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Sample records for tuberculosis universal stress

  1. Natural polyphenols down-regulate universal stress protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: An in-silico approach

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    M Vijey Aanandhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal stress protein (USP is a novel target to overcome the tuberculosis resistance. Our present study enlightens the possibilities of some natural polyphenols as an antioxidant for USP. The study has shown some molecular simulations of some selected natural antioxidants with USP. We have considered USP (Rv1636 strain for homology modeling and the selected template was taken for the docking study. Curcumin, catechin, reservetrol has shown ARG 136 (1.8Ε hydrogen bonding and two ionic bonding with carboxyl group of curcumin with LEU 130 (3.3Ε and ASN 144 (3.4Ε respectively. INH was taken for the standard molecule to perform molecular simulation. It showed poor binding interaction with the target, that is, −5.18 kcal, and two hydrogen bonding with SER 140 (1.887Ε, ARG 147 (2.064Ε respectively. The study indicates possible new generation curcumin analogue for future therapy to down-regulate USP.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Universal Stress Protein Rv2623 Regulates Bacillary Growth by ATP Binding: Requirement for Establishing Chronic Persistent Infection

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    Drumm, J.; Mi, K; Bilder, P; Sun, M; Lim, J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H; Basaraba, R; So, M; Zhu, G; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosisuniversal stress protein (USP) homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress, conditions thought to promote latency. Induction of rv2623 also occurs when M. tuberculosis encounters conditions associated with growth arrest, such as the intracellular milieu of macrophages and in the lungs of mice with chronic tuberculosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Rv2623 regulates tuberculosis latency. We observed that an Rv2623-deficient mutant fails to establish chronic tuberculous infection in guinea pigs and mice, exhibiting a hypervirulence phenotype associated with increased bacterial burden and mortality. Consistent with this in vivo growth-regulatory role, constitutive overexpression of rv2623 attenuates mycobacterial growth in vitro. Biochemical analysis of purified Rv2623 suggested that this mycobacterial USP binds ATP, and the 2.9-A-resolution crystal structure revealed that Rv2623 engages ATP in a novel nucleotide-binding pocket. Structure-guided mutagenesis yielded Rv2623 mutants with reduced ATP-binding capacity. Analysis of mycobacteria overexpressing these mutants revealed that the in vitro growth-inhibitory property of Rv2623 correlates with its ability to bind ATP. Together, the results indicate that i M. tuberculosis Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth in vitro and in vivo, and ii Rv2623 is required for the entry of the tubercle bacillus into the chronic phase of infection in the host; in addition, iii Rv2623 binds ATP; and iv the growth-regulatory attribute of this USP is dependent on its ATP-binding activity. We propose that Rv2623 may function as an ATP-dependent signaling intermediate in a pathway that promotes persistent infection.

  3. Tuberculosis among Students ofJimma University

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prospective studies among nursing and medical students have shown that ... Data were retrieved from the individual medical records and patients ..... Programming department. January 1998. Sudre P. Tendam G. Kochi A. Tuberculosis: a global overview of the situation today. Bull Tflrd Health. Organ 1992: ...

  4. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students

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    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  5. Spoligotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from tuberculosis diagnosed patients at Dilla University Referral Hospital and other private clinics, Southern Ethiopia

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    Gebremedhin Gebrezgabiher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis strains exsisting in Gedeo zone and the surrounding areas of the Southern Ethiopia using spoligotyping. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out from February, 2012 to June, 2013 and 97 (76 sputum and 21 fine needle aspirate samples were taken from tuberculosis diagnosed patients at Dilla University Referral Hospital and other private clinics. Culturing, region of difference (RD9 deletion typing and spoligotyping techniques were employed to isolate M. tuberculosis strains. Results: Growth of mycobacteria was observed in 35.1% (34/97. Speciation of isolates showed that 91.2% (31/34 of the isolates were M. tuberculosis. Further characterization led to the identification of 23 different spoligotype patterns of M. tuberculosis of which 61% and 39% displayed unique and cluster patterns, respectively. The most dominant shared type was spoligotype international type 53. Of the 23 strains, 12 have not been registered in the international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4. Seventy one percent of the strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage. Conclusions: This study revealed the existence of both genetically diverse and clustered M. tuberculosis strains from tuberculosis patients in the area, suggesting reactivation of infection and recent transmission, respectively. Molecular epidemiology of M. tuberculosis should be done nationwide in order to set appropriate control measures.

  6. Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrova, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    Classification of clinical forms of tuberculosis of respiratory organs is m ade. It is shown, that diagnosis, determination of the clinical form of pulmona ry tuberculosis, extent and phase of the process are mainly based on the data of roentgenologic studies and in certain cases tomography is preferable. Roentgenologic picture of primary tuberculosis, tuberculosis of intrathoracis l ymp nodes, dissemenated tuberculosis, focal and infiltrative tuberculosis of lungs, tuberculomas of lungs, cavernous and fibrocavernous form of pulmonary tub erculosis, cirrhotic tuberculosis of lungs, tuberculosis of upper respiratory tracks, tuberculous pleurite and tuberculosis of respiratory organs, combined wi th dust occupational diseases, has been described

  7. The profile of tuberculosis infection at the Babcock University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death from any single pathogen and it has consistently continued to be a major public health challenge globally. Data show that Nigeria ranks tenth among the 22 high tuberculosis burden countries. Aim: This study intends to describe the profile of tuberculosis infections in ...

  8. Induction of ER stress in macrophages of tuberculosis granulomas.

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    Tracie A Seimon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress pathway known as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR is an adaptive survival pathway that protects cells from the buildup of misfolded proteins, but under certain circumstances it can lead to apoptosis. ER stress has been causally associated with macrophage apoptosis in advanced atherosclerosis of mice and humans. Because atherosclerosis shares certain features with tuberculosis (TB with regard to lesional macrophage accumulation, foam cell formation, and apoptosis, we investigated if the ER stress pathway is activated during TB infection.Here we show that ER stress markers such as C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP; also known as GADD153, phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (Ire1α and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α, and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 are expressed in macrophage-rich areas of granulomas in lungs of mice infected with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. These areas were also positive for numerous apoptotic cells as assayed by TUNEL. Microarray analysis of human caseous TB granulomas isolated by laser capture microdissection reveal that 73% of genes involved in the UPR are upregulated at the mRNA transcript level. The expression of two ER stress markers, ATF3 and CHOP, were also increased in macrophages of human TB granulomas when assayed by immunohistochemistry. CHOP has been causally associated with ER stress-induced macrophage apoptosis. We found that apoptosis was more abundant in granulomas as compared to non-granulomatous tissue isolated from patients with pulmonary TB, and apoptosis correlated with CHOP expression in areas surrounding the centralized areas of caseation.In summary, ER stress is induced in macrophages of TB granulomas in areas where apoptotic cells accumulate in mice and humans. Although macrophage apoptosis is generally thought to be beneficial in initially protecting the host from Mtb infection, death of infected macrophages in

  9. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    C. Robert Horsburgh, Jr

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the published literature on tuberculosis from September 2012 to August 2013 and describes important advances in tuberculosis epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, clinical pharmacology, genetics, treatment and prevention.

  10. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad, Hatta

    2008-01-01

    This book chapter for medical students and researcher Tuberculosis is still one of the leading causes of death by infectious diseases with 2 million deaths per year and 9.2 million new cases of tuberculosis disease annually [1-3]. Besides, more than 2 milliard people are infected with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) [1-3]. Despite continuous effort in the prevention, monitoring and treatment of tuberculosis, the disease remains a major health problem in many countries [4-6...

  11. Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Tortello, Pablo

    1998-01-01

    The tuberculosis is an infection bacterial chronicle of world distribution. Three organisms of the family of the mycobacterium, the m. tuberculosis, the m. bovis and m. africanum, phenotypic and genetically similar, produce it, but only the m. tuberculosis has importance; the others rarely produce illness in the human. By definition, the lung tuberculosis is the localization of the m. tuberculosis in the breathing tract, the most common and main form in the affection and the only able to contaminate to other people. The koch bacillus, transmits the illness directly person to person. The paper Includes topics like pathogenesis, natural history, epidemiology, diagnose, symptomatology and treatment

  12. TUBERCULOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tarik Bajrović; Mahmud Nurkić; Šukrija Zvizdić

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis, known as the "White Plague" in the early 19th century, is the infectious disease, which is being researched today even in some of the most developed countries in the world. Epidemiological- epizootiological research points to the importance of pasteurizing milk as well as the transmission in aerosolized droplets in humans and animals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), M. bovis, M. africanum and M. microti are the mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis. Other mycobacteria cause dis...

  13. Perceived stress and bruxism in university students.

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    Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Carpinelli, Luna; Savarese, Giulia

    2016-12-21

    Many studies have shown the correlation between bruxism and stress that affects the quality of life of university students. The present study highlights this correlation-for the first time-in a group of university students in Italy. We have investigated the prevalence of awake and asleep bruxism and its correlation with perceived stress in a group of 278 Italian undergraduate students (117 M). A self report questionnaire was constructed using a socio-demographic test, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the item n. 8 of the Fonseca Questionnaire for presence of bruxism. The perceived stress score using PSS-10 scale was 32.2 (SD 4.6, 95% CL 31.6-32.7) for all the subjects, with significant gender difference: M = 31.2 and F = 32.9 (P = 0.0019). The prevalence for awake bruxism was 37.9% (F = 40.8%; M = 34.2%,), while for sleep bruxism was 31.8% (F = 33.3%; M = 29.1%), both without significant gender difference. A positive correlation, with significant concordance and dependence, between stress score and awake bruxism was present for male students only. University students showed higher bruxism and stress levels compared to the general population, with higher stress for females, but, even if female students show higher stress, a correlation between stress and bruxism exists only for male gender. Further studies should be performed.

  14. Tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Vorster, Mariza; Sathekge, Mike M

    Tuberculosis (TB) is currently the world's leading cause of infectious mortality. Imaging plays an important role in the management of this disease. The complex immune response of the human body to Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in a wide array of clinical manifestations, making clinical and

  15. Universal access to care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: an analysis of surveillance data.

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    Falzon, Dennis; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Wares, Fraser; Zignol, Matteo; Floyd, Katherine; Raviglione, Mario C

    2013-08-01

    The prospects for global tuberculosis control in the near future will be determined by the effectiveness of the response of countries to their burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR; resistance to, at least, isoniazid and rifampicin) tuberculosis. During the 2009 World Health Assembly, countries committed to achieve universal access to MDR-tuberculosis care by 2015. We assessed the progress towards the 2015 targets achieved by countries accounting for 90% of the estimated MDR-tuberculosis cases in the world in 2011. We analysed data reported to WHO by 30 countries expected to have more than 1000 MDR-tuberculosis cases among notified patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in 2011. In the 30 countries, 18% of the estimated MDR-tuberculosis cases were enrolled on treatment in 2011. Belarus, Brazil, Kazakhstan, Peru, South Africa, and Ukraine each detected and enrolled on treatment more than 50% of their estimated cases of MDR-tuberculosis. In Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Russia, enrolments increased steadily between 2009 and 2011 with a mean yearly change greater than 50%: however, in these countries enrolment in 2011 was low, ranging from 4% to 43% of the estimated cases. In the remaining countries (Afghanistan, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Mozambique, Burma, Nepal, Nigeria, North Korea, Pakistan, South Korea, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam) progress in detection and enrolment was slower. In 23 countries, a median of 53% (IQR 41-71) patients with MDR-tuberculosis successfully completed their treatment after starting it in 2008-09. Six countries (Belarus, Brazil, Kazakhstan, Peru, South Africa, and Ukraine) can achieve universal access to MDR-tuberculosis care by 2015 should they sustain their current pace of progress. In other countries a radical scale-up will be needed for them to have an effect on their MDR-tuberculosis burden. Unless barriers to diagnosis and successful

  16. Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an update on the manifestations and management of ocular tuberculosis. Tuberculosis affects one-third of the world's population. The incidence of tuberculosis has increased with the increase in the HIV infected population. Following a resurgence of the disease in the US, the incidence has recently declined. Patients may develop scleritis that can be focal, nodular or diffuse with or without keratitis. Anterior granulomatous uveitis may occur. The posterior segment reveals vitritis, choroiditis, and can mimic serpiginous choroiditis and other entities. Patients who are immunosuppressed or HIV infected may develop active mycobacterial disease in the eye leading to rapid destruction of the ocular structures. The diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis is made by isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Löwestein-Jensen medium or by PCR. The diagnosis is supported by the clinical findings, imaging techniques including optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green and ultrasonography. Tuberculin skin test helps to confirm the diagnosis. Ocular tuberculosis may occur in the absence of pulmonary disease. Patients present with a spectrum of clinical signs. The disease may mimic several clinical entities. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of ocular tuberculosis may prevent ocular morbidity and blindness.

  17. Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here, the primary infection has resolved, but the bacteria are dormant , or hibernating. When conditions become favorable (for instance, a lowered immunity), the bacteria become active. Tuberculosis in older children and adults ...

  18. Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Morán López

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad la incidencia de la tuberculosis ha aumentado. El Mycobacterium tuberculosis infecta frecuentemente a las personas con SIDA, debido a que en estos pacientes hay una reducción de la resistencia mediada por células T, lo que propicia que este bacilo pueda desarrollar la enfermedad con una frecuencia superior a la de las personas sanas. La transmisión de la enfermedad puede ser por vía directa, de un individuo afectado a otro, fundamentalmente por las gotitas de saliva que contengan a este microorganismo, o por vía indirecta por la inhalación del bacilo que se puede encontrar por meses en los objetos de uso diario, debido a su gran resistencia. Las micobacterias que producen tuberculosis en el hombre inmunocompetente son la Mycobacterium tuberculosis y la bovis, otros tipos pueden provocar tuberculosis en individuos inmunocomprometidos. La patogenicidad de este bacilo está relacionada con su capacidad para escapar de la destrucción inducida por los macrófagos y para provocar hipersensibilidad de tipo retardado. Esta enfermedad tiene muy pocas manifestaciones bucales, lo que se observa generalmente es una úlcera que toma como asiento fundamental el dorso de la lengua. La tuberculosis amenaza con convertirse en una enfermedad incurable por la deficiente administración de los programas contra ésta, por lo que la OMS plantea para su detección y tratamiento el DOTS (tratamiento observado directamente, de corta duración que comienza a tener resultados satisfactorios, aunque en el último quinquenio, el 88 % de los pacientes que se estimaban como infectados por tuberculosis no recibieron DOTS.At present, the incidence of tuberculosis is on the rise. Mycobacterium tuberculosis often infests AIDS patients due to the fact that these persons´T-cell mediated resistance is reduced, which favors the development of the disease at a higher rate than in healthy people. The disease can be transmitted directly, that is , from an

  19. DNA alkylation damage as a sensor of nitrosative stress in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Durbach, S I; Springer, B; Machowski, E E; North, R J; Papavinasasundaram, K G; Colston, M J; Böttger, E C; Mizrahi, V

    2003-01-01

    One of the cellular consequences of nitrosative stress is alkylation damage to DNA. To assess whether nitrosative stress is registered on the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mutants lacking an alkylation damage repair and reversal operon were constructed. Although hypersensitive to the genotoxic effects of N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in vitro, the mutants displayed no phenotype in vivo, suggesting that permeation of nitrosative stress to the level of cytotoxic DNA damage is res...

  20. Mindfulness, Stress, and Coping among University Students

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    Palmer, Angele; Rodger, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 135 first-year university students living in residence completed questionnaires that measured individual differences in mindfulness, coping styles, and perceived stress. Findings revealed significant positive relationships between mindfulness and rational coping, and significant negative relationships with emotional and avoidant coping…

  1. Workload and Stress in New Zealand Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sally; Wylie, Cathy

    This study examined the workloads of academic, general, support, library, and technical staff of New Zealand universities. It focused on current levels of workload, changes in workload levels and content, connections between workload and stress, and staff attitudes towards the effects of workload changes and educational reforms on the quality of…

  2. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre Tortello, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Por definición, la tuberculosis pulmonar es la localizaci6n del M. tuberculosis en el tracto respiratorio, la forma más común y principal de la afección y la única capaz de contagiar a otras personas. El M. tuberculosis, descubierto por Robert Koch en 1882, el bacilo de Koch, es un bacilo delgado, inmóvil, de 4 micras de longitud media, aerobio obligado, que se tiñe de rajo por la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen. Debido a la coraza lipídica de su pared, lo hace resistente a la decoloración con ácido...

  3. Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Latorre Tortello

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Por definición, la tuberculosis pulmonar es la localizaci6n del M. tuberculosis en el tracto respiratorio, la forma más común y principal de la afección y la única capaz de contagiar a otras personas. El M. tuberculosis, descubierto por Robert Koch en 1882, el bacilo de Koch, es un bacilo delgado, inmóvil, de 4 micras de longitud media, aerobio obligado, que se tiñe de rajo por la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen. Debido a la coraza lipídica de su pared, lo hace resistente a la decoloración con ácidos y alcohol, de ahí el nombre de bacilos ácido-alcohol resistente (BAAR. Su transmisión es directa, de persona a persona.

  4. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Latorre Tortello

    1998-01-01

    Por definición, la tuberculosis pulmonar es la localizaci6n del M. tuberculosis en el tracto respiratorio, la forma más común y principal de la afección y la única capaz de contagiar a otras personas. El M. tuberculosis, descubierto por Robert Koch en 1882, el bacilo de Koch, es un bacilo delgado, inmóvil, de 4 micras de longitud media, aerobio obligado, que se tiñe de rajo por la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen. Debido a la coraza lipídica de su pared, lo hace resistente a la decoloración con ácido...

  5. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Morán López; Yaima Lazo Amador

    2001-01-01

    En la actualidad la incidencia de la tuberculosis ha aumentado. El Mycobacterium tuberculosis infecta frecuentemente a las personas con SIDA, debido a que en estos pacientes hay una reducción de la resistencia mediada por células T, lo que propicia que este bacilo pueda desarrollar la enfermedad con una frecuencia superior a la de las personas sanas. La transmisión de la enfermedad puede ser por vía directa, de un individuo afectado a otro, fundamentalmente por las gotitas de saliva que conte...

  6. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Zuñiga, Marleny; Bastidas Párraga, Gustavo; León Untiveros, Paúl Albert

    2013-01-01

    La tuberculosis es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa producida por el bacilo de Koch, que ataca a los pulmones pero puede ser difuminada por todo el cuerpo. El siguiente artículo de información nos da una visión amplia de la detección, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la misma.

  7. Deciphering the metabolic response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to nitrogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kerstin J; Jenkins, Victoria A; Barton, Geraint R; Bryant, William A; Krishnan, Nitya; Robertson, Brian D

    2015-09-01

    A key component to the success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a pathogen is the ability to sense and adapt metabolically to the diverse range of conditions encountered in vivo, such as oxygen tension, environmental pH and nutrient availability. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for every organism, little is known about the genes and pathways responsible for nitrogen assimilation in M. tuberculosis. In this study we have used transcriptomics and chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing to address this. In response to nitrogen starvation, a total of 185 genes were significantly differentially expressed (96 up-regulated and 89 down regulated; 5% genome) highlighting several significant areas of metabolic change during nitrogen limitation such as nitrate/nitrite metabolism, aspartate metabolism and changes in cell wall biosynthesis. We identify GlnR as a regulator involved in the nitrogen response, controlling the expression of at least 33 genes in response to nitrogen limitation. We identify a consensus GlnR binding site and relate its location to known transcriptional start sites. We also show that the GlnR response regulator plays a very different role in M. tuberculosis to that in non-pathogenic mycobacteria, controlling genes involved in nitric oxide detoxification and intracellular survival instead of genes involved in nitrogen scavenging. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Rodríguez, D.

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculosis sigue constituyendo un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial con casi nueve millones de casos nuevos en 2012 y se estima que un tercio de la humanidad está infectada. A nivel nacional, si bien las tasas son alentadoras, la variación regional es muy importante. En los últimos años se han registrado progresos importantes tanto en el conocimiento de la conducta del bacilo de Koch, el causante de la enfermedad, como en los métodos para detectarlo. Así los IGRAS (Interferon G R...

  9. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalewayker Tegegne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. Objective. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Method. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from March to May, 2017. Stool samples were taken from each participant and examined by direct microscopy and concentration technique. Descriptive statistics was performed and chi-square test was used to show the association between variables. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Intestinal parasites were detected in 50 (19.6% among a total of 256 pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients who were included in the study, whereas the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 16.8% (43/256. Pulmonary tuberculosis and intestinal parasite coinfection was detected in 5 (2.0% of the participants. The most prevalent intestinal parasites infection in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides, 15 (5.85%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 14 (5.46%, and Hookworm, 13 (5.1%. Conclusion. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and their coinfection rate with pulmonary tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients were considerable.

  10. Stress in university students and cardiovascular response to academic stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Teresa; Silva, Ana Patrícia; Monteiro, Iolanda; Gomes, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: University students are frequently exposed to events that can cause stress and anxiety, producing elevated cardiovascular responses. Repeated exposure to academic stress has implications to students’ success and well-being and may contribute to the development of long-term health problems. Objective: To identify stress levels and coping strategies in university students and assess the impact of stress experience in heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: 17 university students, 1...

  11. Social Support and Stress among University Students in Jordan

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    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…

  12. Expression profile of mce4 operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis following environmental stress.

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    Rathor, Nisha; Garima, Kushal; Sharma, Naresh Kumar; Narang, Anshika; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Bose, Mridula

    2016-09-01

    The mce4 operon is one of the four mce operons with eight genes (yrbE4A, yrbE4B, mce4A, mce4B, mce4C, mce4D, mce4E and mce4F) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It expresses in the later phase of infection and imports cholesterol for long term survival of the bacilli. To cause latent infection, M. tuberculosis undergoes metabolic reprogramming of its genes to survive in the hostile environment like low availability of oxygen and nutrition depletion inside the host. To analyze real time expression profile of mce4 operon under various stress conditions. M. tuberculosis H37Rv was exposed to surface stress (0.1% SDS for 30min and 90min in late log and stationary phase of culture), hypoxia (5, 10, 15 and 20days) and grown in the presence of either glycerol or cholesterol as sole source of carbon. The expression profile of genes of mce4 operon was analyzed by real time PCR. Surface stress induced expression of mce4C and yrbE4B in late log phase on 30min and 90min exposure respectively. The SDS exposure for 30min induced mce4C, mce4D and mce4F in stationary phase. All eight genes were induced significantly on 10th and 15th days of hypoxia and in the presence of cholesterol. Hypoxia and cholesterol are potent factors for the expression of mce4 operon of M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Epidemiological profile of tuberculosis cases reported among health care workers at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil.

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    do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Galavote, Heleticia Scabelo; Brioshi, Ana Paula; Lacerda, Thamy; Fregona, Geisa; Detoni, Valdério do Valle; Lima, Rita de Cássia Duarte; Dietze, Reynaldo; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2008-08-01

    To describe the epidemiological profile of tuberculosis cases reported among health care workers in the Tuberculosis Control Program of the Cassiano Antonio of Moraes University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil. A retrospective descriptive study of secondary data was conducted between 2002 and 2006. Twenty-five cases of health care workers with tuberculosis were reported: 8 in nursing technicians (32%); 4 in doctors (16%); 3 in nurses (12%); 2 in radiology technicians (8%) and 8 in professionals from other categories (32%). Of those 25 health care workers, 14 (56%) were male and 11 (44%) were female. The incidence of the disease was highest among those from 35 to 39 years of age. The predominant clinical presentation was extrapulmonary (12 cases, 48%), followed by pulmonary (11 cases, 44%) and a combination of the two (2 cases, 8%). Regarding comorbidities, AIDS, alcoholism and smoking, respectively, were present in 33.3% of the study population. Outcomes were as follows: 22 cases of cure (88%); 2 transfers (8%); and 1 death (4%). The proportion of health care workers diagnosed with tuberculosis in the period studied was 2.53%. The results show the need for heath care workers who work in the tuberculosis control program to fill out the field "professional occupation" on the tuberculosis case registry database reporting forms. In addition, this situation draws attention to the need to implement an occupational tuberculosis control program.

  14. A Causal Relationship of Occupational Stress among University Employees.

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    Kaewanuchit, Chonticha; Muntaner, Carles; Isha, Nizam

    2015-07-01

    Occupational stress is a psychosocial dimension of occupational health concept on social determinants of health, especially, job & environmental condition. Recently, staff network of different government universities of Thailand have called higher education commission, and Ministry of Education, Thailand to resolve the issue of government education policy (e.g. wage inequity, poor welfare, law, and job & environment condition) that leads to their job insecurity, physical and mental health problems from occupational stress. The aim of this study was to investigate a causal relationship of occupational stress among the academic university employees. This cross sectional research was conducted in 2014 among 2,000 academic university employees at Thai government universities using stratified random sampling. Independent variables were wage, family support, periods of duty, and job & environmental condition. Dependent variable was stress. Job & environmental condition, as social and environmental factor, and periods of duty as individual factor had direct effect to stress (Pstress (P stress among academic university employees at moderate level.

  15. Stressing Academia? Stress-as-Offence-to-Self at Danish Universities

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    Opstrup, Niels; Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Academic work has traditionally been seen as relatively stress free. However, a growing number of studies have reported increases in occupational stress experienced by university researchers. In order to explain stress among this group, we build on a new perspective in occupational stress research: the so-called stress-as-offence-to-self…

  16. Sources of stress and coping strategies of Kenyan university athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sources of stress and coping strategies utilized by Kenyan university athletes. It was predicted that the sources of stress and coping strategies will not differ based on the university athletes' gender, age, and level of study. Data were collected through the use of modified version of ...

  17. Stressful life events and alcohol use among university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stressful life events are known to be associated with substance use, especially among young adults. In this study, the association between stressful life events and alcohol use among young adults pursuing university education in a university in Botswana was studied. A total of 312 young adults participated in the study ...

  18. PERCIVED STRESS AMONG PHYSICAL THERAPY STUDENTS OF ISRA UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Atiq ur Rehman memon; Shireen Rahat Khanzada; Kashmala khan; Jam Feroz; Hafiz Muhammad Hussain; Syed Zulqarnain Ali; Ahson Khwaja.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently increasing concern among stress is seen during health care undergraduate students but there is lack of such studies in physical therapy students in Pakistan. Higher stress levels the students in their education the effect of stress in physical therapy students throughout is well documented in western countries. This study aims at assessing the level of perceived stress among physical therapy students of Isra University. Method: It’s a Cross-sectional type of descriptiv...

  19. Social Support and Occupational Stress among University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, Saharay E.

    2011-01-01

    Occupational stress creates a negative impact both at the microlevel (i.e., individuals) and at the macrolevel (i.e., organization). This study investigated the role of protective factors of social support and religiosity on occupational stress among university employees. The study used data collected from participants ( N = 72) in a private…

  20. Stress level and academic performance of university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the relationship between level of stress and students' academic performance in Universities in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to select 300 students for the study. A “Students' Stress Level Questionnaire ...

  1. Level of Perceived Stress Among Lectures in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofoegbu, Felicia; Nwadiani, Mon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence on the level of stress among lecturers in Nigerian universities. On the whole eight universities were used for the study. A sample of 228 (123 male and 105 female) lecturers was selected according to the variables of age, sex, marital status, experience, domicile, areas of specialization,…

  2. Teaching Styles and Occupational Stress among Chinese University Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this research is to investigate the predictive power of occupational stress for teaching style among university faculty members. A sample of 144 faculty members from a large university in the People's Republic of China rated themselves on three ability scales and responded to the Thinking Styles in Teaching Inventory and to four…

  3. [TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION PREVALENCE AMONG NURSING DEGREE STUDENTS IN LA RIOJA UNIVERSITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perianes Rivada, Elena

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of contagious and infectious character that has harassed humanity throughout its history. Many studies say that health professionals and health degrees students as degree in nursing are exposed to a higher risk of transmission of TB to deal with patients who suffer from this disease in their jobs. Knowing the risk of acquiring infection by M. tuberculosis among students of the degree in nursing (GUE) from the University of La Rioja (UR); contrasting outcomes as they have made their formative period of clinical practice in hospitals or not. MEHODOLOGY: Observational study, descriptive, transversal and cutting, for which has been taken a representative sample of 106 students who carried an epidemiological-clinical questionnaire. After, according to criteria of participation and under informed consent, has been practiced them tuberculin test to see if they are infected or not causing by the tuberculosis bacillus. RESULTs: The final sample was 85 people, which were highly represented by women, whose average age was between 20 and 23 years old. The reading of the PT was managed to do in 28 from 37 students from 1st grade (75.7 %) and 45 from 48 students from 4th grade (93.75 %). The other participants not attended appointment agreed with them to perform reading, which accounted for 14.1% of abstention in the second part of the study. Response to the tuberculin globally compared, without taking into account other variables, didn't show differences in distribution between 1st and 4th grade students. The percentage of positive PT was 0 % between 1st grade students, while in 4th grade the percentage of infected with M. tuberculosis amounted to 2.22 %. The average size of indurdtions was 1.03 mm (±1.87) in students of 1st grade and 1.46 mm (±2.98) in the 4th grade, so that difference is not significant. The number of confirmed contacts with TB patients, or their samples, was more often in 4th grade students than 1st grade students (52 % vs

  4. PERCIVED STRESS AMONG PHYSICAL THERAPY STUDENTS OF ISRA UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiq ur Rehman memon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently increasing concern among stress is seen during health care undergraduate students but there is lack of such studies in physical therapy students in Pakistan. Higher stress levels the students in their education the effect of stress in physical therapy students throughout is well documented in western countries. This study aims at assessing the level of perceived stress among physical therapy students of Isra University. Method: It’s a Cross-sectional type of descriptive study that was conducted on hundred physical therapy students of Isra institute of rehabilitation sciences, ISRA University, Hyderabad. A Convenient, non-probability technique of sampling is used. All the Physical therapy students were included. Results: Overall response rate was 100%. Moderate level of stress was found in 73% students (scored between 51-75%, severe level of stress was found in 8% students (scored >75% whereas low level of stress was found in 19% of students (scored between 25-50%. Conclusion: The current study presents the level of stress perceived by physical therapy students of Isra University, Hyderabad. The findings of the study revealed higher levels of stress in the physical therapy students. Majority of student perceived moderate stress and about 8% of students reported severe stress. Further detailed and generalized studies are needed to evaluate the causes, effects and coping approaches adapted by the students. Furthermore level of stress should also be correlated with academic performance of the students. Findings of such studies may help to initiate certain strategies that may help students overcome their stress and cope efficiently with the upcoming problems.

  5. A Causal Relationship of Occupational Stress among University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAEWANUCHIT, Chonticha; MUNTANER, Carles; ISHA, Nizam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occupational stress is a psychosocial dimension of occupational health concept on social determinants of health, especially, job & environmental condition. Recently, staff network of different government universities of Thailand have called higher education commission, and Ministry of Education, Thailand to resolve the issue of government education policy (e.g. wage inequity, poor welfare, law, and job & environment condition) that leads to their job insecurity, physical and mental health problems from occupational stress. The aim of this study was to investigate a causal relationship of occupational stress among the academic university employees. Methods: This cross sectional research was conducted in 2014 among 2,000 academic university employees at Thai government universities using stratified random sampling. Independent variables were wage, family support, periods of duty, and job & environmental condition. Dependent variable was stress. Results: Job & environmental condition, as social and environmental factor, and periods of duty as individual factor had direct effect to stress (Pstress (P stress among academic university employees at moderate level. PMID:26576371

  6. Psychological stress among dental students at the University of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghazaleh, Suha B; Rajab, Lamis D; Sonbol, Hawazen N

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of psychological stress as well as the perceived sources of stress among undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan. The top perceived stressors were compared with those of a previous study that examined the perceived sources of stress among undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan in the year 2000. Psychological stress was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Perceived sources of stress were evaluated using the Dental Environment Stress questionnaire. In the study, 520 students completed the questionnaires, for a response rate of 74 percent. These students showed a high level of psychological stress, with 70 percent at the cutoff point of a score of more than 3 for the GHQ-12. Women had a higher level of stress than men: 73 percent scored more than 3 on the GHQ-12 vs. 63 percent for men, which was statistically significant at p=0.05. The top perceived sources of stress from the year 2000 were mostly unaltered in our study, despite a substantial increase in the number of students as well as changes in the curriculum. Further research is needed into methods to minimize stress on dental students.

  7. Oxidative Stress Markers in Tuberculosis and HIV/TB Co-Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajopadhye, Shreewardhan Haribhau; Mukherjee, Sandeepan R; Chowdhary, Abhay S; Dandekar, Sucheta P

    2017-08-01

    Dysfunction of redox homeostasis has been implicated in many pathological conditions. An imbalance of pro- and anti-oxidants have been observed in Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbidities especially HIV/AIDS. The pro inflammatory milieu in either condition aggravates the physiological balance of the redox mechanisms. The present study therefore focuses on assessing the redox status of patients suffering from TB and HIV-TB co-infection. To assess the oxidative stress markers in the HIV-TB and TB study cohort. The current prospective study was conducted in Haffkine Institute, Parel, Maharashtra, India, during January 2013 to December 2015. Blood samples from 50 patients each suffering from active TB and HIV-TB co-infection were collected from Seth G.S.Medical College and KEM Hospital Mumbai and Group of Tuberculosis Hospital, Sewree Mumbai. Samples were processed and the experiments were carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, Haffkine Institute. Samples from 50 healthy volunteers were used as controls. Serum was assessed for pro-oxidant markers such as Nitric Oxide (NO), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Species (TBARS), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), superoxide anion. Antioxidant markers such as catalase and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were assessed. Total serum protein, was also assessed. Among the pro-oxidants, serum NO levels were decreased in TB group while no change was seen in HIV-TB group. TBARS and CRP levels showed significant increase in both groups; superoxide anion increased significantly in HIV-TB group. Catalase levels showed decreased activities in TB group. SOD activity significantly increased in HIV-TB but not in TB group. The total serum proteins were significantly increased in HIV-TB and TB groups. The values of Control cohort were with the normal reference ranges. In the present study, we found the presence of oxidative stress to be profound in the TB and HIV-TB co-infection population.

  8. Knowledge and attitudes towards tuberculosis in non medical students University of Belgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolovic, Milos; Pesut, Dragica; Bulajic, Milica; Simic, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Population's knowledge on tuberculosis (TB) is crucial in early seeking of medical care. Delay in diagnosis for any reason contributes to advanced forms and TB transmission in the community. Knowledge about TB in general population of Serbia is poor, including vulnerable groups. to assess knowledge about TB in a group of non medical students in University of Belgrade, their attitudes towards TB patients, sources of medical information they use or desire. Observational, questionnaire based study. University students of the Faculty of Organizational Science and Faculty of Geography completed the 27-item questionnaires voluntarily and anonymously. The questions related to TB etiology, way of transmission, risk factors and the source of health information students preffer. Statistical analysis was performed. All the participants (69 students aged 20 +/- 0.777 years, 69.7% male, 30.3% female) previously heard about TB, mostly describing it as pulmonary disease. Only 22 (31.88%) selected bacillus as the only cause of TB, and 20% selected answer "I do not know". TB is curable (95%). One third does not know about TB symptoms and 45/69 (65%) think that TB is an infectious disease. Majority (78.3%) would pay visit to TB patient, 1/2 with fear of infection that is in positive correlation with knowledge on infectiousness (p=0.041). Television is the most common used source of health information. Students have the greatest confidence in doctors' information. Students' knowledge on TB is inadequate, especially on its cause and way of transmission. More effort is needed in university students' health education.

  9. Universal public finance of tuberculosis treatment in India: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T

    2015-03-01

    Universal public finance (UPF)-government financing of an intervention irrespective of who is receiving it-for a health intervention entails consequences in multiple domains. First, UPF increases intervention uptake and hence the extent of consequent health gains. Second, UPF generates financial consequences including the crowding out of private expenditures. Finally, UPF provides insurance either by covering catastrophic expenditures, which would otherwise throw households into poverty or by preventing diseases that cause them. This paper develops a method-extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA)-for evaluating the consequences of UPF in each of these domains. It then illustrates ECEA with an evaluation of UPF for tuberculosis treatment in India. Using plausible values for key parameters, our base case ECEA concludes that the health gains and insurance value of UPF would accrue primarily to the poor. Reductions in out-of-pocket expenditures are more uniformly distributed across income quintiles. A variant on our base case suggests that lowering costs of borrowing for the poor could potentially achieve some of the health gains of UPF, but at the cost of leaving the poor more deeply in debt. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley Ltd.

  10. Mortality of patients hospitalized for active tuberculosis in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohaney, Ahmed A

    2018-03-01

    To determine the mortality rates and predictors among patients hospitalized with active tuberculosis (TB) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah. A retrospective study was performed on 291 active TB patients hospitalized in KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from December 2011 to December 2016. Medical records were collected and evaluated using a dedicated data extraction sheet. The records included demographics, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and drug resistance data. Of the 291 patients, 168 had pulmonary TB, 39 had extrapulmonary TB, and 84 had both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. After a mean hospital stay of 1.74 months, 85.9% were successfully treated and discharged. However, 14% died in the hospital after a mean stay of 1.87 months. Predictors of inpatient TB mortality were older age, congestive heart failure, renal failure, diabetes mellitus, chronic lung disease, hepatitis B virus infection, bilateral pulmonary TB, miliary TB, pleural effusion, and leukopenia. In particular, a logistic regression model revealed a mortality probability of 90% in patients older than 65 with congestive heart failure and bilateral lung involvement. However, drug resistance did not significantly affect the mortality rate. Conclusions: The inpatient TB mortality rate was lower than mortality rates described previously. Nevertheless, early recognition, appropriate treatments, and education for patients and caregivers concerning treatment, efficient medical management, and effective preventive measures can further reduce mortality.

  11. Comprehensive Definition of the SigH Regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveals Transcriptional Control of Diverse Stress Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared D Sharp

    Full Text Available Expression of SigH, one of 12 Mycobacterium tuberculosis alternative sigma factors, is induced by heat, oxidative and nitric oxide stresses. SigH activation has been shown to increase expression of several genes, including genes involved in maintaining redox equilibrium and in protein degradation. However, few of these are known to be directly regulated by SigH. The goal of this project is to comprehensively define the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes and operons that are directly controlled by SigH in order to gain insight into the role of SigH in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. We used ChIP-Seq to identify in vivo SigH binding sites throughout the M. tuberculosis genome, followed by quantification of SigH-dependent expression of genes linked to these sites and identification of SigH-regulated promoters. We identified 69 SigH binding sites, which are located both in intergenic regions and within annotated coding sequences in the annotated M. tuberculosis genome. 41 binding sites were linked to genes that showed greater expression following heat stress in a SigH-dependent manner. We identified several genes not previously known to be regulated by SigH, including genes involved in DNA repair, cysteine biosynthesis, translation, and genes of unknown function. Experimental and computational analysis of SigH-regulated promoter sequences within these binding sites identified strong consensus -35 and -10 promoter sequences, but with tolerance for non-consensus bases at specific positions. This comprehensive identification and validation of SigH-regulated genes demonstrates an extended SigH regulon that controls an unexpectedly broad range of stress response functions.

  12. Comprehensive Definition of the SigH Regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveals Transcriptional Control of Diverse Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Jared D; Singh, Atul K; Park, Sang Tae; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Peterson, Matthew W; Gomes, Antonio L C; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Raman, Sahadevan; Galagan, James E; Husson, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    Expression of SigH, one of 12 Mycobacterium tuberculosis alternative sigma factors, is induced by heat, oxidative and nitric oxide stresses. SigH activation has been shown to increase expression of several genes, including genes involved in maintaining redox equilibrium and in protein degradation. However, few of these are known to be directly regulated by SigH. The goal of this project is to comprehensively define the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes and operons that are directly controlled by SigH in order to gain insight into the role of SigH in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. We used ChIP-Seq to identify in vivo SigH binding sites throughout the M. tuberculosis genome, followed by quantification of SigH-dependent expression of genes linked to these sites and identification of SigH-regulated promoters. We identified 69 SigH binding sites, which are located both in intergenic regions and within annotated coding sequences in the annotated M. tuberculosis genome. 41 binding sites were linked to genes that showed greater expression following heat stress in a SigH-dependent manner. We identified several genes not previously known to be regulated by SigH, including genes involved in DNA repair, cysteine biosynthesis, translation, and genes of unknown function. Experimental and computational analysis of SigH-regulated promoter sequences within these binding sites identified strong consensus -35 and -10 promoter sequences, but with tolerance for non-consensus bases at specific positions. This comprehensive identification and validation of SigH-regulated genes demonstrates an extended SigH regulon that controls an unexpectedly broad range of stress response functions.

  13. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students’ stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating. PMID:26561825

  14. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-11-06

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students' stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating.

  15. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students’ stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables, and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index. Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating.

  16. Pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with chronic renal failure at Zagazig University Hospitals

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    Abdelreheem I. Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients with chronic renal failure are at increased risk for pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis and should be screened routinely and carefully for early detection of TB infection.

  17. Stress factors affecting academic physicians at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Sara; Eintrei, Christina; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Research is limited regarding occupational stress in academic physicians; professionals whose work situation includes the three areas of clinical practice, research, and teaching. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of factors experienced as stressful by academic physicians employed by a university hospital. A questionnaire assessing the frequency and intensity of 36 potentially stressful factors was sent to all 157 academic physicians who were employed at the Linköping University Hospital, Sweden. The response rate was 77%. Both a high frequency and intensity of stress was experienced by 66% of the academic physicians in relation to "time pressure" and by almost 50% in connection with both "find time for research" and having "conflict of interest between different work assignments". Moreover, physicians in the higher age group and those who had attained a higher academic position experienced less stress. The female participants experienced more stress than the males due to gender-related problems and to variables associated with relationships at work. More knowledge is needed to determine the consequences of this finding and to identify coping strategies used for handling such stress.

  18. Stress, alcohol use and work engagement among university workers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... workplace alcohol use and work engagement among 228 University of Nigeria, Nsukka, workers. The results of the regression analyses showed that job stress significantly predicted workplace alcohol use (â = .17, p < .01). Workplace alcohol use also significantly predicted employee work engagement (â = -.35, p < .001).

  19. Academic Performance and Perceived Stress among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Nadeem; Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of factor such as perceived stress on the academic performance of the students. A sample of 199 university graduates and undergraduates in Rawalpindi and Islamabad was selected as a statistical frame. Instrumentation used for this study is previously validated construct in order to evaluate the effect of…

  20. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students' stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810...... undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index......). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent...

  1. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Personalized Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Emerging Role of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Mokondjimobe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives were (i to evaluate the impact of acute pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and anti-TB therapy on the relationship between AST, ALT, and GGT levels in absence of conditions related to hepatotoxicity; (ii to evaluate the rate and the time of alterations of AST, ALT, and GGT. Design and Methods. A prospective followup of 40 adults (21 males; mean age of 34.7±5.8 years with active PTB on initial phase and continuation phase anti-TB. Results. Only 3% (n=1 developed a transient and benign ADR at day 30 without interruption of anti-TB treatment. Within normal ranges, GGT decreased significantly from day 0 to day 60, while AST and ALT increased significantly and respectively. During day 0–day 60, there was a significant, negative, and independent association between GGT and AST. Conclusion. The initial two months led to significant improvement of oxidative stress. Values of oxidative markers in normal ranges might predict low rate of ADR.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  3. Correlates of depression, anxiety and stress among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Fadzil, Fariza; Ismail, Wan Salwina Wan; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Omar, Khairani; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Jaffar, Aida; Ismail, Aniza; Mahadevan, Raynuha

    2013-08-01

    University students face not only challenges related with independent living, but also academic challenges. This predisposes them to depression, anxiety and stress, which are fairly common. The aim was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, and identify their correlates among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 506 students between the ages of 18 and 24 years from four public universities in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Through an anonymous, self administered questionnaire, they were assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Data on socio-demographic, family characteristics and living arrangement were also obtained. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to explore association between these aspects. Analysis showed among all students, 27.5% had moderate, and 9.7% had severe or extremely severe depression; 34% had moderate, and 29% had severe or extremely severe anxiety; and 18.6% had moderate and 5.1% had severe or extremely severe stress scores based on the DASS-21 inventory. Both depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above) and those born in rural areas. Whereas, higher stress scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above), females, Malays and those whose family had either low or high incomes compared to those with middle incomes. The prevalence of anxiety is much higher than either depression or stress, with some differences in their correlates except for age. These differences need to be further explored for development of better intervention programs and appropriate support services targeting this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. US College and University Student Health Screening Requirements for Tuberculosis and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Amy; Bell, Teal; Cohen, Nicole J.; Buckley, Kirsten; Leino, E. Victor; Even, Susan; Beavers, Suzanne; Brown, Clive; Marano, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Colleges are at risk for communicable disease outbreaks because of the high degree of person-to-person interactions and relatively crowded dormitory settings. This report describes the US college student health screening requirements among US resident and international students for tuberculosis (TB) and vaccine-preventable diseases…

  5. Physician health, stress and gender at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, B; Ahmad, F; Stewart, D E

    2003-02-01

    To determine personal and work related factors contributing to physician health and stress in men and women physicians in a university hospital. Mail survey of 161 hospital-based Canadian academic physicians (51 women, 110 men). Women compared to men, physicians were younger (M = 43 years, S.D. = 7.4 vs. M = 48 years, S.D. = 8.64; P = .001) and fewer had spouses (76% vs. 90%; P = .01) and children (76% vs. 91%; P = .02). A five-item scale measured somatic symptoms, the dependent variable. Among physicians of both gender, the somatic symptoms scale was significantly correlated with satisfaction with amount of time spent working and scales of mental health (five items), work satisfaction (five items), workload (five items), healthy lifestyle (five items), coping abilities (three items) and support-in-stress (two items). On stepwise regression analysis, for women physicians, 70% of the variance in somatic symptoms was explained by support from colleagues when stressed, and workload. For men, 42% of the variance was explained by healthy lifestyle, mental health, support from colleagues when stressed, and workload. Regardless of gender, the majority of physicians reported an excessive workload but the sources of support when stressed varied by gender. Different strategies are needed for women and men physicians to reduce their stress levels. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Inc.

  6. A Causal Relationship of Occupational Stress among University Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Chonticha KAEWANUCHIT; Carles MUNTANER; Nizam ISHA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occupational stress is a psychosocial dimension of occupational health concept on social determinants of health, especially, job & environmental condition. Recently, staff network of different government universities of Thailand have called higher education commission, and Ministry of Education, Thailand to resolve the issue of gov-ernment education policy (e.g. wage inequity, poor welfare, law, and job & environment condition) that leads to their job insecurity, physical ...

  7. Work stress among university teachers: gender and position differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slišković, Ana; Maslić Seršić, Darja

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to stress at work in university teachers and see if there were differences between men and women as well as between positions. The study was carried out online and included a representative sample of 1,168 teachers employed at universities in Croatia. This included all teaching positions: assistants (50%), assistant professors (18%), associate professors (17%), and full professors (15%). Fifty-seven percent of the sample were women. The participants answered a questionnaire of our own design that measured six groups of stressors: workload, material and technical conditions at work, relationships with colleagues at work, work with students, work organisation, and social recognition and status. Women reported greater stress than men. Assistant professors, associate professors, and full professors reported greater stress related to material and technical conditions of work and work organisation than assistants, who, in turn, found relationships with colleagues a greater stressor. Full professors, reported lower exposure to stress at work than associate professors, assistant professors, and assistants.

  8. Extent and sources of occupational stress in university staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Caroline; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Ivers, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Canadian higher education sector has undergone numerous changes during the past decades. Increased student enrolments, massive cuts in human resources and constant restructuring are changes likely to have had a considerable impact on all employees (e.g., administrative, trades, and faculty). While many studies conducted in different countries have shown that stress in universities is a problem of alarming proportions, to date, no study of the entire staff of a university has been carried out in Canada. This research uses an approach based on the prevention and management of the sources of occupational stress to study 1086 employees of a Quebec university. Data were collected by means of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. It was found that the proportion of individuals who reported a high level of psychological distress was twice as high (40%) than that reported for a Quebec-wide sample (20%). Work overload, the relationship with one's superior and participation in decision making were systematically reported as high risks to employees' health. It was found that human resources management practices have not followed the rapid organizational changes which affected the university in the past years. The results are discussed in light of the risk management approach.

  9. Effect of smoking on acute phase reactants, stress hormone responses and vitamin C in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opolot, John O; Theron, Annette J; MacPhail, Patrick; Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2017-06-01

    Chronic inflammation, possibly exacerbated by cigarette smoking, is considered to be the primary cause of pulmonary damage in patients with tuberculosis (TB). However, the mechanisms which underpin these harmful inflammatory responses, have not been well documented. The current study was undertaken to determine possible associations between systemic biomarkers of inflammation (acute phase reactants, stress hormones, leukocyte vitamin C) and smoking status in patients (n=71, 20 smokers) with newly-diagnosed pulmonary TB presenting at a tertiary hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and leukocyte vitamin C were measured using a combination of immunonephelometric, radioimmunoassay, immunochromatographic and spectrophotometric procedures. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data was captured and analysed by parametric and non-parametric analyses where appropriate. Smokers were predominantly males (P<0.0001), of older age (P<0.0003) with a significantly lower body mass index (P<0.03). Plasma levels of CRP, ferritin and dopamine were higher in the group of smokers in the setting of lower levels of epinephrine, and leukocyte vitamin C, with CRP and vitamin C attaining statistical significance (P<0.04 and P<0.02 respectively). Those of cortisol and norepinephrine were comparable to those of non-smokers, as were radiographic changes and clinical indices of disease activity. Cigarette smoking is associated with an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response in pulmonary TB in the setting of decreased concentrations of leukocyte vitamin C. Although no significant associations with radiographic changes and most clinical indices of disease activity were evident on presentation, these pro-inflammatory interactions may have prognostic significance.

