical and empirical correlations of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer. The physical domain is discretized with the Volume Element Model (VEM) through which the physical system (reactor pipes) is divided into lumped volumes, such...

  2. Renal tubular acidosis secondary to jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Ladefoged, Jens; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1985-01-01

    Renal handling of acid and base was studied in patients with persistent metabolic acidosis 3-9 years after jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity. Excretion of acid was studied before and after intravenous infusion of NH4Cl and excretion of bicarbonate after infusion of NaHCO3. Bypass patients...... groups. Fractional loss of bicarbonate in urine was higher in controls than in bypass patients. The renal impairment is classified as distal renal tubular acidosis....

  3. Stator iron loss of tubular permanent-magnet machines \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Amara, Y.; Wang, J.B.; Howe, D.

    2005-01-01

    While methods of determining the iron loss in rotating permanent-magnet (PM) machines have been investigated extensively, the study of iron loss in linear machines is relatively poorly documented. This paper describes a simple analytical method to predict flux density waveforms in discrete regions of the laminated stator of a tubular PM machine, and employs an established iron loss model to determine the iron loss components, on both no load and on load. Analytical predictions are compared wi...

  4. Renal tubular acidosis secondary to jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Ladefoged, Jens; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1985-01-01

    Renal handling of acid and base was studied in patients with persistent metabolic acidosis 3-9 years after jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity. Excretion of acid was studied before and after intravenous infusion of NH4Cl and excretion of bicarbonate after infusion of NaHCO3. Bypass patients sho...... groups. Fractional loss of bicarbonate in urine was higher in controls than in bypass patients. The renal impairment is classified as distal renal tubular acidosis....

  5. CT diagnosis of intramedulear lesions of the tubular bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner-Manslau, C.; Feuerbach, S.; Biehl, T.

    1985-01-01

    Three cases are used to demonstrate that intramedullary masses of the tubular bones can be discovered using computered tomography even when changes in the plain film are lacking or discrete. However, it was not possible to differentiate between osteomyelitis, chondrosarcoma and enchondroma owing to the identical morphology of these three diseases. Consequently, CT does not allow any statement on type and dignity and histological clarification is indispensable. (orig./WU) [de

  6. Layer Control of Tubular Graphene for Corrosion Inhibition of Nickel Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An T; Lai, Wei-Cheng; To, Bao Dong; Nguyen, Duc Dung; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Hofmann, Mario; Kan, Hung-Chih; Hsu, Chia-Chen

    2017-07-12

    Corrosion protection of complex surface is an active area of research due to its importance to commercial applications such as electrochemical fabrication. However, conventional coatings exhibit limited conductivity, thermal stability, and durability and are thus not suitable. Recent work has shown the potential of graphene, a two-dimensional carbon allotrope, for corrosion protection. The studies, however, limited themselves to simple planar geometries that provide limited insight in the applicability to relevant morphologies such as mesh electrodes and roughened surfaces. We here study the corrosion protection ability of tubular graphene (TG) on Ni-wires as a model system for such complex geometries. TG-covered Ni wires of approximately 50 μm diameters were produced by the annealing of cellulose acetate (CA) on Ni. The high quality of the TG coating was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electrical measurements. We show that the graphene layer number could be controlled by adjusting the CA membrane quantity. We found a direct relation between the degree of corrosion inhibition with the variation of graphene layer number. The increase of graphene layers on a Ni surface could enhance its corrosion inhibition in acidic, basic, and marine environments, which shows the potential of our approach for future applications.

  7. Tubular transport and metabolism of cimetidine in chicken kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennick, B.; Ziemniak, J.; Smith, I.; Taylor, M.; Acara, M.

    1984-02-01

    Renal tubular transport and renal metabolism of (/sup 14/C)cimetidine (CIM) were investigated by unilateral infusion into the renal portal circulation in chickens (Sperber technique). (/sup 14/C)CIM was actively transported at a rate 88% that of simultaneously infused p-aminohippuric acid, and its transport was saturable. The following organic cations competitively inhibited the tubular transport of (/sup 14/C)CIM with decreasing potency: CIM, ranitidine, thiamine, procainamide, guanidine and choline. CIM inhibited the transport of (/sup 14/C)thiamine, (/sup 14/C)amiloride and (/sup 14/C)tetraethylammonium. During CIM infusion, two renal metabolites, CIM sulfoxide and hydroxymethylcimetidine, were found in urine. When CIM sulfoxide was infused, its transport efficiency was 32% and not saturable. CIM sulfoxide did ot inhibit the simultaneous renal tubular transport of p-aminohippuric acid or tetraethylammonium. CIM is transported by the organic cation transport system and the kidney metabolizes CIM. Transport of CIM and other cationic drugs could produce a drug interaction to alter drug excretion.

  8. Plastic deformation of tubular crystals by dislocation glide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Daniel A; Nelson, David R

    2016-09-01

    Tubular crystals, two-dimensional lattices wrapped into cylindrical topologies, arise in many contexts, including botany and biofilaments, and in physical systems such as carbon nanotubes. The geometrical principles of botanical phyllotaxis, describing the spiral packings on cylinders commonly found in nature, have found application in all these systems. Several recent studies have examined defects in tubular crystals associated with crystalline packings that must accommodate a fixed tube radius. Here we study the mechanics of tubular crystals with variable tube radius, with dislocations interposed between regions of different phyllotactic packings. Unbinding and separation of dislocation pairs with equal and opposite Burgers vectors allow the growth of one phyllotactic domain at the expense of another. In particular, glide separation of dislocations offers a low-energy mode for plastic deformations of solid tubes in response to external stresses, reconfiguring the lattice step by step. Through theory and simulation, we examine how the tube's radius and helicity affects, and is in turn altered by, the mechanics of dislocation glide. We also discuss how a sufficiently strong bending rigidity can alter or arrest the deformations of tubes with small radii.

  9. A Role for Tubular Necroptosis in Cisplatin-Induced AKI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanfang; Ma, Huabin; Shao, Jing; Wu, Jianfeng; Zhou, Linying; Zhang, Zhirong; Wang, Yuze; Huang, Zhe; Ren, Junming; Liu, Suhuan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-01-01

    Cell death and inflammation in the proximal tubules are the hallmarks of cisplatin-induced AKI, but the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated whether necroptosis, a type of programmed necrosis, has a role in cisplatin-induced AKI. We found that inhibition of any of the core components of the necroptotic pathway—receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), RIP3, or mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)—by gene knockout or a chemical inhibitor diminished cisplatin-induced proximal tubule damage in mice. Similar results were obtained in cultured proximal tubular cells. Furthermore, necroptosis of cultured cells could be induced by cisplatin or by a combination of cytokines (TNF-α, TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis, and IFN-γ) that were upregulated in proximal tubules of cisplatin-treated mice. However, cisplatin induced an increase in RIP1 and RIP3 expression in cultured tubular cells in the absence of cytokine release. Correspondingly, overexpression of RIP1 or RIP3 enhanced cisplatin-induced necroptosis in vitro. Notably, inflammatory cytokine upregulation in cisplatin-treated mice was partially diminished in RIP3- or MLKL-deficient mice, suggesting a positive feedback loop involving these genes and inflammatory cytokines that promotes necroptosis progression. Thus, our data demonstrate that necroptosis is a major mechanism of proximal tubular cell death in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic AKI. PMID:25788533

  10. A Tubular Biomaterial Construct Exhibiting a Negative Poisson's Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Lee

    Full Text Available Developing functional small-diameter vascular grafts is an important objective in tissue engineering research. In this study, we address the problem of compliance mismatch by designing and developing a 3D tubular construct that has a negative Poisson's ratio νxy (NPR. NPR constructs have the unique ability to expand transversely when pulled axially, thereby resulting in a highly-compliant tubular construct. In this work, we used projection stereolithography to 3D-print a planar NPR sheet composed of photosensitive poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate biomaterial. We used a step-lithography exposure and a stitch process to scale up the projection printing process, and used the cut-missing rib unit design to develop a centimeter-scale NPR sheet, which was rolled up to form a tubular construct. The constructs had Poisson's ratios of -0.6 ≤ νxy ≤ -0.1. The NPR construct also supports higher cellular adhesion than does the construct that has positive νxy. Our NPR design offers a significant advance in the development of highly-compliant vascular grafts.

  11. Method and apparatus for forming flues on tubular stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, D.E.; Carson, C.

    1979-12-21

    The present invention is directed to a die mechanism utilized for forming flues on long, relatively narrow tubular stock. These flues are formed by displacing a die from within the tubular stock through perforations previously drilled through the tubular stock at selected locations. The drawing of the die upsets the material to form the flue of the desired configuration. The die is provided with a lubricating system which enables the lubricant to be dispensed uniformly about the entire periphery of the die in contact with the material being upset so as to assure the formation of the flues. Further, the lubricant is dispensed from within the die onto the peripheral surface of the latter at pressures in the range of about 2000 to 10,000 psi so as to assure the adequate lubrication of the die during the drawing operation. By injecting the lubricant at such high pressures, low viscosity liquid, such as water and/or alcohol, may be efficiently used as a lubricant and also provides a mechanism by which the lubricant may be evaporated from the surface of the flues at ambient conditions so as to negate the cleansing operations previously required prior to joining the flues to other conduit mechanisms by fusion welding and the like.

  12. Thermodynamic model and parametric analysis of a tubular SOFC module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanari, Stefano

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been considered in the last years as one of the most promising technologies for very high-efficiency electric energy generation from natural gas, both with simple fuel cell plants and with integrated gas turbine-fuel cell systems. Among the SOFC technologies, tubular SOFC stacks with internal reforming have emerged as one of the most mature technology, with a serious potential for a future commercialization. In this paper, a thermodynamic model of a tubular SOFC stack, with natural gas feeding, internal reforming of hydrocarbons and internal air preheating is proposed. In the first section of the paper, the model is discussed in detail, analyzing its calculating equations and tracing its logical steps; the model is then calibrated on the available data for a recently demonstrated tubular SOFC prototype plant. In the second section of the paper, it is carried out a detailed parametric analysis of the stack working conditions, as a function of the main operating parameters. The discussion of the results of the thermodynamic and parametric analysis yields interesting considerations about partial load SOFC operation and load regulation, and about system design and integration with gas turbine cycles.

  13. Pediatric tubular pulmonary heart valve from decellularized engineered tissue tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Jay M; Syedain, Zeeshan H; Haynie, Bee H T; Tranquillo, Robert T

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric patients account for a small portion of the heart valve replacements performed, but a pediatric pulmonary valve replacement with growth potential remains an unmet clinical need. Herein we report the first tubular heart valve made from two decellularized, engineered tissue tubes attached with absorbable sutures, which can meet this need, in principle. Engineered tissue tubes were fabricated by allowing ovine dermal fibroblasts to replace a sacrificial fibrin gel with an aligned, cell-produced collagenous matrix, which was subsequently decellularized. Previously, these engineered tubes became extensively recellularized following implantation into the sheep femoral artery. Thus, a tubular valve made from these tubes may be amenable to recellularization and, ideally, somatic growth. The suture line pattern generated three equi-spaced leaflets in the inner tube, which collapsed inward when exposed to back pressure, per tubular valve design. Valve testing was performed in a pulse duplicator system equipped with a secondary flow loop to allow for root distention. All tissue-engineered valves exhibited full leaflet opening and closing, minimal regurgitation (Valve performance was maintained under various trans-root pressure gradients and no tissue damage was evident after 2 million cycles of fatigue testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hierarchical MoS2 tubular structures internally wired by carbon nanotubes as a highly stable anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu Ming; Yu, Xin Yao; Li, Zhen; Paik, Ungyu; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2016-07-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a typical two-dimensional material, is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries because it has three times the theoretical capacity of graphite. The main challenges associated with MoS2 anodes are the structural degradation and the low rate capability caused by the low intrinsic electric conductivity and large strain upon cycling. Here, we design hierarchical MoS2 tubular structures internally wired by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to tackle these problems. These porous MoS2 tubular structures are constructed from building blocks of ultrathin nanosheets, which are believed to benefit the electrochemical reactions. Benefiting from the unique structural and compositional characteristics, these CNT-wired MoS2 tubular structures deliver a very high specific capacity of ~1320 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1), exceptional rate capability, and an ultralong cycle life of up to 1000 cycles. This work may inspire new ideas for constructing high-performance electrodes for electrochemical energy storage.

  15. Intragraft Tubular Vimentin and CD44 Expression Correlate With Long-Term Renal Allograft Function and Interstitial Fibrosis and Tubular Atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kers, Jesper; Xu-Dubois, Yi-Chun; Rondeau, Eric; Claessen, Nike; Idu, Mirza M.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Bemelman, Fréderike J.; ten Berge, Ineke J. M.; Florquin, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    Background. Development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) is the main histologic feature involved in renal allograft deterioration. The aim of this study was to validate whether de novo tubular expression of CD44 (transmembrane glycoprotein) and vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker),

  16. Flow-through Bulk Optode for Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiocyanate and Its Application to Water and Saliva Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernández

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A flow-through spectrophotometric bulk optode for the flow-injectiondetermination of thiocyanate is described. As active constituents, the optode incorporatesthe lipophilized pH indicator 5-octadecanoyloxy-2-(4-nitrophenylazophenol andmethyltridodecyl ammonium chloride, dissolved in a plasticized poly(vinylchloridemembrane entrapped in a cellulose support. The optode is applied, in conjunction with theflow injection technique, to the determination of thiocyanate at pH 7.5 (TRIS/H2SO4. Thesensor is readily regenerated with a 10-2 M NaOH carrier solution. The analyticalcharacteristics of this optode with respect to thiocyanate response time, dynamicmeasurement range, reproducibility and selectivity are discussed. The proposed FI methodis applied to the determination of thiocyanate in waters from different sources and in humansaliva samples in order to distinguish between smokers and non-smokers.

