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Sample records for tsushinmo eno tekiyo

  1. Studies of an application of a mobile communication system to the private telecommunication network. Part 1. Present condition of mobile communication system and proposal of the customer information network by PHS; Idotai tsushin system no denryoku tsushinmo eno tekiyo. 1. Idotai tsushin system no genjo to PHS ni yoru juyo kakei network no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    An application of various mobile communication systems to the electric power telecommunication network has been investigated. Among these, the customer information network by PHS (personal handy-phone system) has been proposed. Although great numbers of base stations are required for PHS, it can be applied as the customer information network by connecting to the power controller developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. The geostationary satellite telecommunication has been positively utilized by the electric power industry since the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake. It can be used as the customer information network in the future. Since the radio access is a one-way communication, it cannot be applied to the electric power telecommunication network at present. It can be applied to the simple message communication or relatively low-speed data communication through the two-way communication. Public ground mobile telecommunication in the future includes various mobile telecommunication systems. To start the operation in 2000, the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) is making specifications common in the world. It is required to investigate the utilization as multipurpose systems. The network for PHS can be applied to the telecommunication network without optical cable. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Spatial autocorrelation method using AR model; Kukan jiko sokanho eno AR model no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Obuchi, T.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Examination was made about the applicability of the AR model to the spatial autocorrelation (SAC) method, which analyzes the surface wave phase velocity in a microtremor, for the estimation of the underground structure. In this examination, microtremor data recorded in Morioka City, Iwate Prefecture, was used. In the SAC method, a spatial autocorrelation function with the frequency as a variable is determined from microtremor data observed by circular arrays. Then, the Bessel function is adapted to the spatial autocorrelation coefficient with the distance between seismographs as a variable for the determination of the phase velocity. The result of the AR model application in this study and the results of the conventional BPF and FFT method were compared. It was then found that the phase velocities obtained by the BPF and FFT methods were more dispersed than the same obtained by the AR model. The dispersion in the BPF method is attributed to the bandwidth used in the band-pass filter and, in the FFT method, to the impact of the bandwidth on the smoothing of the cross spectrum. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Application of wavelet transform to seismic data; Wavelet henkan no jishin tansa eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagami, K.; Murayama, R.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is the use of the wavelet transform in the field of seismic exploration. Among applications so far made, there are signal filtering, break point detection, data compression, and the solution of finite differential equations in the wavelet domain. In the field of data compression in particular, some examples of practical application have been introduced already. In seismic exploration, it is expected that the wavelet transform will separate signals and noises in data in a way different from the Fourier transform. The continuous wavelet transform displays time change in frequency easy to read, but is not suitable for the analysis and processing large quantities of data. On the other hand, the discrete wavelet transform, being an orthogonal transform, can handle large quantities of data. As compared with the conventional Fourier transform that handles only the frequency domain, the wavelet transform handles the time domain as well as the frequency domain, and therefore is more convenient in handling unsteady signals. 9 ref., 8 figs.

  4. New products by ENO; De nouveaux produits chez ENO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-04-01

    Located at Niort, in Western France, ENO is the only company today to be purely controlled by French investors in the multinational world of domestic appliances manufacturers. As the leader in cabinet heaters in the French market, ENO has modernized its ranges and presents today its products under modern colours and sizes adapted to 6 kg cylinders. ENO has also developed a domestic terrace heater - the Soleiro - which is equipped with an anti-fall down shut-off safety system. It is the first to comply with the new French standard regarding terrace heaters. ENO present also at the Confortec Trade Show a brand new cooker/oven designed for in board cooking on boats: the Gascogne. All these appliances use LPG. (authors)

  5. Crankshaft strength and rigidity analysis and application to shape optimization; Crank jiku kyodo gosei kaisekiho to keijo saitekika eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numajiri, S. [Mitsubishi Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tamura, Y. [Mitsubishi Automotive Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A crankshaft bending stress analysis method using an elastically supported continuous beam model has been established based on the exact evaluation of the stress concentration at fillet R sections and the crankshaft rigidity. Through various examinations, it was revealed that the calculation results of the bending stress well agreed with the actual measurements. This allowed the reliability analysis and the rigidity analysis to be used to determine optimized crankshaft specifications and web shape, which in turn made it possible to apply this method to the weight reduction of a crankshaft (material removal from web). 1 ref., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Field experiment for investigation of very shallow basement structure by micro-gravity survey; Microgravity tansa no gokusenbu kiban chosa eno tekiyo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshita, K.; Nozaki, K. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    This paper illustrates the field experiment results in which micro-gravity survey was applied to investigation of very shallow basement structure between a few m and 10 m. Its applicability was discussed. In principle, the micro-gravity survey was conducted at the measuring points in a grid with 20 m pitch. Measuring points of 174 were used. The gravity system used for the measurements is an automatic gravimeter CG-3M made by the Scintrex. Survey results of P-wave reflection method conducted at the site using a vibrator focus were used as control data of micro-gravity survey. Consequently, change in the thickness of surface layer (earth filling) shallower than the depth of -10 m could be grasped as a plane. It was found that the micro-gravity survey is a useful method for the investigation of very shallow basement structure. Survey results by the reflection method could contribute to the determination of trend face at filtration and construction of density model as well as the geologic interpretation of gravity anomaly. As a result, reliability of micro-gravity survey and reflection method could be enhanced, mutually. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Can spatial autocorrelation method be applied to arbitrary array shape; Kukan jiko sokanho no nin`i array eno tekiyo kanosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Iwamoto, K.; Saito, T.; Tachibana, M. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    Methods to learn underground structures by utilizing the dispersion phenomenon of surface waves contained in microtremors include the frequency-wave number analysis method (the F-K method) and the spatial autocorrelation method (the SAC method). Despite the fact that the SAC method is capable of exploring structures at greater depths, the method is not utilized because of its stringent restriction in arrangement of seismometers during observation that they must be arranged evenly on the same circumference. In order to eliminate this restriction in the SAC method, a research group in the Hokuriku University has proposed an expanded spatial autocorrelation (ESAC) method. Using the concept of the ESAC method as its base, a method was realized to improve phase velocity estimation by making a simulation on an array shifted to the radius direction. As a result of the discussion, it was found that the proposed improvement method can be applied to places where waves come from a number of directions, such as urban areas. If the improvement method can be applied, the spatial autocorrelation function needs not be even in the circumferential direction. In other words, the SAC method can be applied to arbitrary arrays. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  8. Thermal sensation vote simulation on the aged for bus air conditioning; Koreisha wo koryoshita onkan suchi simulation no bus kucho eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, H.; Nishijima, H.; Kitada, M.; Shinma, A. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The Numbers of passengers on the aged of sight-seeing buses about 5 times bigger than those of car passengers, have been increasing gradually. The former paper of DENSO in 1994 introduces quantitative method, which simulates passenger heat amount given by sun light at various solar positions. At this time, this paper introduces quantitative method, which simulates passengers thermal sensation skin temperature and also heat amount given by sun light at various solar positions. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Application of vertical electrical sounding combined with induced polarization method in ground water exploration; IP koka wo koryoshita hiteikoho suichoku tansa no chikasui chosa eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, M.; Sakurada, H. [Sumiko Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Hokkaido Development Bureau, Hokkaido Development Agency, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For ground water exploration using vertical Schlumberger exploration method, measurement and analysis combined with induced polarization (IP) effect were conducted as trial. For the Schlumberger method, potential is measured at the center between potential electrodes during flow of dc current between current electrodes. In the case of vertical exploration, measurements are repeated with fixed potential electrodes by extending the distance between current electrodes. Ground water exploration was conducted using this method at Otaki village, Hokkaido. Geology of surveyed plateau consists of a basement of Pliocene tuffs and Quaternary Pleistocene sediments covering on the surface. For the results of analysis, four to seven beds were detected from the resistivity. The depth up to the lowest bed was between 25 and 85 m, the resistivity of each bed was between 9 and 8,000 ohm{times}m, and the polarizability was between 1 and 15 mV/V. Among these resistivity zones, it was judged that zones satisfying following three conditions correspond to coarse grain sediments saturated with ground water, and can be expected as aquifers; having resistivity ranging between 100 and 1,000 ohm{times}m, polarizability higher than 10 mV/V, and relatively large thickness. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Application of 6. 5% silicon steel sheet to high-speed electric motors. 6. 5% keiso koban no kosoku dendoki eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, M.; Mizuno, T.; Hisamitsu, Y.; Sato, K. (Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-06-29

    Discussions were given on magnetic characteristics, mechanical characteristics, and processibility of 6.5% silicon steel, and high-speed electric motors were fabricated on a trial basis using the steel and evaluated. This high-silicon steel has high-frequency magnetic characteristics and has become commercially produced as a result of innovation in rolling processes in recent years. Annealing this steel achieves a low iron loss characteristic even in a high frequency area. However, it has a problem in processibility as it becomes hard and brittle. It requires devising processing such as clearance reduction and hot punching. Two types of electric motors using the high-silicon steel were fabricated to compare them with motors made from ordinary non-oriented silicon steel. The motors made from high-silicon steel annealed after hot rolling had the iron loss reduced by 40% and 20% as compared with the motors made from ordinary silicon steel. The high-silicon steel sheet which has high mechanical strength is suitable for high-speed motors requiring high centrifugal strength. However, its poor tenacity requires considerations in shapes and processing. 2 refs., 13 figs., 2 figs.

  11. Thinking Inside the Box: Brian Eno, music, movement and light

    OpenAIRE

    Loydell, Rupert; Marshall, Kingsley

    2016-01-01

    In total darkness, or in a very large room, very quietly [Eno,Brian, and Peter Schmidt. (1979). Oblique Strategies. The Authors.]\\ud \\ud This article considers how Eno has used simple but innovative ideas,programmes and processes to inform his films, apps and installation work. Avoiding spectacle, noise and complexity, Eno and his collaborators have produced an array of intriguing and engaging visual art works. In T. The New York Times Style Magazine, Eno stated that he ‘was trying to make vi...

  12. Brian Eno Hollandi Festivali peakülaliseks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Inglise helilooja, videokunstnik ja muusikaprodutsent Brian Eno on 5.-26. juunini Amsterdamis toimuva avangardse Hollandi Festivali peakülaline, kelle videoinstallatsioon seatakse üles Stedelijki Muuseumis. Festivali programmist

  13. Association between nucleotide mutation of eNOS gene and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Galaxy

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... (Angeline et al., 2010; Mayer and Hemmens, 1997). eNOS is the product of eNOS gene which is 21 kb in size and consists of 26 exons (Ragia et al., 2010; Marsden et al., 1993). Additionally, promoter region of the eNOS gene harbors several transcription factor binding sites and regulating gene expression ...

  14. The eNOS enhancer AVE 9488: a novel cardioprotectant against ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, S; Adamek, A; Fraccarollo, D; Tillmanns, J; Widder, J D; Dienesch, C; Schäfer, A; Podolskaya, A; Held, M; Ruetten, H; Ertl, G; Bauersachs, J

    2009-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of vascular and myocardial function. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury is reduced in mice overexpressing endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) suggesting cardioprotection by eNOS. Novel pharmacological substances, so called eNOS enhancers, upregulate eNOS expression and thereby increase NO production. We tested the effects of the eNOS enhancer AVE 9488 on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo in mice. After treatment with the eNOS enhancer AVE 9488 (30 mg/kg/day) or placebo for one week mice underwent 30 min of coronary artery ligation and 24 h of reperfusion in vivo. Ischemia-reperfusion damage was significantly reduced in mice treated with the eNOS enhancer when compared to placebo treated mice (infarct/area at risk 65.4 +/- 4.1 vs. 36.9 +/- 4.0%, placebo vs. eNOS enhancer, P = 0.0002). The protective effect was blunted in eNOS knockout mice treated with the eNOS enhancer (infarct/area at risk 64.1 +/- 6.2%, eNOS knockout + eNOS enhancer vs. WT + eNOS enhancer, P = ns). Reactive oxygen species were significantly reduced in mice treated with the eNOS enhancer as indicated by significantly lower malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid levels (placebo vs. eNOS enhancer, 3.2 +/- 0.5 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.07 micromol/l, P = 0.0003). Thus pharmacological interventions addressed to increase eNOS-derived NO production constitute a promising therapeutic approach to prevent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  15. Application of a temperature selective storage tank solar system. Part 4. Fundamental experiment under a solar simulator; Ondo sentaku chikunetsuso no solar system eno tekiyo. 4. Solar simulator ni yoru kiso jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K.; Endo, N.; Baba, H.; Okamoto, A. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Kamiya, Y. [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The storage tank is classified into a mixed type and stratified type. The stratified type is judged to be more advantageous from a viewpoint of the effective energy utilization. An experiment was made using a solar simulator to put the system, consisting of a vacuum double-glass tube collector and temperature selective storage tank, to practical use. The ejection position of the storage tank at the top is superior to that at the bottom, in the 60{degree}C layer of three layers (60, 40, and 20{degree}C). The ejection position hardly varies with the shape (straight or elbow) of an ejection port. When the temperature stratified layer is formed in two layers (40 {times} 2, 20{degree}C) to three layers (60, 40, and 20{degree}C), heat can be stably stored as the flow rate is higher. The stratified storage tank is inferior to the mixed storage tank in heat collection efficiency, but the specific exergy increases. By increasing the number of heat storage layers, the result of this experiment can also be applied to the linear temperature gradient layer obtained in the practical use. As a result of the above experiment, the basic data for an automated system design during practical application was obtained. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Application of a temperature selective heat storage tank to a solar system. Part 3. Solar heat collecting system; Ondo sentaku chikunetsuso no solar system eno tekiyo. 3. Shunetsu hoshiki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y. [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan); Kanayama, K. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The tank system and tank-less system when the temperature selective heat storage tank is applied to a solar system were considered. In the tank system, the simulation shows that the annual supplementary heat consumption is reduced as the tank capacity becomes lower. The most suitable operating time set for determining the reference time is about five hours in winter and about nine hours in summer. The annual operating time is about 6.5 hours. In the tank-less system, the most suitable minimum flow rate per solar collector area of a heating medium in Tokyo and its districts is 10 L/hm{sup 2} for both three-step flow control and constant flow control. The tank-less system is slightly lower in annual supplementary heat consumption than the tank system. For the three-step flow control, a change in the annual supplementary heat consumption is lower than that in the minimum flow rate. For the constant flow control, however, the annual supplementary heat consumption rapidly increases when the flow rate more decreases than the optimum value. The number of pump start/stop counts for the three-step flow control is less than two times as high as for the constant flow control. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Development of a vehicle capable of traveling on soft ground. Its application to investigation, survey and management of soft ground; Nanjakuchi sokosha no kaihatsu. Nanjakuchi deno chosa sokuryo kanri eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, R.; Yano, H. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-25

    An experimental vehicle is built and tested, which utilizes hovercraft technology, capable of travelling on a soft ground surface and therefore usable in reclamation work. When the ground is soft and viscous, merely increasing the vehicle driving force will futilely add to the vehicle weight, and this causes an adverse effect with the vehicle sinking deeper into the ground and the ground presenting higher resistance. In an effort to decrease the weight and resistance, a vehicle is built, capable of levitating itself by use of hovercraft technology and provided with retractable tracks and wheels for travelling. The targets are mostly attained in the test run, as far as speeds (5.5km/h at the maximum across a muddy ground section) and trekking across ground including an undulated surface are concerned, although the levitation level is found to be somewhat lower than the design value. Operating across a hard ground surface with the body elevated, the vehicle exhibits a higher performance in speed and drivability when the hovercraft effect is utilized. When travelling on the hovercraft effect, the frictional resistance of the skirt decreases as the vehicle moves from a hard surface section into a soft surface section, and this allows the vehicle to run more smoothly at higher speeds. 1 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Development of new technologies for high quality thin film and its application to energy engineering; Hikari seigyo to sokudo senbetsu ni yoru chokinshitsu usumaku no seisaku to energy bun`ya eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijikata, K.; Inoue, T.; Nagasaki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sato, I. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakabeppu, O. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes laser irradiation and velocity selective deposition experiments for fabricating high quality thin films. For the formation of Ag thin film by vacuum deposition method, YAG laser was irradiated to atoms or clusters parallel or perpendicular to the NaCl single crystal substrate, to deposit them on the substrate. For another experiment, Ag atoms selected in the given velocity were deposited on the (001) NaCl substrate by passing the molecular beam through the velocity selector. When laser was not irradiated, the thin film showed a random structure. Epitaxial growth was accelerated by the laser irradiation. When the selective velocity was set in 353 m/s at the constant intensity of molecular beam, the diffraction pattern of the thin film showed net pattern. When the selective velocity was set in 529 m/s, a structure in which ring pattern was overlapped on the net pattern was obtained. 2 figs.

  19. Development of a readily recyclable sound insulation material made of polyester fibers. Application of the PET fibers from plastic bottles; Recycle kanona jidoshayo polyester sei kyuon zairyo no kaihatsu. Shiyozumi pet bottle zai no insulator zai eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, K.; Watanabe, K.; Sugawara, H.; Minemura, Y. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed new polyester sound-absorbing materials made of fine and modified-cross-section polyester fabric. They provide noticeably higher sound-absorbing performance than traditional materials. Another feature of the new materials is their excellent recyclability since they are made of polyester. Application of the new materials to the dash silencer and the floor carpeting produced a great improvement in sound-insulation performance with less weight. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Fracture mechanical modeling of brittle crack propagation and arrest of steel. 3. Application to duplex-type test; Kozai no zeisei kiretsu denpa teisi no rikigaku model. 3. Konseigata shiken eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S.; Tsuchida, Y. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Machida, S.; Yoshinari, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A proposal was made previously on a model of brittle crack propagation and arrest that considers the effect of crack opening suppression by using unbroken ligaments generated on steel plate surface and the effect that cracks precede in the central part of the plate thickness, based on a local limit stress theory for brittleness fracture. This paper discusses applicability of this model to a mixed type test, and elucidates causes for difference in the arrest tenacity of both types in a double tensile test of the standard size. The brittle crack propagation and arrest model based on the local limit stress theory was found applicable to a simulation of the mixed type test. Experimental crack propagation speed history and behavior of the arrest were reproduced nearly completely by using this model. When load stress is increased, the arrests in the mixed type test may be classified into arrests of both inside the steel plate and near the surface, cracks in the former position or arrest in the latter position, and rush of cracks into both positions. Furthermore, at higher stresses, the propagation speed drops once after cracks rushed into the test plate, but turns to a rise, leading to propagation and piercing. 8 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Application of magnetotelluric method to hydrocarbon exploration. Case study of MT survey in Yurihara oil and gas field, Akita prefecture; MT ho no kokunai sekiyu tanko eno tekiyo. Akitaken Yurihara chiiki ni okeru jikken chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuhata, Y.; Matsuo, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakagami, K. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    The experiment and survey were carried out to verify the effectiveness and limitation of MT method. The previous seismic reflection method is unsuitable for steep terrain and over-folded complicated geological structure. In such difficult areas, application of MT method is increasing as complement or substitution for the reflection method. However, the evaluation of resistivity structure interpretation for every area is slightly difficult because of lack of data, poor quality of data, and no verification data at boreholes. Consequently, the survey was again carried out in well-known Yurihara oil and gas field, Akita prefecture whose geological structure has been surveyed in detail at boreholes, by adding new 32 sites, 22 sites on the south side and 10 sites on the north side of the measuring line extending from east to west. As a result, it was clarified that the lower high-resistivity layer found by MT method is equal to the Nishikurosawa basaltic layer, and basalt extends to the west in the north area. This result can`t be simply compared with the previous geological profile. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Living Water. Eno River State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for the Middle Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Scott; Woods, Martha

    This learning packet, one in a series of eight, was developed by the Eno River State Park in North Carolina for Grades 5-6 to teach about various aspects of water life on the Eno River. Loose-leaf pages are presented in nine sections that contain: (1) introductions to the North Carolina State Park System, the Eno River State Park, and to the…

  3. Association between nucleotide mutation of eNOS gene and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various mutation on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOs) gene cause reduced production of NO, the expansion factor (VEF) and may accelerate the process of atherosclerosis. The study was designed to investigate the frequency of T-786C polymorphism of the gene or nucleotide mutation of eNOS gene in patients ...

  4. Endothelin-1 Overexpression Improves Renal Function in eNOS Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Tsuprykov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the renal phenotype under conditions of an activated renal ET-1 system in the status of nitric oxide deficiency, we compared kidney function and morphology in wild-type, ET-1 transgenic (ET+/+, endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout (eNOS-/- and ET+/+eNOS-/- mice. Methods: We assessed blood pressure, parameters of renal morphology, plasma cystatin C, urinary protein excretion, expression of genes associated with glomerular filtration barrier and tissue remodeling, and plasma metabolites using metabolomics. Results: eNOS-/- and ET+/+eNOS-/- mice developed hypertension. Osteopontin, albumin and protein excretion were increased in eNOS-/- and restored in ET+/+eNOS-/- animals. All genetically modified mice developed renal interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. Genes involved in tissue remodeling (serpine1, TIMP1, Col1a1, CCL2 were up-regulated in eNOS-/-, but not in ET+/+eNOS-/- mice. Plasma levels of free carnitine and acylcarnitines, amino acids, diacyl phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines and hexoses were descreased in eNOS-/- and were in the normal range in ET+/+eNOS-/- mice. Conclusion: eNOS-/- mice developed renal dysfunction, which was partially rescued by ET-1 overexpression in eNOS-/- mice. The metabolomics results suggest that ET-1 overexpression on top of eNOS knockout is associated with a functional recovery of mitochondria (rescue effect in β-oxidation of fatty acids and an increase in antioxidative properties (normalization of monounsaturated fatty acids levels.

  5. PKC-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS at T495 regulates eNOS coupling and endothelial barrier function in response to G+ -toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chen

    Full Text Available Gram positive (G+ infections make up ∼50% of all acute lung injury cases which are characterized by extensive permeability edema secondary to disruption of endothelial cell (EC barrier integrity. A primary cause of increased permeability are cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs of G+-bacteria, such as pneumolysin (PLY and listeriolysin-O (LLO which create plasma membrane pores, promoting Ca2+-influx and activation of PKCα. In human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC, pretreatment with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor, ETU reduced the ability of LLO to increase microvascular cell permeability suggesting an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS-dependent mechanism. LLO stimulated superoxide production from HLMVEC and this was prevented by silencing PKCα or NOS inhibition suggesting a link between these pathways. Both LLO and PLY stimulated eNOS T495 phosphorylation in a PKC-dependent manner. Expression of a phosphomimetic T495D eNOS (human isoform resulted in increased superoxide and diminished nitric oxide (NO production. Transduction of HLMVEC with an active form of PKCα resulted in the robust phosphorylation of T495 and increased peroxynitrite production, indicative of eNOS uncoupling. To determine the mechanisms underlying eNOS uncoupling, HLMVEC were stimulated with LLO and the amount of hsp90 and caveolin-1 bound to eNOS determined. LLO stimulated the dissociation of hsp90, and in particular, caveolin-1 from eNOS. Both hsp90 and caveolin-1 have been shown to influence eNOS uncoupling and a peptide mimicking the scaffolding domain of caveolin-1 blocked the ability of PKCα to stimulate eNOS-derived superoxide. Collectively, these results suggest that the G+ pore-forming toxins promote increased EC permeability via activation of PKCα, phosphorylation of eNOS-T495, loss of hsp90 and caveolin-1 binding which collectively promote eNOS uncoupling and the production of barrier disruptive superoxide.

  6. SLOŽENO KLIZANJE U DOLINI RJEČINE

    OpenAIRE

    Benac, Čedomir; Arbanas, Željko; Jardas, Branka; Kasapović, Saša; Jurak, Vladimir

    1999-01-01

    U radu su prikazani rezultati istraživanja prve faze složenog klizišta na sjeveroistočnoj padini doline Rječine između brane Valići i naselja Pašac. Bokovi doline oblikovani su u paleogenskom flišu i kvartarnim padinskim tvorevinama. Na vrhovima su zastupljene vapnenačke stijene tvoreći litice. Nastanak istražene kompleksne pojave klizišta predodređen je geološkom gradom i morfogenezom doline Rječine. To je složeno retrogresivno klizište, koje se počelo razvijati od stope prema vrhu kosine. N...

  7. Circulating Blood eNOS Contributes to the Regulation of Systemic Blood Pressure and Nitrite Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Katherine C.; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Kovacic, Jason C.; Noguchi, Audrey; Liu, Virginia B.; Wang, Xunde; Raghavachari, Nalini; Boehm, Manfred; Kato, Gregory J.; Kelm, Malte; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mice genetically deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS−/−) are hypertensive with lower circulating nitrite levels, indicating the importance of constitutively produced nitric oxide (NO•) to blood pressure regulation and vascular homeostasis. While the current paradigm holds that this bioactivity derives specifically from expression of eNOS in endothelium, circulating blood cells also express eNOS protein. A functional red cell eNOS that modulates vascular NO• signaling has been proposed. Approach and Results To test the hypothesis that blood cells contribute to mammalian blood pressure regulation via eNOS-dependent NO• generation, we cross-transplanted WT and eNOS−/− mice, producing chimeras competent or deficient for eNOS expression in circulating blood cells. Surprisingly, we observed a significant contribution of both endothelial and circulating blood cell eNOS to blood pressure and systemic nitrite levels, the latter being a major component of the circulating NO• reservoir. These effects were abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME and repristinated by the NOS substrate L-Arginine, and were independent of platelet or leukocyte depletion. Mouse erythrocytes were also found to carry an eNOS protein and convert 14C-Arginine into 14C-Citrulline in a NOS-dependent fashion. Conclusions These are the first studies to definitively establish a role for a blood borne eNOS, using cross transplant chimera models, that contributes to the regulation of blood pressure and nitrite homeostasis. This work provides evidence suggesting that erythrocyte eNOS may mediate this effect. PMID:23702660

  8. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Tran

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC. Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1 colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells.

  9. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2011-03-31

    Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR). Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP) promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  10. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Cerqueira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR. Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  11. Insights into the arginine paradox: evidence against the importance of subcellular location of arginase and eNOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, Shawn; Chen, Feng; Wang, Yusi; Qian, Jin; Askari, Bardia; Yu, Yanfang; Pandey, Deepesh; Iddings, Jennifer; Caldwell, Ruth B.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced production of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the first indications of endothelial dysfunction and precedes overt cardiovascular disease. Increased expression of Arginase has been proposed as a mechanism to account for diminished NO production. Arginases consume l-arginine, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and l-arginine depletion is thought to competitively reduce eNOS-derived NO. However, this simple relationship is complicated by the paradox that l-arginine concentrations in endothelial cells remain sufficiently high to support NO synthesis. One mechanism proposed to explain this is compartmentalization of intracellular l-arginine into distinct, poorly interchangeable pools. In the current study, we investigated this concept by targeting eNOS and Arginase to different intracellular locations within COS-7 cells and also BAEC. We found that supplemental l-arginine and l-citrulline dose-dependently increased NO production in a manner independent of the intracellular location of eNOS. Cytosolic arginase I and mitochondrial arginase II reduced eNOS activity equally regardless of where in the cell eNOS was expressed. Similarly, targeting arginase I to disparate regions of the cell did not differentially modify eNOS activity. Arginase-dependent suppression of eNOS activity was reversed by pharmacological inhibitors and absent in a catalytically inactive mutant. Arginase did not directly interact with eNOS, and the metabolic products of arginase or downstream enzymes did not contribute to eNOS inhibition. Cells expressing arginase had significantly lower levels of intracellular l-arginine and higher levels of ornithine. These results suggest that arginases inhibit eNOS activity by depletion of substrate and that the compartmentalization of l-arginine does not play a major role. PMID:23792682

  12. Disruption of COX-2 and eNOS does not confer protection from cardiovascular failure in lipopolysaccharide-treated conscious mice and isolated vascular rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Mette; Madsen, Kirsten; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    (NS 398), disruption of COX-2, endothelium removal, or eNOS deletion (eNOS(-/-)) did not improve vascular reactivity after LPS, while the NO synthase blockers 1400W and N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester prevented loss of tone. COX-2 and eNOS activities are not necessary for LPS-induced decreases...