  10. E1 of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase defends Mycobacterium tuberculosis against glutamate anaplerosis and nitroxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymiuk, Christina; Balakrishnan, Anand; Bryk, Ruslana; Rhee, Kyu Y; Nathan, Carl F

    2015-10-27

    Enzymes of central carbon metabolism (CCM) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) make an important contribution to the pathogen's virulence. Evidence is emerging that some of these enzymes are not simply playing the metabolic roles for which they are annotated, but can protect the pathogen via additional functions. Here, we found that deficiency of 2-hydroxy-3-oxoadipate synthase (HOAS), the E1 component of the α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) dehydrogenase complex (KDHC), did not lead to general metabolic perturbation or growth impairment of Mtb, but only to the specific inability to cope with glutamate anaplerosis and nitroxidative stress. In the former role, HOAS acts to prevent accumulation of aldehydes, including growth-inhibitory succinate semialdehyde (SSA). In the latter role, HOAS can participate in an alternative four-component peroxidase system, HOAS/dihydrolipoyl acetyl transferase (DlaT)/alkylhydroperoxide reductase colorless subunit gene (ahpC)-neighboring subunit (AhpD)/AhpC, using α-KG as a previously undescribed source of electrons for reductase action. Thus, instead of a canonical role in CCM, the E1 component of Mtb's KDHC serves key roles in situational defense that contribute to its requirement for virulence in the host. We also show that pyruvate decarboxylase (AceE), the E1 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHC), can participate in AceE/DlaT/AhpD/AhpC, using pyruvate as a source of electrons for reductase action. Identification of these systems leads us to suggest that Mtb can recruit components of its CCM for reactive nitrogen defense using central carbon metabolites.

  11. TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DYSFUNCTION, STRESS AND COMMON MENTAL DISORDER IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Viviane Gontijo; Perina, Keity Cristina Bueno; Penha, Daniel Silva Gontijo; Dos Santos, Daiane Carolina Alves; Oliveira, Valéria Aparecida Souza

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) and its association with perceived stress and common mental disorder (CMD) in academic students. This is s transversal observational study conducted at Universidade de Minas Gerais , Divinópolis Unit, in health science courses. To investigate the prevalence of TMD, the anamnestic index by Fonseca was used. Stress was assessed by the perceived stress scale, translated and adapted for the Brazilian population in 2006. To track CMD, we used the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0, adopting a 5% significance level. The prevalence of TMD in the sample was 71.9%, distributed as follows: Light TMD (50.0%), moderate (16.4%) and severe (5.5%), being more frequent among women (76.4%). Common mental disorders were present in 29.9% of participants. The average perceived stress was 30.9. The results of this study allow us to conclude that there is a statistically significant correlation between TMD and variables such as parafunctional habits, perceived stress and CMD. Level of Evidence II, Development of diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients (with universally applied reference "gold" standard).

  12. The psychological role of music listening in emotion regulation for stress coping amongst university students

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the psychological influence of music listening among university students to assist them to cope with stress. University students often suffer high levels of stress. Music is an important accompaniment for the lives of university students, and it plays a significant role in their stress coping strategies and emotion regulation. The aim of the current research is to examine how university students use music to manage their stress. The researcher was keen to understand u...

  13. Tuberculosis genitourinaria: Reporte de 9 casos en el Hospital Universitario de Santander, Colombia, 2003-2008 Genitourinary tuberculosis: A report of 9 cases in Santander University Hospital, Colombia, 2003-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Mantilla Hernández

    2009-08-01

    assess the magnitude at institutional level. Objective: Summarize the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory data, along patients with tuberculosis as cause of death and genitourinary tuberculosis as autopsy main finding. Methodology: A retrospective- descriptive study based on the autopsy records of the Department of Pathology of the University Industrial of Santander of 9 patients deceased from tuberculosis in the University Hospital of Santander between 2003 and 2008. Results: The range patient age was between 20 and 66 years, 8 were men and 5 had AIDS. The most common clinical manifestations were the constitutional symptoms, followed by respiratory, urinary, lumbar pain, and testicular symptoms. The anatomo-pathological and histo-pathological findings at the time of the autopsy made the diagnosis. Conclusions: Genitourinary tuberculosis is a severe form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, which due to its unspecific clinical picture, has a low suspicious index, resulting inconveninet, since it does not allow a timely diagnosis, or treatment to prevent irreversible severe damages. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 181-196

  14. What to Do about Being Overwhelmed: Graduate Students, Stress and University Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Riddock, Christina C.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined graduate students and stress. At a large, Southeastern university, 223 graduate students completed a survey about factors contributing their stress, current coping strategies and related university services. A majority felt stressed (48.9%) or very stressed (24.7%). There were significant differences in coping strategies…

  15. STRESS AND FUTURE CAREER ASPIRATIONS AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yavuzaslan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It isevidentthat everyday life stressesmaycause changes in the systematic cycleof human kind. It has been proven that universitystudents have been carrying“future goal concerns” with them sincethe start of their university experience.Studyingin Turkish universitieshas allowed university students to undertake theprocess of finding a job in either the public or private sector with ease at the endof their studies, as demonstrated by the TUIK (Turkey Statistic Intuition.However,in the last fewyears, unemployment rates havebeen increasingrapidly.The increasing number of students enrolled at universitiescould be a contributingfactor to high unemployment rates. According to the statisticsof theTurkishHigher Education,in2000-2001, 1.5 million students wereenrolledto study. In2015-2016, 6.7million students wereenrolled. Therefore, students will be facedwithgreatercompetitionin finding employment. This is of great concern to theuniversity student and his/her future career plans, especially during a time of sloweconomic growth. Students who arejob hunting under these circumstances areunder immense pressure. This paper addresses a number of factors– social andeconomic, academic – which may be stressful to students in Turkey. The role andresponsibility of societyin this regard is also reiterated.The aim of this study is to examine the factors that constitute sources of stressforTurkish university students and to provide suggestions for solution. Therefore the method of this study includes surveys carried out among students of variousuniversity programs in Turkey and is based on statistical data. As a result of thestudy, the effect of stress factors will be evaluated and suggestions for openingrelevant programs and courses at state and private universities will be given aswell as a solution through the support of entrepreneurship will be recommended.

  16. Work-related stress and cognitive enhancement among university teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, Constantin; Sattler, Sebastian; Göritz, Anja S; Diewald, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Working conditions of academic staff have become increasingly complex and occupational exposure has risen. This study investigates whether work-related stress is associated with the use of prescription drugs for cognitive enhancement (CE). The study was designed around three web-based surveys (n1 = 1131; n2 = 936; n3 = 906) to which university teachers at four German universities were asked to respond. It assessed past CE-drug use and the willingness to use CE-drugs as factors influencing future use. Overlap among participants across the surveys allowed for analyses of stability of the results across time. Our study suggests a currently very low prevalence of CE-drug use as well as a low willingness to use such drugs. The results showed a strong association between perceptions of work-related stress and all measures of CE-drug use (when controlling for potential confounding factors). They also showed that past use of CE-drugs increased participants' willingness to use them again in the future, as did lower levels of social support. Two different measures showed that participants' moral qualms against the use of CE-drugs decreased their probability of using them. The results increase our knowledge about the prevalence of CE-drug use and our understanding of what motivates and inhibits the use of CE-drug.

  17. The Influence of Perceived Stress, Loneliness, and Learning Burnout on University Students' Educational Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Bryce E.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.

    2015-01-01

    University is a pivotal period in a young adult's life; however, for some, university may be a recipe for disaster due to the stress and pressures that come along with university education. The purpose of the present study was to examine students' feelings of stress, loneliness, and levels of learning burnout in order to determine if these factors…

  18. Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Tuberculosis Go to Information for Researchers ► Tuberculosis (TB) is ... are drug resistant. Why Is the Study of Tuberculosis a Priority for NIAID? Tuberculosis is one of ...

  19. Stress and Time Management Settings in University of Maroua, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph BESONG BESONG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine stress and time in educational management in Maroua University. These two phenomena are profound in educational issues in Cameroon due to the complex administration or management. Education comprised of diversity of activities ranging from administration, discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning. Each of these activities requires time schedule to avoid stress in the face of pressure. Administration requires planning, organizing, controlling, commanding, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. Each of these managing variables requires time, just as discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning should need. The situation may be affected by higher authority interference and cause a rush thus affecting every schedule in the system on this note, it is necessary that every administrator on management cadre should develop a list of activities such as admissions, examinations, sports, vacations and other ceremonies which requires his attention on daily, weekly, or monthly bases and there after allocate in a tentative fashion the most appropriate times for dealing with such activities. Some profile recommendations are: strict adhering to schedules to avoid overlapping or prolongation to other programs; the schedules should be pasted or placed at a convenient point in the office for reference to avoid forgetfulness: as an administrator, time should be allocated for meeting or consulting with visitors and subordinates; he should delegate functions to his accredited subordinates to crave chance or time for essential duty; he should review the school or organization programs on daily, weekly or monthly bases the degree to which his administration goals have been attained and he (i.e. administrator should crave time for rest i.e. holidays, relaxation and various forms of physical exercises to revitalizes the body for subsequent activities. The paper recommends planning which is vital in management to avoid time waste

  20. Is Universal Screening Necessary? Incidence of Tuberculosis among Tibetan Refugees Arriving in Calgary, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rachel; Jarand, Julie; Field, Stephen K; Fisher, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Background . Canadian policy requires refugees with a history of tuberculosis (TB) or abnormal chest radiograph to be screened after arrival for TB. However, Tibetan refugees are indiscriminately screened, regardless of preimmigration assessment. We sought to determine the incidence of latent (LTBI) and active TB, as well as treatment-related outcomes and associations between preimmigration factors and TB infection among Tibetan refugees arriving in Calgary, Alberta. Design . Retrospective cohort study including Tibetan refugees arriving between 2014 and 2016. Associations between preimmigration factors and incidence of latent and active TB were determined using Chi-square tests. Results . Out of 180 subjects, 49 percent had LTBI. LTBI was more common in migrants 30 years of age or older ( P = 0.009). Treatment initiation and completion rates were high at 90 percent and 76 percent, respectively. No associations between preimmigration factors and treatment completion were found. A case of active TB was detected and treated. Conclusion . Within this cohort, the case of active TB would have been detected through the usual postsurveillance process due to a history of TB and abnormal chest radiograph. Forty-nine percent had LTBI, compared to previously quoted rates of 97 percent. Tibetan refugees should be screened for TB in a similar manner to other refugees resettling in Canada.

  1. Stress and harassment among theatre nurses at the University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major causes of stress were identified as being low pay, heavy work load and the surgeons. Overall, 84% of them felt that the single main source of stress was low pay while 29% attributed their stress to the surgeons as being their major cause of work place stress. Personal harassment by the surgeons was reported by ...

  2. The Effect of Gender on Stress Factors: An Exploratory Study among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Calvarese

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between gender and reactions to stress among university students. University students were surveyed on how they typically responded when under perceived stress. There were significant differences between males and females concerning their reactions to stress. Overall, more females experienced higher levels of depression, frustration, and anxiety than their male counterparts when reacting to stress. Males also tended to have other psychological reactions different from those listed on the survey. In addition, while the stress reaction of anger was barely statistically insignificant, more females expressed anger than males as a reaction to stress.

  3. [Spirometric and radiographic profile of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated and cured at the Department of Pulmonology of Brazzaville University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemba, E L P; Moyikoua, R; Ouedraogo, A R; Bopaka, R G; Koumeka, P P; Ossale Abacka, K B; Mboussa, J

    2017-10-01

    Tuberculosis is a real public health problem in Congo. Pulmonary localization can lead to sequelae of respiratory functional repercussions. Describe the spirometric and radiographic profile of patients treated with pulmonary tuberculosis treated and cured. This was a cross-sectional study that included 150 patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis with positive microscopy treated and cured in the Pulmonary Department of Brazzaville University Hospital. In which we performed a functional exploration (Spirometry) and a chest X-ray. The study took place from 1st January 2016 to 31st August 2016. The spirometry performed in all patients was pathological in 68.67% (103 cases/150) of the cases. Among them 74.76% (77 cases/103) had a restrictive profile (FEV1/FVC >70% and CVF 80%) and 15.53% (16 cases/103) a mixed syndrome (FVC <80% and FEV1/FVC <70%). Of the 150 chest radiographs performed, 120 or 80% were pathological; the degree of parenchymal stage III destruction represented 28.33%. There was a significant correlation between the degree of parenchymal destruction and the delay in treatment on the one hand and between the degree of parenchymal destruction and the different pulmonary volumes and volumes on the other hand. The prevention of these respiratory functional disorders is based on the prophylaxis of tuberculosis on early diagnosis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J; Wood, Robin

    2017-11-03

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty the timing and location of tuberculosis transmission for individuals, approaches for estimating the individual probability of recent transmission and for estimating the fraction of tuberculosis cases due to recent transmission in populations have been developed. Data used to estimate the probable burden of recent transmission include tuberculosis case notifications in young children and trends in tuberculin skin test and interferon γ-release assays. More recently, M. tuberculosis whole-genome sequencing has been used to estimate population levels of recent transmission, identify the distribution of specific strains within communities, and decipher chains of transmission among culture-positive tuberculosis cases. The factors that drive the transmission of tuberculosis in communities depend on the burden of prevalent tuberculosis; the ways in which individuals live, work, and interact (eg, congregate settings); and the capacity of healthcare and public health systems to identify and effectively treat individuals with infectious forms of tuberculosis. Here we provide an overview of these factors, describe tools for measurement of ongoing transmission, and highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Is Dependent on Oxidative Stress and Reflects Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neesha Rockwood

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB and has been proposed as a biomarker of active disease. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb induces HO-1 as well as how its expression is affected by HIV-1 coinfection and successful antitubercular therapy (ATT are poorly understood. We found that HO-1 expression is markedly increased in rabbits, mice, and non-human primates during experimental Mtb infection and gradually decreased during ATT. In addition, we examined circulating concentrations of HO-1 in a cohort of 130 HIV-1 coinfected and uninfected pulmonary TB patients undergoing ATT to investigate changes in expression of this biomarker in relation to HIV-1 status, radiological disease severity, and treatment outcome. We found that plasma levels of HO-1 were elevated in untreated HIV-1 coinfected TB patients and correlated positively with HIV-1 viral load and negatively with CD4+ T cell count. In both HIV-1 coinfected and Mtb monoinfected patients, HO-1 levels were substantially reduced during successful TB treatment but not in those who experienced treatment failure or subsequently relapsed. To further delineate the molecular mechanisms involved in induction of HO-1 by Mtb, we performed a series of in vitro experiments using mouse and human macrophages. We found that Mtb-induced HO-1 expression requires NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species production induced by the early-secreted antigen ESAT-6, which in turn triggers nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NRF-2. These observations provide further insight into the utility of HO-1 as a biomarker of both disease and successful therapy in TB monoinfected and HIV-TB coinfected patients and reveal a previously undocumented pathway linking expression of the enzyme with oxidative stress.

  6. The Relationship between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction: The Case of Pakistani Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Abdul Qayyum

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to find out the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction based on age, gender, nature of job, cadre, work experience of university teachers, and sector of university. The Pearson correlation indicates: no significant relationship found between job satisfaction and overall occupational stress; inverse…

  7. Relationships between Academic Stress, Social Support, Mental Health and Academic Performance in Venezuelan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    LYA FELDMAN; LILA GONCALVES; GRACE CHACÓN-PUIGNAU; JOANMIR ZARAGOZA; NURI BAGÉS; JOAN DE PABLO

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate academic stress, social support and their relationships with mental health and academic performance in university students. Three hundred and twenty one students from a technological university in Caracas, Venezuela, responded instruments on academic stress, social support and mental health during the most academically stressful period. The results indicate that favorable conditions of mental health were associated to more social support and ...

  8. Relationships between Academic Stress, Social Support, Mental Health and Academic Performance in Venezuelan University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LYA FELDMAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate academic stress, social support and their relationships with mental health and academic performance in university students. Three hundred and twenty one students from a technological university in Caracas, Venezuela, responded instruments on academic stress, social support and mental health during the most academically stressful period. The results indicate that favorable conditions of mental health were associated to more social support and less academic stress. In women, higher stress levels were associated to a lesser amount of social support from friends whereas in men stress was related to less social support coming from close people and general social support. Both displayed better performance when perceived higher levels of academic stress and the social support of the near people was moderate. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for academic life and mental health in university students.

  9. The stress-response factor SigH modulates the interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host phagocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noton K Dutta

    Full Text Available The Mycobacterium tuberculosis stress response factor SigH plays a crucial role in modulating the pathogen's response to heat, oxidative-stress, envelope damage and hypoxia. We hypothesized that the lack of this key stress response factor would alter the interaction between the pathogen and its host cells. We compared the interaction of Mtb, Mtb:Δ-sigH and a strain where the mutation had been genetically complemented (Mtb: Δ-sigH:CO with primary rhesus macaque bone marrow derived macrophages (Rh-BMDMs. The expression of numerous inducible and homeostatic (CCL β-chemokines and several apoptotic markers was induced to higher levels in the cells infected with Mtb:Δ-sigH, relative to Mtb or the complemented strain. The differential expression of these genes manifested into functional differences in chemotaxis and apoptosis in cells infected with these two strains. The mutant strain also exhibited reduced late-stage survival in Rh-BMDMs. We hypothesize that the product of one or more SigH-dependent genes may modulate the innate interaction of Mtb with host cells, effectively reducing the chemokine-mediated recruitment of immune effector cells, apoptosis of infected monocytes and enhancing the long-term survival and replication of the pathogen in this milieu The significantly higher induction of Prostaglandin Synthetase 2 (PTGS2 or COX2 in Rh-BMDMs infected with Mtb relative to Mtb: Δ-sigH may explain reduced apoptosis in Mtb-infected cells, as PTGS2 is known to inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis.The SigH-regulon modulates the innate interaction of Mtb with host phagocytes, perhaps as part of a strategy to limit its clearance and prolong its survival. The SigH regulon appears to be required to modulate innate immune responses directed against Mtb.

  10. Academic Stress of International Students Attending U.S. Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Teh-yuan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 412 foreign graduate students investigated their (1) perceptions of the stressfulness of role demands and (2) abilities to cope with those demands. Results indicated students associated English language skills and cultural distance with stresses and language, academic, and problem-solving skills with coping capacity. Implications for…

  11. Stress among medical Saudi students at College of Medicine, King Faisal University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rahman, A G; Al Hashim, B N; Al Hiji, N K; Al-Abbad, Z

    2013-12-01

    Sources of student stress can be academic pressures, social or personal issues and medical students have to face the challenge of rigorous curriculum and also have to learn how to deal with emotionally difficult experiences. Determination of the prevalence of stress and to identify the risk factors of stress among Saudi medical students at Faculty of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A survey study design was conducted among medical students at Faculty of Medicine, King Faisal University, Al Ahsaa Governorate, Eastern Province from February-May, 2013. Both male and female students were invited to participate in our study. The total number of students was 650 Saudi medical students, out of them 244 medical students were participated in the current study. All participants were provided a self administered questionnaire. A likert scale with 3 points for responses was used. Questionnaires were given to participants 2 month before end-semester examinations, to minimize the extra stress symptoms A score of stress was calculated. Prevalence of stress was 53% among Saudi students. Gender has no role in stress among medical students (p > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed the most important risk factors of stress, having places for recreation at the University showed a relationship with stress among medical students with a p value = 0.000, there is a statistically significant relationship between stress and having optimal place for studying outside the university p = 0.001, while, comparing number of sleeping hours with stress, we could not find a statistically significant relationship among medical students, p = 0.744. Medical students who had close friends to share with them their stresses and concerns showed a highly statistically significant relationship between stressed and unstressed students p = 0.001. Medical students reported high levels of stress. The most frequently occurring stressors among the students were related to academic and

  12. Label-free DNA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance through hydration induced stress in microcantilevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Carmen M; Kosaka, Priscila M; Sotillo, Alma; Mingorance, Jesús; Tamayo, Javier; Calleja, Montserrat

    2015-02-03

    We have developed a label-free assay for the genomic detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. The method relies on the quantification of the hydration induced stress on microcantilever biosensors functionalized with oligonucleotide probes, before and after hybridization with specific targets. We have found a limit of detection of 10 fg/mL for PCR amplified products of 122 bp. Furthermore, the technique can successfully target genomic DNA (gDNA) fragments of length >500 bp, and it can successfully discriminate single mismatches. We have used both loci IS6110 and rpoB as targets to detect the mycobacteria and the rifampicin resistance from gDNA directly extracted from bacterial culture and without PCR amplification. We have been able to detect 2 pg/mL target concentration in samples with an excess of interfering DNA and in a total analysis time of 1 h and 30 min. The detection limit found demonstrates the capability to develop direct assays without the need for long culture steps or PCR amplification. The methodology can be easily translated to different microbial targets, and it is suitable for further development of miniaturized devices and multiplexed detection.

  13. Psychophysiological Manifestations Associated With Stress in Students of a Public University in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozos-Radillo, Elizabeth; Preciado-Serrano, Lourdes; Plascencia-Campos, Ana; Valdez-López, Rosa; Morales-Fernández, Armando

    2016-05-01

    Academic stress is defined as a physiological, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral activation reaction to stimuli. This stress can impact students' ability to cope with the school environment. To identify the psychophysiological manifestations associated with high-level academic stress in public university students in Mexico. A representative random sampling of 527 students was evaluated during 2012. The Academic Stress Symptom Inventory and the Rossi classification were used; data were analyzed with a binary logistic regression analysis to estimate association between psychophysiological manifestations and the high level of academic stress in public university students. Results indicated a meaningful association between high levels of academic stress situations and psychophysiological manifestations such as concentration and memory problems, mental blocks and chronic fatigue, drowsiness, and despair. Identifying academic stress situations and students' maladaptive responses may help promote timely attention to psychophysiological manifestations before they exacerbate and become harmful to college students' health. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Stress and dietary behaviour among first-year university students in Australia: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papier, Keren; Ahmed, Faruk; Lee, Patricia; Wiseman, Juliet

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between stress and food selection patterns by sex among first-year undergraduate students studying in an Australian university. Participating in this cross-sectional study were 728 (331 men and 397 female students) first-year students, ages >18 y, attending the Gold Coast Campus of Griffith University. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of three sections: sociodemographic information, stress measures, and a 7-d food frequency questionnaire. More than half (52.9%) of the participants were found to suffer from some level of stress, with relatively more female students (57.4%) suffering than men (47.4%). Men who experienced mild to moderate levels of stress were two to three times more likely to eat cereal foods (P stress level and consumption of cereal food, meat alternatives, vegetables and fruit (negative trend), highly processed food, protein powder, beverages and alcoholic beverages (all P stress were 2.22 times more likely to eat processed food (P stress were less likely to consume meat alternatives (P stress levels and the consumption of meat alternatives, vegetables and fruit (both negative trends), and processed food (all P stressed male and female students, with stress being a more significant predictor of unhealthy food selection among male students. Further research is needed using a qualitative approach to understand how stress and eating behavior are related in university students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mindfulness Correlates with Stress and Coping in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Pierdomenico, Emily-Ann; Kadziolka, Marta; Miller, Carlin J.

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness has received significant attention in the empirical literature during the past decade, but few studies have focused on mindfulness in university students and how it may influence problematic behaviours. This study examined the relationships among mindfulness, coping, and physiological reactivity in a sample of university students.…

  16. The constant threat of terrorism: stress levels and coping strategies amongst university students of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha Ejaz; Masood, Komal; Dean, Sohni Vicky; Shakir, Tanzila; Kardar, Ahmed Abdul Hafeez; Barlass, Usman; Imam, Syed Haider; Mohmand, Mohammad Ghawar Khan; Ibrahim, Hussain; Khan, Imad Saeed; Akram, Usman; Hasnain, Farid

    2011-04-01

    To assess the levels of stress in the face of terrorism and the adopted coping strategies, amongst the student population of universities in Karachi. A descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted on undergraduate students from four universities of Karachi. Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by 291 students. Pearson Chi-Square test was used to assess associations between stress levels and different variables at a level of significance of 0.05%. A total of 65.8% of the students had mild stress levels, 91.5% of university students were exposed to terrorism through television, while only 26.5% students reported personal exposure to terrorism. 67.4% students were forbidden by their parents to go out (p = 0.002). Most of those who had self exposure to an attack were the ones whose parents forbade them from going out (p = 0.00). Most commonly used coping strategy was increased faith in religion. Irritability was the most common stress symptom. A majority of students studying in universities of Karachi had mild stress levels due to the constant threat of terrorism whereas a minority had severe stress levels. Possible reasons for resilience and only mild stress levels could be the history of Karachi's internal conflicts and its prolonged duration of being exposed to terrorism. These students who are positive for stress need to be targeted for counseling either through the media or through their universities. More extensive research is needed in this area.

  17. Occupational stress and its related factors among university teachers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wu, Hui; Wang, Lie

    2011-01-01

    University teachers in China are expected to suffer serious occupational stress due to the expanding enrollment in universities without a proportional increase in teacher resources and the fact that all promotions for university teachers are determined based on not only teaching but also the outcome of scientific research. This study was designed to assess the occupational stress among university teachers in China and clarify its risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in Liaoning Province, the centralized area of higher education in Northeast China. Eight universities (2 multidiscipline and 6 specialized) and 10% of academic staff each were randomly sampled. Questionnaires pertaining to occupational stress indicated by the Chinese Version Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ) and demographic characteristics, health status, work situations, and personal and social resources were distributed in October 2008. A total of 827 effective respondents (response rate 76.4%) became our participants. The average raw score of PSQ was 91.0 among the university teachers. General linear model analysis showed that the factors significantly associated with the PSQ score were, in standardized estimate (β) sequence, mental health, role overload, role insufficiency, social support, monthly income, role limitations due to physical problems, research finance and self-rated disease with adjustment for age and sex. We concluded that, in comparison to work-related factors and social support, mental health is a prominent risk factor for occupational stress in university teachers in China. Improvement of mental health and organizational climate should be considered to lessen the occupational stress of university teachers.

  18. Depression, anxiety and stress as negative predictors of life satisfaction in university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, S.R.; Saba, F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of depression, anxiety and stress in prediction of life satisfaction in male and female university students. Methodology: The study involved 200 students, 100 males and 100 females selected by using purposive sampling technique from different universities of Islamabad. Age range of participants was 19-30 years (mean 21.79+-2.970). Depression anxiety stress scale-21 (DASS-21 and Life Satisfaction scale were administered. Data were analyzed on SPSS version 19. Results: The result of present study indicated that depression anxiety and stress significantly predict life satisfaction among male and female university students. Conclusion: University students who are facing depression, anxiety and stress are more vulnerable to low levels of life satisfaction. (author)

  19. The Ontario Universal Typing of Tuberculosis (OUT-TB Surveillance Program – What It Means to You

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Bolotin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a serious disease that is transmitted primarily by the airborne route. Effective disease control and outbreak management requires the timely diagnosis, isolation and treatment of infected individuals with active disease; contact tracing to identify secondary cases likely to benefit from treatment of latent infection; and laboratory identification or confirmation of epidemiologically linked cases. TB genotyping enables the comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC strains and the identification of cases that may or may not be linked. The increased availability of molecular methods for genotyping has allowed for greater discrimination of MTBC strains and greatly enhanced understanding of TB transmission patterns.

  20. Burnout Syndrome by assistencial work stress in groups of university teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce Díaz, Carlos R.; Bulnes Bedón, Mario Santiago; Aliaga Tovar, Jaime Ramiro; Atalaya Pisco, María Clotilde; Huerta Rosales, Rosa Elena

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To acknowledge the possible presence of the "Burnout" syndrome caused by existential work stress in university professors group of a state university who belong to different career area.To find possible significant differences in the "Burnout" syndrome caused by existential work stress in different career area and according to the variable: sex, marital status, sport practice, health and teaching condition. Design: It is descriptive, comparative, correlational and analytic preforme...

  1. Perceived Stress in University Students Studying in a Further Education College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Matthew Peter; Peart, Daniel James; Fairhead, Orrin James William

    2017-01-01

    Previous research investigating perceived stress and mental health in UK university students has used a sample population from higher education institutes (HEIs). To the authors' knowledge, there is no literature specifically examining stress in a student population within a higher education in further education (HE-in-FE) environment. The aim of…

  2. Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

  3. Analysis of Acculturative Stress and Sociocultural Adaptation among International Students at a Non-Metropolitan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hajara; Burke, Monica Galloway

    2018-01-01

    This quantitative descriptive study analyzed levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation among international students at a non-metropolitan university in the United States related to certain demographic characteristics. Surveys were used to measure international students' levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation,…

  4. Workload and Stress in New Zealand Universities. A Follow Up to the 1994 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Anna

    This follow-up study surveyed members of the Association of University Staff of New Zealand concerning their workload and stress levels and compared findings to a similar survey conducted in 1994. Survey responses (n=1155) were analyzed in terms of employment status, work hours, salary, responsibilities, changes and their impact, stresses and…

  5. Relationships among Perceived Stress, Coping, and Grade Point Average in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewallal, Rajendra David

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among perceived stress, coping style, and academic performance in 210 students from a mid-sized public university and a small private college. Study participants were asked to complete the Perceived Stress Scale, the Brief COPE Questionnaire, and a demographic survey asking about their age, gender, grade point…

  6. Relations of Physical Activity and Stress Vulnerability in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Furong; Liu, Wenhao; Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir Rose; Schmidlein, Robert

    2018-01-01

    There are increased concerns about depression and anxiety among college students. Thus in need of actions to find proper intervention strategies to target this issue. The purpose of this study was to examine association between leisure-time physical activity and stress vulnerability among college students. A modified survey including physical…

  7. Prevalence, sources and patterns of stress among university students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress was found to be highly prevalent among students; most prevalent among Nursing students (72.5%), followed by Human Physiology students (68.9%), then Human Anatomy students (64%) and finally Medical students (62.4%), it was also more prevalent among female-(75.3%) than male-(61.4%) students. Results ...

  8. The Relationship between Academic Stress and Two Aspects of Father Involvement among University Student Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadrelli, Brian P.; Milardo, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between academic stress experienced by university student fathers and the behavioral and cognitive involvement these fathers had with their children. Fifty-three fathers enrolled in university classes and residing with at least one child less than 12 years of age responded to questionnaire measures of…

  9. Perception of academic stress among Health Science Preparatory Program students in two Saudi universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulami, Saleh; Al Omar, Zaid; Binnwejim, Mohammed S; Alhamdan, Fahad; Aldrees, Amr; Al-Bawardi, Abdulkarim; Alsohim, Meshary; Alhabeeb, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    The Health Science Preparatory Program (HSPP) is a special program that aims to enhance the educational preparedness of students for participation in a health sciences career. Students spend their first university year in a combined extensive teaching program before they can be assigned to a particular health science specialty. It is thought that students enrolled in a highly competitive environment such as HSPP with a long list of potential stressors, including developmental, academic overload, language barriers and competition, are more disposed to stress and stress-related complications. This study aims to measure the level of academic stress and to determine its risk factors in students enrolled in HSPP-adapted local universities in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted at two Saudi universities, King Saud University (KSU) and Imam Mohammad ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSU) with competition-based and non-competition-based HSPP learning models, respectively. Both universities adopt the HSPP system. The scale for assessing academic stress (SAAS) was used to assess students' perceived stress. A total of 290 students successfully completed the questionnaire (N=290), with a mean age of 18.66 years. Mean SAAS scores for KSU and IMSU students were 8.37 (SD = 4.641) and 7.97 (SD = 5.104), P =0.480, respectively. Only "satisfaction" and "associated social and health problems" have shown statistically significant correlation with university ( P =0.000 and P =0.049, respectively). This study has found mean SAAS score for two local universities with competition-based versus non-competition-based HSPP learning models. Academic stress correlation with age, gender and universities was discussed, and valuable future work guidance was recommended.

  10. Tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, M.K.; Iqbal, R.; Shabbir, I.; Chaudhry, K

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)

  11. WHEN THINGS GET TOUGH, THE TOUGH GET GOING: UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ PERCEIVED STRESS AND COPING MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. van Zyl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress has become an inevitable part of life for students in a universityenvironment due to various factors, such as increased pressure, competition,decreased resources, inadequate family support and the increased use of drugs andalcohol. Moreover, the transition from adolescence to adulthood for universitystudents is a difficult journey, filled with various risks, rapid changes andseemingly endless choices when placed within a university environment. Thisstudy examines perceived stress and coping strategies among university students.A cross-sectional survey involving 334 students at a university in Gauteng, SouthAfrica was undertaken using validated perceived stress and coping scales. Theprevalence of stress among university students seems to be high. Through a factoranalysis procedure, two primary dimensions of stress were identified, namelyperceived helplessness and low self-efficacy and five primary coping strategiesare used by students, namely negativism and denial, emotional support,introspection and veneration, substance abuse, and humour. Female students seemtoexperience higher levels of stress compared to their male counterparts. The results point toward the need to develop a training module to promote proactivecoping strategies and the improvement of the general self-efficacy of universitystudents. Furthermore, these results have implications for designing stressreduction workshops with the assistance of the student support and counsellingdepartment in the university. Limitations and implications for further research arediscussed.

  12. Perceived stress scores among Saudi students entering universities: a prospective study during the first year of university life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P

    2014-04-10

    In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010-2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35) and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35), while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life.

  13. Perceived Stress Scores among Saudi Students Entering Universities: A Prospective Study during the First Year of University Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Al-Daghri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010−2011 academic year were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35 and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35, while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively. These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life.

  14. A survey of perceived stress among undergraduate dental students in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Tanti Irawati; Abdul Rahman, Roslan; Abdul Rahman, Siti Ruhaini; Ramli, Roszalina

    2005-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the sources of stress among undergraduate dental students, and to compare the sources of stress among the 5 years of undergraduate study, between gender, and with other studies done elsewhere. A total of 325 students across the 5 academic years (88.8% response rate) of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, completed the modified Dental Environment Stress questionnaire. All respondents reported that they experienced some form of stress. The preclinical students reported that examinations and fear of failure caused the most stress. The main stressor for clinical students was clinical training, particularly factors relating to meeting clinical requirements. Female students perceived more stress generally than male students. However, male students were more stressed when faced with factors related to clinical training.

  15. Stress, Anxiety, and Weight Gain among University and College Students: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Suzan A; de Vries, N K; Karavetian, Mirey; El-Rassi, Rola

    2018-02-01

    Stress and anxiety levels are elevated among university and college students. Although high stress levels can lead to an increase in adiposity, it is not clear whether stress and anxiety experienced when in university or college have an influence on students' weight. The aim of this systemic review was to investigate whether stress and anxiety levels encountered during university and college enrollment were associated with higher adiposity or weight changes among students. A search strategy was used to identify peer-reviewed studies published between 1985 and March 2017 using the following databases: Medline using Ovid; PubMed, CINAHL using EBSCO, Embase using Ovid, PSYCHINFO, and Open Access Theses and Dissertation. Two reviewers independently assessed the title, abstract, and then the full article of the studies that met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and quality assessment was conducted for the included studies. Twenty-five observational studies were identified in this review (23 cross-sectional and two longitudinal); 11 found that there was no association between stress and body mass index or weight change. In addition, five studies did not find a significant association between anxiety and body mass index. A few studies revealed stress and anxiety might be associated with higher or lower weight status, thus there is a possibility that stress can increase or decrease weight, demonstrating that a bidirectional influence on body mass index may exist. The current data in this review are inadequate to draw firm conclusions about the role of stress on weight change in university and college students. The inconsistency of results in the literature reviewed for this article suggest that a focus on longitudinal studies with adequate sample size would better evaluate the relationship between stress or anxiety and its influence on weight status or weight change among college and university students. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

  16. Do Egyptian university students eat more or eat less when perceiving stress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; El Ansari, Walid

    2015-01-01

    and the two food intake pattern scores. Multiple linear regression tested the associations of perceived stress with the two food intake pattern scores adjusted for age, sex, living situation, economic situation, moderate physical activity, BMI, and general stressor (overall burden). Results: All the FFQ food......Background: Most studies of stress and food choice found that individuals experiencing periods of stress over-ate food items they would customarily avoid, and that they ate these foods to feel better. This study examined perceived stress and food intake behavior of undergraduate university students...

  17. Aspects of acculturation stress among international students attending a university in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavajay, Pablo; Skowronek, Jeffrey

    2008-12-01

    Acculturation stress reported by 130 international students attending a university in Utah for about 2 yr. was examined. On the Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students, few students reported experiencing acculturation stress, but responses to four open-ended questions indicated many students perceived experience of acculturation stresses related to discrimination, feelings of loneliness, and academic concerns. The contrast of findings for the scale scores and the open-ended questions indicate the complexity of assessing international students' acculturation experiences of living and studying in the USA and suggest the usefulness of complementary methodologies for assessing such experience.

  18. A discrete stress-strength interference model based on universal generating function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zongwen; Huang Hongzhong; Liu Yu

    2008-01-01

    Continuous stress-strength interference (SSI) model regards stress and strength as continuous random variables with known probability density function. This, to some extent, results in a limitation of its application. In this paper, stress and strength are treated as discrete random variables, and a discrete SSI model is presented by using the universal generating function (UGF) method. Finally, case studies demonstrate the validity of the discrete model in a variety of circumstances, in which stress and strength can be represented by continuous random variables, discrete random variables, or two groups of experimental data

  19. Association between Occupational Stress and Respiratory Symptoms among Lecturers in Universiti Putra Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Y., Nur Aqilah; J., Juliana

    2012-01-01

    There was considerable evidence that a subject’s psychological status may influence respiratory sensations and that some subjects may experience respiratory symptoms regardless of the presence of a respiratory disease. The objective of this study was to determine the association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms among lecturers. This cross sectional study was conducted in Universiti Putra Malaysia, involved 61 lecturers from various faculties. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and questionnaires based on American Thoracic Society were used to collect the data on socio-demography, stress level and respiratory symptoms. High level of occupational stress (high strain) was determined among 16 of the respondents (26.2%). Breathlessness was the common symptom experienced by the respondents. Female lecturers were significantly experienced high stress level compared to male (p=0.035). They were also significantly having more breathlessness symptom compared to male lecturer (p=0.011). Study highlighted in study population, gender plays a significant role that influenced level of occupational stress and also gender has role in resulting occupational stress level and respiratory symptoms. There was no significant association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms. It can be concluded that this group of lecturers of Universiti Putra Malaysia did not experienced high occupational stress level. Occupational stress level was not statistically significantly associated with all respiratory symptoms being studied. PMID:23121752

  20. Association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms among lecturers in Universiti Putra Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Aqilah, Mohmed Yusof; Juliana, Jalaludin

    2012-09-28

    There was considerable evidence that a subject's psychological status may influence respiratory sensations and that some subjects may experience respiratory symptoms regardless of the presence of a respiratory disease. The objective of this study was to determine the association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms among lecturers. This cross sectional study was conducted in Universiti Putra Malaysia, involved 61 lecturers from various faculties. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and questionnaires based on American Thoracic Society were used to collect the data on socio-demography, stress level and respiratory symptoms. High level of occupational stress (high strain) was determined among 16 of the respondents (26.2%). Breathlessness was the common symptom experienced by the respondents. Female lecturers were significantly experienced high stress level compared to male (p=0.035). They were also significantly having more breathlessness symptom compared to male lecturer (p=0.011). Study highlighted in study population, gender plays a significant role that influenced level of occupational stress and also gender has role in resulting occupational stress level and respiratory symptoms. There was no significant association between occupational stress and respiratory symptoms. It can be concluded that this group of lecturers of Universiti Putra Malaysia did not experienced high occupational stress level. Occupational stress level was not statistically significantly associated with all respiratory symptoms being studied.

  1. Perception of academic stress among Health Science Preparatory Program students in two Saudi universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsulami S

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Saleh Alsulami, Zaid Al Omar, Mohammed S Binnwejim, Fahad Alhamdan, Amr Aldrees, Abdulkarim Al-bawardi, Meshary Alsohim, Mohammed Alhabeeb Departments of Family Medicine and Medical Education, College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The Health Science Preparatory Program (HSPP is a special program that aims to enhance the educational preparedness of students for participation in a health sciences career. Students spend their first university year in a combined extensive teaching program before they can be assigned to a particular health science specialty. It is thought that students enrolled in a highly competitive environment such as HSPP with a long list of potential stressors, including developmental, academic overload, language barriers and competition, are more disposed to stress and stress-related complications. This study aims to measure the level of academic stress and to determine its risk factors in students enrolled in HSPP-adapted local universities in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted at two Saudi universities, King Saud University (KSU and Imam Mohammad ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSU with competition-based and non-competition-based HSPP learning models, respectively. Both universities adopt the HSPP system. The scale for assessing academic stress (SAAS was used to assess students’ perceived stress. A total of 290 students successfully completed the questionnaire (N=290, with a mean age of 18.66 years. Mean SAAS scores for KSU and IMSU students were 8.37 (SD = 4.641 and 7.97 (SD = 5.104, P=0.480, respectively. Only “satisfaction” and “associated social and health problems” have shown statistically significant correlation with university (P=0.000 and P=0.049, respectively. This study has found mean SAAS score for two local universities with competition-based versus non-competition-based HSPP learning models. Academic stress correlation with age, gender and

  2. Tuberculosis abdominal Abdominal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    T. Rubio; M. T. Gaztelu; A. Calvo; M. Repiso; H. Sarasíbar; F. Jiménez Bermejo; A. Martínez Echeverría

    2005-01-01

    La tuberculosis abdominal cursa con un cuadro inespecífico, con difícil diagnóstico diferencial respecto a otras entidades de similar semiología. Presentamos el caso de un varón que ingresa por presentar dolor abdominal, pérdida progresiva y notoria de peso corporal y fiebre de dos meses de evolución. El cultivo de la biopsia de colon mostró presencia de bacilo de Koch.Abdominal tuberculosis develops according to a non-specific clinical picture, with a difficult differential diagnosis with re...

  3. Reducing university students' stress through a drop-in canine-therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binfet, John-Tyler; Passmore, Holli-Anne; Cebry, Alex; Struik, Kathryn; McKay, Carson

    2017-12-21

    Increasingly colleges and universities are offering canine therapy to help students de-stress as a means of supporting students' emotional health and mental well-being. Despite the popularity of such programs, there remains a dearth of research attesting to their benefits. Participants included 1960 students at a mid-size western Canadian University. The study's aims were to assess the stress-reducing effects of a weekly drop-in, canine-therapy program and to identify how long participants spent with therapy canines to reduce their stress. Demographic information was gathered, length of visit documented and a visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess entry and exit self-reports of stress. Participants' self-reported stress levels were significantly lower after the canine therapy intervention. Participants spent an average of 35 min per session. This study supports the use of drop-in, canine therapy as a means of reducing university students' stress. The findings hold applied significance for both counseling and animal therapy practitioners regarding the dose intervention participants seek to reduce their stress.

  4. Interventions to reduce stress in university students: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Cheryl; Glancy, Dylan; Pitts, Annabel

    2013-05-15

    Recent research has revealed concerning rates of anxiety and depression among university students. Nevertheless, only a small percentage of these students receive treatment from university health services. Universities are thus challenged with instituting preventative programs that address student stress and reduce resultant anxiety and depression. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stress in university students. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the assignment of study participants to experimental or control groups was by random allocation or parallel cohort design. Retrieved studies represented a variety of intervention approaches with students in a broad range of programs and disciplines. Twenty-four studies, involving 1431 students were included in the meta-analysis. Cognitive, behavioral and mindfulness interventions were associated with decreased symptoms of anxiety. Secondary outcomes included lower levels of depression and cortisol. Included studies were limited to those published in peer reviewed journals. These studies over-represent interventions with female students in Western countries. Studies on some types of interventions such as psycho-educational and arts based interventions did not have sufficient data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. This review provides evidence that cognitive, behavioral, and mindfulness interventions are effective in reducing stress in university students. Universities are encouraged to make such programs widely available to students. In addition however, future work should focus on developing stress reduction programs that attract male students and address their needs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability features for real-life stress detection. Case study: students under stress due to university examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Paolo; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2011-11-07

    This study investigates the variations of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) due to a real-life stressor and proposes a classifier based on nonlinear features of HRV for automatic stress detection. 42 students volunteered to participate to the study about HRV and stress. For each student, two recordings were performed: one during an on-going university examination, assumed as a real-life stressor, and one after holidays. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed by using Poincaré Plot, Approximate Entropy, Correlation dimension, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Recurrence Plot. For statistical comparison, we adopted the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and for development of a classifier we adopted the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Almost all HRV features measuring heart rate complexity were significantly decreased in the stress session. LDA generated a simple classifier based on the two Poincaré Plot parameters and Approximate Entropy, which enables stress detection with a total classification accuracy, a sensitivity and a specificity rate of 90%, 86%, and 95% respectively. The results of the current study suggest that nonlinear HRV analysis using short term ECG recording could be effective in automatically detecting real-life stress condition, such as a university examination.

  6. Intervention for hazardous alcohol use and high level of stress in university freshmen: a comparison between an intervention and a control university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Claes; Johnsson, Kent O; Berglund, Mats; Ojehagen, Agneta

    2009-12-11

    The first year of university studies is associated with increased levels of alcohol drinking and stress. This study examines the one-year outcome of both primary and secondary interventions of one alcohol programme and one stress intervention programme at an intervention university in comparison with a control university. At the intervention university all freshmen were offered a primary prevention programme for hazardous alcohol use and stress management and, in addition, those who had high ratings for stress and/or hazardous alcohol use were offered a secondary intervention programme for alcohol consumption and/or stress management. Freshmen still attending the two universities one year later responded to follow-up questionnaires. The primary alcohol and stress interventions were associated with lower alcohol expectancies and mental symptoms, but no differences in AUDIT scores (-0.2, CI 95% -0.5 to 0.1), estimated blood alcohol concentrations or stress in comparison to freshmen at the control university. The secondary alcohol interventions were associated with decreased AUDIT (-1.1, CI 95% -2.0 to -0.2) as well as alcohol expectancies, blood alcohol concentrations, stress and mental symptoms in comparison to high-risk freshmen at the control university. The secondary stress interventions were associated with decreased mental symptoms and alcohol expectancies, but not stress, AUDIT scores (-0.6, CI 95% -1.4 to 0.2) and blood alcohol concentrations in comparison to high-risk freshmen at the control university. This study suggests that both primary and secondary alcohol and stress interventions have 1-year effects in university freshmen and could be implemented in university settings.

  7. Work stress and health effects among university personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, N C G M; van der Gulden, J W J; Furer, J W; Tax, B; Roscam Abbing, E W

    2003-10-01

    (1) To investigate the contribution of job characteristics and personal characteristics to the explanation of health effects among university personnel; (2) to investigate the differences between scientific personnel (SP) and non-scientific personnel (NSP); (3) to investigate whether health effects occurred one after another. The well being at work of employees at a Dutch university (n=2,522) was investigated by means of a questionnaire. A model was constructed in which several job and personal characteristics were set out against health effects. The latter were assumed to occur in phases: decreased "job satisfaction" as an early effect, followed by increased "tension" and "emotional exhaustion", and possibly also by increased "perceived health complaints". The contribution of job and personal characteristics to the explanation of health effects was investigated by means of linear regression analysis, with separate analyses for SP and NSP. Positive job characteristics, especially professional expertise and work variety, contributed to the explanation of "job satisfaction". The major contributors to "tension" and "emotional exhaustion" were negative characteristics, such as work pressure. Besides the negative aspects, the major contributors to the explanation of "perceived health complaints" were sex, age and other health effects. In NSP, social support contributed to the explanation of "tension" and "emotional exhaustion", but not in SP. The explained variance of "job satisfaction" by the positive job characteristics in NSP was much higher than that in SP. To investigate whether health effects occurred one after another, we considered explained variance. Explained variance in "job satisfaction" was much higher than in "perceived health complaints". "Emotional exhaustion" and "tension" were in between. Contrary to expectations, decision latitude and social support played only minor roles. Also, the differences between SP and NSP were smaller than expected. As

  8. Effects of Biodanza on Stress, Depression, and Sleep Quality in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, María Mar; Baldrich-Rodríguez, Ingrid; Ruiz-Muelle, Alicia; Cortés-Rodríguez, Alda Elena; Lopezosa-Estepa, Teresa; Roman, Pablo

    2017-07-01

    The existing literature shows dance to be an innovative and successful form of stress management. Previous research indicates that Biodanza is able to increase well-being and personal resources and prevent stress. However, Biodanza has not yet been empirically tested as a possible therapy for application outside the clinical context in young adults with perceived stress. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Biodanza in reducing symptoms of perceived stress and depression and in promoting sleep quality in young adults, comparing the changes with those observed in a control group. Randomized controlled trial. This study was carried out at the Faculty of Health Sciences of the University of Almería. One hundred and twenty-one university students with perceived stress were randomly placed into either a Biodanza group or a wait-list control group. Study participants attended Biodanza sessions for 90 min a week, over a period of 4 weeks. Depression, perceived stress, and sleep quality were assessed both before and after intervention. Ninety-five participants completed the program and were included in the statistical analysis. Significant differences in perceived stress [t (93) = 2.136; p = 0.015] and depression [t (93) = 2.738; p = 0.000] were observed after the Biodanza period. Pre/post analysis found that Biodanza also had a significant effect on depression (Cohen d = 1.88; p stress (Cohen d = 0.79; p stress management strategy for students. The results of this study showed Biodanza to have a positive effect on perceived stress and depression in young adults. This demonstrates how artistic, collaborative, and psychophysical interventions are an effective means of preventing and managing these problems in university students.