  17. Peristaltic biofluids flow through vertical porous human vessels using third-grade non-Newtonian fluids model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Pooria

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the heat and flow characteristic of third-grade non-Newtonian biofluids flow through a vertical porous human vessel due to peristaltic wall motion are studied. The third-grade model can describe shear thinning (or shear thickening) and normal stress differences, which is acceptable for biofluids modeling. In order to solve the governing equations, the assumption of long-wavelength approximation is utilized. This hypothesis emphasizes that the wavelength of the peristaltic wall motion is large in comparison with the radius of the human vessel, which is widely acceptable in biological investigations. The analytical perturbation method is employed to solve the governing equations. Consequently, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, shear stress, temperature field, and biofluid flow rate are obtained. In addition, the effects of the governing parameters such as the third-grade non-Newtonian parameter, Grashof Number, Eckert number, and porosity, on the results are examined.

  18. Computation of the temperatures of a fluid flowing through a pipe from temperature measurements on the pipe's outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for computing the temperatures of a fluid flowing through a pipe on the basis of temperatures recorded at the pipe's outer surface is presented. The heat conduction in the pipe wall is described by one-dimensional heat conduction elements. Heat transfer between fluid, pipe and surrounding is allowed for. The equation system resulting from the standard finite element discretization is reformulated to enable the computation of temperature events preceding the recorded temperature in time. It is shown that the method can be used to identify the actual fluid temperature from temperature data obtained only at the outer surface of the pipe. The temperatures in the pipe wall are computed with good accuracy even in the case of a severe thermal shock. (orig.) [de

  19. Determination of dissolution rates of spent fuel in carbonate solutions under different redox conditions with a flow-through experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roellin, S.; Spahiu, K.; Eklund, U.-B.

    2001-01-01

    Dissolution rates of spent UO 2 fuel have been investigated using flow-through experiments under oxidizing, anoxic and reducing conditions. For oxidizing conditions, approximately congruent dissolution rates were obtained in the pH range 3-9.3 for U, Np, Ba, Tc, Cs, Sr and Rb. For these elements, steady-state conditions were obtained in the flow rate range 0.02-0.3 ml min -1 . The dissolution rates were about 3 mg d -1 m -2 for pH>6. For pH 2 (g) saturated solutions dropped by up to four orders of magnitude as compared to oxidizing conditions. Because of the very low concentrations, only U, Pu, Am, Mo, Tc and Cs could be measured. For anoxic conditions, both the redox potential and dissolution rates increased approaching the same values as under oxidizing conditions

  20. Flow-through microdispenser for interfacing micro-HPLC to Raman and mid-IR spectroscopic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Izabella; Baena, Josefa R; Frank, Johannes; Laurell, Thomas; Nilsson, Johan; Trojanowicz, Marek; Lendl, Bernhard

    2005-07-08

    A flow-through microdispenser has been coupled to a micro HPLC separation system and used as a solvent elimination interface for Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic detection of the separated compounds. Using the microdispenser picoliter sized droplets can be generated and deposited on an appropriate target placed on a computerized x, y-stage. Evaporation of volatile solvent and buffer is rapid and allows analysis of the obtained dry deposits by various techniques. Due to the destruction free character of Raman and FTIR spectroscopy they can be applied sequentially to interrogate the same deposit. In the reported application five phenolic acids typically present in wine have been separated on a C-18 column technique using a mixture of water, methanol and acetic acid as mobile phase. For spectrum acquisition infrared and Raman microscopes have been used. The spectra recorded from the dried deposits of the separated compounds agreed well with the reference spectra of corresponding components.

  1. Ice slurry flow and heat transfer during flow through tubes of rectangular and slit cross-sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niezgoda-Żelasko Beata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research of pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients of ice slurry during its flow through tubes of rectangular and slit cross-sections. Moreover, the work discusses the influence of solid particles, type of motion and cross-section on the changes in the pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. The analysis presented in the paper allows for identification of the criterial relations used to calculate the Fanning factor and the Nusselt number for laminar and turbulent flow, taking into account elements such as phase change, which accompanies the heat transfer process. Ice slurry flow is treated as a generalized flow of a non-Newtonian fluid.

  2. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow through a straight square duct using a near wall linear k – ε model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rechia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to predict numerically the turbulent flow through a straight square duct using Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes equations (RANS by the widely used k – ε and a near wall turbulence k – ε − fμ models. To handle wall proximity and no-equilibrium effects, the first model is modified by incorporating damping functions fμ via the eddy viscosity relation. The predicted results for the streamwise, spanwise velocities and the Reynolds stress components are compared to those given by the k – ε model and by the direct numerical simulation (DNS data of Gavrilakis (J. Fluid Mech., 1992. In light of these results, the proposed k – ε − fμ model is found to be generally satisfactory for predicting the considered flow.

  3. On-line study of growth kinetics of single hyphae of Aspergillus oryzae in a flow-through cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1999-01-01

    Using image analysis the growth kinetics of the single hyphae of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae has been determined on-line in a flow-through cell at different glucose concentrations in the range from 26 mg L-1 to 20 g L-1. The tip extension rate of the individual hyphae can be described...... with saturation type kinetics with respect to the length of the hyphae. The maximum tip extension rate is constant for all hyphae measured at the same glucose concentration, whereas the saturation constant for the hyphae varies significantly between the hyphae even within the same hyphal element. When apical...... branching occurs, it is observed that the tip extension rate decreases temporarily. The number of branches formed on a hypha is proportional to the length of the hypha that exceeds a certain minimum length required to support the growth of a new branch. The observed kinetics has been used to simulate...

  4. A comparative CFD study on the hemodynamics of flow through an idealized symmetric and asymmetric stenosed arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashantha, B.; Anish, S.

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to numerically evaluate the hemodynamic factors which affect the formation of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture in the human artery. An increase of atherosclerosis in the artery causes geometry changes, which results in hemodynamic changes such as flow separation, reattachment and adhesion of new cells (chemotactic) in the artery. Hence, geometry plays an important role in the determining the nature of hemodynamic patterns. Influence of stenosis in the non-bifurcating artery, under pulsatile flow condition has been studied on an idealized geometry. Analysis of flow through symmetric and asymmetric stenosis in the artery revealed the significance of oscillating shear index (OSI), flow separation, low wall shear stress (WSS) zones and secondary flow patterns on plaque formation. The observed characteristic of flow in the post-stenotic region highlight the importance of plaque eccentricity on the formation of secondary stenosis on the arterial wall.

  5. The effect of food on the respiration rates of Daphnia magna using a flow-through system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Schmoker

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiration rates and gut fluorescence of the cladoceran Daphnia magna were studied using a flow-through system. This open system has the advantage of introducing food or producing a starvation effect during the course of the experiment. Severe variations in respiratory rates were observed in relation to the presence or absence of food, indicating short-term variability. Organisms kept starved or at low food for a long period (15-20 h responded to a sudden increase in food by increasing their respiration rates three- to four-fold in parallel with their gut content. A significant relationship between gut fluorescence and respiration rates was observed, suggesting that feeding and the related swimming activity were responsible for the observed metabolic variability.

  6. On numerical model of one-dimensional time-dependent gas flows through bed of encapsulated phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsenko, N. A.; Fetsov, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    Mathematical model and numerical method are proposed for investigating the one-dimensional time-dependent gas flows through a packed bed of encapsulated Phase Change Material (PCM). The model is based on the assumption of interacting interpenetrating continua and includes equations of state, continuity, momentum conservation and energy for PCM and gas. The advantage of the method is that it does not require predicting the location of phase transition zone and can define it automatically as in a usual shock-capturing method. One of the applications of the developed numerical model is the simulation of novel Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage system (A-CAES) with Thermal Energy Storage subsystem (TES) based on using the encapsulated PCM in packed bed. Preliminary test calculations give hope that the method can be effectively applied in the future for modelling the charge and discharge processes in such TES with PCM.

  7. Rapid and mobile determination of alcoholic strength in wine, beer and spirits using a flow-through infrared sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansay Bob

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ever since Gay-Lussac's time, the alcoholic strength by volume (% vol has been determined by using densimetric measurements. The typical reference procedure involves distillation followed by pycnometry, which is comparably labour-intensive and therefore expensive. At present, infrared (IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate regression is widely applied as a screening procedure, which allows one to determine alcoholic strength in less than 2 min without any sample preparation. The disadvantage is the relatively large investment for Fourier transform (FT IR or near-IR instruments, and the need for matrix-dependent calibration. In this study, we apply a much simpler device consisting of a patented multiple-beam infrared sensor in combination with a flow-through cell for automated alcohol analysis, which is available in a portable version that allows for on-site measurements. Results During method validation, the precision of the infrared sensor was found to be equal to or better than densimetric or FTIR methods. For example, the average repeatability, as determined in 6 different wine samples, was 0.05% vol and the relative standard deviation was below 0.2%. Accuracy was ensured by analyzing 260 different alcoholic beverages in comparison to densimetric or FTIR results. The correlation was linear over the entire range from alcohol-free beers up to high-proof spirits, and the results were in substantial agreement (R = 0.99981, p Conclusions The flow-through infrared device is much easier to handle than typical reference procedures, while time-consuming sample preparation steps such as distillation are not necessary. Therefore, the alcoholic strength can be economically and quickly controlled (requiring less than 60 s per sample. The device also gives the opportunity for mobile on-site control in the context of labelling control of wine, beer and spirits, the process monitoring of fermentations, or the evaluation of

  8. Rapid and mobile determination of alcoholic strength in wine, beer and spirits using a flow-through infrared sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Godelmann, Rolf; Steiner, Markus; Ansay, Bob; Weigel, Jürgen; Krieg, Gunther

    2010-03-23

    Ever since Gay-Lussac's time, the alcoholic strength by volume (% vol) has been determined by using densimetric measurements. The typical reference procedure involves distillation followed by pycnometry, which is comparably labour-intensive and therefore expensive. At present, infrared (IR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate regression is widely applied as a screening procedure, which allows one to determine alcoholic strength in less than 2 min without any sample preparation. The disadvantage is the relatively large investment for Fourier transform (FT) IR or near-IR instruments, and the need for matrix-dependent calibration. In this study, we apply a much simpler device consisting of a patented multiple-beam infrared sensor in combination with a flow-through cell for automated alcohol analysis, which is available in a portable version that allows for on-site measurements. During method validation, the precision of the infrared sensor was found to be equal to or better than densimetric or FTIR methods. For example, the average repeatability, as determined in 6 different wine samples, was 0.05% vol and the relative standard deviation was below 0.2%. Accuracy was ensured by analyzing 260 different alcoholic beverages in comparison to densimetric or FTIR results. The correlation was linear over the entire range from alcohol-free beers up to high-proof spirits, and the results were in substantial agreement (R = 0.99981, p unrecorded alcohol (i.e. non-commercial or illicit products). The flow-through infrared device is much easier to handle than typical reference procedures, while time-consuming sample preparation steps such as distillation are not necessary. Therefore, the alcoholic strength can be economically and quickly controlled (requiring less than 60 s per sample). The device also gives the opportunity for mobile on-site control in the context of labelling control of wine, beer and spirits, the process monitoring of fermentations, or the evaluation

  9. Electrochemical characteristics of vanadium redox reactions on porous carbon electrodes for microfluidic fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Hong, Jun Ki; Kjeang, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cells are membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cells comprising a microfluidic channel network with two porous carbon electrodes. The anolyte and catholyte for fuel cell operation are V(II) and V(V) in sulfuric acid based aqueous solution. In the present work, the electrochemical characteristics of the vanadium redox reactions are investigated on commonly used porous carbon paper electrodes and compared to a standard solid graphite electrode as baseline. Half-cell electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is applied to measure the overall ohmic resistance and resistivity of the electrodes. Kinetic parameters for both V(II) and V(V) discharging reactions are extracted from Tafel plots and compared for the different electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry techniques reveal that the redox reactions are irreversible and that the magnitudes of peak current density vary significantly for each electrode. The obtained kinetic parameters for the carbon paper are implemented into a numerical simulation and the results show a good agreement with measured polarization curves from operation of a microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cell employing the same material as flow-through porous electrodes. Recommendations for microfluidic fuel cell design and operation are provided based on the measured trends.

  10. Mathematical modeling of methyl ester concentration distribution in a continuous membrane tubular reactor and comparison with conventional tubular reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaghat, M. R.; Jokar, S. M.; Modarres, E.

    2017-10-01

    The reduction of fossil fuel resources and environmental issues made researchers find alternative fuels include biodiesels. One of the most widely used methods for production of biodiesel on a commercial scale is transesterification method. In this work, the biodiesel production by a transesterification method was modeled. Sodium hydroxide was considered as a catalyst to produce biodiesel from canola oil and methanol in a continuous tubular ceramic membranes reactor. As the Biodiesel production reaction from triglycerides is an equilibrium reaction, the reaction rate constants depend on temperature and related linearly to catalyst concentration. By using the mass balance for a membrane tubular reactor and considering the variation of raw materials and products concentration with time, the set of governing equations were solved by numerical methods. The results clearly show the superiority of membrane reactor than conventional tubular reactors. Afterward, the influences of molar ratio of alcohol to oil, weight percentage of the catalyst, and residence time on the performance of biodiesel production reactor were investigated.