  13. eNOS uncoupling in cardiovascular diseases--the role of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, Susanne; Wenzel, Philip; Waisman, Ari; Munzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Many cardiovascular diseases and drug-induced complications are associated with - or even based on - an imbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and antioxidant enzymes catalyzing the break-down of these harmful oxidants. According to the "kindling radical" hypothesis, the formation of RONS may trigger in certain conditions the activation of additional sources of RONS. According to recent reports, vascular dysfunction in general and cardiovascular complications such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and coronary artery diseases may be connected to inflammatory processes. The present review is focusing on the uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by different mechanisms involving so-called "redox switches". The oxidative depletion of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), oxidative disruption of the dimeric eNOS complex, S-glutathionylation and adverse phosphorylation as well as RONS-triggered increases in levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) will be discussed. But also new concepts of eNOS uncoupling and state of the art detection of this process will be described. Another part of this review article will address pharmaceutical interventions preventing or reversing eNOS uncoupling and thereby normalize vascular function in a given disease setting. We finally turn our attention to the inflammatory mechanisms that are also involved in the development of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory cell and cytokine profiles as well as their interactions, which are among the kindling mechanisms for the development of vascular dysfunction will be discussed on the basis of the current literature.

  14. Orthodontic force stimulates eNOS and iNOS in rat osteocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.D.; Xie, R.; Klein Nulend, J.; van Rheden, R.E.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Von den Hoff, J.W.; Maltha, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanosensitive osteocytes are essential for bone remodeling. Nitric oxide, an important regulator of bone remodeling, is produced by osteocytes through the activity of constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We hypothesized that these

  15. Orthodontic force stimulates eNOS and iNOS in rat osteocytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.D.; Xie, R.; Klein-Nulend, J.; Rheden, R.E.M. van; Bronckers, A.L.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Maltha, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanosensitive osteocytes are essential for bone remodeling. Nitric oxide, an important regulator of bone remodeling, is produced by osteocytes through the activity of constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We hypothesized that these

  16. Characterization of porcine ENO3: genomic and cDNA structure, polymorphism and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Yuanzhu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a full-length cDNA of the porcine ENO3 gene encoding a 434 amino acid protein was isolated. It contains 12 exons over approximately 5.4 kb. Differential splicing in the 5'-untranslated sequence generates two forms of mRNA that differ from each other in the presence or absence of a 142-nucleotide fragment. Expression analysis showed that transcript 1 of ENO3 is highly expressed in liver and lung, while transcript 2 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. We provide the first evidence that in skeletal muscle expression of ENO3 is different between Yorkshire and Meishan pig breeds. Furthermore, real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that, in Yorkshire pigs, skeletal muscle expression of transcript 1 is identical at postnatal day-1 and at other stages while that of transcript 2 is higher. Moreover, expression of transcript 1 is lower in skeletal muscle and all other tissue samples than that of transcript 2, with the exception of liver and kidney. Statistical analysis showed the existence of a polymorphism in the ENO3 gene between Chinese indigenous and introduced commercial western pig breeds and that it is associated with fat percentage, average backfat thickness, meat marbling and intramuscular fat in two different populations.

  17. Association of eNOS gene intron 4 a/b VNTR polymorphisms in children with nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Hasan; Noyan, Aytul; Matyar, Selcuk; Buyukcelik, Mithat; Soran, Mustafa; Cengiz, Nurcan; Bayazit, Aysun K; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Attila, Gulen; Anarat, Ali

    2013-06-15

    To investigate the association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene intron 4 (eNOS4) polymorphisms with nephrotic syndrome, the eNOS4 genotypes were assessed in 161 children with nephrotic syndrome in comparison with 78 healthy subjects. We classified the children with nephritic syndrome into 2 groups: as steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) (n=125) and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) (n=36). The eNOS4 polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. The frequencies of eNOS4 aa, ab and bb genotypes were 3%, 31%, and 66% in all the nephrotic syndrome groups, and 1%, 23%, and 76% in the control group (x(2)=2.87, p>0.05). In addition, the frequencies of eNOS4 aa, ab and bb genotypes were 2%, 33%, and 65% in SSNS group, and 5%, 28%, and 67% in the SRNS group (x(2)=1.13, p=0.567). The present study is the first to investigate eNOS4 gene polymorphisms in children with SSNS and SRNS. Our data show that the eNOS4 gene polymorphisms were not associated with the development, frequent relapse and response to steroid in nephritic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphism in otitis media with effusion (OME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, M; Cevik, C; Dokuyucu, R; Berber, O; Colak, S; Izmirli, M

    2017-02-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the most common disease after viral infections of upper respiratory tract (URTI) in children. Studies indicate the important role of nitric oxide (NO) in the etiology of hearing loss. However, there is no study that focuses on the role of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphisms in the cases with OME. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the eNOS polymorphisms in the pediatric patients with OME. Eighty-nine patients who are diagnosed with otitis media with effusion and 85 healthy subjects who are compatible in terms of age and gender were included in the study. All patients in the study were subjected to complete ear, nose, throat (ENT) and audiological examinations. DNA analysis was performed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique from the blood samples. The PCR product was cut by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with BanII enzyme and checked by agarose gel electrophoresis. As a result of genetic analysis, there is no significant difference between patients and the controls in terms of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism (G/G, G/T, T/T). When these groups were compared in terms of allele distributions, a significant relationship was found between the patients and the controls (P=0.037). To the best of our knowledge, G allele was identified as predisposing to the development of OME and this is the first report indicates the correlation between the eNOS G894T polymorphism and OME in Turkey. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Buckling Reduces eNOS Production and Stimulates Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Arteries in Organ Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yangming; Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao

    2016-09-01

    Artery buckling alters the fluid shear stress and wall stress in the artery but its temporal effect on vascular wall remodeling is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the early effect of artery buckling on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and extracellular matrix remodeling. Bilateral porcine carotid arteries were maintained in an ex vivo organ culture system with and without buckling while under the same physiological pressure and flow rate for 3-7 days. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, fibronectin, elastin, collagen I, III and IV, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), and eNOS were determined using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that MMP-2 expression level was significantly higher in buckled arteries than in the controls and higher at the inner curve than at the outer curve of buckled arteries, while collagen IV content showed an opposite trend, suggesting that artery buckling increased MMP-2 expression and collagen IV degradation in a site-specific fashion. However, no differences for MMP-9, fibronectin, elastin, collagen I, III, and TIMP-2 were observed among the outer and inner curve sides of buckled arteries and straight controls. Additionally, eNOS expression was significantly decreased in buckled arteries. These results suggest that artery buckling triggers uneven wall remodeling that could lead to development of tortuous arteries.

  20. Activation of eNOS in endothelial cells exposed to ionizing radiation involves components of the DNA damage response pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Sakai, Yuri; Yamamori, Tohru [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Niwa, Koichi [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Hattori, Yuichi [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Kondo, Takashi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: inanami@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • eNOS activity is increased in BAECs exposed to X-rays. • ATM is involved in this increased eNOS activity. • HSP90 modulates the radiation-induced activation of ATM and eNOS. - Abstract: In this study, the involvement of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation was investigated in X-irradiated bovine aortic endothelial cells. The activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the phosphorylation of serine 1179 of eNOS (eNOS-Ser1179) were significantly increased in irradiated cells. The radiation-induced increases in NOS activity and eNOS-Ser1179 phosphorylation levels were significantly reduced by treatment with either an ATM inhibitor (Ku-60019) or an HSP90 inhibitor (geldanamycin). Geldanamycin was furthermore found to suppress the radiation-induced phosphorylation of ATM-Ser1181. Our results indicate that the radiation-induced eNOS activation in bovine aortic endothelial cells is regulated by ATM and HSP90.

  1. ENO1 promotes tumor proliferation and cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xinghua; Miao, Xiaobing; Wu, Yaxun; Li, Chunsun; Guo, Yan; Liu, Yushan; Chen, Yali; Lu, Xiaoyun [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, 30 North Tongyang Road, Pingchao, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Yuchan, E-mail: wangyuchannt@126.com [Department of Pathogen and Immunology, Medical College, Nantong University, 19 Qixiu Road, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu (China); He, Song, E-mail: hesongnt@126.com [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, 30 North Tongyang Road, Pingchao, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-07-15

    Enolases are glycolytic enzymes responsible for the ATP-generated conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate. In addition to the glycolytic function, Enolase 1 (ENO1) has been reported up-regulation in several tumor tissues. In this study, we investigated the expression and biologic function of ENO1 in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHLs). Clinically, by western blot analysis we observed that ENO1 expression was apparently higher in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma than in the reactive lymphoid tissues. Subsequently, immunohistochemical staining of 144 NHLs suggested that the expression of ENO1 was significantly lower in the indolent lymphomas compared with the progressive lymphomas. Further, we identified ENO1 as an independent prognostic factor, and it was significantly correlated with overall survival of NHL patients. In addition, we found that ENO1 could promote cell proliferation, regulate cell cycle associated gene and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in NHLs. Finally, we verified that ENO1 participated in the process of lymphoma cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Adhesion to FN or HS5 cells significantly protected OCI-Ly8 and Daudi cells from cytotoxicity compared with those cultured in suspension, and these effects were attenuated when transfected with ENO1-siRNA. Based on the study, we propose that inhibition of ENO1 expression may be a novel strategy for therapy for NHLs patients, and it may be a target for drug resistance. - Highlights: • ENO1 expression is reversely correlated with clinical outcomes of patients with NHLs. • ENO1 promotes the proliferation of NHL cells. • ENO1 regulates cell adhesion mediated drug resistance.

  2. Application of forking genetic algorithm to the estimation of an S-wave-velocity structure from Rayleigh-wave dispersion data. With special reference to an exploration method using microtremors; Rayleigh ha no bunsan data kara S ha sokudo kozo wo suiteisuru inversion mondai eno kotaigun tansaku bunkigata identeki algorithm no tekiyo. Bido tansaho ni kanrenshite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, I.; Nakanishi, I. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ling, S. [Nihon Nessui Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Okada, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Discussions were given on a genetic algorithm as a means to solve simultaneously the problems related to stability of solution and dependence on an initial model in estimating subsurface structures using the microtremor exploration method. In the study, a forking genetic algorithm (fGA) to explore solid substance groups was applied to the optimizing simulations for a velocity structure model to discuss whether the algorithm can be used practically. The simulation No. 1 was performed by making the number of layers four for both of the given velocity structure and the optimizing model. On the other hand, the simulation No. 2 was executed by making the number of layers for the given velocity structure greater than that for the optimizing model. As a result, it was verified that wide range exploration may be possible for the velocity structure model, and that a large number of candidates for the velocity structure model may be proposed. In either case, the exploration capability of the fGA exceeded that of the standard simple genetic algorithm. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Application of low bitrate image coding to surveillance of electric power facilities. Part 1. Proposal of low bitrate coding for surveillance of electric power facilities and examination of facilities region extraction method; Denryoku setsubi kanshi eno tei rate fugoka hoshiki no tekiyo. 1. Setsubi kanshiyo fugoka hoshiki no teian to setsubi ryoiki chushutsuho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, H.; Ishino, R. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Current status of low bitrate image coding has been investigated, and a low bitrate coding suitable for the surveillance of electric power facilities has been proposed, to extract its problems to be solved. For the conventional image coding, the waveform coding has been used by which the images are processed as signals. While, for the MPEG-4, a coding method with considering the image information has been proposed. For these coding methods, however, image information lacks details primarily, when lowering the bitrate. Accordingly, these methods can not be applied when the details in the images are important, such as in the case of surveillance of facilities. Then, the coding method has been proposed by expanding the partially detailed coding, and by separating constituent images of facilities, such as power cables and steel towers, designated by operators. It is the special feature of this method that the method can easily respond to the low bitrate and the detailed information can be conserved by using the structure extraction coding for the designated partial image which is generally processed by the low bitrate waveform coding. 29 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Sensing of subsurface faults based on an imaging technique for teleseismic waveform data. 2. Feasibility study for application to oblique incidence, multi-event and noise data; Enchi jishin hakei data wo mochiita chika kozo imaging ni yoru chichu danso kenshutsu no kokoromi. 2. Naname nyusha, multi event, noise wo fukumu hakei eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakoshi, T.; Takenaka, H.; Saita, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Science; Suetsugu, D. [Building Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Furumura, T. [Hokkaido University of Education, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An examination was made on the method in which imaging of subsurface was carried out with teleseismic waveform data for sensing of faults. In the examination, an experiment was done on the sensing of faults with higher precision, by applying oblique incidence as well as perpendicular upward incidence of SH plane waves, and thereby stacking the imaging in plural events. In numerical experiments, 28 observation points were arranged at 500m spaces apart on the surface, and the incident waves were made the SH plane waves having a bell-shaped time function, with incidence made at an angle varied as 0{degree}, +15{degree} and -15{degree} from the lowest layer of a model. In the calculation of the wave motion field, a difference calculus with secondary accuracy was used for both time and space. In addition, data was prepared with a random noise added to a synthesized waveform to be used as observation data. The calculated waveform data were likened to the observation waveform, to which the method for imaging faults was applied. Consequently, it was noted that satisfactory results were obtained compared with the case where faults were sensed by one event alone. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Unstable brittle crack-arrest toughness of newly developed steel plate with surface layers having ultra fine grain microstructure. Part 2. Crack-arrest toughness of the plate after plastic damage and its application to prevent crack expansion after a collision; Hyoso chosairyuko no zeisei kiretsu denpa teishi seino. 2. Sosei sonsho go no tokusei oyobi shototsugo no kiretsu kakudai boshi eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T.; Hagiwara, Y.; Inoue, T.; Oshita, S. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kuroiwa, T.; Hashimoto, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tada, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan). Nagasaki Technical Inst.; Yajima, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-01

    Use of ships with high safety and reliability that can suppress the casualties and ocean pollution accidents caused by ships failure to a minimum, are in demand. Therefore, in order to study the improvement of safety when steel plates with surface layers having ultra fine grain microstructure and having extremely improved arrest characteristic are used for ship structures, fracture simulation of collision and comparative evaluation of the arrest properties with the conventional steel plate were carried out. Firstly, fracture simulation of the ship bodycaused by the collision of very large crude oil carries (VLCC) was carried out and the plastic strain caused during the collision was quantified. After that, as for steel plate with surface layers having ultrafine grain microstructure and normal KE 36 steel plate, comparative study of arrestability of steel plate under 10% plastic strain was made. As a result, it was revealed that sufficient arrest efficiency was secured by using steel plate with surface layers having ultra fine grain structure even for the case where arrestability for long big crack is not secured in case of normal KE 36 steel plate due to the plastic strain effect on VLCC caused by collision. 11 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Sildenafil promotes eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase in the transgenic sickle cell mouse penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Champion, Hunter C; Burnett, Arthur L

    2014-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated vasculopathy in the penis is characterized by aberrant nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 signaling, and by increased oxidative stress. Preliminary clinical trials show that continuous treatment with PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil unassociated with sexual activity decreases priapic activity in patients with SCD. However, the mechanism of its vasculoprotective effect in the penis remains unclear. We evaluated whether continuous administration of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil promotes eNOS function at posttranslational levels and decreases superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase activity in the sickle cell mouse penis. SCD transgenic mice were used as an animal model of SCD. WT mice served as controls. Mice received treatment with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 3 weeks. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site), eNOS interactions with heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) (positive regulator), phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177), an NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox), and a marker of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]) were measured by Western blot. Effect of continuous sildenafil treatment on eNOS posttranslational activation, NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit, and oxidative stress in the penis of the sickle cell mouse. Continuous treatment with sildenafil reversed (P penis. Sildenafil treatment of WT mice did not affect any of these parameters. Our findings that sildenafil enhances eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase function in the sickle cell mouse penis offers a vasculoprotective molecular basis for the therapeutic effect of sildenafil in the penis in association with SCD. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Partial deletion of eNOS gene causes hyperinsulinemic state, unbalance of cardiac insulin signaling pathways and coronary dysfunction independently of high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Vecoli

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in eNOS gene, possibly interacting with high fat diet (HFD, affect peripheral vascular function and glucose metabolism. The relative role of eNOS gene, HFD and metabolic derangement on coronary function has not been fully elucidated. We test whether eNOS gene deficiency per se or in association with HFD modulates coronary function through mechanisms involving molecular pathways related to insulin signaling. Wild type (WT, eNOS-/- and eNOS+/- mice were studied. WT and eNOS+/- mice were fed with either standard or HF diet for 16 weeks and compared with standard diet fed eNOS-/-. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed during the last week of diet. Coronary resistance (CR was measured at baseline and during infusions of acetylcholine (Ach or sodium-nitroprusside (SNP to evaluate endothelium-dependent or independent vasodilation, in the Langendorff isolated hearts. Cardiac expression of Akt and ERK genes as evaluation of two major insulin-regulated signaling pathways involved in the control of vascular tone were assessed by western blot. HFD-fed mice developed an overt diabetic state. Conversely, chow-fed genetically modified mice (in particular eNOS-/- showed a metabolic pattern characterized by normoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia with a limited degree of insulin resistance. CR was significantly higher in animals with eNOS gene deletions than in WT, independently of diet. Percent decrease in CR, during Ach infusion, was significantly lower in both eNOS-/- and eNOS+/- mice than in WT, independently of diet. SNP reduced CR in all groups except eNOS-/-. The cardiac ERK1-2/Akt ratio, increased in animals with eNOS gene deletions compared with WT, independently of diet. These results suggest that the eNOS genetic deficiency, associated or not with HFD, has a relevant effect on coronary vascular function, possibly mediated by increase in blood insulin levels and unbalance in insulin-dependent signaling in coronary vessels

  8. Vasoinhibins Prevent Bradykinin-Stimulated Endothelial Cell Proliferation by Inactivating eNOS via Reduction of both Intracellular Ca2+ Levels and eNOS Phosphorylation at Ser1179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Clapp

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins, a family of antiangiogenic peptides derived from prolactin proteolysis, inhibit the vascular effects of several proangiogenic factors, including bradykinin (BK. Here, we report that vasoinhibins block the BK-induced proliferation of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells. This effect is mediated by the inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, as the NO donor DETA-NONOate reverted vasoinhibin action. It is an experimentally proven fact that the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i upon BK stimulation activates eNOS, and vasoinhibins blocked the BK-mediated activation of phospholipase C and the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate leading to a reduced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by BK also involves the influx of extracellular Ca2+ via canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels. Vasoinhibins likely interfere with TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry since La3+, which is an enhancer of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channel activity, prevented vasoinhibins from blocking the stimulation by BK of endothelial cell NO production and proliferation, and vasoinhibins reduced the BK-induced increase of TRPC5 mRNA expression. Finally, vasoinhibins prevented the BK-induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179, a post-translational modification that facilitates Ca2+-calmodulin activation of eNOS. Together, our data show that vasoinhibins, by lowering NO production through the inhibition of both [Ca2+]i mobilization and eNOS phosphorylation, prevent the BK-induced stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation. Thus, vasoinhibins help to regulate BK effects on angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis.

  9. Mechanisms underlying erythrocyte and endothelial nitrite reduction to NO in hypoxia: role for Xanthine Oxidoreductase and eNOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Andrew J.; Milsom, Alexandra B.; Rathod, Krishnaraj S.; Chu, Wai Lum; Qureshi, Shehla; Lovell, Matthew J.; Lecomte, Florence M.J.; Perrett, David; Raimondo, Carmello; Khoshbin, Espeed; Ahmed, Zubair; Uppal, Rakesh; Benjamin, Nigel; Hobbs, Adrian J.; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of nitrite (NO2−) provides a major source of nitric oxide (NO) in the circulation, especially in hypoxemic conditions. Our previous studies suggest that xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is an important nitrite reductase in the heart and kidney. Herein, we have demonstrated that conversion of nitrite to NO by blood vessels and RBCs was enhanced in the presence of the XOR substrate, xanthine (10μM), and attenuated by the XOR inhibitor, allopurinol (100μM) in acidic and hypoxic conditions only. Whilst endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibition had no effect on vascular nitrite reductase activity, in RBCs L-NAME, L-NMMA and L-arginine inhibited nitrite-derived NO production by >50% (p<0.01), at pH 7.4 and 6.8 under hypoxic conditions. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis of RBC membranes confirmed the presence of eNOS and abundant XOR on whole RBCs. Thus, XOR and eNOS are ideally situated on the membranes of RBCs and blood vessels to generate intravascular vasodilator NO from nitrite during ischemic episodes. In addition to the proposed role of deoxyhemoglobin, our findings suggest that the nitrite reductase activity within the circulation, under hypoxic conditions (at physiological pH), is mediated by eNOS; however, as acidosis develops a substantial role for XOR becomes evident. PMID:18818408

  10. Impact of Lifestyle Intervention on HDL-Induced eNOS Activation and Cholesterol Efflux Capacity in Obese Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Wesnigk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese children and adolescent and is regarded as a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Important components for the development of endothelial dysfunction are reduced activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and an increase in cholesterol deposition in the vessel wall, due to reduced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT activity. High density lipoprotein (HDL exhibits antiatherosclerotic properties including modulation of eNOS activity and cholesterol efflux capacity. Lifestyle intervention programs can modify endothelial dysfunction in obese adolescents, but their impact on HDL-mediated eNOS activation and RCT is unknown so far. Methods. Obese adolescents (15±1 years, BMI > 35 kg/m2 where randomized either to an intervention group (IG, n=8; restricted diet and exercise or to a usual care group (UC, n=8. At the beginning and after 10 months of treatment HDL-mediated eNOS phosphorylation and cholesterol efflux capacity were evaluated. Results. Ten months of treatment resulted in a substantial weight loss (−31%, an improvement of endothelial function, and an increase in HDL-mediated eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation and RCT. A correlation between change in eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation or RCT and change in endothelial function was noted. Conclusion. A structured lifestyle intervention program improves antiatherosclerotic HDL functions, thereby positively influencing endothelial function.

  11. Enolase1 (ENO1) and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) are good markers to predict human sperm freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu-ping; Wang, Shang-qian; Wang, Wei; Xu, Yang; Xu, Zhen; Tang, Jing-yuan; Sun, Hong-yong; Wang, Zeng-jun; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Sperm cryopreservation is a method to preserve sperm samples for a long period. However, the fertility of sperm decreases markedly after freezing and thawing in a certain amount of samples. The aim of the present study was to find useful and reliable predictive biomarkers of the capacity to withstand the freeze-thawing process in human ejaculates. Previous researches have shown that enolase1 (ENO1) and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) are closely related to spermatozoa quality. We chose the two proteins as probable markers of sperm freezing capacity. Ejaculate samples were separated into good freezability ejaculates (GFE) and poor freezability ejaculates (PFE) according to progressive motility of the sperm after thawing. Before starting cryopreservation protocols, the two proteins from each group were compared using western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Results showed that normalized content of ENO1 (P<0.05) and GPI (P<0.01) were both significantly higher in GFE than in PFE. The association of ENO1 and GPI with postthaw sperm viability and motility was confirmed using Pearson's linear correlation. In conclusion, ENO1 and GPI can be used as markers of human sperm freezability before starting the cryopreservation procedure. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Triterpenoic Acids from Apple Pomace Enhance the Activity of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbauer, Katharina; Seiringer, Günter; Nguyen, Dieu Linh; Winkler, Johannes; Blaschke, Michael; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Urban, Ernst; Ladurner, Angela; Dirsch, Verena M; Zehl, Martin; Kopp, Brigitte

    2016-01-13

    Pomace is an easy-accessible raw material for the isolation of fruit-derived compounds. Fruit consumption is associated with health-promoting effects, such as the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Increased vascular nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, for example, due to an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, could be one molecular mechanism mediating this effect. To identify compounds from apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) pomace that have the potential to amplify NO bioavailability via eNOS activation, a bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol/water (70:30) extract has been performed using the (14)C-L-arginine to (14)C-L-citrulline conversion assay (ACCA) in the human endothelium-derived cell line EA.hy926. Phytochemical characterization of the active fractions was performed using the spectrophotometric assessment of the total phenolic content, as well as TLC, HPLC-DAD-ELSD, and HPLC-MS analyses. Eleven triterpenoic acids, of which one is a newly discovered compound, were identified as the main constituents in the most active fraction, accompanied by only minor contents of phenolic compounds. When tested individually, none of the tested compounds exhibited significant eNOS activation. Nevertheless, cell stimulation with the reconstituted compound mixture restored eNOS activation, validating the potential of apple pomace as a source of bioactive components.

  13. [Polymorphism of eNOS and iNOS Genes and Chronic Heart Failure in Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepliakov, A T; Shilov, S N; Berezikova, E N; Iakovleva, N F; Maianskaia, S D; Popova, A A; Luksha, E B; Voronina, E N; Torim, Iu Iu; Karpov, R S

    2010-01-01

    URGENCY: Despite substantial progress in the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) and chronic heart failure (CHF) prognosis in these conditions remains extremely serious. This warrants their timely prevention and early detection. Aim. To study influence of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) (CCTTT)n, Glu298Asp and diallel polymorphism in the fourth intron (4a/4b polymorphism) of endothelial NO synthase gene (eNOS gene) on the state of endothelial function and risk of development of CHF in patients with CHD. 165 patients with CHD were studied (121 male and 44 female, mean age 56.7 + or - 5.3 years). Vasomotor endothelial function was evaluated using ultrasound method in the reactive hyperemia and trinitroglycerol tests. Genotypes were identified using RFLP analysis of PCR products. Control group consisted of 114 persons (54 male and 60 female, mean age 53.2 + or - 4.9 years). It was determined that the number of repeats of polymorphic locus (CCTTT)n of the iNOS gene and Glu allele of the polymorphic locus Glu298Asp of eNOS gene in the homozygous state were associated with the risk of development of CHD and class of severity of CHF clinical manifestation. In addition Glu allele of the polymorphic locus Glu298Asp of eNOS gene in the homozygous state was associated with the severity and unfavorable development of CHF. The endothelial-dependent dysfunction was more severe in homozygotes of Glu allele of the polymorphic locus Glu298Asp of eNOS gene than in carrier of allele 298Asp. Associations between polymorphic variant of VNTR intron 4 gene eNOS and CHF with the risk of development and endothelial dysfunction were not found. An association between polymorphism of iNOS gene (CCTTT)n, eNOS gene (Glu298Asp) with development of CHD and severity of CHF was shown. The polymorphism of eNOS gene (Glu298Asp) was associated with endothelial dysfunction.