  9. Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale-10: A psychometric study in Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Bian, Qian; Wang, Wenzheng; Wu, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    Chinese university students often suffer from acute stress, which can affect their mental health. We measured and evaluated perceived stress in this population using the Simplified Chinese version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (SCPSS-10). The SCPSS-10, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7) were conducted in 1096 university students. Two weeks later, 129 participants were re-tested using the SCPSS-10. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors with Eigen values of 4.76 and 1.48, accounting for 62.41% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit of this two-factor model. The internal consistency reliability, as measured by Cronbach's α, was 0.85. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.7. The SCPSS-10 exhibited high correlation with the PHQ-9 and GAD-7, indicating an acceptable concurrent validity. The SCPSS-10 exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties in Chinese university students.

  10. Tuberculosis Fluoroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follow-up though Dec 31, 2002 has been completed for a study of site-specific cancer mortality among tuberculosis patients treated with artificial lung collapse therapy in Massachusetts tuberculosis sanatoria (1930-1950).

  11. Analysis of Acculturative Stress and Sociocultural Adaptation Among International Students at a Non-Metropolitan University

    OpenAIRE

    Hajara Mahmood; Monica Galloway Burke

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative descriptive study analyzed levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation among international students at a non-metropolitan university in the United States related to certain demographic characteristics. Surveys were used to measure international students’ levels of acculturative stress and sociocultural adaptation, including five subscales of sociocultural adaptation (N = 413). Demographic questions included gender, age, and country of origin, length of stay i...

  12. A longitudinal study of psychological stress among undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Ghazaleh, Suha B.; Sonbol, Hawazen N.; Rajab, Lamis D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify whether psychological stress increased as undergraduate dental students progressed through their studies from first to fifth year. Another objective was to determine if the perceived sources of stress have changed along the years. Methods To achieve these aims, a cohort of students at the University of Jordan were followed from first to fifth year of dental school. Fifth year students completed both the General Health Questionnaire ?GHQ-12?...

  13. Stress and cardiometabolic manifestations among Saudi students entering universities: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Alokail, Majed S; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P

    2014-04-23

    In this observational study, we aimed to see whether transition in Saudi students entering university life could be a breeding stage for cardiometabolic risk factor emergence and clustering. A total of 1878 apparently healthy Saudi students of the Preparatory Year, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (1112 men and 766 women) spanning 2 academic years were included. They were divided into 2 groups based on the validated perceived stress test (PST). Anthropometrics were obtained and fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of fasting blood glucose and a lipid profile. PST score (>27) considered indicative of stress was noted in 44.4% of students. The prevalence of this score was higher in women than in men (49.7% versus 40.7%). The prevalence of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia was significantly higher in men than women (p stressed men, who had a significantly higher prevalence of all the above cardiometabolic factors than the non-stressed ones (p stress is alarmingly high among Saudi students entering universities. This study sheds light on the social responsibility of universities in promoting a healthy lifestyle, particularly in this age group, when exposure to different kinds of stressors may result in body weight and metabolic changes.

  14. Evaluation of a PCR-Based Universal Heteroduplex Generator Assay as a Tool for Rapid Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta, Holger; Gilman, Robert H.; Arenas, Fanny; Valencia, Teresa; Caviedes, Luz; Montenegro, Sonia H.; Ticona, Eduardo; Ortiz, Jaime; Chumpitaz, Rosa; Evans, Carlton A.; Williams, Diana L.

    2003-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is an increasing health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. The PCR-UHG-Rif assay, which detects mutations within the rpoB gene associated with rifampin resistance, was evaluated for its ability and reliability to detect and identify drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a developing country where tuberculosis is highly endemic. PMID:14662980

  15. Bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) in animals and humans may result from exposure to bacilli within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. pinnipedii, M. microti, M. caprae, or M. canetti) . Mycobacterium bovis is the species most often isolated from tuberculous cat...

  16. Congenital tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-06-20

    Jun 20, 2012 ... Key words: Congenital tuberculo- sis, case report, miliary tuberculosis. Introduction. Congenital tuberculosis defines tuberculosis in infants of .... tary TB and otitis media, resulting in seizures, deafness, and death. It is therefore not surprising that the index case who presented at twelve weeks of age, had ...

  17. Examining perceptions of academic stress and its sources among university students: The Perception of Academic Stress Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Bedewy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a scale to measure perceived sources of academic stress among university students. Based on empirical evidence and recent literature review, we developed an 18-item scale to measure perceptions of academic stress and its sources. Experts ( n  = 12 participated in the content validation process of the instrument before it was administered to ( n  = 100 students. The developed instrument has internal consistency reliability of 0.7 (Cronbach’s alpha, there was evidence for content validity, and factor analysis resulted in four correlated and theoretically meaningful factors. We developed and tested a scale to measure academic stress and its sources. This scale takes 5 minutes to complete.

  18. Bio-Energy during Finals: Stress Reduction for a University Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Alice; Hildreth, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To re-examine the effectiveness of a bio-energy intervention on self-reported stress for a convenience sample of university students during dead week, a quasi-experimental, single-group pretest-posttest design was used. Thirty-three students participated, serving as their own controls. After participants had consented, a 15-min Healing Touch intervention followed enrollment. Self-reported stress was significantly reduced after the bio-energy (Healing Touch) intervention. Bio-energy therapy has shown to be beneficial in reducing stress for students during dead week, the week before final examinations. Further research is needed.

  19. A Qualitative Study of HR/OHS Stress Interventions in Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Boyd, Carolyn M; Provis, Chris

    2018-01-09

    To enhance the understanding of psychosocial factors and extend research on work stress interventions, we investigated the key human resource (HR)/occupational health and safety (OHS) stress interventions implemented at five Australian universities over a three-year period. Five senior HR Directors completed an online survey to identify the intervention strategies taken at their university in order to reduce stress and enhance employee well-being and morale. We also explored the types of individual-, organization-, and individual/organization-directed interventions that were implemented, and the strategies that were prioritized at each university. Across universities, the dominant interventions were strategies that aimed to balance the social exchange in the work contract between employee-organization with an emphasis on initiatives to: enhance training, career development and promotional opportunities; improve remuneration and recognition practices; and to enhance the fairness of organizational policies and procedures. Strategies to improve work-life balance were also prominent. The interventions implemented were predominantly proactive (primary) strategies focused at the organizational level and aimed at eliminating or reducing or altering work stressors. The findings contribute to the improved management of people at work by identifying university-specific HR/OHS initiatives, specifically leadership development and management skills programs which were identified as priorities at three universities.

  20. A Qualitative Study of HR/OHS Stress Interventions in Australian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the understanding of psychosocial factors and extend research on work stress interventions, we investigated the key human resource (HR/occupational health and safety (OHS stress interventions implemented at five Australian universities over a three-year period. Five senior HR Directors completed an online survey to identify the intervention strategies taken at their university in order to reduce stress and enhance employee well-being and morale. We also explored the types of individual-, organization-, and individual/organization-directed interventions that were implemented, and the strategies that were prioritized at each university. Across universities, the dominant interventions were strategies that aimed to balance the social exchange in the work contract between employee-organization with an emphasis on initiatives to: enhance training, career development and promotional opportunities; improve remuneration and recognition practices; and to enhance the fairness of organizational policies and procedures. Strategies to improve work-life balance were also prominent. The interventions implemented were predominantly proactive (primary strategies focused at the organizational level and aimed at eliminating or reducing or altering work stressors. The findings contribute to the improved management of people at work by identifying university-specific HR/OHS initiatives, specifically leadership development and management skills programs which were identified as priorities at three universities.

  1. Universal scaling of the stress-strain curve in amorphous solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Zheng, Wen

    2017-09-01

    The yielding transition of amorphous solids is a phase transition with a special type of universality. Critical exponents and scaling relations have been defined and proposed near the yield stress. We show here that, even in the initial stage of shear far below the yield stress, the stress-strain curve of amorphous solids also shows critical scaling with universal exponents. The key point is to remove the elastic part of the strain, and the shear stress exhibits a sublinear scaling with the plastic strain. We show how this critical scaling is related to the finite size effect of the minimum strain to trigger the first plastic avalanche after a quench. We point out that this sublinear scaling between the stress and the plastic strain implies the divergence of a high-order shear modulus. A scaling relation is derived between two exponents characterizing the stress-strain curve and the density distribution of the local stabilities, respectively. We test the critical scaling of the stress-strain curve using both mesoscopic and atomistic simulations and get satisfying agreement in two and three dimensions.

  2. Descriptive study of stress and satisfaction at work in the Saragossa university services and administration staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucha Lopez Ana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The notion of stress in connection with the work environment became an important topic during the 1970's, when the first studies on the subject were published and the term of work stress was first coined. In 1974, Freudenberger proposed the term burnout to refer to the condition of physical and emotional exhaustion, as well as the associated negative attitudes, resulting from the intense interaction in working with people. The aim of our study is to examine burnout and job satisfaction in Saragossa University Services and Administration Staff (SAS and detect the main factors which could contribute to too much stress, because job stress has emerged as a major psychosocial influence on mental health, associated with burnout. Methods 24 people from the Services and Administration Staff in the University of Saragossa participated in the study. The research was carried out during the implementation of a module on Stress Management organised by the University of Saragossa and commissioned to the Unit for Research in Physical Therapy (University School of Health Sciences from that University. This research is an exploratory research to improve the stress management program. A personal interview was carried out and additionally, participants were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Scale of Satisfaction at Work of Warr, Cook & Wall. Results However using small sample this is worth to state that participants present most of them low burnout levels in the burnout scale. Only in one person high exhaustion level was reflected, even though other seven showed mean levels; in the professional self-esteem section, most of them showed high self-esteem, with two cases of low self-esteem and five with mean level. With regard to satisfaction people participating in the study show mean levels in intrinsic as much as in extrinsic factors and general satisfaction. Conclusions Services and Administration Staff from the University of

  3. Descriptive study of stress and satisfaction at work in the Saragossa university services and administration staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricas Moreno, Jose Miguel; Salavera Bordas, Carlos; Lucha Lopez, Ma Orosia; Vidal Peracho, Concepcion; Lucha Lopez, Ana Carmen; Estebanez de Miguel, Elena; Bernues Vazquez, Luis

    2010-04-21

    The notion of stress in connection with the work environment became an important topic during the 1970's, when the first studies on the subject were published and the term of work stress was first coined. In 1974, Freudenberger proposed the term burnout to refer to the condition of physical and emotional exhaustion, as well as the associated negative attitudes, resulting from the intense interaction in working with people. The aim of our study is to examine burnout and job satisfaction in Saragossa University Services and Administration Staff (SAS) and detect the main factors which could contribute to too much stress, because job stress has emerged as a major psychosocial influence on mental health, associated with burnout. 24 people from the Services and Administration Staff in the University of Saragossa participated in the study. The research was carried out during the implementation of a module on Stress Management organised by the University of Saragossa and commissioned to the Unit for Research in Physical Therapy (University School of Health Sciences) from that University. This research is an exploratory research to improve the stress management program. A personal interview was carried out and additionally, participants were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Scale of Satisfaction at Work of Warr, Cook & Wall. However using small sample this is worth to state that participants present most of them low burnout levels in the burnout scale. Only in one person high exhaustion level was reflected, even though other seven showed mean levels; in the professional self-esteem section, most of them showed high self-esteem, with two cases of low self-esteem and five with mean level.With regard to satisfaction people participating in the study show mean levels in intrinsic as much as in extrinsic factors and general satisfaction. Services and Administration Staff from the University of Saragossa shows low burnout levels linked with high professional self

  4. Overexpression of a Cytosolic Abiotic Stress Responsive Universal Stress Protein (SbUSP) Mitigates Salt and Osmotic Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawat, Pushpika; Jha, Rajesh K.; Sinha, Dinkar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    The universal stress protein (USP) is a ubiquitous protein and plays an indispensable role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. The genome of Salicornia brachiata contains two homologs of intron less SbUSP gene which encodes for salt and osmotic responsive USP. In vivo localization reveals that SbUSP is a membrane bound cytosolic protein. The role of the gene was functionally validated by developing transgenic tobacco and compared with control [wild-type (WT) and vector control (VC)] plants under different abiotic stress condition. Transgenic lines (T1) exhibited higher chlorophyll, relative water, proline, total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acids, polyphenol contents, osmotic potential, membrane stability, and lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content) under stress treatments than control (WT and VC) plants. Lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2− radicals was also detected in transgenic lines compared to control plants under stress conditions. Present study confers that overexpression of the SbUSP gene enhances plant growth, alleviates ROS buildup, maintains ion homeostasis and improves the physiological status of the plant under salt and osmotic stresses. Principal component analysis exhibited a statistical distinction of plant response to salinity stress, and a significant response was observed for transgenic lines under stress, which provides stress endurance to the plant. A possible signaling role is proposed that some downstream genes may get activated by abiotic stress responsive cytosolic SbUSP, which leads to the protection of cell from oxidative damages. The study unveils that ectopic expression of the gene mitigates salt or osmotic stress by scavenging ROS and modulating the physiological process of the plant. PMID:27148338

  5. Colorectal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagi, B.; Kochhar, R.; Bhasin, D.K.; Singh, K.

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the incidence of colorectal tuberculosis in our series and to study its radiological spectrum. A total of 684 cases of proven gastrointestinal tuberculosis with positive barium contrast findings seen over a period of more than one decade were evaluated. The study did not include cases where colon was involved in direct contiguity with ileo-caecal tuberculosis. Seventy-four patients (10.8%) had colorectal tuberculosis. Commonest site involved was transverse colon, closely followed by rectum and ascending colon. Radiological findings observed were in the form of strictures (54%), colitis (39%) and polypoid lesions (7%). Complications noted were in the form of perforations and fistulae in 18.9% of cases. Colorectal tuberculosis is a very common site for gastrointestinal tuberculosis. Typical findings of colorectal tuberculosis are strictures, signs of colitis and polypoid lesions. Common complications are perforation and fistulae. (orig.)

  6. University Professors' Stress and Perceived State of Health in Relation to Teaching Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladellas, Ramon; Castello, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this research is to analyze the influence of time management, particularly in connection with university teachers' assigned class hours, on psychosocial factors relating to perceived health and stress symptoms. Special attention is given to the effect of very early and very late class hours. Method: The sample comprised…

  7. The Impact of Occupational Stress on University Employees' Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nawaz; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This study is an effort to understand the impact of occupational stress which is classified into four constructs i.e. pressure at work, support at work, job satisfaction, and nature of job, on the personality of employees working in public as well as private sector universities. To conduct the study, a survey questionnaire was floated to six…

  8. The University of California Institute of Environmental Stress Marathon Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    In 1973, the Institute of Environmental Stress of the University of California-Santa Barbara, under the direction of Steven M. Horvath, began a series of field and laboratory studies of marathon runners during competition. As one of Horvath's graduate students, many of these studies became part of my doctoral dissertation. The rationale for…

  9. The Incidence and Types of Occupational Role Stress among University Research Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsapis, Christine C. A.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the types of stressors prevalent in the self-reports of university research administrators (URAs) and examined whether or not the degree or type of role stress was influenced by: a) the affiliation of their office unit within their institution, or b) their type. Randomly selected members of NCURA were invited via e-mail to…

  10. Stress and Coping Strategies among Distance Education Students at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaah, Christopher Yaw; Essilfie, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the causes of stress and coping strategies adopted among distance education students at the College of Distance Education in the University of Cape Coast. A total of 332 diploma and post-diploma final year students in 2014/2015 academic year were selected from two study centers using random sampling procedure to…

  11. Using the Universal Design for Learning Approach in Science Laboratories to Minimize Student Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel K.; Lang, Patricia L.

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses how the principles of universal design for learning (UDL) can be applied in the science laboratory with an emphasis on assisting students who experience stress in the laboratory environment. The UDL approach in the laboratory is based on three elements: open-mindedness, supportive communication, and analysis and…

  12. Stress among Academic Staff and Students' Satisfaction of Their Performances in Payame Noor University of Miandoab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Kamran; Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Present study examined the relationship between stress among academic staff and students' satisfaction of their performances in Payame Noor University (PNU) of Miandoab City, Iran in 2014. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society…

  13. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  14. Living with Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Tuberculosis (TB) Living With Tuberculosis What to Expect You will need regular checkups ... XML file."); } }); } } --> Blank Section Header Lung Disease Lookup Tuberculosis (TB) Learn About Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Symptoms, Causes & Risk ...

  15. Stress-reduction interventions in an Australian university: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effects of awareness of stress-reduction interventions on employee well-being and work attitudes using a mixed methods design. Cross-sectional data are presented from 247 employees who completed questionnaires in 2004 at one Australian university. Analyses indicated that employees, who reported that interventions had been undertaken, scored higher on job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, perceived procedural justice and trust in senior management than those who were not aware of the measures, although they did not differ in psychological strain. Details of the stress-reduction interventions implemented by the Occupational Health and Safety department at the university are also reported. Thematic analyses of the perceived causes of both decreases and increases in stress for employees showed that staff reported workload and staffing pressures as key sources of increases in stress. On the other hand, new supervisors and/or management were identified as sources of decreased stress. Areas for consideration in future efforts to develop and refine stress interventions are also discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Rise and Fall of Depressive Symptoms and Academic Stress in Two Samples of University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Erin T; Howard, Andrea L; Villemaire-Krajden, Rosanne; Galambos, Nancy L

    2018-02-22

    Self-reported depressive experiences are common among university students. However, most studies assessing depression in university students are cross-sectional, limiting our understanding of when in the academic year risk for depression is greatest and when interventions may be most needed. We examined within-person change in depressive symptoms from September to April. Study 1 (N = 198; 57% female; 72% white; Mage = 18.4): Depressive symptoms rose from September, peaked in December, and fell across the second semester. The rise in depressive symptoms was associated with higher perceived stress in December. Study 2 (N = 267; 78.7% female; 67.87% white; Mage = 21.25): Depressive symptoms peaked in December and covaried within persons with perceived stress and academic demands. The results have implications for understanding when and for whom there is increased risk for depressive experiences among university students.

  17. Occupational stress, ill health and organisational commitment of employees at a university of technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P. Viljoen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between occupational stress, ill health and organisational commitment. A survey design was used. The sample (N=353 consisted of academic (n=132 and support staff (n=221 at a university of technology. The Organizational Stress Screening Tool (ASSET and a biographical questionnaire were administered. The results showed that different organisational stressors contributed significantly to ill health and low organisational commitment. Stress about job security contributed to both physical and psychological ill health, whereas overload and job aspects contributed to psychological ill health. Stress about control and resources contributed to low organisational commitment. Low individual commitment to the organisation was predicted by five stressors, namely work-life balance, overload, control, job aspects and pay.

  18. Effect of a comprehensive programme to provide universal access to care for sputum-smear-positive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in China: a before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renzhong; Ruan, Yunzhou; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Xiexiu; Chen, Mingting; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Yanlin; Zhao, Jin; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Caihong; Su, Wei; Pang, Yu; Cheng, Jun; Chi, Junying; Wang, Qian; Fu, Yunting; Huan, Shitong; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Yu; Chin, Daniel P

    2015-04-01

    China has a quarter of all patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) worldwide, but less than 5% are in quality treatment programmes. In a before-and-after study we aimed to assess the effect of a comprehensive programme to provide universal access to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up for MDRTB in four Chinese cities (population 18 million). We designated city-level hospitals in each city to diagnose and treat MDRTB. All patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in Center for Disease Control (CDC) clinics and hospitals were tested for MDRTB with molecular and conventional drug susceptibility tests. Patients were treated with a 24 month treatment package for MDRTB based on WHO guidelines. Outpatients were referred to the CDC for directly observed therapy. We capped total treatment package cost at US$4644. Insurance reimbursement and project subsidies limited patients' expenses to 10% of charges for services within the package. We compared data from a 12 month programme period (2011) to those from a retrospective survey of all patients with MDRTB diagnosed in the same cities during a baseline period (2006-09). 243 patients were diagnosed with MDRTB or rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis during the 12 month programme period compared with 92 patients (equivalent to 24 per year) during the baseline period. 172 (71%) of 243 individuals were enrolled in the programme. Time from specimen collection for resistance testing to treatment initiation decreased by 90% (from median 139 days [IQR 69-207] to 14 days [10-21]), the proportion of patients who started on appropriate drug regimen increased 2·7 times (from nine [35%] of 26 patients treated to 166 [97%] of 172), and follow-up by the CDC after initial hospitalisation increased 24 times (from one [4%] of 23 patients to 163 [99%] of 164 patients). 6 months after starting treatment, the proportion of patients remaining on treatment increased ten times (from two [8%] of 26 patients to 137 [80

  19. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  20. Job stress and its related factors in accountant employees of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khoeniha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims Job stress is defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when job requirements do not match the capabilities¸ resources ¸and needs. This factor can negatively influence worker’s mental and physical health and also decrease organizations productivity and success. Thus the aim of present study was to investigate the job stress and its related factors in accountant employees of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 1388.   Methods This study was a descriptive (cross-sectional research in which the sampling population included 80 accountant employees that were selected with census. The severity of job stress and its related factors were determined using a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 36 items that validated by content validity. The reliability was also measured by test-retest (d=0/90 methods. Data was analyzed by descriptive analysis.     ResultsThe severity of job stress in most of accountant employees (%46/25 was in high level .There was a Significant relationship between severity of job stress and employees sex ¸ age and work record (p<0.001 . The higher job stress was experienced by women and employees with thelower age work record . Among different occupational stress variables, the most important factor that caused job stress was workload of the role (M=70/22. Conclusion With regard to the severity of job stress in accountant employees, it is necessary for organizational managers and policy makers to implement a protective strategy for prevention or alleviate longitudinal negative consequences of job stress in employees.

  1. Coping Strategies for Stress Adopted by Undergraduate Students of Private Universities in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwas Acharya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress affects the health and academic career of students. Students adopt different coping methods and strategies to deal with stress. Objective: To assess the coping strategies adopted by the undergraduate students of private universities in Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among 422 undergraduate students of two selected private universities in Himachal Pradesh in March-April using self administered questionnaire. Brief cope inventory was used to assess coping strategies. Results: The most used coping strategies were positive reframing (mean=5.85+1.583, active coping (mean=5.82+1.548, religion (mean=5.72+1.77, acceptance (mean= 5.67+1.581 planning (mean=5.65+1.491 and self distraction (mean=5.6+1.583. Least used coping strategies were substance use (mean=2.83+1.478, denial (mean=4.64+1.567 and venting (mean=4.64+1.513. Conclusion: Students used positive coping strategies rather than the negative strategies to deal with stress. Though negative coping technique like substance were least adopted, such coping strategies need to be discouraged at the family, community and university level to deal with stress.

  2. Strategies used to handle stress by academic physicians at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Sara; Boman, John; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Research is limited regarding occupational stress and coping strategies among academic physicians; professionals whose work situation includes the three areas of clinical practice, research, and teaching. The aim was to gain knowledge of stress-coping strategies used by academic physicians. Seventeen academic physicians employed at the University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden. Qualitative analyses were conducted of data from five focus-group interviews. We identified eight different categories of coping strategies, e.g. self-awareness, time management, to cut corners, and to be in control. We also attempted to fit the dimensions of coping strategies into the models proposed by Folkman and Lazarus and Beehr and McGrath, respectively. The strategies were predominantly used to prevent stress from occurring, to manage anticipated stress, or to handle stress when occurring. Furthermore, the majority of the strategies identified could be placed in the problem-focused category, which we divided in a behavioural and a cognitive sub-category and in a new cognitive problem-focused and emotion-focused category. The study contributes to a wider understanding of the stress coping strategies academic physicians use. Further studies are needed to determine the consequences of these findings in order to enable the design of measures to reduce and prevent stress among academic physicians.

  3. Mental Strain and Chronic Stress among University Students with Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D. Gulewitsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the degree of mental strain and chronic stress in a German community sample of students with IBS-like symptoms. Methods and Materials. Following an internet-based survey about stress, this study recruited 176 German university students (23.45±2.48 years; 48.3% males with IBS-like symptoms according to Rome III and 181 students without IBS (23.55±2.82 years; 50.3% males and compared them regarding current mental strain (SCL-90-R and the extend of chronic stress. Beyond this, IBS subtypes, IBS severity, and health care utilization were assessed. Results. Students fulfilling IBS criteria showed significantly elevated values of mental strain and chronic stress. Nearly 40% of the IBS group (versus 20% of the controls reached a clinically relevant value on the SCL-90-R global severity scale. IBS subtypes did not differ in terms of mental distress or chronic stress. Somatization, anxiety, and the chronic stressors “work overload,” “social tension,” and “dissatisfaction with job” were most closely connected to IBS symptom severity. Regarding health care utilization, our results show that consulting a physician frequently was not associated significantly with elevated mental strain or chronic stress but with IBS symptom severity. Conclusion. Our data contribute additional evidence to the distinct association between psychological stress and IBS in community samples.

  4. Academic examination stress increases disordered eating symptomatology in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, V; Patsai, A

    2012-09-01

    It is well documented that stress and anxiety can affect eating behaviour and food intake in humans. The purpose of the current study was to explore the possible effect of academic examination stress on disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, restraint eating, body image, anxiety levels and self-esteem in a group of female university students. The interrelationships of the above parameters were also examined. Sixty Greek female university students, 18-25 years old, have been recruited and completed, on two separate occasions: a) during an examination stress period, and b) during a control period, the following questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, the Body Image Pictorial Instrument Scale (COLLINS) and a specially designed General Background Questionnaire. Subjects reported significantly higher levels of disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26, p=0.01), higher levels of anxiety (p=0.000) and lower levels of self-esteem (p=0.016) during the examination stress period compared to the control period. Disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26) were significantly positively correlated with emotional eating (p=0.04) and restrained eating (p=0.010) and negatively correlated with levels of self-esteem (p=0.05) and perceived desired body image (p=0.008) during the exam stress period. Finally, EAT-26 was significantly positively correlated with levels of anxiety in both study periods. Academic examination stress seems to increase disordered eating symptomatology in female university students and is associated with lower levels of self-esteem, an important finding which warrants further investigation.

  5. Comparison of good and poor sleepers : stress and life satisfaction of university athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Litwic-Kaminska, Kamila

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare differences in level of perceived stress, type of stress appraisal and life satisfaction between university athletes who declare problems with sleep (Poor Sleepers, PS, n = 72) and those without problems (Good Sleepers, GS, n = 105). In preliminary analyses the PS and GS were compared for group homogeneity with (a) the Chi-Square test for gender and type of sport, and (b) the Mann-Whitney U test for practice time and weekly frequency of trainings. I...

  6. Exploring Religiosity, Self-Esteem, Stress, and Depression Among Students of a Cypriot University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellari, Evanthia; Psychogiou, Maria; Georgiou, Anna; Papanidi, Milena; Vlachou, Vasso; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between Religiosity, Self-esteem, Stress, and Depression among nursing students, social work students, and early-education students of a Cypriot University. The data were collected using four questionnaires. The results indicate a significant positive association between Depression and Stress. Greater levels of Self-esteem were found to be associated with lower depression levels in correlation analysis, while strength of Religious and Spiritual Beliefs was correlated negatively with depression. The results of the current study highlight the need for early intervention in order to promote students mental well-being.

  7. Student-Life Stress Level and its Related Factors among Medical Students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Nikanjam; Majid Barati; Saeed Bashirian*; Mohammad Babamiri; Ali Fattahi; Alireza Soltanian

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Student-life stress can lead to various negative consequences such as physical illness, mental disorders or exhaustion. The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of student life stress and its related factors among medical students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study applied multistage random sampling to select 500university students at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences during 2015. The dat...

  8. Stress and Coping Strategies among Distance Education Students at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Yaw KWAAH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify the causes of stress and coping strategies adopted among distance education students at the College of Distance Education in the University of Cape Coast. A total of 332 diploma and post-diploma final year students in 2014/2015 academic year were selected from two study centers using random sampling procedure to respond to self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire which was adapted to suit the study context was pre-tested to ensure that it elicited valid response. The results of the study showed that ‘academic workload’, ‘high frequency of examinations’, ‘financial problems’, family/marriage problems’ were the major causes of stress among the students. The study also found some statistical significant differences between married and unmarried students with married students feeling more stressed with ‘financial problems’ and ‘family/marriage problems’ than unmarried students. Students used multiple strategies, mainly praying/meditating, self-distracting activities such as watching TV and listening to music to cope with stress. Other important stress coping strategies were emotional and instrumental support from family, friends and lecturers. The study recommended among others that the need for the counseling unit at College of Distance Education of UCC to organize frequent stress management programs for students and assign academic counselors to students.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Perceptions of Pharmacy Students’ Stress and Stressors across Two Multicampus Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Caroline A.; Crawford, Stephanie Y.; Tieman, Jami

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare perceived levels of stress, stressors, and academic self-efficacy among students at two multicampus colleges of pharmacy. Methods. A survey instrument using previously validated items was developed and administered to first-year, second-year, and third-year pharmacy students at two universities with multiple campuses in spring 2013. Results. Eight hundred twenty students out of 1115 responded (73.5% response rate). Institutional differences were found in perceived student stress levels, self-efficacy, and stress-related causes. An interaction effect was demonstrated between institution and campus type (main or branch) for perceived stress and self-efficacy although campus type alone did not demonstrate a direct effect. Institutional and campus differences existed in awareness of campus counseling services, as did a few differences in coping methods. Conclusion. Stress measures were similar for pharmacy students at main or branch campuses. Institutional differences in student stress might be explained by instructional methods, campus support services, institutional climate, and nonuniversity factors. PMID:27402985

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Perceptions of Pharmacy Students' Stress and Stressors across Two Multicampus Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awé, Clara; Gaither, Caroline A; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Tieman, Jami

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To compare perceived levels of stress, stressors, and academic self-efficacy among students at two multicampus colleges of pharmacy. Methods. A survey instrument using previously validated items was developed and administered to first-year, second-year, and third-year pharmacy students at two universities with multiple campuses in spring 2013. Results. Eight hundred twenty students out of 1115 responded (73.5% response rate). Institutional differences were found in perceived student stress levels, self-efficacy, and stress-related causes. An interaction effect was demonstrated between institution and campus type (main or branch) for perceived stress and self-efficacy although campus type alone did not demonstrate a direct effect. Institutional and campus differences existed in awareness of campus counseling services, as did a few differences in coping methods. Conclusion. Stress measures were similar for pharmacy students at main or branch campuses. Institutional differences in student stress might be explained by instructional methods, campus support services, institutional climate, and nonuniversity factors.

  11. Demographic and clinical characteristics in relation to patient and health system delays in a tuberculosis low-incidence country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leutscher, Peter; Madsen, Gitte; Erlandsen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Background: Delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) are commonly encountered. Methods: A study was undertaken among pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) patients in a Danish university hospital to describe demographic and clinical characteristics ...

  12. TOURISM IN HEALTH PROMOTION – A STRATEGY IN STRESS MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC STAFF

    OpenAIRE

    Lawal Yazid Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growth of leisure travel and stress coping research based analysis of leisure and tourism, stress coping have been performed rarely. The purpose of the present study is to examine how University staffs cope with stress through participation in leisure and tourism activities, and how work related stress affect their organizational commitment using data collected from a focus group interview approach and a self-developed questionnaire consisting of 25 items design to elicit informat...

  13. PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF JOB STRESS AMONG JUNIOR DOCTORS IN THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL, IBADAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeolu, J O; Yussuf, O B; Popoola, O A

    2016-12-01

    Doctors respond differently to their complex work environment, some find it stimulating while others find it stressful. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of stress among junior doctors in a teaching hospital in Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional survey of all junior doctors employed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan was carried out. Information was collected with a structured pretested questionnaire from 253 doctors. Descriptive statistics were generated. T-test, chi square and logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 16. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Mean age of respondents was 29.9 (±4.1) years, 61.3% were males, 59% had spent less than 5 years in medical practice, and 34.8% were married. Majority (79.4%) were resident doctors. Prevalence of stress, job dissatisfaction and poor mental health were 31.6%, 15.4% and 9.9% respectively. Age, gender, years of medical practice, religion, ethnicity and marital status were not significantly associated with job stress (p>0.05). Doctors who were stressed were more likely to be dissatisfied with their jobs (OR=2.33; CI=1.08-4.04) and to have poor mental health (OR=3.82; CI=1.47-9.95) than those who were not stressed. The prevalence of stress in this study is high, and job dissatisfaction and poor mental health have been implicated as determinants of stress. As such, there should be an improvement in doctors' welfare, health care facilities and delivery.

  14. Relationships between stress, coping and depressive symptoms among overseas university preparatory Chinese students: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Mental health problems in young people are an important public health issue. Students leaving their hometown and family at a young age to pursue better educational opportunities overseas are confronted with life adjustment stress, which in turn affects their mental health and academic performance. This study aimed to examine the relationships among stress, coping strategies, and depressive symptoms using the stress coping framework in overseas Chinese university preparatory students in Taiwan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at an overseas Chinese university preparatory institute in Taiwan. Of enrolled overseas Chinese university preparatory students at 2009, 756 completed a structured questionnaire measuring stress, strategies for coping with it, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results High levels of stress significantly predicted the adoption of active, problem-focused coping strategies (R2 = 0.13, p overseas Chinese university preparatory students. PMID:21595974

  15. Tuberculosis neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1986-01-01

    PROTOCOLOS TERAPEUTICOS. TUBERCULOSIS NEONATAL 1. CONCEPTO La tuberculosis neonatal es la infección del recién nacido producida por el bacilo de Koch. Es una situación rara pero grave que requiere un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento enérgico..

  16. Glycine in the conserved motif III modulates the thermostability and oxidative stress resistance of peptide deformylase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sai Shyam; Sokkar, Pandian; Ramachandran, Murugesan; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2011-07-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyses the removal of the N-formyl group from the nascent polypeptide during protein maturation. The PDF of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MtbPDF), overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli, was characterized as an iron-containing enzyme with stability towards H(2) O(2) and moderate thermostability. Substitution of two conserved residues (G49 and L107) from MtbPDF with the corresponding residues found in human PDF affected its deformylase activity. Among characterized PDFs, glycine (G151) in motif III instead of conserved aspartate is characteristic of M. tuberculosis. Although the G151D mutation in MtbPDF increased its deformylase activity and thermostability, it also affected enzyme stability towards H(2) O(2) . Molecular dynamics and docking results confirmed improved substrate binding and catalysis for the G151D mutant and the study provides another possible molecular basis for the stability of MtbPDF against oxidizing agents. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of posttraumatic stress and problem alcohol involvement in university academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Rachel L; Read, Jennifer P

    2012-07-01

    The present study examines how Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) during the first year of university affects academic performance and whether alcohol behavior mediates the relationship between PTSD and poor academic outcomes. University students (N = 1,002; 65% female; Mage = 18.11) completed a baseline web survey, and 5 subsequent surveys throughout freshman year assessing variables of interest. Mediation analyses were not significant; however, students who developed PTSD had a lower grade point average and experienced more alcohol consequences by the end of freshman year. Unremitted PTSD and alcohol consequences were associated with leaving university by year's end. Findings suggest that assessment of trauma-related symptoms and alcohol behavior might benefit interventions aimed at students with academic difficulties. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of a mindfulness program on stress, anxiety and depression in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, José; Aguilar-Parra, José M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Langer, Álvaro I; Mañas, Israel

    2015-01-13

    Two of the problems that currently affect a large proportion of university students are high levels of anxiety and stress experienced in different situations, which are particularly high during the first years of their degree and during exam periods. The present study aims to investigate whether mindfulness training can bring about significant changes in the manifestations of depression, anxiety, and stress of students when compared to another group undergoing a physical activity program and a control group. The sample consisted of 125 students from the Bachelor of Education Program. The measuring instrument used was the Abbreviated Scale of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21). The results indicate that the effects of reducing the identified variables were higher for the mindfulness group than for the physical education group and for the control group F(2) = 5.91, p = .004, η2 = .106. The total scores for all variables related to the mindfulness group decreased significantly, including an important stress reduction t(29) = 2.95, p = .006, d = .667. Mindfulness exercises and some individual relaxing exercises involving Physical Education could help to reduce manifestations of stress and anxiety caused by exams in students.

  19. Dental Students' Educational Environment and Perceived Stress: The University of Malaya Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Kyaimon; See-Ziau, Hoe; Husain, Ruby; Ismail, Rosnah

    2016-05-01

    An equitable and positive learning environment fosters deep self-directed learning in students and, consequently, good practice in their profession. Although demotivating weaknesses may lead to repeated day-to-day stress with a cascade of deleterious consequences at both personal and professional levels, a possible relationship between these parameters has not been reported. This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between students' perceptions of their educational environment and their stress levels. Sixty-one first year students at the Dental Faculty, University of Malaya, Malaysia participated. The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) was used to determine educational environment while self-rated perceived stress level was measured by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Most students (62.39%) showed positive perceptions for the total and five domains of DREEM. The highest percentage was observed for "Students perception of learning" (64.04%) while the lowest was for "Students' social self-perception" (60.32%). At the same time, 61% of students showed high perceived stress levels. However, this was not associated with their DREEM scores. Although a positive perception of their educational environment was found, minor corrective measures need to be implemented. Furthermore, longitudinal studies on an annual basis would provide useful input for strategic planning purposes.

  20. Relationship between the Manner of Mobile Phone Use and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Višnjić, Aleksandar; Veličković, Vladica; Sokolović, Dušan; Stanković, Miodrag; Mijatović, Kristijan; Stojanović, Miodrag; Milošević, Zoran; Radulović, Olivera

    2018-04-08

    Objectives : There is insufficient evidence regarding the potential risk of mobile phone use on mental health. Therefore, the aim of this research was to examine the relationship between mobile phone use and mental health by measuring the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among university students in Serbia and Italy. Methods : This cross-sectional study was carried out at two distinguished universities in Serbia and Italy from March to May of the 2015/2016 academic year and included 785 students of both genders. The questionnaire was compiled and developed from different published sources regarding the manner and intensity of mobile phone use, along with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 42) for measuring psychological health. The statistical analysis of the data included the application of binary logistic regression and correlation tests. Results: Statistical analysis indicates that anxiety symptoms are somewhat more present in younger students (odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76-0.96), in those who send more text messages SMSs (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.11-1.31), and in those who browse the internet less frequently (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73-0.95). Stress is more common in students who make fewer calls a day (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64-0.97), as well in those who spend more time talking on the mobile phone per day (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.12-1.56). The strongest predictor of high stress levels was keeping the mobile phone less than 1 m away during sleeping (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.12-2.08). Conclusions: The results indicated that the intensity and modality of mobile phone use could be a factor that can influence causal pathways leading to mental health problems in the university student population.

  1. MadR1, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell cycle stress response protein that is a member of a widely conserved protein class of prokaryotic, eukaryotic and archeal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rebecca; Ramirez, Melissa V; England, Kathleen; Slayden, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    Stress-induced molecular programs designed to stall division progression are nearly ubiquitous in bacteria, with one well-known example being the participation of the SulA septum inhibiting protein in the SOS DNA damage repair response. Mycobacteria similarly demonstrate stress-altered growth kinetics, however no such regulators have been found in these organisms. We therefore set out to identify SulA-like regulatory proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A bioinformatics modeling-based approach led to the identification of rv2216 as encoding for a protein with weak similarity to SulA, further analysis distinguished this protein as belonging to a group of uncharacterized growth promoting proteins. We have named the mycobacterial protein encoded by rv2216 morphology altering division regulator protein 1, MadR1. Overexpression of madR1 modulated cell length while maintaining growth kinetics similar to wild-type, and increased the proportion of bent or V-form cells in the population. The presence of MadR1-GFP at regions of cellular elongation (poles) and morphological differentiation (V-form) suggests MadR1 involvement in phenotypic heterogeneity and longitudinal cellular growth. Global transcriptional analysis indicated that MadR1 functionality is linked to lipid editing programs required for growth and persistence. This is the first report to differentiate the larger class of these conserved proteins from SulA proteins and characterizes MadR1 effects on the mycobacterial cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    , tended to affect groups of people living close together, and young people in particular. Pregnancy exacerbated phthisis which was characterised by a chronic cough (worse at night, prominent sputum, often blood streaked and presumably arising from necrotic lung tissue. The face was typically flushed with sunken cheeks, sharp nose and very bright eyes. There was atrophy of all muscles with prominent (“winged” shoulder blades, fever and perspiration often associated with shivering. Symptoms were described which would fit in with complicating lung abscess and empyema. Hippocrates also mentions disease entities which would fit in with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, like Pott’s disease of the spine and cervical lymphadenopathy (scrofula, although he did not associate this with phthisis. Minimal specific therapy was prescribed. Subsequent writers in the Hellenistic and Roman eras added little to the classic Hippocratic clinical picture of phthisis, but Celsus (1st century AD and Galen (2nd century first suggested that it was a contagious condition. From Themison (1st century BC onwards, therapeutic regimes became more drastic with the addition of inter alia strict dietary regimes, purges, enemas and venesection. Celsus suggested long sea voyages with ample relaxation and a change of climate. Aretaeus (1st century AD stressed the importance of not exacerbating the suffering of people with chronic disease by imposing aggressive therapy. Except for the introduction of more drastic therapy the concept of phthisis (tuberculosis had thus not progressed materially in the course of the millennium between Hippocrates and the end of the Roman era – and it would indeed remain virtually static for the next 1 000 years up to the Renaissance. There is, however, some evidence that the incidence of tuberculosis decreased during the major migration of nations which characterised the late Roman Empire.

  3. Learn About Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Tuberculosis (TB) Learn About Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne bacterial infection caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs, although other organs ...

  4. Relationships between stress, coping and depressive symptoms among overseas university preparatory Chinese students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Pi-Chi; Chao, Yu-Mei Y; Yang, Hao-Jan; Yeh, Gwo-Liang; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2011-05-19

    Mental health problems in young people are an important public health issue. Students leaving their hometown and family at a young age to pursue better educational opportunities overseas are confronted with life adjustment stress, which in turn affects their mental health and academic performance. This study aimed to examine the relationships among stress, coping strategies, and depressive symptoms using the stress coping framework in overseas Chinese university preparatory students in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study was conducted at an overseas Chinese university preparatory institute in Taiwan. Of enrolled overseas Chinese university preparatory students at 2009, 756 completed a structured questionnaire measuring stress, strategies for coping with it, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. High levels of stress significantly predicted the adoption of active, problem-focused coping strategies (R(2) = 0.13, p coping strategies (R(2) = 0.24, p stress coping framework, after active coping strategies were eliminated from the model. Results from the Sobel test revealed that passive coping strategies mediated the relation between stress and depressive symptoms (z = 8.06, p stress is associated with coping strategies and depressive symptoms and passive strategies mediate the relation between stress and depressive symptoms in overseas Chinese university preparatory students.

  5. Work stress and gender-dependent coping strategies in anesthesiologists at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F; Traweger, Christian; Trefalt, Ernestine; Riccabona, Ulla; Lederer, Wolfgang

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate stressors and coping strategies for stress in a sample of anesthesiologists working at a university hospital. Cross-sectional study via survey instrument. University department of anesthesiology and critical care at a 1305-bed hospital. 135 anesthesia specialists and specialist trainees of anesthesia. A total of 135 self-reporting questionnaires used to assess sociodemographic data, workload, task demands, stress-coping strategies, physical health, emotional well-being, and working conditions, were distributed. Of these, 89 questionnaires were completed and returned, for a response rate of 65.9%: 33 (37.1%) female anesthesiologists and 56 (62.9%) male anesthesiologists. The burden of task-related stressors and of communication possibilities was assessed differently by male and female anesthesiologists. Female anesthesiologists more frequently reported higher concentration demands (P = 0.013) and limited possibilities to control work (P = 0.009) than did their male colleagues. Work at intensive care units (P = 0.001) was particularly demanding and burdensome for female anesthesiologists. Combined evaluation of various stress-coping strategies did not show significant differences between the genders. Generally, anesthesiologists had more confidence in their own personal capabilities and resources and in their social-particularly family-support outside the workplace, than in their social support from colleagues and superiors. Task-related stressors and communication possibilities differed between male and female anesthesiologists in our institution. Female anesthesiologists felt that they had less control over their work.

  6. Operacionalização do conceito de vulnerabilidade à tuberculose em alunos universitários Functioning of the concept of vulnerability to tuberculosis amongst university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Idaly Muñoz Sánchez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar aspectos que caracterizam a vulnerabilidade à tuberculose em moradores do Conjunto Residencial da Universidade de São Paulo (CRUSP. A população do estudo foi conformada por uma amostra estatisticamente significativa dos alunos universitários. Os dados relativos à vulnerabilidade individual foram coletados junto aos alunos no período de outubro a novembro de 2002. O referencial teórico para analisar a questão da tuberculose está pautado no quadro teórico de vulnerabilidade. A amostra totalizou 106 alunos, sendo 69,8% de graduação e 30,2% de pós-graduação. A proporção de migrantes (internos e externos alcançou 43,4%. Sobre o conhecimento da tuberculose, 84 estudantes (79,2% responderam que sabiam o que era tuberculose e 79 (74,5% responderam que a doença tinha cura. Cerca de 60 (56,6% sabiam qual é o agente causal da doença e 72 (67,9% referiram já ter ouvido falar sobre a doença, sendo que para 5 (6,9% isso havia ocorrido em instituições de saúde. Indagou-se se sabiam onde recorrer para fazer exames para verificar a presença da enfermidade; 48 (45,3% responderam desconhecimento. Identifica-se a vulnerabilidade desses alunos, principalmente tendo em vista que constituem um grupo aparentemente diferenciado, pois em tese teriam condições mais favoráveis para acessar a informação a respeito da doença.The objective of this study was to identify aspects that characterize the vulnerability to tuberculosis in resident students at the Residential Rooms of the University of Sao Paulo (CRUSP. The data relative to individual vulnerability were collected by using a questionnaire during the period of October to November, 2002. The theoretical reference and the interpretation frame to analize the issue of tuberculosis were given in the theorethical frame of vulnerability .The study sample completed 106 students being 69.8% graduated students and 30.2% postgraduated students. The

  7. Tuberculosis treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad; da Silva, José Laerte Rodrigues; Ferreira, Anna Carolina Galvão; Tannus-Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz; Conde, Marcus Barreto

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis treatment remains a challenge due to the need to consider, when approaching it, the context of individual and collective health. In addition, social and economic issues have been shown to be variables that need to be considered when it comes to treatment effectiveness. We conducted a critical review of the national and international literature on the treatment of tuberculosis in recent years with the aims of presenting health care workers with recommendations based on the situation in Brazil and better informing decision-making regarding tuberculosis patients so as to minimize morbidity and interrupt disease transmission. PMID:29340497

  8. A study of the relationships between daily life stress, self-efficacy and university student life adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Whee; Lee, Young Ja

    2005-06-01

    This correlation study was undertaken to examine the relationships between daily life stress, self-efficacy and university student life adjustment and to analyze the self-efficacy affecting that university student life adjustment. 265 university students were recruited from several participating required undergraduate classes. They were surveyed as the subject of this study. Data collection was conducted through the use of questionnaires. The university life adjustment level showed a maximum score of 9 with the mean score 5.22. A negative correlation was found between daily life stress and university life adjustment. Also, there was positively correlation between self-efficacy and university life adjustment. Self-efficacy and daily life stress accounted for 23% of the variance in university student life adjustment. According to the results, self-efficacy is a useful concept in helping overall university life adjustment. Therefore, university student consultation office or nurse should consider the program based on self efficacy in order to help university students to better adapt to university life.

  9. Universal rescaling of flow curves for yield-stress fluids close to jamming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkgreve, M; Paredes, J; Michels, M A J; Bonn, D

    2015-07-01

    The experimental flow curves of four different yield-stress fluids with different interparticle interactions are studied near the jamming concentration. By appropriate scaling with the distance to jamming all rheology data can be collapsed onto master curves below and above jamming that meet in the shear-thinning regime and satisfy the Herschel-Bulkley and Cross equations, respectively. In spite of differing interactions in the different systems, master curves characterized by universal scaling exponents are found for the four systems. A two-state microscopic theory of heterogeneous dynamics is presented to rationalize the observed transition from Herschel-Bulkley to Cross behavior and to connect the rheological exponents to microscopic exponents for the divergence of the length and time scales of the heterogeneous dynamics. The experimental data and the microscopic theory are compared with much of the available literature data for yield-stress systems.

  10. Factors Associated with Occupational Stress among University Teachers in Pakistan and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Akhtar Malik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the interplay of psychosocial factors and works conditions on occupational stress among 531 university teachers in Pakistan and Finland with the help of a web-based questionnaire. Results from an MANOVA revealed that good working conditions, social support at work, and promotion and development opportunities were rated as significantly better by the Finnish sample. Workplace bullying occurred considerably less often in Finland than in Pakistan. Male Pakistani teachers reported significantly higher levels of workplace bullying than any other group. Although the working conditions, social support, and promotion and development opportunities were better, and less bullying appeared in Finland than in Pakistan, but the difference in stress symptoms between the two countries was not significant.