  11. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  12. Bioinspired coupled helical coils for soft tissue engineering of tubular structures - Improved mechanical behavior of tubular collagen type I templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, H P; Bohlin, J; Lomme, R M L M; Mihaila, S M; Hilborn, J; Feitz, W F J; Oosterwijk, E

    2017-09-01

    The design of constructs for tubular tissue engineering is challenging. Most biomaterials need to be reinforced with supporting structures such as knittings, meshes or electrospun material to comply with the mechanical demands of native tissues. In this study, coupled helical coils (CHCs) were manufactured to mimic collagen fiber orientation as found in nature. Monofilaments of different commercially available biodegradable polymers were wound and subsequently fused, resulting in right-handed and left-handed polymer helices fused together in joints where the filaments cross. CHCs of different polymer composition were tested to determine the tensile strength, strain recovery, hysteresis, compressive strength and degradation of CHCs of different composition. Subsequently, seamless and stable hybrid constructs consisting of PDSII® USP 2-0 CHCs embedded in porous collagen type I were produced. Compared to collagen alone, this hybrid showed superior strain recovery (93.5±0.9% vs 71.1±12.6% in longitudinal direction; 87.1±6.6% vs 57.2±4.6% in circumferential direction) and hysteresis (18.9±2.7% vs 51.1±12.0% in longitudinal direction; 11.5±4.6% vs 46.3±6.3% in circumferential direction). Furthermore, this hybrid construct showed an improved Young's modulus in both longitudinal (0.5±0.1MPavs 0.2±0.1MPa; 2.5-fold) and circumferential (1.65±0.07MPavs (2.9±0.3)×10 -2 MPa; 57-fold) direction, respectively, compared to templates created from collagen alone. Moreover, hybrid template characteristics could be modified by changing the CHC composition and CHCs were produced showing a mechanical behavior similar to the native ureter. CHC-enforced templates, which are easily tunable to meet different demands may be promising for tubular tissue engineering. Most tubular constructs lack sufficient strength and tunability to comply with the mechanical demands of native tissues. Therefore, we embedded coupled helical coils (CHCs) produced from biodegradable polymers - to

  13. Ion-selective electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  14. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  15. Aluminum reference electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  16. Hierarchical top-porous/bottom-tubular TiO 2 nanostructures decorated with Pd nanoparticles for efficient photoelectrocatalytic decomposition of synergistic pollutants

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2012-02-22

    In this paper, top-porous and bottom-tubular TiO 2 nanotubes (TiO 2 NTs) loaded with palladium nanoparticles (Pd/TiO 2 NTs) were fabricated as an electrode for an enhanced photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity toward organic dye decomposition. TiO 2 NTs with a unique hierarchical top-porous and bottom-tubular structure were prepared by a facile two-step anodization method and Pd nanoparticles were decorated onto the TiO 2 NTs via a photoreduction process. The PEC activity of Pd/TiO 2 NTs was investigated by decomposition of methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB). Because of formation Schottky junctions between TiO 2 and Pd, which significantly promoted the electron transfer and reduced the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes, the Pd/TiO 2 NT electrode showed significantly higher PEC activities than TiO 2 NTs. Interestingly, an obvious synergy between two dyes was observed and corresponding mechanism based on facilitated transfer of electrons and holes as a result of a suitable energy level alignment was suggested. The findings of this work provide a fundamental insight not only into the fabrication but also utility of Schottky junctions for enhanced environmental remediation processes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Electrical properties of textile electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattfalt, Linda; Chedid, Michel; Hult, Peter; Lindén, Maria; Ask, Per

    2007-01-01

    In this study we aim to explain the behavior of textile electrodes due to their construction techniques. Three textile electrodes were tested for electrode impedance and polarization potentials. The multifilament yarn (A) is favorable for its low thread resistance. Although, when knitted into electrodes, the staple fiber yarn (B) showed a comparable and satisfiable electrode impedance. The multifilament yarn had however a lower polarization potential drift then the other specimens. The monofilament yarn (C) had high electrode impedance and varying mean polarization potentials due to its conductive material and small contact area with the skin.

  18. Choked flow through cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feburie, V.; Giot, M.; Granger, S.; Seynhaeve, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The leaks through steam-generator cracks are the subject of a research carried out in cooperation between EDF and UCL. A software called ECREVISSE to predict the mass flow rate has been developed and has been successfully validated. The purpose of the paper is to present the mathematical model used in ECREVISSE as well as some comparison between the results and the presently available data. The model takes into account the persistence of some metastable liquid in the crack and the special flow pattern which appears in such particular geometry. Although the model involves the use of several correlations (friction, heat transfer), no adjustment of parameters against the data has been needed, neither in the single-phase part of the flow, or in the two-phase part. (authors). 8 figs., 1 tab., 20 refs

  19. A young woman with recurrent kidney stones: questions on hypokalaemic tubular acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Vanmassenhove

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to the problem of a young woman presenting with recurrent kidney stones. In the clinical work-up, a hypokalaemic normal anion gap metabolic acidosis was found. The diagnostic tests to solve this common clinical problem and some therapeutic recommendations are discussed. Question on hypokalaemic tubular acidosis: 1. What is the significance of the plasma anion gap (PAG? 2. How does one appreciate the respiratory component of the acid base status? 3. How does one perform tests for tubular acidification disturbances? 4. What is the pathogenesis of distal tubular acidification ­disturbances? 5. What is the explanation of the hypokalaemia in distal ­tubular acidosis? 6. What is the pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis in distal tubular acidosis? 7. How does one treat a patient with distal tubular acidosis and recurrent nephrolithiasis?

  20. Method and tool for contracting tubular members by electro-hydraulic forming before hydroforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich [Beverly Hills, MI

    2011-03-15

    A tubular preform is contracted in an electro-hydraulic forming operation. The tubular preform is wrapped with one or more coils of wire and placed in a chamber of an electro-hydraulic forming tool. The electro-hydraulic forming tool is discharged to form a compressed area on a portion of the tube. The tube is then placed in a hydroforming tool that expands the tubular preform to form a part.

  1. Competitive Inhibition of Renal Tubular Secretion of Gemifloxacin by Probenecid▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landersdorfer, Cornelia B.; Kirkpatrick, Carl M. J.; Kinzig, Martina; Bulitta, Jürgen B.; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Drusano, George L.; Sörgel, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Probenecid interacts with transport processes of drugs at several sites in the body. For most quinolones, renal clearance is reduced by concomitant administration of probenecid. The interaction between gemifloxacin and probenecid has not yet been studied. We studied the extent, time course, site(s), and mechanism of this interaction. Seventeen healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, two-way crossover study. Subjects received 320 mg gemifloxacin as an oral tablet without and with 4.5 g probenecid divided in eight oral doses. Drug concentrations in plasma and urine were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. WinNonlin was used for noncompartmental analysis, compartmental modeling, and statistics, and NONMEM was used for visual predictive checks. Concomitant administration of probenecid increased plasma gemifloxacin concentrations and amounts excreted in urine compared to baseline amounts. Data are average estimates (percent coefficients of variation). Modeling showed a competitive inhibition of the renal tubular secretion of gemifloxacin by probenecid as the most likely mechanism of the interaction. The estimated Km and Vmax for the saturable part of renal elimination were 9.16 mg/liter (20%) and 113 mg/h (21%), respectively. Based on the molar ratio, the affinity for the renal transporter was 10-fold higher for gemifloxacin than for probenecid. Since probenecid reached an ∼200-times-higher area under the molar concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h than gemifloxacin, probenecid inhibited the active tubular secretion of gemifloxacin. Probenecid also reduced the nonrenal clearance of gemifloxacin from 25.2 (26%) to 21.0 (23%) liters/h. Probenecid inhibited the renal tubular secretion of gemifloxacin, most likely by a competitive mechanism, and slightly decreased nonrenal clearance of gemifloxacin. PMID:19564368

  2. Competitive inhibition of renal tubular secretion of gemifloxacin by probenecid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landersdorfer, Cornelia B; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; Kinzig, Martina; Bulitta, Jürgen B; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Drusano, George L; Sörgel, Fritz

    2009-09-01

    Probenecid interacts with transport processes of drugs at several sites in the body. For most quinolones, renal clearance is reduced by concomitant administration of probenecid. The interaction between gemifloxacin and probenecid has not yet been studied. We studied the extent, time course, site(s), and mechanism of this interaction. Seventeen healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, two-way crossover study. Subjects received 320 mg gemifloxacin as an oral tablet without and with 4.5 g probenecid divided in eight oral doses. Drug concentrations in plasma and urine were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. WinNonlin was used for noncompartmental analysis, compartmental modeling, and statistics, and NONMEM was used for visual predictive checks. Concomitant administration of probenecid increased plasma gemifloxacin concentrations and amounts excreted in urine compared to baseline amounts. Data are average estimates (percent coefficients of variation). Modeling showed a competitive inhibition of the renal tubular secretion of gemifloxacin by probenecid as the most likely mechanism of the interaction. The estimated K(m) and Vmax for the saturable part of renal elimination were 9.16 mg/liter (20%) and 113 mg/h (21%), respectively. Based on the molar ratio, the affinity for the renal transporter was 10-fold higher for gemifloxacin than for probenecid. Since probenecid reached an approximately 200-times-higher area under the molar concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h than gemifloxacin, probenecid inhibited the active tubular secretion of gemifloxacin. Probenecid also reduced the nonrenal clearance of gemifloxacin from 25.2 (26%) to 21.0 (23%) liters/h. Probenecid inhibited the renal tubular secretion of gemifloxacin, most likely by a competitive mechanism, and slightly decreased nonrenal clearance of gemifloxacin.

  3. The role of duplex stainless steels for downhole tubulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, R.

    1993-01-01

    In sour conditions there is an increasing trend to turn to corrosion resistant alloys for downhole tubulars. The most commonly used CRA tubular is 13Cr, and there are thousands of feet in service. However, there are limits to the use of 13Cr, ie., the risk of sulphide stress corrosion cracking at high H 2 S levels, and the possibility of pitting or high corrosion rates in waters with high chloride contents. Where the service conditions are felt to be too severe for 13Cr alloys it has been traditional to switch to nickel base alloys such as alloys 825 and C-276 (UNS N08825 and N10276). The alloys are much more expensive than 13Cr, and in recent years the duplex stainless steels have been selected as alloys with superior corrosion and SSCC resistance compared with 13Cr, and having lower cost than nickel alloys. Originally the 22Cr duplex alloy (UNS 31803) was used, but more recently the 25Cr super duplex alloys (UNS S32760 and S32750) have become more available. The present paper reviews the data available for 13Cr and the limits of applicability. Data is also presented for laboratory tests for both the 22Cr and 25Cr super duplex alloys. There is extensive service experience with both 22Cr and 25Cr super duplex in the North Sea, covering both downhole tubulars, manifold and post wellhead equipment. Data is presented showing some of the sour condition being experienced in the North Sea by super duplex alloys. These results show that there is a substantial gap between the limits of use for 13Cr and the 25Cr super duplex stainless steel alloys. This means that in many sour environments super duplex stainless steel provides a cost effective alternative to nickel-base alloys

  4. Tubular overexpression of gremlin induces renal damage susceptibility in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Droguett

    Full Text Available A growing number of patients are recognized worldwide to have chronic kidney disease. Glomerular and interstitial fibrosis are hallmarks of renal progression. However, fibrosis of the kidney remains an unresolved challenge, and its molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Gremlin is an embryogenic gene that has been shown to play a key role in nephrogenesis, and its expression is generally low in the normal adult kidney. However, gremlin expression is elevated in many human renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy, pauci-immune glomerulonephritis and chronic allograft nephropathy. Several studies have proposed that gremlin may be involved in renal damage by acting as a downstream mediator of TGF-β. To examine the in vivo role of gremlin in kidney pathophysiology, we generated seven viable transgenic mouse lines expressing human gremlin (GREM1 specifically in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells under the control of an androgen-regulated promoter. These lines demonstrated 1.2- to 200-fold increased GREM1 expression. GREM1 transgenic mice presented a normal phenotype and were without proteinuria and renal function involvement. In response to the acute renal damage cause by folic acid nephrotoxicity, tubule-specific GREM1 transgenic mice developed increased proteinuria after 7 and 14 days compared with wild-type treated mice. At 14 days tubular lesions, such as dilatation, epithelium flattening and hyaline casts, with interstitial cell infiltration and mild fibrosis were significantly more prominent in transgenic mice than wild-type mice. Tubular GREM1 overexpression was correlated with the renal upregulation of profibrotic factors, such as TGF-β and αSMA, and with increased numbers of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes compared to wild-type mice. Taken together, our results suggest that GREM1-overexpressing mice have an increased susceptibility to renal damage, supporting the involvement of gremlin in renal damage

  5. High temperature helical tubular receiver for concentrating solar power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Nazmul

    In the field of conventional cleaner power generation technology, concentrating solar power systems have introduced remarkable opportunity. In a solar power tower, solar energy concentrated by the heliostats at a single point produces very high temperature. Falling solid particles or heat transfer fluid passing through that high temperature region absorbs heat to generate electricity. Increasing the residence time will result in more heat gain and increase efficiency. A novel design of solar receiver for both fluid and solid particle is approached in this paper which can increase residence time resulting in higher temperature gain in one cycle compared to conventional receivers. The helical tubular solar receiver placed at the focused sunlight region meets the higher outlet temperature and efficiency. A vertical tubular receiver is modeled and analyzed for single phase flow with molten salt as heat transfer fluid and alloy625 as heat transfer material. The result is compared to a journal paper of similar numerical and experimental setup for validating our modeling. New types of helical tubular solar receivers are modeled and analyzed with heat transfer fluid turbulent flow in single phase, and granular particle and air plug flow in multiphase to observe the temperature rise in one cyclic operation. The Discrete Ordinate radiation model is used for numerical analysis with simulation software Ansys Fluent 15.0. The Eulerian granular multiphase model is used for multiphase flow. Applying the same modeling parameters and boundary conditions, the results of vertical and helical receivers are compared. With a helical receiver, higher temperature gain of heat transfer fluid is achieved in one cycle for both single phase and multiphase flow compared to the vertical receiver. Performance is also observed by varying dimension of helical receiver.

  6. Dry EEG Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lopez-Gordo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications.

  7. Electrochemistry on nanopillared electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Lotwala

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The addition of nanopillars to electrodes increases their electrochemical capabilities through an increase in electroactive surface area. The nanopillars can be applied on either cathodes or anodes to engage in reduction-oxidation reactions. This minireview summaries some work on cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, impedance change on nanopillared surface and compared their electrochemistry behavior on planar surfaces.