  14. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in enhancing expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α and VEGF in wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Imam; Devi, Anita; Purwandhono, Azham; Hadi Warsito, Sunaryo

    2017-05-01

    Wound healing is a physiological process that occurs progressively through overlapping phases. Tissue oxygenation is an important part of the complex regulation for wound healing. Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) therapy is a method of increasing oxygen delivery to tissues. The therapy improves tissue oxygenation and stimulates the formation of H2O2 as a secondary messenger for Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF α), e-NOS, VEGF and Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta phosphorylation (NF-Kb) which play an important role in the rapid transcription of a wide variety of genes in response to extracellular stimuli. This study aims to determine the effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy in enhancing the expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF and wound healing. This study is an animal study with a ‘randomized control group of pre-test and post test design’ on 28 Wistar rats. Randomly, the rats were divided into 4 groups with 7 rats in each group. The HBO treatment group 1 received 5 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA in 3 × 30 minutes; the HBO treatment group 2 received 10 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA in 3 × 30 minutes; and each of the control groups were without HBO. Each of the 28 male rats were given a full thickness excisional wound of 1 × 1cm. Examinations of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF expressions and wound healing were performed on day-0 (pre-HBO) and day-5 HBO or on day-0 (pre-HBO) and day-10 HBO. The resultsshowthat the Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy can improve e-NOS (p=0.02), TNF-α (p= 0.02), VEGF expression (p=0.02) and wound healing (p=0.002) significantly in the provision of HBO 2.4 ATA for 3 × 30 minutes in 5 sessions over 5 consecutive days. While the 10 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA for 3 × 30 minutes over 10 consecutive days only increase e-NOS (p=0.02), TNF-α (p=0.04), VEGF expression significantly (p=0.03) but do not improve wound healing significantly (p=0.3) compared with no HBO. The study concludes that HBO can improve the expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF and wound healing in the provision of HBO

  15. An Eulerian method for computation of multimaterial impact with ENO shock-capturing and sharp interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Udaykumar, H S; Belk, D M; Vanden, K J

    2003-01-01

    A technique is presented for the numerical simulation of high-speed multimaterial impact. Of particular interest is the interaction of solid impactors with targets. The computations are performed on a fixed Cartesian mesh by casting the equations governing material deformation in Eulerian conservation law form. The advantage of the Eulerian setting is the disconnection of the mesh from the boundary deformation allowing for large distortions of the interfaces. Eigenvalue analysis reveals that the system of equations is hyperbolic for the range of materials and impact velocities of interest. High-order accurate ENO shock-capturing schemes are used along with interface tracking techniques to evolve sharp immersed boundaries. The numerical technique is designed to tackle the following physical phenomena encountered during impact: (1) high velocities of impact leading to large deformations of the impactor as well as targets; (2) nonlinear wave-propagation and the development of shocks in the materials; (3) modelin...

  16. PP130. ENOS tagging SNP haplotypes in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrim, V; Muniz, L; Luizon, M; Palei, A C; Lacchini, R; Duarte, G; Cavalli, R; Tanus-Santos, J E

    2012-07-01

    Haplotypes formed by polymorphisms (T-786C, rs2070744; a variable number of tandem repeats in intron 4, and Glu298Asp, rs1799983) of eNOS gene were associated previously with gestational hypertension (GH) and preeclampsia (PE). However, no study has explored the tagging SNPs rs743506 and rs7830 in these disorders. The aim of the current study was to compare the distribution of the genotypes and haplotypes formed by the two tagging SNPs or by the five eNOS polymorphisms mentioned among healthy pregnant GH and PE. We recruited 122 HP, 138 GH and 157 PE. Genotypes for the T-786C, the Glu298Asp and rs743506 polymorphisms were determined by Taqmanâ Allele Discrimination assays and fluorescence signals were measured on Chromo 4 Detector (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA). Genotypes for the VNTR polymorphism in intron 4 and rs7830, however, were determined by PCR and fragment separation by electrophoresis in 8% polyacrylamide gels. Plasma aliquots were analyzed in triplicate for their nitrite content using an ozone-based chemiluminescence assay. The haplotype formed by the most common variants in each polymorphism "T b G A C" was more frequent in PE group compared to HP (P=0.00004), which may be explained by the higher linkage disequilibrium found in PE compared to GH and HP. Conversely, the haplotype "C b G G C" was more frequent in HP compared to PE (P=0.00113), which is supported by previous findings that demonstrated the association of the combination "C b G" with higher level of nitrite (NO marker). Our results suggest a protective effect of the haplotype "C b G G C" against the development of PE. This study was funded by the Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG-Brazil), the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and the Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP-Brazil). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. FEATURES OF THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF POLYMORPHIC VARIANTS OF ENOS AND AGTR2 GENES IN PATIENTS WITH CAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Khokhlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is a major cause of mortality. Morphological substrate of CHD in most cases is atherosclerosis, which is based on structural genes polymorphism eNOS and AGTR2. The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of eNOS and AGTR2 genes in patients with coronary artery disease and the association of these genes with coronary heart disease. The study involved 187 patients aged 36 to 86 years (62,2±11,2 with different forms of CHD: stable and unstable angina, myocardial infarction and 45 people without CHD. Determination of gene polymorphisms was performed by real-time PCR analyzer of nucleic acids IQ 5 Bio-Rad. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10.0. The study revealed a significant difference between the incidence of homozygous AA allelic variant gene AGTR2 group of patients with myocardial infarction and the comparison group; polymorphic variant AA AGTR2 gene is associated with earlier onset of coronary artery disease; It found that carriers of the polymorphic variant gene GA AGTR2 beginning statistically CHD occurred significantly later than in carriers of alleles GG and AA; age CHD debut TT allele carriers of the eNOS gene is associated with an earlier onset of the disease and statistically significantly different from the age of first CHD in carriers of alleles of polymorphic variants of GG and GT; revealed a positive correlation between the polymorphic allele AGTR2 gene with the presence of arterial hypertension in patients with coronary artery disease; It determined that the T allele carriers of the polymorphic gene eNOS is associated more early onset of hypertension, found the association of the polymorphic allele gene AGTR2 the need to use higher doses of ACE inhibitor — perindopril.

  18. Immunomodulatory effects of royal jelly on aorta CD3, CD68 and eNOS expression in hypercholesterolaemic rats

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    Amal Attia El-Morsy Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    RJ administration (300 mg/kg/day with CH, produced a counteractive effect, represented in recompense of biochemical alteration, CD4 and CD8 expression. RJ intake also amended the histological picture. The immunohistochemical picture revealed a decrease in CD3, CD86 and eNOS in the aortic tissue. These findings attributed to the significant immunomodulatory effect of RJ remedy suppress deleterious effects of hypercholesterolaemia.

  19. Prevalence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene exon 7 Glu298Asp variant in North Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankarishan, Priyanka; Borah, Prasanta Kumar; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives Endothelial nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator and impairment of its generation brought about by gene polymorphism is considered a major predictor for several diseases. A single nucleotide polymorphism G894T within exon 7 of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS-7) gene, resulting in a replacement of glutamic acid by aspartic acid, has been studied as a putative candidate gene for cardiovascular diseases. The pattern of eNOS-7 Glu298Asp variant in the Indian population is poorly known. The present study was planned to determine the prevalence of the variant of this gene among tea garden community in Assam, North-East India with high prevalence of hypertension. Methods Study participants of both sex aged ≥18 yr were recruited randomly from temporary field clinics established in tea gardens of Dibrugarh, Assam. Genomic DNA was extracted from 409 subjects by the conventional phenol-chloroform method. The prevalence of the eNOS exon 7 Glu298Asp variant was determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results The study population was in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. The frequency of the eNOS GG, GT and TT genotypes was found to be 75, 22 and 3 per cent respectively and did not show any significant difference in gender wise analysis. Interpretation & conclusions Our results showed that the prevalence of the homozygous GG genotype was high (75%) and the rare mutant genotype (homozygous, TT) was 3 per cent in a population at risk with cardiovascular disease. Such population-based data on various polymorphisms can ultimately be exploited in pharmacogenomics. PMID:21623032

  20. Substance P ameliorates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced endothelial cell dysfunction by regulating eNOS expression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Jiyuan; Hong, Hyun Sook; Son, Youngsook

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the beneficial effects of SP on NO production and inflammation-induced vascular endothelium cell death. To mimic the inflammatory environment, TNF-α was treated with HUVECs, and SP was added prior to TNF-α to determine its protective effect. WST-1 assay was performed to detect cell viability. NO level in conditioned medium was measured by Griess Reagent System. The protein level of cleaved caspase-3, eNOS, and phosphorylated Akt was detected by Western blot analysis. TNF-α declined endothelial cell viability by downregulating Akt and NO production. TNF-α-induced cell death was reliably restored by NO, confirming the requirement of NO for cell survival. By contrast, pretreatment of SP attenuated TNF-α-induced cellular apoptosis, accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS expression, and NO production. Blockage of NK-1R, phosphorylated Akt or eNOS by CP-96345, A6730, or L-NAME entirely eliminated the effect of SP. SP can protect the vascular endothelium against inflammation-induced damage through modulation of the Akt/eNOS/NO signaling pathway. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Puerarin improves renal function in STZ-induced diabetic rats by attenuating eNOS expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Hongya; Yu, Li; Chen, Jimin

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication and it leads to kidney failure. The endothelial nitric oxide synthases (eNOS) seems to be involved in the development and progression of DN. The Puerarin is a well-known Chinese traditional formula, which is widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of kidney disease. The present study was designed to investigate the renal protective effects of Puerarin on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were divided into three groups at random. The diabetic group and the Puerarin-treated group were intraperitoneally injected with STZ 65 mg/kg and the Puerarin-treated rats were intraperitoneally injected Puerarin 100 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The results showed the Puerarin could improve body weight, blood sugar, BUN and SCr levels, and reduce ultrastructural changes of kidney in diabetic rats. It also attenuated eNOS expression in glomerular endothelial cells and tubular cells of diabetic rats with Puerarin treatment (p renal-protective effects for the diabetic nephropathy, possibly through regulating eNOS expression, and it may be used as a potential therapeutic reagent.

  2. Efectos ecológicos del fenómeno ENOS en Colombia

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    Yesid Carvajal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno ENOS, tiene un sustancial efecto sobre las variaciones del clima a nivel mundial; por lo tanto, no sorprende que sus efectos tengan un impacto ecológico y socioeconómico fuerte, alterando la seguridad alimentaria de los países a nivel mundial. Ante este panorama, es comprensible que haya despertado el mayor interés mundial, no sólo en los especialistas en meteorología y oceanografía sino también entre biólogos, ecólogos, físicos, matemáticos, agrónomos, hidrólogos, economistas, sociólogos y planificadores, entre otros. En el presente documento, se muestra algunos de los principales efectos ecológicos en Colombia durante las fases extremas cálida (El Niño y fría (La Niña, indicando que es una necesidad urgente, orientar la investigación en sus causas, consecuencias e impactos.

  3. Purinergic glio-endothelial coupling during neuronal activity: role of P2Y1 receptors and eNOS in functional hyperemia in the mouse somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter; Tarantini, Stefano; Davila, Antonio; Valcarcel-Ares, M Noa; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Varamini, Behzad; Ballabh, Praveen; Sonntag, William E; Baur, Joseph A; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2015-12-01

    Impairment of moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) via neurovascular coupling is thought to play a critical role in the genesis of cognitive impairment associated with aging and pathological conditions associated with accelerated cerebromicrovascular aging (e.g., hypertension, obesity). Although previous studies demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role in neurovascular uncoupling in these conditions, the role of endothelial NO mediation in neurovascular coupling responses is not well understood. To establish the link between endothelial function and functional hyperemia, neurovascular coupling responses were studied in mutant mice overexpressing or deficient in endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and the role of P2Y1 receptors in purinergic glioendothelial coupling was assessed. We found that genetic depletion of eNOS (eNOS(-/-)) and pharmacological inhibition of NO synthesis significantly decreased the CBF responses in the somatosensory cortex evoked by whisker stimulation and by administration of ATP. Overexpression of eNOS enhanced NO mediation of functional hyperemia. In control mice, the selective and potent P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2179 attenuated both whisker stimulation-induced and ATP-mediated CBF responses, whereas, in eNOS(-/-) mice, the inhibitory effects of MRS2179 were blunted. Collectively, our findings provide additional evidence for purinergic glio-endothelial coupling during neuronal activity, highlighting the role of ATP-mediated activation of eNOS via P2Y1 receptors in functional hyperemia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. La precipitación de verano en el centro-oeste de Argentina y los fenómenos interanual El Niño/Oscilación Sur (ENOS e interdecádico "tipo" ENOS

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    Rosa Hilda Compagnucci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gran parte de la variabilidad interanual a multidecádica de la precipitación en el continente Sudamericano es atribuida a la variabilidad de la cuenca del Pacífico ecuatorial. Esta vinculación se establece a través del fenómeno de 2-6 años El Niño/Oscilación Sur (ENOS o de la variabilidad interdecádica "tipo" ENOS (Díaz y otros 1998, Grimm y otros 2000, Grimm 2003, entre otros. Por tanto, el presente estudio intenta examinar la relación existente entre la variabilidad interanual a multidecádica de la precipitación de verano en la región Centro-Oeste de Argentina y ambos procesos oceánicos de baja frecuencia. Los resultados muestran que tanto para la escala interanual (fenómeno ENOS como en menores escalas (interdecádico "tipo" ENOS no hay vinculación entre las condiciones de temperatura superficial del mar en la cuenca del Pacífico ecuatorial y la precipitación. Solo aparecen vinculadas físicamente las áreas oceánicas próximas al cono sur de Sudamérica del Pacífico Sur y del Atlántico Sur, siendo el sudoeste del Atlántico Sur el que mayor varianza explica.Most of the interanual-to-multidecadal variability of the South American precipitation is attributed to the variability of the equatorial Pacific basin. The link between both is established through either 2-to-6-year El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO or the interdecadal El Niño-like variability (Díaz et al. 1998, Grimm et al. 2000, Grimm 2003, amongst other. Therefore, this study aims to examine the relationship between the interanual-to-multidecadal variability of the summer precipitation in Central-West Argentina, in South America, and both oceanic low-frequency processes. Results show that both at interanual scales (ENSO and at lower scales (ENSO-like there no exists link between the sea surface temperature in the equatorial Pacific and precipitation. Only the areas closer to the Southern American continent over the South Atlantic and South Pacific seem to be

  5. Effect of Antioxidants on Testicular iNOS and eNOS after High-Fat Diet in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Maryam; Hosseini, Mahnaz; Inan, Sevinc; Alizadeh, Zohreh; Vahabian, Mehrangiz; Vahidinia, Ali Asghar; Lahoutian, Hosein

    2017-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a process by which germ cells produce spermatozoa and can be disturbed at every level. Nitric Oxide Synthases (NOS), implicate in interactions with Oxidative Stress (OS) which is one of the main factors in the etiology of male infertility. The High Fat Diet (HFD) is a major factor of obesity which in turn is important for enhancing OS. Antioxidants and garlic could attenuate or reverse effects of HFD. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary antioxidants and garlic on testicular inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) in Wistar albino rats fed on HFD. Groups (each n = 8) were: SD (100% access to standard diet), F-HFD, (100% access to HFD) and R-HFD (70% access to HFD), F-HFD +antioxidants, F-HFD+garlic and R-HFD+antioxidants. The HFD consisted of a 60% fatty diet in 3 forms: Without antioxidants, with antioxidants and with garlic. The testicular iNOS and eNOS were studied by immunohistochemical (IHC) method. Also used ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA, t-tests and Tukey's test (where necessary) to analyze the data (pantioxidants groups. The eNOS increased in R-HFD,F-HFD and F-HFD+garlic groups. The H-E evaluation in R-HFD group showed a decrease in spermatogenesis score count and seminiferous tubules diameters (μm) in comparison with the SD and F-HFD groups. R-HFD+antioxidants group had lower score than F-HFD+antioxidants and F-HFD+garlic groups. Restricted fat diet consumption causes increase in weight and impairs spermatogenesis. Results of this study reveal that adding the antioxidants can't improve histological changes of testis. The iNOS expression in seminiferous tubules in restricted fat diet along with antioxidants, suggest a potential role of iNOS in spermatogenesis and male infertility.

  6. Investigation of gene expression and serum levels of PIN1 and eNOS with high blood pressure in patients with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Mina; Nikanfar, Masoud; Khakikhatibi, Fatemeh; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Nourazarian, Seyed Manuchehr; Biray Avci, Cigir; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    According to evidence, Alzheimer's disease is known as one of the most serious neurodegenerative diseases, for which hypertension has been observed to be a key risk factor. Therefore, this study aims to examine the relationship between the PIN1 and eNOS genes expression, as well as serum levels and hypertension in Alzheimer's disease sufferers. Blood samples were obtained from subjects who were divided into four groups: the control group, normotensive Alzheimer's patients, the Alzheimer's sufferers group with hypertension, and the healthy group with only hypertension, considering the inhibition of confounding factors. Thereafter, eNOS and PIN1 genes expression along with serum levels were studied. Based on the obtained results, a statistically significant correlation didn't exist between serum level of PIN1 and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, between serum level of eNOS and diastolic blood pressure in the norm tension Alzheimer's disease patients, between serum levels of PIN1, eNOS and systolic blood pressure, and between serum eNOS and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the patients with hypertension (pdiseases in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Propionyl-L-carnitine induces eNOS activation and nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells via PI3 and Akt kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Wen-hu; Zhao, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Propionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) is a natural short-chain derivative of l-carnitine (LC), a natural amino acid that plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism. Recent studies suggest that PLC has vascular protective effects. Because of the importance of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and its product, antiatherogenic molecule nitric oxide (NO), in vascular endothelial function, we sought to elucidate that if PLC would stimulate eNOS and its upstream activators Akt and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 Kinase) in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). PLC caused eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177, and dominant negative Akt and a novel Akt-selective inhibitor MK-2206 inhibited both PLC-mediated phosphorylation and activation of the enzyme. PI3 kinase inhibition also blocked the phosphorylation and activation of eNOS by PLC. Studies with specific drug inhibitors PD173955 and PP2 showed that the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, src, is an upstream stimulator of the PI3 kinase-Akt pathway in this pathway. In addition, PLC significantly decreased intracellular ATP/ADP ratio and activate AMPK, subsequently leading to Src activation. Finally, we demonstrated that the effects of PLC to augment eNOS activity were associated with a net increase in NO release from endothelial cells. NO production following incubation with PLC was abolished in endothelial cells coincubated with L-NAME, PD173955, LY294002, MK-2206 and compound C. In conclusion, PLC, via AMPK/Src-mediated signaling that leads to activation of PI3 kinase and Akt, stimulates eNOS, leading to increased production of NO. © 2013.

  8. Relationship between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and natural history of intracranial aneurysms: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Eric Homero Albuquerque; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Paschoal Junior, Fernando Mendes; Jong-A-Liem, Glaucia Suzanna; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Yamada, Elizabeth Sumi; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Ândrea; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2018-01-01

    The aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major public health problem described as a sudden drastic event with no warning symptoms and high morbidity and mortality rates. The role of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism in intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is still a matter of controversy with divergent findings among European, American, and Asian populations. Our study purposed to test the association between intracranial aneurysms formation and nitric oxide gene polymorphisms through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic search on Medline, Lilacs, and EMBASE was performed. The primary search resulted in 139 papers, out of which 9 met our inclusion criteria after a full text analysis. The dominant T786C model found a significant association with IA (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.04-1.44, p = 0.01), so did studies of the recessive T786C model (OR 0.37, 95 % CI 0.30-0.45, p < 0.0001) but with opposite effect. Our findings support the presence of the T786C polymorphism as a predictor for the development of intracranial aneurysm in the cerebral vascular system. More studies are necessary in order to elucidate the pathways of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cerebrovascular diseases and in defining how different allelic combinations of the eNOS gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) could favor this pathological process.

  9. Sildenafil Ameliorates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats: Role of iNOS and eNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Morsy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is used for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections. However, its usefulness is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, was reported to prevent or decrease tissue injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential protective effects of sildenafil on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 6 days with and without sildenafil. Sildenafil administration resulted in nephroprotective effect in gentamicin-intoxicated rats as it significantly decreased serum creatinine and urea, urinary albumin, and renal malondialdehyde and nitrite/nitrate levels, with a concomitant increase in renal catalase and superoxide dismutase activities compared to gentamicin-treated rats. Moreover, immunohistochemical examination revealed that sildenafil treatment markedly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression, while expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS was markedly enhanced. The protective effects of sildenafil were verified histopathologically. In conclusion, sildenafil protects rats against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity possibly, in part, through its antioxidant activity, inhibition of iNOS expression, and induction of eNOS production.

  10. Prunella vulgaris Suppresses HG-Induced Vascular Inflammation via Nrf2/HO-1/eNOS Activation

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    Ho Sub Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular inflammation is an important factor which can promote diabetic complications. In this study, the inhibitory effects of aqueous extract from Prunella vulgaris (APV on high glucose (HG-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC are reported. APV decreased HG-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and E-selectin. APV also dose-dependently inhibited HG-induced adhesion of HL-60 monocytic cells. APV suppressed p65 NF-κB activation in HG-treated cells. APV significantly inhibited the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. HG-stimulated HUVEC secreted gelatinases, however, APV inhibited it. APV induced Akt phosphorylation as well as activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, eNOS, and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which may protect vascular inflammation caused by HG. In conclusion, APV exerts anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of ROS/NF-κB pathway by inducing HO-1 and eNOS expression mediated by Nrf2, thereby suggesting that Prunella vulgaris may be a possible therapeutic approach to the inhibition of diabetic vascular diseases.

  11. Estrogen and phytoestrogens: Effect on eNOS expression and in vitro vasodilation in cerebral arteries in ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus Otto; Mortensen, A; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    . Concentration response curves to carbamylcholine chloride, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and l-NAME were evaluated after precontraction with potassium. Total RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed and eNOS quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). RESULTS: Plasma cholesterol...... in any of the arteries. Correspondingly, eNOS mRNA was similarly expressed in all treatment groups in both arteries. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement of cerebral endothelial function by estrogen or soy isoflavones in ovariectomized WHHL rabbits is not supported by the present data. The findings may be unique...

  12. Influence of eNOS gene polymorphism on cardiometabolic parameters in response to physical training in postmenopausal women

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    R.D. Esposti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The health-promoting effects of exercise training (ET are related to nitric oxide (NO production and/or its bioavailability. The objective of this study was to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphism of the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS gene at positions -786T>C, G894T (Glu298Asp and at the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR Intron 4b/a would interfere with the cardiometabolic responses of postmenopausal women submitted to physical training. Forty-nine postmenopausal women were trained in sessions of 30-40 min, 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Genotypes, oxidative stress status and cardiometabolic parameters were then evaluated in a double-blind design. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were significantly reduced after ET, which was genotype-independent. However, women without eNOS gene polymorphism at position -786T>C (TT genotype and Intron 4b/a (bb genotype presented a better reduction of total cholesterol levels (-786T>C: before = 213 ± 12.1, after = 159.8 ± 14.4, Δ = -24.9% and Intron 4b/a: before = 211.8 ± 7.4, after = 180.12 ± 6.4 mg/dL, Δ = -15%, and LDL cholesterol (-786T>C: before = 146.1 ± 13.3, after = 82.8 ± 9.2, Δ = -43.3% and Intron 4b/a: before = 143.2 ± 8, after = 102.7 ± 5.8 mg/dL, Δ = -28.3% in response to ET compared to those who carried the mutant allele. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly increased in trained women whereas no changes were observed in malondialdehyde levels. Women without eNOS gene polymorphism at position -786T>C and Intron 4b/a showed a greater reduction of plasma cholesterol levels in response to ET. Furthermore, no genotype influence was observed on arterial blood pressure or oxidative stress status in this population.

  13. FY 1998 annual report on the development of laser-aided, noncontacting, realtime, in-process dressing method using a grinding stone with ultrafine abrasive grains, and study on techniques for applying the method to grinding stone of superthin blades; 1998 nendo laser wo mochiita choteiryu toishi no hisesshoku real time inprocess dressing ho no kaihatsu oyobi gokuusuha toishi eno tekiyo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A new noncontacting dressing method using a laser as a tool has been studied and developed, in order to develop environment-compatible, energy-saving type machining machines. In this study, a cup-shaped grinding stone is developed for grinding performance testing by micron-order diamond abrasive powder, used for producing a grinding stone of superthin blades, is mixed with a cast iron binder, molded and sintered. In the grinding performance test, zirconia as a work is ground at a constant pressure to the grinding stone working surface before and after the laser-aided dressing, to analyze grinding/removal efficiency and grinding resistance. The grinding stone working surface conditions are observed by a scanning electron microscope after the laser-aided dressing, to correlate the surface conditions with the grinding data. It is found that the laser-aided dressing method needs no lubricant, is clean, cutting grinding time when incorporated in the machining process, suitable for grinding stone of low stiffness and ultrathin blades by use of ultrafine abrasive grains, suffering no exfoliation of the diamond grains, and hence economical. (NEDO)

  14. Eno-culture and Identity: The installation as a new methodology in Artistic Research and Heritage Education

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    Ruth Marañón Martínez de la Puente

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic experience and the artistic knowledge always have been connected with the Heritage Education, due to the great importance in rewarding pedagogic processes, specially, in non-formal spaces. In our research, the installation (with its features and competences has turned into the most interesting educational tool to transform the reality of our work’s context: Rioja Alavesa. Thus, across the workshops "Instálate" (organized inside different wineries of the region, we worked the Wine Cultural Heritage (Eno-culture, the Artistic Research and the knowledge based on the sensitive experience. In this article, we showed the results of this experience, proposing the installation as a new interesting and practical method of Artistic Research in Heritage Education. In conclusion, we propose the art-installation as a different key to work the identity, contemporary art, culture and heritage.

  15. A Multilevel Prediction of Physiological Response to Challenge: Interactions among Child Maltreatment, Neighborhood Crime, eNOS and GABRA6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Manly, Jody Todd; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    Physiological response to stress has been linked to variety of healthy and pathological conditions. The current study conducted a multilevel examination of interactions among environmental toxins – i.e., neighborhood crime and child maltreatment – and specific genetic polymorphisms of eNOS and GABRA6. A total of 186 children were recruited at age 4. At this time, the presence or absence of child maltreatment was determined, as was the amount of crime that occurred in their neighborhood during the previous year. At age 9, the children were brought to the lab where their physiological response to a cognitive challenge – i.e., change in the amplitude of RSA – was assessed and DNA samples were collected for subsequent genotyping. Results confirmed that complex G x G, E x E, and G x E interactions were associated with different patterns of RSA reactivity. The implications for future research and evidence-based intervention are discussed. PMID:26535938

  16. Chronic aerobic exercise associated to dietary modification improve endothelial function and eNOS expression in high fat fed hamsters.

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    Beatriz C S Boa

    Full Text Available Obesity is epidemic in the western world and central adipose tissue deposition points to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of any association between obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Physical exercise has been used as non-pharmacological treatment to significantly reverse/attenuate obesity comorbidities. In this study we have investigated effects of exercise and/or dietary modification on microcirculatory function, body composition, serum glucose, iNOS and eNOS expression on 120 male hamsters treated for 12 weeks with high fat chow (HF, n = 30 starting on the 21st day of birth. From week 12 to 20, animals were randomly separated in HF (no treatment change, return to standard chow (HFSC, n = 30, high fat chow associated to an aerobic exercise training program (AET (HFEX, n = 30 and return to standard chow+AET (HFSCEX, n = 30. Microvascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion were assessed on the cheek pouch preparation. Total body fat and aorta eNOS and iNOS expression by immunoblotting assay were evaluated on the experimental day. Compared to HFSC and HFSCEX groups, HF and HFEX ones presented increased visceral fat [(mean±SEM (HF4.9±1.5 g and (HFEX4.7±0.9 g vs. (HFSC*3.0±0.7 g and (HFSCEX*1.9±0.4 g/100 g BW]; impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation [Ach 10(-8 M (HF87.9±2.7%; (HFSC*116.7±5.9%; (HFEX*109.1±4.6%; (HFSCEX*105±2.8%; Ach10(-6 M (HF95.3±3.1%; (HFSC*126±6.2%; (HFEX*122.5±2.8%; (HFSCEX*118.1±4.3% and Ach10(-4 M (HF109.5±4.8%; (HFSC*149.6±6.6%; (HFEX*143.5±5.4% and (HFSCEX*139.4±5.2%], macromolecular permeability increase after ischemia/reperfusion [(HF40.5±4.2; (HFSC*19.0±1.6; (HFEX*18.6±2.1 and (HFSCEX* 21.5±3.7 leaks/cm2, decreased eNOS expression, increased leptin and glycaemic levels. Endothelial-independent microvascular

  17. Priapism in a Fabry disease mouse model is associated with upregulated penile nNOS and eNOS expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xing-Li; Arning, Erland; Wight-Carter, Mary; Day, Taniqua S; Jabbarzadeh-Tabrizi, Siamak; Chen, Shuyuan; Ziegler, Robin J; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Schneider, Jay W; Cheng, Seng H; Schiffmann, Raphael; Shen, Jin-Song

    2018-03-01

    Fabry disease is a glycosphingolipidosis caused by deficient activity of α-galactosidase A; it is one of a few diseases that are associated with priapism, an abnormal prolonged erection of the penis. The goal of this study was to investigate the pathogenesis of Fabry disease-associated priapism in a mouse model of the disease. We found that Fabry mice develop late-onset priapism. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which was predominantly present as the 120-kDa N-terminus-truncated form, was significantly upregulated in the penis of 18-month-old Fabry mice compared to wild type controls (~fivefold). Endothelial NOS (eNOS) was also upregulated (~twofold). NO level in penile tissues of Fabry mice was significantly higher than wild type controls at 18 months. Gene transfer-mediated enzyme replacement therapy reversed abnormal nNOS expression in the Fabry mouse penis. The penile nNOS level was restored by antiandrogen treatment, suggesting that hyperactive androgen receptor signaling in Fabry mice may contribute to nNOS upregulation. However, the phosphodiesterase-5A expression level and the adenosine content in the penis, which are known to play roles in the development of priapism in other etiologies, were unchanged in Fabry mice. In conclusion, these data suggested that increased nNOS (and probably eNOS) content and the consequential elevated NO production and high arterial blood flow in the penis may be the underlying mechanism of priapism in Fabry mice. Furthermore, in combination with previous findings, this study suggested that regulation of NOS expression is susceptible to α-galactosidase A deficiency, and this may represent a general pathogenic mechanism of Fabry vasculopathy.