  11. Reliability and validity of the student stress inventory-stress manifestations questionnaire and its association with personal and academic factors in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli-Muñoz, Agustín J; Balanza, Serafín; Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Vera-Catalán, Tomás; Lorente, Ana María; Gallego-Gómez, Juana I

    2018-05-01

    Stress affects us in every environment and it is also present in the educational sphere. Previous studies have reported a high prevalence of stress in university students. The Student Stress Inventory-Stress Manifestations (SSI-SM), identify stressors and evaluate stress manifestations in adolescents but its validity in university students remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the internal consistency and validity of an adapted version of the Student Stress Inventory-Stress Manifestations (SSI-SM) for university students and to investigate if high stress levels are associated with personal and academic factors. In this quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study, we included 115 university students of the Nursing Degree during the second semester of the 2014/2015 academic year. Information about personal issues, lifestyle and academic performance was recorded and the stress was evaluated with the SSI-SM questionnaire. The internal consistency and homogeneity of the SSI-SM questionnaire was tested and a factorial analysis was performed. After the homogeneity analysis, the final version of the SSI-SM questionnaire included 19 items, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.924. In the factorial analysis, 4 factors were found ('Self-concept', 'Sociability', 'Uncertainty' and 'Somatization'; all Cronbach's alpha >0.700). Students with higher values on the SSI-SM were, in overall, women (41.0 ± 12.7 vs. 33.2 ± 9.5; p = 0.001) and had significantly more family conflicts (47.6 ± 13.8 vs. 35.2 ± 9.6; p students of the Nursing Degree. Family conflicts, female gender, absence of alcohol consumption, few sleep hours and poor academic performance are associated with higher stress levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress and Coping Strategies among Distance Education Students at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    KWAAH, Christopher Yaw; ESSILFIE, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the causes of stress and coping strategies adopted among distance education students at the College of Distance Education in the University of Cape Coast. A total of 332 diploma and post-diploma final year students in 2014/2015 academic year were selected from two study centers using random sampling procedure to respond to self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire which was adapted to suit the study context was pre-tested to ensure that it elicited...

  13. A Study on the Measurement of Job-Related Stress among Women Academics in Research Universities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili

    2010-01-01

    This study intends to gain an understanding of the sources of stress among women academics in research universities of China. Studies have shown that, compared with their male counterparts, women report higher level of stress in work/family conflicts, gender barriers and career development. Based on the results of this study, the following…

  14. Duodenal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.R.; Sarwar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a world wide communicable disease caused by tubercle bacilli discovered by Robert Kock in 1882. In 1993 WHO declared TB as a global emergency due to its world wide resurgence. It can involve any organ of the body. Abdomen is the fourth commonest site of involvement in the extra pulmonary tuberculosis after the lymph-nodes, skeletal and Genito urinary variants. In the gastro intestinal tract tuberculosis can affect any part from the mouth to the anus but ileocaecal area is a favourite location. Duodenal involvement is uncommon and accounts for only 2.5% of tuberculous enteritis. Major pathogens are Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and bovis and the usual route of entry is by direct penetration of the intestinal mucosa by swallowed organisms. (author)

  15. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Increase in HIV infections Increase in number of homeless people (poor environment and nutrition) Drug-resistant strains ... Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America ... guidelines: treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. ...

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE44 (Rv2770c) is involved in response to multiple stresses and promotes the macrophage expression of IL-12 p40 and IL-6 via the p38, ERK, and NF-κB signaling axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaoxiao; Zhang, Chenhui; Zhou, Mingliang; Li, Qiming; Li, Hui; Duan, Wei; Li, Xue; Feng, Yonghong; Xie, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a formidable threat to global public health. The successful intracellular persistence of M. tuberculosis significantly contributes to the intractability of tuberculosis. Proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) are mycobacterial exclusive protein families that widely reported to be involved in the bacterial virulence, physiology and interaction with host. Rv2770c (PPE44), a predicted virulence factor, was up-regulated upon the infected guinea pig lungs. To investigate the role of Rv2770c, we heterologously expressed the PPE44 in the nonpathogenic fast-growing M. smegmatis strain. Subcellular location analysis demonstrated that Rv2770c is a cell wall associated protein, suggestive of a potential candidate involved in host-pathogen interaction. The Rv2770c can enhance M. smegmatis survival within macrophages and under stresses such as H 2 O 2 , SDS, diamide exposure, and low pH condition. M. smegmatis expressing Rv2770c is more virulent as testified by the increased death of macrophages and the increased expression of interlukin-6 (IL-6) and interlukin-12p40 (IL-12p40). Moreover, Rv2770c altered the secretion of IL-6 and IL-12p40 of macrophages via NF-κB, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK axis. Taken together, this study implicated that Rv2770c was a virulent factor actively engaged in the interaction with host macrophage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. [Perinatal tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Gómez, Jessica; Karam Bechara, José; Jamaica Balderas, Lourdes

    Perinatal tuberculosis is acquired during birth or during the early neonatal period. Although its incidence is unknown, a search was conducted in Medline and 28 cases were found of perinatal tuberculosis reported from 1983 to 2011. Diagnosis of this disease is important due to having nonspecific symptoms that are mistaken for other infectious diseases. The disease has a high mortality rate (60%); therefore, it requires prompt diagnostic suspicion by the medical staff to prevent a fatal outcome. We describe the case of a 3-month-old male whose 29-year-old mother died of septic shock at 15 days of delivery. The infant's condition began within 30 days of age with cough and difficulty breathing with a diagnosis of multiple foci pneumonia. The infant presented respiratory impairment, meriting change of antibiotics twice, without improvement. The autopsy report of the mother revealed peritoneal tuberculosis. PCR was carried out using tracheal aspirate and pleural fluid of the patient, which were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Perinatal diagnosis of tuberculosis was established. No hepatic granuloma was found. Perinatal infection should be suspected in children with sepsis and/or pneumonia unresponsive to antibiotics. In this care, the history of tuberculosis in the mother should have oriented the diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Universal screening for latent and active tuberculosis (TB) in asylum seeking children, Bochum and Hamburg, Germany, September 2015 to November 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Hermelink, Maya; Kobbe, Robin; Methling, Benedikt; Rau, Cornelius; Schulze-Sturm, Ulf; Auer, Isa; Ahrens, Frank; Brinkmann, Folke

    2018-03-01

    BackgroundIn Germany, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in children has been on the rise since 2009. High numbers of foreign-born asylum seekers have contributed considerably to the disease burden. Therefore, effective screening strategies for latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB in asylum seeking children are needed. Aim: Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of LTBI and active TB in asylum seeking children up to 15 years of age in two geographic regions in Germany. Methods: Screening for TB was performed in children in asylum seeker reception centres by tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon gamma release assay (IGRA). Children with positive results were evaluated for active TB. Additionally, country of origin, sex, travel time, TB symptoms, TB contact and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination status were registered. Results: Of 968 screened children 66 (6.8%) had TB infection (58 LTBI, 8 active TB). LTBI prevalence was similar in children from high (Afghanistan) and low (Syria) incidence countries (8.7% vs 6.4%). There were no differences regarding sex, age or travel time between infected and non-infected children. Children under the age of 6 years were at higher risk of progression to active TB (19% vs 2% respectively, p=0,07). Most children (7/8) with active TB were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. None of the children had been knowingly exposed to TB. Conclusions: Asylum seeking children from high and low incidence countries are both at risk of developing LTBI or active TB. Universal TB screening for all asylum seeking children should be considered.

  19. Perspectives of Patients, Doctors and Medical Students at a Public University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro Regarding Tuberculosis and Therapeutic Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Elizabeth da Trindade; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; Siqueira, Hélio Ribeiro de; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcanti; Mannarino, Celina

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) annually around the world. The unfavorable outcomes of TB treatment prevent the achievement of the WHO's cure target. To evaluate existing intersections in the conceptions relative to the knowledge of TB, the experience of the illness and the treatment. Doctors, medical students and patients were selected from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2013. The data were obtained by semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and a field journal. The inclusion of patients was interrupted due to saturation, and the inclusion of doctors and medical students stopped due to exhaustion. The theoretical background included symbolic Interactionism, and the analysis used rounded Theory. The analysis prioritized the actions/interactions axis. Twenty-three patients with pulmonary TB, seven doctors and 15 medical students were included. In the interviews, themes such as stigma, self-segregation, and difficulties in assistance emerged, in addition to defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, isolation and other mental mechanisms, including guilt, accountability and concealment of the disease. Aspects related to the assistance strategy, the social support network, bonding with the healthcare staff and the doctor-patient relationship were highlighted as adherence enablers. Doctors and students recommended an expansion of the theoretical and practical instruction on TB during medical students' education. The existence of health programs and policies was mentioned as a potential enabler of adherence. The main concepts identified were the stigma, self-segregation, guilt, responsibility, concealment and emotional repercussions. In relation to the facilitation of therapeutic adherence, the concepts identified were the bonds with healthcare staff, the doctor-patient relationship, assistance and educational health strategies.

  20. Perspectives of Patients, Doctors and Medical Students at a Public University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro Regarding Tuberculosis and Therapeutic Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Elizabeth da Trindade; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; de Siqueira, Hélio Ribeiro; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcanti; Mannarino, Celina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies 8.7 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) annually around the world. The unfavorable outcomes of TB treatment prevent the achievement of the WHO’s cure target. Goal To evaluate existing intersections in the conceptions relative to the knowledge of TB, the experience of the illness and the treatment. Methods Doctors, medical students and patients were selected from a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2011 to 2013. The data were obtained by semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, participant observation and a field journal. The inclusion of patients was interrupted due to saturation, and the inclusion of doctors and medical students stopped due to exhaustion. The theoretical background included symbolic Interactionism, and the analysis used rounded Theory. The analysis prioritized the actions/interactions axis. Results Twenty-three patients with pulmonary TB, seven doctors and 15 medical students were included. In the interviews, themes such as stigma, self-segregation, and difficulties in assistance emerged, in addition to defense mechanisms such as denial, rationalization, isolation and other mental mechanisms, including guilt, accountability and concealment of the disease. Aspects related to the assistance strategy, the social support network, bonding with the healthcare staff and the doctor-patient relationship were highlighted as adherence enablers. Doctors and students recommended an expansion of the theoretical and practical instruction on TB during medical students’ education. The existence of health programs and policies was mentioned as a potential enabler of adherence. Conclusion The main concepts identified were the stigma, self-segregation, guilt, responsibility, concealment and emotional repercussions. In relation to the facilitation of therapeutic adherence, the concepts identified were the bonds with healthcare staff, the doctor-patient relationship

  1. nourishing molecule in endurance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pratap C Mali

    2018-01-24

    rich molecules as an energy source obtained from host cell debris remains interesting. Additionally, the potential of M. tuberculosis to survive under different stress conditions leading to its dormant state in pathogenesis remains ...

  2. Universities futureproofing youth mental health: research confirms that offering mindfulness courses to students increases their wellbeing and resilience to stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter Brian; Dufour, G; Vainre, M; Wagner, AP; Stochl, Jan; Benton, A; Howarth, Emma Louise; Croudace, TJ

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Worldwide, increasing numbers of young people go to university, but there is concern about students’ rising need for mental health services. Young people’s journey through university provides a golden yet under-used opportunity for prevention. Mindfulness meditation training is popular amongst young people, but its effectiveness to increase wellbeing and resilience to stress in university students needs confirmation. Objective To address these issues the U...

  3. Relationships between stress, coping and depressive symptoms among overseas university preparatory Chinese students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Gwo-Liang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems in young people are an important public health issue. Students leaving their hometown and family at a young age to pursue better educational opportunities overseas are confronted with life adjustment stress, which in turn affects their mental health and academic performance. This study aimed to examine the relationships among stress, coping strategies, and depressive symptoms using the stress coping framework in overseas Chinese university preparatory students in Taiwan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at an overseas Chinese university preparatory institute in Taiwan. Of enrolled overseas Chinese university preparatory students at 2009, 756 completed a structured questionnaire measuring stress, strategies for coping with it, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results High levels of stress significantly predicted the adoption of active, problem-focused coping strategies (R2 = 0.13, p R2 = 0.24, p z = 8.06, p Conclusion Our study results suggested that stress is associated with coping strategies and depressive symptoms and passive strategies mediate the relation between stress and depressive symptoms in overseas Chinese university preparatory students.

  4. Homology-Based Modeling of Universal Stress Protein from Listeria innocua Up-Regulated under Acid Stress Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremonte, Patrizio; Succi, Mariantonietta; Coppola, Raffaele; Sorrentino, Elena; Tipaldi, Luca; Picariello, Gianluca; Pannella, Gianfranco; Fraternali, Franca

    2016-01-01

    An Universal Stress Protein (USP) expressed under acid stress condition by Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 was investigated. The USP was up-regulated not only in the stationary phase but also during the exponential growth phase. The three dimensional (3D) structure of USP was predicted using a combined proteomic and bioinformatics approach. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the USP from Listeria detected in our study was distant from the USPs of other bacteria (such as Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.) and clustered in a separate and heterogeneous class including several USPs from Listeria spp. and Lactobacillus spp. An important information on the studied USP was obtained from the 3D-structure established through the homology modeling procedure. In detail, the Model_USP-691 suggested that the investigated USP had a homo-tetrameric quaternary structure. Each monomer presented an architecture analogous to the Rossmann-like α/β-fold with five parallel β-strands, and four α-helices. The analysis of monomer-monomer interfaces and quality of the structure alignments confirmed the model reliability. In fact, the structurally and sequentially conserved hydrophobic residues of the β-strand 5 (in particular the residues V146 and V148) were involved in the inter-chains contact. Moreover, the highly conserved residues I139 and H141 in the region α4 were involved in the dimer association and functioned as hot spots into monomer–monomer interface assembly. The hypothetical assembly of dimers was also supported by the large interface area and by the negative value of solvation free energy gain upon interface interaction. Finally, the structurally conserved ATP-binding motif G-2X-G-9X-G(S/T-N) suggested for a putative role of ATP in stabilizing the tetrameric assembly of the USP. Therefore, the results obtained from a multiple approach, consisting in the application of kinetic, proteomic, phylogenetic and modeling analyses, suggest that Listeria USP could

  5. Homology-based modeling of Universal Stress Protein from Listeria innocua up-regulated under acid stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio Tremonte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An Universal Stress Protein (USP expressed under acid stress condition by Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 was investigated. The USP was up-regulated not only in the stationary phase but also during the exponential growth phase. The three dimensional (3D structure of USP was predicted using a combined proteomic and bioinformatics approach. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the USP from Listeria detected in our study was distant from the USPs of other bacteria (such as Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and clustered in a separate and heterogeneous class including several USPs from Listeria spp. and Lactobacillus spp. An important information on the studied USP was obtained from the 3D-structure established through the homology modelling procedure. In detail, the Model_USP-691 suggested that the investigated USP had a homo-tetrameric quaternary structure. Each monomer presented an architecture analogous to the Rossmann-like α/β fold with 5 parallel β-strands and 4 α-helices. The analysis of monomer-monomer interfaces and quality of the structure alignments confirmed the model reliability. In fact, the structurally and sequentially conserved hydrophobic residues of the β-strand 5 (in particular the residues V146 and V148 were involved in the inter-chains contact. Moreover, the highly conserved residues I139 and H141 in the region α 4 were involved in the dimer association and functioned as hot spots into monomer-monomer interface assembly. The hypothetical assembly of dimers was also supported by the large interface area and by the negative value of solvation free energy gain upon interface interaction. Finally, the structurally conserved ATP-binding motif G-2X-G-9X-G(S/T-N suggested for a putative role of ATP in stabilizing the tetrameric assembly of the USP. Therefore, the results obtained from a multiple approach, consisting in the application of kinetic, proteomic, phylogenetic and modelling analyses, suggest that Listeria

  6. Association of Awake Bruxism with Khat, Coffee, Tobacco, and Stress among Jazan University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Mir Faeq Ali; Mahnashi, Ali; Al Almutahhir, Ayman; Tubayqi, Hamzah; Hakami, Abdullah; Arishi, Mohamed; Alamir, Abdulwahab

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective is to assess the prevalence of bruxism among the university students and to check its association with their khat chewing habit. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study is designed using cluster random sampling. Pretested questionnaire was administered by a trained interviewer to assess awake bruxism and the use of variables like khat, coffee, tobacco, and stress. Chi-square test at 5% significance was used for assessing the association. Logistic regression was also performed after adjusting for covariates. Results. A high response rate (95%) was obtained as the distribution and collection of questionnaire was within an hour interval. 85% (63%, males; 22%, females) experienced an episode of bruxism at least one time in the past six months. Regression analysis revealed an association of stress (P = 0.00; OR = 5.902, 95% CI 2.614-13.325) and khat use (P = 0.05; OR = 1.629, 95% CI 0.360-7.368) with bruxism. Interestingly, it is observed that the one who chew khat experienced 3.56 times (95% CI; 2.62-11.22) less pain when compared to the nonusers. Conclusion. This study is the first of its kind to assess the association of bruxism with khat chewing. High amount of stress and khat use can be considered as important risk indicators for awake bruxism.

  7. Association of Awake Bruxism with Khat, Coffee, Tobacco, and Stress among Jazan University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Faeq Ali Quadri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective is to assess the prevalence of bruxism among the university students and to check its association with their khat chewing habit. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study is designed using cluster random sampling. Pretested questionnaire was administered by a trained interviewer to assess awake bruxism and the use of variables like khat, coffee, tobacco, and stress. Chi-square test at 5% significance was used for assessing the association. Logistic regression was also performed after adjusting for covariates. Results. A high response rate (95% was obtained as the distribution and collection of questionnaire was within an hour interval. 85% (63%, males; 22%, females experienced an episode of bruxism at least one time in the past six months. Regression analysis revealed an association of stress (P=0.00; OR = 5.902, 95% CI 2.614–13.325 and khat use (P=0.05; OR = 1.629, 95% CI 0.360–7.368 with bruxism. Interestingly, it is observed that the one who chew khat experienced 3.56 times (95% CI; 2.62–11.22 less pain when compared to the nonusers. Conclusion. This study is the first of its kind to assess the association of bruxism with khat chewing. High amount of stress and khat use can be considered as important risk indicators for awake bruxism.

  8. Examining the Impact of a University-driven Exercise Programming Event on End-of-semester Stress in Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschel, Tessa L; Young, John C; Navalta, James W

    2017-01-01

    Stress levels in university students peak during the final exam period. An inverse association exists between Physical Activity (PA) and poor mental health. UNLV has created Fitness4Finals (F4F), an event novel in its approach to academic stress reduction by incorporating both physical activity and mental relaxation. To our knowledge, a university-driven programming event aimed at reducing physiological and psychological stress among students approaching final exams had never been studied. Therefore, the aims of this research were to 1) examine the influence of F4F on physiological stress and perceived psychological stress (PPS) and 2) to examine the relationship between physiological stress and PPS. Fifteen full-time university students were recruited to participate in their choice of one of two groups: F4F or control (NonF4F). Pre-F4F and post-F4F measures of physiological stress, measured by salivary cortisol, and perceived psychological stress, measured by survey were collected. The F4F event was held the week prior to final examinations. Participants in the F4F group engaged in one F4F activity per day for the duration of the 3-day event. Results of the repeated measures MANOVA indicated nonsignificant interaction (p = .864) between F4F participation, physiological stress and PPS. PPS and cortisol were not correlated at the onset of the study (r = -0.18, p = 0.48) or at the last sampling period (r = 0.097, p = 0.73). Preemptive elevated levels of PA in the F4F group may have influenced results. Qualitative data indicates a unanimous perceived reduction in stress from F4F participation. While the physiological measures of stress in the present study were not significantly different, the perceived stress reduction reported by F4F participants is influential. Further investigation with improvements in timing and measurement tools is warranted.

  9. [Tuberculosis and human rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hideaki; Inagaki, Tomokazu; Toyoda, Emiko; Kawabe, Yoshiko; Fujiwara, Keiko; Masuyama, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    , the following three criteria of human rights must be satisfied. 1. The health of others will be adversely affected without a mandatory program. 2. The mandatory program is the least restrictive alternative. 3. The mandatory program is implemented equitably without purposeful bias. For example, the mandatory DOT could not satisfy these criteria. Before applying the mandatory TB control policy in Japan, the TB patient's autonomy and social cooperation of TB therapy need to be considered. 5. Tuberculosis and guarantee of human rights: Shigeru TAKAHASHI (Graduate School of Law, Hitotsubashi University) In modern administrative Law the relations between Governments and peoples are regarded not as the facing relationships between Governments and the peoples, who submit to the interventions by Government, but as the triangle relationships between Governments, the peoples who submit to the interventions by Governments and the peoples who enjoy benefits from the interventions by Governments. When we make a new design of the Tuberculosis Protection Act, we must at first take considerations of the human rights of the tuberculosis patients from the view points of due Process of Law. And we must also take considerations of the human rights of the peoples who are threatened with the risks of tuberculosis infection.

  10. Food and mental health: relationship between food and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among university students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Adetunji, Hamed; Oskrochi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The current study assessed, by university and sex, the association between nutritional behaviour (twelve independent variables), and stress and depressive symptoms (dependent variables) in a sample from three UK countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among undergraduates enrolled across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (N = 3,706). Self-administered questionnaires included a 12-item food frequency questionnaire, Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and modified Beck Depression Inventory. Sex and university comparisons were undertaken. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were computed for each of the two outcomes--perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The frequencies of consuming of the various food groups differed by university and sex, as did depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Multivariable regression analyses indicated that consuming 'unhealthy' foods (e.g. sweets, cookies, snacks, fast food) was significantly positively associated with perceived stress (females only) and depressive symptoms (both males and females). Conversely, consuming 'healthy' foods (e.g. fresh fruits, salads, cooked vegetables) was significantly negatively associated with perceived stress and depressive symptoms scores for both sexes. There was significant negative association between consuming fish/sea food and depressive symptoms among males only. For males and for females, consuming lemonade/soft drinks, meat/sausage products, dairy/dairy products, and cereal/cereal products were not associated with either perceived stress or depressive symptoms. The associations between consuming 'unhealthy' foods and higher depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students as well as the associations between consuming 'healthy' foods and lower depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students in three UK countries suggest that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and stress among students could

  11. Work-related stress and work ability among Croatian university hospital midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Bojana; Milosevic, Milan; Golubic, Rajna; Belosevic, Ljiljana; Russo, Andrea; Mustajbegovic, Jadranka

    2011-04-01

    to explore the sources and levels of stress at work and work ability among Croatian midwives. midwives are subjected to multiple stressors. Among health-care professionals, psychological distress for a prolonged period of time has negative effects on the worker's health, work ability and quality of patient care. 'Work ability' is a term describing a worker's resources related to physical, mental and social demands at work. As a measure of work ability in midwifery, the Work Ability Index (WAI) is considered to be a very predictive instrument; midwives with a poor WAI score usually leave their current job within five years. university hospitals in Zagreb, Croatia. cross-sectional design survey. 300 health-care workers (105 qualified midwives and 195 paediatric nurses) were invited to complete the questionnaire. The total response rate was 53% (158/300). The sample included 14.7% of all hospital-based midwives in Zagreb hospitals. the Occupational Stress Assessment Questionnaire (OSAQ) for health-care workers and the WAI questionnaire. over three-quarters of the midwives (46/60, 76.7%) believed that their job was stressful, and considered that insufficient work resources caused the most stress. More than half of the midwives associated an insufficient number of coworkers, unexpected situations, inadequate income, night work, incurable patients and poor organisation at work with a high level of stress. The perceived specific stressors differed between midwives and paediatric nurses in the same hospital. Insufficient work resources and poor organisation at work were more common stressors among midwives than paediatric nurses (pworking in their current workplace compared with paediatric nurses (pwork ability. After adjusting for age, the difference in WAI score between the groups of workers was not significant. Croatian midwives experienced work-related stress due to: insufficient work resources, insufficient number of coworkers, poor organisation at work, communication

  12. The feasibility of brief dog-assisted therapy on university students stress levels: the PAwS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Emily; Ohlsen, Sally; Thompson, Jennifer; Hulin, Joe; Knowles, Louise

    2017-10-06

    Pet therapy is becoming increasingly popular and is used in a variety of ways from encouraging communication in older adults to improving wellbeing in those with serious mental illness. Increasingly Universities have been offering pet therapy to students in an effort to reduce stress. However, little evidence currently exists to support the effectiveness of reducing measurable stress levels after a standalone drop-in unstructured session. The University of Sheffield's Counselling Service works in partnership with Guide Dogs for the Blind to give students access to calm, well-trained animals for informal group stress relief. To assess the feasibility of implementing and evaluating unstructured group interventions with a Guide Dog in training within the university student population. One hundred and thirty-one students who attended pet therapy at the University Counselling Service were recruited on a voluntary basis to take part in the research. Stress, measured on the state trait anxiety inventory, and blood pressure were taken before and after a 15-min intervention. All measures showed a statistically significant reduction immediately after the intervention. Short interactions with a Guide Dog in training appear to reduce stress in University students. A controlled study is required to investigate further.

  13. mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity and drug resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 88 No. 12 December 2011. MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS GENETIC DIVERSITY AND DRUG RESISTANCE CONFERRING MUTATIONS. IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO. L. Fenner, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland, S.

  14. Comparing anger, anger expression, life stress and social support between Korean female nursing and general university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2017-12-01

    To compare anger, anger expression, life stress and social support among female students at a nursing university and a general university and to examine factors affecting anger in each group. University students typically experience constant stress resulting from factors like academic requirements, personal relationships and career decisions; this tends to promote anger. Particularly, nursing students' anger can negatively affect the quality of care that they provide, and also their mental health. Therefore, anger management of nursing students is very important in the training and development of future nurses. Nursing education needs to confirm factors associated with anger of nursing students compared with general university students to develop specific intervention programs for decreasing their anger levels. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Participants were 286 female students (146 from a nursing university and 140 from a general university); they completed self-report surveys examining anger, anger expression, life stress and social support. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was done to identify factors affecting anger. Data were collected from 15 May-10 June 2016. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, we entered three anger expression factors, eight life stress factors and social support as explanatory variables; factors affecting anger among nursing students were anger-out and same-sex peer relationship stress. In general university students, anger-out, anger-control and anger-in were identified as factors affecting anger. Becoming proficient in beneficial anger expression techniques and reducing stress from same-sex peer relationships will reduce anger among female nursing students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Tuberculosis Multidrogoresistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German A Acevedo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el Mycobacterium tuberculosis. En el año 2010 se registraron 8.8 millones de casos incidentes en el mundo y en los últimos años han aparecido poblaciones bacterianas de micobacterias con resistencia a los fármacos de primera línea. Se ha definido la presencia de resistencia a rifampicina e isoniacida como multidrogoresistencia, estimándose una incidencia mundial aproximada de 3.6%. Esta revisión de tema se centrará en la situación de la tuberculosis multidrogoresistente en el mundo, incluyendo un análisis regional de la casuística Colombiana. Se comentarán los principales mecanismos de resistencia del microorganismo, los genes implicados en la misma y los factores de riesgo asociados a la generación de resistencia en algunas comunidades.

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Anastasia; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2018-03-23

    In this infographic, the genetics, phylogeny, physiology, and pathogenesis mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are shown. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), the leading cause of death due to a single infectious agent, claiming 1.7 million lives in 2016. Of the deaths attributable to TB in 2016, 22% occurred in people coinfected with HIV, and close to 5% of the 10.4 million incident cases of this disease were resistant to at least two of the first-line TB drugs. In this infographic, we describe the fundamental features of the genetics, phylogeny, and physiology of this member of the phylum Actinobacteria, which is associated increasingly with drug resistance mediated by mutations and rearrangements in its single, circular chromosome. We also highlight the key pathogenesis mechanisms employed by this slow-growing, facultative intracellular bacterium, which include avoidance of host cell clearance by arrest of the normal macrophage maturation process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Occupational stress and job insecurity in men working in a university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, A; Di Giampaolo, L; Forcella, L; Grapshi, M; D'Intino, A; Pulini, S; Di Giuseppe, D; Tamellini, L; Qin-Li, Zhang; Turano, A; Di Camillo, C; Boscolo, P

    2007-01-01

    77 men working in a university were investigated. Trait and state anxiety were determined by STAI I and STAI II; job strain (job demand/decision latitude), social support and job insecurity were analysed by a 46 item Karasek's questionnaire and subjective symptoms by a 12 item test. The employees of a library (mean age 49 years), in contact with students, showed significantly higher values of job strain, STAI I, STAI II and subjective symptoms than a control group of employees with similar age. Young employees and sanitary staff with temporary employment showed higher level of job insecurity than control subjects with stable position. Blood cytotoxic activity (reported in another study) was significantly lower in the old employees with job strain or in the young employees with job insecurity (but not in the sanitary staff) than in the controls; this demonstrates that not only occupational stress but also job insecurity may play an important role in affecting the health status.

  18. [Gastric tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, E; Oliveira, A; Costa, A; Sa, L; Vieira, A; Oliveira, A

    1994-12-01

    A 37 year old woman with duodenal ulcer not responsive to medical treatment was operated. Antrectomy, truncal vagotomy and Bilroth II gastrojejunostomy were performed. The histopathology revealed epithelioid cell granulomas with multinucleated cells and central ceseation, in the gastric side of the pylorus and in three isolated lymph nodes. With Ziehl-Neelsen staining there were multiple acid-fast bacilli. There was no evidence or previous history, personal or familial, or tuberculosis in an other localization. Epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of gastric tuberculosis are discussed according to the literature.

  19. Evaluation of work place stress in health university workers: A study from rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrinarayan Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare providers being over-worked and under staffed are prone to poor mental health. Unhealthy work place compounds it further. Aims: This study was aimed at to assess the mental health status of a medical university employee with special reference to work place stressors. Settings and design: A cross-sectional study was designed and carried out at a Rural Health University. Materials and Methods: Both the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and Holmes-Rahe Scale were used to evaluate 406 participants. Statistical analysis: Multivariate analysis, correlation, and ANOVA by SPSS 11.0. Results: The minimum age of the participant was 19 years and the maximum 64 years, with an average age at 35.09 years. On the GHQ scale 239(58.9% recorded psychiatric morbidity out of which 201(49.5% had moderate and 38(9.3% severe morbidity. Doctors were the highest stressed group (P ≤ 0.04. Prominent work environmental stressors were poor departmental reorganization, lack of cohesiveness in department, difficult superiors and juniors (P ≤ 0.001, Pearson correlation. Stressors associated with work organization and work nature were: noninvolvement in departmental decision making and lack of proper feedback; along with; work load, lack of clarity in job, and a erratic work schedule (P ≤ 0.001 on Pearson correlation. Harassment, favoritism, discrimination, and lack of self-expression (P ≤ 0.003 were other factors responsible for work dissatisfaction. Conclusions: A high stress level was detected in the study population. The principal stressors were work environment related. Poor work culture was found to lead to job dissatisfaction among majority.

  20. Evaluation of work place stress in health university workers: a study from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Badrinarayan; Mehta, Sc; Sinha, Nidhi Dinesh; Shukla, Sushil Kumar; Ahmed, Nadeem; Kawatra, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare providers being over-worked and under staffed are prone to poor mental health. Unhealthy work place compounds it further. This study was aimed at to assess the mental health status of a medical university employee with special reference to work place stressors. A cross-sectional study was designed and carried out at a Rural Health University. Both the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 and Holmes-Rahe Scale were used to evaluate 406 participants. Multivariate analysis, correlation, and ANOVA by SPSS 11.0. The minimum age of the participant was 19 years and the maximum 64 years, with an average age at 35.09 years. On the GHQ scale 239(58.9%) recorded psychiatric morbidity out of which 201(49.5%) had moderate and 38(9.3%) severe morbidity. Doctors were the highest stressed group (P ≤ 0.04). Prominent work environmental stressors were poor departmental reorganization, lack of cohesiveness in department, difficult superiors and juniors (P ≤ 0.001, Pearson correlation). Stressors associated with work organization and work nature were: noninvolvement in departmental decision making and lack of proper feedback; along with; work load, lack of clarity in job, and a erratic work schedule (P ≤ 0.001 on Pearson correlation). Harassment, favoritism, discrimination, and lack of self-expression (P ≤ 0.003) were other factors responsible for work dissatisfaction. A high stress level was detected in the study population. The principal stressors were work environment related. Poor work culture was found to lead to job dissatisfaction among majority.

  1. [Stress level assessment of the nursing staff in the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-García, C; Ríos-Rísquez, M I; Martínez-Hurtado, R; Noguera-Villaescusa, P

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the work stress level among nursing staff in the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital and to analyse its relationship with the various sociodemographic and working variables of the studied sample. A study was designed using a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional approach. The target population of the study was the nursing staff selected by non-random sampling. The instrument used was the Job Content Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20. The mean, ranges and standard deviation for each of the variables were calculated. A bivariate analysis was also performed on the social and occupational variables of the sample. The participation rate was 80.90% (N=89). The mean of the Social support dimension was 3.13±0.397, for the Psychological demands at work dimension it was 3.10±0.384, with a mean of 2.96±0.436 being obtained for the Control over the work dimension. In the analysis of sociodemographic and work variables of the sample, only the professional category was significant, with nurses recording higher values in perception of job demands and control over their work compared to nursing assistants. In conclusion, there is a moderate perception of work stress in the analysed group of professionals. Among the sources of stress in the workplace was the low control in decision-making by practitioners, as well as the need to continually learn new things. On the other hand, the support received from colleagues is valued positively by the sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and Disordered Eating among University Students: The Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilija Malinauskiene

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between lifetime traumatic events (TEs, posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms, and disordered eating (DE were studied in a sample of 614 university students (mean age 20 years. An anonymous questionnaire included 32 lifetime TEs, IES-revised measured PTS symptoms, and EAT-26 evaluated DE symptoms. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations and structural equation models (SEM with bootstrapping method. Findings reveal the prevalence of DE in 8.1% of participants, while 73.9% of students experienced at least one lifetime TE. 52.0% of students with DE had PTS symptoms (p<0.0001 and 30.8% of students with lifetime TEs had PTS symptoms (p<0.001. In SEM, direct paths from lifetime TEs to PTS symptoms (0.38, p<0.0001 and from PTS symptoms to DE (0.40, p<0.0001 were observed. The final SEM confirmed the mediating role of PTS symptoms in the path between some TEs (traffic accident and seriously injured and DE among the university students. If PTS symptoms are associated with DE, then addressing PTS symptoms in the context of DE treatment may improve treatment efficacy.

  3. Are Students’ Symptoms and Health Complaints Associated with Perceived Stress at University? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Walid El Ansari; Reza Oskrochi; Ghollamreza Haghgoo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, l...

  4. The relationship between the development of musculoskeletal disorders, body mass index, and academic stress in Bahraini University students

    OpenAIRE

    Tantawy, Sayed A; Abdul Rahman, Asma; Abdul Ameer, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background There are many mechanisms in which stress can lead to weight gain thus high a BMI. The endocrine and inflammatory pathway can directly increase abdominal adiposity. Another way in which stress leads to weight gain is through changes in health behaviors. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among healthy students of Ahlia University, and to determine the relationship between the development of MSDs and academic stressors and body mass ind...

  5. Work locus of control as a mediator of the relationship between sources and consequences of occupational stress among university teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Slišković, Ana; Maslić Seršić, Darja; Burić, Irena

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the relationship between specific sources of occupational stress, work locus of control, attitudes towards work, and well-being of university teachers. Work locus of control is defined as a situational variable which includes the perception of the level of control and free decision-making in the working context (Williams & Cooper, 1998), and its mediating role in relation to the sources and consequence of occupational stress is assumed. Research was carried out using an o...

  6. Tuberculosis perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sáenz-Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Conclusiones: La infección perinatal debe sospecharse en niños con sepsis o neumonía sin respuesta a antibióticos. En este caso, el antecedente de la madre con tuberculosis orientó al diagnóstico.

  7. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhl, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Dissemination of the tubercle bacillus is of three types: bronchogenic, hematogenous, and lymphangitic. Bronchogenic dissemination occurs when exudate from a cavity or small area of caseation drains into a bronchus and is aspirated into previously uninfected areas either on the same or on the opposite side. This type of spreading occurs frequently after bleeding and when there is a cavity emptying into a bronchus. Hematogenous dissemination leads to miliary tuberculosis and to extrapulmonary lesions throughout the body. Acute massive hematogenous spread causes miliary tuberculosis, while chronic spread in smaller amounts usually results in the chronic extrapulmonary foci. Lymphangitic dissemination is common in primary infection. It is responsible for involvement with subsequent enlargement of hilar and mediastinal nodes that is often seen in children and in young black adults. The reaction to M. tuberculosis depends on the presence or absence of immunity to tuberculoprotein. In individuals having no tissue hypersensitivity or immunity, primary tuberculosis results. In those with immunity produced by previous infection or BCG vaccination, the reactivation (reinfection) disease may develop

  8. Tuberculosis; Eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Through an internet search and review of current literature on tuberculosis and its ocular complications, the information relevant to the objectives was obtained. ' Conclusions: TB can affect any structure in the eye and adnexae. Ocular TB is not easy to diagnose because most times there is no concurrent active ...

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Susan; Burns-Huang, Kristin E; Janssen, Guido V; Li, Huilin; Ovaa, Huib; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Darwin, K Heran

    2017-02-21

    The protein degradation machinery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis includes a proteasome and a ubiquitin-like protein (Pup). Proteasome accessory factor A (PafA) attaches Pup to proteins to target them for degradation by the proteasome. Free Pup is unstable and never observed in extracts of M. tuberculosis , an observation that led us to hypothesize that PafA may need alternative sources of Pup. Here, we show that PafA can move Pup from one proteasome substrate, inositol 1-phosphate synthetase (Ino1), to two different proteins, malonyl coenzyme A (CoA)-acyl carrier protein transacylase (FabD) and lonely guy (Log). This apparent "transpupylation" reaction required a previously unrecognized depupylase activity in PafA, and, surprisingly, this depupylase activity was much more efficient than the activity of the dedicated depupylase Dop (deamidase of Pup). Thus, PafA can potentially use both newly synthesized Pup and recycled Pup to doom proteins for degradation. IMPORTANCE Unlike eukaryotes, which contain hundreds of ubiquitin ligases, Pup-containing bacteria appear to have a single ligase to pupylate dozens if not hundreds of different proteins. The observation that PafA can depupylate and transpupylate in vitro offers new insight into how protein stability is regulated in proteasome-bearing bacteria. Importantly, PafA and the dedicated depupylase Dop are each required for the full virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Thus, inhibition of both enzymes may be extremely attractive for the development of therapeutics against tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Zhang et al.

  10. Student-Life Stress Level and its Related Factors among Medical Students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Nikanjam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Student-life stress can lead to various negative consequences such as physical illness, mental disorders or exhaustion. The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of student life stress and its related factors among medical students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study applied multistage random sampling to select 500university students at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences during 2015. The data collection tool used in this study was a self-report questionnaire containing two parts: a section on subjects' demographic details and another section for Student-Life Stress Inventory (SLSI. Data were analyzed in SPSS20-using descriptive and inferential statistics, such as independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation test and one-way ANOVA. Results: This study revealed that %57of the students had moderate levels of stress. The most important stressors included self-impose and pressure, and also the most important reactions to stressors included cognitive appraisal and emotional reactions, respectively. There was a significant association between exam stressors and branch, educational level, and mother's and father's education level (P< 0.05. Conclusions: According to the high level of stress in students and the recognition of demographic factors, effective educational interventions can be conducted to reduce stress.

  11. Tuberculosis: General Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    TB Elimination Tuberculosis: General Information What is TB? Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination CS227840_A What Does a Positive Test ...

  12. Global Tuberculosis Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alt+0 Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 Tuberculosis (TB) Menu Tuberculosis The End TB Strategy Areas ... data News, events and features About us Global tuberculosis report 2017 WHO has published a global TB ...

  13. Relationship between Eating Disorders, Stress and Depression in Medical Students of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences & Health Services

    OpenAIRE

    Afarin Ahmadian

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim: Nowadays eating disorders are considered as one of the main psychological disorders. These types of disorder result in physical and mental health problems and affect the individuals’ quality of life. This study has aimed to survey eating disorders and its relation with depression and stress in medical students of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. Methodology: In a descriptive study, 340 university students were chosen by the use of simple random sampling and als...

  14. The Effect of individual Difference on Perceptions of Job-related Stress among National College and University Librarians in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-may Sheih Chen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Defined as an environmental force in the workplace, either real or imagined, job-related stress interacts with an individual’s perception. Individuals’ perceptions alter with age, gender, work experience, job characteristics, and personality behavior of individuals. In an attempt to gain a comprehensive understanding, this study examines the relationship between individual difference and the perceptions of job-related stress in the library settings of national colleges and universities on Taiwan. The result shows that individual difference is influential for librarians’ perceptions of job-related stress. [Article content in Chinese

  15. Minority stress and college persistence attitudes among African American, Asian American, and Latino students: perception of university environment as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin

    2011-04-01

    We examined whether perception of university environment mediated the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes after controlling for perceived general stress. Participants were 160 Asian American, African American, and Latino students who attended a predominantly White university. Results of a path model analysis showed that university environment was a significant mediator for the association between minority status stress and college persistence attitudes. Additionally, minority status stress was distinct from perceived general stress. Finally, the results from a multiple-group comparison indicated that the magnitude of the mediation effect was invariant across Asian American, African American, and Latino college students, thus supporting the generalizability of the mediation model.

  16. What We Know About Tuberculosis Transmission: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchyard, Gavin; Kim, Peter; Shah, N Sarita; Rustomjee, Roxana; Gandhi, Neel; Mathema, Barun; Dowdy, David; Kasmar, Anne; Cardenas, Vicky

    2017-11-03

    Tuberculosis remains a global health problem with an enormous burden of disease, estimated at 10.4 million new cases in 2015. To stop the tuberculosis epidemic, it is critical that we interrupt tuberculosis transmission. Further, the interventions required to interrupt tuberculosis transmission must be targeted to high-risk groups and settings. A simple cascade for tuberculosis transmission has been proposed in which (1) a source case of tuberculosis (2) generates infectious particles (3) that survive in the air and (4) are inhaled by a susceptible individual (5) who may become infected and (6) then has the potential to develop tuberculosis. Interventions that target these events will interrupt tuberculosis transmission and accelerate the decline in tuberculosis incidence and mortality. The purpose of this article is to provide a high-level overview of what is known about tuberculosis transmission, using the tuberculosis transmission cascade as a framework, and to set the scene for the articles in this series, which address specific aspects of tuberculosis transmission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  17. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, and Anxiety as Predictors of Suicidal Ideation among South African University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason R.; Kagee, Ashraf; McGowan, Taryn; Steel, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the 2-week prevalence of suicidal ideations and their associations to symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety among South African university students. Participants: Data were collected from 1,337 students between May and August 2013. Methods: Hierarchical regression analysis was used to investigate the…

  18. Family-Work Conflict and Type-E Personality as Stress Inducers in Married Female Nigerian University Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobola, A. A.; Nwoha, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This piece of article is culled from a larger study. The study investigated the relationship between family-work conflict, Type-E personality and stress in married female Nigerian University Administrators. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The sample consisted of 800 female administrators in the senior cadre of executive/administrative…

  19. Sources of Stress among Undergraduate Students in the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the role of inadequate facilities/accommodation, poor health, emotional problems, socio-economic status and poor time management as sources of stress among University of Benin undergraduates. The research instrument used was a questionnaire. The survey method was adopted for the study. Seven hundred and fifty respondents were…

  20. Relationship between Religious Orientation (Internal-External) With Methods of Overcoming Stress in Students of Islamic Azad University of Abhar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between religious orientation (internal-external) and the ways of coping stress (problem-based and emotion-based) in the students of IAU (Islamic Azad University), Abhar Branch. Religion with internal origin is comprehensive and has well-organized principles. However, religion with external origin is a device…

  1. Role Stress, Interrole Conflict, and Job Satisfaction among University Employees: The Creation and Test of a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Keisha M.; Tatman, Anthony W.; Chapman, Benjamin P.

    2010-01-01

    Many universities have experienced financial hardships during the recent economic downturn. To save money, several have resorted to laying off employees, which has often resulted in increased work and stress for the remaining employees. Such an increase has the potential to adversely affect employees' sense of job satisfaction. This study created…

  2. Internet-based guided self-help for university students with anxiety, depression and stress: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Victor; McGrath, Patrick J; Wojtowicz, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Anxiety, depression and stress, often co-occurring, are the psychological problems for which university students most often seek help. Moreover there are many distressed students who cannot, or choose not to, access professional help. The present study evaluated the efficacy of an internet-based guided self-help program for moderate anxiety, depression and stress. The program was based on standard cognitive behavior therapy principles and included 5 core modules, some of which involved options for focusing on anxiety and/or depression and/or stress. Trained student coaches provided encouragement and advice about using the program via e-mail or brief weekly phone calls. Sixty-six distressed university students were randomly assigned to either Immediate Access or a 6-week Delayed Access condition. Sixty-one percent of Immediate Access participants completed all 5 core modules, and 80% of all participants completed the second assessment. On the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21, Immediate Access participants reported significantly greater reductions in depression (ηp(2)=. 07), anxiety (ηp(2)=. 08) and stress (ηp(2)=. 12) in comparison to participants waiting to do the program, and these improvements were maintained at a six month follow-up. The results suggest that the provision of individually-adaptable, internet-based, self-help programs can reduce psychological distress in university students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Universal stress proteins are important for oxidative and acid stress resistance and growth of Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Seifart Gomes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogenic bacteria maintain a multifaceted apparatus to resist damage caused by external stimuli. As part of this, the universal stress protein A (UspA and its homologues, initially discovered in Escherichia coli K-12 were shown to possess an important role in stress resistance and growth in several bacterial species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a study to assess the role of three homologous proteins containing the UspA domain in the facultative intracellular human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes under different stress conditions. The growth properties of three UspA deletion mutants (Δlmo0515, Δlmo1580 and Δlmo2673 were examined either following challenge with a sublethal concentration of hydrogen peroxide or under acidic conditions. We also examined their ability for intracellular survival within murine macrophages. Virulence and growth of usp mutants were further characterized in invertebrate and vertebrate infection models. Tolerance to acidic stress was clearly reduced in Δlmo1580 and Δlmo0515, while oxidative stress dramatically diminished growth in all mutants. Survival within macrophages was significantly decreased in Δlmo1580 and Δlmo2673 as compared to the wild-type strain. Viability of infected Galleria mellonella larvae was markedly higher when injected with Δlmo1580 or Δlmo2673 as compared to wild-type strain inoculation, indicating impaired virulence of bacteria lacking these usp genes. Finally, we observed severely restricted growth of all chromosomal deletion mutants in mice livers and spleens as compared to the load of wild-type bacteria following infection. CONCLUSION: This work provides distinct evidence that universal stress proteins are strongly involved in listerial stress response and survival under both in vitro and in vivo growth conditions.

  4. Tuberculosis ocular

    OpenAIRE

    Infante Barrera, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    La evolución etiológica de la medicina la podemos dividir en dos grandes períodos: período de la sífilis y período de la tuberculosis. El período de la sífilis, gracias a las armas de combate de que hoy disponemos, ocupa un lugar secundario. El período de la tuberculosis y que no es sino el paralelo de la vida moderna, ocupa en vigencia el primer lugar. Es el período presente. Hasta hace poco tiempo el médico en general, iniciaba la exploración de su paciente con un interrogatorio, una inspec...

  5. Assessment of Clinical Stressful Factors Among Academic Students of Nursing and Operating Room of Dezful University of Medical Sciences (2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Raji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nursing students are exposed to clinical environmental stresses in addition to educational environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to assessment of clinical stressful factors among Academic Students of Nursing and Operating Room of Dezful University of Medical Sciences in 2015.Materials and Methods: This study was a description-analytical study with 234 students of nursing and operation room up to two semesters for enrolled. Data was using a self-made researcher Questionnaire consisted of demographic information and clinical stressful factors. Data analysis was performed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS-PC (v.20.Results: The findings showed that the main stressors in students of nursing and operation room were unpleasant emotions and least stressful areas were interpersonal communication in a clinical environment. The results showed that the average score of the field of education and humiliating experiences using Spearman correlation test (P=0/045 (r=0/16.Conclusion: Study showed, the mean stress is the moderate level. Stressful areas obtained in the four areas of personal communication, clinical practice stressful, unpleasant feelings and humiliating experience that fortunately, in many cases reform and change.

  6. Survey of stress, anxiety, depression and self-concept of students of Fasa University of medical sciences, 2010

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    Majid Najafi Kalyani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Studying periods in university is very important for students. Because of the problems, this period is usually accompanied with mental status changes of students. The aim of this study was the assessment of psychological variables (stress, anxiety and depression and self-concept of students. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all the students studying at Fasa University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 89-88 were selected through census sampling method. The DASS-21 was used to assess stress, anxiety and depression of students and in order to evaluate the status of their self-concept; the Carl Rogers questionnaire was used. Data analysis was performed with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics (t test, ANOVA, Chi square and Pearson correlation. Results: The results of this study showed that 76% of students had stress, 56.4% anxiety and 53.1% depression, and 69/3% had weak or negative self-concepts. There was a statistically significant correlation between high stress, anxiety and depression with negative self-concept (P<0.001.Conclusion: High stress, anxiety and depression and also a significant correlation between increased stress, anxiety and depression with negative and weak self-concept of students were found. It is necessary to devote more careful attention to mental health issues of students and have appropriate interventions.

  7. Vigorous physical activity, perceived stress, sleep and mental health among university students from 23 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2018-01-13

    Background Vigorous physical activity (VPA) may be beneficial for mental health. The aim of the study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between VPA, perceived stress, sleep quality and quantity and mental health among university students. Methods In a cross-sectional study, using anonymous questionnaires, data was collected from 15122 (42.1% male and 57.9% female) university students [mean age 20.6, standard deviation (SD) = 2.0] from 23 countries in the Americas, Africa and Asia. They were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short version), and measures of sociodemographic, health status, health behaviour and anthropometrics. Results Students who met VPA recommendations were less likely to report perceived stress, more likely to report subjective good health and depression than students without VPA. There was no association between VPA and sleep quality and quantity and PTSD symptoms. Conclusion This study only found partial benefits of VPA in relation to well-being of university students.