  8. Stem cell factor expression after renal ischemia promotes tubular epithelial survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geurt Stokman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia leads to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells and results in decreased renal function. Tissue repair involves re-epithelialization of the tubular basement membrane. Survival of the tubular epithelium following ischemia is therefore important in the successful regeneration of renal tissue. The cytokine stem cell factor (SCF has been shown to protect the tubular epithelium against apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a mouse model for renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, we studied how expression of c-KIT on tubular epithelium and its ligand SCF protect cells against apoptosis. Administration of SCF specific antisense oligonucleotides significantly decreased specific staining of SCF following ischemia. Reduced SCF expression resulted in impaired renal function, increased tubular damage and increased tubular epithelial apoptosis, independent of inflammation. In an in vitro hypoxia model, stimulation of tubular epithelial cells with SCF activated survival signaling and decreased apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate an important role for c-KIT and SCF in mediating tubular epithelial cell survival via an autocrine pathway.

  9. Distal renal tubular acidosis in a child with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Shanbag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular acidosis (RTA is not uncommon in HIV-infected children with ad-vanced disease, and has been described mainly due to nephrotoxic anti-retroviral therapy and in association with prophylaxis or treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with co-trimoxazole. We describe an 8-year-old boy, newly diagnosed to have HIV infection, who presented with distal RTA. There were no features of chronic RTA in the form of rickets or nephrocalcinosis, making an inherited form unlikely.

  10. Refractory rickets caused by mild distal renal tubular acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ho Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Type I (distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA is a disorder associated with the failure to excrete hydrogen ions from the distal renal tubule. It is characterized by hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, an abnormal increase in urine pH, reduced urinary excretion of ammonium and bicarbonate ions, and mild deterioration in renal function. Hypercalciuria is common in distal RTA because of bone resorption, which increases as a buffer against metabolic acidosis. This can result in intractable rickets. We describe a case of distal RTA with nephrocalcinosis during follow-up of rickets in a patient who presented with clinical manifestations of short stature, failure to thrive, recurrent vomiting, dehydration, and irritability.

  11. Concomitant hypercalcemia and hyperammonemia associated with distal renal tubular acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Arun; Karmakar, Swati A; Kannikeswaran, Nirupama

    2012-03-01

    We describe an infant with concomitant hypercalcemia and hyperammonemia associated with nonanion gap metabolic acidosis secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). The levels of both serum calcium and ammonia rapidly normalized with the correction of dehydration and metabolic acidosis. To the best of our knowledge, there has been only one previous case report of concomitant hypercalcemia and hyperammonemia associated with dRTA that has been reported in the literature. We describe the causes and emergent management of hypercalcemia and review the possible mechanisms of this rare association with dRTA.

  12. Theoretical flow investigations of an all glass evacuated tubular collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Heat transfer and flow structures inside all glass evacuated tubular collectors for different operating conditions are investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics. The investigations are based on a collector design with horizontal tubes connected to a vertical 14 manifold channel. Three...... the highest efficiency, the optimal inlet flow rate was around 0.4-1 kg/min, the flow structures in the glass tubes were relatively uninfluenced by the inlet flow rate, Generally, the results showed only small variations in the efficiencies. This indicates that the collector design is well working for most...

  13. Tubular Unimolecular Transmembrane Channels: Construction Strategy and Transport Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wen; Xin, Pengyang; Li, Zhan-Ting; Hou, Jun-Li

    2015-06-16

    Lipid bilayer membranes separate living cells from their environment. Membrane proteins are responsible for the processing of ion and molecular inputs and exports, sensing stimuli and signals across the bilayers, which may operate in a channel or carrier mechanism. Inspired by these wide-ranging functions of membrane proteins, chemists have made great efforts in constructing synthetic mimics in order to understand the transport mechanisms, create materials for separation, and develop therapeutic agents. Since the report of an alkylated cyclodextrin for transporting Cu(2+) and Co(2+) by Tabushi and co-workers in 1982, chemists have constructed a variety of artificial transmembrane channels by making use of either the multimolecular self-assembly or unimolecular strategy. In the context of the design of unimolecular channels, important advances have been made, including, among others, the tethering of natural gramicidin A or alamethicin and the modification of various macrocycles such as crown ethers, cyclodextrins, calixarenes, and cucurbiturils. Many of these unimolecular channels exhibit high transport ability for metal ions, particularly K(+) and Na(+). Concerning the development of artificial channels based on macrocyclic frameworks, one straightforward and efficient approach is to introduce discrete chains to reinforce their capability to insert into bilayers. Currently, this approach has found the widest applications in the systems of crown ethers and calixarenes. We envisioned that for macrocycle-based unimolecular channels, control of the arrangement of the appended chains in the upward and/or downward direction would favor the insertion of the molecular systems into bilayers, while the introduction of additional interactions among the chains would further stabilize a tubular conformation. Both factors should be helpful for the formation of new efficient channels. In this Account, we discuss our efforts in designing new unimolecular artificial channels from

  14. Distal renal tubular acidosis and amelogenesis imperfecta: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular acidosis (RTA is characterized by a normal anion gap with hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Primary distal RTA (type I is the most common RTA in children. Childhood presentation of distal RTA includes vomiting, failure to thrive, metabolic acidosis, and hypokalemia. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI represents a condition where the dental enamel and oral tissues are affected in an equal manner resulting in the hypoplastic or hypopigmented teeth. We report a 10-year-old girl, previously asymptomatic presented with the hypokalemic paralysis and on work-up found out to have type I RTA. The discoloration of teeth and enamel was diagnosed as AI.

  15. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis in a kidney transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Kulkarni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 66-year-old diabetic patient who presented with muscle weakness 2 weeks after kidney transplantation. Her immunosuppressive regimen included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. She was found to have hyperkalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Tacrolimus levels were in therapeutic range. All other drugs such as beta blockers and trimethoprim – sulfamethoxazole were stopped. She did not respond to routine antikalemic measures. Further evaluation revealed type 4 renal tubular acidosis. Serum potassium levels returned to normal after starting sodium bicarbonate and fludrocortisone therapy. Though hyperkalemia is common in kidney transplant recipients, determining exact cause can guide specific treatment.

  16. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  17. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1985-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that covers the applications of electrochemical sensors, along with the versatility of ion-selective electrodes. The coverage of the text includes solid contact in membrane ion-selective electrodes; immobilized enzyme probes for determining inhibitors; potentiometric titrations based on ion-pair formation; and application of ion-selective electrodes in soil science, kinetics, and kinetic analysis. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  18. Characterization of dry biopotential electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Yang, Geng; Xu, Linlin; Seoane, Fernando; Chen, Qiang; Zheng, Lirong

    2013-01-01

    Driven by the increased interest in wearable long-term healthcare monitoring systems, varieties of dry electrodes are proposed based on different materials with different patterns and structures. Most of the studies reported in the literature focus on proposing new electrodes and comparing its performance with commercial electrodes. Few papers are about detailed comparison among different dry electrodes. In this paper, printed metal-plate electrodes, textile based electrodes, and spiked electrodes are for the first time evaluated and compared under the same experimental setup. The contact impedance and noise characterization are measured. The in-vivo electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement is applied to evaluate the overall performance of different electrodes. Textile electrodes and printed electrodes gain comparable high-quality ECG signals. The ECG signal obtained by spiked electrodes is noisier. However, a clear ECG envelope can be observed and the signal quality can be easily improved by backend signal processing. The features of each type of electrodes are analyzed and the suitable application scenario is addressed.

  19. Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBreen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

  20. Vortex-induced phase slip dissipation in a torioidal Bose-Einstein condensate flowing through a barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Lee A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We study the phase slips superfluid dissipation mechanism with a BEC flowing through a repulsive barrier inside a torus. The barrier is adiabatically raised across the annulus while the condensate is flowing with a finite quantized angular momentum. We found that, at a critical height, a vortex reaches the barrier moving radially from the inner region to eventually circulate along the annulus. At a slightly higher barrier, an anti-vortex also enters into the annulus from the outward region. The vortex and anti-vortex decrease the total angular momentum by leaving behind their respective paths a 2{pi} phase slip. When they collide or orbit along the same loop, the condensate suffers a global 2{pi} phase slip and the total angular momentum decreases by one quantum. The analysis is based on numerical simulations of the dynamical Gross-Pitaevskii equation both in two- and three-dimensions, the latter with the experimental parameters of the torus trap recently created at the NIST institute.

  1. Detection of food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria based on ligation detection reaction coupled to flow-through hybridization on membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, K; Cremonesi, P; Severgnini, M; Villa, Tomás G; Fernández-No, I C; Barros-Velázquez, J; Castiglioni, B; Calo-Mata, P

    2014-01-01

    Traditional culturing methods are still commonly applied for bacterial identification in the food control sector, despite being time and labor intensive. Microarray technologies represent an interesting alternative. However, they require higher costs and technical expertise, making them still inappropriate for microbial routine analysis. The present study describes the development of an efficient method for bacterial identification based on flow-through reverse dot-blot (FT-RDB) hybridization on membranes, coupled to the high specific ligation detection reaction (LDR). First, the methodology was optimized by testing different types of ligase enzymes, labeling, and membranes. Furthermore, specific oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rRNA gene, using the bioinformatic tool Oligonucleotide Retrieving for Molecular Applications (ORMA). Four probes were selected and synthesized, being specific for Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella spp., and Morganella morganii, respectively. For the validation of the probes, 16 reference strains from type culture collections were tested by LDR and FT-RDB hybridization using universal arrays spotted onto membranes. In conclusion, the described methodology could be applied for the rapid, accurate, and cost-effective identification of bacterial species, exhibiting special relevance in food safety and quality.

  2. Detection of Food Spoilage and Pathogenic Bacteria Based on Ligation Detection Reaction Coupled to Flow-Through Hybridization on Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Böhme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional culturing methods are still commonly applied for bacterial identification in the food control sector, despite being time and labor intensive. Microarray technologies represent an interesting alternative. However, they require higher costs and technical expertise, making them still inappropriate for microbial routine analysis. The present study describes the development of an efficient method for bacterial identification based on flow-through reverse dot-blot (FT-RDB hybridization on membranes, coupled to the high specific ligation detection reaction (LDR. First, the methodology was optimized by testing different types of ligase enzymes, labeling, and membranes. Furthermore, specific oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rRNA gene, using the bioinformatic tool Oligonucleotide Retrieving for Molecular Applications (ORMA. Four probes were selected and synthesized, being specific for Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella spp., and Morganella morganii, respectively. For the validation of the probes, 16 reference strains from type culture collections were tested by LDR and FT-RDB hybridization using universal arrays spotted onto membranes. In conclusion, the described methodology could be applied for the rapid, accurate, and cost-effective identification of bacterial species, exhibiting special relevance in food safety and quality.

  3. Comparison of turbulent flow through hexagram and hexagon orifices in circular pipes using large-eddy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Nicolleau, Franck C G A; Qin, Ning, E-mail: n.qin@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    Characteristics of turbulent flow through a circular, a hexagon and a hexagram orifice with the same flow area in circular pipes are investigated using wall-modelled large-eddy simulation. Good agreements to available experimental data were obtained in both the mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. The hexagram orifice with alternating convex and concave corners introduces outwards radial velocity around the concave corners downstream of the orifice plate stronger than the hexagon orifice. The stronger outwards radial velocity transfers high momentum from the pipe centre towards the pipe wall to energize the orifice-forced vortex sheet rolling-up and leads to a delayed vortex break-down. Correspondingly, the hexagram has a more gradual flow recovery to a pipe flow and a reduced pressure drop than the hexagon orifice. Both the hexagon and hexagram orifices show an axis-switching phenomenon, which is observed from both the streamwise velocity and turbulent kinetic energy contours. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first comparison of orifice-forced turbulence development, mixing and flow dynamics between a regular and a fractal-based polygonal orifice. (paper)

  4. Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

  5. The Polar Fluid Model for Blood Flow through a Tapered Artery with Overlapping Stenosis: Effects of Catheter and Velocity Slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Ramana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The blood flow through an overlapping clogged tapered artery in the presence of catheter is discussed. Since cholesterol deposition is resulting in the stenosis formation, velocity slip at the arterial wall is considered. The equations governing the fluid flow have been solved analytically under the assumption of the mild stenosis. The analysis with respect to various parameters arising out of fluid and geometry considered, on physiological parameters such as impedance and wall shear stress at the maximum height of the stenosis as well as across the entire length of the stenosis has been reported. A table summarizing the locations of extreme heights and the corresponding annular radii is provided. It is observed that the wall shear stress is the same at both the locations corresponding to the maximum height of the stenosis in case of nontapered artery while it varies in case of tapered artery. It is also observed that slip velocity and diverging tapered artery facilitate the fluid flow. Shear stress at the wall is increasing as micropolar parameter is decreasing and the trend is reversed in case of coupling number. The results obtained are validated by comparing them with the experimental and theoretical results.

  6. Detection of Food Spoilage and Pathogenic Bacteria Based on Ligation Detection Reaction Coupled to Flow-Through Hybridization on Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, K.; Cremonesi, P.; Severgnini, M.; Villa, Tomás G.; Fernández-No, I. C.; Barros-Velázquez, J.; Castiglioni, B.; Calo-Mata, P.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional culturing methods are still commonly applied for bacterial identification in the food control sector, despite being time and labor intensive. Microarray technologies represent an interesting alternative. However, they require higher costs and technical expertise, making them still inappropriate for microbial routine analysis. The present study describes the development of an efficient method for bacterial identification based on flow-through reverse dot-blot (FT-RDB) hybridization on membranes, coupled to the high specific ligation detection reaction (LDR). First, the methodology was optimized by testing different types of ligase enzymes, labeling, and membranes. Furthermore, specific oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rRNA gene, using the bioinformatic tool Oligonucleotide Retrieving for Molecular Applications (ORMA). Four probes were selected and synthesized, being specific for Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella spp., and Morganella morganii, respectively. For the validation of the probes, 16 reference strains from type culture collections were tested by LDR and FT-RDB hybridization using universal arrays spotted onto membranes. In conclusion, the described methodology could be applied for the rapid, accurate, and cost-effective identification of bacterial species, exhibiting special relevance in food safety and quality. PMID:24818128

  7. On-line study of fungal morphology during submerged growth in a small flow-through cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Dam Mikkelsen, C.; Carlsen, Morten

    1998-01-01

    A flow-through cell is designed to measure the growth kinetics of hyphae of Aspergillus oryzae grown submerged in a well controlled environment. The different stages of the growth process are characterized, from the spore to the fully developed hyphal element with up to 60 branches and a total...... is determined. After about 10 h growth at a glucose concentration of 250 mg L-1, 6-7 branches have been set, and both the total hyphal length l(t) and the number of tips increase exponentially with time. The specific growth rate of the hyphae is 0.33 h(-1) while the average rate of the extension of the growing...... tips approaches 55 mu m h(-1). The growth kinetics for all the branches on the main hypha have also been found. The main hypha and all the branches grow at a rate which can be modeled by saturation kinetics with respect to the branch length and with nearly equal final tip speeds (160 mu m h(-1...