  18. Nebivolol alleviates aortic remodeling through eNOS upregulation and inhibition of oxidative stress in l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Fei; Liu, Yu; Yin, Sha; Pang, Xuefen; Li, Zhidong; Wei, Zehui

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect and mechanism of nebivolol on aortic remodeling in N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with equal volumes of drinking water or l-NAME (60 mg/kg/day), alone or in combination with nebivolol (8 mg/kg/day) or atenolol (80 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), aortic morphometry, plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and relaxation of aorta to acetylcholine were determined. Protein expression of endothelial NOS (eNOS), Akt, and NADPH oxidase (Nox) was evaluated. l-NAME-treated rats showed an elevated SBP associated with aortic remodeling. l-NAME-treated rats showed reduced plasma NO levels and NOS activity and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Protein expression of eNOS, eNOS phosphorylated at Ser 1177 (p-eNOS), Akt, and Akt phosphorylated at Ser 473 (p-Akt) decreased, whereas that of Nox2, Nox4, and p22 phox increased in the aortas from l-NAME-treated rats. Nebivolol treatment reduced SBP and ameliorated aortic remodeling. The effects of nebivolol were accompanied by increasing NO levels, NOS activity, and expression of eNOS, p-eNOS, Akt, and p-Akt, as well as reduction of ROS generation and Nox2, Nox4, and p22 phox expression. These effects of nebivolol were not reproduced by atenolol. Our data indicate a protective role of nebivolol on the high blood pressure and vascular remodeling induced by l-NAME. The beneficial vascular effect of nebivolol is mediated by the upregulation of eNOS and inhibition of oxidative stress.

  19. Enolase 1 (ENO1 and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3 regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells

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    Kathrin Mutze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The alveolar epithelium represents a major site of tissue destruction during lung injury. It consists of alveolar epithelial type I (ATI and type II (ATII cells. ATII cells are capable of self-renewal and exert progenitor function for ATI cells upon alveolar epithelial injury. Cell differentiation pathways enabling this plasticity and allowing for proper repair, however, are poorly understood. Here, we applied proteomics, expression analysis and functional studies in primary murine ATII cells to identify proteins and molecular mechanisms involved in alveolar epithelial plasticity. Mass spectrometry of cultured ATII cells revealed a reduction of carbonyl reductase 2 (CBR2 and an increase in enolase 1 (ENO1 and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3 protein expression during ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation. This was accompanied by increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as analyzed by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Notably, ENO1 and PDIA3, along with T1α (podoplanin; an ATI cell marker, exhibited decreased protein expression upon pharmacological and molecular Wnt/β-catenin inhibition in cultured ATII cells, whereas CBR2 levels were stabilized. Moreover, we analyzed primary ATII cells from mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury, a model exhibiting activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vivo. We observed reduced CBR2 significantly correlating with surfactant protein C (SFTPC, whereas ENO1 and PDIA3 along with T1α were increased in injured ATII cells. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENO1, as well as PDIA3, in primary ATII cells led to reduced T1α expression, indicating diminished cell trans-differentiation. Our data thus identified proteins involved in ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation and suggest a Wnt/β-catenin-driven functional role of ENO1 and PDIA3 in alveolar epithelial cell plasticity in lung injury and repair.

  20. Antenatal Maternally-Administered Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors Normalize eNOS Expression in the Fetal Lamb Model of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Eveline H; Schecter, Samuel C.; Gong, Wenhui; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Johengen, Michael; Iqbal, Corey; Derderian, S. Christopher; Oishi, Peter; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Miniati, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Pulmonary hypertension (pHTN), a main determinant of survival in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), results from in utero vascular remodeling. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors have never been used antenatally to treat pHTN. The purpose of this study is to determine if antenatal PDE5 inhibitors can prevent pHTN in the fetal lamb model of CDH. Methods CDH were created in pregnant ewes. Postoperatively, pregnant ewes received oral placebo or tadalafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, until delivery. Near term gestation, lambs underwent resuscitations, and lung tissue was snap frozen for protein analysis. Results Mean cGMP levels were 0.53±0.11 in placebo-treated fetal lambs and 1.73±0.21 in tadalafil-treated fetal lambs (p=0.002). Normalized expression of eNOS was 82±12% in Normal-Placebo, 61±5% in CDH-Placebo, 116±6% in Normal-Tadalafil, and 86±8% in CDH-Tadalafil lambs. Normalized expression of β-sGC was 105±15% in Normal-Placebo, 82±3% in CDH-Placebo, 158±16% in Normal-Tadalafil, and 86±8% in CDH-Tadalafil lambs. Endothelial NOS and β-sGC were significantly decreased in CDH (p = 0.0007 and 0.01 for eNOS and β-sGC, respectively), and tadalafil significantly increased eNOS expression (p = 0.0002). Conclusions PDE5 inhibitors can cross the placental barrier. β-sGC and eNOS are downregulated in fetal lambs with CDH. Antenatal PDE5 inhibitors normalize eNOS and may prevent in utero vascular remodeling in CDH. PMID:24439578

  1. Role of Ca2+ in the control of H2O2-modulated phosphorylation pathways leading to eNOS activation in cardiac myocytes.

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    Juliano L Sartoretto

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 play key roles in physiological and pathological responses in cardiac myocytes. The mechanisms whereby H(2O(2-modulated phosphorylation pathways regulate the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in these cells are incompletely understood. We show here that H(2O(2 treatment of adult mouse cardiac myocytes leads to increases in intracellular Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+](i, and document that activity of the L-type Ca(2+ channel is necessary for the H(2O(2-promoted increase in sarcomere shortening and of [Ca(2+](i. Using the chemical NO sensor Cu(2(FL2E, we discovered that the H(2O(2-promoted increase in cardiac myocyte NO synthesis requires activation of the L-type Ca(2+ channel, as well as phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2. Moreover, H(2O(2-stimulated phosphorylations of eNOS, AMPK, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 all depend on both an increase in [Ca(2+](i as well as the activation of protein kinase C (PKC. We also found that H(2O(2-promoted cardiac myocyte eNOS translocation from peripheral membranes to internal sites is abrogated by the L-type Ca(2+ channel blocker nifedipine. We have previously shown that kinase Akt is also involved in H(2O(2-promoted eNOS phosphorylation. Here we present evidence documenting that H(2O(2-promoted Akt phosphorylation is dependent on activation of the L-type Ca(2+ channel, but is independent of PKC. These studies establish key roles for Ca(2+- and PKC-dependent signaling pathways in the modulation of cardiac myocyte eNOS activation by H(2O(2.

  2. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group (n=12), HIIT for an acute bout (AT1), short term HIIT for 3 and 5 sessions (ST3 and ST5), long-term training for 8 weeks (LT) (6 in each group). The rats of the training groups were made to run on a treadmill for 60 min in three stages: 6 min running for warm-up, 7 intervals of 7 min running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 min with an intensity of 80-110% VO2max and 3 min at 50-60% VO2max), and 5-min running for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Rats were sacrificed and the hearts were extracted to analyze the levels of UCP2, UCP3 and eNOS mRNA by RT-PCR. Results: UCP3 expression was increased significantly following an acute training bout. Repeated HIIT for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in UCPs mRNA and a significant increase in eNOS expression in cardiac muscle. Conclusion: This study indicates that Long term HIIT through decreasing UCPs mRNA and increasing eNOS mRNA expression may enhance energy efficiency and physical performance. PMID:27114795

  3. Effects of aerobic exercise on the blood pressure, oxidative stress and eNOS gene polymorphism in pre-hypertensive older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Anderson Saranz; Park, Joon-Young; Fenty-Stewart, Nicola; Silveira, Leonardo Reis; Kokubun, Eduardo; Brown, Michael D

    2010-11-01

    The polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are associated with reduced eNOS activity. Aerobic exercise training (AEX) may influence resting nitric oxide (NO) production, oxidative stress and blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of AEX on the relationship among blood pressure, eNOS gene polymorphism and oxidative stress in pre-hypertensive older people. 118 pre-hypertensive subjects (59 ± 6 years) had blood samples collected after a 12 h overnight fast for assessing plasma NO metabolites (NOx) assays, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (T-BARS) and superoxide dismutase activity (ecSOD). eNOS polymorphism (T-786C and G-894T) was done by standard PCR methods. All people were divided according to the genotype results (G1: TT/GG, G2: TT/GT + TT, G3: TC + CC/GG, G4: TC + CC/GT + TT). All parameters were measured before and after 6 months of AEX (70% of VO(2 max)). At baseline, no difference was found in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, ecSOD and T-BARS activity. Plasma NOx levels were significantly different between G1 (19 ± 1 μM) and G4 (14.2 ± 0.6 μM) and between G2 (20.1 ± 1.7 μM) and G4 (14.2 ± 0.6 μM). Therefore, reduced NOx concentration in G4 group occurred only when the polymorphisms were associated, suggesting that these results are more related to genetic factors than NO-scavenging effect. After AEX, the G4 increased NOx values (17.2 ± 1.2 μM) and decreased blood pressure. G1, G3 and G4 decreased T-BARS levels. These results suggest the AEX can modulate the NOx concentration, eNOS activity and the relationship among eNOS gene polymorphism, oxidative stress and blood pressure especially in C (T-786C) and T (G-894T) allele carriers.

  4. Evaluation of Protective Immune Responses Induced by Recombinant TrxLp and ENO2 Proteins against Toxoplasma gondii Infection in BALB/c Mice

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    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan that can infect almost all species of warm-blooded animals. As any chemical-based drugs could not act against the tissue cyst stage of T. gondii, vaccination may be one of the ideal control strategies. In the present study, two new vaccine candidates, named TgENO2 and TgTrxLp, were purified from Escherichia coli with pET-30a(+ expression system and then were injected into BALB/c mice to evaluate the protective efficacy against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. The results showed that both the recombinant proteins, either alone or in combination, could elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses with a higher level of IgG antibodies, IFN-γ, IL-2, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells as compared to those in mice from control groups. After acute challenge with tachyzoites of the GJS strain, mice immunized with rTgTrxLp (8±2.77 d, rTgENO2 (7.4±1.81 d, and rTgTrxLp + rTgENO2 (8.38±4.57 d proteins showed significantly longer survival time than those that received Freund’s adjuvant (6.78±2.08 d and PBS (6.38±4.65 d (χ2 = 9.687, df = 4, P=0.046. The protective immunity of rTgTrxLp, rTgENO2, and rTgTrxLp + rTgENO2 proteins against chronic T. gondii infection showed 69.77%, 58.14%, and 20.93% brain cyst reduction as compared to mice that received PBS. The present study suggested that both TgENO2 and TgTrxLp were potential candidates for the development of multicomponent vaccines against toxoplasmosis.

  5. Testosterone replacement in transgenic sickle cell mice controls priapic activity and upregulates PDE5 expression and eNOS activity in the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, B; Karakus, S; Akakpo, W; Silva, F H; Liu, J; Chen, H; Zirkin, B R; Burnett, A L

    2018-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated priapism is characterized by decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling and downregulated phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 protein expression and activity in the penis. Priapism is also associated with testosterone deficiency, but molecular mechanisms underlying testosterone effects in the penis in SCD are not known. Given the critical role of androgens in erection physiology and NO synthase (NOS)/PDE5 expression, we hypothesized that testosterone replacement to eugonadal testosterone levels reduces priapism by reversing impaired endothelial (e)NOS activity and molecular abnormalities involving PDE5. Adult male transgenic Berkeley sickle cell (Sickle) and wild-type (WT) mice were implanted with testosterone pellets, which release 1.2 μg testosterone/day for 21 days, or vehicle. After 21 days, animals underwent erectile function assessment followed by collection of blood for serum testosterone measurements, penes for molecular analysis, and seminal vesicles as testosterone-responsive tissue. Serum testosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay; protein expressions of PDE5, α-smooth muscle actin, eNOS and nNOS, and phosphorylation of PDE5 at Ser-92, eNOS at Ser-1177, neuronal (n) NOS at Ser-1412, and Akt at Ser-473 were measured by Western blot in penile tissue. Testosterone treatment reversed downregulated serum testosterone levels and increased (p testosterone levels in Sickle mice. Testosterone treatment reduced (p penis. Testosterone treatment did not affect P-nNOS (Ser-1412), eNOS, nNOS, or α-smooth muscle actin protein expressions in the Sickle mouse penis. In conclusion, in the mouse model of human SCD, increasing testosterone to eugonadal levels reduced priapic activity and reversed impaired Akt/eNOS activity and PDE5 protein expression in the penis. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Oxidative Stress-Induced miR-200c Disrupts the Regulatory Loop Among SIRT1, FOXO1, and eNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomosti, Fabrizio; D'Agostino, Marco; Beji, Sara; Torcinaro, Alessio; Rizzi, Roberto; Zaccagnini, Germana; Maimone, Biagina; Di Stefano, Valeria; De Santa, Francesca; Cordisco, Sonia; Antonini, Annalisa; Ciarapica, Roberta; Dellambra, Elena; Martelli, Fabio; Avitabile, Daniele; Capogrossi, Maurizio Colognesi; Magenta, Alessandra

    2017-08-20

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in different pathologic conditions, including ischemia, diabetes, and aging. We previously showed that ROS enhance miR-200c expression, causing endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis and senescence. Herein, we dissect the interaction among miR-200c and three strictly related proteins that modulate EC function and ROS production: sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1). Moreover, the role of miR-200c on ROS modulation was also investigated. We demonstrated that miR-200c directly targets SIRT1, eNOS, and FOXO1; via this mechanism, miR-200c decreased NO and increased the acetylation of SIRT1 targets, that is, FOXO1 and p53. FOXO1 acetylation inhibited its transcriptional activity on target genes, that is, SIRT1 and the ROS scavengers, catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase. In keeping, miR-200c increased ROS production and induced p66Shc protein phosphorylation in Ser-36; this mechanism upregulated ROS and inhibited FOXO1 transcription, reinforcing this molecular circuitry. These in vitro results were validated in three in vivo models of oxidative stress, that is, human skin fibroblasts from old donors, femoral arteries from old mice, and a murine model of hindlimb ischemia. In all cases, miR-200c was higher versus control and its targets, that is, SIRT1, eNOS, and FOXO1, were downmodulated. In the mouse hindlimb ischemia model, anti-miR-200c treatment rescued these targets and improved limb perfusion. Innovation and Conclusion: miR-200c disrupts SIRT1/FOXO1/eNOS regulatory loop. This event promotes ROS production and decreases NO, contributing to endothelial dysfunction under conditions of increased oxidative stress such as aging and ischemia. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 328-344.

  7. Upregulation of ERK1/2-eNOS via AT2 receptors decreases the contractile response to angiotensin II in resistance mesenteric arteries from obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela N Hagihara

    Full Text Available It has been clearly established that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKS are important mediators of angiotensin II (Ang II signaling via AT1 receptors in the vasculature. However, evidence for a role of these kinases in changes of Ang II-induced vasoconstriction in obesity is still lacking. Here we sought to determine whether vascular MAPKs are differentially activated by Ang II in obese animals. The role of AT2 receptors was also evaluated. Male monosodium glutamate-induced obese (obese and non-obese Wistar rats (control were used. The circulating concentrations of Ang I and Ang II, determined by HPLC, were increased in obese rats. Ang II-induced isometric contraction was decreased in endothelium-intact resistance mesenteric arteries from obese compared with control rats and exhibited a retarded AT1 receptor antagonist response. Blocking of AT2 receptors and inhibition of either endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 restored Ang II-induced contraction in obese rats. Western blot analysis revealed increased protein expression of AT2 receptors in arteries from obese rats. Basal and Ang II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was also increased in obese rats. Blockade of either AT1 or AT2 receptors corrected the increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in arteries from obese rats to levels observed in control preparations. Phosphorylation of eNOS was increased in obese rats. Incubation with the ERK1/2 inhibitor before Ang II stimulation did not affect eNOS phosphorylation in control rats; however, it corrected the increased phosphorylation of eNOS in obese rats. These results clearly demonstrate that enhanced AT2 receptor and ERK1/2-induced, NO-mediated vasodilation reduces Ang II-induced contraction in an endothelium-dependent manner in obese rats.

  8. Quercetin modulates iNOS, eNOS and NOSTRIN expressions and attenuates oxidative stress in warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

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    Mohamed Abd-Elbaset

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R is mediated through the generation of oxidative and nitrosative stress-induced cell injury. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin (QR compared to N-acetylcysteine (NAC against hepatic I/R injury in rats and to assess iNOS, eNOS and NOSTRIN protein expressions, as a possible mechanism of its hepatoprotective effect. Hepatic ischemia was surgically performed by occlusion of hepatic pedicle (hepatic artery, portal vein, bile duct that supplies the left and medial lobes (approximately 70% of the total liver mass, for 30 min with a vascular clamp followed by releasing the clamp and the liver was reperfused for 30 min. QR-pretreatment increased eNOS protein expression with simultaneous decrease in iNOS and NOSTRIN protein expressions. It also decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferases (ALT and hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. In addition, it restored the depleted content of reduced glutathione (GSH and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO levels. A notable finding is that QR alleviated I/R-induced histopathological changes. Therefore, the present study illustrates the hepatoprotective effect of quercetin compared to N-acetylcysteine against ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and by modulating iNOS, eNOS and NOSTRIN protein expressions.

  9. Exercise Training Could Improve Age-Related Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow and Capillary Vascularity through the Upregulation of VEGF and eNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheepsumon Viboolvorakul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of exercise training on age-induced microvascular alterations in the brain. Additionally, the association with the protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS was also assessed. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary-young (SE-Young, n=5, sedentary aged (SE-Aged, n=8, immersed-aged (IM-Aged, n=5, and exercise trained-aged (ET-Aged, 60 minutes/day and 5 days/week for 8 weeks, n=8 rats. The MAPs of all aged groups, SE-Aged, IM-Aged, and ET-Aged, were significantly higher than that of the SE-Young group. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the SE-Aged and IM-Aged was significantly decreased as compared to SE-Young groups. However, rCBF of ET-Aged group was significantly higher than that in the IM-Aged group (P<0.05. Moreover, the percentage of capillary vascularity (%CV and the levels of VEGF and eNOS in the ET-Aged group were significantly increased compared to the IM-Aged group (P<0.05. These results imply that exercise training could improve age-induced microvascular changes and hypoperfusion closely associated with the upregulation of VEGF and eNOS.

  10. Disperzní vlivy na vysokorychlostní přenos optickou sítí

    OpenAIRE

    Filip, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Práce se zabývá principem optického přenosu, jeho přenosovými médii a dále pak výhodami a nevýhodami. V první polovině se zaměří na nežádoucí vlivy působící na přenos signálu v optických sítích, na disperzní vlivy a zejména pak na polarizační vidovou disperzi (PMD – Polarization Mode Dispersion). Druhá polovina práce se zabývá měřením vlastností optických vláken, převážně chromatické a polarizační vidové disperze, používanými metodami a jejich principy. Následně jsou uvedeny současné možnosti...

  11. The synthetic peptide PnPP-19 induces peripheral antinociception via activation of NO/cGMP/KATPpathway: Role of eNOS and nNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A C N; Silva, G C; Pacheco, D F; Pimenta, A M C; Lemos, V S; Duarte, I D G; de Lima, M E

    2017-04-01

    and purpose: The peptide PnPP-19, derived from the spider toxin PnTx2-6 (renamed as δ-CNTX-Pn1c), potentiates erectile function by activating the nitrergic system. Since NO has been studied as an antinociceptive molecule and PnPP-19 is known to induce peripheral antinociception, we intended to evaluate whether PnPP-19 could induce peripheral antinociception through activation of this pathway. Nociceptive thresholds were measured by paw pressure test. PGE 2 (2 μg/paw) was administered intraplantarly together with PnPP-19 and inhibitors/blockers of NOS, guanylyl cyclase and K ATP channels. The nitrite concentration was accessed by Griess test. The expression and phosphorylation of eNOS and nNOS were determined by western blot. PnPP-19 (5, 10 and 20 μg/paw) induced peripheral antinociception in rats. Administration of NOS inhibitor (L-NOarg), selective nNOS inhibitor (L-NPA), guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (ODQ) and the blocker of K ATP (glibenclamide) partially inhibited the antinociceptive effect of PnPP-19 (10 μg/paw). Tissue nitrite concentration increased after PnPP-19 (10 μg/paw) administration. Expression of eNOS and nNOS remained the same in all tested groups, however the phosphorylation of nNOS Ser852 (inactivation site) increased and phosphorylation of eNOS Ser1177 (activation site) decreased after PGE 2 injection. Administration of PnPP-19 reverted this PGE 2 -induced effect. The peripheral antinociceptive effect induced by PnPP-19 is resulting from activation of NO-cGMP-K ATP pathway. Activation of eNOS and nNOS might be required for such effect. Our results suggest PnPP-19 as a new drug candidate to treat pain and reinforce the importance of nNOS and eNOS activation, as well as endogenous NO release, for induction of peripheral antinociception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P. [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Searles, Charles D., E-mail: csearle@emory.edu [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, 1670 Clarimont Road, Decatur, GA 30033 (United States)

    2010-03-19

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm{sup 2}) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p < 0.05). The miRNA with the greatest change was miR-21; it was increased 5.2-fold (p = 0.002) in USS-treated versus control cells. Western analysis demonstrated that PTEN, a known target of miR-21, was downregulated in HUVECs exposed to USS or transfected with pre-miR-21. Importantly, HUVECs overexpressing miR-21 had decreased apoptosis and increased eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}}) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO{sup {center_dot}} pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.

  13. Ibuprofen arginate retains eNOS substrate activity and reverses endothelial dysfunction: implications for the COX-2/ADMA axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Nicholas S; Tesfai, Abel; Ahmetaj-Shala, Blerina; Gashaw, Hime H; Sampaio, Walkyria; Etelvino, Gisele; Leão, Nádia Miricéia; Santos, Robson A; Mitchell, Jane A

    2016-12-01

    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen, are among the most commonly used medications and produce their antiinflammatory effects by blocking cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Their use is associated with increased risk of heart attacks caused by blocking COX-2 in the vasculature and/or kidney, with our recent work implicating the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a cardiotoxic hormone whose effects can be prevented by l-arginine. The ibuprofen salt ibuprofen arginate (Spididol) was created to increase solubility but we suggest that it could also augment the NO pathway through codelivery of arginine. Here we investigated the idea that ibuprofen arginate can act to simultaneously inhibit COX-2 and preserve the NO pathway. Ibuprofen arginate functioned similarly to ibuprofen sodium for inhibition of mouse/human COX-2, but only ibuprofen arginate served as a substrate for NOS. Ibuprofen arginate but not ibuprofen sodium also reversed the inhibitory effects of ADMA and N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester on inducible NOS (macrophages) and endothelial NOS in vitro (aorta) and in vivo (blood pressure). These observations show that ibuprofen arginate provides, in one preparation, a COX-2 inhibitor and NOS substrate that could act to negate the harmful cardiovascular consequences mediated by blocking renal COX-2 and increased ADMA. While remarkably simple, our findings are potentially game-changing in the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug arena.-Kirkby, N. S., Tesfai, A., Ahmetaj-Shala, B., Gashaw, H. H., Sampaio, W., Etelvino, G., Leão, N. M., Santos, R. A., Mitchell, J. A. Ibuprofen arginate retains eNOS substrate activity and reverses endothelial dysfunction: implications for the COX-2/ADMA axis. © The Author(s).

  14. Impacto del fenómeno ENOS en el régimen hidrometeorológico de Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available IMPACT DU PHÉNOMÈNE ENSO SUR LE RÉGIME HYDROMÉTÉOROLOGIQUE DE MENDONZA, ARGENTINE. Le principal objectif de ce travail est d’analyser les effets hydrométéorologiques causés par ENSO dans la province de Mendoza, Argentine. Ensuite on étudiera les conditions météorologiques prédominantes (situations synoptiques les plus fréquentes et les phénomènes de méso-échelle associés pendant l’hiver, en plaine et dans la cordillère. On caractérise la zone étudiée hydrologiquement et climatologiquement. On utilise pour cela les données de débits mensuels des principales rivières de la région ainsi que les données climatiques, synoptiques et des images de satellite. Notre étude couvre les événements ENSO de ce siècle et plus particulièrement ceux de 1982-1983, 1986-1987, 1991-1993 et les premières manifestations de celui de 1997-1998. Les principaux résultats montrent, pour les années ENSO, une forte augmentation des débits des rivières à la fin du printemps et pendant l’été provoqué par l’excès de précipitation de l’hiver antérieur. Les plus forts débits ont été observés au cours de l'événement chaud de 1982-1983, considéré jusqu'à 1997 comme le plus fort de ce siècle. L’impact principal sur le régime hydrique est dû à l’anomalie positive de précipitations dans la partie de la cordillère qui a un régime hivernal. On en conclut que les plus fortes précipitations de la cordillère sont reliées à une augmentation de la fréquence des passages de zones de basse pression et d’incursions d’onde longue à des latitudes plus basses que la normale. Ceci provoque une anomalie négative dans le champ de pression de surface et des couches moyennes de l’atmosphère. El objetivo principal del trabajo es analizar los efectos hidrometeorológicos que ocasiona el evento cálido ENOS en la provincia de Mendoza, Argentina. Los objetivos secundarios son considerar las condiciones meteorol

  15. Influence of eNOS gene 4a/bVNTR polymorphism on development of endothelial dysfunction and respiratory system disorders in children - residents of radioactively contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, Je.Yi.; Kolpakov, Yi.Je.; Zigalo, V.M.; And Others

    2015-01-01

    Total of 184 children were examined to determine the possible associative links between eNOS gene intron 4m polymorphism and indices characterizing the functional state of the endothelium and the bronchopulmonary system. Of them the main group of children consisted of 135 childrenresidents of radioactively contaminated areas, the control group - of 49 healthy children who lived in ''clean'' regions by the radioactive con tamination and were not belonging to victims of the Chernobyl accident contingents. The molecular genetic study determining the eNOS gene intron 4 polymorphism was performed. Children of the main group did not differ from that of control and literature data by the frequency of geno types 4a/b and eNOS gene allele polymorphism. An increase in the duration of circulation restoration up to the ini tial level after occlusion test was noted in children of the main group with genotype 4a/4b comparing to children with genotype 4b/4b ; a decrease in the nitrite content was observed in blood serum. The integral indices of elastic ity and tensility of the lung tissue, respiratory permeability were decreased; the signs of bronchospasm were record ed 1.5 times more often. These adverse effects were associated with the presence of genotype allele 4a , the signs of endothelial dysfunction and the level of the incorporated 137 Cs. More pronounced changes in vascular endothelial reaction to occlusion and the significant decrease of serum nitrite level in allele 4a carriers, especially in children who live in adverse ecological conditions, give the right to include them into the risk group for the development of endothelial dysfunction, and to conside pulmonary dysfunction as one of its manifestations

  16. Enhanced estradiol-induced vasorelaxation in aortas from type 2 diabetic mice may reflect a compensatory role of p38 MAPK-mediated eNOS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kumiko; Morishige, Akitaka; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Kamata, Katsuo; Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, mainly due to coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis, in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, female gender is a protective factor in the development of, for example, atherosclerosis and hypertension. One of the female hormones, 17β-estradiol (E2), is known to protect against the cardiovascular injury resulting from endothelial dysfunction, but the mechanism by which it does so remains unknown. Our hypothesis was that E2-mediated activation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the subsequent endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation, might protect the aorta in diabetic mellitus. The experimental type 2 diabetic model we employed to test that hypothesis (female mice given streptozotocin and nicotinamide) is here termed fDM. In fDM aortas, we examined the E2-induced relaxation response and the associated protein activities. In control (age-matched, nondiabetic) aortas, E2 induced a vascular relaxation response that was mediated via Akt/eNOS and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK)/eNOS pathways. In fDM aortas (vs. control aortas), (a) the E2-induced relaxation was enhanced, (b) the mediation of the response was different (via Akt/eNOS and p38 MAPK/eNOS pathways), and (c) E2 stimulation increased p38 MAPK and eNOS phosphorylations, decreased MEK phosphorylation, but did not alter estrogen receptor activity. We infer that at least in fDM aortas, E2 has beneficial effects (enhanced vascular relaxation and protection) that are mediated through Akt activation and (compensating for reduced MEK activation) p38 MAPK activation, leading to enhanced eNOS phosphorylation.