  8. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety as predictors of suicidal ideation among South African university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason R; Kagee, Ashraf; McGowan, Taryn; Steel, Henry

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the 2-week prevalence of suicidal ideations and their associations to symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety among South African university students. Data were collected from 1,337 students between May and August 2013. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between suicidal ideation and symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety. Rates of suicidal ideation are higher among university students in South Africa than among the general population of the country and student populations in other parts of the world. Symptoms of depression and exposure to trauma predict suicidal ideation Conclusions: Findings bring into focus the high rates of suicidal ideation among a sample of university students in South African and the need for more research to investigate the psychosocial correlates of this phenomena within the cultural context of the country, especially given the correlation between suicidal ideation and other poor health outcomes.

  9. Inferences on the biochemical and environmental regulation of universal stress proteins from Schistosomiasis parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah AN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Andreas N Mbah,1,2 Ousman Mahmud,1 Omotayo R Awofolu,2 Raphael D Isokpehi11Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Department of Biology, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South AfricaBackground: Human schistosomiasis is a freshwater snail-transmitted disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the Schistosoma genus. Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma japonicum are the three major species infecting humans. These parasites undergo a complex developmental life cycle, in which they encounter a plethora of environmental signals. The presence of genes encoding the universal stress protein (USP domain in the genomes of Schistosoma spp. suggests these flatworms are equipped to respond to unfavorable conditions. Though data on gene expression is available for USP genes, their biochemical and environmental regulation are incompletely understood. The identification of additional regulatory molecules for Schistosoma. USPs, which may be present in the human, snail, or water environments, could also be useful for schistosomiasis interventions.Methods: We developed a protocol that includes a visual analytics stage to facilitate integration, visualization, and decision making, from the results of sequence analyses and data collection on a set of 13 USPs from S. mansoni and S. japonicum.Results: Multiple sequence alignment identified conserved sites that could be key residues regulating the function of USPs of the Schistosoma spp. Based on the consistency and completeness of sequence annotation, we prioritized for further research the gene for a 184-amino-acid-long USP that is present in the genomes of the three human-infecting Schistosoma spp. Calcium, zinc, and magnesium ions were predicted to interact with the protein product of the gene.Conclusion: Given that the initial effects of

  10. Prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder among medical students in the University of Jos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwoga, C N; Audu, M D; Obembe, A

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most common consequence of traumatic experiences. The North Central Nigeria to which Plateau State belongs has witnessed many ethno-religious crises. While previous studies suggested a high prevalence of PTSD among students, to the best of our knowledge, no such study has been reported in Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of PTSD among medical students in a university. Cross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 200 medical students. A two staged interview with questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, Impact of Event Scale, and Composite International Diagnostic Interview was carried out. SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc. was used for statistical analysis. Prevalence of PTSD among the students was 23.5%. Previous childhood trauma and personal experiences during the crisis were significantly associated with having PTSD. High prevalence rate of PTSD among medical students in Jos is an indicator of psychological consequences of the recurring crises on the inhabitants. There is a need for follow-up and counseling/trauma healing for those identified.

  11. A Universal Stress Protein (USP) in Mycobacteria Binds cAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arka; Adolph, Ramona S.; Gopalakrishnapai, Jayashree; Kleinboelting, Silke; Emmerich, Christiane; Steegborn, Clemens; Visweswariah, Sandhya S.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria are endowed with rich and diverse machinery for the synthesis, utilization, and degradation of cAMP. The actions of cyclic nucleotides are generally mediated by binding of cAMP to conserved and well characterized cyclic nucleotide binding domains or structurally distinct cGMP-specific and -regulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, adenylyl cyclase, and E. coli transcription factor FhlA (GAF) domain-containing proteins. Proteins with cyclic nucleotide binding and GAF domains can be identified in the genome of mycobacterial species, and some of them have been characterized. Here, we show that a significant fraction of intracellular cAMP is bound to protein in mycobacterial species, and by using affinity chromatography techniques, we identify specific universal stress proteins (USP) as abundantly expressed cAMP-binding proteins in slow growing as well as fast growing mycobacteria. We have characterized the biochemical and thermodynamic parameters for binding of cAMP, and we show that these USPs bind cAMP with a higher affinity than ATP, an established ligand for other USPs. We determined the structure of the USP MSMEG_3811 bound to cAMP, and we confirmed through structure-guided mutagenesis, the residues important for cAMP binding. This family of USPs is conserved in all mycobacteria, and we suggest that they serve as “sinks” for cAMP, making this second messenger available for downstream effectors as and when ATP levels are altered in the cell. PMID:25802331

  12. Universal Stress Proteins as New Targets for Environmental and Therapeutic Interventions of Schistosomiasis

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    Priscilla Masamba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of various control measures and eradication methods that have been in progress, schistosomiasis still prevails as one of the most prevalent debilitating parasitic diseases, typically affecting the poor and the underprivileged that are predominantly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasitic schistosome blood fluke responsible for causing the disease completes its complex developmental cycle in two hosts: humans and freshwater snails, where they physically undergo gross modifications to endure the different conditions associated with each host. Just like any other organism, the worm possesses mechanisms that help them respond to environmental insults. It has been hypothesized that a special class of proteins known as Universal Stress Proteins (USPs are up-regulated during sudden environmental changes, thus assisting the worm to tolerate the unfavourable conditions associated with its developmental cycle. The position of praziquantel as the drug of choice against all schistosome infections has been deemed vulnerable due to mounting concerns over drug pressure and so the need for alternative treatment is now a matter of urgency. Therefore, this review seeks to explore the associations and possible roles of USPs in schistosomiasis as well as the functioning of these proteins in the schistosomulae stage in order to develop new therapeutic interventions against this disease.

  13. Somatic symptoms evoked by exam stress in university students: the role of alexithymia, neuroticism, anxiety and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Zunhammer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The etiology of somatization is incompletely understood, but could be elucidated by models of psychosocial stress. Academic exam stress has effectively been applied as a naturalistic stress model, however its effect on somatization symptoms according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria has not been reported so far. Baseline associations between somatization and personality traits, such as alexithymia, have been studied exhaustively. Nevertheless, it is largely unknown if personality traits have an explanatory value for stress induced somatization. METHODS: This longitudinal, quasi-experimental study assessed the effects of university exams on somatization - and the reversal of effects after an exam-free period. Repeated-observations were obtained within 150 students, measuring symptom intensity before, during and after an exam period, according to the Screening for Somatoform Symptoms 7-day (SOMS-7d. Additionally, self-reports on health status were used to differentiate between medically explained and medically unexplained symptoms. Alexithymia, neuroticism, trait-anxiety and baseline depression were surveyed using the Toronto-Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20, the Big-Five Personality Interview (NEO-FFI, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II. These traits were competitively tested for their ability to explain somatization increases under exam stress. RESULTS: Somatization significantly increased across a wide range of symptoms under exam stress, while health reports pointed towards a reduction in acute infections and injuries. Neuroticism, alexithymia, trait anxiety and depression explained variance in somatization at baseline, but only neuroticism was associated with symptom increases under exam stress. CONCLUSION: Exam stress is an effective psychosocial stress model inducing somatization. A comprehensive quantitative description of bodily symptoms under exam stress is supplied. The results do not

  14. Somatic symptoms evoked by exam stress in university students: the role of alexithymia, neuroticism, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Eberle, Hanna; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of somatization is incompletely understood, but could be elucidated by models of psychosocial stress. Academic exam stress has effectively been applied as a naturalistic stress model, however its effect on somatization symptoms according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria has not been reported so far. Baseline associations between somatization and personality traits, such as alexithymia, have been studied exhaustively. Nevertheless, it is largely unknown if personality traits have an explanatory value for stress induced somatization. This longitudinal, quasi-experimental study assessed the effects of university exams on somatization - and the reversal of effects after an exam-free period. Repeated-observations were obtained within 150 students, measuring symptom intensity before, during and after an exam period, according to the Screening for Somatoform Symptoms 7-day (SOMS-7d). Additionally, self-reports on health status were used to differentiate between medically explained and medically unexplained symptoms. Alexithymia, neuroticism, trait-anxiety and baseline depression were surveyed using the Toronto-Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Big-Five Personality Interview (NEO-FFI), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II). These traits were competitively tested for their ability to explain somatization increases under exam stress. Somatization significantly increased across a wide range of symptoms under exam stress, while health reports pointed towards a reduction in acute infections and injuries. Neuroticism, alexithymia, trait anxiety and depression explained variance in somatization at baseline, but only neuroticism was associated with symptom increases under exam stress. Exam stress is an effective psychosocial stress model inducing somatization. A comprehensive quantitative description of bodily symptoms under exam stress is supplied. The results do not support the stress-alexithymia hypothesis, but favor

  15. A rare manifestation of tuberculosis: Scrofuloderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Öztürk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Scrofuloderma is a cutaneous manifestation of tuberculosis that results from direct extension of an underlying tuberculous focus, such as lymph node to the overlying skin. In this article, 16-year-old male patient, live in a child detention home, with a purulent, ulcerated lesion in his neck, diagnosed as Scrofuloderma was presented. The case presented in order to stress that Scrofuloderma, a rare form of tuberculosis, should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of chronic skin lesions.

  16. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Doudna, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The Universe explores the science of what we see in the night sky. Kids will learn about the life cycle of a star, find out how our universe was created, explore nebulae, galaxies, black holes, giant stars and more. Engaging photos, exciting graphics, and a fun quiz at the end of each book will keep them learning. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Super Sandcastle is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  17. Mindfulness-Based Stress Release Program for University Employees: A Pilot, Waitlist-Controlled Trial and Implementation Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncz, Rebecca; Wolfenden, Fiona; Hassed, Craig; Chambers, Richard; Cohen, Julia; Glozier, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-week mindfulness-based stress release program (SRP) on stress and work engagement in fulltime university employees. Perceived stress, workplace wellbeing, and engagement were measured at baseline and within 1 week of the SRP completion, and contemporaneously 6 weeks apart for a waitlist control group. A second program was implemented to examine reproducibility of results. Fifty participants undertook the SRPs, and 29 participants were waitlisted. A significant improvement in distress, workplace wellbeing, and vigor was observed within the first SRP group, when compared with the control group. The improvement in distress and wellbeing was reproduced in the second SRP group. This study adds to the growing body of research that mindfulness may be an effective method for reducing workplace stress, improving employee wellbeing, and enhancing work engagement.

  18. Environmental Factors’ Effect on Stress Reduction of Employees: A Case Study on Farhangian University Staff in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Payedar Ardakani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues the contemporary societies encounter is the job stress. There are various factors affecting it, but not enough researches have been done on the role that environmental factors play. This paper presents an experimental study with 100 participants on the influence of environmental factors on employees’ stress level. This method uses information derived from field observations and answers to questionnaires distributed to employees and officials who are in the top management of the central organization of Farhangian University, Tehran branch. The results demonstrate that color, window, lighting and brightness, landscape, communications and interactions, flexibility, thermal convenience, noise convenience, cleanness, physical activity, privacy and accessibility play an important role in the stress of employees, suggesting that the architectures and designers should consider the aforementioned factors so they can create dynamic and pleasant office environments devoid of any stress.

  19. Tuberculosis ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Infante Barrera

    1950-01-01

    Full Text Available La evolución etiológica de la medicina la podemos dividir en dos grandes períodos: período de la sífilis y período de la tuberculosis. El período de la sífilis, gracias a las armas de combate de que hoy disponemos, ocupa un lugar secundario. El período de la tuberculosis y que no es sino el paralelo de la vida moderna, ocupa en vigencia el primer lugar. Es el período presente. Hasta hace poco tiempo el médico en general, iniciaba la exploración de su paciente con un interrogatorio, una inspección, un tacto y una serología con una obsesión sifilítica. En la época actual el médico y en especial el oftalmólogo debe tener una obsesión tuberculosa en la investigación etiológica. Cuántas veces en una afección ocular que de una manera lenta pero progresiva produce profundas alteraciones oculares, lleva el sello soterrado de una tuberculosis? Cuántos enfermos de una constitución en apariencia envidiable hacen precisamente por un exceso de sus defensas una alergia tuberculosa? Tan traicionera como la sífilis es la tuberculosis. La sífilis quema sus etapas y estalla con una hemorragia cerebral, una locura, una parálisis general, una ataxia locomotriz progresiva, una goma o una meningitis sifilítica. La tuberculosis hace su presentación con una afección ocular, una goma, una granulia, una artritis, una osteítis, o una meningitis óptico-quiasmática. Siendo esto así, es necesario, en la mayoría de las afecciones oculares, tratar de identificarla por los medios de diagnóstico de que hoy disponemos.

  20. Are Students’ Symptoms and Health Complaints Associated with Perceived Stress at University? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively. A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency, lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency, and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI, along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches, and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK and mood swings (Egypt. Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest

  1. Are Students’ Symptoms and Health Complaints Associated with Perceived Stress at University? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation was

  2. Are students' symptoms and health complaints associated with perceived stress at university? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza

    2014-09-26

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥ 4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation

  3. Academic Stress and Self-Regulation among University Students in Malaysia: Mediator Role of Mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Hamizah Hj Ramli; Masoumeh Alavi; Seyed Abolghasem Mehrinezhad; Atefeh Ahmadi

    2018-01-01

    Academic stress is the most common emotional or mental state that students experience during their studies. Stress is a result of a wide range of issues, including test and exam burden, a demanding course, a different educational system, and thinking about future plans upon graduation. A sizeable body of literature in stress management research has found that self-regulation and being mindful will help students to cope up with the stress and dodge long-term negative consequences, such as subs...

  4. Prevalence and Sources of Stress among Universiti Sains Malaysia Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Abdul Rahim, Ahmad Fuad; Yaacob, Mohd Jamil

    2010-01-01

    Being in medical school has always been regarded as highly stressful. Excessive stress causes physical and mental health problems. Persistent stress can impair students' academic achievement and personal or professional development. The aim of this study is to explore the nature of stress among medical students by determining the prevalence, sources and pattern of stress and the factors affecting it. We chose a cross-sectional study design utilizing validated questionnaires, the 12 items General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Medical Student Stressor Questionnaire (MSSQ), to evaluate stress levels and stressors. School and ethical committee clearance were obtained prior to the study. Data were analysed using SPSS version 12. Of the medical students who were administered the questionnaire, 761 (72%) respondents participated in this study. The prevalence of stress among the medical students was 29.6%. The top 10 stressors were academic-related. Prevalence of stress for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth year students was 26.3%, 36.5 %, 31.4%, 35.3% and 21.9%, respectively. Year of study was the only significant factor affecting stress among medical students (P-value stress among medical students in USM is high. Academic-related problems were the major stressor among medical students. Year of study was the factor most significantly associated with medical students' stress. There was a bimodal pattern of the stress level throughout the year of study.

  5. The relationship between the development of musculoskeletal disorders, body mass index, and academic stress in Bahraini University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawy, Sayed A; Abdul Rahman, Asma; Abdul Ameer, Maryam

    2017-04-01

    There are many mechanisms in which stress can lead to weight gain thus high a BMI. The endocrine and inflammatory pathway can directly increase abdominal adiposity. Another way in which stress leads to weight gain is through changes in health behaviors. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among healthy students of Ahlia University, and to determine the relationship between the development of MSDs and academic stressors and body mass index. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 94 students aged 18-26 years who were enrolled at various Ahlia University colleges and met other inclusion criteria. The students responded to the standardized Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and the modified College Student Stress Inventory regarding musculoskeletal symptoms and academic stressors. Height and weight measurements were also obtained to determine body mass index. A total of 77.66% reported MSDs in one or more body part, with the prevalence being higher among women than among men. The 7-day prevalence of MSDs severe enough to interfere with activities of daily living was 60.64%, and 44.68% by female and male students, respectively. There was a significant relationship between academic stress and MSDs in the neck, shoulders, lower back, and hips, while the relationship between MSDs, and body mass index, academic stress, and grade point average was not significant. The prevalence of MSDs among Ahlia University students was found to be high. Apart from the positive correlation between academic stress and MSDs in certain body parts, other correlations were not significant.

  6. Imaging in Tuberculosis abdominal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Tatiana; Garcia, Vanessa; Tamara, Estrada; Acosta, Federico

    2010-01-01

    In this article we illustrate and discuss imaging features resulting from Tuberculosis abdominal affectation. We present patients evaluated with several imaging modalities who had abdominal symptoms and findings suggestive of granulomatous disease. Diagnosis was confirm including hystopatology and clinical outgoing. Cases involved presented many affected organs such as lymphatic system, peritoneum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands and pelvic organs Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis renal, Tuberculosis hepatic, Tuberculosis splenic Tomography, x-ray, computed

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Job Stress and its Coping Strategies with Marital and Job Satisfaction among Female Employees of Islamic Azad University, Kazeroon Branch

    OpenAIRE

    MOTAHARI, Seyedeh Soraya; AIBAGHI ESFAHANI, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This study investigated the relationship between job stress and marital satisfaction of women in Islamic Azad University, Kazeroon Brach. Two job stress questionnaires of Philip L. Rice (1992) and marital satisfaction questionnaire of Enrich (1997) were completed and examined by female employees of the Islamic Azad University, Kazeroon Brach, who were selected randomly. The results showed that women have job stress. The results showed that there is a negative correlation coefficient...

  8. Inferences on the biochemical and environmental regulation of universal stress proteins from Schistosomiasis parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, Andreas N; Mahmud, Ousman; Awofolu, Omotayo R; Isokpehi, Raphael D

    2013-01-01

    Background Human schistosomiasis is a freshwater snail-transmitted disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the Schistosoma genus. Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma japonicum are the three major species infecting humans. These parasites undergo a complex developmental life cycle, in which they encounter a plethora of environmental signals. The presence of genes encoding the universal stress protein (USP) domain in the genomes of Schistosoma spp. suggests these flatworms are equipped to respond to unfavorable conditions. Though data on gene expression is available for USP genes, their biochemical and environmental regulation are incompletely understood. The identification of additional regulatory molecules for Schistosoma. USPs, which may be present in the human, snail, or water environments, could also be useful for schistosomiasis interventions. Methods We developed a protocol that includes a visual analytics stage to facilitate integration, visualization, and decision making, from the results of sequence analyses and data collection on a set of 13 USPs from S. mansoni and S. japonicum. Results Multiple sequence alignment identified conserved sites that could be key residues regulating the function of USPs of the Schistosoma spp. Based on the consistency and completeness of sequence annotation, we prioritized for further research the gene for a 184-amino-acid-long USP that is present in the genomes of the three human-infecting Schistosoma spp. Calcium, zinc, and magnesium ions were predicted to interact with the protein product of the gene. Conclusion Given that the initial effects of praziquantel on schistosomes include the influx of calcium ions, additional investigations are required to (1) functionally characterize the interactions of calcium ions with the amino acid residues of Schistosoma USPs; and (2) determine the transcriptional response of Schistosoma. USP genes to praziquantel. The data sets produced, and the visual analytics

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namugenyi, Sarah B; Aagesen, Alisha M; Elliott, Sarah R; Tischler, Anna D

    2017-07-11

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis phosphate-specific transport (Pst) system controls gene expression in response to phosphate availability by inhibiting the activation of the SenX3-RegX3 two-component system under phosphate-rich conditions, but the mechanism of communication between these systems is unknown. In Escherichia coli , inhibition of the two-component system PhoR-PhoB under phosphate-rich conditions requires both the Pst system and PhoU, a putative adaptor protein. E. coli PhoU is also involved in the formation of persisters, a subpopulation of phenotypically antibiotic-tolerant bacteria. M. tuberculosis encodes two PhoU orthologs, PhoY1 and PhoY2. We generated phoY single- and double-deletion mutants and examined the expression of RegX3-regulated genes by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Gene expression was increased only in the Δ phoY1 Δ phoY2 double mutant and could be restored to the wild-type level by complementation with either phoY1 or phoY2 or by deletion of regX3 These data suggest that the PhoY proteins function redundantly to inhibit SenX3-RegX3 activation. We analyzed the frequencies of antibiotic-tolerant persister variants in the phoY mutants using several antibiotic combinations. Persister frequency was decreased at least 40-fold in the Δ phoY1 Δ phoY2 mutant compared to the frequency in the wild type, and this phenotype was RegX3 dependent. A Δ pstA1 mutant lacking a Pst system transmembrane component exhibited a similar RegX3-dependent decrease in persister frequency. In aerosol-infected mice, the Δ phoY1 Δ phoY2 and Δ pstA1 mutants were more susceptible to treatment with rifampin but not isoniazid. Our data demonstrate that disrupting phosphate sensing mediated by the PhoY proteins and the Pst system enhances the susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to antibiotics both in vitro and during infection. IMPORTANCE Persister variants, subpopulations of bacteria that are phenotypically antibiotic tolerant, contribute to

  10. Psychological wellbeing of Turkish university students with physical impairments: an evaluation within the stress-vulnerability paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca-Atabey, Mujde; Karanci, A Nuray; Dirik, Gulay; Aydemir, Deniz

    2011-04-01

    Generally, universities in developing countries offer little in the way of provisions and support (material, emotional, etc.) for disabled students. Therefore, disabled students experience considerable burdens and barriers in their educational life. This study investigated the psychological wellbeing of disabled Turkish university students by examining influences on stress-related growth and psychological distress. Disability is defined within the framework of a social model. According to this view, impairment refers to the functional limitation(s) that affect(s) a person's body, whereas disability refers to the loss or limitation of opportunities owing to social, physical or psychological obstacles. Seventy disabled university students with physical impairments were administered a questionnaire package, including a sociodemographic information sheet, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Stress-Related Growth Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Social Support, Life Events Inventory, and Brief Symptom Inventory. Snowball sampling was used and voluntary participation was essential. The results showed that disability burden, daily hassles, and helplessness coping were significant predictors of psychological symptoms. For stress-related growth the only variable that appeared significant was problem-solving coping. The results pointed out that there may be different pathways to distress and growth. In order to decrease psychological distress and enhance growth in disabled university students, disability awareness programs, changes in the barriers in the academic and physical environments of the university campuses, and coping skills training to increase problem-focused coping and to combat helplessness may prove to be effective. Reducing daily hassles for the disabled students is likely to contribute to their wellbeing by decreasing their burdens. Also, a more disability-friendly environment is likely to be empowering for disabled university students.

  11. Duodenal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, M.; Hussain, M.; Kumar, D.; Samo, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Duodenal tuberculosis is an uncommon disease. It may be either extrinsic or intrinsic or both. In the extrinsic type there can either be primary duodenal involvement or compression due to enlarged para duodenal lymph nodes. The clinical presentation can be dyspeptic or obstructive symptoms. The dyspeptic symptoms include epigastric pain, nausea, and occasional vomiting and obstructive symptoms include bilious vomiting frequently after meals, epigastric pain, and generalized abdominal pain. This report describes a young lady presenting with gastric outlet obstruction symptoms due to tuberculous adhesion involving the proximal duodenum. (author)

  12. Spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, R N; Ben Husien, M

    2018-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains endemic in many parts of the developing world and is increasingly seen in the developed world due to migration. A total of 1.3 million people die annually from the disease. Spinal TB is the most common musculoskeletal manifestation, affecting about 1 to 2% of all cases of TB. The coexistence of HIV, which is endemic in some regions, adds to the burden and the complexity of management. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, impact of HIV and both the medical and surgical options in the management of spinal TB. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:425-31.

  13. Perceived stress, reasons for and sources of stress among medical students at Rabigh Medical College, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaz, Zohair Jamil; Baig, Mukhtiar; Al Alhendi, Bader Salem Mana; Al Suliman, Mohammed Mahdi Owiad; Al Alhendi, Awshaemah Salem; Al-Grad, Mana Saleh Hadi; Qurayshah, Mohammed Abdullah Ali

    2018-02-23

    Medical students have high levels of stress that could be due to the daily life stressors and the extra stress of academic burden. The present study investigated the perceived stress level as well as the reasons and sources of stress among medical students at a comparatively newly established medical college affiliated with King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (SA). The present study was carried out at Rabigh Medical College (RMC), KAU, Jeddah, and completed in 2015. The data was collected by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire that has three components: a list of 33 items of probable stressors, perceived stress scale, and demographic information and academics. The response rate in our study was 86% (152/176), the mean age was 20.35 ± 1.09, 77 (51%) were from preclinical years and 75 (49%) from clinical years. The mean PSS score among our participants was 28.5 ± 3.8 with a median of 28.0 (IQR 26.0-31.0) and 59.2% of participants were stressed. The mean PSS score 30.6 ± 4.4 for students with sibling > 5 was significantly higher as compared to the mean PSS score (27.9 ± 3.3) for students with sibling ≤5. Similarly, the mean PSS score (32.0 ± 3.4) of students with often/always occurrence of psychosocial stressors was higher as compared to the mean PSS score (28.3 ± 3.7) of those students with less than a frequent occurrence of stressors. Moreover, those students that were more stressed had lower marks in the last exam (stress who had higher marks (≥80%) (P stress cases were linked with last exam marks [OR 1.26, 95% CI 0.64-2.48], number of siblings [OR 2.27, 95% CI 0.97-5.27], and academic stressor [OR 2.02, 95% CI 0.61-6.66] but no significant relationship was found. There were high-stress levels among the participants of this study, and the main stressors were academic-related.

  14. Active case finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, G H; Ditiu, L; Migliori, G B

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis control depends on successful case finding and treatment of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Passive case finding is widely practised: the present study aims to ascertain the consensus and possible improvements in active case finding across Europe. Recommendations...... from national guidelines were collected from 50 countries of the World Health Organization European region using a standard questionnaire. Contacts are universally screened for active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Most countries (>70%) screen those with HIV infection, prisoners...... and in-patient contacts. Screening of immigrants is related to their contribution to national rates of tuberculosis. Only 25 (50%) out of 50 advise a request for symptoms in their guidelines. A total of 36 (72%) out of 50 countries recommend sputum examination for those with a persistent cough; 13...

  15. [An experimental model for assessing the risk factors for work-related stress in four Italian universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miscetti, G; Barberini, L; Chiocchini, D; Cirimbilli, A; Pippi, R; Pampanella, L; Caserta, G; Gargarella, L

    2011-01-01

    This study, a collaborative effort among the Local Health Authority 2 of Perugia, Italy, the National Coordination of Worker's Safety Representatives for University and Research Institutions and the National Coordination for Protection and Prevention Services for Universities and Research Institutions, describes the results of a method used to evaluate work-related stress. Personnel from four Italian universities, which we call University I, II, III and IV geographically distributed in nord (1), center (2) and south (1) of Italy, responded to a questionnaire regarding risk evaluation of work-related stress in response to the Italian Law 81/2008. The methodology includes a preliminary analysis of the physical/technological and organizational/relational aspects of the company in order to determine a risk factor of work-related stress. This is followed by an evaluation by agencies competent in the areas of prevention and protection, (Administrative personnel of the company, Medical support persons, heads of the Prevention and Protection Service, employee representatives, and others) that apply a specific algorithm and by the employees through the completion of a questionnaire. The employees, mostly men, of the various universities, completed 510 questionnaires. Based on the results of the questionnaires and on a comparison between the expectations of the administration and the employees, the preventative measures that need to be adopted were identified. The results of this study show that there is not complete agreement between the administration and the employees regarding the work-related expectations. This difference in viewpoints could be a source of work-related stress. Some aspects of the study were shown to be of common concern in the various universities, while for other aspects, there were significantly different perceptions between male and female employees. An immediate response is needed with respect to some aspects in the work context and to plan further

  16. The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous findings suggest that stressful life events have a causal relationship with depressive symptoms. However, to date little is known concerning the contribution of the number and severity of recent stressful life events on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus. Methods A descriptive correlational design with cross sectional comparison was used. The CES-D scale was applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms and the LESS instrument for stressful life events. Both scales were completed anonymously and voluntarily by 1.500 students (response rate 85%). Results The prevalence of mild to moderate depressive symptoms [CES-D score between 16 and 21] and of clinically significant depressive symptoms [CES-D score ≥ 22] were 18.8% and 25.3% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in clinically significant depressive symptoms by gender, with higher rates among women (x2 = 8.53, df = 1, p = 0.003). Higher scores on the LESS scale were associated with more frequent reports of clinical depressive symptoms (x2 = 70.63, df = 4, p depressive symptoms (x2 = 40.06, df = 4, p  351, OR = 3.03 95% CI: 1.66, 5.39) were more likely to manifest clinical depressive symptoms. Conclusions The high frequency of occurrence of depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students, as well as the strong association with stressful life events, highlights the need for psychological empowerment strategies towards students by institutional counseling services. PMID:24304515

  17. Stress and symptoms of depression among medical students at the University of Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldorsen, Hilde; Bak, Nanna Hasle; Dissing, Agnete; Petersson, Birgit

    2014-02-01

    This article aims to assess the levels of stress and symptoms of depression among Danish medical students, as well as explore the effect of social support on psychological distress. The results are based on numbers from the follow-up study 'From Student to Graduate' (j.nr 2006-41-6876). Two dimensions of stress, frequency and perception, were measured on a scale from 0-6. Odds ratios and significance of associations between the various exposure variables and the outcome measure, symptoms of depression, were calculated using multiple logistic regression and Wald tests. 30.5% of the students reported depressive symptoms. Stress frequency measured a mean of 2.26 (SD = 1.35). The mean for stress perception was 2.85 (SD = 1.30). Women reported higher levels of stress and depression compared to male medical students, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Only the dimensions of stress and coping alone were significantly associated with reporting symptoms of depression (p Stress levels were moderate, but significantly associated with symptoms of depression. The interaction between the stress dimensions and the outcome measure illustrates the importance of stress appraisal. Coping alone with psychological problems was significantly associated with symptoms of depression.

  18. Symptoms and health complaints and their association with perceived stress at university: survey of students at eleven faculties in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Labeeb, Shokria; Stock, Christiane

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationships between perceived stress and a range of self reported symptoms and health complaints in a representative sample of students at one university in Egypt. The data (3,271 students) was collected during the academic year 2009-2010 at eleven faculties at the university of Assiut city, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire measured health complaints (22 symptoms) and Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale. Socio-demographic and lifestyle data were also collected. Factor analysis generated four groups of health complaints: psychological, circulatory/breathing, gastrointestinal, and pains/aches, and the internal consistency of each group of symptoms was computed using reliability analyses (Cronbach's alpha). Perceived stress was categorized into four levels based on quartiles. Multiple binomial or multinomial logistic regression analyses analysed the relationship between each of the four groups of symptoms and other students' general characteristics adjusted for the effect of all other groups of symptoms. The symptoms most often reported as having occurred sometimes/very often in the last 12 months were fatigue (85.3%), difficulties to concentrate (78.1%), headache (77.9%), and mood swings (74.5%), while nervousness/anxiety (63.2%) and sleep disorder (63.7%) affected many students. Multinominal logistic regression revealed a clear association and a linear trend between increasing level of stress and a higher frequency of psychological symptoms that remained significant after adjustment for other groups of symptoms. There were no associations between perceived stress and circulatory/breathing symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, or for pains/aches. Poor health was consistently associated with higher frequency of symptoms across all symptom groups except for gastrointestinal symptoms. Higher health awareness was associated with lower frequency of psychological and circulatory/breathing symptoms but not for the other two symptom groups. Better

  19. Bereavement, Level Stress and Coping Mechanism among Teacher Education Students of Samar State University: College Bereavement Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlito Sabulaan Domingo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bereavement is a severe stressor that should be addressed properly. The study of Teacher education is very tight as it prepares soon to educator that will light the future of other young children. This study sought to determine the Level of Stress and Coping Mechanism on Bereavement among Teacher Education Students of Samar State University. It tested some assumption using the descriptive survey method on 76 identified students who experienced bereavement. It shows that respondent manifested highly emotional and physical stress rather than behavioral stress. It shows that social support is coping mechanism. The said study being the first bereavement research in the city could provide baseline information in the field of bereavement.

  20. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  1. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Updated for 2011, the Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.

  2. A Case Study: An ACT Stress Management Group in a University Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltry, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) stress management group in a college counseling center setting. This study explored (a) the effectiveness of ACT in increasing participants' ability to tolerate distress, which directly affects their ability to function in a stressful college…

  3. Stress and gender in relation to self-esteem of university business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some previous investigations argued for and against the fact that stress affects self-esteem of postsecondary students. This study investigated the effects of stress and gender on students' self-esteem. One hundred and fifteen students stratified by level of study, ethnicity, age and gender completed standardized measures of ...

  4. Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnabharath S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 23-year-old male patient with tuberculosis verrucous cutis on the foot for a duration of six months without responding to routine treatment. Tuberculosis is a common disease worldwide. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis contributes to 10% of cases. Cutaneous tuberculosis occupies a small spectrum of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis verrucosa cutis is an exogenous infection occurring in a previously sensitized patient by direct inoculation of the organism. It occurs in sensitized patients with a moderate to high immune response. The diagnosis in our patient was confirmed by history, clinical examination, histopathological examination and the patient’s response to anti-tuberculous therapy.

  5. Ultraviolet radiation induces stress in etiolated Landoltia punctata, as evidenced by the presence of alanine, a universal stress signal: a ¹⁵N NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monselise, E B-I; Levkovitz, A; Kost, D

    2015-01-01

    Analysis with (15) N NMR revealed that alanine, a universal cellular stress signal, accumulates in etiolated duckweed plants exposed to 15-min pulsed UV light, but not in the absence of UV irradiation. The addition of 10 mm vitamin C, a radical scavenger, reduced alanine levels to zero, indicating the involvement of free radicals. Free D-alanine was detected in (15) N NMR analysis of the chiral amino acid content, using D-tartaric acid as solvent. The accumulation of D-alanine under stress conditions presents a new perspective on the biochemical processes taking place in prokaryote and eukaryote cells. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. A cross-sectional investigation of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms and health-behavior participation in Australian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; Nash, Kim; Sharman, Rachael; Lane, Ben R

    2014-05-06

    Transitioning to university involves a major life change that can have implications for physical and mental health. This study had three objectives: first, assess the mental health and health-behavior participation of Australian university students; second, evaluate clustering of health behaviors; and third, examine how mental health relates to health behaviors. University students (n = 751) enrolled at an Australian regional university completed an online survey containing the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales and a health-behavior questionnaire. Over one-third of students reported mild or higher mental illness symptoms and most reported engaging in multiple unhealthy behaviors. Furthermore, mental health was associated with unhealthy behaviors. For males, depressive symptoms were associated with skipping breakfast and poor sleep quality. For females, depressive symptoms were associated with skipping breakfast, inadequate vigorous physical activity, and short or long sleep hours. Stress symptoms in females were associated with healthy sleep hours, but poor sleep quality. Future research may consider whether an intervention targeting one or two key health behaviors has utility in improving participation in other health behaviors and mental health. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Stress and symptoms of depression among medical students at the University of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldorsen, Hilde; Hasle Bak, Nanna; Dissing, Agnete

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to assess the levels of stress and symptoms of depression among Danish medical students, as well as explore the effect of social support on psychological distress. The results are based on numbers from the follow-up study 'From Student to Graduate' (j.nr 2006-41-6876). Materials...... and methods: Two dimensions of stress, frequency and perception, were measured on a scale from 0-6. Odds ratios and significance of associations between the various exposure variables and the outcome measure, symptoms of depression, were calculated using multiple logistic regression and Wald tests. Results......: 30.5% of the students reported depressive symptoms. Stress frequency measured a mean of 2.26 (SD = 1.35). The mean for stress perception was 2.85 (SD = 1.30). Women reported higher levels of stress and depression compared to male medical students, but the differences were not significant (p > 0...

  8. Mortality In Childhood Tuberculosis In Benin City, Nigeria – Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and nine consecutive cases of childhood tuberculosis seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City between January 1993 and December 1997 were retrospectively analysed with a view to documenting trend in tuberculosis related deaths, their epidemiology and predictors of mortality.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis septum site determining protein, Ssd encoded by rv3660c, promotes filamentation and elicits an alternative metabolic and dormancy stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crew Rebecca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins that are involved in regulation of cell division and cell cycle progression remain undefined in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, there is a growing appreciation that regulation of cell replication at the point of division is important in establishing a non-replicating persistent state. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use a systematic approach consisting of consensus-modeling bioinformatics, ultrastructural analysis, and transcriptional mapping to identify septum regulatory proteins that participate in adaptive metabolic responses in M. tuberculosis. Results Septum site determining protein (Ssd, encoded by rv3660c was discovered to be an ortholog of septum site regulating proteins in actinobacteria by bioinformatics analysis. Increased expression of ssd in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis inhibited septum formation resulting in elongated cells devoid of septa. Transcriptional mapping in M. tuberculosis showed that increased ssd expression elicited a unique response including the dormancy regulon and alternative sigma factors that are thought to play a role in adaptive metabolism. Disruption of rv3660c by transposon insertion negated the unique transcriptional response and led to a reduced bacterial length. Conclusions This study establishes the first connection between a septum regulatory protein and induction of alternative metabolism consisting of alternative sigma factors and the dormancy regulon that is associated with establishing a non-replicating persistent intracellular lifestyle. The identification of a regulatory component involved in cell cycle regulation linked to the dormancy response, whether directly or indirectly, provides a foundation for additional studies and furthers our understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in establishing a non-replicating state and resumption of growth.

  10. Academic Stress and Self-Regulation among University Students in Malaysia: Mediator Role of Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hamizah Hj Ramli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic stress is the most common emotional or mental state that students experience during their studies. Stress is a result of a wide range of issues, including test and exam burden, a demanding course, a different educational system, and thinking about future plans upon graduation. A sizeable body of literature in stress management research has found that self-regulation and being mindful will help students to cope up with the stress and dodge long-term negative consequences, such as substance abuse. The present study aims to investigate the influence of academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness among undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia, and to identify mindfulness as the mediator between academic stress and self-regulation. For this study, a total of 384 undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia were recruited. Using Correlational analysis, results revealed that there was a significant relationship between academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness. However, using SPSS mediational analysis, mindfulness did not prove the mediator role in the study.

  11. Academic Stress and Self-Regulation among University Students in Malaysia: Mediator Role of Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hj Ramli, Nur Hamizah; Alavi, Masoumeh; Mehrinezhad, Seyed Abolghasem; Ahmadi, Atefeh

    2018-01-15

    Academic stress is the most common emotional or mental state that students experience during their studies. Stress is a result of a wide range of issues, including test and exam burden, a demanding course, a different educational system, and thinking about future plans upon graduation. A sizeable body of literature in stress management research has found that self-regulation and being mindful will help students to cope up with the stress and dodge long-term negative consequences, such as substance abuse. The present study aims to investigate the influence of academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness among undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia, and to identify mindfulness as the mediator between academic stress and self-regulation. For this study, a total of 384 undergraduate students in Klang Valley, Malaysia were recruited. Using Correlational analysis, results revealed that there was a significant relationship between academic stress, self-regulation, and mindfulness. However, using SPSS mediational analysis, mindfulness did not prove the mediator role in the study.

  12. Perceived stress and quality of life of pharmacy students in University of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Acheampong, Adomah; Kretchy, Irene A; Acheampong, Franklin; Afrane, Barima A; Ashong, Sharon; Tamakloe, Bernice; Nyarko, Alexander K

    2017-03-02

    Stress among pharmacy students could greatly affect their learning activities and general well-being. It is therefore necessary to investigate how stress relates with the quality of life of students to maintain and/or improve their personal satisfaction and academic performance. A school-based longitudinal study was used to investigate the relationship between stress and quality of life of undergraduate pharmacy students. The 10-item perceived stress scale and the shorter version of the WHO quality of life scale were administered to the same participants at two time points i.e. Time 1 (4 weeks into the semester) and Time 2 (8 weeks afterwards). The correlations and differences between the study variables were tested using the Pearson's coefficient and independent sample t test. The mean stress scores were higher at Time 2 compared to Time 1 for the first and second years. However, there was no significant difference in stress for different year groups-Time 1 [F (3) = 0.410; p = 0.746] and Time 2 [F(3) = 0.909; p = 0.439]. Female students had higher stress scores at Time 2 compared to male students. The main stressors identified in the study were; large volume of material to be studied (88.2%), laboratory report writing (78.2%), constant pressure to maintain good grades (66.4%) and the lack of leisure time (46.4%). Even though most students employed positive stress management strategies such as time management (68.2%), other students resorted to emotional eating (9.1%) and alcohol/substance use (1.8%). At Time 2, perceived stress scores were significantly negatively correlated with social relationship (r = -0.40, p ≤ 0.0001), environmental health (r = -0.37, p ≤ 0.0001), physical health (r = -0.49, p ≤ 0.0001) and psychological health (r = -0.51, p ≤ 0.0001). The study reported significant correlations between stress and various domains of quality of life of undergraduate pharmacy students. It is thus necessary to institute some

  13. MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    - associated tuberculosis, particularly related to national and international evidence- based policy. She is the author of several scientific papers and international policy documents, and serves on various interna- tional tuberculosis expert ...

  14. Tuberculosis and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUBERCULOSIS www.who.int/tb & DIABETES THE DUAL EPIDEMIC OF TB AND DIABETES DEADLY LINKAGES  People with ... higher risk of progressing from latent to active tuberculosis.  Diabetes triples a person’s risk of developing TB. ...

  15. Tuberculosis Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  16. Tuberculosis Treatment and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tuberculosis Basic TB Facts How TB Spreads Latent TB ...

  17. Tuberculosis Lymphoedema Cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangopadhyay Asok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoedema following cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare occurrence. A case of elephantiasis of leg following lupus vulgaris is presented. It can still be seen in rural India in untreated advanced cutaneous tuberculosis.

  18. Descriptive study of stress and satisfaction at work in the Saragossa university services and administration staff

    OpenAIRE

    Lucha Lopez Ana; Vidal Peracho Concepcion; Lucha Lopez Ma Orosia; Salavera Bordas Carlos; Tricas Moreno Jose; Estebanez de Miguel Elena; Bernues Vazquez Luis

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The notion of stress in connection with the work environment became an important topic during the 1970's, when the first studies on the subject were published and the term of work stress was first coined. In 1974, Freudenberger proposed the term burnout to refer to the condition of physical and emotional exhaustion, as well as the associated negative attitudes, resulting from the intense interaction in working with people. The aim of our study is to examine burnout and job...

  19. The Effect of Stress on Medical Students in a Private Medical University in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jagmohni Kaur Sidhu

    2007-01-01

    Stress amongst medical students is oftenoverlooked. Intelligent students are not always the mostcomposed. This study aimed to look at both male andfemale students of three different ethnic groups and theeffects of stress in areas such as academic, social,financial and their everyday life. The Chinese studentsreported significantly less “academic stress” than theMalay students, and the Malay students reportedsignificantly less “financial stress” compared to theChinese and Indian students. Medi...

  20. Depression, anxiety, stress, and their associated factors among Jimma University staff, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia, 2016: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshaw Y

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yigizie Yeshaw,1 Andualem Mossie2 1Department of Medical Physiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Worldwide, approximately 450 million people suffer from mental disorders. Of these, approximately 150 million are affected with depression. Depression, anxiety, and stress have an impact on productivity, motivation to work, sleep behavior of the individual, and outcome of different chronic diseases. However, till date, there are no studies which evaluated mental health problems among university staff in Ethiopia. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, and their associated factors among Jimma University staff. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 354 staff of Jimma University from March 24 to April 24, 2016. Stratified simple random sampling technique was used. Pretested interviewer-administered Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0 software. Results: The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress in this study was found to be approximately 22.9%, 19.2%, and 28.2%, respectively. Being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.22–4.77, no job satisfaction (AOR =10.59, 95% CI =4.88–22.98, presence of conflict with colleagues (AOR =2.33, 95% CI =1.21–4.49, and khat chewing (AOR =4.99, 95% CI =2.57–9.69 were associated with depression. Presence of conflict with colleagues (AOR =2.46, 95% CI =1.25–4.85, no job satisfaction (AOR =7.12, 95% CI =3.29–15.45, and khat chewing (AOR =2.94, 95% CI =1.52–5.66 were associated with anxiety. Being widowed (AOR =7.46, 95% CI =1.11–50.15, female (AOR =2.72, 95% CI =1.40–5.28, no job satisfaction (AOR =6.69, 95% CI =3.46–12.97, khat

  1. pulmonary tuberculosis, jimma hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Program manual. RESULTS: A total of 112 extra pulmonary ... Key words: Clinical audit; extra pulmonary Tuberculosis; National Tuberculosis and. Leprosy Control manual. "Addis Ababa ..... intern influence drug regimen selection. Compliance to the 1997 NTLCP inanual is.

  2. Abdominal tuberculosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heda Melinda Nataprawira

    2001-06-01

    supported the diagnosis. There was no positive results of acid fast bacilli and culture done for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in gastric aspirate as well as ascitic fuid. Peritonitis tuberculosis was most commonly diagnosed (80.0%, followed by mesenterial/nodal tuberculosis (20.0%. All of the children followed (60.0% responded well to the drugs therapy.

  3. HIV status and tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This hospital based study was done to estimate the magnitude of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine predictors of tuberculosis ..... Patient`s risk factors associated with increased risk of tuberculosis includes chronic cough, wasting, advanced age, HIV status, Diabetes Mellitus, Malnutrition etc ...

  4. of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... Recombinant and synthetic peptides to identify. Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens and epitopes of diagnostic and vaccine relevance. Tuberculosis. 85: 367–376. Okkels LM, Andersen P (2004). Protein-protein interactions of proteins from the ESAT-6 family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Bacteriol.

  5. The analysis of the distribution of unitary stresses for the universal plowshare in tiller seeder combos (UPTSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiorescu, D.; Chiorescu, E.; Dodun, O.; Crăciun, V.

    2016-11-01

    The sustainable development of agriculture is an important component of economic and social progress of the mankind aiming especially at promoting environmentally friendly systems and technologies. Thus, the implementation of sustainable agriculture also requires some high performance farming aggregates such as tiller seeder combos. Their most stressed active working part is the plowshare which has an important part in cutting the soil. For this reason, we consider that theoretical and experimental research is needed for the tear to which this working part is subjected to. This paper analyses the behavior of the universal plowshare, component part of UPTSC, using the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Ansys software program. With the help of FEM, we analyzed the universal plowshare in the material structure during the soil cutting process, highlighting the deformation degree and the stress field in the working part. In the first stage, we identified a representative set of problems concerning the soil cutting process, for which we designed the solutions through numerical simulations. In the processing stage, we designed a 3D model which respects entirely the geometric shape of the active element in Cartesian coordinates. In order to simulate the soil cutting process in accordance with the real conditions, the compilations are done for various refinement degrees of the discretization network in finite elements. In the same stage we introduced the constraints represented by: the fixation of the plowshare support, direction, as well as the action of the cohesion and shear strength. Using the Explicit Dynamics module of the Ansys software, which allows studying the plowshare behavior, we analyzed in real conditions, the normal and the shear stresses as well as the deformation, for various soil types and various soil states. Considering the data on the existent stresses, following the FEM analysis of the working part, we determined the wear and suggested the safety

  6. The Effects of Internet-Delivered Mindfulness Training on Stress, Coping, and Mindfulness in University Students

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    David Messer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet-delivered mindfulness and relaxation training were compared with each other and a no-treatment control on stress, coping, and mindfulness measures. Participants (n = 114 were assessed before and after treatment, and their compliance with the intervention they received was tracked. The treatments were received at a time, place, and computer of the participants’ choosing with the proviso that three exercises be completed during each of three successive weeks. Both mindfulness and relaxation reduced stress, but only mindfulness training increased mindfulness and reduced emotion-focused coping.

  7. The Relationship between Socio-Demographics and Stress Levels, Stressors, and Coping Mechanisms among Undergraduate Students at a University in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Nadini; Persaud, Indeira

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to learn about stress experienced by students enrolled in the Faculty of Social Sciences (FSS) at the University of the West Indies (UWI) in Barbados. This research was primarily undertaken to help UWI administrators/academic staff understand and address student stress. One hundred and six FSS students responded to:- (1) student…

  8. Awareness of stress-reduction interventions on work attitudes: the impact of tenure and staff group in Australian universities

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    Silvia Pignata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees’ reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1 perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2 job satisfaction for employees with 0–19 years of tenure; (3 trust in senior management for employees with 6–19 years of tenure; and (4 affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6–10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20–38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual

  9. Awareness of Stress-Reduction Interventions on Work Attitudes: The Impact of Tenure and Staff Group in Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA) and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees' reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1) perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2) job satisfaction for employees with 0-19 years of tenure; (3) trust in senior management for employees with 6-19 years of tenure; and (4) affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6-10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20-38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual issues in organizational

  10. Have University Sport Students Higher Scores Depression, Anxiety and Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Havva

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have now shown that people who maintain appropriate body fitness, using judicious regimens of exercise and weight control, have the additional benefit of prolonged life. In fact, sport or exercise may be also expected to be helpful for psychological health. In the present study, depression, anxiety and psychological stress points…

  11. Depressive Symptoms, Stress, and Social Support among Dental Students at a Historically Black College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Brian; Williams, Carla; Eiland, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors measured the prevalence of depressive symptoms among dental students at a historically black college in the United States to determine how depressive symptoms, stress, and social support influence each other within this student population. Participants: Dental students (n = 143) completed a self-administered survey to assess…

  12. Perceived stress and coping skills of university student-athletes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student-athletes are expected to cope with their studies and participation in sport simultaneously as well as to satisfy the expectations of coaches, teammates, friends, and family. Once student-athletes perceive a situation as stressful and struggle to cope with the anticipation thereof, their satisfaction with life will be ...