  8. Novel thermosyphon driven hydrothermal flow-through cell for in situ and time resolved neutron diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Fang; Qian, Gujie; Etschmann, Barbara; University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; Studer, Andrew; Olsen, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A flow-through cell for hydrothermal phase transformation studies by in situ and time-resolved neutron diffraction has been designed and constructed. The cell has a large internal volume of 320 m L and can work at up to 300 degree Centigrade under autogeneous vapour pressures (-85 bar). The fluid flow is driven by thermosyphon which is realized by the proper design of temperature difference around the closed loop[1,2). The main body of the cell is made of stainless steel (316 type), but the sample compartment is constructed from non-scattering Ti/Zr alloy. We have successfully commissioned the cell on Australia's new high intensity powder diffractometer WOMBAT in ANSTO, using a simple transformation reaction from leucite (KAISi 2 O 6 ) to analcime (NaAISi 2 O 6H2O ) and then back from analcime to leucite. The demonstration proved that the cell is an excellent tool for probing hydrothermal phase transformations. By collecting diffraction data every 5 min, it was clearly seen that leucite was progressively transformed to analcime in a NaCI solution, and the produced analcime was progressively transformed back to leucite in a K 2 CO 3 solution.

  9. Fringe-controlled biodegradation under dynamic conditions: Quasi 2-D flow-through experiments and reactive-transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Dominik; Kürzinger, Petra; Bauer, Robert; Griebler, Christian; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradation in contaminated aquifers has been shown to be most pronounced at the fringe of contaminant plumes, where mixing of contaminated water and ambient groundwater, containing dissolved electron acceptors, stimulates microbial activity. While physical mixing of contaminant and electron acceptor by transverse dispersion has been shown to be the major bottleneck for biodegradation in steady-state plumes, so far little is known on the effect of flow and transport dynamics (caused, e.g., by a seasonally fluctuating groundwater table) on biodegradation in these systems. Towards this end we performed experiments in quasi-two-dimensional flow-through microcosms on aerobic toluene degradation by Pseudomonas putida F1. Plume dynamics were simulated by vertical alteration of the toluene plume position and experimental results were analyzed by reactive-transport modeling. We found that, even after disappearance of the toluene plume for two weeks, the majority of microorganisms stayed attached to the sediment and regained their full biodegradation potential within two days after reappearance of the toluene plume. Our results underline that besides microbial growth, also maintenance and dormancy are important processes that affect biodegradation performance under transient environmental conditions and therefore deserve increased consideration in future reactive-transport modeling.

  10. Regulation of flow through a T-Shaped open cavity by temperature dependent P, PI, and PID controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Sourav; Mojumder, Satyajit; Saha, Sumon

    2016-01-01

    P (proportional), PI (proportional-integral), and PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controllers are popular means of controlling industrial processes. Due to superior response, accuracy, and stable performance, PID controllers are mostly used in control systems. This paper presents a mathematical model and subsequent response analysis regarding regulation of flow in mixed convection through a T-shaped open cavity by temperature dependent controllers. The T-shaped cavity has cold top and hot bottom walls, while air is flowing through the inlet at surrounding temperature. The inflow is regulated by a controlled gate which operates according to the signal received from the controller. Values of proportional gain (k p ), integral gain (k i ), and derivative gain (k d ) are varied to obtain the desired system response and to ensure a stable system with fastest response. At first, only P controller is used and eventually PI and finally PID control scheme is applied for controller tuning. Tuning of different controllers (P, PI, and PID) are carried out systematically based on the reference temperature which is continuously monitored at a certain location inside the cavity. It is found that PID controller performs better than P or PI controller.

  11. Preliminary results from the laboratory study of a flow-through fluorometer for measuring oil-in-water levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, P.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Pearson, L.; Collazzi, E.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive bench-scale test program was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Turner Instruments flow-through model 10AU and model 10 fluorometers for measuring real-time concentrations of oil in water. The results were compared with alternative total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) methods. The 10AU model was equipped with a long wavelength optical kit, the other with the short wavelength optical kit for diesel fuels and light refined oil products. The oils tested were Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend crude oil, Prudhoe Bay crude oil, Bunker C fuel oil and diesel fuel. It was determined that the long wavelength optical kit has minimal capacity to detect and quantify diesel fuels compared to the short wavelength kit, although the latter exhibits a lower performance level. A calibration procedure was also established for oil-in-water to convert the real-time fluorometer data to oil concentrations. Initial comparisons of these tests with standard infrared and gas chromatography procedures were promising. It was determined that fluorometer data can differentiate between various oil-in-water concentrations, but regularly gives concentration values double those of the solvent extraction, infrared or gas chromatography methods. Future studies are being planned to relate the results of this study to the chemical composition of various oils. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  12. Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Flow Through Full Passage and Performance Prediction of Nuclear Reactor Coolant Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Zhou Wenxia; Zhang Jige; Wang Dezhong

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve the level of self-design and domestic manufacture of the reactor coolant pump (nuclear main pump), the software FLUENT was used to simulate the three-dimensional flow through full passage of one nuclear main pump basing on RNG κ-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm. The distribution of pressure and velocity of the flow in the impeller's surface was analyzed in different working conditions. Moreover, the performance of the pump was predicted based on the simulation results. The results show that the distributions of pressure and velocity are reasonable in both the working and back face of the blade in the steady working condition. The pressure of the flow is increased from the inlet to the outlet of the pump, and shows the maximal value in the impeller region. Comparatively satisfactory efficiency and head value were obtained in the condition of the pump design. The shaft power of the nuclear main pump is gradually increased with the increase of the flow flux. These results are helpful in understanding the change of the internal flow field in the nuclear main pump, which is of some importance for the pre-exploration and theoretical research on the domestic manufacture of the nuclear main pump. (authors)

  13. Enhanced water vapour flow in silica microchannels and interdiffusive water vapour flow through anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenwen; McKenzie, David R.

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced liquid water flows through carbon nanotubes reinvigorated the study of moisture permeation through membranes and micro- and nano-channels. The study of water vapour through micro-and nano-channels has been neglected even though water vapour is as important as liquid water for industry, especially for encapsulation of electronic devices. Here we measure moisture flow rates in silica microchannels and interdiffusive water vapour flows in anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membrane channels for the first time. We construct theory for the flow rates of the dominant modes of water transport through four previously defined standard configurations and benchmark it against our new measurements. The findings show that measurements of leak behaviour made using other molecules, such as helium, are not reliable. Single phase water vapour flow is overestimated by a helium measurement, while Washburn or capillary flow is underestimated or for all channels when boundary slip applies, to an extent that depends on the slip length for the liquid phase flows.

  14. Regulation of flow through a T-Shaped open cavity by temperature dependent P, PI, and PID controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Sourav, E-mail: ssaha09@me.buet.ac.bd; Mojumder, Satyajit, E-mail: satyajit@me.buet.ac.bd; Saha, Sumon, E-mail: sumonsaha@me.buet.ac.bd [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    P (proportional), PI (proportional-integral), and PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controllers are popular means of controlling industrial processes. Due to superior response, accuracy, and stable performance, PID controllers are mostly used in control systems. This paper presents a mathematical model and subsequent response analysis regarding regulation of flow in mixed convection through a T-shaped open cavity by temperature dependent controllers. The T-shaped cavity has cold top and hot bottom walls, while air is flowing through the inlet at surrounding temperature. The inflow is regulated by a controlled gate which operates according to the signal received from the controller. Values of proportional gain (k{sub p}), integral gain (k{sub i}), and derivative gain (k{sub d}) are varied to obtain the desired system response and to ensure a stable system with fastest response. At first, only P controller is used and eventually PI and finally PID control scheme is applied for controller tuning. Tuning of different controllers (P, PI, and PID) are carried out systematically based on the reference temperature which is continuously monitored at a certain location inside the cavity. It is found that PID controller performs better than P or PI controller.

  15. Resistance calculation of un-fully developed two-phase flow through high differential pressure regulating valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mingyang; Wang Wenran; Wang Jiaying

    1999-01-01

    To reduce the flow velocity in the high differential pressure regulating valve with labyrinth. A type of complicated valve core structure were designed with tortuous flow path made from reversal double elbows. It is very difficult to calculate the pressure-drop of the un-fully developed two-phase flow under high temperature and pressure which flow through the valve core. A calculation method called 'constant (varing) pressure-drop progressing step by step design method' was developed. The complicated flow path was disintegrated into a series of independent resistance units and with the valve stem end progressing step by step the dimensions of the flow path were designed in accordance with the principle that in every position the total pressure-drop of the valve should amount to that required by the design goal curve. In the course of calculating the total pressure-drop, the valve flow path was also divided into a series of independent resistance units. The experiment results show that design flow characteristics are approximately consistent with the flow characteristics measured in the test

  16. Numerical simulation of the flow through a compressor-valve model using an immersed-boundary method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hermetic reciprocating compressors are widely used in small- and medium-size refrigeration systems based on the vapor-compression cycle. One of the main parts of this type of compressor is the automatic valve system used to control the suction and discharge processes. As the suction and discharge losses represent a large amount of the total thermodynamic losses (47%, a small improvement in the suction and discharge processes can produce expressive increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of the compressor. In this work, a new numerical methodology is applied to solve the flow through reed-type valves. The numerical results were experimentally validated through the pressure distribution acting on the frontal disk of a radial diffuser, which is a geometry usually used to model this type of valve. The numerical results for the velocity and pressure fields were comprehensively explored during the opening and closing movement imposed to the reed. The good quality of these results show that the numerical methodology is very promising in terms of solving the flow in the actual dynamics of reed-type valves.

  17. Characterization of the frictional losses and heat transfer of oscillatory viscous flow through wire-mesh regenerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Boroujerdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, new relations for calculating heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of oscillatory flow through wire-mesh screen regenerator such as Darcy permeability, Forchheimer’s inertial coefficient, and heat transfer area per unit volume, as a function of the wire diameter are presented. According to the derived relations, thinner wires have higher pressure drop and higher heat transfer rate. The relations are applicable for all regenerative cryocoolers. Embedding the new relations into a numerical model, three Stirling-type orifice pulse tube cryocoolers with three regenerators different in length and diameter but same volume in a variety of wire diameters, have been modeled. The results achieved by the model reveal that the local heat transfer coefficient decreases with increase of the wire diameter and the length-to-diameter ratio. In addition, it was shown that the mean absolute gas–solid wire temperature difference is a linear function of wire diameter in the range investigated. The results show that for larger length-to-diameter ratios, Forchheimer’s effect will dominate frictional losses, and the variations of the frictional losses are proportional to the inverse of the wire diameter. Wire diameter has been optimized to maximize the coefficient of performance of the cryocooler. Shorter regenerators have thinner optimum wires.

  18. Micro Droplets of non-Newtonian Solutions in Silicone Oil Flow through a Hydrophobic Micro Cross-Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, B.; Morini, G. L.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper the generation of non-Newtonian droplets of aqueous Xanthan gum solution (0.3, 0.5 wt%) in a silicone oil flow through a micro cross-junction is experimentally analyzed. A commercial glass cross-junction microchip with hydrophobic walls has been employed to study the droplet generation mechanism. The cross-section of the channel is stadium-shaped, the width of the junction varies between 195 to 390 μm while the height of the channel is fixed at 190 μm. Tween 20 (2 wt%), as a surfactant, has been added to the dispersed phase to avoid the coalescence of the droplets and to enhance the droplet formation. With the aim to follow the time evolution of the droplets inside the channel a specific experimental setup has been implemented. The post-processing of the recorded images has been carried out by means of an “in-house” Matlab code. The typical flow patterns obtained by imposing different flow rates at the inlets of the cross-junction have been observed. The effect of the continuous and dispersed phase flow rates as well as the concentration of Xanthan gum solution on the main droplet characteristics has been studied in detail.

  19. Evaluation of the single-pass flow-through test to support a low-activity waste specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Peeler, D.K.

    1995-09-01

    A series of single-pass flow-through (SPFT) tests was performed on five reference low-activity waste glasses and a reference glass from the National Institute of Standards and Technology to support a product specification for low-activity waste (LAW) forms. The results showed that the SPFT test provides a means to quantitatively distinguish among LAW glass forms in terms of their forward reaction rate at a given temperature and solution pH. Two of the test glasses were also subjected to SPFT testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Forward reaction rate constants calculated from the ANL test data were 100 to over 1,000 times larger than the values obtained from the SPFT tests conducted at PNL. An analysis of the ANL results showed that they were inconsistent with independent measurements done on glasses of similar composition, the known pH-dependence of the forward rate, and with the results from low surface-area-to-volume, short duration product consistency tests. Because the data set obtained from the SPFT tests done at PNL was consistent with each of these same factors, a detailed examination of the test procedures used at both laboratories was performed to determine the cause(s) of the discrepancy. The omission of background subtraction in the data analysis procedure and the short-duration (on the order of hours) of the ANL tests are factors that may have significantly affected the calculated rates

  20. Regulation of flow through a T-Shaped open cavity by temperature dependent P, PI, and PID controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sourav; Mojumder, Satyajit; Saha, Sumon

    2016-07-01

    P (proportional), PI (proportional-integral), and PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controllers are popular means of controlling industrial processes. Due to superior response, accuracy, and stable performance, PID controllers are mostly used in control systems. This paper presents a mathematical model and subsequent response analysis regarding regulation of flow in mixed convection through a T-shaped open cavity by temperature dependent controllers. The T-shaped cavity has cold top and hot bottom walls, while air is flowing through the inlet at surrounding temperature. The inflow is regulated by a controlled gate which operates according to the signal received from the controller. Values of proportional gain (kp), integral gain (ki), and derivative gain (kd) are varied to obtain the desired system response and to ensure a stable system with fastest response. At first, only P controller is used and eventually PI and finally PID control scheme is applied for controller tuning. Tuning of different controllers (P, PI, and PID) are carried out systematically based on the reference temperature which is continuously monitored at a certain location inside the cavity. It is found that PID controller performs better than P or PI controller.