  17. Human umbilical cord expresses several vasoactive peptides involved in the local regulation of vascular tone: protein and gene expression of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Gerbino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Full-term human umbilical cord contains three blood vessels: two arteries coiled around a vein and surrounded by Wharton’s jelly, a mucous tissue with few mesenchymal stromal cells and abundant extracellular matrix. Umbilical vessels lack innervations, thus endothelial cells must play a role in the control of blood flow. The aim of this study was to investigate in human umbilical cord the expression of five peptides that could be involved in the regulation of vascular tone: Orphanin FQ, Oxytocin, Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP, endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS. The expression of these molecules in full-term human umbilical cord was investigated through immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Immunoreactivity for Orphanin FQ was detected in Wharton’s jelly, vessel musculature and endothelium; Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS were expressed by the umbilical epithelium, Wharton’s jelly and endothelium, whereas iNOS only by endothelial cells. RT-PCR analysis showed transcriptional expression of Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS mRNAs. The presence of Orphanin, Oxytocin, ANP, eNOS and iNOS proteins was identified in the human umbilical cord. mRNA expression for Oxytocin, ANP and eNOS suggest that these molecules are synthesized by umbilical cord cells themselves. The expression of these vasoactive molecules could be part of a general mechanism locally regulating vascular tone. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 211–218

  18. Association of G894T eNOS, 4G/5G PAI and T1131C APOA5 polymorphisms with susceptibility to myocardial infarction in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani Idrissi, Hind; Hmimech, Wiam; Diakite, Brehima; Korchi, Farah; Baghdadi, Dalila; Habbal, Rachida; Nadifi, Sellama

    2016-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common multifactorial disease. Numerous studies have found that genetic plays an essential role in MI occurrence. The main objective of our case-control study is to explore the association of G894T eNOS (rs1799983), 4G/5G PAI (rs1799889) and T1131C APOA5 (rs662799) polymorphisms with MI susceptibility in the Moroccan population. 118 MI patients were recruited vs 184 healthy controls. DNA samples were genotyped by PCR-RFLP method using MboI, BslI and MseI restriction enzymes respectively for the G894T eNOS, 4G/5G PAI and T1131C APOA5 polymorphisms. Our results show that the G894T eNOS was significantly associated with increased risk of MI under the three genetic transmission models (dominant: OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.05-2.58, P = 0.003; recessive: OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 0.74-6.16, P = 0.03; additive: OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.06-2.23, P = 0.001). The T1131C APOA5 polymorphism was associated to MI risk in recessive and additive models (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.72-3.2, P = 0.04 and OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.26-2.51, P = 0.03 respectively). For the 4G/5G PAI variant, even the cases and controls groups were not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), the dominant and additive models show a statistically significant association with MI risk (OR = 7.96, 95%CI = 3.83-16.36, P = 0.01 and OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.4-2.72, P = 0.03 respectively). Our results suggest that G894T eNOS and T1131C APOA5 polymorphisms may be considered as genetic markers of MI among the Moroccan population. Further studies including larger sample sizes and exploring more genetic associations are needed to confirm our results and to better understand the susceptibility to MI.

  19. Estrogen and phytoestrogens: Effect on eNOS expression and in vitro vasodilation in cerebral arteries in ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus O.; Mortensen, Alicja; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of estrogen replacement therapy or soy isoflavones supplement on endothelium-dependent relaxation in vitro and gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cerebral arteries in a rabbit model of human hypercholesterolemia. Study design: Thirty...... cholesterol was significantly higher at termination in the SoyLife(R) group (P lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was comparable in all treatment groups. Neither treatment influenced the endothelium-dependent responses to carbamylcholine chloride or L-NAME or the endothelium...

  20. Passive leg movement enhances interstitial VEGF protein, endothelial cell proliferation, and eNOS mRNA content in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Rufener, Nora; Nielsen, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    were analyzed for mRNA content of VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The passive leg movement caused an increase (P ... to cultured endothelial cells revealed that dialysate obtained during leg movement induced a 3.2-fold higher proliferation rate (P MMP-2 mRNA levels were......The present study used passive limb movement as an experimental model to study the effect of increased blood flow and passive stretch, without enhanced metabolic demand, in young healthy male subjects. The model used was 90 min of passive movement of the leg leading to a 2.8-fold increase (P

  1. Relationship of the MTHFD1 (rs2236225, eNOS (rs1799983, CBS (rs2850144 and ACE (rs4343 gene polymorphisms in a population of Iranian pediatric patients with congenital heart defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Khatami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects are structural cardiovascular malformations that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels during the fetal period. To investigate the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the MTHFD1, eNOS, CBS and ACE genes, we evaluated their relationship with CHD in Iranian patients. In this case–control study, a total of 102 children with CHD and 98 control children were enrolled. Four SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T, CBS C-4673G and ACE A2350G were genotyped by PCR-SSCP, Multiplex ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and confirmed by direct sequencing. We genotyped 102 patients and 98 controls for four polymorphisms by statistically analysis. There were three SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G which might increase the risk of CHD, but CBS C-4673G was not significantly different between patients and controls. (P = 0.017, P = 0.048, P = 0.025 and P = 0.081 respectively. The allele frequencies of three SNPs for MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G in CHD are higher than that in control. Our results show that there is a significant relationship between MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G polymorphisms with CHD. Therefore, The AA and GA genotypes of MTHFD1 G1958A, TT and GT genotypes of eNOS G894T and the AA and GA genotypes of ACE A2350G are susceptible factors for CHD and may increase the risk of CHD.

  2. eNOS S-nitrosylates β-actin on Cys374 and regulates PKC-θ at the immune synapse by impairing actin binding to profilin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena García-Ortiz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton coordinates the organization of signaling microclusters at the immune synapse (IS; however, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We show here that nitric oxide (NO generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS controls the coalescence of protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ at the central supramolecular activation cluster (c-SMAC of the IS. eNOS translocated with the Golgi to the IS and partially colocalized with F-actin around the c-SMAC. This resulted in reduced actin polymerization and centripetal retrograde flow of β-actin and PKC-θ from the lamellipodium-like distal (d-SMAC, promoting PKC-θ activation. Furthermore, eNOS-derived NO S-nitrosylated β-actin on Cys374 and impaired actin binding to profilin-1 (PFN1, as confirmed with the transnitrosylating agent S-nitroso-L-cysteine (Cys-NO. The importance of NO and the formation of PFN1-actin complexes on the regulation of PKC-θ was corroborated by overexpression of PFN1- and actin-binding defective mutants of β-actin (C374S and PFN1 (H119E, respectively, which reduced the coalescence of PKC-θ at the c-SMAC. These findings unveil a novel NO-dependent mechanism by which the actin cytoskeleton controls the organization and activation of signaling microclusters at the IS.

  3. The coagulation factor V Leiden, MTHFRC677T variant and eNOS 4ab polymorphism in young Chinese population with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Congning; Kang, Xixiong; Wang, Yajie; Zhou, Yali

    2008-10-01

    The mechanisms of ischemic stroke in young adults are poorly understood. The main goal of the current investigation was to determine the possible contribution of genes affecting hemostasis, homocysteine metabolism and endothelial function on the occurrence of ischemic stroke in a cohort of young cases and corresponding controls. We evaluated in 97 consecutive patients referred to our center between April 2006 and July 2007 for a history of young adult ischemic stroke (age at first event, V Leiden, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) 4ab gene variants. Ninety-nine subjects age and gender matched (18 to 45 y) from other departments of the Tiantan Hospital served as controls. Homozygosity for the TT genotype of the MTHFR gene was 29 of 97 (29.9%) in patients and 34 of 99 (34.3%) in controls; this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05, chi2). Variation of factor V Leiden was not detected both in patients and in controls of this cohort. Genotype eNOS 4bb was 90 of 97 (92.8%) in patients and 81 of 99 (81.8%) in controls; this difference was statistically significant (pyoung Chinese population.

  4. Differential effect of beetroot bread on postprandial DBP according to Glu298Asp polymorphism in the eNOS gene: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, D A; George, T W; Lovegrove, J A

    2014-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether the presence of Glu298Asp polymorphism in the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene differentially affects the postprandial blood pressure response to dietary nitrate-rich beetroot bread. A randomised, single-blind, controlled, crossover acute pilot study was performed in 14 healthy men (mean age: 34±9 years) who were retrospectively genotyped for Glu298Asp polymorphism (7GG; T carriers 7). Volunteers were randomised to receive 200 g beetroot-enriched bread (1.1 mmol nitrate) or control bread (no beetroot; 0.01 mmol nitrate) on two separate occasions 10 days apart. Baseline and incremental area under the curve of blood pressure and NOx (nitrate/nitrite) were measured for a 6-h postprandial period. A treatment × genotype interaction was observed for diastolic blood pressure (Pconsumption of beetroot bread compared with control bread. No significant differences were observed in the GG group. The beneficial diastolic blood pressure reduction was observed only in the T carriers of the Glu298Asp polymorphism in the eNOS gene after consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot bread. These data require confirmation in a larger population group.

  5. eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism is associated with development of complicated plaques in patients from Serbia with advanced carotid atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide inhibits adhesion of thrombocytes, proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells and restricts oxidation of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins. Therefore, decreased production or activity of NO may play a role in the initiation, progression or complications of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of Glu298Asp eNOS gene polymorphism on the individual risk for development of complicated carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients from Serbia with advanced carotid atherosclerosis (CA who had undergone endarterectomy. The study population included 233 patients. eNOS G894T gene polymorphism was identified by PCR and RFLP methods. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that Asp298Asp is an independent risk factor for the presence of complicated plaques in CA patients. Patients who were homozygous for the Asp298 allele had an adjusted OR of 4.36 for the development of complicated plaques compared to those that carry the Glu298 allele. Further validation and replication studies are needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI175085

  6. Association analysis of genetic variations of eNOS and α2ß1 integrin genes with type 2 diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmy R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rania Azmy,1 Ashraf Dawood,1 Ayman Kilany,1 Yasser El-Ghobashy,1 Amin Faisal Ellakwa,2 May El-Daly31Medical Biochemistry Department, 2Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, 3National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Shebin Elkom, EgyptBackground: Diabetic retinopathy (DR is classically defined as a microvasculopathy that primarily affects the small blood vessels of the inner retina as a complication of diabetes mellitus. It has been suggested that nitric oxide (NO and α2β1 integrin (a platelet receptor for collagen play an important role in the pathogenesis of microvascular complications in DR.Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of two candidate genes involved in the regulation of retinal vasculature, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and α2β1 integrin (ITGA2 genes, with the development of DR in Egyptian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to investigate whether genetic variants will affect the type of retinopathy (proliferative or nonproliferative.Methods: In this study, 70 patients were enrolled and categorized into two groups: (1 a DR group consisting of 50 patients with DR, which was further subclassified into 25 patients with nonproliferative DR (NPDR group and 25 patients with proliferative DR (PDR group and (2 a diabetes without retinopathy (DWR group, comprising 20 patients with type 2 diabetes of more than 10 years' duration who showed no signs of DR. Associations of the genetic polymorphisms of eNOS (G894T and ITGA2 (BgI II were studied. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed for all samples to evaluate the genotypes and correlate with the phenotype of the disease.Results: The allele frequencies of both polymorphisms showed considerable differences between patients with and without DR. The GG genotype of G894T polymorphism of eNOS was associated with a 9.75-fold increased risk of DR (95% confidence interval 1.7–55.4 and the

  7. Redox-sensitive up-regulation of eNOS by purple grape juice in endothelial cells: role of PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, JNK, FoxO1 and FoxO3a.

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    Mahmoud Alhosin

    Full Text Available The vascular protective effect of grape-derived polyphenols has been attributable, in part, to their direct action on blood vessels by stimulating the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Concord grape juice (CGJ, which contains high levels of polyphenols, stimulates the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS in porcine coronary artery endothelial cells and, if so, to determine the signaling pathway involved. CGJ dose- and time-dependently increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels and this effect is associated with an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ on eNOS mRNA is not associated with an increased eNOS mRNA stability and inhibited by antioxidants such as MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase, and by wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3-kinase, SB 203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, and SP 600125 (an inhibitor of JNK. Moreover, CGJ induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in endothelial cells and this effect is inhibited by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase. The CGJ-induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK kinases is abolished by MnTMPyP. CGJ induced phosphorylation of transcription factors FoxO1 and FoxO3a, which regulate negatively eNOS expression, and this effect is prevented by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, wortmannin, SB203580 and SP600125. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the FoxO3a protein is associated with the eNOS promoter in control cells and that CGJ induced its dissociation. Thus, the present study indicates that CGJ up-regulates the expression of eNOS mRNA and protein leading to an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ is a redox-sensitive event involving PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK and JNK pathways, and the inactivation of the FoxO transcription factors, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, thereby preventing their repression of the eNOS gene.

  8. Oral administration of bisphenol A induces high blood pressure through angiotensin II/CaMKII-dependent uncoupling of eNOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Marta; Marquez, Susana; Reventun, Paula; Olea-Herrero, Nuria; Arenas, María Isabel; Moreno-Gómez-Toledano, Rafael; Gómez-Parrizas, Mónica; Muñóz-Moreno, Carmen; González-Santander, Marta; Zaragoza, Carlos; Bosch, Ricardo J

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is found in human urine and fat tissue. Higher urinary BPA concentrations are associated with arterial hypertension. To shed light on the underlying mechanism, we orally administered BPA (4 nM to 400 μM in drinking water) to 8-wk-old CD11 mice over 30 d. Mice developed dosage-dependent high blood pressure (systolic 130 ± 12 vs. 170 ± 12 mmHg; EC50 0.4 μM), impairment of acetylcholine (AcH)-induced carotid relaxation (0.66 ± 0.08 vs. 0.44 ± 0.1 mm), a 1.7-fold increase in arterial angiotensin II (AngII), an 8.7-fold increase in eNOS mRNA and protein, and significant eNOS-dependent superoxide and peroxynitrite accumulation. AngII inhibition with 0.5 mg/ml losartan reduced oxidative stress and normalized blood pressure and endothelium-dependent relaxation, which suggests that AngII uncouples eNOS and contributes to the BPA-induced endothelial dysfunction by promoting oxidative and nitrosative stress. Microarray analysis of mouse aortic endothelial cells revealed a 2.5-fold increase in expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-α (CaMKII-α) in response to 10 nM BPA, with increased expression of phosphorylated-CaMKII-α in carotid rings of BPA-exposed mice, whereas CaMKII-α inhibition with 100 nM autocamptide-2-related inhibitor peptide (AIP) reduced BPA-mediated increase of superoxide. Administration of CaMKII-α inhibitor KN 93 reduced BPA-induced blood pressure and carotid blood velocity in mice, and reverted BPA-mediated carotid constriction in response to treatment with AcH. Given that CaMKII-α inhibition prevents BPA-mediated high blood pressure, our data suggest that BPA regulates blood pressure by inducing AngII/CaMKII-α uncoupling of eNOS. © FASEB.

  9. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. ► Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. ► Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. ► L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. ► Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg −1 body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-κB. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic and control rats. Under these findings, we suggest that targeting of eNOS and Nrf2 signaling by L-arginine supplementation could be

  10. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic

  11. eNOS se correlaciona com a biogênese mitocondrial em corações com cardiopatia congênita e cianose

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    Juan Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O programa de biogênese mitocondrial no coração parece apresentar remodelação adaptativa após estresse biomecânico e oxidativo. Os mecanismos adaptativos que protegem o metabolismo do miocárdio durante a hipóxia são coordenados, em parte, pelo óxido nítrico (NO. OBJETIVO: Observar a biogênese mitocondrial e expressão do óxido nítrico sintase (NOS em corações de cardiopatia congênita com cianose; discutir a resposta mitocondrial à hipóxia crônica do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Foram investigados 20 pacientes com defeitos cardíacos cianóticos (n = 10 ou acianóticos (n = 10. Foram estudadas amostras do miocárdio na via de saída ventricular direita, tomadas durante a operação. A análise morfométrica de mitocôndrias foi realizada por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. A relação mtDNA/nDNA foi determinada com PCR em tempo real. Os níveis de transcrição da subunidade I da citocromo c oxidase (COXI, coativador-1α do receptor γ ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma (PGC-1α, o fator respiratório nuclear 1 (NRF1, e fator de transcrição mitocondrial A (Tfam foram detectados por reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR ativado por fluorescência em tempo real. Os níveis proteicos de COXI e nNOS, iNOS e eNOS foram medidos por técnica de Western Blot. RESULTADOS: A densidade volumétrica mitocondrial (Vv e a densidade numérica (Nv foram significativamente elevadas em pacientes com cianose, em comparação com a cardiopatia congênita acianótica. MtDNA elevada e suprarregulação dos níveis de COXI, PGC-1 α, NRF1 e Tfam mRNA foram observadas em pacientes cianóticos. Os níveis de proteína de COXI e eNOS foram significativamente maiores no miocárdio de pacientes cianóticos que nos de acianóticos. Os níveis de transcrição do PGC-1α se correlacionam com os níveis de eNOS. CONCLUSÃO: A biogênese mitocondrial é ativada no miocárdio da via de saída ventricular na

  12. Ellagic Acid Prevents L-NAME-Induced Hypertension via Restoration of eNOS and p47phox Expression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkban, Thewarid; Boonprom, Pattanapong; Bunbupha, Sarawoot; Welbat, Jariya Umka; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Prachaney, Parichat

    2015-06-30

    The effect of ellagic acid on oxidative stress and hypertension induced by Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) for five weeks. L-NAME induced high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased heart rate (HR), hindlimb vascular resistance (HVR) and oxidative stress. Concurrent treatment with ellagic acid (7.5 or 15 mg/kg) prevented these alterations. Co-treatment with ellagic acid was associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein production and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreased superoxide production in the vascular tissue, reduced plasma malondialdehyde levels, reduced NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite levels. Our results indicate that ellagic acid attenuates hypertension by reducing NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression, which prevents oxidative stress and restores NO bioavailability.

  13. Role of C677T and A1298C MTHFR, A2756G MTR and -786 C/T eNOS gene polymorphisms in atrial fibrillation susceptibility.

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    Betti Giusti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been suggested to play a role in the NonValvular Atrial Fibrillation (NVAF pathogenesis. Polymorphisms in genes coding for homocysteine (Hcy metabolism enzymes may be associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and NVAF. METHODOLOGIES: 456 NVAF patients and 912 matched controls were genotyped by an electronic microchip technology for C677T and A1298C MTHFR, A2756G MTR, and -786C/T eNOS gene polymorphisms. Hcy was determined by an immunoassay method. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genotype distribution of the four polymorphisms as well as genotype combinations did not differ in patients and controls. Hcy was higher in patients than in controls (15.2, 95%CI 14.7-15.7 vs 11.3, 95%CI 11.0-11.6 micromol/L; p<0.0001. In both populations, a genotype-phenotype association (p<0.0001 between Hcy and C677T MTHFR polymorphism was observed; in controls a significant (p = 0.029 association between tHcy and -786C/T eNOS polymorphism was also observed. At the multivariate analysis the NVAF risk significantly increased in the upper quartiles of Hcy compared to the lowest: OR from 2.8 (1.68-4.54 95%CI in Q2 to 12.9 (7.96-21.06 95%CI in Q4. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated the four polymorphisms, although able, at least in part, to affect Hcy, were not associated with an increased risk of NVAF per se or in combination.

  14. Pharmacogenetic influence of eNOS gene variant on endothelial and glucose metabolism responses to L-arginine supplementation: Post hoc analysis of the L-arginine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Lucilla D; Galluccio, Elena; Fontana, Barbara; Spadoni, Serena; Comola, Mauro; Marrocco Trischitta, Massimiliano M; Chiesa, Roberto; Comi, Giancarlo; Bosi, Emanuele; Piatti, Piermarco

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate whether variants of the eNOS gene are associated with endothelial and metabolic responses to L-arginine (L-arg) supplementation. We examined a single nucleotide polymorphism of the eNOS gene (rs753482-A>C) to investigate the effects of this variant on endothelial function (EF), colony-forming unit-endothelial cell (CFU-EC) number, asymmetric-dimethylarginine (ADMA) level, insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and insulin secretion (IS) in a post hoc analysis of the L-arg trial. The L-arg trial (6.4 g/day for 18 months) was a single-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, phase III trial in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome. followed by a 12-month extended follow-up period after termination of the study drug (NCT 00917449). At baseline, EF, CFU-EC numbers, ADMA levels, and ISI were impaired in subjects carrying minor allele C (both heterozygotes, AC and homozygotes, CC) as compared to subjects carrying major allele A (homozygotes, AA) (p<0.01). Compared to placebo, L-arg increased EF, CFU-EC numbers, and ISI, and improved ADMA levels and IS (p<0.01). The greatest improvements were found in AA subjects treated with L-arg, while the worst results were found in AC+CC subjects treated with placebo. In the placebo-treated subjects, EF, CFU-EC, ISI, and IS were significantly lower and ADMA was significantly higher in AC+CC subjects than in AA subjects. Treatment with L-arg induced similar improvements in EF, CFU-EC numbers, ADMA levels, ISI, and IS in both AA subjects and AC+CC subjects. The presence of minor allele resulted in the worst prognosis in terms of EF, CFU-EC numbers, ADMA levels, ISI, and IS during the 30-month observation period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Altered vasoreactivity in neonatal rats with pulmonary hypertension associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Implication of both eNOS phosphorylation and calcium signaling.

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    Eric Dumas de la Roque

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD consists of an arrest of pulmonary vascular and alveolar growth, with persistent hypoplasia of the pulmonary microvasculature and alveolar simplification. In 25 to 40% of the cases, BPD is complicated by pulmonary hypertension (BPD-PH that significantly increases the risk of morbidity. In vivo studies suggest that increased pulmonary vascular tone could contribute to late PH in BPD. Nevertheless, an alteration in vasoreactivity as well as the mechanisms involved remain to be confirmed. The purpose of this study was thus to assess changes in pulmonary vascular reactivity in a murine model of BPD-PH. Newborn Wistar rats were exposed to either room air (normoxia or 90% O2 (hyperoxia for 14 days. Exposure to hyperoxia induced the well-known features of BPD-PH such as elevated right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular remodeling and decreased pulmonary vascular density. Intrapulmonary arteries from hyperoxic pups showed decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine without any alteration of relaxation to the NO-donor sodium nitroprusside. This functional alteration was associated with a decrease of lung eNOS phosphorylation at the Ser1177 activating site. In pups exposed to hyperoxia, serotonin and phenylephrine induced exacerbated contractile responses of intrapulmonary arteries as well as intracellular calcium response in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC. Moreover, the amplitude of the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE, induced by store depletion using a SERCA inhibitor, was significantly greater in PASMC from hyperoxic pups. Altogether, hyperoxia-induced BPD-PH alters the pulmonary arterial reactivity, with effects on both endothelial and smooth muscle functions. Reduced activating eNOS phosphorylation and enhanced Ca2+ signaling likely account for alterations of pulmonary arterial reactivity.

  16. Altered vasoreactivity in neonatal rats with pulmonary hypertension associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Implication of both eNOS phosphorylation and calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas de la Roque, Eric; Smeralda, Gwladys; Quignard, Jean-François; Freund-Michel, Véronique; Courtois, Arnaud; Marthan, Roger; Muller, Bernard; Guibert, Christelle; Dubois, Mathilde

    2017-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) consists of an arrest of pulmonary vascular and alveolar growth, with persistent hypoplasia of the pulmonary microvasculature and alveolar simplification. In 25 to 40% of the cases, BPD is complicated by pulmonary hypertension (BPD-PH) that significantly increases the risk of morbidity. In vivo studies suggest that increased pulmonary vascular tone could contribute to late PH in BPD. Nevertheless, an alteration in vasoreactivity as well as the mechanisms involved remain to be confirmed. The purpose of this study was thus to assess changes in pulmonary vascular reactivity in a murine model of BPD-PH. Newborn Wistar rats were exposed to either room air (normoxia) or 90% O2 (hyperoxia) for 14 days. Exposure to hyperoxia induced the well-known features of BPD-PH such as elevated right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary vascular remodeling and decreased pulmonary vascular density. Intrapulmonary arteries from hyperoxic pups showed decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine without any alteration of relaxation to the NO-donor sodium nitroprusside. This functional alteration was associated with a decrease of lung eNOS phosphorylation at the Ser1177 activating site. In pups exposed to hyperoxia, serotonin and phenylephrine induced exacerbated contractile responses of intrapulmonary arteries as well as intracellular calcium response in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Moreover, the amplitude of the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), induced by store depletion using a SERCA inhibitor, was significantly greater in PASMC from hyperoxic pups. Altogether, hyperoxia-induced BPD-PH alters the pulmonary arterial reactivity, with effects on both endothelial and smooth muscle functions. Reduced activating eNOS phosphorylation and enhanced Ca2+ signaling likely account for alterations of pulmonary arterial reactivity.