  13. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host′s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

  14. Tuberculosis in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Gabriella S; Starke, Jeffrey R

    2017-04-01

    One million children develop tuberculosis disease each year, and 210,000 die from complications of tuberculosis. Childhood tuberculosis is very different from adult tuberculosis in epidemiology, clinical and radiographic presentation, and treatment. This review highlights the many unique features of childhood tuberculosis, with special emphasis on very young children and adolescents, who are most likely to develop disease after infection has occurred.

  15. Did ice-age bovids spread tuberculosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Bruce M.; Martin, Larry D.

    2006-11-01

    Pathognomonic metacarpal undermining is a skeletal pathology that has been associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovids. Postcranial artiodactyl, perissodactyl, and carnivore skeletons were examined in major university and museum collections of North America and Europe for evidence of this and other pathology potentially attributable to tuberculosis. Among nonproboscidean mammals from pre-Holocene North America, bone lesions indicative of tuberculosis were restricted to immigrant bovids from Eurasia. No bone lesions compatible with diagnosis of tuberculosis were found in large samples of other pre-Holocene (164 Oligocene, 397 Miocene, and 1,041 Plio Pleistocene) North American mammals, including 114 antilocaprids. Given the unchanged frequency of bovid tubercular disease during the Pleistocene, it appears that most did not die from the disease but actually reached an accommodation with it (as did the mastodon) (Rothschild and Laub 2006). Thus, they were sufficiently long-lived to assure greater spread of the disease. The relationships of the proboscidean examples need further study, but present evidence suggests a Holarctic spread of tuberculosis during the Pleistocene, with bovids acting as vectors. While the role of other animals in the transmission of tuberculosis could be considered, the unique accommodation achieved by bovids and mastodons makes them the likely “culprits” in its spread.

  16. Analysis of intracellular expressed proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates

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    Singhal Neelja

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is the most threatening infectious disease globally. Although progress has been made to reduce global incidence of TB, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR TB threatens to undermine these advances. To combat the disease, novel intervention strategies effective against drug resistant and sensitive subpopulations of M. tuberculosis are urgently required as adducts in the present treatment regimen. Using THP-1 cells we have analyzed and compared the global protein expression profile of broth-cultured and intraphagosomally grown drug resistant and sensitive M.tuberculosis clinical isolates. Results On comparing the two dimensional (2-DE gels, many proteins were found to be upregulated/expressed during intracellular state which were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS. Four proteins (adenosylhomocysteinase, aspartate carbomyltransferase, putatitive thiosulfate sulfurtransferase and universal stress protein were present in both intracellular MDR and sensitive isolates and three of these belonged to intermediary metabolism and respiration category. Two proteins (alanine dehydrogenase and adenosine kinase of intracellular MDR isolate and two (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and ATP synthase epsilon chain of intracellular sensitive isolate belonged to intermediary metabolism and respiration category. One protein (Peroxidase/Catalase of intracellular MDR and three (HSPX, 14 kDa antigen and 10 kDa chaperonin of sensitive isolate belonged to virulence, detoxification and adaptation category. ESAT-6 of intracellular MDR belonged to cell wall and cell processes category. Two proteins (Antigen 85-C and Antigen 85-A of intracellular sensitive isolate were involved in lipid metabolism while probable peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A was involved in information pathways. Four (Rv0635, Rv1827, Rv0036c and Rv2032 of intracellular MDR and two proteins (Rv2896c and Rv2558c of

  17. Stasis and Change: Faculty Satisfaction, Stress and University Priorities. An Analysis of the 1998-99 and 2004-05 HERI Faculty Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimer, Christina

    2006-01-01

    HERI Faculty Surveys administered in Fall 1998 and Spring 2005 at California State University-Fresno were analyzed to assess change in faculty satisfaction, stress, and perceived importance of University priorities by academic rank, gender, and race/ethnicity. Each survey sample was weighted to match its population then analyzed separately using…

  18. Psychological Resources as Stress Buffers: Their Relationship to University Students' Anxiety and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Juncker, Brian D.; Matheny, Kenneth B.

    2006-01-01

    The association of protective resources, personality variables, life events, and gender with anxiety and depression was examined with university students. Building on regression analyses, a structural equation model was generated with good fit, indicating that with respect to both anxiety and depression, negative life events and coping resources…

  19. Professional burnout, stress and job satisfaction of nursing staff at a university hospital1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portero de la Cruz, Silvia; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to describe the social and work characteristics of the nursing staff at a tertiary hospital in the Public Health Service of Andalucía, to assess the degree of professional professional burnout and job satisfaction of those professionals and to study the possible relation between the professional burnout variables and the stress and job satisfaction levels on the one hand and social and employment variables on the other. METHOD: descriptive and cross-sectional study in a sample of 258 baccalaureate and auxiliary nurses. As research instruments, an original and specific questionnaire was used to collect social and employment variables, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Nursing Stress Scale and the Font-Roja questionnaire. Descriptive, inferential statistics and multivariate analysis were applied. RESULTS: average scores were found for professional stress and satisfaction, corresponding to 44,23 and 65,46 points, respectively. As regards professional burnout, an average score was found on the emotional exhaustion subscale; a high score for depersonalization and a low score for professional accomplishment. Studies are needed to identify the scores on these subscales in health organizations and to produce knowledge on their interrelations. PMID:26155012

  20. Professional burnout, stress and job satisfaction of nursing staff at a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Portero de la Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to describe the social and work characteristics of the nursing staff at a tertiary hospital in the Public Health Service of Andalucía, to assess the degree of professional professional burnout and job satisfaction of those professionals and to study the possible relation between the professional burnout variables and the stress and job satisfaction levels on the one hand and social and employment variables on the other.METHOD: descriptive and cross-sectional study in a sample of 258 baccalaureate and auxiliary nurses. As research instruments, an original and specific questionnaire was used to collect social and employment variables, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Nursing Stress Scale and the Font-Roja questionnaire. Descriptive, inferential statistics and multivariate analysis were applied.RESULTS: average scores were found for professional stress and satisfaction, corresponding to 44,23 and 65,46 points, respectively. As regards professional burnout, an average score was found on the emotional exhaustion subscale; a high score for depersonalization and a low score for professional accomplishment. Studies are needed to identify the scores on these subscales in health organizations and to produce knowledge on their interrelations.

  1. Why wait? The social determinants underlying tuberculosis diagnostic delay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Victoria Bonadonna

    Full Text Available Early detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis remain major global priorities for tuberculosis control. Few studies have used a qualitative approach to investigate the social determinants contributing to diagnostic delay and none have compared data collected from individual, community, and health-system levels. We aimed to characterize the social determinants that contribute to diagnostic delay among persons diagnosed with tuberculosis living in resource-constrained settings.Data were collected in public health facilities with high tuberculosis incidence in 19 districts of Lima, Peru. Semi-structured interviews with persons diagnosed with tuberculosis (n = 105 and their family members (n = 63 explored health-seeking behaviours, community perceptions of tuberculosis and socio-demographic circumstances. Focus groups (n = 6 were conducted with health personnel (n = 35 working in the National Tuberculosis Program. All interview data were transcribed and analysed using a grounded theory approach. The median delay between symptom onset and the public health facility visit that led to the first positive diagnostic sample was 57 days (interquartile range 28-126. The great majority of persons diagnosed with tuberculosis distrusted the public health system and sought care at public health facilities only after exhausting other options. It was universally agreed that persons diagnosed with tuberculosis faced discrimination by public and health personnel. Self-medication with medicines bought at local pharmacies was reported as the most common initial health-seeking behaviour due to the speed and low-cost of treatment in pharmacies. Most persons diagnosed with tuberculosis initially perceived their illness as a simple virus.Diagnostic delay was common and prolonged. When individuals reached a threshold of symptom severity, they addressed their health with the least time-consuming, most economically feasible, and well-known healthcare option available to them

  2. [Where the tuberculosis patients are diagnosed and started to treatment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Tarkan; Akkuş, İbrahim Halil; Türkkanı, Mustafa H; Yılmaz Aydın, Leyla

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis dispensaries have played important roles in management of patients with tuberculosis. Tuberculosis patients diagnosed and treatments are started at dispensaries as well as other health care institutions. Other institutions must be aware of the mission of dispensaries especially at the treatment and follow-up of patients. We aimed to investigate in which health care institutions tuberculosis patients diagnosed and treatment started and whether the awareness about dispanseries is sufficient. Records of tuberculosis patients in Elazıg dispansery examined retrospectively. The data obtained were analyzed by Microsoft Excel. Records of 854 patients with tuberculosis has been reached those followed in Elazig dispensary between the years 2005-2011. Percentages of the patients diagnosed in university hospital, dispensary and state hospitals were 36.3%, 18.5% and 17.3%; respectively. Treatments of patients were started in dispensary (81.9%), university hospital (7.7%), and chest disease hospital (4.3%). Treatment starting rate of dispensary was high because patients diagnosed by other health institutions directed to dispensary for taking the first drugs and beginning of the treatment. In tuberculosis control program; dispensaries carry out important operational functions in management of tuberculosis patients and other health institutions are aware of this situation.

  3. Thermal Preference Ranges Correlate with Stable Signals of Universal Stress Markers in Lake Baikal Endemic and Holarctic Amphipods.

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    Denis Axenov-Gribanov

    Full Text Available Temperature is the most pervasive abiotic environmental factor for aquatic organisms. Fluctuations in temperature range lead to changes in metabolic performance. Here, we aimed to identify whether surpassing the thermal preference zones is correlated with shifts in universal cellular stress markers of protein integrity, responses to oxidative stress and lactate content, as indicators of anaerobic metabolism. Exposure of the Lake Baikal endemic amphipod species Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstfeldt, 1858, Ommatogammarus flavus (Dybowski, 1874 and of the Holarctic amphipod Gammarus lacustris Sars 1863 (Amphipoda, Crustacea to increasing temperatures resulted in elevated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 and lactate content, elevated antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., catalase and peroxidase, and reduced lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Thus, the zone of stability (absence of any significant changes of the studied molecular and biochemical markers correlated with the behaviorally preferred temperatures. We conclude that the thermal behavioral responses of the studied amphipods are directly related to metabolic processes at the cellular level. Thus, the determined thermal ranges may possibly correspond to the thermal optima. This relationship between species-specific behavioral reactions and stress response metabolism may have significant ecological consequences that result in a thermal zone-specific distribution (i.e., depths, feed spectrum, etc. of species. As a consequence, by separating species with different temperature preferences, interspecific competition is reduced, which, in turn, increases a species' Darwinian fitness in its environment.

  4. Self-efficacy, stress, and acculturation as predictors of first year science success among Latinos at a South Texas university

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Mark W.

    The study tested the hypothesis that self-efficacy, stress, and acculturation are useful predictors of academic achievement in first year university science, independent of high school GPA and SAT scores, in a sample of Latino students at a South Texas Hispanic serving institution of higher education. The correlational study employed a mixed methods explanatory sequential model. The non-probability sample consisted of 98 university science and engineering students. The study participants had high science self-efficacy, low number of stressors, and were slightly Anglo-oriented bicultural to strongly Anglo-oriented. As expected, the control variables of SAT score and high school GPA were statistically significant predictors of the outcome measures. Together, they accounted for 19.80% of the variation in first year GPA, 13.80% of the variation in earned credit hours, and 11.30% of the variation in intent to remain in the science major. After controlling for SAT scores and high school GPAs, self-efficacy was a statistically significant predictor of credit hours earned and accounted for 5.60% of the variation; its unique contribution in explaining the variation in first year GPA and intent to remain in the science major was not statistically significant. Stress and acculturation were not statistically significant predictors of any of the outcome measures. Analysis of the qualitative data resulted in six themes (a) high science self-efficacy, (b) stressors, (c) positive role of stress, (d) Anglo-oriented, (e) bicultural, and (f) family. The quantitative and qualitative results were synthesized and practical implications were discussed.

  5. Psychometric characteristics of the Eating and Appraisal Due to Emotions and Stress Questionnaire and obesity in Mexican university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevich, Irina; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Velazquez-Alva, María del Consuelo; Salinas-Ávila, Jaqueline

    2015-06-01

    Emotional eating has been defined as eating in a response to negative emotions and it is associated with weight gain. The English version of Eating Appraisal Due to Emotions and Stress Questionnaire (EADES) was developed to assess how individuals use food in order to cope with stress and emotions. To analyze psychometric characteristics of Spanish version of EADES and to identify whether the constructs of EADES were associated with obesity in university students. The EADES (Spanish version) was administered to 232 Mexican university students from 18 to 29 years old. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. A test-retest evaluation was conducted with 75 participants. Cronbach's alpha of EADES was 0.92; the interclass correlation coefficient was 0.88. Regarding BMI and EADES results, the subscale Emotion and Stress Related Eating was significantly associated with obesity (p = 0.026). Through factor analysis of the instrument, three factors were extracted and items that showed factor loading < 0.40 were eliminated. 40 items remained in the questionnaire. With regard to obesity and the 40-items version of the instrument, a statistically significance association was found for the total score (OR = 0.973, p = 0.020) and for the factor Self-confidence related to Emotional Eating component (OR = 0.940, p = 0.026). A good internal consistency and temporal stability of the Spanish version of the instrument were found; the 40-item EADES version was positively associated with obesity. This instrument could be useful in assessing emotional eating. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Academic Stress and Prevalence of Stress-Related Self-Medication among Undergraduate Female Students of Health and Non-Health Cluster Colleges of a Public Sector University in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rasheed, Fatima; Naqvi, Atta Abbas; Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Niyaz

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to report academic stress and prevalence of stress-related self-medication among undergraduate female students of health and nonhealth cluster colleges at a public sector university in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A 5-month cross-sectional survey was conducted in the university. The survey included the English version of 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to report self-perceived stress. Student responses were analyzed by SPSS version 22 software. The majority of students (85%) perceived examinations as a stressor. Most of the students (64%) had perceived moderate stress that increased as students progressed from preparatory year to 4 th year. It declined in students of 5 th and 6 th year. The prevalence of stress related was reported at 39.58%. Highest prevalence of stress-induced self-medication was reported from College of Nursing (59.09%) and lowest (29.69%) from clinical pharmacy. Most common drug used to self-medicate during stress was caffeine (49.5%). The PSS score was significantly associated with colleges and study levels. Students studying in health cluster colleges reported high academic stress and self-medication practice. The major stressors identified were examination and course load. Student counseling sessions and counseling by pharmacists regarding self-care may help in the reduction of such stressors and may promote responsible self-medication. Self-evaluation and quality assurance process of curriculum may highlight areas for improvement in the courses. This may help in lowering academic stress among students.

  7. Tuberculosis in the lung (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is caused by a group of organisms: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M bovis , M africanum and a few other rarer subtypes. Tuberculosis usually appears as a lung (pulmonary) infection. However, ...

  8. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  9. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  10. Case report 513: Tuberculosis of manubrium serni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajah, R.

    1989-01-01

    The case of a 32-year-old Turkish woman was presented showing soft tissue swelling over the manubrium and surrounding sclerotic changes. A CT-guided needle biopsy in the area of the lesion demonstrated mycobacterium tuberculosis. The author stressed that tuberculous infection of the manubrium is extremely rare. The literature was reviewed, confirming this statement. It was emphasized by the author that the possibility of tuberculosis must be considered in any immigrant from the Middle East, Africa or Asia presenting with an unusual bony lesion. (orig./MG)

  11. Impact of coaching on university student’s well-being, stress and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael

    group program. Another RC study among executives found that individual coaching sessions “…enhanced goal attainment, increased resilience and workplace well-being and reduced depression and stress” (Grant et al., 2009). A total of eight RCT has been reported in the entire history of coaching psychology...... the application of coaching psychology (e.g. Palmer & Gyllensten, 2008; Whybrow, & Palmer, 2006) but few evidence based research projects have been conducted (Grant, 2006; Palmer & Whybrow, 2007) although this is improving. RQ: Will four coaching psychology sessions reduce a newcomer student’s stress and anxiety...

  12. Treatment-Seeking for Tuberculosis-Suggestive Symptoms: A Reflection on the Role of Human Agency in the Context of Universal Health Coverage in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Kumwenda

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is highly infectious and one of the leading killers globally. Several studies from sub-Saharan Africa highlight health systems challenges that affect ability to cope with existing disease burden, including TB, although most of these employ survey-type approaches. Consequently, few address community or patient perspectives and experiences. At the same time, understanding of the mechanisms by which the health systems challenges translate into seeking or avoidance of formal health care remains limited. This paper applies the notion of human agency to examine the ways people who have symptoms suggestive of TB respond to and deal with the symptoms vis-à-vis major challenges inherent within health delivery systems. Empirical data were drawn from a qualitative study exploring the ways in which notions of masculinity affect engagement with care, including men's well-documented tendency to delay in seeking care for TB symptoms. The study was carried out in three high-density locales of urban Blantyre, Malawi. Data were collected in March 2011 -March 2012 using focus group discussions, of which eight (mixed sex = two; female only = three; male only = three were with 74 ordinary community members, and two (both mixed sex were with 20 health workers; and in-depth interviews with 20 TB patients (female = 14 and 20 un-investigated chronic coughers (female = eight. The research process employed a modified version of grounded theory. Data were coded using a coding scheme that was initially generated from the study aims and subsequently progressively amended to incorporate concepts emerging during the analysis. Coded data were retrieved, re-read, and broken down and reconnected iteratively to generate themes. A myriad of problems were described for health systems at the primary health care level, centring largely on shortages of resources (human, equipment, and drugs and unprofessional conduct by health care providers. Participants consistently

  13. Clinics of ocular tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishali; Shoughy, Samir S; Mahajan, Sarakshi; Khairallah, Moncef; Rosenbaum, James T; Curi, Andre; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2015-02-01

    Ocular tuberculosis is an extrapulmonary tuberculous condition and has variable manifestations. The purpose of this review is to describe the clinical manifestations of ocular tuberculosis affecting the anterior and posterior segments of the eye in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Review of literature using Pubmed database. Mycobacterium tuberculosis may lead to formation of conjunctival granuloma, nodular scleritis, and interstitial keratitis. Lacrimal gland and orbital caseating granulomas are rare but may occur. The intraocular structures are also a target of insult by M. tuberculosis and may cause anterior granulomatous uveitis, anterior and posterior synechiae, secondary glaucoma, and cataract. The bacillus may involve the ciliary body, resulting in the formation of a localized caseating granuloma. Posterior segment manifestations include vitritis, retinal vasculitis, optic neuritis, serpiginous-like choroiditis, choroidal tubercules, subretinal neovascularization, and, rarely, endophthalmitis. The recognition of clinical signs of ocular tuberculosis is of utmost importance as it can provide clinical pathway toward tailored investigations and decision making for initiating anti-tuberculosis therapy.

  14. Tuberculosis concomitant with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rodríguez-Rodríguez; S.J.A. Ruy-Díaz-Reynoso; R. Vázquez-López

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of tuberculosis and the appearance of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are due to several different factors. Principal among these is the worldwide prevalence of autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), coupled with misdirected therapeutic practices and patient non-compliance, the latter being derived from the undesirable side effects of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Aside from AIDS, other diseases or immunosuppressive disorders have been associated with this ...

  15. Post liver transplant tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Luis Vaz; Gandara, Judit; Pires, João; Duarte, Raquel; Calvário, Fernando; Dominguez, Miguel; Carvalho, Aurora; Seca, Rui

    2009-01-01

    We report on a patient diagnosed with disseminated (hepatic and pulmonary) tuberculosis in the context of immunosuppression following liver transplant. During the administration of anti-tuberculosis drugs an abrupt elevation of liver enzymes was detected leading us to suspect drug toxicity rather than graft rejection. Nevertheless, careful surveillance and adjustment of serum levels of immunosuppressant drugs permitted continuance of tuberculosis treatment with no further side effects.

  16. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    OpenAIRE

    Louise Cilliers; François Retief

    2008-01-01

    In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and...

  17. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  18. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Tabbara, Khalid F.; Tabbarah, Zuhair

    2015-01-01

    We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation. PMID:26483675

  19. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation.

  20. Abdominal tuberculosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablin, D.S.; Jain, K.A.; Azouz, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    Four boys with abdominal tuberculosis, one of whom had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, are presented. Abdominal imaging findings on plain radiography, ultrasonography, computer tomography, and gastrointestinal contrast studies included tuberculous peritonitis and ascites in all patients, tuberculous adenopathy in two, gastrointestinal tuberculosis in two, and omental tuberculosis in two. The radiographic features particularly characteristic of abdominal tuberculosis were: (1) Low attenuating adenopathy with rim enhancement, (2) omental or ileocecal inflammatory mass, (3) high density ascites, and (4) gastrointestinal enteritis involving the ileocecal region. (orig./MG)

  1. Universal deformation of soft substrates near a contact line and the direct measurement of solid surface stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Che, Yonglu; Wettlaufer, J S; Wilen, Larry A; Dufresne, Eric R

    2013-02-08

    Droplets deform soft substrates near their contact lines. Using confocal microscopy, we measure the deformation of silicone gel substrates due to glycerol and fluorinated-oil droplets for a range of droplet radii and substrate thicknesses. For all droplets, the substrate deformation takes a universal shape close to the contact line that depends on liquid composition, but is independent of droplet size and substrate thickness. This shape is determined by a balance of interfacial tensions at the contact line and provides a novel method for direct determination of the surface stresses of soft substrates. Moreover, we measure the change in contact angle with droplet radius and show that Young's law fails for small droplets when their radii approach an elastocapillary length scale. For larger droplets the macroscopic contact angle is constant, consistent with Young's law.

  2. Combined use of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses is a powerful diagnostic tool of active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozot, Virginie; Patrizia, Amelio; Vigano, Selena; Mazza-Stalder, Jesica; Idrizi, Elita; Day, Cheryl L; Perreau, Matthieu; Lazor-Blanchet, Catherine; Ohmiti, Khalid; Goletti, Delia; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Hanekom, Willem; Scriba, Thomas J; Nicod, Laurent; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Harari, Alexandre

    2015-02-01

    Immune-based assays are promising tools to help to formulate diagnosis of active tuberculosis. A multiparameter flow cytometry assay assessing T-cell responses specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the combination of both CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses accurately discriminated between active tuberculosis and latent infection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Radiographic findings in adult pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, T. W.; Youn, Y. S.; Won, J. J

    1981-01-01

    During the period from March, 1980 to February, 1981 in the Department of Radiology, Jeonbug National University Hospital, we reviewed the radiologic findings of 879 cases newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis and 56 cases diagnosed tuberculous pleural effusion without lung parenchymal lesion on initial chest P-A film in the adult (older than 16 years). The results were as follows. 1. Sex distribution of pulmonary tuberculosis was 668 cases (76%) in male, 211 cases (24%) in female, the average age 44.6, and the highest incidence in the third and sixth decade with similarity. 2. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was highest in the springtime (29.5%) and its peak particularly in May. 3. Classifying the extent of pulmonary tuberculosis into minimal, moderately advanced and far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, their ratio was 6 : 1.5 : 1 with the concrete date of 553 cases (70.8%), 136 cases (17.4%) and 92 cases (11.8%) respectively. 4. In the case of minimal pulmonary tuberculosis the location of TB-lesion incidence were right upper, left upper and both upper lobes in the ratio of 45 : 27 :28 (%) 5. The radiological findings of pulmonary tuberculosis appeared various, but the ill-defined patchy density of exudative reaction signifying an initial lesion were than the most (35%). 6. As an unusual type of tuberculosis, cavitary TB was 38 cases (4.3%), among them, in 3 cases (7.9%) there appeared air-fluid level. Miliary TB was 8 cases (0.9%), mostly abundant in the youngsters (esp. in the third decade), and female immensely outnumbered male. Tuberculoma was 10 cases (1.4%), female preceded male in the ratio of 7 : 3, and in right upper lobe in the incidence was highest (50%). 7. Without lung parenchymal lesion, the cases to have caused an tuberculous pleural effusion were 56 (6.0%), and in the years of 16 to 29 it was the most frequent with 26 cases (46.4%). 8. With complicated pulmonary tuberculosis, 78 cases (9.5%) showed to combine with other diseases. Among

  4. Aerobic exercise, ball sports, dancing, and weight lifting as moderators of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms: an exploratory cross-sectional study with swiss university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Elliot, Catherine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-12-01

    This exploratory study was designed to compare four types of exercise activities in Swiss university students. A sample of 201 medical students (136 women, 65 men; M age = 23.2 yr., SD = 2.4) and 250 exercise and health sciences students (144 women, 106 men; M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 2.2) participated in the study. They completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the Depression Scale, and the Office in Motion Questionnaire. Interaction effects between stress and exercise activities were analysed using hierarchical regression analyses, after controlling for age, sex, and academic discipline. Frequent participation in ball sports and dancing were associated with decreased depressive symptoms among students with elevated perceived stress, whereas no such relationship existed among their peers with lower perceived stress. No stress-moderating effect was found for aerobic exercise. Weight lifting was only associated with lower depressive symptoms among students with low perceived stress. The present findings suggest that, among Swiss university students, certain exercises may have better potential to moderate the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms than others. Future research could analyze whether personalized exercise programs created to satisfy participants' individual needs are more beneficial for stress management.

  5. The correlates of stress, coping styles and psychiatric morbidity in the first year of medical education at a Nigerian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussuf, A D; Issa, B A; Ajiboye, P O; Buhari, O I

    2013-05-01

    This study was prompted by the heightened concerns about the stress inherent in medical education evident from the incessant requests for suspension of studies due to psychological problems. The objectives of the study were to: (i) survey the students for possible psychological problems at admission, and follow them up till exit for possible changes in morbidity, and (ii) ascertain possible risk factors, and coping strategies. This is a preliminary 2-stage cross-sectional report, which is part of a longitudinal survey. It involves first year medical students of the College of Health Sciences of University of Ilorin between March and April, 2011. Questionnaires used included socio demographic, sources of stress, the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Maslach's burnout inventory (MBI), and Brief COPE. Data were analysed using SPSS version 15 at 5% significance level. Chi-square, frequency distributions, Pearson's correlation, Odd ratios, and Confidence Intervals were calculated to determine the levels of risk. 79 students returned completed questionnaires. 12 (15.2%) were ghq-12 cases (i.e., scored ≥ 3). Students who had morbidity were 9 times at risk of being stressed consequent upon 'competing with their peers' and 4 times at risk due to 'inadequate learning materials'. Morbidity was significantly more likely to engender use of 'religion', 4 times less likely to engender use of 'positive reframing' with a trend in the use of 'self blame' as coping strategies. Aside from psychosocial/personal issues in this cohort, academic demand was an additional source of psychological problems thereby causing those who had morbidity to utilize 'religion' and 'positive reframing' to cope. There is therefore an apparent need to incorporate the principle of mental health promotion in medical education.

  6. Congenital tuberculosis because of misdiagnosed maternal pulmonary tuberculosis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakbanpot, Sudarat; Rattanawong, Pattara

    2013-01-01

    We report the death of an infant due to severe sepsis caused by congenital tuberculosis following treatment with antituberculous drugs and antibiotics, who was born to a mother with misdiagnosed symptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis during pregnancy. Therefore, pregnant women with chronic cough and constitutional symptoms must be examined for pulmonary tuberculosis, particularly in tuberculosis endemic areas.

  7. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  8. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  9. Treatment of congenital tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonal; DeSantis, Evelyn R Hermes

    2008-11-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of congenital tuberculosis are discussed. Congenital tuberculosis is rare and fatal if left untreated. If a pregnant woman with tuberculosis is not treated, infection of the fetus can occur by hematogenous spread through the umbilical cord or by aspiration or ingestion of amniotic fluid. Signs and symptoms of congenital tuberculosis may be nonspecific, which may preclude early diagnosis and treatment. Criteria for the diagnosis of congenital tuberculosis require the infant to have a tuberculous lesion, as indicated by chest radiography or granulomas, and at least one of the following should be confirmed: (1) onset during the first week of life, (2) primary hepatic tuberculosis complex or caseating hepatic granulomas, (3) infection of the placenta or maternal genital tract, or (4) exclusion of postnatal transmission by a contact investigation. Since 2001, 21 cases of congenital tuberculosis have been reported in English-language medical journals, with the age of presentation ranging from day 1 to 90. Based on findings from published case reports, congenital tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of newborns who have (1) nonresponsive, worsening pneumonia, especially in regions with high rates of tuberculosis, (2) nonspecific symptoms but have a mother diagnosed with tuberculosis, (3) high lymphocyte counts in the cerebrospinal fluid without an identified bacterial pathogen, or (4) fever and hepatosplenomegaly. Once diagnosed, it is essential to promptly begin treatment with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin in order to decrease the mortality associated with the infection. Early diagnosis and treatment during the neonatal period are crucial in minimizing the fatality associated with congenital tuberculosis.

  10. Assessment of the relationship between stress and temporomandibular joint disorder in female students before university entrance exam (Konkour exam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghi, Ahmad; Razavi, S Mohammad; Pozveh, Elham Zamani; Jahangirmoghaddam, Milad

    2011-12-01

    Temporomandibular joint is one of the most complicated joints of the body and plays an important role in the head and neck system. One of the factors affecting the temporomandibular joint and lead to temporomandibular disorder is anxiety with all the events causing it. The aim of this study was to determine a relationship between anxiety and temporomandibular disorders. In this prospective study, subjects were randomly selected. One hundred and thirty pre-university students in Isfahan were evaluated with Ketel's test of anxiety, exam stress test and temporomandibular disorder questionnaires. The evaluation was done in two stages 10 months and 1 month prior to the university entrance exam (Konkour), clinical assessments consisted of masticatory muscles and sternocleidomastoid muscle palpation, temporomandibular joint palpation for pain and noise and its movement, and mouth opening limitations. The Wilcoxon rank test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data and the P value under 0.05 was considered significant. The level of anxiety and occurrence of temporomandibular disorders were increased between two stages and had the highest level in the second stage. There was a significant increase between two stages (P<0.001). The parallel increase of temporomandibular disorders and anxiety between the two stages can suggest a possible relationship between anxiety and temporomandibular disorders. Therefore, the effect of anxiety in triggering temporomandibular disorder symptoms is probable.

  11. [Mental job strain in a university children's hospital--a study on stress experience and the resulting employee health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemisch, A; Kiess, W; Brähler, E

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the following survey was to evaluate the mental job strain at an university hospital and its effect on the health of the employees. Furthermore the trigger factors should have been identified and optimized after the survey. The data were collected by an employee survey during November/December of 2006. All employees of the Hospital for Children and Adolescents of the University Leipzig were included. Overall 174 questionnaires were evaluated (response rate 51.5%). As standardized methods the Irritations-Scale of Mohr et al. and the shortform of the Gießener Beschwerdebogen GBB-24 of Brähler et al. were used. In addition a self designed scale for the measurement of strain-experience was applied. More than half of the physicians/psychologists, a quarter of the nursing staff and every tenth of the remaining employees suffered from work related mental stress disorder. Especially physicians and psychologists were additionally affected by psychosomatic symptoms. The main strain was caused by an excessive amount of documentation, the manpower shortage and the lack of appreciation. The occupational groups differ as well in their ways of coping with the daily job strain as in its effects on the mental health. The health effect of the daily strain on physicians and psychologists seems to be age dependent. An urge for intervention can be derived from our results. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Correlation among academic stress, academic burnout, and academic performance in nursing and paramedic students of Qom University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    hamid Asayesh; Fatemeh Sharififard; Mojtaba Mosavi; Zahra Taheri Kharameh; Zahra Aliakbarzade Arani; Alireza Shouri Bidgoli

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Learning is a stressful experience of human life; reduced adaption to stressors causes academic burnout which is a reason for academic failure among students. This study investigated the correlation among academic stress, academic burnout, and academic performance in nursing and paramedic students of Qom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 264 nursing and paramedic students were randomly selected. Demographic ch...

  13. [Relationship between personality organization and the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among university students in health careers in the Region of Coquimbo, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, René Barraza; Navarro, Nadia Muñoz; Astorga, Ana Contreras

    The literature reports a set of variables associated with depression, anxiety and stress in health career students. The only one of these that could have a constant input is the structure of personality organisation. The present study aims to determine the relationship between the dimensions of personality organization and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms reported by first-year university health career students. Under a non-experimental ex-post-facto design, the personality organisation was evaluated in 235 1st year university, medical, nursing, and kinesiology from three universities of La Serena and Coquimbo (Chile). Inventory of personality organization and scale of depression, anxiety and stress to sift participants was used. The relationship of personality with depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms was determined by multiple regression analysis. It was found that the primary and overall personality dimensions explained 28% of the variance of depression (P<.01), 20% of anxiety, and stress 22%, with the use of primitive defenses and identity diffusion dimensions that largely contribute to the explanatory model. The dimensions of personality organization could have a significant relationship with the emergence of depression, anxiety and stress, as the explanatory burden dimension provides the primitive defenses and identity diffusion. These results may be useful for early recognition of aspects of personality of applicants, and to perform actions that strengthen them in order to improve efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. [Multifocal tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezgui, Amel; Fredj, Fatma Ben; Mzabi, Anis; Karmani, Monia; Laouani, Chadia

    2016-01-01

    Multifocal tuberculosis is defined as the presence of lesions affecting at least two extrapulmonary sites, with or without pulmonary involvement. This retrospective study of 10 cases aims to investigate the clinical and evolutionary characteristics of multifocal tuberculosis. It included 41 cases with tuberculosis collected between 1999 and 2013. Ten patients had multifocal tuberculosis (24%): 9 women and 1 man, the average age was 50 years (30-68 years). Our patients were correctly BCG vaccinated. The evaluation of immunodepression was negative in all patients. 7 cases had lymph node tuberculosis, 3 cases digestive tuberculosis, 2 cases pericardial tuberculosis, 2 cases osteoarticular tuberculosis, 1 case brain tuberculosis, 2 cases urinary tuberculosis, 4 cases urogenital tuberculosis, 1 case adrenal tuberculosis, 1 case cutaneous and 1 case muscle tuberculosis. All patients received anti-tuberculosis treatment for a mean duration of 10 months, with good evolution. Multifocal tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose. It can affect immunocompetent patients but often has good prognosis. Anti-tuberculosis therapy must be initiated as soon as possible to avoid sequelae.

  15. Drug-resistant tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. (DR-TB) is a public health emergency that threatens to destabilise global TB control. Although TB incidence and mortality are decreasing in several parts of the world, the overall prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is increasing in many high-burden countries, ...

  16. Seasonality of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auda Fares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to review previous studies and analyse the current knowledge and controversies related to seasonal variability of tuberculosis (TB to examine whether TB has an annual seasonal pattern. Study Design and Methods: Systematic review of peer reviewed studies identified through literature searches using online databases belonging to PubMed and the Cochrane library with key words "Tuberculosis, Seasonal influence" and " Tuberculosis, Seasonal variation". The search was restricted to articles published in English. The references of the identified papers for further relevant publications were also reviewed. Results: Twelve studies conducted between the period 1971 and 2006 from 11 countries/regions around the world (South Western Cameroon, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, Japan, Kuwait, Spain, UK, Ireland, Russia, and Mongolia were reviewed. A seasonal pattern of tuberculosis with a mostly predominant peak is seen during the spring and summer seasons in all of the countries (except South Western Cameroon and Russia. Conclusions: The observation of seasonality leads to assume that the risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis does appear to be the greatest during winter months. Vitamin D level variability, indoor activities, seasonal change in immune function, and delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis are potential stimuli of seasonal tuberculosis disease. Additionally, seasonal variation in food availability and food intake, age, and sex are important factors which can play a role in the tuberculosis notification variability. Prospective studies regarding this topic and other related subjects are highly recommended.

  17. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R.; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R.; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J.; Wood, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection

  18. Tuberculosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection . Signs and Symptoms In older infants and children, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), which is the first infection with ... out if someone has been infected by the tuberculosis bacteria) is positive, indicating that the child has been infected. Children with a positive tuberculin ...

  19. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Österberg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for instruments that can assist in detecting the prodromal stages of stress-related exhaustion has been acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE could accurately and prospectively detect the onset of incipient exhaustion and to what extent work stressor exposure and private burdens were associated with increasing LUCIE scores. Methods Using surveys, 1355 employees were followed for 11 quarters. Participants with prospectively elevated LUCIE scores were targeted by three algorithms entailing 4 quarters: (1 abrupt onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 18, (2 gradual onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 42, and (3 sustained Exhaustion Warning (n = 36. The targeted participants’ survey reports on changes in work situation and private life during the fulfillment of any algorithm criteria were analyzed, together with the interview data. Participants untargeted by the algorithms constituted a control group (n = 745. Results Eighty-seven percent of participants fulfilling any LUCIE algorithm criteria (LUCIE indication cases rated a negative change in their work situation during the 4 quarters, compared to 48 % of controls. Ratings of negative changes in private life were also more common in the LUCIE indication groups than among controls (58 % vs. 29 %, but free-text commentaries revealed that almost half of the ratings in the LUCIE indication groups were due to work-to-family conflicts and health problems caused by excessive workload, assigned more properly to work-related negative changes. When excluding the themes related to work-stress-related private life compromises, negative private life changes in the LUCIE indication groups dropped from 58 to 32 %, while only a negligible drop from 29 to 26 % was observed among controls. In retrospective interviews, 79 % of the LUCIE indication participants

  20. The Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion: a prospective validation of the onset of sustained stress and exhaustion warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Kai; Persson, Roger; Viborg, Njördur; Jönsson, Peter; Tenenbaum, Artur

    2016-09-29

    The need for instruments that can assist in detecting the prodromal stages of stress-related exhaustion has been acknowledged. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the Lund University Checklist for Incipient Exhaustion (LUCIE) could accurately and prospectively detect the onset of incipient exhaustion and to what extent work stressor exposure and private burdens were associated with increasing LUCIE scores. Using surveys, 1355 employees were followed for 11 quarters. Participants with prospectively elevated LUCIE scores were targeted by three algorithms entailing 4 quarters: (1) abrupt onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 18), (2) gradual onset to a sustained Stress Warning (n = 42), and (3) sustained Exhaustion Warning (n = 36). The targeted participants' survey reports on changes in work situation and private life during the fulfillment of any algorithm criteria were analyzed, together with the interview data. Participants untargeted by the algorithms constituted a control group (n = 745). Eighty-seven percent of participants fulfilling any LUCIE algorithm criteria (LUCIE indication cases) rated a negative change in their work situation during the 4 quarters, compared to 48 % of controls. Ratings of negative changes in private life were also more common in the LUCIE indication groups than among controls (58 % vs. 29 %), but free-text commentaries revealed that almost half of the ratings in the LUCIE indication groups were due to work-to-family conflicts and health problems caused by excessive workload, assigned more properly to work-related negative changes. When excluding the themes related to work-stress-related private life compromises, negative private life changes in the LUCIE indication groups dropped from 58 to 32 %, while only a negligible drop from 29 to 26 % was observed among controls. In retrospective interviews, 79 % of the LUCIE indication participants confirmed exclusively/predominantly work stressors

  1. Una vacuna contra la tuberculosi, provada en cabres

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez del Val, Bernat

    2012-01-01

    Investigadors del CReSA han dut a terme el primer estudi de vacunació contra la tuberculosi utilitzant com a model experimental la cabra domèstica, que reprodueix amb molta similitud la resposta a la tuberculosi en humans. La vacuna, anomenada AdAg85A, ha estat dissenyada per investigadors de McMaster University (Canadà) per prevenir la tuberculosi en humans, i actualment es troba en fase I d’assajos clínics. De moment, aquest estudi mostra que la inoculació d’aquesta nova vacuna, com a refor...

  2. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose M.; Madureira, Antonio J.; Vieira, Alberto; Ramos, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis

  3. Imaging of musculoskeletal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussel, L.; Marchand, B.; Blineau, N.; Picaud, G.; Emn, M.; Coulon, A.; Pagnon, P.; Rode, A.; Pin-Leveugle, J.; Berthezene, Y.; Pariset, C.; Boibieux, A.; Hermier, M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose and methods. To perform an illustrated and educational review of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Results. As the incidence of musculoskeletal tuberculosis still increases, a review appears justified. The following four main presentations are detailed and illustrated, by emphasizing the value of both CT and MR imaging: a) spine tuberculosis (∼ 50 %/) commonly involves two adjacent vertebral bodies with usual large paravertebral abscesses. The following lesions are highly suggestive of tuberculosis: solitary vertebral involvement, solitary epidural abscess with or without erosive spondylitis; b) osteo-arthritis: peripherally located erosions at synovial insertions with gradual narrowing of the joint space are highly suggestive; c) osteomyelitis: unusual, may involve any bones; d) tenosynovitis and bursitis. Conclusion. Imaging studies are essential for diagnosis and to assess the extent of musculo-skeletal tuberculosis. (author)

  4. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  5. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms and associated factors in tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Naidoo, Pamela; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia; McHunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2013-01-01

    High rates of tuberculosis (TB) and TB/HIV co-infection is often linked with mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which is further associated with poor health outcomes. In a country such as South Africa where rates of these infectious diseases are high, it is concerning that there is limited/no data on prevalence rates of mental disorders such as PTSD and its associated factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and associated factors in TB, TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa. Brief screening self-report tools were used to measure: PTSD symptoms, psychological distress (anxiety and depression) and alcohol misuse. Other relevant measures, such as adherence to medication, stressful life events and sexual risk-taking behaviours, were obtained through structured questions. A total of 4900 public primary care adult patients from clinics in high TB burden districts from three provinces in South Africa participated. All the patients screened positive for TB (either new or retreatment cases). The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 29.6%. Patients who screened positive for PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were more likely to be on antidepressant medication. Factors that predicted PTSD symptoms were poverty, residing in an urban area, psychological distress, suicide attempt, alcohol and/or drug use before sex, unprotected sex, TB-HIV co-infected and the number of other chronic conditions. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV.

  6. Are perceived stress, depressive symptoms and religiosity associated with alcohol consumption? A survey of freshmen university students across five European countries

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    Sebena Rene

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms and religiosity with frequent alcohol consumption and problem drinking among freshmen university students from five European countries. Methods 2529 university freshmen (mean age 20.37, 64.9% females from Germany (n = 654, Poland (n = 561, Bulgaria (n = 688, the UK (n = 311 and Slovakia (n = 315 completed a questionnaire containing the modified Beck Depression Inventory for measuring depressive symptoms, the Cohen’s perceived stress scale for measuring perceived stress, the CAGE-questionnaire for measuring problem drinking and questions concerning frequency of alcohol use and the personal importance of religious faith. Results Neither perceived stress nor depressive symptoms were associated with a high frequency of drinking (several times per week, but were associated with problem drinking. Religiosity (personal importance of faith was associated with a lower risk for both alcohol-related variables among females. There were also country differences in the relationship between perceived stress and problem drinking. Conclusion The association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms on the one side and problem drinking on the other demonstrates the importance of intervention programs to improve the coping with stress.

  7. Tumor-like tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon Yong

    1975-01-01

    It was known that some of the abdominal tuberculosis can produce tumor-like appearance clinically and radiologically. But these were mainly masses formed in mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The author has experienced the gastrointestinal tuberculosis resembling to a neoplastic process. In the gastric tuberculosis, irregular narrowing and filling defect with mucosal distortion and occasional shoulder effect could be seen in pyloric antrum. Deformity of proximal portion of duodenum was noted in most cases. Difficulty in differential diagnosis from the gastric cancer might be encountered. If duodenum was not involved. No definite sign of mucosal destruction involved area and associated deformity of duodenum was suggestive of an inflammatory lesion. If there is any tuberculous changes in small bowel, than gastric tuberculosis is more likely. There was the tuberculosis of descending duodenum or pancreaticoduodenal group of lymph nodes revealed cancer-like appearance. Long irregular narrowing with nodular filling defect and mucosal distortion or inverted 3 sign was evident. Differential diagnosis from cancer in duodenum or pancreas could not be made radiographically. Short annular stenosis and nodular filling defect with shoulder effect in both ends of stenosis was noted in some of small bowel tuberculosis. The findings were very resemble to malignancy. There was a case of huge hepatoma-like tuberculosis formed a large irregular mass by lymph nodes and adjacent organs. Chest film was not much help in the differential diagnosis. In many cases of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis, radiological findings were resembled to a neoplastic process. Since none of radiologic findings are specific enough to allow one to make a definitive diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis and since type of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis could be cured by chemotherapy, careful analyzation of clinical features is emphasized before surgery.

  8. Academic stress and prevalence of stress-related self-medication among undergraduate female students of health and non-health cluster colleges of a public sector University in Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Al Rasheed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to report academic stress and prevalence of stress-related self-medication among undergraduate female students of health and nonhealth cluster colleges at a public sector university in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A 5-month cross-sectional survey was conducted in the university. The survey included the English version of 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS to report self-perceived stress. Student responses were analyzed by SPSS version 22 software. Results: The majority of students (85% perceived examinations as a stressor. Most of the students (64% had perceived moderate stress that increased as students progressed from preparatory year to 4th year. It declined in students of 5th and 6th year. The prevalence of stress related was reported at 39.58%. Highest prevalence of stress-induced self-medication was reported from College of Nursing (59.09% and lowest (29.69% from clinical pharmacy. Most common drug used to self-medicate during stress was caffeine (49.5%. The PSS score was significantly associated with colleges and study levels. Conclusion: Students studying in health cluster colleges reported high academic stress and self-medication practice. The major stressors identified were examination and course load. Student counseling sessions and counseling by pharmacists regarding self-care may help in the reduction of such stressors and may promote responsible self-medication. Self-evaluation and quality assurance process of curriculum may highlight areas for improvement in the courses. This may help in lowering academic stress among students.

  9. Achieving Universal Access for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis: Potential Prevention Impact of an Integrated Multi-Disease Prevention Campaign in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Granich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, Government of Kenya with key stakeholders implemented an integrated multi-disease prevention campaign for water-borne diseases, malaria and HIV in Kisii District, Nyanza Province. The three day campaign, targeting 5000 people, included testing and counseling (HTC, condoms, long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets, and water filters. People with HIV were offered on-site CD4 cell counts, condoms, co-trimoxazole, and HIV clinic referral. We analysed the CD4 distributions from a district hospital cohort, campaign participants and from the 2007 Kenya Aids Indicator Survey (KAIS. Of the 5198 individuals participating in the campaign, all received HTC, 329 (6.3% tested positive, and 255 (5% were newly diagnosed (median CD4 cell count 536 cells/μL. The hospital cohort and KAIS results included 1,284 initial CD4 counts (median 348/L and 306 initial CD4 counts (median 550/μL, respectively (campaign and KAIS CD4 distributions P=0.346; hospital cohort distribution was lower P<0.001 and P<0.001. A Nyanza Province campaign strategy including ART <350 CD4 cell count could avert approximately 35,000 HIV infections and 1,240 TB cases annually. Community-based integrated public health campaigns could be a potential solution to reach universal access and Millennium Development Goals.

  10. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Janet Junqing; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Jahn, Heiko J; Kraemer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP). The aim of this study was to assess (1) whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC) status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2) whether these associations differ between Chinese and international students. A cross-sectional health survey based on a self-administrated standardised questionnaire was conducted among 1,843 (1,543 Chinese, 300 international) students at two Chinese universities in 2010-2011. Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) and Stock and Kraemer's Studying-related Life Satisfaction Scale were used to measure perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of OC status with perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction by sex for Chinese students and international students separately. The Chinese non-only-children (NOCs) were more likely to come from small cities. Multivariable regression models indicate that the Chinese NOCs were more stressed than OCs (OR = 1.39, 1.11-1.74) with a stronger association in men (OR = 1.48, 1.08-2.02) than women (OR = 1.26, 0.89-1.77). NOCs were also more dissatisfied than their OC fellows in the Chinese subsample (OR = 1.37, 1.09-1.73). Among international students, no associations between OC status and perceived stress or studying-related life satisfaction were found. To promote equality between OCs and NOCs at Chinese universities, the causes of more stress and less studying-related life satisfaction among NOCs compared to OCs need further exploration.

  11. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Junqing Chu

    Full Text Available University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP. The aim of this study was to assess (1 whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2 whether these associations differ between Chinese and international students.A cross-sectional health survey based on a self-administrated standardised questionnaire was conducted among 1,843 (1,543 Chinese, 300 international students at two Chinese universities in 2010-2011. Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14 and Stock and Kraemer's Studying-related Life Satisfaction Scale were used to measure perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of OC status with perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction by sex for Chinese students and international students separately.The Chinese non-only-children (NOCs were more likely to come from small cities. Multivariable regression models indicate that the Chinese NOCs were more stressed than OCs (OR = 1.39, 1.11-1.74 with a stronger association in men (OR = 1.48, 1.08-2.02 than women (OR = 1.26, 0.89-1.77. NOCs were also more dissatisfied than their OC fellows in the Chinese subsample (OR = 1.37, 1.09-1.73. Among international students, no associations between OC status and perceived stress or studying-related life satisfaction were found.To promote equality between OCs and NOCs at Chinese universities, the causes of more stress and less studying-related life satisfaction among NOCs compared to OCs need further exploration.