  1. CFD simulation of an internal spin-filter: evidence of lateral migration and exchange flow through the mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo-Cardero, Alvio; Chico, Ernesto; Castilho, Leda R; Medronho, Ricardo A

    2009-11-01

    In the present work Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to study the flow field and particle dynamics in an internal spin-filter (SF) bioreactor system. Evidence of a radial exchange flow through the filter mesh was detected, with a magnitude up to 130-fold higher than the perfusion flow, thus significantly contributing to radial drag. The exchange flow magnitude was significantly influenced by the filter rotation rate, but not by the perfusion flow, within the ranges evaluated. Previous reports had only given indirect evidences of this exchange flow phenomenon in spin-filters, but the current simulations were able to quantify and explain it. Flow pattern inside the spin-filter bioreactor resembled a typical Taylor-Couette flow, with vortices being formed in the annular gap and eventually penetrating the internal volume of the filter, thus being the probable reason for the significant exchange flow observed. The simulations also showed that cells become depleted in the vicinity of the mesh due to lateral particle migration. Cell concentration near the filter was approximately 50% of the bulk concentration, explaining why cell separation achieved in SFs is not solely due to size exclusion. The results presented indicate the power of CFD techniques to study and better understand spin-filter systems, aiming at the establishment of effective design, operation and scale-up criteria.

  2. Assessing honeybee and wasp thermoregulation and energetics-New insights by combination of flow-through respirometry with infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabentheiner, Anton; Kovac, Helmut; Hetz, Stefan K; Käfer, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Gabriel

    2012-04-20

    Endothermic insects like honeybees and some wasps have to cope with an enormous heat loss during foraging because of their small body size in comparison to endotherms like mammals and birds. The enormous costs of thermoregulation call for optimisation. Honeybees and wasps differ in their critical thermal maximum, which enables the bees to kill the wasps by heat. We here demonstrate the benefits of a combined use of body temperature measurement with infrared thermography, and respiratory measurements of energy turnover (O(2) consumption or CO(2) production via flow-through respirometry) to answer questions of insect ecophysiological research, and we describe calibrations to receive accurate results.To assess the question of what foraging honeybees optimise, their body temperature was compared with their energy turnover. Honeybees foraging from an artificial flower with unlimited sucrose flow increased body surface temperature and energy turnover with profitability of foraging (sucrose content of the food; 0.5 or 1.5 mol/L). Costs of thermoregulation, however, were rather independent of ambient temperature (13-30 °C). External heat gain by solar radiation was used to increase body temperature. This optimised foraging energetics by increasing suction speed.In determinations of insect respiratory critical thermal limits, the combined use of respiratory measurements and thermography made possible a more conclusive interpretation of respiratory traces.

  3. Investigation on power discharge in micro-EDM stainless steel drilling using different electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Urso, G.; Maccarini, G.; Quarto, M.; Ravasio, C.

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the execution of through micro-holes on stainless steel plates using a micro-EDM (Electrical discharge machining) machine. The investigation focuses on the influence of different electrodes' materials and power discharge on both the process performance and the dimensional characteristics of the holes. The experimental campaign was carried out by varying peak current and voltage in order to achieve both high and low power discharge conditions. Tubular electrodes made of three different materials (tungsten carbide, brass and copper) were used. The indexes taken into account were Material removal rate (MRR), Tool wear ratio (TWR), Diametral overcut (DOC) and Taper rate (TR). Brass and copper electrodes always resulted to be the best solution in terms of drilling speed even though the wear of these electrode types is remarkable higher than the tungsten one. On the opposite, tungsten carbide electrodes resulted to be the best solution when high dimensional and geometrical precision is required. Concerning the finishing of the hole inner surface, the best results were achieved using tungsten carbide electrode.

  4. Electrochemical transformation of trichloroethylene in aqueous solution by electrode polarity reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Ljiljana; Fallahpour, Noushin; Yuan, Songhu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2014-12-15

    Electrode polarity reversal is evaluated for electrochemical transformation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous solution using flow-through reactors with mixed metal oxide electrodes and Pd catalyst. The study tests the hypothesis that optimizing electrode polarity reversal will generate H2O2 in Pd presence in the system. The effect of polarity reversal frequency, duration of the polarity reversal intervals, current intensity and TCE concentration on TCE removal rate and removal mechanism were evaluated. TCE removal efficiencies under 6 cycles h(-1) were similar in the presence of Pd catalyst (50.3%) and without Pd catalyst (49.8%), indicating that Pd has limited impact on TCE degradation under these conditions. The overall removal efficacies after 60 min treatment under polarity reversal frequencies of 6, 10, 15, 30 and 90 cycles h(-1) were 50.3%, 56.3%, 69.3%, 34.7% and 23.4%, respectively. Increasing the frequency of polarity reversal increases TCE removal as long as sufficient charge is produced during each cycle for the reaction at the electrode. Electrode polarity reversal shifts oxidation/reduction and reduction/oxidation sequences in the system. The optimized polarity reversal frequency (15 cycles h(-1) at 60 mA) enables two reaction zones formation where reduction/oxidation occurs at each electrode surface. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Radiologic findings of tubular adenoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Mi Gyoung; Oh, Ki Keun

    1996-01-01

    Tubular adenoma (TA) is known as a rare lesion of the breast which is difficult to diagnosis preoperatively because of its rarity and similarity to fibroadenoma. Hence, our purpose is to suggest the characteristic sonographic features for its correct diagnosis. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and mammographic and sonographic findings. of seven patients(mean age, 23) who during the previous five years had presented at our hospital with pathologically-proven tubular adenoma. TA was misdiagnosed as fibroadenoma, since on physical examination of these young females, the lesions presented a palpable, non-tender mass. Mammographically, they showed a well defined mass similar to fibroadenoma. However, sonographic findings were characteristic of TA and compared to fibroadenoma, showed a well demarcated and smooth bordered mass with transverse long axis, posterior enhancement and homogeneous lower internal echogenecity. No case showed lateral wall refractive shadowing. In young females, the clinical and mammographic findings of TA are similar to those of fibroadenoma. However, sonographic findings of TA can, be helpful in the differential diagnosis of this entity and fibroadenoma

  6. Radiologic findings of tubular adenoma of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Mi Gyoung; Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    Tubular adenoma (TA) is known as a rare lesion of the breast which is difficult to diagnosis preoperatively because of its rarity and similarity to fibroadenoma. Hence, our purpose is to suggest the characteristic sonographic features for its correct diagnosis. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and mammographic and sonographic findings. of seven patients(mean age, 23) who during the previous five years had presented at our hospital with pathologically-proven tubular adenoma. TA was misdiagnosed as fibroadenoma, since on physical examination of these young females, the lesions presented a palpable, non-tender mass. Mammographically, they showed a well defined mass similar to fibroadenoma. However, sonographic findings were characteristic of TA and compared to fibroadenoma, showed a well demarcated and smooth bordered mass with transverse long axis, posterior enhancement and homogeneous lower internal echogenecity. No case showed lateral wall refractive shadowing. In young females, the clinical and mammographic findings of TA are similar to those of fibroadenoma. However, sonographic findings of TA can, be helpful in the differential diagnosis of this entity and fibroadenoma.

  7. Numerical Investigation of the FSI Characteristics in a Tubular Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow condition was simulated in a shaft tubular pump by using the Shear-Stress Transport (SST k-ω turbulence model with high quality structured grids in design condition. Corresponding structural vibration characteristics were then analyzed based on two-way coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI method. Fluid results showed that flow in the outlet flow passage was a combination of the axial flow and circumferential rotation motion. Time and frequency domain analysis of pressure pulsation of typical measure points indicated that larger pulsation amplitudes appeared in the tip of the blades and the main vibration source was the pressure pulsation induced by rotation of the blades. The fluid pulsation amplitudes decreased gradually along the flow direction, which can be ascribed to the function of fixed guide vane. Structural analysis of the blades in both pressure and suction side indicated that significant stress concentration was formed at the blade and hub connection near the leading edge. Maximum effective stress of the blades varied periodically, so prevention measures of the fatigue of blades should be taken. This research can provide important reference for the design of the tubular pump.

  8. Dynamic modeling of temperature change in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androga, Dominic Deo; Uyar, Basar; Koku, Harun; Eroglu, Inci

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a one-dimensional transient model was developed to analyze the temperature variation of tubular photobioreactors operated outdoors and the validity of the model was tested by comparing the predictions of the model with the experimental data. The model included the effects of convection and radiative heat exchange on the reactor temperature throughout the day. The temperatures in the reactors increased with increasing solar radiation and air temperatures, and the predicted reactor temperatures corresponded well to the measured experimental values. The heat transferred to the reactor was mainly through radiation: the radiative heat absorbed by the reactor medium, ground radiation, air radiation, and solar (direct and diffuse) radiation, while heat loss was mainly through the heat transfer to the cooling water and forced convection. The amount of heat transferred by reflected radiation and metabolic activities of the bacteria and pump work was negligible. Counter-current cooling was more effective in controlling reactor temperature than co-current cooling. The model developed identifies major heat transfer mechanisms in outdoor operated tubular photobioreactors, and accurately predicts temperature changes in these systems. This is useful in determining cooling duty under transient conditions and scaling up photobioreactors. The photobioreactor design and the thermal modeling were carried out and experimental results obtained for the case study of photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus, but the approach is applicable to photobiological systems that are to be operated under outdoor conditions with significant cooling demands.

  9. Dynamic model of microalgal production in tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, I; Acién, F G; Fernández, J M; Guzmán, J L; Magán, J J; Berenguel, M

    2012-12-01

    A dynamic model for microalgal culture is presented. The model takes into account the fluid-dynamic and mass transfer, in addition to biological phenomena, it being based on fundamental principles. The model has been calibrated and validated using data from a pilot-scale tubular photobioreactor but it can be extended to other designs. It can be used to determine, from experimental measurements, the values of characteristic parameters. The model also allows a simulation of the system's dynamic behaviour in response to solar radiation, making it a useful tool for design and operation optimization of photobioreactors. Moreover, the model permits the identification of local pH gradients, dissolved oxygen and dissolved carbon dioxide; that can damage microalgae growth. In addition, the developed model can map the different characteristic time scales of phenomena inside microalgae cultures within tubular photobioreactors, meaning it is a valuable tool in the development of advanced control strategies for microalgae cultures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nano-tubular cellulose for bioprocess technology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Athanasios A; Sypsas, Vasilios; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Michelis, Andreas; Bekatorou, Argyro; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Kordulis, Christos; Lycourghiotis, Alexis; Banat, Ibrahim M; Nigam, Poonam; Marchant, Roger; Giannouli, Myrsini; Yianoulis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Delignified cellulosic material has shown a significant promotional effect on the alcoholic fermentation as yeast immobilization support. However, its potential for further biotechnological development is unexploited. This study reports the characterization of this tubular/porous cellulosic material, which was done by SEM, porosimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The results showed that the structure of nano-tubular cellulose (NC) justifies its suitability for use in "cold pasteurization" processes and its promoting activity in bioprocessing (fermentation). The last was explained by a glucose pump theory. Also, it was demonstrated that crystallization of viscous invert sugar solutions during freeze drying could not be otherwise achieved unless NC was present. This effect as well as the feasibility of extremely low temperature fermentation are due to reduction of the activation energy, and have facilitated the development of technologies such as wine fermentations at home scale (in a domestic refrigerator). Moreover, NC may lead to new perspectives in research such as the development of new composites, templates for cylindrical nano-particles, etc.

  11. Understanding shape and morphology of unusual tubular starch nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bei; Liu, Wenxia; Tan, Hua; Yu, Dehai; Song, Zhaoping; Lucia, Lucian A

    2016-10-20

    Starch nanocrystals (SNC) are aptly described as the insoluble degradation byproducts of starch granules that purportedly display morphologies that are platelet-like, round, square, and oval-like. In this work, we reported the preparation of SNC with unprecedented tubular structures through sulfuric acid hydrolysis of normal maize starch, subsequent exposure to ammonia and relaxation at 4°C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation clearly proved that the SNCs possess tubular nanostructures with polygonal cross-section. After further reviewing the transformations of SNC by acid hydrolysis, ammonia treatment, and curing time at 4°C, a mechanism for T-SNC formation is suggested. It is conjectured that T-SNC gradually self-assembles by combination of smaller platelet-like/square nanocrystals likely loosely aggregated by starch molecular chains from residual amorphous regions. This work paves the way for the pursuit of new approaches for the preparation of starch-based nanomaterials possessing unique morphologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbohydrates in Ankistrodesmus braunii biomass cultivated in tubular photobioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucía Morocho-Jácome

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The great need for microalgae biomass production in tubular photobioreactors has increased for use in biofuels, pharmaceuticals and even cosmetic applications. In order to better understand the potential applications of this material, it is imperative to know in detail its composition. Ankistrodesmus braunii was cultivated in 3.5 L tubular air-lift photobioreactors using 10 mM sodium nitrate as nitrogen source in batch mode at 60 µmol photons m-2 s-1. The maximum biomass concentration (Xm and the biomass productivity (PX reached at 6th day of cultivation was 1249 ± 72 mg L-1 and 165 ± 13 mg L-1 d-1, respectively. Carbohydrates productivity expressed in terms of glucose, galactose and glucose+galactose (1:1 were 2.57 ± 0.04, 4.12 ± 0.06 and 3.22 ± 0.05 mg L-1 d-1, respectively. Results show a statistical difference that was found between carbohydrate productivity values expressed as glucose, galactose and glucose+galactose (1:1.