  17. Influencia de ENOS sobre las variaciones interanuales de ciertos ríos en América del Sur

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    1998-01-01

    plusieurs influences qui affectent la partie centrale des Andes tropicales soumise à l’influence du Pacifique équatorial, du bassin amazonien, de l’Océan Atlantique et de la Mer des Caraïbes. Las diferentes respuestas de los ríos sudamericanos a los estímulos de las fases de El Niño/Oscilación del Sur son estudiadas bajo tres condiciones: El Niño (EN, Anti-Niño (AN, y años normales. Ríos de la costa norte del Perú, Ecuador y el sur de Colombia experimentan altos caudales durante los veranos con EN y bajas descargas durante AN. Las descargas son normales en los otros años. Los ríos de los Andes peruanos y el Altiplano tienen bajos caudales durante EN y descargas normales en las otras dos condiciones. Los ríos de Chile central y los Andes de Argentina experimentan altos caudales durante EN y bajos durante AN. En Patagonia y el sur de Chile existe una independencia con respecto a las fases de ENOS ya que las descargas más altas tienen lugar durante años normales. Los ríos de la Pampa, las tierras bajas de la cuenca del Plata y el extremo sur de Brasil, tienen altas descargas durante EN y bajas durante AN. Los ríos de la costa central de Brasil demuestran independencia con respecto a las tres condiciones. En el noreste de Brasil las descargas son bajas durante EN y altas durante AN. La cuenca del Amazonas tiene diversas respuestas: en la sección central los ríos experimentan bajos caudales durante EN mientras que los tributarios de los Andes tienden a ofrecer altas descargas durante algunos EN. Los ríos de las Guayanas, de Venezuela y Colombia expuestos al Caribe experimentan bajos caudales durante EN y altos volúmenes durante AN. En los Andes del sur de Colombia y Ecuador existe una mezcla: algunos ríos tienen altos caudales durante EN extremadamente fuertes, otros durante las fases AN. Esta región sintetiza las distintas influencias que afectan la parte central de los Andes tropicales, sometida a influencias del Pacífico ecuatorial, de la cuenca

  18. Efeitos da atorvastatina e do polimorfismo T-786C do gene eNOS sobre parâmetros do metabolismo lipídico plasmático Effects of atorvastatin and T-786C polymorphism of eNOS gene on plasma metabolic lipid parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Helena de Souza Zago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A atividade do óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS pode ser modulada pelo colesterol da lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C, estatinas ou polimorfismos, como o T-786C de eNOS. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se o polimorfismo T-786C está associado a alterações nos efeitos da atorvastatina no perfil lipídico, nas concentrações de metabólitos de óxido nítrico (NO e da proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as. MÉTODOS: Trinta voluntários do sexo masculino, assintomáticos, com idade entre 18-56 anos foram genotipados e classificados de acordo com a ausência (TT, n = 15 ou presença (CC, n = 15 do polimorfismo. Eles foram selecionados aleatoriamente para a utilização de placebo e atorvastatina (10 mg/dia por 14 dias. Após cada tratamento foram medidos lípides, lipoproteínas, frações HDL2 e HDL3, atividade da proteína de transferência de colesteril éster (CETP, metabólitos de NO e PCR-as. RESULTADOS: As comparações entre genótipos após a administração de placebo mostraram aumento da atividade da CETP polimorfismo-dependente (TT, 12 ± 7; CC, 22 ± 12, p BACKGROUND: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity may be modulated by high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, statins or polymorphisms, such as the T-786C of eNOS. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating if the T-786C polymorphism is associated with changes of atorvastatin effects on the lipid profile, on the concentrations of metabolites of nitric oxide (NO and of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP. METHODS: Thirty male volunteers, asymptomatic, aged between 18 and 56 years were genotyped and classified according to absence (TT, n = 15 or presence (CC, n = 15 of the polymorphism. They were randomly selected for the use of placebo or atorvastatin (10 mg/day/14 days. After each treatment lipids, lipoproteins, HDL2 and HDL3 composition, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP activity, metabolites of NO

  19. Efeitos da atorvastatina e do polimorfismo T-786C do gene eNOS sobre parâmetros do metabolismo lipídico plasmático Effects of atorvastatin and T-786C polymorphism of eNOS gene on plasma metabolic lipid parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Helena de Souza Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A atividade do óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS pode ser modulada pelo colesterol da lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C, estatinas ou polimorfismos, como o T-786C de eNOS. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se o polimorfismo T-786C está associado a alterações nos efeitos da atorvastatina no perfil lipídico, nas concentrações de metabólitos de óxido nítrico (NO e da proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as. MÉTODOS: Trinta voluntários do sexo masculino, assintomáticos, com idade entre 18-56 anos foram genotipados e classificados de acordo com a ausência (TT, n = 15 ou presença (CC, n = 15 do polimorfismo. Eles foram selecionados aleatoriamente para a utilização de placebo e atorvastatina (10 mg/dia por 14 dias. Após cada tratamento foram medidos lípides, lipoproteínas, frações HDL2 e HDL3, atividade da proteína de transferência de colesteril éster (CETP, metabólitos de NO e PCR-as. RESULTADOS: As comparações entre genótipos após a administração de placebo mostraram aumento da atividade da CETP polimorfismo-dependente (TT, 12 ± 7; CC, 22 ± 12, p BACKGROUND: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity may be modulated by high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, statins or polymorphisms, such as the T-786C of eNOS. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating if the T-786C polymorphism is associated with changes of atorvastatin effects on the lipid profile, on the concentrations of metabolites of nitric oxide (NO and of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP. METHODS: Thirty male volunteers, asymptomatic, aged between 18 and 56 years were genotyped and classified according to absence (TT, n = 15 or presence (CC, n = 15 of the polymorphism. They were randomly selected for the use of placebo or atorvastatin (10 mg/day/14 days. After each treatment lipids, lipoproteins, HDL2 and HDL3 composition, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP activity, metabolites of NO

  20. Tubular bioreactor and its application; Tubular bioreactor to sono tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, I.; Nagamune, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yuki, K. [Nikka Whisky Distilling Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, H. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-05

    The loop type tubular bioreactor (TBR) was developed where biocatalysts are trapped in the reactor by membrane module. A UF membrane or MF membrane and crossflow filtration were adopted for the membrane module, and the reactor loop was composed of four membrane modules. The reactor was operated at 2-4 m/s in membrane surface velocity and 300-400 kPa in filtration pressure. As the result of the high-density culture of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, a biomass concentration was more than 10 times that in batch culture, suggesting the remarkable enhancement of a production efficiency. As the result of the continuous fermentation of cider, the fast fermentation more than 60 times that in conventional ones was obtained together with the same quality as conventional ones. Such a fast fermentation was probably achieved by yeast suspended in the fermenter of TBR, by yeast hardly affected physico-chemically as compared with immobilized reactors, and by small effect of mass transfer on reaction systems. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 4 Overexpression in Cells Prevents Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis via the Upregulation of eNOS

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    Chun-An Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs signaling cascades regulate several cellular functions, including differentiation, proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. The duration and magnitude of phosphorylation of these MAPKs are decisive determinants of their physiological functions. Dual-specificity phosphatases exert kinetic control over these signaling cascades. Previously, we demonstrated that DUSP4−/− hearts sustain a larger infarct and have poor functional recovery, when isolated hearts were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. Uncontrolled p38 activation and upregulation of Nox4 expression are the main effectors for this functional alteration. Here, dual-specificity phosphatase 4 (DUSP4 overexpression in endothelial cells was used to investigate the role of DUSP4 on the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and vascular function, when cells were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R insult. Immunostaining with cleaved caspase-3 revealed that DUSP4 overexpression prevents caspase-3 activation and apoptosis after H/R. The beneficial effects occur via modulating p38 activity, increased NO bioavailability, and reduced oxidative stress. More importantly, DUSP4 overexpression upregulates eNOS protein expression (1.62 ± 0.33 versus 0.65 ± 0.16 during H/R-induced stress. NO is a critical small molecule involved in regulating vascular tone, vascular growth, platelet aggregation, and modulation of inflammation. The level of NO generation determined using DAF-2 fluorescence demonstrated that DUSP4 overexpression augments NO production and thus improves vascular function. The level of superoxide generated from cells after being subjected to H/R was determined using dihydroethidium-HPLC method. The results suggested that DUSP4 overexpression in cells decreases H/R-induced superoxide generation (1.56 ± 0.14 versus 1.19 ± 0.05 and thus reduces oxidant stress. This also correlates with the reduction in the total

  2. Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 4 Overexpression in Cells Prevents Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis via the Upregulation of eNOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Julie A.; Kilbane Myers, Joanna; Khan, Mahmood; Angelos, Mark G.; Chen, Chun-An

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling cascades regulate several cellular functions, including differentiation, proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. The duration and magnitude of phosphorylation of these MAPKs are decisive determinants of their physiological functions. Dual-specificity phosphatases exert kinetic control over these signaling cascades. Previously, we demonstrated that DUSP4−/− hearts sustain a larger infarct and have poor functional recovery, when isolated hearts were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. Uncontrolled p38 activation and upregulation of Nox4 expression are the main effectors for this functional alteration. Here, dual-specificity phosphatase 4 (DUSP4) overexpression in endothelial cells was used to investigate the role of DUSP4 on the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and vascular function, when cells were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) insult. Immunostaining with cleaved caspase-3 revealed that DUSP4 overexpression prevents caspase-3 activation and apoptosis after H/R. The beneficial effects occur via modulating p38 activity, increased NO bioavailability, and reduced oxidative stress. More importantly, DUSP4 overexpression upregulates eNOS protein expression (1.62 ± 0.33 versus 0.65 ± 0.16) during H/R-induced stress. NO is a critical small molecule involved in regulating vascular tone, vascular growth, platelet aggregation, and modulation of inflammation. The level of NO generation determined using DAF-2 fluorescence demonstrated that DUSP4 overexpression augments NO production and thus improves vascular function. The level of superoxide generated from cells after being subjected to H/R was determined using dihydroethidium-HPLC method. The results suggested that DUSP4 overexpression in cells decreases H/R-induced superoxide generation (1.56 ± 0.14 versus 1.19 ± 0.05) and thus reduces oxidant stress. This also correlates with the reduction in the total protein S

  3. Effects of stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase on diabetic nephropathy in diabetic eNOS knockout mice on top of angiotensin II receptor blockade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina M Ott

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications, such as diabetic nephropathy (DN, is rising worldwide and prevention and treatment are therefore becoming increasingly important. Therapy of DN is particularly important for patients who do not adequately respond to angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB treatment. Novel approaches include the stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC as it is reported to have beneficial effects on cardiac and renal damage. We aimed to investigate the effects of the sGC stimulator riociguat and ARB telmisartan on kidney function and structure in a hypertensive model of diabetic nephropathy. Seventy-six diabetic male eNOS knockout C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided after having received streptozotocin: telmisartan (1 mg/kg/d, riociguat (3 mg/kg/d, riociguat+telmisartan (3+1 mg/kg/d, and vehicle. Fourteen mice were used as non-diabetic controls. Treatment duration was 11 weeks. Glucose concentrations were increased and similar in all diabetic groups. Telmisartan insignificantly reduced blood pressure by 5.9 mmHg compared with diabetic controls (111.2±2.3 mmHg vs. 117.1±2.2 mmHg; p = 0.071. Treatment with riociguat both alone and in combination with telmisartan led to a significant reduction of blood pressure towards diabetic vehicle (105.2±2.5 mmHg and 105.0±3.2 mmHg, respectively, vs. 117.1±2.2 mmHg. Combined treatment also significantly decreased albuminuria compared with diabetic controls (47.3±9.6 µg/24 h vs. 170.8±34.2 µg/24 h; p = 0.002 reaching levels similar to those of non-diabetic controls (34.4±10.6 µg/24 h, whereas the reduction by single treatment with either telmisartan (97.8±26.4 µg/24 h or riociguat (97.1±15.7 µg/24 h was not statistically significant. The combination treatment led to a significant (p<0.01 decrease of tissue immunoreactivity of malondialdehyde, as consequence of reduced oxidative stress. In conclusion, stimulation of sGC significantly reduced urinary

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of nitric oxide synthase enzymes (iNOS, eNOS, nNOS) in the estrual and luteal phases of the sexual cycle in the cow oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, A; Ergün, E; Öztaş, E; Ergün, L; Özcan, Z; Alabay, B; Bayraktaroğlu, A G; Kürüm, A; Erdoğan, E

    2013-10-01

    This study was aimed to determine staining intensity, cellular localization and distribution of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes during the sexual cycle in the cow oviduct. Oviduct samples belonging to 20 cows, 10 of which were in the estrual phase and 10 in the luteal phase of the sexual cycle, were examined by an immunohistochemical procedure to determine the presence of the NOS enzymes. In the epithelial cells of the isthmus, endothelial NOS (eNOS) expression showed a strong positive reaction during the estrual phase and a weak positive reaction during the luteal phase in the endothelium and smooth muscle of the blood vessels found in the serosa and lamina propria. eNOS expression was not observed in the epithelium of either the ampulla or the fimbria in the two particular phases of the sexual cycle. The eNOS reactions observed in the blood vessel wall in these regions were stronger during the estrual phase. eNOS activity was not observed in the tunica muscularis in any of the regions of the oviduct. During the estrual phase, it was observed that inducible NOS expression showed a stronger positive reaction in the epithelium and muscle layer of the isthmus and ampulla and in the epithelium of the fimbria, compared to the luteal phase. Neuronal NOS immunoreactivity was observed in the epithelial cells of all oviduct regions and in the muscle layer of the isthmus and ampulla and did not display any significant difference between the estrual and luteal phases. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Ellagic Acid Prevents L-NAME-Induced Hypertension via Restoration of eNOS and p47phox Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thewarid Berkban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ellagic acid on oxidative stress and hypertension induced by Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day for five weeks. L-NAME induced high systolic blood pressure (SBP and increased heart rate (HR, hindlimb vascular resistance (HVR and oxidative stress. Concurrent treatment with ellagic acid (7.5 or 15 mg/kg prevented these alterations. Co-treatment with ellagic acid was associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS protein production and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreased superoxide production in the vascular tissue, reduced plasma malondialdehyde levels, reduced NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite levels. Our results indicate that ellagic acid attenuates hypertension by reducing NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression, which prevents oxidative stress and restores NO bioavailability.

  6. Synergistic Antihypertensive Effect of Carthamus tinctorius L. Extract and Captopril in l-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats via Restoration of eNOS and AT1R Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneesai, Putcharawipa; Prasarttong, Patoomporn; Bunbupha, Sarawoot; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Tangsucharit, Panot; Prachaney, Parichat; Pakdeechote, Poungrat

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of Carthamus tinctorius (CT) extract plus captopril treatment on blood pressure, vascular function, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension. Rats were treated with l-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) for five weeks and given CT extract (75 or 150 or 300 or 500 mg/kg/day): captopril (5 mg/kg/day) or CT extract (300 mg/kg/day) plus captopril (5 mg/kg/day) for two consecutive weeks. CT extract reduced blood pressure dose-dependently, and the most effective dose was 300 mg/kg/day. l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats showed abnormalities including high blood pressure, high vascular resistance, impairment of acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in isolated aortic rings and mesenteric vascular beds, increased vascular superoxide production and plasma malondialdehyde levels, downregulation of eNOS, low level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and increased plasma angiotensin II. These abnormalities were alleviated by treatment with either CT extract or captopril. Combination treatment of CT extract and captopril normalized all the abnormalities found in hypertensive rats except endothelial dysfunction. These data indicate that there are synergistic antihypertensive effects of CT extract and captopril. These effects are likely mediated by their anti-oxidative properties and their inhibition of RAS. PMID:26938552

  7. Synergistic Antihypertensive Effect of Carthamus tinctorius L. Extract and Captopril in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats via Restoration of eNOS and AT₁R Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneesai, Putcharawipa; Prasarttong, Patoomporn; Bunbupha, Sarawoot; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Tangsucharit, Panot; Prachaney, Parichat; Pakdeechote, Poungrat

    2016-02-29

    This study examined the effect of Carthamus tinctorius (CT) extract plus captopril treatment on blood pressure, vascular function, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in N(ω)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension. Rats were treated with l-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) for five weeks and given CT extract (75 or 150 or 300 or 500 mg/kg/day): captopril (5 mg/kg/day) or CT extract (300 mg/kg/day) plus captopril (5 mg/kg/day) for two consecutive weeks. CT extract reduced blood pressure dose-dependently, and the most effective dose was 300 mg/kg/day. l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats showed abnormalities including high blood pressure, high vascular resistance, impairment of acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in isolated aortic rings and mesenteric vascular beds, increased vascular superoxide production and plasma malondialdehyde levels, downregulation of eNOS, low level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and increased plasma angiotensin II. These abnormalities were alleviated by treatment with either CT extract or captopril. Combination treatment of CT extract and captopril normalized all the abnormalities found in hypertensive rats except endothelial dysfunction. These data indicate that there are synergistic antihypertensive effects of CT extract and captopril. These effects are likely mediated by their anti-oxidative properties and their inhibition of RAS.

  8. Implicações farmacogenéticas de polimorfismos da eNOS para drogas de ação cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Souza Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A farmacogenética é um dos campos mais promissores da medicina. A conclusão do Projeto Genoma permitiu que esse campo começasse a descobrir fatores complexos modulando a resposta às drogas, e novas tecnologias estão a poucos passos de permitir uma grande expansão da área. As doenças cardiovasculares estão atualmente entre as maiores causas de internações hospitalares e morte, e têm sido alvo de grande parte dos estudos genéticos de doenças complexas. Paralelamente à identificação de marcadores de suscetibilidade à doença, é necessária a investigação de como perfis genéticos diferentes podem alterar respostas aos fármacos atualmente empregados. O sistema biológico que controla a produção endotelial do óxido nítrico tem sido um dos grandes alvos nas respostas farmacológicas aos fármacos usados na terapia de doenças cardiovasculares. Esta revisão tem como objetivo abordar os conhecimentos correntes da interação entre as variações genéticas da eNOS e as respostas farmacológicas aos fármacos empregados no sistema cardiovascular.

  9. Synergistic Antihypertensive Effect of Carthamus tinctorius L. Extract and Captopril in l-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats via Restoration of eNOS and AT1R Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putcharawipa Maneesai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of Carthamus tinctorius (CT extract plus captopril treatment on blood pressure, vascular function, nitric oxide (NO bioavailability, oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS in Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME-induced hypertension. Rats were treated with l-NAME (40 mg/kg/day for five weeks and given CT extract (75 or 150 or 300 or 500 mg/kg/day: captopril (5 mg/kg/day or CT extract (300 mg/kg/day plus captopril (5 mg/kg/day for two consecutive weeks. CT extract reduced blood pressure dose-dependently, and the most effective dose was 300 mg/kg/day. l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats showed abnormalities including high blood pressure, high vascular resistance, impairment of acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in isolated aortic rings and mesenteric vascular beds, increased vascular superoxide production and plasma malondialdehyde levels, downregulation of eNOS, low level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and increased plasma angiotensin II. These abnormalities were alleviated by treatment with either CT extract or captopril. Combination treatment of CT extract and captopril normalized all the abnormalities found in hypertensive rats except endothelial dysfunction. These data indicate that there are synergistic antihypertensive effects of CT extract and captopril. These effects are likely mediated by their anti-oxidative properties and their inhibition of RAS.

  10. Inhibition of kidney proximal tubular glucose reabsorption does not prevent against diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetic eNOS knockout mice.

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    Muralikrishna Gangadharan Komala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 is the main luminal glucose transporter in the kidney. SGLT2 inhibition results in glycosuria and improved glycaemic control. Drugs inhibiting this transporter have recently been approved for clinical use and have been suggested to have potential renoprotective benefits by limiting glycotoxicity in the proximal tubule. We aimed to determine the renoprotective benefits of empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, independent of its glucose lowering effect. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We induced diabetes using a low dose streptozotocin protocol in 7-8 week old endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS synthase knockout mice. We measured fasting blood glucose on a monthly basis, terminal urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Renal histology was assessed for inflammatory and fibrotic changes. Renal cortical mRNA transcription of inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines, glucose transporters and protein expression of SGLT2 and GLUT1 were determined. Outcomes were compared to diabetic animals receiving the angiotensin receptor blocker telmisartan (current best practice. RESULTS: Diabetic mice had high matched blood glucose levels. Empagliflozin did not attenuate diabetes-induced albuminuria, unlike telmisartan. Empagliflozin did not improve glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, tubulointerstitial inflammation or fibrosis, while telmisartan attenuated these. Empagliflozin did not modify tubular toll-like receptor-2 expression in diabetic mice. Empagliflozin did not reduce the upregulation of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, transforming growth factor β1 and fibronectin mRNA observed in the diabetic animals, while telmisartan decreased transcription of MCP-1 and fibronectin. Empagliflozin increased GLUT1 mRNA expression and telmisartan increased SGLT2 mRNA expression in comparison to untreated diabetic mice. However no significant difference was found in protein expression of GLUT1 or SGLT2 among the

  11. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis of MTHFR, PAI-1, ACE, PON1, and eNOS gene polymorphisms in patients with early onset coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirbasli, M; Guney, A I; Ozturhan, H S; Agirbasli, D; Ulucan, K; Sevinc, D; Kirac, D; Ryckman, K K; Williams, S M

    2011-12-01

    Association studies in the Turkish population have investigated the single locus effects of different gene polymorphisms on coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD is a complex polygenic disease that involves complex interactions among multiple genetic and environmental conditions. We evaluated associations of five candidate genetic polymorphisms (methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T, plasminogen activator inhibitor 4G/5G, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) 3-27 base pair repeat, insertion, or deletion of a 287 bp Alu repeat sequence polymorhism of angiotensin I converting enzyme, and paraoxonase Gln192Arg PON1 polymorphisms) with the presence and extent of early onset CAD. DNA was isolated and amplified from 90 consecutive patients with angiographically proven early onset CAD (ages 41 ± 5 for men, 49 ± 7 for women) and also from 90 control subjects with no significant coronary obstruction angiographically (ages 42 ± 5 for men, 48 ± 6 for women). Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis was performed to identify a model of CAD based on both genetic and conventional risk factors. MDR analysis detected a significant model with four genes (prediction success ∼ 61%, p = 0.03). When the total number of the conventional risk factors is analysed with the candidate polymorphisms, a different model is identified that includes three of the four genes from the above model and achieves a similar prediction of CAD as the gene only model. These data indicate that gene-gene and gene-environmental risk interactions form significant models in predicting early onset CAD.

  12. MicroRNA-27b plays a role in pulmonary arterial hypertension by modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ dependent Hsp90-eNOS signaling and nitric oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Rui; Bao, Chunrong; Jiang, Lianyong; Liu, Hao; Yang, Yang; Mei, Ju; Ding, Fangbao, E-mail: dbcar126@126.com

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary artery endothelial dysfunction is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Based on recent studies showing that microRNA (miR)-27b is aberrantly expressed in PAH, we hypothesized that miR-27b may contribute to pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in PAH. The effect of miR-27b on pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and the underlying mechanism were investigated in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) in vitro and in a monocrotaline (MCT)-induced model of PAH in vivo. miR-27b expression was upregulated in MCT-induced PAH and inversely correlated with the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and miR-27b inhibition attenuated MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and remodeling and prevented PAH associated right ventricular hypertrophy and systolic pressure in rats. PPARγ was confirmed as a direct target of miR-27b in HPAECs and shown to mediate the effect of miR-27b on the disruption of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling to Hsp90 and the suppression of NO production associated with the PAH phenotype. We showed that miR-27b plays a role endothelial function and NO release and elucidated a potential mechanism by which miR-27b regulates Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling by modulating PPARγ expression, providing potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of PAH. - Highlights: • miR-27b plays a role in endothelial function and NO release. • miR-27b inhibition ameliorates MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and PAH. • miR-27b targets PPARγ in HPAECs. • miR-27b regulates PPARγ dependent Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling.

  13. Puruvana puruvanavana : [luuletused] / Eno Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Eno, 1928-1996

    2000-01-01

    Sisu: Puruvana puruvanavana ; Vetesell ; Pada ja katel ; Nääripäkapikk ; Vanapaar ; Mere peremees ; Lepamaim ; Kiilaspää kiilasjääl ; Tõugu unistus ; Naljatilk silk ; Muttide jalutuskäik ; Hiir lumes ; Kalakari salakaril ; Naljalammas ; Mesilastest ; Kure mure ; Voki laul karule ; Põrsalaul ; Kurk ja kõrvits ; Tuhk ja tina ; Õige pea ja vale pea ; Suu pea, puupea! ; Siga õuel

  14. Efeitos da atorvastatina e do polimorfismo T-786C do gene eNOS sobre parâmetros do metabolismo lipídico plasmático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Helena de Souza Zago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A atividade do óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS pode ser modulada pelo colesterol da lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C, estatinas ou polimorfismos, como o T-786C de eNOS. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se o polimorfismo T-786C está associado a alterações nos efeitos da atorvastatina no perfil lipídico, nas concentrações de metabólitos de óxido nítrico (NO e da proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as. MÉTODOS: Trinta voluntários do sexo masculino, assintomáticos, com idade entre 18-56 anos foram genotipados e classificados de acordo com a ausência (TT, n = 15 ou presença (CC, n = 15 do polimorfismo. Eles foram selecionados aleatoriamente para a utilização de placebo e atorvastatina (10 mg/dia por 14 dias. Após cada tratamento foram medidos lípides, lipoproteínas, frações HDL2 e HDL3, atividade da proteína de transferência de colesteril éster (CETP, metabólitos de NO e PCR-as. RESULTADOS: As comparações entre genótipos após a administração de placebo mostraram aumento da atividade da CETP polimorfismo-dependente (TT, 12 ± 7; CC, 22 ± 12, p < 0,05. As análises da interação entre os tratamentos indicaram que a atorvastatina tem efeito sobre colesterol, LDL, nitrito e razões lípides/proteínas (HDL2 e HDL3 (p < 0,001 em ambos os genótipos. É interessante notar as interações genótipo/droga sobre a CETP (p < 0,07 e a lipoproteína (a [Lp(a] (p < 0,056, levando a uma diminuição limítrofe da CETP, embora sem afetar a Lp(a. A PRC-as não mostrou alterações. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que o tratamento com estatinas pode ser relevante para a prevenção primária da aterosclerose em pacientes com o polimorfismo T-786C do eNOS, considerando os efeitos no metabolismo lipídico.

  15. Reduction of Adhesion Molecule Production and Alteration of eNOS and Endothelin-1 mRNA Expression in Endothelium by Euphorbia hirta L. through Its Beneficial β-Amyrin Molecule

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    Mei Fen Shih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The inflammatory reaction in large blood vessels involves up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1. These vascular dysfunctions are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. β-Amyrin, an active component of Euphorbia hirta L., has potent anti-inflammatory effects. So far, its preventive effects against the expression of inflammatory mediator-induced adhesion molecules have not been investigated. Endothelial cells (SVEC4-10 cell line were treated with 50% RAW conditioned media (i.e., normal SVEC4-10 culture media contains 50% of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage culture media without or with β-amyrin (0.6 and 0.3 µM. The production levels of E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 in the SVEC4-10 cells were measured with ELISA assay kits. Under the same treatment conditions, expression of endothelin (ET-1 and endothelial type of NO synthase (eNOS mRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. With β-amyrin, the 50% RAW conditioned media-induced E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels as well as ET-1 gene expression were all suppressed. β-Amyrin treatment also restored the 50% RAW conditioned media-suppressed eNOS mRNA expression. These data indicate that β-amyrin is potentially useful in preventing chronic inflammation-related vascular diseases.

  16. Reduction of adhesion molecule production and alteration of eNOS and endothelin-1 mRNA expression in endothelium by Euphorbia hirta L. through its beneficial β-amyrin molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Mei Fen; Cherng, Jong Yuh

    2014-07-18

    The inflammatory reaction in large blood vessels involves up-regulation of vascular adhesion molecules such as endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1. These vascular dysfunctions are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. β-Amyrin, an active component of Euphorbia hirta L., has potent anti-inflammatory effects. So far, its preventive effects against the expression of inflammatory mediator-induced adhesion molecules have not been investigated. Endothelial cells (SVEC4-10 cell line) were treated with 50% RAW conditioned media (i.e., normal SVEC4-10 culture media contains 50% of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage culture media) without or with β-amyrin (0.6 and 0.3 µM). The production levels of E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 in the SVEC4-10 cells were measured with ELISA assay kits. Under the same treatment conditions, expression of endothelin (ET)-1 and endothelial type of NO synthase (eNOS) mRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR and agarose gel. With β-amyrin, the 50% RAW conditioned media-induced E-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 levels as well as ET-1 gene expression were all suppressed. β-Amyrin treatment also restored the 50% RAW conditioned media-suppressed eNOS mRNA expression. These data indicate that β-amyrin is potentially useful in preventing chronic inflammation-related vascular diseases.