  12. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  13. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNerney Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerable progress in a number of countries. However, the emergence of mutated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs poses a deadly threat to control efforts. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has been reported in all regions of the world. More recently, extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis (XDR-TB that is also resistant to second line drugs has emerged in a number of countries. To ensure that adequate resources are allocated to prevent the emergence and spread of drug resistance it is important to understand the scale of the problem. In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data. Discussion Whereas the prevalence of tuberculosis is presented as the proportion of individuals within a defined population having disease, the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis is usually presented as the proportion of tuberculosis cases exhibiting resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Global surveillance activities have identified countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and regions of China as having a high proportion of MDR-TB cases and international commentary has focused primarily on the urgent need to improve control in these settings. Other regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa have been observed as having a low proportion of drug resistant cases. However, if one considers the incidence of new tuberculosis cases with drug resistant disease in terms of the population then countries of sub-Saharan Africa have amongst the highest rates of transmitted MDR-TB in the world. We propose

  14. The association between occupational stress and depressive symptoms and the mediating role of psychological capital among Chinese university teachers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xue; Yang, Yi-Long; Wang, Yang; Liu, Li; Wang, Shu; Wang, Lie

    2014-11-30

    Depression is a major public health problem that affects both individuals and society. Previous studies report that university teachers are particularly susceptible to high levels of occupational stress and depressive symptoms. The aims of this study were to explore the association between occupational stress and depressive symptoms in a group of university teachers, and assess the mediating role of psychological capital between these variables. A cross-sectional study was performed between November 2013 and January 2014. Teachers from six universities were randomly sampled in Shenyang. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, effort-reward imbalance scale, and psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic and working factors, were administered in questionnaires distributed to 1,500 university teachers. Completed questionnaires were received from 1,210 participants. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to examine the mediating role of psychological capital. In the present study, 58.9% (95% CI (Confidence Intervals): 56.1% to 61.7%) of university teachers had a CES-D score equal to or above the cut-off of 16. Both effort-reward ratio (ERR) and scores of over-commitment were positively associated with depressive symptoms, whereas psychological capital was negatively associated with depressive symptoms among university teachers. Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between occupational stress and depressive symptoms. Among Chinese university teachers, occupational stress may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms, whereas psychological capital might be protective against depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that college administrators could support the development of psychological capital in their staff to alleviate depressive symptoms.

  15. The South African Tuberculosis Care Cascade: Estimated Losses and Methodological Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Pren; Theron, Grant; Rangaka, Molebogeng X; Chihota, Violet N; Vaughan, Louise; Brey, Zameer O; Pillay, Yogan

    2017-11-06

    While tuberculosis incidence and mortality are declining in South Africa, meeting the goals of the End TB Strategy requires an invigorated programmatic response informed by accurate data. Enumerating the losses at each step in the care cascade enables appropriate targeting of interventions and resources. We estimated the tuberculosis burden; the number and proportion of individuals with tuberculosis who accessed tests, had tuberculosis diagnosed, initiated treatment, and successfully completed treatment for all tuberculosis cases, for those with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected cases) and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis. Estimates were derived from national electronic tuberculosis register data, laboratory data, and published studies. The overall tuberculosis burden was estimated to be 532005 cases (range, 333760-764480 cases), with successful completion of treatment in 53% of cases. Losses occurred at multiple steps: 5% at test access, 13% at diagnosis, 12% at treatment initiation, and 17% at successful treatment completion. Overall losses were similar among all drug-susceptible cases and those with HIV coinfection (54% and 52%, respectively, successfully completed treatment). Losses were substantially higher among rifampicin- resistant cases, with only 22% successfully completing treatment. Although the vast majority of individuals with tuberculosis engaged the public health system, just over half were successfully treated. Urgent efforts are required to improve implementation of existing policies and protocols to close gaps in tuberculosis diagnosis, treatment initiation, and successful treatment completion. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  16. The relationship between emotional intelligence and job stress in the faculty of medicine in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMANI, NIKOO; SHAHABI, MARYAM; HAGHANI, FARIBA

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: health care professionals especially clinicians, undergo lots of job stress (JS). Emotional intelligence (EI) is among the variables that appear to be associated with stress. It is also included among the ways adopted by the individuals in order to resist JS in the workplace. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationship between EI and JS in the faculty members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS). Methods: This was a correlational study performed on 202 faculty members of IUMS. The data was gathered through two valid and reliable questionnaires (Bradberry EI questionnaire and JS questionnaire), being analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression analysis (α=0.05). Results: 142 individuals (70.30%) filled out the questionnaires. 75% of the respondents were male and 98% were married. There was an inverse correlation between the total score of EI and the level of JS (r=-0.235, p=0.005). Moreover, among the factors of EI, self-awareness and self-management scores had significant inverse relationship with the level of JS. Linear regression analysis showed that the EI factors explained approximately 7% of the variance of JS levels of the teachers. Conclusions: Individuals with high EI have less JS. Since the EI can be taught, it can be expected that the JS of faculty members can be reduced through training them on emotional intelligence. Therefore, it is recommended that short-term training courses be scheduled and designed based on the concepts of EI for teachers, particularly clinicians. PMID:25512914

  17. The relationship between emotional intelligence and job stress in the faculty of medicine in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOO YAMANI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: health care professionals especially clinicians, undergo lots of job stress (JS. Emotional intelligence (EI is among the variables that appear to be associated with stress. It is also included among the ways adopted by the individuals in order to resist JS in the workplace. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationship between EI and JS in the faculty members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS. Methods: This was a correlational study performed on 202 faculty members of IUMS. The data was gathered through two valid and reliable questionnaires (Bradberry EI questionnaire and JS questionnaire, being analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA and linear regression analysis (α=0.05. Results: 142 individuals (70.30% filled out the questionnaires. 75% of the respondents were male and 98% were married. There was an inverse correlation between the total score of EI and the level of JS (r=-0.235, p=0.005. Moreover, among the factors of EI, self-awareness and self-management scores had significant inverse relationship with the level of JS. Linear regression analysis showed that the EI factors explained approximately 7% of the variance of JS levels of the teachers. Conclusions: Individuals with high EI have less JS. Since the EI can be taught, it can be expected that the JS of faculty members can be reduced through training them on emotional intelligence. Therefore, it is recommended that short-term training courses be scheduled and designed based on the concepts of EI for teachers, particularly clinicians.

  18. Sputum Microscopy With Fluorescein Diacetate Predicts Tuberculosis Infectiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sumona; Sherman, Jonathan M; Tovar, Marco A; Bravard, Marjory A; Valencia, Teresa; Montoya, Rosario; Quino, Willi; D'Arcy, Nikki; Ramos, Eric S; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton A

    2017-09-01

    Sputum from patients with tuberculosis contains subpopulations of metabolically active and inactive Mycobacterium tuberculosis with unknown implications for infectiousness. We assessed sputum microscopy with fluorescein diacetate (FDA, evaluating M. tuberculosis metabolic activity) for predicting infectiousness. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was quantified in pretreatment sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis using FDA microscopy, culture, and acid-fast microscopy. These 35 patients' 209 household contacts were followed with prevalence surveys for tuberculosis disease for 6 years. FDA microscopy was positive for a median of 119 (interquartile range [IQR], 47-386) bacteria/µL sputum, which was 5.1% (IQR, 2.4%-11%) the concentration of acid-fast microscopy-positive bacteria (2069 [IQR, 1358-3734] bacteria/μL). Tuberculosis was diagnosed during follow-up in 6.4% (13/209) of contacts. For patients with lower than median concentration of FDA microscopy-positive M. tuberculosis, 10% of their contacts developed tuberculosis. This was significantly more than 2.7% of the contacts of patients with higher than median FDA microscopy results (crude hazard ratio [HR], 3.8; P = .03). This association maintained statistical significance after adjusting for disease severity, chemoprophylaxis, drug resistance, and social determinants (adjusted HR, 3.9; P = .02). Mycobacterium tuberculosis that was FDA microscopy negative was paradoxically associated with greater infectiousness. FDA microscopy-negative bacteria in these pretreatment samples may be a nonstaining, slowly metabolizing phenotype better adapted to airborne transmission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. Mediating Effects of Coping, Personal Belief, and Social Support on the Relationship among Stress, Depression, and Smoking Behaviour in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether university students' smoking behaviour is associated with higher levels of stress and depression directly, or indirectly, via the mediation of coping, personal beliefs and social support. Design/methodology/approach: The study design involves a cross-sectional survey. Structural equation…

  20. Racial and Ethnic-Related Stressors as Predictors of Perceived Stress and Academic Performance for African American Students at a Historically Black College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among African American students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related stressors…

  1. Big Five Personality Traits and the General Factor of Personality as Moderators of Stress and Coping Reactions Following an Emergency Alarm on a Swiss University Campus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Hengartner (Michael P.); D. van der Linden (Dimitri); L. Bohleber (Laura); A. von Wyl (Agnes)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the

  2. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is ...

  3. Imaging of pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyck, P.; De Schepper, A.M.; Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Van den Brande, P.

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis, more than any other infectious disease, has always been a challenge, since it has been responsible for a great amount of morbidity and mortality in humans. After a steady decline in the number of new cases during the twentieth century, due to improved social and environmental conditions, early diagnosis, and the development of antituberculous medication, a stagnation and even an increase in the number of new cases was noted in the mid-1980s. The epidemiological alteration is multifactorial: global increase in developing countries; minority groups (HIV and other immunocompromised patients); and elderly patients due to an altered immune status. Other factors that may be responsible are a delayed diagnosis, especially in elderly patients, incomplete or inadequate therapy, and the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The course of the disease and its corresponding clinicoradiological pattern depends on the interaction between the organism and the host response. Classically, pulmonary tuberculosis has been classified in primary tuberculosis, which occurred previously in children, and postprimary tuberculosis, occurring in adult patients. In industrialized countries, however, there seems to be a shift of primary tuberculosis towards adults. Furthermore, due to an altered immunological response in certain groups, such as immunocompromised and elderly patients, an atypical radioclinical pattern may occur. The changing landscape, in which tuberculosis occurs, as well as the global resurgence, and the changed spectrum of the clinical and radiological presentation, justify a renewed interest of radiologists for the imaging features of pulmonary tuberculosis. This article deals with the usual imaging features of pulmonary tuberculosis as well as the atypical patterns encountered in immunodepressed and elderly patients. (orig.)

  4. The Prevalence of Job Stress and its Relationship with Burnout Syndrome among the Academic Members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences

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    Hedayat Nazari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout syndrome is one of the consequences and the results of occupational or job stress emerged in the form of emotional exhaustion feeling, depersonalization and decrement personal accomplishment. The aim of this study was to determine the occupational stress and its relationship with burnout syndrome in the academic members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 111 of the faculty members via multistage sampling. Data were collected by the questionnaire of Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, and Osipow Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI- R. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics as well as analytical statistics such as chi square, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney tests and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed that the most of the participants had a low level of burnout three dimensions including emotional burnout (72.1%, depersonalization (81.1%, and the decrement of personal accomplishment (56.8%. Moreover 79.3% of samples had a low occupational stress, but there was a meaningful relationship between occupational stress and dimensions of burnout syndrome with an exception for the intensity of decrement of personal accomplishment. Conclusion: Academic members were in an appropriate condition concerning burnout syndrome and occupational stress. However by applying some strategies to decrease stress and determining stress resources, we can improve their psychological health of academic members.

  5. The Prevalence of Job Stress and its Relationship with Burnout Syndrome among the Academic Members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Hedayat; Jariani, Mojgan; Beiranvand, Shorangiz; Saki, Mandana; Aghajeri, Nasrin; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad

    2016-03-01

    Burnout syndrome is one of the consequences and the results of occupational or job stress emerged in the form of emotional exhaustion feeling, depersonalization and decrement personal accomplishment. The aim of this study was to determine the occupational stress and its relationship with burnout syndrome in the academic members of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. This descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 111 of the faculty members via multistage sampling. Data were collected by the questionnaire of Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Osipow Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI- R). Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics as well as analytical statistics such as chi square, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney tests and Pearson correlation coefficient. The results showed that the most of the participants had a low level of burnout three dimensions including emotional burnout (72.1%), depersonalization (81.1%), and the decrement of personal accomplishment (56.8%). Moreover 79.3% of samples had a low occupational stress, but there was a meaningful relationship between occupational stress and dimensions of burnout syndrome with an exception for the intensity of decrement of personal accomplishment. Academic members were in an appropriate condition concerning burnout syndrome and occupational stress. However by applying some strategies to decrease stress and determining stress resources, we can improve their psychological health of academic members.

  6. Mood and food at the University of Turku in Finland: nutritional correlates of perceived stress are most pronounced among overweight students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-09-01

    We examined perceived stress and food intake at University of Turku, Finland. This study was conducted as an online survey (1189 students). We computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index, and the subjective importance of healthy eating. We assessed the correlations between perceived stress, and two food intake pattern scores, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating. We tested the associations between stress and the same variables, controlling for potential confounders for the whole sample, by gender, and by Body Mass Index (BMI). Fruits and vegetables intake and dietary guideline adherence were both negatively associated with stress. These negative associations were more pronounced in overweight and less pronounced in underweight compared to healthy weight students. Sweets, cookies and snacks consumption were not associated with stress. Stress was associated with lower subjective importance of healthy eating, independent of gender and BMI. Perceived stress might have relationships of different magnitudes in overweight vs. normal BMI or underweight persons. BMI could be an effect modifier of the stress-food habits association.

  7. The Effectiveness of Group Training of CBT-Based Stress Management on Anxiety, Psychological Hardiness and General Self-Efficacy Among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla Jafar, Hamdam; Salabifard, Seddigheh; Mousavi, Seyedeh Maryam; Sobhani, Zahra

    2015-09-28

    Admission to university is a very sensitive period of life for efficient, active, and young workforces in any country, and it is mostly associated with many changes in social and human relationships. These changes lead to anxiety in students. Moreover, humans need certain functions in order to adaptively deal with different life situations and challenges. By training stress management, these functions can help human acquire the required abilities. The present study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of stress management training in anxiety, psychological hardiness, and general self-efficacy among university students. The study was a quasi-experimental intervention (pretest-posttest-follow-up) including a control group, it was a fundamental applied study. The statistical population consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. Convenient sampling was employed to select 30 students who were divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Before stress management training, both groups filled out Beck Anxiety Inventory, Long and Goulet scale of psychological hardiness, and General Self-efficacy Scale (GSE-10). Afterwards, the experimental group was provided with stress management training. And after the experiment, the abovementioned questionnaires and scales were responded by the two groups. Finally the collected data were analyzed and compared using one-way MANOVA. The results of MANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of anxiety, hardiness, and general self-efficacy (pstress management among university students cause anxiety to drop; moreover, it enhances their psychological hardiness and self-efficacy. In regard with the role and importance of stress management, training this skill should be included in educational plans of university.

  8. Peritoneal tuberculosis: radiographic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ospina-Moreno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal tuberculosis (TB is an extrapulmonary form of presentation of tuberculosis. HIV infection is a primary risk factor for this condition. Diagnosis requires microbiological or histopathological confirmation in addition to supporting radiological imaging studies. Abdominal ultrasonography and CT are useful to obtain a radiographic diagnosis, with typical findings including diffuse peritoneal thickening, presence of ascites in varying volumes, adenopathies, and caseating nodes. We report 2 cases of patients with ascites and nodular peritoneal thickening on diagnostic images, as well as high CA-125 levels in laboratory tests. In both patients, a diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis was reached following a US-guided peritoneal biopsy.

  9. Genomic insights into tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, James E

    2014-05-01

    Prevalent since pre-history, human tuberculosis - caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis - remains a major source of death worldwide. Moreover, increasing drug resistance poses the threat of disease resurgence. However, the expanding application of genomic techniques is providing new avenues for combating this old foe. Whole-genome sequencing, comparative genomics and systems biology are generating new insights into the origins and ongoing evolution of M. tuberculosis, as well as the molecular basis for its pathogenicity. These have important implications for our perspective of the disease, development of new drugs and vaccines, and treatment of patients using existing therapeutics.

  10. Universal model of bias-stress-induced instability in inkjet-printed carbon nanotube networks field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haesun; Choi, Sungju; Jang, Jun Tae; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Lee, Yongwoo; Rhee, Jihyun; Ahn, Geumho; Yu, Hye Ri; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2018-02-01

    We propose a universal model for bias-stress (BS)-induced instability in the inkjet-printed carbon nanotube (CNT) networks used in field-effect transistors (FETs). By combining two experimental methods, i.e., a comparison between air and vacuum BS tests and interface trap extraction, BS instability is explained regardless of either the BS polarity or ambient condition, using a single platform constituted by four key factors: OH- adsorption/desorption followed by a change in carrier concentration, electron concentration in CNT channel corroborated with H2O/O2 molecules in ambient, charge trapping/detrapping, and interface trap generation. Under negative BS (NBS), the negative threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) is dominated by OH- desorption, which is followed by hole trapping in the interface and/or gate insulator. Under positive BS (PBS), the positive ΔVT is dominated by OH- adsorption, which is followed by electron trapping in the interface and/or gate insulator. This instability is compensated by interface trap extraction; PBS instability is slightly more complicated than NBS instability. Furthermore, our model is verified using device simulation, which gives insights on how much each mechanism contributes to BS instability. Our result is potentially useful for the design of highly stable CNT-based flexible circuits in the Internet of Things wearable healthcare era.

  11. Radiometric studies of mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwaldo E. Camargo

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro assay system that included automated radiometric quantification of 14CO2 released as a result of oxidation of 14C- substrates was applied for studying the metabolic activity of M. tuberculosis under various experimental conditions. These experiments included the study of a mtabolic pathways, b detection times for various inoculum sizes, c effect of filtration on reproducibility of results, d influence of stress environment e minimal inhibitory concentrations for isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol and rifampin, and f generation times of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. These organisms were found to metabolize 14C-for-mate, (U-14C acetate, (U-14C glycerol, (1-14C palmitic acid, 1-14C lauric acid, (U-14C L-malic acid, (U-14C D-glucose, and (U-14C D-glucose, but not (1-14C L-glucose, (U-14C glycine, or (U-14C pyruvate to 14CO2. By using either 14C-for-mate, (1-14C palmitic acid, or (1-14C lauric acid, 10(7 organisms/vial could be detected within 24 48 hours and as few as 10 organisms/vial within 16-20 days. Reproducible results could be obtained without filtering the bacterial suspension, provided that the organisms were grown in liquid 7H9 medium with 0.05% polysorbate 80 and homogenized prior to the study. Drugs that block protein synthesis were found to have lower minimal inhibitory concentrations with the radiometric method when compared to the conventional agar dilution method. The mean generation time obtained for M. bovis and different strains of M. tuberculosis with various substrates was 9 ± 1 hours.

  12. MIGRANTS AND TUBERCULOSIS – AN EXTERNAL FACTOR OF ECOLOGICAL INFLUENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Isayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the most dangerous infections. First of all it strikes socially unprotected part of the population. The migrants which number grows in St. Petersburg, represent stress expressive category of the people reducing protective forces of immunity. Incidence of tuberculosis among migrants usually significantly exceeds incidence of permanent residents of the city. There are the difficulties connected with problems of adaptation, shortcomings of lows, finance. Thus, the influencing on ecological system of the city more than one million arrived migrants undoubtedly. It is necessary to prevent development of tuberculosis epidemic among migrants by providing with preventive inspection and complete treatment of all new cases of tuberculosis irrespective of their legal and social status. 

  13. Frequency of otorhinolaryngologies' manifestations in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa, Renato Telles de

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tuberculosis continues being a world problem and in the last years had an increase in his incidence mainly by the growing number of patients with HIV. The tuberculosis has like an etiologic agent the Mycobacterium tuberculosis that possesses a period of latency generally prolonged between the initial infection and the illness. That illness can affect diverse organs and systems. M Method: This study is descriptive, transversal and prospective. Within, patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis by the service of pneumologia of the outpatient clinic Araújo Lima of the Federal University of the Amazon (UFAM, in Manaus, between the period of July of 2005 and May of 2006 were submitted to otorhinolaryngological exam in search of manifestations of the illness. Objectives: The main objective of the study was estimate the predominance of otorhinolaryngological manifestations in patients with tuberculosis and to describe the frequencies of the different manifestations. Results: They were analyzed 15 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis confirmed by the baciloscopia, being 7 of the female sex and 8 of the male sex. The majority of the patients were young adults between the third and fourth decade of life (46,7%. Only one of the patients had co-infection with the HIV virus. Conclusion: The otorhinolaryngological affection by the tuberculosis was observed in 2 patients corresponding to 13.33% of the sample, being a patient with tubercular medium otitis and a patient with linfoadenopatia cervical.

  14. Prevalence and association of perceived stress, substance use and behavioral addictions: a cross-sectional study among university students in France, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavolacci, Marie Pierre; Ladner, Joel; Grigioni, Sebastien; Richard, Laure; Villet, Herve; Dechelotte, Pierre

    2013-08-06

    University students face multiple stressors such as academic overload, constant pressure to succeed, competition with peers as well as concerns about the future. Stress should not be considered on its own, but should be associated with potential risk behaviors leading to onset of substance use and related problems heightened during the university period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of main substance use and behavioral addictions among students in higher education in France and to examine the relationship with perceived stress. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by university student volunteers from Upper Normandy (France) either by anonymous online questionnaire or by paper questionnaire. Data collected included socio-economic characteristics, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis) and hazardous behaviors: alcohol abuse problems, smoking, consumption of cannabis, eating disorders, and cyber addiction. A total of 1876 students were included. Mean PSS score was 15.9 (standard deviation = 7.2). Highly stressed students (4th quartile) were compared with lesser stressed students (1st quartile). A positive relation was observed between female gender, regular smokers, alcohol abuse problems, risk of cyberaddiction and especially eating disorders (AOR = 5.45, 95% CI = 3.42-8.69), and increasing PSS score. PSS score however, was not significantly related to the curriculum, regular alcohol use, drunkenness or binge drinking even after additional controlling for use of other substances. We found a significant negative association between stress and practice of sport: students with the most physical activity were less likely to report perceived stress (4th quartile: AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.39-0.80). This cross-sectional study among university students in France revealed that perceived stress was associated not only with known risks such as alcohol misuse, but also with new risks

  15. Tuberculosis concomitant with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the different factors involved in this phenomenon and to give a clear, comprehensive picture of the problem of tuberculosis resurgence and its correlation with diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

  16. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  17. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  18. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2017.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  19. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  20. HIV and Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) Last Reviewed: July 26, 2017 ...

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Digby F.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism underpins the physiology and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, although experimental mycobacteriology has provided key insights into the metabolic pathways that are essential for survival and pathogenesis, determining the metabolic status of bacilli during different stages of infection and in different cellular compartments remains challenging. Recent advances—in particular, the development of systems biology tools such as metabolomics—have enabled key insights into the biochemical state of M. tuberculosis in experimental models of infection. In addition, their use to elucidate mechanisms of action of new and existing antituberculosis drugs is critical for the development of improved interventions to counter tuberculosis. This review provides a broad summary of mycobacterial metabolism, highlighting the adaptation of M. tuberculosis as specialist human pathogen, and discusses recent insights into the strategies used by the host and infecting bacillus to influence the outcomes of the host–pathogen interaction through modulation of metabolic functions. PMID:25502746

  2. Tuberculosis After Renal Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbouch, Samia; Hajji, Meriam; Helal, Imed; Ounissi, Mondher; Bacha, Mohammed Mongi; Ben Hamida, Fathi; Abderrahim, Ezzedine; Ben Abdallah, Taieb

    2017-02-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the leading infections after renal transplant, particularly in developing countries where the incidence and prevalence in the general population are high. Diagnosis requires bacteriologic and histologic confirmation. Interactions among the antitubercular drugs and the immunosuppressive agents have to be considered while prescribing, and surveillance for adverse effects is required. Although rare, case reports are available on extrapulmonary tuberculosis in allograft recipients. Here, we present a 25-year-old kidney transplant recipient who was diagnosed with lymph node tuberculosis under uncommon circumstances but who had a good outcome. This case report illustrates the difficulties in diagnosis of tuberculosis, changes in therapeutic protocols, and prognostic factors and highlights the effects of infectious complications with immunosuppressive therapy in this particular patient population.

  3. Chronic Miliary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Bajaj

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with chronic miliary tuberculosis is being reported. The patient had miliary mottling of the lung, tubercular lymphadenitis, cervicitis and disseminated lupus vulgaris of skin lesions.

  4. Internet Addiction and Relationships with Insomnia, Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Self-Esteem in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Farah; Halawi, Ghinwa; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Karam, Latife; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) could be a major concern in university medical students aiming to develop into health professionals. The implications of this addiction as well as its association with sleep, mood disorders and self-esteem can hinder their studies, impact their long-term career goals and have wide and detrimental consequences for society as a whole. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Assess potential IA in university medical students, as well as factors associated with it; 2) Assess the relationships between potential IA, insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem. Our study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 600 students of three faculties: medicine, dentistry and pharmacy at Saint-Joseph University. Four validated and reliable questionnaires were used: the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21), and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). The average YIAT score was 30 ± 18.474; Potential IA prevalence rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 13.81-19.79%) and it was significantly different between males and females (p-value = 0.003), with a higher prevalence in males (23.6% versus 13.9%). Significant correlations were found between potential IA and insomnia, stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem (p-value stress, and self-esteem.

  5. Cutaneous Tuberculosis Ineastern Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A J Kanwar

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the clinical and laboratory data from 21 patents of cutaneous tuberculosis seen over a period of 10 years revealed that it is rare in eastern Libya. There were 15 males and 6 females. Lupus vulgaris was seen in 11, scrofuloderma in 4. Three patients each had tuberculosis verrucosa cutis and papulonecrotic tuberculid. The diagnosis in each case was confirmed histopathologically.

  6. Isolated Coccygeal Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Un; Kim, Seok Won; Ju, Chang IL

    2012-01-01

    Isolated tuberculosis of the coccyx is extremely rare. A 35-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of coccygeal and gluteal pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed osseous destruction and a large enhancing mass involving the coccyx with anterior and posterior extension. Pathologic examination of the surgical specimen revealed necrosis, chronic granulomatous inflammation, and multinucleated giant cells consistent with tuberculosis. This case highlights the impo...

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB FATIGUE AND STRESS AMONG EMPLOYEES OF YOGYAKARTA STATE UNIVERSITY ION COLUMN TECHNIC WITH LOCAL ZEOLITE AND ACTIVE CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mariyam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress and fatigue related to workplace may interrupt with the effectivity and productivity workers, including the employees who work in the office. This research aims to determine the level of stress and fatigue related to workplace and to describe determinant factors invloved in job stress and musculosceletal fatigue. It is designed as an analytical survey, designed as cross sectional approach. Population were the employees of Yogyakarta State University, samples were taken with purposive sampling technique. The respondents were they who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Job stress and fatigue were taken with observation and structured intervie, using adapted instrument from Berutu Soetopo (2010 and Andininsari (2009. Musculosceletal fatigue were measured with nordic body map method. Other paramater included anthropometry and ergonometry measurement and individual characteristics. The finding shows that most respondents (95% suffered mild job stress and more than half of respondents (73% had mild musculosceletal fatigue. About 60% of workplace facilities were not suitable according to ergonomic requirement. Determinant factors for job stress such as age, employment status and workplace ergonometry, while determinant factors for musculosceletal fatigue includes age body mass index and also ergonometry.   Keywords: workplace, stress, fatigue, musculosceletal

  8. Effects of Music Therapy on the Cardiovascular and Autonomic Nervous System in Stress-Induced University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Soon; Jeong, Hyeon Cheol; Yim, Jong Eun; Jeon, Mi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Stress is caused when a particular relationship between the individual and the environment emerges. Specifically, stress occurs when an individual's abilities are challenged or when one's well-being is threatened by excessive environmental demands. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of music therapy on stress in university students. Randomized controlled trial. Sixty-four students were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 33) or the control group (n = 31). Music therapy. Initial measurement included cardiovascular indicators (blood pressure and pulse), autonomic nervous activity (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN], normalized low frequency, normalized high frequency, low/high frequency), and subjective stress. After the first measurement, participants in both groups were exposed to a series of stressful tasks, and then a second measurement was conducted. The experimental group then listened to music for 20 minutes and the control group rested for 20 minutes. A third and final measurement was then taken. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the first or second measurement. However, after music therapy, the experimental group and the control group showed significant differences in all variables, including systolic blood pressure (p = .026), diastolic blood pressure (p = .037), pulse (p stress (p = .026). Classical music tends to relax the body and may stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system. These results suggest music therapy as an intervention for stress reduction.

  9. Time Management and Its Relation To Students’ Stress, Gender and Academic Achievement Among Sample of Students at Al Ain University of Science and Technology, UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saleh Al Khatib

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between time management, perceived stress, gender and academic achievement among United Arab Emirates college students. The respondents were 352 college students from Al Ain University of Science and Technology. The sample was stratified by sex. Among the respondents, 52.5% were female students and 47.5% were male students. The mean age of the sample was 23.4 years ranging from 18 to 39. Time management was measured by Time Management Questionnaire” developed by Britton and Tesser (1991, while perceived stress was measured by The Perceived Stress Scale developed by Cohen (1985. The findings of the study showed that there was statistically significant negative relationship between time management and perceived stress. Females reported higher time management compared to their males counter mates. Higher time management and lower perceived stress were associated with high levels of academic achievement. However, time management was the most significant predictor of academic achievement accounting for 26 % of the variance while perceived stress accounted for an additional 11.2% of the variance in academic achievement. All three predictors explained 29.4% (R = .543 of total variance. The implications and limitations are reviewed as are the suggestions for future research.   Keywords: Time management, perceived stress, academic achievement, college students.

  10. Correlation among academic stress, academic burnout, and academic performance in nursing and paramedic students of Qom University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Asayesh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Learning is a stressful experience of human life; reduced adaption to stressors causes academic burnout which is a reason for academic failure among students. This study investigated the correlation among academic stress, academic burnout, and academic performance in nursing and paramedic students of Qom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 264 nursing and paramedic students were randomly selected. Demographic characteristics checklist, academic burnout questionnaire, and academic stress scale were used to gather data, and grade point average was considered to be the indicator of academic performance. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The level of significance was considered to be p<0.05. Results: The mean score for students' academic burnout was 28.52±15.84. Univariate regression analysis showed that the students' employment, years of education, academic performance, and all academic stress subscales had a significant correlation with academic burnout. According to multivariate regression analysis, having a field of study-related occupation was a protective factor and academic stress a risk factor for academic burnout. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that a large proportion of students experienced academic burnout, and students with higher levels of stress experienced more severe academic burnout and had poorer performance. Therefore, training ways to cope with stress can cause reduction in academic burnout and improvement of performance.

  11. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  12. Evaluation of moxifloxacin for the treatment of tuberculosis: 3 years of experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pranger, A.D.; Altena, R. van; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Soolingen, D. van; Uges, D.R.A.; Kosterink, J.G.W.; Werf, T.S. van der; Alffenaar, J.W.C.

    2011-01-01

    Moxifloxacin (MFX) is a powerful second-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) agent, but the optimal dose has not yet been established and long-term safety data are scarce. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of TB patients treated at the Tuberculosis Centre Beatrixoord, University Medical Centre

  13. Evaluation of moxifloxacin for the treatment of tuberculosis : 3 years of experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pranger, A. D.; van Altena, R.; Aarnoutse, R. E.; van Soolingen, D.; Uges, D. R. A.; Kosterink, J. G. W.; van der Werf, T. S.; Alffenaar, J. W. C.

    2011-01-01

    Moxifloxacin (MFX) is a powerful second-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) agent, but the optimal dose has not yet been established and long-term safety data are scarce. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of TB patients treated at the Tuberculosis Centre Beatrixoord, University Medical Centre

  14. The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Filho, J.S. de.

    1983-01-01

    The surgical opportunity in urinary tuberculosis was performed in two hundred and five patients at the Clinical Hospital of the University of de State of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), in the period of 1962 to 1982. Clinical, radiological and pathological findings of ten cases of pionephrosis submitted to nephrectomy, and two cases of vesical enlargement by coloncystoplasty were related. Excretory urograms constitutes the most important radiological exam in reaching a diagnosis, followed by retrograde urograms. (author)

  15. Elephant-to-Human Transmission of Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-23

    This podcast reports on the transmission of TB from elephants to humans. Dr. Rendi Murphree, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Vanderbilt University Visiting Scholar, discusses the recent elephant-to-human transmission of tuberculosis at an elephant refuge in Tennessee.  Created: 2/23/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/23/2011.

  16. Vaccination against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carlos; Aguilo, Nacho; Gonzalo-Asensio, Jesús

    2018-04-04

    BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccination is included in the immunization schedule for tuberculosis endemic countries with a global coverage at birth close to 90% worldwide. BCG was attenuated from Mycobacterium bovis almost a century ago, and provides a strong protection against disseminated forms of the disease, though very limited against pulmonary forms of tuberculosis, responsible for transmission. Novel prophylactic tuberculosis vaccines are in clinical development either to replace BCG or to improve its protection against respiratory forms of the disease. There are limitations understanding the immunological responses involved and the precise type of long-lived immunity that new vaccines need to induce. MTBVAC is the first and only tuberculosis vaccine candidate based on live-attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical evaluation. MTBVAC clinical development plans to target tuberculosis prevention in newborns, as a BCG replacement strategy, and as secondary objective to be tested in adolescents and adults previous vaccinated with BCG. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Current management options for latent tuberculosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton BL

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brianna L Norton, David P HollandDepartment of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Tuberculosis remains the world’s second leading infectious cause of death, with nearly one-third of the global population latently infected. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is a mainstay of tuberculosis-control efforts in low-to medium-incidence countries. Isoniazid monotherapy has been the standard of care for decades, but its utility is impaired by poor completion rates. However, new, shorter-course regimens using rifamycins improve completion rates and are cost-saving compared with standard isoniazid monotherapy. We review the currently available therapies for latent tuberculosis infection and their toxicities and include a brief economic comparison of the different regimens.Keywords: isoniazid, rifampin, rifapentine, tuberculin skin test, interferon-gamma release assay

  18. Tuberculosis in quebec: a review of trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Alexander; Harouna, Abdoulaye; Smith, Andrew F

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this research was to conduct a thorough review on the literature of tuberculosis in Canada and the Province of Quebec. To achieve this aim, an exhaustive literature review of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec was undertaken. Data was collected with the goal of creating an epidemiological and public health evidence base to forecast the spread of tuberculosis. A keyword search strategy was used to find relevant articles from the peer-reviewed literature using the electronic search engine PubMed and a search of other relevant federal and provincial government databases. Twenty-nine peer-reviewed publications and twenty government reports containing information about the incidence or prevalence of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec were included in the analysis. An analysis of the data revealed that while tuberculosis rates have been decreasing in both Canada and Quebec with an overall incidence below 3 per 100,000 of population in 2007, among immigrants and the Inuit communities in Quebec, the incidence and prevalence of the disease still remains high and reached 18 per 100,000 and 100 per 100,000, respectively in 2007. In general, while tuberculosis does not pose a significant burden to the general population, it does continue to affect certain sub-groups disproportionately, including select immigrants and Inuit communities in Quebec. Efforts to ensure that cost-effective healthcare interventions are delivered in a timely fashion should be pursued to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec. Funding for this research was provided to Medmetrics Inc., by McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Génome Québec and the Ministère de Développement Economique, Innovation et Exportation du Gouvernement du Québec. The authors also wish to thank Drs. John White and Marcel Behr, both of McGill University and Dr Suneil Malik of the Infectious Disease Program in the Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population

  19. Determinants of tuberculosis transmission and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Lima Neto, Antonio S; Sousa, Geziel S; Machado, Marcia M T; Castro, Marcia C

    2017-05-25

    rates, and low socioeconomic individuals have higher risk of treatment abandonment, in Fortaleza. Treatment abandonment rates are growing despite the advent of universal DOT recommendations in Brazil. Proactive social policies, and active contact tracing to find missed cases, may help reduce the tuberculosis burden in this setting.

  20. Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children: Assessment of the 2012 National Institutes of Health Expert Consensus Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zar, Heather J; Workman, Lesley J; Little, Francesca; Nicol, Mark P

    2015-10-15

    The 2012 National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria for standardized diagnostic categories of pulmonary tuberculosis in children have not been validated. We aimed to assess the NIH diagnostic criteria in children with culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis and those in whom tuberculosis has been excluded. We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive children hospitalized with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa, who were enrolled in a diagnostic study. Children were categorized as definite tuberculosis (culture positive), probable tuberculosis (chest radiograph consistent), possible tuberculosis (chest radiograph inconsistent), or not tuberculosis (improved without tuberculosis treatment). We applied the NIH diagnostic categories to the cohort and evaluated their performance specifically in children with definite tuberculosis and not tuberculosis. Four hundred sixty-four children (median age, 25.1 months [interquartile range, 13.5-61.5 months]) were included; 96 (20.7%) were HIV infected. Of these, 165 (35.6%) were definite tuberculosis, and 299 (64.4%) were not tuberculosis. If strict NIH symptom criteria were applied, 100 (21.6%) were unclassifiable including 21 (21.0%) with definite pulmonary tuberculosis, as they did not meet the NIH criteria due to short duration of symptoms; 71 (71%) had cough children, there was moderate agreement (κ = 0.48) with 100% agreement for definite tuberculosis and moderate agreement for not tuberculosis (220 [60.4%] vs 89 [24.5%]). Entry criteria for diagnostic studies should not be restrictive. Data from this analysis have informed revision of the NIH definitions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Recent developments in the epidemiology and management of tuberculosis – new solutions to old problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiss WM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang M Thaiss1, Cornelius C Thaiss2, Christoph A Thaiss31Christian-Albrechts-Universty, Kiel, 2Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Tuberculosis is an ancient human disease that is still a major cause of death and one of the most challenging public health problems worldwide. After decades of stagnancy, new public–private partnerships to fight the disease and the increasing awareness of a vicious circle between the tuberculosis epidemic and the obstruction of economic development have fuelled recent progress in our understanding of the disease. As a result, new strategies to improve management and treatment of tuberculosis have been initiated. At the same time, however, the devastating effect of human immunodeficiency virus on tuberculosis susceptibility and the rapid expansion of multidrug-resistant (MDR tuberculosis threaten to undermine the advances made by tuberculosis management programs. With an estimated 9 million new cases annually, tuberculosis affects a higher number of individuals worldwide than ever before. Here, recent developments in the epidemiology and management of tuberculosis are summarized and an overview is provided of emerging strategies to combat this ancient scourge.Keywords: tuberculosis, epidemiology, management, multidrug resistance, vaccine

  2. Taking medicines to treat tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis - medicines; DOT; Directly observed therapy; TB - medicines ... Ellner JJ. Tuberculosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 324. ...

  3. [Miliary tuberculosis in 27 children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Ramírez, G; Gama Rivera, M E; Aristizabal Duque, G

    1979-01-01

    In the course of 3 1/2 years, 27 children with miliary tuberculosis were seen at the Hospital Infantil Lorencita Villegas de Santos in Bogotá, Columbia. Twenty-six percent of cases were infants under 12 months of age. Typical clinical cases were malnourished patients with impairment of their general condition, light respiratory stress or neurologic meningoencephalic involvement and febrile syndrome having a high contact index with tuberculous relatives. Some of them were undergoing measles or whooping cough convalescence. The chest X-ray showed micronodular infiltration and some cases, with hiliar adenomegaly, effusion or caverns. The liver percutaneous biopsy was of great help. The isolation of the bacillus from exudates was difficult to achieve. Tuberculin test was positive only in 30%. Cause of death: infiltration of central nervous system.

  4. Perinatal tuberculosis: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Lúcia S. de Souza

    Full Text Available Despite the high prevalence of tuberculosis in adults and children, the congenital and perinatal forms of tuberculosis are rare. In Brazil, there has been only one published case of congenital tuberculosis and two cases of the perinatal form of this disease. We report a case of perinatal tuberculosis presenting with pneumonia. Alcohol-acid-resistant bacilli were found in the gastric lavage. Diagnosis of this disease presentation requires a high index of suspicion.

  5. Serum leptin and cortisol, related to acutely perceived academic examination stress and performance in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p stress but not with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition.

  6. Reciprocal relationship between acute stress and acute fatigue in everyday life in a sample of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Johanna M; Ditzen, Beate; Strahler, Jana; Linnemann, Alexandra; Ziemek, Jannis; Skoluda, Nadine; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Nater, Urs M

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether stress may influence fatigue, or vice versa, as well as factors mediating this relationship. Fifty healthy participants (31 females, 23.6±3.2 years) completed up to 5 momentary assessments of stress and fatigue during 5 days of preparation for their final examinations (exam condition) and 5 days of a regular semester week (control condition). Sleep quality was measured by self-report at awakening. A sub-group of participants (n=25) also collected saliva samples. Fatigue was associated with concurrent stress, stress reported at the previous measurement point, and previous-day stress. However, momentary stress was also predicted by concurrent fatigue, fatigue at the previous time point, and previous-day fatigue. Sleep quality mediated the association between stress and next-day fatigue. Cortisol and alpha-amylase did not mediate the stress-fatigue relationship. In conclusion, there is a reciprocal stress-fatigue relationship. Both prevention and intervention programs should comprehensively cover how stress and fatigue might influence one another. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Imaging of Esophageal Tuberculosis

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    Nagi, B.; Kochhar, R.; Bhasin, D.K.; Singh, K. [PGIMER, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Gastroenterology; Lal, A.; Gulati, M.; Suri, S. [PGIMER, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Radiodiagnosis

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the various radiological abnormalities in patients with proven esophageal tuberculosis. Material and Methods: The case records of 23 patients with proven esophageal tuberculosis were evaluated retrospectively for various radiological abnormalities. Twenty-two patients had secondary involvement of esophagus in the form of direct extension of mediastinal and pulmonary tuberculosis or spinal tuberculosis. Only 1 patient had primary involvement of the esophagus with no evidence of disease elsewhere. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic and CT-guided biopsy/aspiration cytology in 7 and 6 cases, respectively. Diagnosis was made on the basis of surgical biopsy of lymph node and autopsy in 1 patient each. In the remaining 8 patients the diagnosis was based on radiological and endoscopic findings and the response to antituberculous treatment. Results: Chest radiography (CXR) was abnormal in 65% patients. While the findings were non-conclusive for esophageal tuberculosis, characteristic lesions of tuberculosis in lungs or spine were suggestive of tuberculous etiology. In 15 patients, CT of the chest confirmed the corresponding CXR findings and also showed additional findings of mediastinal lymphadenopathy when CXR was normal. Fourteen patients showed mediastinal lymphadenopathy on CT of the chest. In all these patients, more than one group of lymph nodes was involved. The characteristic hypodense center of lymph nodes suggestive of tuberculosis was seen in 12 patients. Radiological abnormalities seen in barium swallow examination were extrinsic compression, traction diverticula, strictures, sinus/fistulous tracts, kinking and pseudotumor mass of esophagus in decreasing order of frequency. The middle third of the esophagus was found to be the most frequent site of involvement.

  8. Imaging of Esophageal Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagi, B.; Kochhar, R.; Bhasin, D.K.; Singh, K.; Lal, A.; Gulati, M.; Suri, S.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the various radiological abnormalities in patients with proven esophageal tuberculosis. Material and Methods: The case records of 23 patients with proven esophageal tuberculosis were evaluated retrospectively for various radiological abnormalities. Twenty-two patients had secondary involvement of esophagus in the form of direct extension of mediastinal and pulmonary tuberculosis or spinal tuberculosis. Only 1 patient had primary involvement of the esophagus with no evidence of disease elsewhere. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic and CT-guided biopsy/aspiration cytology in 7 and 6 cases, respectively. Diagnosis was made on the basis of surgical biopsy of lymph node and autopsy in 1 patient each. In the remaining 8 patients the diagnosis was based on radiological and endoscopic findings and the response to antituberculous treatment. Results: Chest radiography (CXR) was abnormal in 65% patients. While the findings were non-conclusive for esophageal tuberculosis, characteristic lesions of tuberculosis in lungs or spine were suggestive of tuberculous etiology. In 15 patients, CT of the chest confirmed the corresponding CXR findings and also showed additional findings of mediastinal lymphadenopathy when CXR was normal. Fourteen patients showed mediastinal lymphadenopathy on CT of the chest. In all these patients, more than one group of lymph nodes was involved. The characteristic hypodense center of lymph nodes suggestive of tuberculosis was seen in 12 patients. Radiological abnormalities seen in barium swallow examination were extrinsic compression, traction diverticula, strictures, sinus/fistulous tracts, kinking and pseudotumor mass of esophagus in decreasing order of frequency. The middle third of the esophagus was found to be the most frequent site of involvement

  9. Tuberculosis of the cervical spine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis of the cervical spine is rare, comprising 3 -. 5% of cases of tuberculosis of the spine. Eight patients with tuberculosis of the cervicaJ spine seen during 1989 -. 1992 were reviewed. They all presented with neck pain. The 4 children presented with a kyphotic deformity. In all the children the disease was extensive, ...

  10. Tuberculosis: A Problem for Lifeguards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaros, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Lifeguards run the risk of workplace infection by tuberculosis-carrying swimmers. Even if they work in ventilated, sunlit areas (which reduces risk), they can contract tuberculosis when performing respiratory resuscitation. Without appropriate precautions, lifeguards may be unnecessarily exposed. A tuberculosis infection control plan is needed in…

  11. Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Bradford D.

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

  12. Diagnostic system strengthening for drug resistant tuberculosis in Nigeria: impact and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambo Aliyu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis and the threat of extensively-drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV hotspots have made the detection and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the sub-Saharan Africa setting a global public health priority. Objective: We sought to examine the impact and challenges of tuberculosis diagnostic capacity development for the detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis and bio-surveillance using a modular biosafety level 3 (BSL-3 laboratory in Nigeria. Method: In 2010, the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR programme, through the Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland in Baltimore, Maryland, United States, deployed a modular, BSL-3 laboratory to support the national tuberculosis programme in drug-resistant tuberculosis detection and bio-surveillance for effective tuberculosis prevention and control. Results: From 2010 until present, sputum samples from 11 606 suspected cases in 33 states were screened for drug-resistant tuberculosis. Of those, 1500 (12.9% had mono-resistant tuberculosis strains, and 459 (4.0% cases had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Over the lastfour years, 133 scientists were trained in a train-the-trainer programme on advanced tuberculosis culture, drug susceptibility testing, line-probe assays and Xpert® MTB/RIF, in addition to safety operations for biosafety facilities. Power instability, running cost and seasonal dust are notable challenges to optimal performance and scale up. Conclusion: Movable BSL-3 containment laboratories can be deployed to improve diagnostic capacity for drug-resistant tuberculosis and bio-surveillance in settings with limited resources.

  13. Somatic symptoms evoked by exam stress in university students: The role of alexithymia neuroticism anxiety and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Eberle, Hanna; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The etiology of somatization is incompletely understood, but could be elucidated by models of psychosocial stress. Academic exam stress has effectively been applied as a naturalistic stress model, however its effect on somatization symptoms according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria has not been reported so far. Baseline associations between somatization and personality traits, such as alexithymia, have been studied exhaustively. Nevertheless, it is largely unknown if personality trai...