  13. Nano-tubular cellulose for bioprocess technology development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios A Koutinas

    Full Text Available Delignified cellulosic material has shown a significant promotional effect on the alcoholic fermentation as yeast immobilization support. However, its potential for further biotechnological development is unexploited. This study reports the characterization of this tubular/porous cellulosic material, which was done by SEM, porosimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The results showed that the structure of nano-tubular cellulose (NC justifies its suitability for use in "cold pasteurization" processes and its promoting activity in bioprocessing (fermentation. The last was explained by a glucose pump theory. Also, it was demonstrated that crystallization of viscous invert sugar solutions during freeze drying could not be otherwise achieved unless NC was present. This effect as well as the feasibility of extremely low temperature fermentation are due to reduction of the activation energy, and have facilitated the development of technologies such as wine fermentations at home scale (in a domestic refrigerator. Moreover, NC may lead to new perspectives in research such as the development of new composites, templates for cylindrical nano-particles, etc.

  14. Rhabdomyolysis with acute tubular necrosis following occupational inhalation of thinners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngajilo, D; Ehrlich, R

    2017-07-01

    Thinners are mixtures of organic solvents commonly containing toluene, xylene, acetone, hexane, benzene and methyl isobutyl ketone. This report describes a case of rhabdomyolysis with acute tubular necrosis and renal failure, most likely attributable to toluene, following occupational exposure to thinners while cleaning a steel water tank. These adverse health effects have previously been reported following acute poisoning or intentional inhalation by drug abusers, but rarely in the occupational setting. Poor working conditions, lack of health and safety training and delayed treatment contributed to the onset and severity of the patient's complications. This case emphasizes the need for strict control measures, including adequate ventilation, training on working in confined spaces, appropriate personal protective equipment and emergency rescue procedures in such settings. In addition, rhabdomyolysis, acute tubular necrosis and renal failure should be added to safety data material as possible complications of excessive inhalation of thinners. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Performance of Serum Creatinine and Kidney Injury Biomarkers for Diagnosing Histologic Acute Tubular Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moledina, Dennis G; Hall, Isaac E; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Reese, Peter P; Weng, Francis L; Schröppel, Bernd; Doshi, Mona D; Wilson, F Perry; Coca, Steven G; Parikh, Chirag R

    2017-12-01

    The diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is currently defined as an increase in serum creatinine (Scr) concentration, provides little information on the condition's actual cause. To improve phenotyping of AKI, many urinary biomarkers of tubular injury are being investigated. Because AKI cases are not frequently biopsied, the diagnostic accuracy of concentrations of Scr and urinary biomarkers for histologic acute tubular injury is unknown. Cross-sectional analysis from multicenter prospective cohort. Hospitalized deceased kidney donors on whom kidney biopsies were performed at the time of organ procurement for histologic evaluation. (1) AKI diagnosed by change in Scr concentration during donor hospitalization and (2) concentrations of urinary biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], liver-type fatty acid-binding protein [L-FABP], interleukin 18 [IL-18], and kidney injury molecule 1 [KIM-1]) measured at organ procurement. Histologic acute tubular injury. Of 581 donors, 98 (17%) had mild acute tubular injury and 57 (10%) had severe acute tubular injury. Overall, Scr-based AKI had poor diagnostic performance for identifying histologic acute tubular injury and 49% of donors with severe acute tubular injury did not have AKI. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of change in Scr concentration for diagnosing severe acute tubular injury was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.49-0.67) and for any acute tubular injury was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.45-0.58). Compared with Scr concentration, NGAL concentration demonstrated higher AUROC for diagnosing both severe acute tubular injury (0.67; 95% CI, 0.60-0.74; P=0.03) and any acute tubular injury (0.60; 95% CI, 0.55-0.66; P=0.005). In donors who did not have Scr-based AKI, NGAL concentrations were higher with increasing severities of acute tubular injury (subclinical AKI). However, compared with Scr concentration, AUROCs for acute tubular injury diagnosis were not significantly higher for urinary L

  16. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  17. Electrostatic Levitator Electrode Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Schematic of Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) electrodes and controls system. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  18. Flexible transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  19. Preservation of paraspinal muscle after transmuscular approach using a tubular retractor for lumbar decompression surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Tachibana, MD, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The preservation of paraspinal muscle was greater in patients with a tubular retractor than with the subperiosteal approach. Detaching the paraspinal muscle from the lamina may cause partial denervation of the paraspinal muscle and muscle atrophy. Therefore, the transmuscular approach using a tubular retractor may be a less invasive approach for the preservation of paraspinal muscle.

  20. On Energy Balance and Production Costs in Tubular and Flat Panel Photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norsker, N.H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Vermue, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing mixing in both flat panel and tubular photobioreactors can result in a positive net energy balance with state-of-the-art technology and Dutch weather conditions. In the tubular photobioreactor, the net energy balance becomes positive at velocities <0.3 ms-1, at which point the biomass

  1. Spectrum of mutations in the renin-angiotensin system genes in autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribouval, Olivier; Morinière, Vincent; Pawtowski, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by early onset and persistent fetal anuria leading to oligohydramnios and the Potter sequence, associated with skull ossification defects. Early death occurs in most cases from anuri...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1320 - Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sighting ports, tubular gauge glasses, and flat plate type gauge glasses. 154.1320 Section 154.1320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1320 Sighting ports, tubular gauge...

  3. Tubular lysosome morphology and distribution within macrophages depend on the integrity of cytoplasmic microtubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.; Bushnell, A.; Silverstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Pinocytosis of the fluorescent dye lucifer yellow labels elongated, membrane-bound tubular organelles in several cell types, including cultured human monocytes, thioglycolate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages, and the macrophage-like cell line J774.2. These tubular structures can be identified as lysosomes by acid phosphatase histochemistry and immunofluorescence localization of cathepsin L. The abundance of tubular lysosomes is markedly increased by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. When labeled by pinocytosis of microperoxidase and examined by electron microscopic histochemistry, the tubular lysosomes have an outside diameter of ≅ 75 nm and a length of several micrometers; they radiate from the cell's centrosphere in alignment with cytoplasmic microtubules and intermediate filaments. Incubation of phorbol myristate acetate-treated macrophages at 4 0 C or in medium containing 5 μM colchicine or nocodazole at 37 0 C leads to disassembly of microtubules and fragmentation of the tubular lysosomes. Return of the cultures to 37 0 C or removal of nocodazole from the medium leads to reassembly of microtubules and the reappearance of tubular lysosomes within 10-20 min. The authors conclude that microtubules are essential for the maintenance of tubular lysosome morphology and that, in macrophages, a significant proportion of the lysosomal compartment is contained within these tubular structures

  4. Effect of cisplatin on renal haemodynamics and tubular function in the dog kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Abildgaard, U; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1987-01-01

    Administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg) to dogs results in polyuric renal failure due initially to a proximal tubular functional impairment. 48-72 h after the cisplatin administration the depressed renal function can be attributed to impairment of proximal as well as distal tubular reabsorptive...

  5. SIDE-BY-SIDE TESTS OF DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Six differently designed evacuated tubular collectors, ETCs, utilizing solar radiation from all directions, have been investigated experimentally. The evacuated tubular solar collectors investigated include one SLL all-glass ETC from Tshinghua Solar Co., four heat pipe ETCs from Sunda Technolgoy Co...

  6. Endogenous versus exogenous lithium clearance for evaluation of dopamine-induced changes in renal tubular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Fogh-Andersen, N; Strandgaard, S

    1996-01-01

    1. The present randomized, double-blind cross-over study compared endogenous and exogenous lithium clearance (CLi) for estimation of the effect of dopamine on tubular sodium reabsorption. Twelve normal, salt-repleted male subjects were investigated on three different occasions with either placebo...... that the two methods are interchangeable for estimation of dopamine-induced changes in tubular function....

  7. Behaviour of Steel Tubular Stub and Slender Columns in-filled with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, an attempt was made with steel tubular columns in-filled with recycled aggregate concrete instead of normal conventional concrete so as to utilize the construction and demolition debris for effective recycling in construction works. The behaviour of circular and square concrete-filled steel tubular sections ...

  8. Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast: Advantages and Limitations of Breast Tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ana; Reis, Alcinda

    2016-01-01

    Tubular carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant of invasive ductal carcinoma. We report a case of 42-year-old asymptomatic female with a histopathological proven multifocal tubular carcinoma, studied by mammography, Tomosynthesis, Ultrasound, and Magnetic Resonance. Herein, we discuss the advantages and limitations of Tomosynthesis, an emerging imaging technique, in this particular case. PMID:28116205

  9. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... countervailable subsidies are being provided to the production or exportation of the subject merchandise in Turkey... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary... tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey). The period of investigation is January 1, 2012...

  10. PENGURANGAN KADAR CO2 MENGGUNAKAN SPIRULINA PLATENSIS DALAM TUBULAR BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Syam Arifin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the population impact on increasing energy demand. On the other hand, the energy generation industry has been blamed as one of the contributors of carbon dioxide about 25% of total CO2 emissions worldwide. Meanwhile, the production of biogas, which aims to address the increasing need of energy, produces carbon dioxide in the range of 25–50% by volume. To overcome this, a cheap method, optimum and efficient as well as environmentally friendly in reducing CO2 levels by using Spirulina platensis is needed. This research aims to created a mathematical models and found the optimum flow rate to reduced levels of CO2 by using Spirulina platensis. This study used a glass tubular bioreactor (D = 2.6 cm at a temperature of 30°C and irradiated with a fluorescent lamp Philips TL 36 Watt, color temperature: 6,200K cool daylight, light output: 2,600 lm, 72 lm/W. Tubular reactor was placed in a box lined with silver foil walls on three sides. With mathematical models of tubular reactor, the reaction rate constants could be predicted. Based on calculations of data and graphs, optimum volumetric velocity could also be predicted. Variation of flowrate to observed the reduction rate of CO2 was 0.25 mL/sec, 0.35 mL/sec, 0.5 mL/sec, 0.75 mL/sec, 1 mL/sec. Carbon source was 99.99% CO2.Observations of Spirulina growth was made on the flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec at the initial levels of dry weight 2.1208 g/L. The results of this study indicated that the low flowratewas a more effective way to reduced carbon dioxide levels using Spirulina platensis (= 2.82×10-4 sec-1. The highest conversion was obtained at a volumetric flow rate of 0.25 mL/sec and optimum speeds in the range of 0.3 to 0.4 mL/sec. The rate of incoming CO2 flux should be less than 0.047 mL/cm2.detik. Specific Growth Rate (µ of Spirulina platensis in this study was 2.56×10-2 minute-1.   Keywords: Spirulina platensis, a vertical tubular bioreactor, CO2 reduction     ABSTRAK

  11. Decreased arterial PO2, not O2 content, increases blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Joseph W; Davis, James T; Ryan, Benjamin J; Elliott, Jonathan E; Beasley, Kara M; Hawn, Jerold A; Byrnes, William C; Lovering, Andrew T

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism(s) that regulate hypoxia-induced blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (QIPAVA ) are currently unknown. Our previous work has demonstrated that the mechanism of hypoxia-induced QIPAVA is not simply increased cardiac output, pulmonary artery systolic pressure or sympathetic nervous system activity and, instead, it may be a result of hypoxaemia directly. To determine whether it is reduced arterial PO2 (PaO2) or O2 content (CaO2) that causes hypoxia-induced QIPAVA , individuals were instructed to breathe room air and three levels of hypoxic gas at rest before (control) and after CaO2 was reduced by 10% by lowering the haemoglobin concentration (isovolaemic haemodilution; Low [Hb]). QIPAVA , assessed by transthoracic saline contrast echocardiography, significantly increased as PaO2 decreased and, despite reduced CaO2 (via isovolaemic haemodilution), was similar at iso-PaO2. These data suggest that, with alveolar hypoxia, low PaO2 causes the hypoxia-induced increase in QIPAVA , although where and how this is detected remains unknown. Alveolar hypoxia causes increased blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (QIPAVA ) in healthy humans at rest. However, it is unknown whether the stimulus regulating hypoxia-induced QIPAVA is decreased arterial PO2 (PaO2) or O2 content (CaO2). CaO2 is known to regulate blood flow in the systemic circulation and it is suggested that IPAVA may be regulated similar to the systemic vasculature. Thus, we hypothesized that reduced CaO2 would be the stimulus for hypoxia-induced QIPAVA . Blood volume (BV) was measured using the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method in 10 individuals. Less than 5 days later, subjects breathed room air, as well as 18%, 14% and 12.5% O2 , for 30 min each, in a randomized order, before (CON) and after isovolaemic haemodilution (10% of BV withdrawn and replaced with an equal volume of 5% human serum albumin-saline mixture) to reduce [Hb] (Low [Hb]). PaO2

  12. Survival and growth of newly transformed Lampsilis cardium and Lampsilis siliquoidea in a flow-through, continuous feeding test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Hess, Karina R.; Bartsch, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A test system was evaluated for assessing chronic toxicity of waterborne chemicals with early life stage mussels. To determine if the test system could result in ≥80% survival in a control (unexposed) group, fat mucket mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea Barnes, 1823) and plain pocketbook mussels (L. cardium Rafinesque, 1820) 1 day post transformation were stocked into test chambers (250 mL beakers, water volume, 200 mL, 21 °C, 40 mussels of 1 species per chamber) within a test system constructed for conducting chronic, continuous exposure, flow-through toxicity tests. The test system contained 60 chambers containing silica sand, 30 chambers with L. siliquoidea, and 30 with L. cardium. Each chamber in the continuous feeding system received 1 of 6 food types prepared with concentrated algal products. After 28 days, mussels were harvested from chambers to assess survival and growth. For L. siliquoidea, mean survival ranged from 34 to 80% and mean shell length ranged from 464 to 643 µm. For L. cardium, mean survival ranged from 12 to 66% and mean shell length ranged from 437 to 612 µm. The maximum mean growth rate for L. siliquoidea was 12.7 µm/d and for L. cardium was 11.8 µm/d. When offered a continuous diet of Nannochloropsis, Tetraselmis, and Chlorella for 28 days in the test system, the survival of 1 day post transformation L. siliquoidea was 80%. The test system can be easily enhanced with a pumping system continuously delivering test chemical to the test system's flow stream allowing for chronic toxicity tests with 1 day post transformation mussels.