  17. A multilevel prediction of physiological response to challenge: Interactions among child maltreatment, neighborhood crime, endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS), and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Manly, Jody Todd; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    Physiological response to stress has been linked to a variety of healthy and pathological conditions. The current study conducted a multilevel examination of interactions among environmental toxins (i.e., neighborhood crime and child maltreatment) and specific genetic polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6). One hundred eighty-six children were recruited at age 4. The presence or absence of child maltreatment as well as the amount of crime that occurred in their neighborhood during the previous year were determined at that time. At age 9, the children were brought to the lab, where their physiological response to a cognitive challenge (i.e., change in the amplitude of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia) was assessed and DNA samples were collected for subsequent genotyping. The results confirmed that complex Gene × Gene, Environment × Environment, and Gene × Environment interactions were associated with different patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity. The implications for future research and evidence-based intervention are discussed.

  18. Factors responsible for subclinical mastitis in cows caused by Staphylococcus chromogenes and its susceptibility to antibiotics based on bap, fnbA, eno, mecA, tetK, and ermA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochniarz, M; Adaszek, Ł; Dzięgiel, B; Nowaczek, A; Wawron, W; Dąbrowski, R; Szczubiał, M; Winiarczyk, S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to recognize selected factors of virulence determining the adhesion of Staphylococcus chromogenes to cows' udder tissues in subclinical mastitis and to evaluate the susceptibility of this pathogen to antibiotics. The subjects of the study were 38 isolates of Staph. chromogenes from 335 samples of milk from cows with subclinical coagulase-negative staphylococci mastitis. Somatic cell count ranged between 216,000 and 568,000/mL of milk (average 356,000/mL of milk). We confirmed the ability to produce slime in 24 isolates (63.2%), and the ability to produce protease in 29 isolates (76.3%). In each slime-producing isolate, the bap gene was not found, and the fnbA and eno genes were not detected. In vitro tests showed that ceftiofur had the highest effectiveness against Staph. chromogenes (89.5% of susceptible isolates). Minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 2µg/mL for susceptible isolates. The minimum concentrations required to inhibit growth of 90 and 50% of the isolates for ceftiofur were at or below the cutoffs recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2 and 0.06µg/mL, respectively). A significant percentage of the isolates were susceptible to other β-lactam antibiotics: amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (84.2%) and ampicillin (81.6%). The lowest effectiveness among β-lactams was for penicillin (73.7% of susceptible isolates), and the minimum inhibitory concentration for penicillin ranged from chromogenes (71.1 and 63.2% of susceptible isolates, respectively). The genes tetK (6 isolates) and ermA (1 isolate) were also detected. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of the electric discharge logging system; Hodenshiki jiban tansa system no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, K.; Yasuda, N. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Kuniyasu, T.; Kanda, K.; Naito, Y.; Tanaka, T.

    1997-10-22

    In the process of developing an electric discharge logging system, the advantage over other methods has become clear of P-wave initial amplitude damping coefficient analysis which is accomplished by measuring P-wave velocity in a hard rockbed and examining oscillation receiver bone sensitivity on the spot. In the hope of furthering the advantage, attention is paid to cracks in the rockbed that are deemed to influence damping, and the measurements by the subject system are compared with BSS measurements recorded at a K underground power station. The results of the analysis of P-wave initial amplitude damping coefficients, determined by the electric discharge logging system operated in a measuring hole provided in the cavity accommodating the station main equipment, disclose that there exists a high-coefficient region deeper in the ground where a part of the rockbed is weak. That is, it is inferred that the wide-range variation in damping coefficient detected at levels deeper than the 20.5m-deep hole dug in the arch enlargement corresponds to looseness in the rockbed. Cracks in the BSS records are grouped by aperture width, inclination angle, and strike. The rate of contribution to P-wave initial amplitude damping of each class of cracks is accepted as what shows the geological conditions surrounding the station for the formulation of schematic diagrams exhibiting cracks along the W-E axis and N-S axis. 4 refs., 15 figs.

  20. El cuento americano: Güeno-mapu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Carvajal

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available Helechos. Susurran como el abanico del pavo real. Ahí están. En grupos o hileras sobre la huella rojiza que va al caserío. Junto a la selva. Lejos, adentro, a donde solo llegan a ramonear los vahuales. En la traba de pellines, ulmos y araucarias, rosal silvestre y zarza levantada en altura de lianas y cañaveral.

  1. Influencia del fenómeno El Niño - La Niña / Oscilación Sur (ENOS y de la temperatura del Atlántico norte en los caudales del Río Caura, Guayana Venezolana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Paolini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza 33 años (1971-2003 de una serie de tiempo de caudales con una estacionalidad muy marcada recolectada en la Cuenca del Río Caura. Esta cuenca es de vital importancia porque es una de las últimas regiones prístinas de la Guayana venezolana. Los datos provienen de tres estaciones hidrométricas ubicadas en la cuenca del Río Caura. Se analiza la influencia del fenómeno El Niño Oscilación Sur (ENOS y las anomalías de las temperaturas del océano Atlántico Tropical sobre los caudales del río. Para el análisis de las relaciones entre el fenómeno ENOS y la serie de caudales se utilizan los índices ONI y MEI. La exploración de las singularidades en los datos se realiza utilizando una segmentación de las series de tiempo basada en el índice ONI. La segmentación de la series de tiempo permite detectar relaciones específicas entre el caudal y cada una de las fases del fenómeno del Niño.

  2. El niño, oscilación del sur (ENOS, con relación a la transmisión de malaria, densidad y paridad de An. albimanus y An. darlingi (diptera: culicidae en dos regiones de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mantilla

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Una fuerte asociación ha sido registrada entre los incrementos en la transmisiónas forzadas por el fenómeno El Niño. Entre las posibles explicaciones para esta asociación está el efecto del clima sobre la dinámica de población de vectores, por ejemplo, generando cambios en la densidad y en las tasas de sobrevivencia de la población, y en la cantidad y calidad de sitios de reproducción, como también a través de cambios en el período de incubación extrínseco del parásito dentro del vector. Con el propósito de evaluar la influencia de ENOS sobre la densidad y paridad de Anopheles albimanus y An. darlingi, y su relación con la transmisión de malaria, se realizó un estudio longitudinal en Chocó y Casanare. En cada área se seleccionaron dos localidades y se realizaron muestreos entomológicos durante una semana cada mes, desde finales de 1997 hasta 1999. Este período cubrió los eventos El Niño 1997 -1998 y La Niña 1998 - 2000. En las localidades de Chocó se observó un importante incremento en el número de casos de malaria durante el evento ENOS, asociado con la temperatura. No se observó una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre los casos de malaria y la precipitación o la humedad relativa. La relación entre el incremento de malaria durante El Niño y las variables entomológicas no fue evidente. La densidad y paridad de ambas especies de vectores fluctuaron durante el período de estudio y no se encontró una asociación significativa entre estas variables y los factores climáticos como la temperatura. La precipitación y la humedad relativa. La densidad de larvas de An. albimanus fluctuó durante el estudio, y mostró altas densidades alrededor de julio - agosto. No se observó asociación entre la densidad de larvas con la densidad de adultos o las variables climáticas. El efecto del evento ENOS sobre las poblaciones de vectores

  3. Composición y abundancia de artrópodos epígeos del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe: impactos del ENOS de 1997 y efectos del hábitat pedológico Abundance and composition of epigean arthropods from Llanos de Challe National Park: impacts of ENSO-1997 and effects of the pedological habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE CEPEDA-PIZARRO

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el uso de trampas de intercepción, se estudió el efecto de la precipitación y el tipo de hábitat sobre la denso-actividad del ensamble de artrópodos epígeos _en particular Tenebrionidae_ del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe. Este parque está ubicado en el desierto costero transicional de Chile, en la III Región de Atacama. Los muestreos se realizaron durante tres días por mes (septiembre, octubre y diciembre en el período de máxima actividad biológica del sistema y en los años 1989 (año no-ENOS seco, 1997 (año ENOS intenso y 2000 (año no-ENOS húmedo. En las comparaciones se utilizaron dos sitios pedológicamente contrastantes: un hábitat dunario costero y un hábitat pedregoso interior. Se registró la presencia de 15 órdenes de Arthropoda. Los hexápodos constituyeron > 95 % del total de los especímenes capturados (9.065 individuos, siendo Collembola (36,1 % y Coleoptera (29,8 % los órdenes con mayor representatividad numérica. El número de órdenes con representantes activos varió ligeramente entre años: 13 órdenes se registraron en 1989 (44 % de precipitación bajo el promedio, 15 en 1997 (443 % sobre el promedio y 11 en 2000 (52 % sobre el promedio. El efecto del evento ENOS se reflejó claramente en la contribución numérica en la mayoría de los taxa registrados. Aunque más sutilmente, este efecto también se reflejó en la composición del ensamble de taxa dominantes y entre hábitat pedológicos, particularmente con Tenebrionidae y Formicidae. Especialmente en las dunas costeras, Tenebrionidae dominó claramente el ensamble de artrópodos epígeos, siendo Gyriosomus Guérin-Méneville el género más diverso y abundante. La dominancia de Gyriosomus plantea un conjunto de interrogantes respecto de su nivel de endemismo, diversidad y distribución de sus especies, y el papel funcional de estas en el ecosistema estudiadoBy using pitfall traps, the effects of rainfall and habitat type on the denso

  4. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric identification of dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans: insights into electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric fragmentation of lign-7-eno-9,9'-lactones and application to the lignans of Linum usitatissimum L. (Common Flax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas J; Alfermann, A Wilhelm; Fuss, Elisabeth

    2008-11-01

    In continuation of our studies into the mass spectrometric detection of natural lignans and their identification in complex mixtures such as crude plant extracts, the electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (ESI-MS/MS) fragmentation of Delta(7,8)-unsaturated dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans (lign-7-eno-9,9'-lactones) was studied in detail. It is demonstrated that the characteristic fragmentation allows unambiguous identification including distinction between constitutional isomers. These lignans containing an alpha,beta-unsaturated lactone structure exist as equilibrium mixtures of E- and Z-isomers indistinguishable by mass spectrometry, but it is shown that chromatographic retention time can be used to distinguish between the isomeric forms. Based on these observations, re-analysis of the dichloromethane extract obtained from flowering aerial parts of Linum usitatissimum L. by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/ESI-MS/MS led to the identification of eighteen lignans of these types (five lignano- and one lignenolactone previously reported along with five further lignano- as well as seven lignenolactones hitherto unreported for this plant). The simultaneous identification of eighteen different lignans in the complex matrix of a crude plant extract by a single analysis demonstrates the potential of this method, which will certainly lead to new insights into the lignan composition and metabolism of different Linum species and many other plants.

  5. Application of compliance/force control to industrial robots; Sangyoyo robot ni okeru compliance/chikaraseigyo no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuragawa, T.; Ioi, K.; Noro, O.; Nagata, O.; Kubota, N.; Ogimoto, K.; Kataoka, M. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-20

    This paper describes a position command type hybrid compliance/force control system as a method to constitute a control system when an inner force sense sensor was used as an outer field sensor in industrial robots. The paper also reports the result of applying the system to robots. The proposed position command system realizes compliance control and force control in each degree of freedom in the six degrees in a robot. Application of the system to an operating robot adopted a revolute joint position commanding configuration. The robot used in the test is a six-axial motor-driven robot, which can carry a weight of 10 kgf. The robot controller has the robot OS, the robot language processing board, the independent joint shaft PID servo board, and the inner force sensing servo board linked to the VME bus. A simulation has discussed the stable region in the targeted compliance and the response characteristics. The result of an application test of the system indicated that the force response follows the target values, and the pressing force is controlled. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Application of the seismic survey ahead of tunnel face; Danseiha wo mochiita kiriha zenpo tansa no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, S.; Nakajima, N. [JDC Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Measurements have been made in a water channel tunnel having a small diameter and shallow earth covering, by using a tunnel seismic prediction (TSP) system to predict the nature of soil up to about 150 meters ahead of a face, which uses reflection method elastic waves. The water channel tunnel has a diameter of 2.8 m, and extends over a total distance of 706 m. The nature of soil at the face is composed of rocks, in which dark gray and hard striped phthanites are distributed and joint interval is about 20 cm. The measurements were performed on 24 vibration holes with hole interval of about 1.5 m using an explosive of 50 grams per hole. Diffraction stack processing method was used to execute the analysis. As a result of the discussions, a point changing from hard to soft soil was predicted at a point 18 m ahead of the face, and a point changing from soft to hard soil at a point 70 m ahead of the face. The changing point for the soil nature as observed by drilling showed a discrepancy of 10 m at the point changing from hard to soft soil as compared with the prediction derived by using the TSP exploration. No discrepancy was recognized in the point changing from soft to hard soil. The discrepancy is thought to have been caused from the geological change in the explored area being moderate and the lithofacies being free from change. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Research on EBEP (Electron Beam Excited Plasma) applications; EBEP (denshi beam reiki plasma) no tekiyo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanase, E.; Ryoji, M.; Mori, Y.; Tokai, M. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-04-20

    Research and development is actively conducted on machining technologies using plasma in various fields, with studies energetically pursued on etching techniques or those of forming a thin film by the use of high frequency and microwave plasma. The EBEP system jointly developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. and Institute of Physical and Chemical Research is a plasma source for forming a high density plasma by implanting into a plasma chamber from the outside a high-current electron beam accelerated to an energy of approximately 60 to 100eV where the collision cross-section of gas ionization is maximized. The characteristics of the system are such as (1) it enables electron energy distribution to be controlled from outside by varying acceleration voltage, (2) it excels in the controllability of ion energy and (3) it allows to form a steady high-density plasma in a nonmagnetic field. This paper presents the generating principle of EBEP, its plasma characteristics, etching technique using EBEP, thin film forming technique by EBEP-CVD method, and multipurpose apparatus for research and development. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. OAM system based on TMN for utility telecommunication network. Proposal of modeling method about managed objects; TMN ni motozuku denryoku tsushinmo no un`yo kanri system. Kanri object no sekkei shuho ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirozawa, T.; Yusa, H.; Otani, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Okamura, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    To construct an advanced operation and management system for utility telecommunications management network (TMN), this paper proposes a modeling method of managed objects (MOs) required for managing and managed systems, such as an asynchronous transmission mode (ATM) exchanger. Flexible line setting and path switching control are required for the advanced TMN, which must cope with the extension and modification of functions, flexibly. Assignment of roles of managing sides and managed sides was determined. Then, structures of objects such as facilities and logic data, and their interaction were modeled. Common management functions and objects of each function were classified. Based on the TMN standard and MOs of the existing design peculiar to utility, new MOs peculiar to utility were defined in response to the models. The existing MOs can be effectively utilized, and the optimum MOs to be incorporated can be expected. The MOs peculiar to utility are added to the common specification of electric power industry. Since they can be reused for the extension and modification of functions, the cost can be reduced. The MOs applicable to path switching control of utility were designed as a trial. 9 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Space tourism; next goal of rocketry; Uchu eno ryokaku yuso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inatani, Y. [Institute of the Space and Astronautical Science,Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-05

    As to the space travel to be conducted as business, the paper presented the results of the study being made to extract subjects. The single-stage space transport system which can be completely reused is said to be realized by much more weight reduction in airframe structure and improvement of propulsion performance, judging from the present technology standard. The reason the present form of rocket has to be reformed is that the cost needed to put a load of 1kg into orbit around the earth is higher in order of 1 million yen than those of other vehicles. Because the rocket is disposable, it is difficult to make an enormous cost reduction, and therefore, it is necessary to realize the same operation form as that adopted to airplane. The price of tickets for space travel rationally determined by the demand side is between 1.5-2.0 million yen. The annual sales are estimated at approximately 1.3 trillion yen on the market. When calculating this as business, it is necessary to reduce the transportation cost from 1,000,000 yen to 90,000-10,000 yen. A conceptual design was made of a space travel standard airframe 'Kanko-maru.' (NEDO)

  10. Meedikud loodavad rahumeelsele leppele / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Tervishoiutöötajate kutseliitude esindajad võtsid väljakuulutatud streigihoiatuse maha lootuses, et kokkulepe meditsiinitöötajate miinimumtunnitasu osas võib sõlmida rahulikul teel. Arvamust avaldab Haiglate Liidu juhatuse esimees Urmas Sule

  11. President Ilves kohtus õpilaste ja kaitseliitlastega / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves külastas mitteametlikul visiidil 9.11.2007 Pärnu Sütevaka humanitaargümnaasiumi ja Kaitseliidu Pärnumaa malevat. Sütevaka humanitaargümnaasiumis kuulas president muusikakanali MTV Europe parima uustulnuka auhinna võitnud poistebändi Bedwetters esinemist ning osales lõpuklassi ühiskonnaõpetuse tunnis, rääkides kooli loosungist "Vabadus, loovus, vastutus" inspireeritult vabadusest ja vastutusest

  12. President istutas Torisse tamme / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves osales Toris Eesti sõjameeste mälestuskirikus traditsioonilisel vabadusvõitluse mälestusele pühendatud jumalateenistusel ja istutas kiriku kõrvale prominentide parki tamme. Varem on sellesse parki tammepuu istutanud president Arnold Rüütel, 20. augusti klubi, endine kaitseväe juhataja Aleksander Einseln ja peapiiskop Andres Põder

  13. Feminismo e/no pós-colonialismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Bahri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-026X2013000200018 Neste artigo, a autora discorre sobre a relação entre feminismo e pós-colonialismoa partir dos conceitos-chave nos estudos pós-coloniais, salientando as premissas, os métodose as tensões dessa aliança, bem como os desafios entre os feminismos “ocidental” e “póscolonial”no contexto da globalização.

  14. Influence of spectral solar radiation to the generating power of photovoltaic module; Taiyo denchi shutsuryoku eno taiyoko supekutoru eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minaki, S.; Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T.; Harada, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Oshiro, T.; Nakamura, H. [Japan quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    As to the influence of spectral solar radiation to generating power of solar cells, a study was conducted from the aspects of season, time zone, intensity of solar radiation, etc. In the study, spectral responsive variation correction coefficients were introduced as evaluation values expressing the influence of spectral solar radiation. For the spectral distribution, an all sky spectral pyranometer by wavelength was used, and data were used which were obtained in the measurement in experimental facilities of the solar techno center. Concerning solar cell relative spectral sensitivity values, used were relative spectral sensitivity values of monocrystal and amorphous standard solar cells to the short-circuit current. Spectral response variation correction coefficients are coefficients correcting variations in conversion efficiency of solar cells due to changes in the spectral distribution. The changes of spectral responsive variation correction coefficients were studied using data obtained during April 1994 and March 1996. As a result, it was found that the coefficients showed large changes in summer and small ones in winter and that amorphous solar cells indicate this trend conspicuously. 3 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Application of streaming potential method for detection of fractures in granitic rock. part 2; Kamaishi kozan ni okeru ryutai ryudo den`iho tekiyo shiken. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, T.; Yoneda, Y. [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Senba, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Streaming potential method has been applied in the Kamaishi Mine. In FY 1995, self-potential (SP) was monitored on the wall of gallery by varying the pressure in the well with open/close operation of the mouth of well having spring water, which was drilled from the gallery. It was confirmed that SP changes remarkably at the wall having a great number of fractures with spring water. It was considered that the change in SP is due to the streaming potential generated by the flowing underground water from the gallery side to the fractures in the well. In this paper, this continuity of the wall of gallery and the fractures in the well is estimated. In the present tests, SP changes were observed at walls of surrounding galleries by varying the pressure in the well with open/close operation of the mouth of borehole at various drilling depths during drilling of borehole. As a result, SP changes were observed at the wall of gallery when reaching to the depth with increased spring water. The results agreed well with the test results conducted at the same field in FY 1995. It was confirmed that the streaming potential method is a useful method for grasping the hydraulic continuity in the rocks. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Application of forking genetic algorithm fGA to an exploration method using microtremors; Bidotansaho heno kotaigun tansaku bunkigata identeki arugorizumu fGA no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, I; Nakkkanishi, I [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ling, S [Nihon Nessui Kaihatsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Okada, H

    1999-06-01

    We have made feasibility tests on application of forking Genetic Algorithm, fGA to the velocity structure determination in an exploration method using microtremors. Genetic algorithms work starting velocity structure, while conventional, iterative least-squares methods do. Genetic algorithms work simultaneously with a group of different velocity structures. Numerical experiments revel that the fGA is clearly superior to Simple Genetic Algorithm, (SGA) in performance. Furthermore the performance is not seriously affected by the variation in the control parameters of GA, which are usually determined a priori. Many kinds of velocity structures are determined by the fGA in synthetic tests and data analysis. The fGA is superior in sampling many velocity structures which explain the observations well, and it is easy in GA to impose various constraints on the velocity structure. We can apply the fGA to various cases of velocity structures. The application of fGA can significantly improve the inversion method so far used in the analysis of microtremors. (author)

  17. Development of a full waveform digital sonic tool and its field application; Full wave onpa kenso sochi no kaihatsu to genchi tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kurahashi, T. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Goebuchi, T. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Full waveform digital sonic tool (OYO) has been developed for the purpose of accurately measuring geophysical anomalies in the rockbed containing cracks, and its performance is evaluated by comparing its measurements with those obtained by the conventional sonic logging device (DBM). Modification involves the following. While gain is fixed in the DBM, it is variable in a times10-times200 range in the OYO. Analog transfer:ground surface A/D in the DBM is replaced by digital transfer:intra-probe A/D in the OYO. In the DBM, only a special program running on the MS-DOS can analyze waveform data but, in the OYO, waveforms are recorded in the SEG-Y format enabling the import of the data into generally available waveform processing software. In the OYO, a high-speed communication board is incorporated into the probe, which realizes high-speed communication. There is a very excellent agreement between the two in P-wave velocity distribution as reckoned from the initial run. Regarding the OYO, however, it is pointed out that gain control be performed with the greatest care to prevent waveforms from distortion. 5 figs.

  18. Application of geophysical methods to investigation of old castle, especially of the moat; Joshi no chosa ni okeru butsuri tansa no tekiyo (horiato no tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A.; Karube, F.; Kobayashi, M.; Toge, M. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An explanation is made about the application of geophysical methods to the investigation of the ruins of old castles especially of their moats. Techniques currently in use for exploration of the ruins of castles are mainly underground radar exploration and electric exploration. The underground radar method sends electromagnetic waves through the ground and receives the reflection for a high-precision exploration of the layers shallow in the ground. Therefore, this method is suitable for probing the ruins of castles relatively shallow in the flat land, hills, and mountains. The electric method (resistivity image method) do the probing by use of the two-electrode arrangement, performs inverse analysis on the basis of the obtained data for the determination of the underground resistivity distribution, and displays the distribution in an image easy to read. This method, when there is a great separation between the two electrodes, explores relatively deep into the ground. Thanks to this feature, this method is effective in probing relatively wide and deep ruins of moats, that is, the ruins of moats of castles built in later years, especially of those then filled with water. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Application of streaming potential method for detection of fractures in granitic rock; Kamaishi kozan ni okeru ryutai ryudo den`iho tekiyo shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, T.; Yokoi, K.; Yoneda, Y. [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Senba, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Measurements were made using the streaming potential method for the purpose of investigating the expansion of hydration cracks, direction of their propagation, and the chaining of cracked surfaces, in the granitic rock. Tests were conducted by use of a bore hole in the gallery wall. The bore hole yielded approximately 400 liters of water per minute, the bore hole was closed and then opened, and the change with the passage of time in the spontaneous potential (SP) on the gallery wall was measured. At a spot 31.2m from the mine entrance, the SP dropped by 15mV simultaneously with the opening of the bore hole, and rose by 14mV simultaneously with the closure of the same. The phenomenon was true for other locations, that is, for the section from the mine entrance to a spot 9.0m therefrom, and for a section beginning at 15.0m and ending at 19.2m therefrom. No change in the SP was observed in a group of cracks with water springing out of the gallery roof, beginning at a point 40m and ending at a point 54m from the mine entrance. The result suggests the possible application of the streaming potential method to the investigation of cracks. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  20. Riik hakkab Via Baltica maanteed neljarealiseks joonistama / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 25. sept. lk. 2. Pärnu maavalitsuse ja maanteeameti eestvedamisel alustatakse Tallinnast Iklani kulgeva Via Baltica liiklussoone teemaplaneeringut, mille järgi tuleb Pärnumaal leida lahendused Are ja Pärnu ümbersõidule ning Nurme õgvendusele. Arvamust avaldab Are vallavanem Jaanus Männik

  1. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Biotechnological application of marine microalgae; Kaiyo sorui no biotechnology eno riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, T.; Takeyama, H. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1995-09-10

    There are many kinds of micro algae who have adapted to extremely diversified marine environments. Screening of new useful materials from marine micro algae has been carried out. High density culture system using photo-bioreactor and genetic manipulation technology have been employed in order to enhance productivity of those materials from marine micro algae. We have found many useful materials, such as UV-A absorbing substance, plant growth regulating factor, polysaccharides, unsaturated fatty acids and antibiotics, from marine micro algae. Here, we describe production of those useful materials and their application. Marine coccolithophorid algae convert CO2 to CaCO3 and they have been expected to contribute to CO2 recycling system. Metabolic engineering in marine microalgae, especially cyanobacteria, has been established. Eicosapentaenoic acid is successfully synthesized in marine cyanobacterium which can not synthesize it. 41 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Risk communication. Risk studies in social science; Risk communication. Risk kenkyu eno shakai kagakuteki approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, M. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-05

    It is recently, that is, in and after the 1980s that socio-scientific approaches began to be made to studies on `risk`. It started to be made clear that the progress of the scientific technology does not necessarily bring about good news to man, and obvious estrangement has begun to appear between scientific evaluation and social evaluation of risk. The subject of risk communication (RC) study is to tackle a proposition whether the estrangement will continue to exist as estrangement or the estrangement can be made smaller by any means. This paper explains the recent trend of the study. For example, as for how each individual thinks about risk, that is, the risk perception, a new framework is trially being constructed by introduction of the quantitative method using psychometrics. A duty of RC is to serve to bridge the gap between scientific technology and society which are controlled by values which are incompatible with each other. Therefore, RC will be more and more important. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Truncus Arteriosus in a 43 year old Male: Case Report | Ng'eno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In truncus arteriosus, the embryologic truncus fails to properly divide in-utero resulting in the pulmonary, aortic and coronary arteries arising from a single ascending portion of this trunk. This condition is usually fatal within the first year of life without correction. Over the past two decades, there has been a dramatic expansion ...

  5. Effect of water pollution on marine organisms; Sekiyu osen no kaiyo seibutsu eno eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Fujisawa, K. [Okayama Prefectural Fisheries Experiment Station, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-10

    Toxicity of petroleum component to aquatic organisms appears as a result of its deposition onto living organisms followed by its migration into bodies of the organisms, and emergence of toxicity from the migrated component. Effect evaluation processes standing on this viewpoint may include the exposure monitoring or migration monitoring, in which the petroleum component migrated into marine organisms is analyzed and the state of the component concentrated in these organisms is measured, or effect monitoring, in which actions of the petroleum component in the organisms are investigated. The effects of petroleum on aquatic organisms would include the following occurrence: direct fatal toxicity acting on cells and membranes, quasi-fatal toxicity causing death indirectly through feeding actions and abnormal actions, direct coating of oil on surface of organisms, which prevents movability and feeding actions of the organisms and reduces hydrophilicity of plumes and hairs, pollution of living organisms due to migration of carcinogenic aromatic compounds into bodies of the living organisms, and change in species compositions and geographic distribution of living organisms due to change in physico-chemical environment. This paper explains cases of detection and identification of organic sulfur compounds, aromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic compounds, paraffins, olefins and heavy metals in parametric compounds of petroleum. 20 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. New oxide magnetic material for sub-4K cryocoolers; Sankabutsu jiseitai no chikureizai eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, T.; Sato, A.; Wada, H. [National Research Inst. of Metals, Tokyo (Japan). Tsukuba Magnet Lab.; Arai, O. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-29

    Aiming at improvement of refrigerating performance below 4 K, magnetic cryocoolers with large heat capacity in this region were examined. Noticing comparatively weak and simple magnetic interaction of oxide magnetic materials, possible substances which have large volume specific heat below 4 K were searched, and found perovskite system rare earth magnetic material GdAlO{sub 3}. Though GdAlO{sub 3} polycrystal shows {lambda} type ferromagnetic transition directly below 4 K, magnetic entropy of Gd is sufficiently maintained, and Gd has a large specific heat peak in 3 {approx} 4 K. Comparing with practical magnetic cryocooler HoCu{sub 2}, this GdAlO{sub 3} was found to have over 3.5 times specific heat. (NEDO)

  7. Model Skinner Operant Conditioning automata i bionički naučeno upravljanje robota

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jianxian; Hong, Li; Cheng, Lina; Yu, Ruihong

    2016-01-01

    Fuzzy Skinner Operant Conditioning Automaton (FSOCA) sastavljen je na temelju Operant Conditioning mehanizma primjenom teorije neizrazitih skupova. Osnovno obilježje automata FSOCA je sljedeće: neizraziti rezultati stanja pomoću Gausove funkcije koriste se kao skupovi neizrazitog stanja; neizrazita pravila preslikavanja (fuzzy mapping rules) kod fuzzy-conditioning-operacije zamjenjuju stohastičke "conditioning-operant" skupove preslikavanja. Stoga se automat FSOCA može koristiti za opisivanje...