  14. [Preventive measures against tuberculosis in working facilities and companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kiminori; Satou, Ken

    2007-03-01

    IMOTO (Taito Health Center, Tokyo) and Toru MORI (Research Institute of Tuberculosis, JATA). We surveyed environmental conditions in working places and domestic conditions of employees who were working for small-sized companies located in Taito ward, based on written questionnaires. The companies were selected as those which had the patients of tuberculosis in the past one-year period, and the number of employees was less than ten. Compared with control people, TB patients had more frequent smoking habit (p personnel with unspecified and high occupational contact with tuberculosis patients: Hidetoshi IGARI (Division of Control and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chiba University Hospital), Kiminori SUZUKI (Chiba Foundation for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention). Tuberculosis prevalence is as high as 500-1500 per 100,000 peoples among the homeless and construction workers living in "Hanba", a bunkhouse. We surveyed their medical conditions through periodical or extraperiodical health check-up. We retrospectively analyzed some medical factors contributing to successful treatment of the disease. Hospital admission and enhancement of counseling opportunities were two factors leading to the success of the treatment. The ambulance attendants have a significant possibility to contact patients with TB and are high at risk of acquiring the infection. As there are often limited information on TB in patients in an emergency condition, it is difficult to protect themselves from its contagion properly. Periodical and extraperiodical health check-up is important for these personnel and application of QuantiFERON-TB 2nd generation to the personnel is new and useful for diagnosis

  15. Protocol for the Mindful Student Study: a randomised controlled trial of the provision of a mindfulness intervention to support university students' well-being and resilience to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Geraldine; Benton, Alice; Howarth, Emma; Vainre, Maris; Croudace, Timothy J; Stochl, Jan; Jones, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Levels of stress in UK university students are high, with an increase in the proportion of students seeking help in recent years. Academic pressure is reported as a major trigger. Mindfulness training has been shown to reduce stress and is popular among students, but its effectiveness in this context needs to be ascertained. In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we hypothesise that the provision of a preventative mindfulness intervention in universities could reduce students' psychological distress during the examination period (primary outcome), improve their resilience to stress up to at least 1 year later, reduce their use of mental health support services and improve academic performance. Methods and analysis At least 550 University of Cambridge students free from active crises or severe mental illness will be randomised to joining an 8-week mindfulness course or to mental health provision as usual (one-to-one allocation rate). Psychological distress will be measured using the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure at baseline, postintervention, examination term and 1-year follow-up. Other outcomes are use of mental health services, inability to sit examinations or special circumstance requests, examination grades, well-being, altruism and coping measured with ecological momentary assessment. Outcome assessment and intention-to-treat primary analysis using linear mixed models adjusted for baseline scores will be blind to intervention allocation. We will also conduct per-protocol, subgroup and secondary outcome analyses. An Independent Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee will be set up. We will systematically monitor for, and react to, possible adverse events. An advisory reference group will comprise student representatives, members of the University Counselling Service and other student welfare staff. Ethics and dissemination Approval has been obtained from Cambridge Psychology Research Ethics Committee (PRE.2015

  16. Drug resistance patterns in pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoharo, H.K.; Shaikh, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the resistance patterns of mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates among category I and II patients of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro, from November 2008 to September 2009. Patients were divided into category I and II. The sputa were collected, stained with Ziehl-Nielsen (Z-N) staining and ultimately inoculated on Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J) media for six weeks. Out of 890 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients, the growth was obtained in 285 cases. The Drug sensitivity testing (DST) for Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RIF), Ethambutol (EMB) Pyrazinamide (PZA) and Streptomycin (SM) were performed. The data was analyzed on SPSS 10.0. A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. Result: Out of 285 cases, 176 (61.75%) were male and 109 (38.24%) female. The mean age was 37 +- 19.90 years. The DST showed drug sensitive and drug resistant isolates in 80 (28.05%) and 205 (71.92%) cases respectively (p=0.001). The drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) rates for individual drugs; INH, RIF, EMB, PZA and SM were 51,22%, 15.4%, 13.33%, 9%12, and 3.85% respectively (p=0.03). The MDR-TB isolates were detected in 120 (42.10%) cases, including 5 (5.88%) in category I and 115 (57.50%) in category II patients (p=0.0001). Conclusion: Drug resistant and multidrug resistant tuberculosis was observed mainly in category II patients. However, primary MDR was also observed in category I patients and reflects dissemination of MDR cases within the community. (author)

  17. The material consumptive: domesticating the tuberculosis patient in Edwardian England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The proliferation of general and specialist hospitals, lunatic asylums, and workhouse infirmaries in the nineteenth century challenged the popular perception of the home as a suitable site of health care. Amidst the emergence of yet another type of institution, the tuberculosis sanatorium, tuberculosis control in the Edwardian period was re-sited and re-scaled to accommodate what might be termed a ‘preventive therapy’ of domestic space. Three interlinked perspectives demonstrate why and how this happened. First, I explore the role of the national and local state in legitimating domestic space as a scale and a site for the regulation of tuberculosis patients and prevention of the disease. Second, I investigate how tuberculosis self-help manuals promoted a technology of the self that was founded largely on the principles of sanatorium therapy but was necessarily reconfigured to reflect the social relations of domestic space. Third, I assess the marketing of consumer goods to the domiciled tuberculosis sufferer through the pages of the British Journal of Tuberculosis. It is suggested that a common tubercular ‘language’ of material consumption was fashioned in order to normalise the accumulation of possessions for use in the home. These arguments are situated in relation to recent historical research on material culture and identity at the turn of the twentieth century, which has stressed the cultivation of individuality and that the right sort of possessions appropriately arranged in domestic space signified well-regulated morality. PMID:24882921

  18. Social Self-Efficacy and Its Relationship with Both Depression and Anxiety, Stress among a Sample of Jadara University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    rababah, Mahdi mohamme saied

    2016-01-01

    Counsellors need to be able to understand students' social self-efficacy, in order to provide them appropriate counselling services. This study investigated social gender self-efficacy differences, and depression, anxiety and stress, and examined the relationship of social self-efficacy to depression, anxiety and stress among a sample of 573…

  19. Radiologic diagnosis of lung tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhuber, E.; Mostbeck, G.; Bankier, A.; Stadler, A.; Rumetshofer, R.

    2007-01-01

    The radiologic knowledge of tuberculosis-associated lung disease is an essential tool in the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis. Chest radiography is the primary imaging method, but the importance of CT is still increasing, as CT is more sensitive in the detection of cavitation, of hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathie, of endobronchial spread and of complications in the course of the disease. In addition, CT has been proven as a valuable technique in the assessment of tuberculosis activity, especially in patients where M. tuberculosis has not been detected in the sputum or in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Depending on the immune status of the patient, the morphologic spectrum of tuberculosis is quite variable. Early diagnosis of tuberculosis is essential to prevent further spread of the disease. (orig.) [de

  20. Designing and Evaluating Interventions to Halt the Transmission of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, David W; Grant, Alison D; Dheda, Keertan; Nardell, Edward; Fielding, Katherine; Moore, David A J

    2017-11-03

    To reduce the incidence of tuberculosis, it is insufficient to simply understand the dynamics of tuberculosis transmission. Rather, we must design and rigorously evaluate interventions to halt transmission, prioritizing those interventions most likely to achieve population-level impact. Synergy in reducing tuberculosis transmission may be attainable by combining interventions that shrink the reservoir of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (preventive therapy), shorten the time between disease onset and treatment initiation (case finding and diagnosis), and prevent transmission in key settings, such as the built environment (infection control). In evaluating efficacy and estimating population-level impact, cluster-randomized trials and mechanistic models play particularly prominent roles. Historical and contemporary evidence suggests that effective public health interventions can halt tuberculosis transmission, but an evidence-based approach based on knowledge of local epidemiology is necessary for success. We provide a roadmap for designing, evaluating, and modeling interventions to interrupt the process of transmission that fuels a diverse array of tuberculosis epidemics worldwide. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of universal stress protein F (YnaF) from Salmonella typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagurthi, Someswar Rao; Panigrahi, Rashmi Rekha; Gowda, Giri [Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Savithri, H. S. [Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Murthy, M. R. N., E-mail: mrn@mbu.iisc.ernet.in [Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2007-11-01

    The cloning, purification and crystallization of YnaF from S. typhimurium are reported along with preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies. The universal stress protein UspF (YnaF) is a small cytoplasmic bacterial protein. The expression of stress proteins is enhanced when cells are exposed to heat shock, nutrition starvation and certain other stress-inducing agents. YnaF promotes cell survival during prolonged exposure to stress and may activate a general mechanism for stress endurance. This manuscript reports preliminary crystallographic studies on YnaF from Salmonella typhimurium. The gene coding for YnaF was cloned and overexpressed and the protein was purified by Ni–NTA affinity chromatography. Purified YnaF was crystallized using vapour-diffusion and microbatch methods. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.51, b = 77.18, c = 56.34 Å, β = 101.8°. A data set was collected to 2.5 Å resolution with 94.6% completeness using an image-plate detector system mounted on a rotating-anode X-ray generator. Attempts to determine the structure are in progress.

  2. XV Conferencia : Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Varón Rico

    1958-05-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis se puede evitar en el niño en varias formas: en primer lugar se puede hacer una profilaxis que se llama de disposición, o sea, como la consideran los autores alemanes, mediante las prácticas de una puericultura bien realizada, ojalá en todas las clases sociales, su nutrición, sus hábitos higiénicos y dietéticos correctos, se va levantando por medio de ello resistencia no sólo a la tuberculosis sino a todas las enfermedades.

  3. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  4. Tuberculosis-Related Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aftab, Huma; Christensen, Dirk L.; Ambreen, Atiqa

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) were screened for diabetes (DM) with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in Pakistan. A significant decrease in FPG was observed when TB was treated. Of those with newly diagnosed DM, 46% and 62% no longer had hyperglycemia after 3 and 6 months, respect......Individuals with newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) were screened for diabetes (DM) with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in Pakistan. A significant decrease in FPG was observed when TB was treated. Of those with newly diagnosed DM, 46% and 62% no longer had hyperglycemia after 3 and 6 months...

  5. Tuberculosis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tania A

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death worldwide from a single bacterial pathogen. The World Health Organization estimates that annually 1 million children have tuberculosis (TB) disease and many more harbor a latent form. Accurate estimates are hindered by under-recognition and challenges in diagnosis. To date, an accurate diagnostic test to confirm TB in children does not exist. Treatment is lengthy but outcomes are generally favorable with timely initiation. With the End TB Strategy, there is an urgent need for improved diagnostics and treatment to prevent the unnecessary morbidity and mortality from TB in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Internet Addiction and Relationships with Insomnia, Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Self-Esteem in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Younes

    Full Text Available Internet addiction (IA could be a major concern in university medical students aiming to develop into health professionals. The implications of this addiction as well as its association with sleep, mood disorders and self-esteem can hinder their studies, impact their long-term career goals and have wide and detrimental consequences for society as a whole. The objectives of this study were to: 1 Assess potential IA in university medical students, as well as factors associated with it; 2 Assess the relationships between potential IA, insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem.Our study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 600 students of three faculties: medicine, dentistry and pharmacy at Saint-Joseph University. Four validated and reliable questionnaires were used: the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21, and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES.The average YIAT score was 30 ± 18.474; Potential IA prevalence rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 13.81-19.79% and it was significantly different between males and females (p-value = 0.003, with a higher prevalence in males (23.6% versus 13.9%. Significant correlations were found between potential IA and insomnia, stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem (p-value < 0.001; ISI and DASS sub-scores were higher and self-esteem lower in students with potential IA.Identifying students with potential IA is important because this addiction often coexists with other psychological problems. Therefore, interventions should include not only IA management but also associated psychosocial stressors such as insomnia, anxiety, depression, stress, and self-esteem.

  7. Internet Addiction and Relationships with Insomnia, Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Self-Esteem in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Karam, Latife; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Internet addiction (IA) could be a major concern in university medical students aiming to develop into health professionals. The implications of this addiction as well as its association with sleep, mood disorders and self-esteem can hinder their studies, impact their long-term career goals and have wide and detrimental consequences for society as a whole. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Assess potential IA in university medical students, as well as factors associated with it; 2) Assess the relationships between potential IA, insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem. Methods Our study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 600 students of three faculties: medicine, dentistry and pharmacy at Saint-Joseph University. Four validated and reliable questionnaires were used: the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21), and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Results The average YIAT score was 30 ± 18.474; Potential IA prevalence rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 13.81–19.79%) and it was significantly different between males and females (p-value = 0.003), with a higher prevalence in males (23.6% versus 13.9%). Significant correlations were found between potential IA and insomnia, stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem (p-value important because this addiction often coexists with other psychological problems. Therefore, interventions should include not only IA management but also associated psychosocial stressors such as insomnia, anxiety, depression, stress, and self-esteem. PMID:27618306

  8. Unusual radiological findings of adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Lee, Jong Beum; Kim, Sue Hyun

    1987-01-01

    Usual chest radiographic findings in pulmonary tuberculosis are well described in radiologic literatures for both primary and postprimary phases of disease. During the last decade, many authors have enumerated the unusual manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in adult population. These unusual findings usually have been involved in the frequent failure of both radiologist and clinician to recognize that tuberculosis could be the cause of a abnormal chest radiograph in patients who are finally and surprisingly proven to have tuberculosis. Authors have evaluated 249 patients who were admitted and newly proven to have adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis at Chung-Ang University Hospital from January, 1985 to December, 1986. Unusual findings were noted in 76 (30.5%) of the 249 patients with adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis. These unusual findings most frequently could be seen in 3rd decades and showed no sex difference in incidence. A broad spectrum of abnormal findings including usual and unusual abnormalities were procedure by adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis. The unusual radiographic findings were arbitrarily classified. Pleural effusion without parenchymal disease (10.0%), unusual location of infiltrate (5.6%) and atelectasis (3.2%) were relatively common. Hilar and / or mediastinal lymphnode enlargement (1.6%), cavity without parenchymal infiltrates (1.6%), septic lung-like infiltrates (1.6%), completely clear lungs (1.2%), miliary infiltrates (1.2%), fibrocalcific scar-like infiltrates (1.2%), masslike density (1.2%) and rheumatoid lung-like infiltrates (1.2%) were occasionally noted. Pneumothorax without parenchymal disease (0.4%) and bron chocutaneous fistula (0.4%) are. The recognition of these unusual findings could further improve the detection and diagnosis of adult-onset pulmonary tuberculosis

  9. Prevalence of mycobacterium tuberculosis among professionals in a university hospital, Mato Grosso do Sul, 2004 Existencia de la infección tuberculosis entre profesionales de un hospital universitario en Mato Grosso do Sur, 2004 Prevalência da infecção tuberculosa entre profissionais de um hospital universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated an elevated prevalence amongst professionals of mycobacterium tuberculosis, both in the rate of infections and illness. This study was carried out in a School Hospital in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil, aiming to establish the prevalence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results of the analysis of 194 subjects showed an overall positivity for the tuberculin test of 38.7%. There was a correlation with smoking (p=0.01, RP=1. 72 (1.20-2.45- Yates's correction. The conclusion is that the establishment of a program of tuberculin screening jointly with the implementation of interventions is necessary in order to reduce the risk of nosocomial transmission.Varios estudios han demostrado la alta prevalencia de infección tuberculosis, y también de la propia enfermedad, entre los profesionales de salud. Este estudio, realizado en un Hospital Universitario ubicado en la ciudad de Campo Grande-MS, tuvo como objetivo conocer la existencia de la infección causada por el Mycobacterium tuberculosis. En el análisis de 194 personas, fue encontrada la existencia de la prueba tuberculinilla del 38,7%. Fue observada una asociación con el tabaquismo (p 0,01, y RP 1,72 (1,20-2,45 corregido por yates. Concluimos que es necesario un programa de selección tuberculinilla de rutina para acompañar el viraje tuberculínico, junto a intervenciones para reducir el riesgo de transmisión nosocomial.Vários estudos têm demonstrado prevalência elevada de infecção tuberculosa, tanto quanto de adoecimento, entre os profissionais de saúde. Este estudo, realizado em um Hospital Universitário, situado na cidade de Campo Grande, MS, teve como objetivo conhecer a prevalência de infecção pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis entre esses profissionais. Na análise de 194 indivíduos, encontrou-se prevalência global de positividade da prova tuberculínica de 38,7%. Observou-se associação com o tabagismo (p 0,01, e RP 1,72 (1

  10. The effects of adult attachment and life stress on daily depression: a sample of Japanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingbo; Nagata, Toshiaki; Shono, Masahiro; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the relationship among adult attachment style, life stress, and daily depression, a sample of 437 undergraduate students was prospectively studied. Insecure adult attachment and perceived life stress were related to their daily depressive mood. Further analyses using both multiple hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM) demonstrated that adult attachment style and perceived life stress independently predicted depression and had no interactive effects on daily depression. The impact of adult attachment on depression was not contingent upon the presence of life stress and securely attached participants were less impacted by depression than insecurely attached ones. These results suggest that adult attachment can play an important role in mental health intervention and may be helpful when it comes to preventing and treating depression.

  11. "Writing Wasn't Really Stressed, Accurate Historical Analysis Was Stressed": Student Perceptions of In-Class Writing in the Inverted, General Education, University History Survey Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Taking introductory history courses and writing analytical essays are not the favorite activities of most first-year university students. Undergraduates, seemingly, would rather enroll in classes that pertain only to their majors or job-preparation regimen. If forced to take General Education Program (GEP) courses, students typically favor those…

  12. AIDS-related tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G Pacheco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We studied the incidence of tuberculosis, AIDS, AIDS deaths and AIDS-TB co-infection at the population level in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil where universal and free access to combination antiretroviral therapy has been available since 1997. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a retrospective surveillance database match of Rio de Janeiro databases from 1995-2004. Proportions of tuberculosis occurring within 30 days and between 30 days and 1 year after AIDS diagnosis were determined. Generalized additive models fitted with cubic splines with appropriate estimating methods were used to describe rates and proportions over time. Overall, 90,806 tuberculosis cases and 16,891 AIDS cases were reported; 3,125 tuberculosis cases within 1 year of AIDS diagnosis were detected. Tuberculosis notification rates decreased after 1997 from a fitted rate (fR per 100,000 of 166.5 to 138.8 in 2004. AIDS incidence rates increased 26% between 1995 and 1998 (30.7 to 38.7 followed by a 33.3% decrease to 25.8 in 2004. AIDS mortality rates decreased dramatically after antiretroviral therapy was introduced between 1995 (27.5 and 1999 (13.4. The fitted proportion (fP of patients with tuberculosis diagnosed within one year of AIDS decreased from 1995 (24.4% to 1998 (15.2%, remaining stable since. Seventy-five percent of tuberculosis diagnoses after an AIDS diagnosis occurred within 30 days of AIDS diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that while combination ART should be considered an essential component of the response to the HIV and HIV/tuberculosis epidemics, it may not be sufficient alone to prevent progression from latent TB to active disease among HIV-infected populations. When tuberculosis is diagnosed prior to or at the same time as AIDS and ART has not yet been initiated, then ART is ineffective as a tuberculosis prevention strategy for these patients. Earlier HIV/AIDS diagnosis and ART initiation may reduce TB incidence in HIV

  13. [Tuberculosis in Iceland. 1976].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur

    2005-01-01

    Because of signs of tuberculous lesions in old skeletons it can be stated with certainty that tuberculosis has occurred in the country shortly after the settlement. From that time and up to the seventeenth century, little or nothing is known about the occurrence of the disease. A few preserved descriptions of diseases and deaths indicate that tuberculosis has existed in the country before the advent of qualified physicians in 1760. On the basis of papers and reports from the first physicians and the first tuberculosis registers the opinions is set forth that the disease has been rare up to the latter part of the nineteenth century. During the two last decades of that century the disease began to spread more rapidly and increased steadily up to the turn of the century. Although reporting of the disease was started in the last decade of the nineteenth century the reporting was first ordered by law with the passage of the first tuberculosis Act in the year 1903. With this legislation official measures for tuberculosis control work really started in the country. The first sanatorium was built in 1910. In 1921 the tuberculosis Act was revised and since then practically all the expenses for the hospitalization and treatment of tuberculous cases has been defrayed by the state. In the year 1935 organized tuberculosis control work was begun and a special physician appointed to direct it. From then on systematic surveys were made, partly in health centers i.e. tuberculosis clinics, which were established in the main towns, and partly by means of transportable X ray units in outlying rural areas of the country. In 1939 the tuberculosis Act was again revised with special reference to the surveys and the activities of the tuberculosis clinics. This act is still in force. Some items of it are described. The procedure of the surveys and the methods of examination are described. The great majority of subjects were tuberculin tested and all positive reactors X rayed. Furthermore, X

  14. Tuberculosis case finding in first-degree relative contacts not living with index tuberculosis cases in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chheng P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Phalkun Chheng,1,2 Mary Nsereko,2 LaShaunda L Malone,2 Brenda Okware,2 Sarah Zalwango,2 Moses Joloba,2,3 W Henry Boom,2 Ezekiel Mupere,1,2,4 Catherine M Stein1,2 On behalf of the Tuberculosis Research Unit 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Uganda-Case Western Reserve University Research Collaboration, 3Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 4Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Purpose: To assess the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among first-degree relative (FDR contacts not living with tuberculosis (TB cases. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of household contacts living with an index TB case and FDR contacts living outside of households in Kampala, Uganda, is presented. Results: A total of 177 contacts (52 FDRs and 125 index household contacts of 31 TB cases were examined. Compared with index household contacts, FDR contacts were older, more likely to be TB symptomatic (50% vs 33%, had a higher percentage of abnormal chest X-rays (19% vs 11%, sputum smear positive (15% vs 5%, and many similar epidemiologic risk factors, including HIV infection (13% vs 10%. Contact groups had similar pulmonary tuberculosis prevalence: 9.6% in FDR vs 10.4% in index household contacts and similar Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: 62% in FDR vs 61% in index households. Conclusion: TB is common among FDR contacts. High TB prevalence justifies targeting FDRs during household contact investigations. Combining TB active-case finding among FDR contacts with household contact investigation in low-income setting is feasible. This should be part of national TB control program strategies for increasing TB case-detection rates and reducing community TB transmission and death. Keywords: prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis, limited resource setting, contact tracing

  15. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  16. La tuberculosis pulmonar

    OpenAIRE

    Suñé Ysamat, Bertila

    1982-01-01

    La tuberculosis pulmonar todavía no es una enfermedad erradicada, aunque su incidencia ha disminuido considerablemente. El tratamiento y el pronóstico de esta enfermedad han dado un cambio profundo durante estos últimos 30 años con el descubrimiento de nuevos medicamentos antituberculosos.

  17. Cutaneous tuberculosis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalek, R; Mebazaa, A; Berriche, A; Kilani, B; Ben Osman, A; Mokni, M; Tiouiri Benaissa, H

    2013-09-01

    Tuberculosis is endemic in Tunisia. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common presentation in our country. Cutaneous presentations are rare (1-2% of cases). The diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis (CT) is difficult. Histological and clinical presentations are polymorphous, many differential diagnoses are available, and it is difficult to isolate Mycobacterium. We had for aim to study the epidemiological and clinical features of CT in Tunisia, and to compare presentations before and after 1990. We conducted a retrospective study between January 1991 and December 2011, in which we included all cases of CT observed at the Infectious Diseases and Dermatology Units of the Tunis la Rabta Hospital. Hundred and thirty-seven patients were included, with a mean age of 43.8years; 72.3% were female patients. Hundred and fifty locations were observed, most of which on the head and neck. Scrofuloderma was the most frequent presentation, observed in 65% of cases. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology and/or microbiology in 75.8% of cases. The treatment was prescribed for a mean 11.3months, leading to full recovery in most cases. CT is still reported in Tunisia. The diagnosis relies mainly on histology. Controlling this mutilating tuberculosis requires a global control of this disease, and especially lymph node location, given the high rate of scrofuloderma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Tuberculosis in African lions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lions (Panthera leo) are susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection, resulting in bovine tuberculosis (BTB). This chronic, debilitating disease can affect multiple organs, particularly the lungs, and may ultimately lead to death of the infected animal. Cases of lion BTB have been

  19. Tuberculosis and anorexia nervosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recently our experience in the Eating Disorders Unit at Tara, where three patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were only diagnosed after admission for treatment of anorexia nervosa.· It appears that despite the presence of a persistent dry cough in each case, no investigation was undertaken. Did demographic stereotyping ...

  20. TUBERCULOSIS IN ORTHOPAEDICS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.M. Kamau, MBChB, MMed (Orth. Surg), UON,. Menelik Medical Centre, P.O. Box 55164-00200,. Nairobi, Kenya. Email: drkamaudm@gmail.com. REFERENCES. 1. Spiegel, D.A., Singh, G.K. and Banskota, A.K.. Tuberculosis of the musculoskeletal system. Tech. Orthopaed. 2005; 20:167-178. 2. WHO. Fact Sheet 104.

  1. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  3. Safety assessment in primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Safety assessment in primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear microscopy centres in Blantyre. Malawi: a facility based cross sectional survey. ABSTRACT. Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is.

  4. Consumption of nutrients with antioxidant action and its relationship with lipid profile and oxidative stress in student users of a university restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sueli Maria Teixeira; Almondes, Kaluce Gonçalves De Sousa; Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; Aguiar, Heila Dias de Sousa Pinho; Revoredo, Camila Maria Simplício; Slater, Betzabeth; Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Marreiro, Dilina Do Nascimento; Nogueira, Nadir Do Nascimento

    2017-07-28

    The relationship between diet and health has aroused scientific interest, especially the consumption of antioxidant nutrients naturally present in foods, because of its action against the deleterious effects of free radicals in the body. This study aimed to estimate the intake of antioxidant nutrients and its relationship with lipid profile and oxidative stress in student users of a university restaurant in comparison with non-users. This cross-sectional study involved 145 university students divided into two groups: users of the university restaurant (group 1, n = 73) and non-users (group 2, n = 72). We measured body mass index and waist circumference, and estimated the intake of antioxidant micronutrients. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, and plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde were determined. Intake of copper, zinc, selenium, and vitamin C were within the recommendations in both groups, and vitamins A and E were below the reference values. There was a correlation between the intake of vitamin C and triglycerides. Group 1 members had better dietary patterns in relation to antioxidant micronutrients, reflecting less atherogenic lipid profile and lower exposure to oxidative stress compared to group 2.

  5. Cost of Care Among Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health challenge. Currently it is the 7th leading cause of death worldwide, and Nigeria ranks fourth amongst 22 high-burden countries for the disease. This study sought to appraise the direct and indirect costs borne by TB patients attending the Chest Clinics at the Lagos State University ...

  6. Miliary tuberculosis after in vitro fertilization and embryo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miliary tuberculosis after in vitro fertilization and embryo transplantation. Hongbo Liu, Li Zhao. Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang,. Liaoning China. 110004. Abstract. Background: With the development of assisted reproductive technology, more patients with ...

  7. Effect Of Pulmonary Tuberculosis On Haemostatic Properties Of Blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 100 subjects were used in this study consisted of 40 known pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) (17 male and 23 female) patients attending the out-patient clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital, Benin City with 10 newly diagnosed PTB patients, as well as fifty apparently healthy (17 male ...

  8. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-17

    Jan 17, 2018 ... review assessing the effects of oral nutritional supplements in people with active tuberculosis who are receiving antituberculosis drug therapy. The review ... 2 Cochrane Nutrition, hosted jointly by the Centre for Evidence-Based Health Care, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch. University ...

  9. [Cross-sectional study of the variability of work-related stress among post-graduate medical residents at the main University Polyclinic of Sicily].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Claudio; Albeggiani, Valentina; Bonfante, Maria Stefania; Monte, Caterina; Lo Cascio, Nunzio; Mazzucco, Walter

    2015-02-10

    Among health care workers (HCWs), work-related stress is one of the main topics in risk assessment and prevention at the workplace. Post-graduate medical residents (MRs) are a group of HCWs comparable to medical doctors in terms of occupational exposure and occurrence of work-related stress syndromes. Risk assessment of work-related stress among MRs attending the major University Hospital of Sicily. A cross-sectional survey via an anonymous and self-administered questionnaire. 45% of clinical MRs and 37% of surgical MRs had access to compensatory rest days against 92% of MRs of the services area (p<0.001). A work attendance recording system for MRs was available in 80% of the postgraduate medical schools of the services area, in 60% of the clinical postgraduate schools and in 50% of the surgical postgraduate schools (p<0.001). MRs of the postgraduate surgical schools reported having access to work breaks (41%) with less frequency compared to clinical (60%) and services MRs (74%) (p<0.001). Both clinical (47%) and surgical MRs (47%) were more exposed to work-related stress than MRs of the services area (27%) (p<0.001). The survey demonstrated excess exposure to work-related stress for all the considered variables in MRs of the surgical area, compared with MRs of clinical and services areas. It is strongly recommended to provide specific training programmes aimed at managing the MRs' risk of exposure to work-related stress, focusing both on the workers and the work environment.

  10. Big Five Personality Traits and the General Factor of Personality as Moderators of Stress and Coping Reactions Following an Emergency Alarm on a Swiss University Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; van der Linden, Dimitri; Bohleber, Laura; von Wyl, Agnes

    2017-02-01

    We conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64 years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the emergency eventually turned out to be a false alarm, various witnesses showed pronounced distress owing to a vast police operation. The GFP structure was replicated using two alternative modelling approaches. Neuroticism related substantially to acute fear and traumatic distress as well as to more enduring maladaptive coping. Agreeableness was negatively associated with the coping strategy of medication use, whereas both agreeableness and conscientiousness related positively to social activity following the emergency. The GFP related moderately to peri-traumatic distress and showed a substantial negative association with medication use and a strong positive association with social activity. In conclusion, both the GFP and Big Five traits significantly moderate stress responses following a stressful life event. The GFP predominantly relates to socially adaptive coping, whereas in particular neuroticism accounts for acute stress reactions such as fear and traumatic distress. These findings support the notion that personality influences how persons react in the face of adversity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Medium and copy number effects on the secretion of human proinsulin in Escherichia coli using the universal stress promoters uspA and uspB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergulhão, F J M; Monteiro, G A; Larsson, G; Sandén, A M; Farewell, A; Nystrom, T; Cabral, J M S; Taipa, M A

    2003-06-01

    The use of the uspA and uspB promoters (universal stress promoters) for heterologous protein production in Escherichia coli is described. Best results were obtained with a moderate copy number vector (15-60 copies) bearing the uspA promoter, reaching 4.6 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) of ZZ-proinsulin secreted to the periplasm and 1.9 mg/g DCW secreted to the culture medium. These values are about 1.7-fold higher than those previously reported with the same ZZ fusion tag and the SpA leader peptide showing that these stress promoters are potentially valuable for recombinant protein secretion in E. coli. It is further demonstrated that the use of M9 minimal medium is advantageous for protein secretion as compared to LB rich medium.

  12. Radiographic differentiation of atypical tuberculosis from mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarver, R.D.; Pearcy, E.A.; Conces, D.J. Jr.; Mathur, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    The chest radiographs of 95 patients with the new diagnosis of atypical turberculosis were reviewed to determine if any significant differences between atypical tuberculosis and that caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis could be discerned. Findings included upper lobe involvement in B4 of the 95 patients and cavities in 76, with nearly equal groups having no, moderate, or extensive surrounding alveolar disease. Nodules were common; in six patients a nodule was the sole manifestation of disease. Adenopathy was seen in 12 of the 95 patients, atlectasis in 45, pleural thickening in 90, and effusions in three. These radiographic findings did not allow the radiographic differentiation of atypical tuberculosis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

  13. Time Management and Its Relation To Students’ Stress, Gender and Academic Achievement Among Sample of Students at Al Ain University of Science and Technology, UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Saleh Al Khatib

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between time management, perceived stress, gender and academic achievement among United Arab Emirates college students. The respondents were 352 college students from Al Ain University of Science and Technology. The sample was stratified by sex. Among the respondents, 52.5% were female students and 47.5% were male students. The mean age of the sample was 23.4 years ranging from 18 to 39. Time management was measured by Tim...

  14. Radiologic analysis of the spinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Sang; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun

    1986-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains high incidental disease in Korea with an estimated incidence of 2.5% in general population. Among the tuberculosis of bone, spinal tuberculous is high incidence and curable disease, but early treatment demands early diagnosis. Authors reviewed clinical aspects of 376 cases, and reviewed conventional films of 74 cases and computed tomography of 8 cases, confirmed histopathologically as spinal tuberculosis from Jan. 1976 to May 1985 at Yonsei medical center, Yonsei University. The results were as follows: 1. The frequent site of involvement were lower thoracic and lumbar vertebra, 4th lumbar vertebra was the most common lesion site among them. 2. The separated lesions were 10.2% among spinal lesion. 3. The most common type and pattern of bone density was intervertebral type and mixed pattern each other. 4. Paravertebral abscess, kyphosis and narrowing of intervertebral disc space were discovered more than 80% in reviewed conventional films. 5. In children, there is no predilection site. 6. Spinal computed tomography was more accurate diagnostic method than conventional study in the evaluation of following aspects; 1) extent of lesion 2) degree of spinal canal involvement 3) change of surrounding organ

  15. Changing patterns in pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tytle, T.L.; Johnson, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors reviewed the initial chest roentgenograms of 182 consecutive adult patients with proven active tuberculosis. Less than 50% of all cases were known or suspected at the time of initial presentation. There is a low degree of correlation between radiologically discernible active pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. A high percentage of cases represent uncommon pulmonary locations. The frequency of occurrence of four common pulmonary patterns is presented. 21 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  16. [Treatment of tuberculosis. Current standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaberg, T

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of drug-sensitive tuberculosis consists of 2 months of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, followed by 4 months of isoniazid and rifampin. These drugs are well tolerated and cure rate are above 95 %. In contrast the treatment of drug-resistent tuberculosis is difficult, mostly due to side effects of the drugs used under these circumstances. Therefore, any treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis has to be done by experts.

  17. Greater Trochanter Tuberculosis : MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Youssef Alaoui Lamrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis has been reported in almost all bones of body. The great trochanter tuberculosis (GTT installation is insidious and clinical symptoms are often vague with moderate painful swelling and stiffness. GTT is about 0,2 to 2% of all osteo-articular tuberculosis, occurring most commonly by hematogenous seeding secondary to primary focus elsewhere, more commonly in the lungs. Isolated GTT is unusual and thus its awareness is slow and diagnosis is often delayed.

  18. Pulmonary tuberculosis specificities in smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Rhanim Aziza; Hammi Sanae; Kouismi Hatim; Jamal Eddine Bourkadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking and tuberculosis are two major challenges in public health system. The aim of our study is to identify the impact of smoking on clinical, radiological manifestations and evolutive pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This retrospective case–control study examined the files of 104 patients. The patients monitored for pulmonary tuberculosis were divided into 2 groups. We studied the clinical and radiological profile, and evolution in both groups. Results: 104 patients were...

  19. Protocol for the Mindful Student Study: a randomised controlled trial of the provision of a mindfulness intervention to support university students' well-being and resilience to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Julieta; Dufour, Geraldine; Benton, Alice; Howarth, Emma; Vainre, Maris; Croudace, Timothy J; Wagner, Adam P; Stochl, Jan; Jones, Peter B

    2016-11-09

    Levels of stress in UK university students are high, with an increase in the proportion of students seeking help in recent years. Academic pressure is reported as a major trigger. Mindfulness training has been shown to reduce stress and is popular among students, but its effectiveness in this context needs to be ascertained. In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we hypothesise that the provision of a preventative mindfulness intervention in universities could reduce students' psychological distress during the examination period (primary outcome), improve their resilience to stress up to at least 1 year later, reduce their use of mental health support services and improve academic performance. At least 550 University of Cambridge students free from active crises or severe mental illness will be randomised to joining an 8-week mindfulness course or to mental health provision as usual (one-to-one allocation rate). Psychological distress will be measured using the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure at baseline, postintervention, examination term and 1-year follow-up. Other outcomes are use of mental health services, inability to sit examinations or special circumstance requests, examination grades, well-being, altruism and coping measured with ecological momentary assessment. Outcome assessment and intention-to-treat primary analysis using linear mixed models adjusted for baseline scores will be blind to intervention allocation. We will also conduct per-protocol, subgroup and secondary outcome analyses. An Independent Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee will be set up. We will systematically monitor for, and react to, possible adverse events. An advisory reference group will comprise student representatives, members of the University Counselling Service and other student welfare staff. Approval has been obtained from Cambridge Psychology Research Ethics Committee (PRE.2015.060). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals. A lay

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Sri Lankan University Students as a Consequence of Their Exposure to Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Tishby, Orya; de Zoysa, Piyanjali

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study on the association between exposure to family violence (i.e., witnessing interparental violence and experiencing parental violence) during childhood and adolescence and adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study was conducted among a self-selected convenience sample of 476 students from Sri…

  1. The Effect of Stress on Self-Reported Academic Performance Measures among Hispanic Undergraduate Students at Arizona State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the impact of stress on the academic performance of Hispanic undergraduate students is limited, leaving institutions of higher education without needed information about how to better support this growing population of students. The purpose of this study was to identify stressors that have a negative impact on academic performance of…

  2. Extrapulmonary involvement in pediatric tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Andres, Mariaem M; Tatco, Vincent R; Lim, Cielo Consuelo Q; Concepcion, Nathan David P

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis in childhood is clinically challenging, but it is a preventable and treatable disease. Risk factors depend on age and immunity status. The most common form of pediatric tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, which comprises more than half of the cases. Other forms make up the extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves infection of the lymph nodes, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, hepatobiliary tree, and renal and musculoskeletal systems. Knowledge of the imaging characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis provides clues to diagnosis. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common sites for extrapulmonary tuberculous involvement in children.

  3. Tuberculosis in camelids: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, U; Kinne, J

    2012-12-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic, contagious, granulomatous disease caused by mycobacterial species belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Camelids were not considered highly susceptible to tuberculosis, but in recent years increased numbers of cases have been experienced in some countries. In most of the cases, transmission probably occurs through contact with infected cattle or wildlife. None of the ante-mortem tests currently available can consistently provide accurate diagnosis of the infection in live camelids. Recently developed serological assays have the potential for rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis but still need to be validated.

  4. Density equalizing mapping of the global tuberculosis research architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groneberg, David A; Weber, Esther; Gerber, Alexander; Fischer, Axel; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Brueggmann, Doerthe

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis belongs to the lung infectious diseases with the highest impact on global burden of disease. Yet there is no concise scientometric study about tuberculosis research. Therefore, the NewQiS project elected this subject as focus of an in depth analysis to perform density equalizing mapping in combination with scientometrics. In this retrospective study all publications related to tuberculosis research listed in the Web of Science database between 1900 and 2012 were identified, analyzed and submitted to density equalizing mapping procedures. In total 58,319 entries on TBC were identified with the USA being the most productive country with 11,788 publications, followed by the United Kingdom (4202), India (3456), France (2541), South Africa (1840), Germany (1747) and China (1427). Concerning the citations rate Denmark leads with 43.7 citations per article, followed by Latvia (39.1), Gambia (38.3), Senegal (34.9), and the Netherlands (31.4). Chart techniques demonstrates a widely ramified international network with a focus the joint work of USA, the UK and South Africa. This is the first density equalizing and scientometric study that addresses tuberculosis research over a period of 112 years. It illustrates global tuberculosis research architecture and stresses the need for strengthening global research efforts and funding program. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposed, but Not Protected: More Is Needed to Prevent Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Healthcare Workers and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Delft, Arne; Dramowski, Angela; Sifumba, Zolelwa; Mosidi, Thato; Xun Ting, Tiong; von Delft, Dalene; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2016-05-15

    "Occupational MDR-TB"  …  "XDR-TB"  …  "Treatment-induced hearing loss": 3 life-changing messages imparted over the phone. Three personal accounts are shared highlighting the false belief held by many healthcare workers (HCWs) and students in low-resource settings-that they are immune to tuberculosis despite high levels of occupational tuberculosis exposure. This misconception reflects a lack of awareness of tuberculosis transmission and disease risk, compounded by the absence of accurate occupational tuberculosis estimates. As the global problem of drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis evolves, HCWs are increasingly infected and suffer considerable morbidity and mortality from occupational DR tuberculosis disease. Similarly, healthcare students are emerging as a vulnerable and unprotected group. There is an urgent need for improved detection, vaccines, preventive therapy, treatment, and support for affected HCWs and those they care for, as well as destigmatization of all forms of tuberculosis. Finally, efforts to protect HCWs and prevent DR tuberculosis transmission by universal implementation of tuberculosis infection control measures should be prioritized. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Tuberculosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnyani, C N; McIntyre, J A

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important infection in women globally. It is responsible for 700 000 deaths annually and is a major contributor to maternal mortality. Mycobacterium tuberculosis/HIV co-infection is common in areas of high HIV prevalence, and may be associated with significant perinatal and maternal morbidity. Improved diagnosis and treatment of TB in pregnant women are important interventions for both maternal and child health. Controlling TB in pregnancy in high-prevalence areas requires a range of interventions, including active TB screening in pregnant women, TB preventative therapy for HIV-infected pregnant women, treatment of active TB and linking mothers and children to TB care services. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © RCOG 2010 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

  7. Tuberculosis ganglionar cervical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmany Leonel Mendoza Cruz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis es una enfermedad reemergente en la actual sociedad globalizada y puede presentarse prácticamente ante cualquier especialista. Las formas extrapulmonares pueden representar hasta la cuarta parte de los casos, y entre ellos la afectación ganglionar se ubica entre las más frecuentes. Se reportan dos pacientes estudiados y tratados en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital General de Bata, Litoral de Guinea Ecuatorial, África Central, afectados por tumoraciones laterocervicales subagudas, con escasos síntomas y excelente evolución, tras su diagnóstico de tuberculosis ganglionar cervical y terapéutica antibiótica. Aunque la punción y aspiración con aguja fina no fue concluyente, ambos casos resultaron positivos por medio de la tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen

  8. Stress-Management Strategies among First-Year Students at a South African University: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Henry D.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study that explored the use of coping strategies among first-year students in managing academic-related stressors. Qualitative data were collected using a non-probability and purposive sample. A total of 225 first-year students who were registered at a South African university participated in the study by…

  9. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-28

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.  Created: 10/28/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/28/2008.

  10. Primary prostatic tuberculosis: A rare form of genitourinary tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.M. Ratkal

    HOSTED BY. Pan African Urological Surgeons' Association. African Journal of Urology www.ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Case report. Primary prostatic tuberculosis: A rare form of genitourinary tuberculosis. J.M. Ratkal. KIMS, Hubli, India. Received 6 August 2014; received in revised form 28 August 2014 ...

  11. Host immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and risk of tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Sascha Wilk; Soborg, Bolette; Agger, Else-Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immune responses to latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection (LTBI) may enable individuals to control Mtb infection and halt progression to tuberculosis (TB), a hypothesis applied in several novel TB vaccines. We aimed to evaluate whether immune responses to selected LTBI...

  12. Tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional Tuberculosis as occupational disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mendoza-Ticona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto.There is enough evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among healthcare workers. In Peru, there are regulations granting employment rights regarding tuberculosis as an occupational disease, such as healthcare coverage for temporary or permanent disability. However, these rights have not been sufficiently socialized. This study presents information on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis in the workplace, and a review of the evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among health care workers, presenting the current Peruvian law related.

  13. Targeting phenotypically tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ben; Nathan, Carl

    2016-01-01

    While the immune system is credited with averting tuberculosis in billions of individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune system is also culpable for tempering the ability of antibiotics to deliver swift and durable cure of disease. In individuals afflicted with tuberculosis, host immunity produces diverse microenvironmental niches that support suboptimal growth, or complete growth arrest, of M. tuberculosis. The physiological state of nonreplication in bacteria is associated with phenotypic drug tolerance. Many of these host microenvironments, when modeled in vitro by carbon starvation, complete nutrient starvation, stationary phase, acidic pH, reactive nitrogen intermediates, hypoxia, biofilms, and withholding streptomycin from the streptomycin-addicted strain SS18b, render M. tuberculosis profoundly tolerant to many of the antibiotics that are given to tuberculosis patients in a clinical setting. Targeting nonreplicating persisters is anticipated to reduce the duration of antibiotic treatment and rate of post-treatment relapse. Some promising drugs to treat tuberculosis, such as rifampicin and bedaquiline, only kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis in vitro at concentrations far greater than their minimal inhibitory concentrations against replicating bacilli. There is an urgent demand to identify which of the currently used antibiotics, and which of the molecules in academic and corporate screening collections, have potent bactericidal action on nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. With this goal, we review methods of high throughput screening to target nonreplicating M. tuberculosis and methods to progress candidate molecules. A classification based on structures and putative targets of molecules that have been reported to kill nonreplicating M. tuberculosis revealed a rich diversity in pharmacophores. However, few of these compounds were tested under conditions that would exclude the impact of adsorbed compound acting during the recovery phase of

  14. [Tuberculosis and immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Coronas, Joaquín; Rogado-González, M Cruz; Lozano-Serrano, Ana Belén; Cabezas-Fernández, M Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis worldwide is declining. However, in Western countries this decline is slower due to the impact of immigration. Tuberculosis in the immigrant population is related to health status in the country of origin and with overcrowding and poverty conditions in the host country. Immigrants with tuberculosis are younger, have a higher prevalence of extrapulmonary forms, greater proportion of drug resistance and higher treatment default rates than those of natives. New molecular techniques not only reduce diagnostic delay time but also allow the rapid identification of resistances and improve knowledge of transmission patterns. It is necessary to implement measures to improve treatment compliance in this population group like facilitating access to health card, the use of fixed-dose combination drugs, the participation of cultural mediators and community health workers and gratuity of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Tuberculosis in Tanzanian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, S; Mlengeya, T; Kazwala, R R; Michel, A; Kaare, M T; Jones, S L; Eblate, E; Shirima, G M; Packer, C

    2005-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a pathogen of growing concern in free-ranging wildlife in Africa, but little is known about the disease in Tanzanian wildlife. Here, we report the infection status of Mycobacterium bovis in a range of wildlife species sampled from protected areas in northern Tanzania. M. bovis was isolated from 11.1% (2/18) migratory wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and 11.1% (1/9) topi (Damaliscus lunatus) sampled systematically in 2000 during a meat cropping program in the Serengeti ecosystem, and from one wildebeest and one lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) killed by sport hunters adjacent to Tarangire National Park. A tuberculosis antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to screen serum samples collected from 184 Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) and 19 lions from Ngorongoro Crater sampled between 1985 and 2000. Samples from 212 ungulates collected throughout the protected area network between 1998 and 2001 also were tested by EIA. Serological assays detected antibodies to M. bovis in 4% of Serengeti lions; one positive lion was sampled in 1984. Antibodies were detected in one of 17 (6%) buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Tarangire and one of 41 (2%) wildebeest in the Serengeti. This study confirms for the first time the presence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife of northern Tanzania, but further investigation is required to assess the impact on wildlife populations and the role of different wildlife species in maintenance and transmission.

  16. Primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Supriya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year old man presented at our institution with back pain, low-grade fever and weight-loss. X-ray of chest (postero-anterior view showed multiple opacities with erosion of right 2nd and left 6th ribs. CT-scan of thorax and CT-guided FNAC con-firmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis of ribs. Even after 5-months of treatment with four first line drugs, the patient developed a cold abscess at the back. Mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity of material aspirated by Radiometric method from the cold abscess showed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and those bacilli were resistant to both isoniazide and rifampicin. The patient did not have anti-tubercu-lar medication in the past, and that established the diagnosis of primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis of ribs. Patient was treated successfully with 2nd line drugs at the cost of moderate degree of hearing loss. After one and half years of treatment X-ray of chest (PA view showed complete healing of rib erosions with new bone formation.

  17. The Response of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis to Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species

    OpenAIRE

    Voskuil, Martin I.; Bartek, Iona L.; Visconti, Kevin; Schoolnik, Gary K.

    2011-01-01

    The bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects and the transcriptional response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to representative oxidative and nitrosative stresses were investigated by growth and survival studies and whole genome expression analysis. The M. tuberculosis reaction to a range of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations fell into three distinct categories: (1) low level exposure resulted in induction of a few highly sensitive H2O2-responsive genes, (2) intermediate exposure resulted i...

  18. M. tuberculosis in Lymph Node Biopsy Paraffin-Embedded Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurehman Eshete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis is one of the most common forms of all extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Objective. To evaluate the magnitude of M. tuberculosis from lymph node biopsy paraffin-embedded sections among suspected patients visiting the Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Method. A cross-sectional study design of histological examination among lymph node biopsy paraffin-embedded sections by Ziehl-Neelsen and hematoxylin/eosin staining technique was conducted from December, 2009, to October, 2010, at the Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Pathology. Result. Histopathological examination of the specimens by hematoxylin and eosin staining technique revealed the presence of granulomas. But for the caseation and necrosis they were present in 85% cases of nodal tissue biopsies. From those, 56.7% were from females. The presence of acid-fast bacilli was microscopically confirmed by ZN staining in 37 (61.7% of the nodal tissue biopsies. Conclusion and Recommendation. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis is significantly more common in females. Hence, attention should be given for control and prevention of extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

  19. Exposures to war-related traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among displaced Darfuri female university students: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Alia; Crutzen, Rik; Van den Borne, H W

    2012-08-03

    With the deaths of hundreds of thousands and the displacement of up to three million Darfuris, the increasingly complex and on-going war in Darfur has warranted the need to investigate war-related severity and current mental health levels amongst its civilian population. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between war-related exposures and assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst a sample of Darfuri female university students at Ahfad University for Women (AUW) in Omdurman city. An exploratory cross-sectional study among a representative sample of Darfuri female university students at AUW (N = 123) was conducted in February 2010. Using an adapted version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), war-related exposures and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed. Means and standard deviations illustrated the experiential severity of war exposure dimensions and PTSD symptom sub-scales, while Pearson correlations tested for the strength of association between dimensions of war exposures and PTSD symptom sub-scales. Approximately 42 % of the Darfuri participants reported being displaced and 54 % have experienced war-related traumatic exposures either as victims or as witnesses (M = 28, SD = 14.24, range 0 - 40 events). Also, there was a strong association between the experiential dimension of war-related trauma exposures and the full symptom of PTSD. Moreover, the refugee-specific self-perception of functioning sub-scale within the PTSD measurement scored a mean of 3.2 (SD = .56), well above the 2.0 cut-off. This study provides evidence for a relationship between traumatic war-related exposures and symptom rates of PTSD among AUW Darfuri female students. Findings are discussed in terms of AUW counseling service improvement.

  20. VIH/SIDA- tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Peñuela-Epalza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo general: Establecer la prevalencia y los factores asociados a la coinfección TBC/VIH-SIDA en adolescentes y adultos de la consulta externa y el servicio de hospitalización de las Instituciones Prestadoras de Servicios de Salud (IPS de Barranquilla de julio de 2003 a junio de 2004. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo transversal realizado en 173 afiliados a las Empresas Promotoras de Salud (EPS, inscritos en los Programas de Control de VIH-SIDA. Fuente de información secundaria primordialmente, obtenida previa autorización de las instituciones y con el consentimiento informado de los pacientes. Variables estudiadas: demográficas, socioeconómicas, hábitos personales y clínicas (índice de masa corporal, Combe, enfermedades oportunistas, carga viral, recuento de CD4 y terapia antirretroviral. Para el análisis univariado y bivariado se utilizó el software Epi-Info versión 6.04d. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes fueron de sexo masculino y de estrato socioeconómico bajo (estratos 1 y 2. De los 173 pacientes VIH positivos estudiados, 19 fueron positivos para tuberculosis, con una prevalencia del 11%. La forma de tuberculosis predominante fue la pulmonar (17 casos. El análisis bivariado mostró asociación estadística significativa entre la presencia de tuberculosis y la concomitancia con enfermedades oportunistas previas o actuales (p=0.001, la fármacodependencia (p=0.026, el índice de masa corporal por debajo de 20 (p=0.042 y el bajo uso de terapia antirretroviral (p=0.0002. Aunque el recuento de linfocitos T-CD4 <200 u/L fue más común entre los pacientes con TBC y VIH que en los que solo estaban infectados por VIH, no se alcanzó a mostrar una relación estadísticamente significativa entre ellas. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de coinfección Tuberculosis-VIH/SIDA fue similar a la de varios países del Caribe y Centroamérica pero inferior a la de Jamaica. Se resaltó el predominio de la forma