  13. A model for complex flows of soft glassy materials with application to flows through fixed fiber beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Arijit; Koch, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    The soft glassy rheology (SGR) model has successfully described the time dependent simple shear rheology of a broad class of complex fluids including foams, concentrated emulsions, colloidal glasses, and solvent-free nanoparticle-organic hybrid materials (NOHMs). The model considers a distribution of mesoscopic fluid elements that hop from trap to trap at a rate which is enhanced by the work done to strain the fluid element. While an SGR fluid has a broad exponential distribution of trap energies, the rheology of NOHMs is better described by a narrower energy distribution and we consider both types of trap energy distributions in this study. We introduce a tensorial version of these models with a hopping rate that depends on the orientation of the element relative to the mean stress field, allowing a range of relative strengths of the extensional and simple shear responses of the fluid. As an application of these models we consider the flow of a soft glassy material through a dilute fixed bed of fibers. The dilute fixed bed exhibits a range of local linear flows which alternate in a chaotic manner with time in a Lagrangian reference frame. It is amenable to an analytical treatment and has been used to characterize the strong flow response of many complex fluids including fiber suspensions, dilute polymer solutions and emulsions. We show that the accumulated strain in the fluid elements has an abrupt nonlinear growth at a Deborah number of order one in a manner similar to that observed for polymer solutions. The exponential dependence of the hopping rate on strain leads to a fluid element deformation that grows logarithmically with Deborah number at high Deborah numbers. SGR fluids having a broad range of trap energies flowing through fixed beds can exhibit a range of rheological behaviors at small Deborah numbers ranging from a yield stress, to a power law response and finally to Newtonian behavior

  14. Flow-through lipid nanotube arrays for structure-function studies of membrane proteins by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmenev, Eduard Y; Gor'kov, Peter L; Cross, Timothy A; Alaouie, Ali M; Smirnov, Alex I

    2006-10-15

    A novel method for studying membrane proteins in a native lipid bilayer environment by solid-state NMR spectroscopy is described and tested. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates with flow-through 175 nm wide and 60-mum-long nanopores were employed to form macroscopically aligned peptide-containing lipid bilayers that are fluid and highly hydrated. We demonstrate that the surfaces of both leaflets of such bilayers are fully accessible to aqueous solutes. Thus, high hydration levels as well as pH and desirable ion and/or drug concentrations could be easily maintained and modified as desired in a series of experiments with the same sample. The method allows for membrane protein NMR experiments in a broad pH range that could be extended to as low as 1 and as high as 12 units for a period of up to a few hours and temperatures as high as 70 degrees C without losing the lipid alignment or bilayers from the nanopores. We demonstrate the utility of this method by a solid-state 19.6 T (17)O NMR study of reversible binding effects of mono- and divalent ions on the chemical shift properties of the Leu(10) carbonyl oxygen of transmembrane pore-forming peptide gramicidin A (gA). We further compare the (17)O shifts induced by binding metal ions to the binding of protons in the pH range from 1 to 12 and find a significant difference. This unexpected result points to a difference in mechanisms for ion and proton conduction by the gA pore. We believe that a large number of solid-state NMR-based studies, including structure-function, drug screening, proton exchange, pH, and other titration experiments, will benefit significantly from the method described here.

  15. Role of submerged vegetation in the retention processes of three plant protection products in flow-through stream mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Christoph; Wieczorek, Matthias Valentin; Noss, Christian; Lorke, Andreas; Scherr, Frank; Goerlitz, Gerhard; Schulz, Ralf

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative information on the processes leading to the retention of plant protection products (PPPs) in surface waters is not available, particularly for flow-through systems. The influence of aquatic vegetation on the hydraulic- and sorption-mediated mitigation processes of three PPPs (triflumuron, pencycuron, and penflufen; logKOW 3.3-4.9) in 45-m slow-flowing stream mesocosms was investigated. Peak reductions were 35-38% in an unvegetated stream mesocosm, 60-62% in a sparsely vegetated stream mesocosm (13% coverage with Elodea nuttallii), and in a similar range of 57-69% in a densely vegetated stream mesocosm (100% coverage). Between 89% and 93% of the measured total peak reductions in the sparsely vegetated stream can be explained by an increase of vegetation-induced dispersion (estimated with the one-dimensional solute transport model OTIS), while 7-11% of the peak reduction can be attributed to sorption processes. However, dispersion contributed only 59-71% of the peak reductions in the densely vegetated stream mesocosm, where 29% to 41% of the total peak reductions can be attributed to sorption processes. In the densely vegetated stream, 8-27% of the applied PPPs, depending on the logKOW values of the compounds, were temporarily retained by macrophytes. Increasing PPP recoveries in the aqueous phase were accompanied by a decrease of PPP concentrations in macrophytes indicating kinetic desorption over time. This is the first study to provide quantitative data on how the interaction of dispersion and sorption, driven by aquatic macrophytes, influences the mitigation of PPP concentrations in flowing vegetated stream systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of vasoactive agents on flow through saphenous vein grafts during lower-extremity peripheral vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew D; Bert, Arthur; Slaiby, Jeffrey; Carney, William; Marcaccio, Edward

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hemodynamic alterations on vein graft flow during peripheral vascular surgery. It was hypothesized that vasopressors can be administered without compromising flow through the vein grafts. Tertiary care center, university medical center. Randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded study. The effects of phenylephrine, epinephrine, milrinone, intravenous fluid, and placebo on newly constructed peripheral vein grafts were assessed in 60 patients (12 patients in each of 5 groups). Systemic and central hemodynamics were measured by using intra-arterial and pulmonary artery catheters. Vein graft flow was measured by using a transultrasonic flow probe (Transultrasonic Inc, Ithaca, NY). Phenylephrine increased systemic mean blood pressure (mBP) (68.2-94.0 mmHg, p < 0.01), systemic vascular resistance (SVR) (1,091-1,696 dynes x sec x cm(-5), p < 0.001), and vein graft flow (39.5-58.9 mL/min, p < 0.01), whereas cardiac output remained unchanged. Epinephrine resulted in increased cardiac output (4.4-6.9 L/min, p < 0.01) and mBP (72.7-89.1 mmHg, p < 0.01), whereas vein graft flow was reduced in 6 of 12 patients. Intravenous fluid administration resulted in a relatively smaller increase in graft flow (37.6-46.0 mL/min, p < 0.05), an increase in cardiac output, and an insignificant decrease in SVR. Other treatments had either little or no effect on vein graft flow. The study hypothesis was partly supported. Although both phenylephrine and epinephrine increased blood pressure, only the former increased vein graft flow in all patients. In conjunction with increases in graft flow after fluid administration, these data suggest that factors affecting vein graft flow are not just simply related to systemic hemodynamics.

  17. A model for complex flows of soft glassy materials with application to flows through fixed fiber beds

    KAUST Repository

    Sarkar, Arijit

    2015-11-01

    © 2015 The Society of Rheology. The soft glassy rheology (SGR) model has successfully described the time dependent simple shear rheology of a broad class of complex fluids including foams, concentrated emulsions, colloidal glasses, and solvent-free nanoparticle-organic hybrid materials (NOHMs). The model considers a distribution of mesoscopic fluid elements that hop from trap to trap at a rate which is enhanced by the work done to strain the fluid element. While an SGR fluid has a broad exponential distribution of trap energies, the rheology of NOHMs is better described by a narrower energy distribution and we consider both types of trap energy distributions in this study. We introduce a tensorial version of these models with a hopping rate that depends on the orientation of the element relative to the mean stress field, allowing a range of relative strengths of the extensional and simple shear responses of the fluid. As an application of these models we consider the flow of a soft glassy material through a dilute fixed bed of fibers. The dilute fixed bed exhibits a range of local linear flows which alternate in a chaotic manner with time in a Lagrangian reference frame. It is amenable to an analytical treatment and has been used to characterize the strong flow response of many complex fluids including fiber suspensions, dilute polymer solutions and emulsions. We show that the accumulated strain in the fluid elements has an abrupt nonlinear growth at a Deborah number of order one in a manner similar to that observed for polymer solutions. The exponential dependence of the hopping rate on strain leads to a fluid element deformation that grows logarithmically with Deborah number at high Deborah numbers. SGR fluids having a broad range of trap energies flowing through fixed beds can exhibit a range of rheological behaviors at small Deborah numbers ranging from a yield stress, to a power law response and finally to Newtonian behavior.

  18. Validation of the flow-through chamber (FTC and steady-state (SS methods for clearance rate measurements in bivalves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul S. Larsen

    2011-09-01

    To obtain precise and reliable laboratory clearance rate (filtration rate measurements with the ‘flow-through chamber method’ (FTC the design must ensure that only inflow water reaches the bivalve's inhalant aperture and that exit flow is fully mixed. As earlier recommended these prerequisites can be checked by a plot of clearance rate (CR versus increasing through-flow (Fl to reach a plateau, which is the true CR, but we also recommend to plot percent particles cleared versus reciprocal through-flow where the plateau becomes the straight line CR/Fl, and we emphasize that the percent of particles cleared is in itself neither a criterion for valid CR measurement, nor an indicator of appropriate ‘chamber geometry’ as hitherto adapted in many studies. For the ‘steady-state method’ (SS, the design must ensure that inflow water becomes fully mixed with the bivalve's excurrent flow to establish a uniform chamber concentration prevailing at its incurrent flow and at the chamber outlet. These prerequisites can be checked by a plot of CR versus increasing Fl, which should give the true CR at all through-flows. Theoretically, the experimental uncertainty of CR for a given accuracy of concentration measurements depends on the percent reduction in particle concentration (100×P from inlet to outlet of the ideal ‘chamber geomety’. For FTC, it decreases with increasing values of P while for SS it first decreases but then increases again, suggesting the use of an intermediate value of P. In practice, the optimal value of P may depend on the given ‘chamber geometry’. The fundamental differences between the FTC and the SS methods and practical guidelines for their use are pointed out, and new data on CR for the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, illustrate a design and use of the SS method which may be employed in e.g. long-term growth experiments at constant algal concentrations.

  19. Comparative study of the discrete velocity and lattice Boltzmann methods for rarefied gas flows through irregular channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Lindsay, Scott; Liu, Haihu; Wu, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Rooted from the gas kinetics, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a powerful tool in modeling hydrodynamics. In the past decade, it has been extended to simulate rarefied gas flows beyond the Navier-Stokes level, either by using the high-order Gauss-Hermite quadrature, or by introducing the relaxation time that is a function of the gas-wall distance. While the former method, with a limited number of discrete velocities (e.g., D2Q36), is accurate up to the early transition flow regime, the latter method (especially the multiple relaxation time (MRT) LBM), with the same discrete velocities as those used in simulating hydrodynamics (i.e., D2Q9), is accurate up to the free-molecular flow regime in the planar Poiseuille flow. This is quite astonishing in the sense that less discrete velocities are more accurate. In this paper, by solving the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic equation accurately via the discrete velocity method, we find that the high-order Gauss-Hermite quadrature cannot describe the large variation in the velocity distribution function when the rarefaction effect is strong, but the MRT-LBM can capture the flow velocity well because it is equivalent to solving the Navier-Stokes equations with an effective shear viscosity. Since the MRT-LBM has only been validated in simple channel flows, and for complex geometries it is difficult to find the effective viscosity, it is necessary to assess its performance for the simulation of rarefied gas flows. Our numerical simulations based on the accurate discrete velocity method suggest that the accuracy of the MRT-LBM is reduced significantly in the simulation of rarefied gas flows through the rough surface and porous media. Our simulation results could serve as benchmarking cases for future development of the LBM for modeling and simulation of rarefied gas flows in complex geometries.

  20. Assessing honeybee and wasp thermoregulation and energetics-New insights by combination of flow-through respirometry with infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabentheiner, Anton, E-mail: anton.stabentheiner@uni-graz.at [Institut fuer Zoologie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 2, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kovac, Helmut, E-mail: he.kovac@uni-graz.at [Institut fuer Zoologie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 2, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Hetz, Stefan K. [Department of Animal Physiology/Systems Neurobiology and Neural Computation, Philippstrasse 13-Leonor Michaelis Haus, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, 10115 Berlin (Germany); Kaefer, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Gabriel [Institut fuer Zoologie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 2, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate the benefits of a combined use of infrared thermography with respiratory measurements in insect ecophysiological research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Infrared thermography enables repeated investigation of behaviour and thermoregulation without behavioural impairment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison with respirometry brings new insights into the mechanisms of energetic optimisation of bee and wasp foraging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods improves interpretation of respiratory traces in determinations of insect critical thermal limits. - Abstract: Endothermic insects like honeybees and some wasps have to cope with an enormous heat loss during foraging because of their small body size in comparison to endotherms like mammals and birds. The enormous costs of thermoregulation call for optimisation. Honeybees and wasps differ in their critical thermal maximum, which enables the bees to kill the wasps by heat. We here demonstrate the benefits of a combined use of body temperature measurement with infrared thermography, and respiratory measurements of energy turnover (O{sub 2} consumption or CO{sub 2} production via flow-through respirometry) to answer questions of insect ecophysiological research, and we describe calibrations to receive accurate results. To assess the question of what foraging honeybees optimise, their body temperature was compared with their energy turnover. Honeybees foraging from an artificial flower with unlimited sucrose flow increased body surface temperature and energy turnover with profitability of foraging (sucrose content of the food; 0.5 or 1.5 mol/L). Costs of thermoregulation, however, were rather independent of ambient temperature (13-30 Degree-Sign C). External heat gain by solar radiation was used to increase body temperature. This optimised foraging energetics by increasing suction speed. In determinations of insect respiratory critical thermal limits