  8. Pärnu võimukoalitsioon kutsub pataljoni toetama / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Pärnu võimuerakonnad kutsuvad linna ja maakonna elanikke kõnekoosolekule, kus nad soovivad avaldada nördimust kaitseministeeriumi plaani üle sulgeda selle aasta lõpul Pärnu üksik-jalaväepataljon

  9. Maavanema avaldus surus linnavõimu kaitsesse / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Pärnu maavanem Toomas Kivimägi kritiseeris linnavalitsust Via Baltica Pärnu ümbersõidu projekti venimise pärast. Linnapea Mart Viisitamm ei pea avaldust põhjendatuks. Vt. samas lk. 15: Mart Viisitamm. Demokraatia või diktatuur - selles on küsimus

  10. Pidupäevaüritused olid Eestile ilus kingitus / Andris Tammela, Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammela, Andris

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade EV 90. aastapäeva juubeliüritusest Pärnus. Vt. samas: Vabariigi juubel värvis Pärnu sinimustvalgeks; Head emotsioonid Eesti aastapäevalt: Are vallavanem Jaanus Männik, Euroopa Parlamendi liige Marianne Mikko, Pärnu linnavolikogu liikmed Valter Parve ja Raul Sarandi ja Pärnu maavanem Toomas Kivimägi

  11. Abilinnapea tõrjub opositsiooni süüdistusi / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Pärnu linnavalitsuse rahanduse abilinnapea Vambo Talu ei nõustu IRL poliitikute süüdistustega, et linna viletsas finantsolukorras on süüdi volikogu loata eelmise aasta eelarvest kärbitud 116 miljonit krooni

  12. Streigi saatus selgub täna lõunaks / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Riiklik lepitaja Henn Pärn tegi viimase kompromissettepaneku. Juhul, kui ametiühingute, tööandjate ja lepitaja kohtumisel osalised seda heaks ei kiida, alustatakse hoiatusstreigiga. Vt. samas: Pärnu streikivate bussijuhtide pöördumine linnarahva poole

  13. Estonia juhti kahtlustatakse ettevõtte varade omastamises / Ester Vilgats, Eno-Gerrit Link, Teet Roosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Ester

    2008-01-01

    Endine Pärnu linnapea, taastusravikeskuse Estonia pikaaegne juht Vello Järvesalu peeti kinni kahtlustatuna ettevõtte varade omastamises suures ulatuses. Kommenteerivad: Mart Viisitamm, Jane Mets ja Ahti Kõo

  14. President tunnustab Pärnumaad kümne riikliku autasuga / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Pärnumaalt saavad iseseisvuspäeva puhul riikliku autasu kümme inimest. Vt. samas: Ester Vilgats. Ivar Kaldasaunal on alati kollektiiviga vedanud; Vello Lahtvee kolmkümmend aastat kohtunikuna. Teenetemärgi pälvinute seas on Lääne-Eesti päästekeskuse direktor Ivar Kaldasaun ja Pärnu maakohtu kohtunik Vello Lahtvee. Vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 15: Vilgats, Kalev. Ebaõigluse visa vastupanu. Rüütliristi kavaler Harald Nugiseks jäi taas teenetemärgist ilma

  15. Päästjatele tuli mullu tuhat väljakutset / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Pärnumaa päästeteenistus sai 2005. a. kõige rohkem väljakutseid Pärnusse ning Via Baltica äärde jäävatesse Pärnumaa valdadesse ja Vändrasse. Kaart: Pärnumaa päästeteenistuste väljasõidud omavalitsustesse 2005

  16. Pärnu linnavalitsuse hinnang esimesele valitsemisaastale / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Ajaleht esitas Pärnu linnajuhtidele kolm küsimust. Vastasid linnapea Mart Viisitamm, abilinnapea majanduse valdkonnas Raul Sarandi, abilinnapea arengu ja planeerimise valdkonnas Mart Alliku, abilinnapea kultuuri, spordi ja sotsiaalvaldkonnas Margus Tammekivi ja linnavalitsuse liige turvalisuse valdkonnas Simmo Saar. Arvamust avaldavad Reformierakonna Pärnu piirkonna esimees Väino Hallik ja SDE esindaja Pärnu linnavolikogus Valter Parve

  17. Poliitikud ei leidnud staadioni planeeringule uusi lahendusi / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Riigikogu Pärnumaa saadikuteühenduse ja Pärnu linnavõimu esindajate ning spordiseltsi Kalev juhtide nõupidamine Kalevi staadioni ümberehituse käimalükkamiseks lõppes tulemusteta, sest kõiki osapooli rahuldava tulemuseni ei jõutud. Kommenteerivad Mark Soosaar ja Vello Järvesalu

  18. Sotsid said prostitutsiooni ürituse pärast noomida / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Pärnu Postimees 16. märts lk. 3. Pärnu linnavalitsuse kultuuriosakonna peaspetsialist Tair Anton tegi kaubanduskeskuses Port Artur 2 prostitutsiooni vastu vastu allkirju kogunud sotsiaaldemokraatidele loata avaliku ürituse korraldamise eest suulise märkuse

  19. Koalitsioon ei plaani linna juhtimises muudatusi / Ester Vilgats, Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Ester

    2008-01-01

    Pärnu koalitsiooninõukogu sõnul pole põhjust linnapea Mart Viisitamme, abilinnapea Simmo Saare ja koalitsiooninõukogu esimehe Vello Järvesalu välja vahetamiseks, kuna kedagi pole süüdi mõistetud

  20. Influence of life line stoppage on building equipments; Lifeline tozetsu no kenchiku setsubi eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadohara, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-06-05

    Our daily life is being supported by electricity in various ways. This paper, explains the influence of the stoppage of the electricity, affecting infrastructures, buildings and people`s daily life based on the survey result of a long term electricity stoppage in Hiroshima City in September 1991. This paper also introduces the survey result of emergency generators operation in Japan and in the U.S. Last, the ways and ideas to make lifeline reliability higher in the future are summarized. 1 ref., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Projekteerijad asuvad kesklinna võimla kavandit täiendama / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    Pärnu Vanalinna põhikooli kõrvale kavandatavast võimlast. Võimla eskiisprojektide konkursi võitis (2. koht.) Ott Kadariku ja Mihkel Tüüri töö "Jae-Ja", 3. koha sai Kalle Kadalipu töö "Neo"

  2. effect of dl-carnitine on tissue content of ad eno ine triphospha te

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    values of 16.2 ± 5.2µ mols lg dry weight for ATP and I 1.7± 2.5 ~11nols/g dry weight for CP in normal (non ischaem1c) myocardial tissue. Continuous perfusion of the heans "ith perfusate contaming 4.9µmols/ml. DL-Carnitine appeared to prevent the lowermg of ATP and CP levels as a result of induction of ischaemia.

  3. Trial to active seismic while drilling; Jinko shingen wo mochiita SWD eno kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, T.; Kozawa, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a more stable SWD system with larger energy by adding an artificial seismic source near the bit. SWD is a technique by which the seismic wave generated while drilling of rocks by bit can be observed on the ground surface and the records equivalent to the reverse VSP can be obtained. For this system, a shell with a vibrator was fixed immediately on the bit as a sub-generator, and total energy of usual impact by the bit and vibration by the vibrator was used as a seismic source for SWD. For the seismic wave generation mechanism of this vibrator, the shell was resonated by the magnetostrictive element, and vibration was given to the bit and drilling pipe. When this seismic source is used, only single frequency is obtained for each vibration due to the utilization of resonance of shell. Therefore, the generation patterns should be made, by which wide band energy can be obtained after the interaction. Since the survey was conducted using this bottom hole seismic source at the drilling depth more than 3,000 m, it was necessary to enhance the vibration energy. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Application of EM tomography to detect a buried pipe; EM tomography no maisetsukan tansa eno tekiyorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakashita, S. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    EM tomography was applied to detect buried pipes. Underground radar exploration method is limited to 10m in depth. Positive use of bored holes is desirable, and in such case, magnetic logging based on the magnetic susceptibility (MS) contrast between buried body and surrounding ground is effective. The primary magnetic field is generated by coil current, and the secondary one is generated by the primary one responding to foreign bodies in the ground. Since the measured primary magnetic field of low frequency within 10Hz can be treated as static magnetic field responding to MS in the ground, it is useful to determine MS distributions. Since the measured magnetic field of high frequency within 100kHz can be treated as induction field responding to conductivity in the ground, it is useful to determine resistivity distributions. The EM tomography which can image both above distributions by using electromagnetic wave in a wide frequency range, was applied to detect buried pipes. The EM tomography could detect an buried foreign body of 3m in diameter at 10m in distance between bored holes. The theoretical equation for analysis was also derived. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Theoretical research relating to excitation spectrum of furan. Application of integral direct coupled cluster linear response (direct CCLR) method; Furan no reiki supekutoru ni kansuru ronriteki kenkyu. Integral-direct Coupled Cluster Linear Response (direct CCLR) ho no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigemitsu, Yasuhiro. [Nagasaki Industrial Technology Center, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    heoretical researches relating to excitation spectrum of furan have been carried out for many years, and they reveal the problems that should be solved in order to predict highly reliable excitation energy. In general, it is difficult to uniformly obtain highly reliable calculation results for all excitation states since different excitation states show different electronic correlative effects. Means for obtaining the electron states in ground state and excited state and calculating the energy difference thereof is the mainstream of the theoretical calculation of the excitation energy. CASSCF/CASPT 2 developed by Roos et al. is a typical method excellent in quantitative description. Recently, the comparison between direct CCLR and CASSCF/CASPT 2 as examples for calculating the excitation spectrum of furan was carried out by using the same ground function. For Rydberg excitation, CC3, CAS, CASPT 2 show good agreement with each other. (NEDO)

  6. Report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission from the staff panel on the Commission's determination of an Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrence (ENO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Panel finds that the first criterion, pertaining to whether the accident caused a discharge of radioactive material or levels of radiation offsite as defined in 10 CFR 140.84, has not been met. It further finds that there is presently insufficient information to support any definitive finding as to whether or not the second criterion, relating to damage to persons or property offsite as defined in 10 CFR 140.85, has been met. Since the Panel has not found that both criteria have been met, it recommends that the Commission determine that the accident at Three Mile Island did not constitute an extraordinary nuclear occurrence

  7. Ilves viskas koos Bedwettersiga näppu. President Ilves kohtus õpilaste ja kaitseliitlastega / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Münchenis MTV Euroopa muusikaauhindade jagamisel Uue Euroopa Heli kategoorias lauluga "Dramatic Letter to Conscience"esikoha võitnud Pärnu pop-punkbändist Bedwetters ja president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese Pärnu Sütevaka humanitaargümnaasiumi ja Kaitseliidu Pärnumaa maleva külastusest 9. novembril

  8. Ubiad1 is an antioxidant enzyme that regulates eNOS activity by CoQ10 synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugoni, V.; Postel, R.; Catanzaro, V.; De Luca, E.; Turco, E.; Digilio, G.; Silengo, L.; Murphy, M.P.; Medana, C.; Stainier, D.Y.; Bakkers, J.; Santoro, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Protection against oxidative damage caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) by an antioxidant network is essential for the health of tissues, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we identified a gene with important antioxidant features by analyzing a null allele of zebrafish

  9. Application fo tunneling and atomic force detection to machines and scientific instruments. Tunnel gensho ya genshikan no mechatronics eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakatsu, H. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)

    1991-11-01

    It is now about ten years since the scanning tunnel microscope (STM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM) were invented. These microscopes are used very importantly today as a surface analyzer capable of atomic order analysis for their very high resolution. The STM and AFM obtain images of atomic orders by means of mechanical scanning of the probes. This means that the microscopes can control positioning, force detection and displacement in regions of sub-nanometer orders. Examples of researches may include detection of acceleration, length measurement, positioning, force detection, nano-tripology, processing and gravitational wave detection. As described above, this paper notes the researches derived from the operational principles of the STM and AFM, rather than the researches on the observation objects. The great diversity of the researches taken up and the greatness in the number of researches in the STM and AFM gather how superbly germinative these were. 34 refs.

  10. New controller design technique using finite integral transforms; Yugen sekibun henkan tono deai to seigyo kei sekkei eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2000-03-05

    The author had doubt about the method of designing controller system baste degraded models converted from physical models by using differential approximation when he considered controller of temperature distribution in 1984. He considered that controlling models could be use without accuracy degradation of physical models at least. He knew that Laplace transform and Fourier transform and so on are integral transformers, and that transformers being finite integral range were finite integral transformers. After that, adopting finite integral transformers to the control problem of axial temperature distribution in absorbing tower having migration layers, and agreeing prediction by simulation with results of experiments, he came to think control of distribution constant system in earnest as a theme of research. Especially, optimum arrangement problem of sensors and operating ends being characteristic problems in control of distribution constant system could be modeled and solved simply by performing this approach. (NEDO)

  11. MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P.; Searles, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm 2 ) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p · ) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO · pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.

  12. Introduction of electric double layer capacitors in the solar-EV; Solar denki jidosha eno denki nijuso condenser no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinaka, M. [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A basic experiment was carried out on a supplementary power supply, in which solar cells and electric double layer capacitors(EDLC) were combined for a DC/DC converter, for the use of a solar-electric vehicle (S-EV); and in actuality, an S-EV was loaded with the power supply with a running test conducted on a public road. The EDLC was found effective and useful for avoiding temporary lowering of voltage and momentary break. An electric supply was thereby made possible for an emergency light without the use of the DC/DC converter. However, in a tunnel or a night driving and in case of failure of the DC/DC converter, an operating time of only 7 minutes or so was affordable with the EDLC having a capacity of 100F. Moreover, particularly with a heavy load, it was impossible to maintain a voltage for many hours. Under the circumstances, an S-EV design would primarily require two sets of independent DC/DC converter loaded in the future. The EDLC, young after it was developed, still has a small energy density compared with a lead storage battery. Yet, an EDLC with a higher performance being developed, there is a possibility that it will be applied to S-EV`s by utilizing its characteristics such as a high efficiency and a long service life. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Estimation of the charge quantity from solar cell to battery; Taiyo denchi ni yoru chikudenchi eno juden yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Daiichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In performing an experiment of running a small electric vehicle by installing solar cells in it and by charging the storage battery at a specific voltage, an estimation was made on the charge quantity to the battery for each solar altitude and inclination of a module at different hours. The solar altitude was determined at Daiichi University, College of Technology, according to the month and the time of day from a formula using day-declination and time equation of a chronological table of science. The quantity of global solar radiation was determined by resolving the solar radiation into its direct and diffuse components on the basis of the extra-terrestrial solar radiation quantity with the change in radius vector taken into consideration; and then, the global solar radiation on the inclined face was obtained from the angle of inclination and incidence. On the roof of a Daiichi University building, solar cell modules were installed facing north and south at 0{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 90{degree} each, so that a short-circuit current was measured for each differently inclined angle. As a result of the experiment, shown in an regression formula is a relation between the temperature conversion value of the maximum output of the solar cell at the standard temperature of 25{degree}C and the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface. Consequently, it enabled the prediction of a charging quantity, in the case of running a small vehicle with solar cells installed, from the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface in the clear weather. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Study about the effect of microgravity on biofunctions; Seitai kino eno bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A study is made for the elucidation of the effect of microgravity on biofunctions. The protoplast of shiitake is exposed to microgravity and then cultured, and a significant difference occurs. The rate of colony formation by cell fusion in the test sector is found to be two times higher than that in the control sector. When swimming ciliates which are unicellular are suddenly exposed to microgravity, their swimming speeds changed differently according to the direction of swimming. When a mouse subjected to acupuncture for three days is exposed to microgravity, its water metabolism and excretory function are enhanced. A mouse treated with Chinese medicine reacts in the similar way. The change due to microgravity in the amount of acetylcholine in the hypothalamus is found characteristically time dependent. Mice infected with lethal herpes viruses just after exposure to microgravity die at a rate in proportion to the number of exposures and to the amount of viruses given. The migration speed of chemical stripes in case of a gel-base BZ (Belousov-Zhabotinsky) reaction under microgravity is equal to that on the ground. The trigger wave migration speed in case of a water solution-base BZ reaction under microgravity is reduced to approximately 80% of the speed on the ground. 12 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Power feeding to terminal devices in optical subscriber network; Hikari fuaiba tsushin ni okeru tanmatsu kiki eno kyuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, M

    1998-09-01

    This paper outlines present state of the feeding system in the light access system in consideration of backup in case of home power failure. In the optical communication, equipment with bilateral conversion function for light and electricity has to be installed both on communication service side and home side. Outline of the light access system and equipment requiring backup are shown. The following items are explained: main types of the light access system, such as FTTC (fiber to the curb), FTTP (fiber to the pole), FTTH (fiber to the home) and HFC (hybrid fiber coax), and the feeding system; problems on feeding system for the light access system. Key elements of ONU (optical network unit) for FTTH and construction of the ONU power source are illustrated. The ONU power source is composed of a backup power supply unit and main body supply unit. Backup power is indispensable to the ONU and analog telephones: output is supplied by the backup batteries in power failure. For miniaturization of the backup power source, power supply circuits and backup batteries have to be miniaturized simultaneously. History of miniaturization is explained on the experimental models. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. X-ray microscope and its application to biology. X sen kenbikyo to sono seibutsugaku eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomie, T. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes the status of X-ray microscope which recently finds the increasing possibility of its practical use just in recent years and particularly the biological fields in which the application of the microscope is expected. The use of X-rays is characterized in not only a high resolving power due to its short wave-length but also its usefulness in selectivity of elements, permeability, radiation damage and the speed of phtography compared with electron beam. For example, the electron microscope cannot discriminate between carbon and oxygen which are close in atomic number and requires dewatering for humid biological samples. Consequently the X-ray microscope is indispensable for the direct observation of small regions of a live or moving organism. One concrete example is that the information on the spermatozoon was obtained by an instantaneous photograph of live spermatozoons of urchins observed by the pulsed X-ray resist method. The elucidation of the moving mechanism of muscles or cilia, the observation of element distribution in living tissue such as Ca in bone, etc. may be cited as thefields to which this device is applicable. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Developmental programming of eNOS uncoupling and enhanced vascular oxidative stress in adult rats after transient neonatal oxygen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzydorczyk, Catherine; Comte, Blandine; Huyard, Fanny; Cloutier, Anik; Germain, Nathalie; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Nuyt, Anne Monique

    2013-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that neonatal hyperoxic stress leads to high blood pressure, impaired endothelium-mediated vasodilatation, and increased vascular production of superoxide anion by NAD(P)H oxidase in adulthood. However, it is unknown whether changes in nitric oxide (NO) production and/or bioinactivation prevail and whether NO synthase (NOS) is also a source of superoxide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adult animals exposed to neonatal hyperoxic stress have impaired vascular NO production associated with NOS uncoupling participating to vascular superoxide production and vascular dysfunction. In adult male rats exposed to 80% oxygen from day 3 to 10 of life (H, n = 6) versus room air controls (CTRL, n = 6), vascular (aorta) NO production is decreased at baseline (CTRL: 21 ± 1 vs. H: 16 ± 2 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate fluorescence intensity arbitrary units; P blood pressure after a brief neonatal oxygen exposure.

  18. Environmental technology. Toshiba's approach to environmental protection. Kankyo gijutsu. Toshiba group no kankyo hozen eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoi, Y. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    The present report introduces the vicissitude of Toshiba Group's grappling with the preservation of global environment since its start in 1988. Positioned at the top of Toshiba's entire organization, the Global Environmental Committee deals with all matters concerning the administration, engineering, production and sales, and take actions for the preservation to concretize the 'Freonless, Recycling, Energy-saving and Earth-protection'. Its sub-organization comprises the Environmental Technology Promotion Committee, Environmental Protection Management Committee and Product Recycling Legal Committee. Cycling through 'Plan-Do-See' is being executed. Given to the motto for the environment preserving action, the particular symbol mark of 'Free+2A' is having 2A executed. The 2A stands for the 'Action Plan' and 'Auditing'. The execution result is duly reported to the administration conference which is Toshiba's highest decision-making organ. Together with the environment managing action, connection must be built up between the system of social economy and vicissitude of technological development. Toward the political and industrial fields in Japan and abroad, the 'Voluntary Plan' has been stepping ahead since 1993 for the environmental preservation. 5 figs.

  19. Kinnisvaraäri ajas Pärnu linnajuhid omavahel tülli / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Pärnu linnavolikogu esimees Ahti Kõo peab ebaeetiliseks linnapea Mart Viisitamme ja spordiseltsi Põhjakotkas juhatuse esimehe Ivar Hallopi vahel sõlmitud ühtse kavatsuse protokolli. Ilmunud ka Pärnu Postimees 17. nov. lk. 1

  20. Pärnu leivatööstusest võib saada sakslaste allhankija / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Pere Leib Tootmine plaanib kolida leiva-saia tootmise suuremas osas Tartusse ja keskenduda Pärnus eksporttoodete valmistamisele Saksa turule. Arvamust avaldab Pere Leib Tootmise juhatuse liige Eero Mikenberg

  1. Rapala landitehas püüdis tänavugi suurima kala / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Maailmakuulsa landitootja Rapala Pärnus Reldori tööstuskülas asuv tehas pääses teist aastat järjest Pärnumaa aasta ettevõtete edetabeli etteotsa. Diagramm: Rapala Eesti ASi majandustulemused. Vt. samas: Pärnumaa ettevõtete tipp 50

  2. President tunnustab Eesti riigi edendajate elutööd / Silja Joon, Ester Vilgats, Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joon, Silja, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Pärnumaalased, kes pälvivad iseseisvuspäeva puhul ja Eesti riigile osutatud teenete tunnustamiseks president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt riiklikud autasud. Juuresolevatel fotodel Valgetähe V klassi ordeni pälvinud koorijuht ja muusikaõpetaja Toomas Voll ja Kotkaristi IV klassi teenetemärgi pälvinud Lääne prefektuuri politseiametnik Kalvi Almosen. Vt. ka lk. 1: Enn Hallik. Tatjana Jaanson üllatus suurest aust. Sõudetreener pälvib Valgetähe IV klassi teenetemärgi

  3. Häädemeeste vallavanem jäi kihutamise pärast jalameheks / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimehes 9. nov. lk. 5 lüh.Korduva kiiruseületamisega silma paistnud Häädemeeste vallavanem Urmas Aava peab viimase kihutamise eest kuuks sõiduõiguseta jätmist liiga karmiks karistuseks

  4. Expectation of the building to renewal trend and concrete; Kenchikubutsu no renyuaru doko to konkurito eno kitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Masato [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    In the architecture field, rumor of the necessity of 'architecture in 100' would be done as a long-life architecture. The renewal is required in the building, which repeatedly stands long-time use shell. In addition to the appropriate architectural planning, bases are fire protection and fireproof performance and strength of the body. The strength is maintained, and it waits for the development of the concrete in the next generation which is excellent in the workability in which hole drilling and cutting are conveniently possible in the renewal and yet. In addition, it will be possible to also contribute to the volume of greenhouse gas emission reduction not a few, if the concrete, which the recycling can attempt in the easiness, is developed. (NEDO)

  5. Role of iNOS and eNOS expression in a group of Egyptian diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssa I. Aly

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion The presence of iNOS is associated with tubular damage resulting in renal failure. The upregulation of NO in diabetes mellitus type 2 may explain the endothelial dysfunction that is associated with almost all diabetic complications.

  6. Port Artur 3 arhitektuurikonkursi võidutöö sündis Itaalias / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Pärnu kesklinna jõeäärse ala rahvusvahelise arhitektuurikonkursi tulemustest. Võitis itaalia arhitektide projekt "Flood". Teise koha võitis projekt "Istu ja vaata" (Jan Skolimovski ja Peeter Loo), kolmanda koha "Nicesaar" (Ott Kadarik, Villem Tomiste, Mihkel Tüür)

  7. Adsorption behaviors of surface active reagents on barium ferrite magnetic fine particles; Barium ferrite jisei biryushi eno hymen shorizai kyuchaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, M.; Otani, T.; Masuko, T. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-06-10

    The adsorption mode of lecithin (dioleoylphosphatidylcholine) or [3-(methacryloyloxy)propyl] trimethoxysilane (MPS) onto barium ferrite magnetic particles has been investigated by measurements of changes in solution concentration of the surfactant. Both adsortion isotherms of the surface active reagents on barium ferrite particles indicated to be of the Langmuir type. The occupied areas per one molecule on the surface of barium ferrite particles were estimated to be about 70 angstrom{sup 2}/molecule for lecithin and 22 angstrom{sup 2}/molecule for MPS at their saturated adsorption. In X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements for the adsorbed lecithin layer, the peak position in the binding energy distribution for the P (2p) photoelectron was observed to shift into slightly higher values with increasing amount of adsorbed lecithin. This implies that dipole-dipole interactions among the lecithin molecules become stronger because of increased high molecular packing in the adsorption layers. However, the peak position for the Si (2p) photoelectron remains almost unchanged due to slight interaction among the adsorbing functional groups onto the particles. 16 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission from the staff panel on the Commission's determination of an Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrence (ENO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The Panel finds that the first criterion, pertaining to whether the accident caused a discharge of radioactive material or levels of radiation offsite as defined in 10 CFR 140.84, has not been met. It further finds that there is presently insufficient information to support any definitive finding as to whether or not the second criterion, relating to damage to persons or property offsite as defined in 10 CFR 140.85, has been met. Since the Panel has not found that both criteria have been met, it recommends that the Commission determine that the accident at Three Mile Island did not constitute an extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

  9. Approach to load leveling in Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc.; Kansai Denryoku no fuka heijunka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents an electric hot-water heater and ice storage air conditioning system as systems to be recommended for load leveling. Electric hot-water heater is featured by safety, cleanliness, silence and convenience because of no use of fire. Its electricity charge is only 7.15 yen/kWh less than 1/3 of that for ordinary homes because of use of midnight power. Mainly used MPU-control type electric hot-water heater is more economical because of a 15% discount system. Ice storage air conditioning system is operated in the daytime using ice made by midnight power. It is featured by reduction of facility and installation costs due to the small capacity of heat source equipment, use of inexpensive midnight power, and reduction of running cost due to small contract demand. However, since an ice storage air conditioning system is in the initial stage of diffusion, its initial cost is expensive as compared with conventional non-heat storage air conditioning systems, remaining the issue of cost reduction. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Load leveling efforts of The Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc.; Hokkaido Denryoku no fuka heijunka eno torikumi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., aiming to enhance power generation efficiency through power load levelling, strives to expand and substantiate its electricity billing menu and to popularize and encourage the use of levelling-oriented apparatuses and systems most of which are designed for utilizing midnight power. The billing menu has in it a snow-melting power which is cut off for load levelling during the peak demand time zone. For domestic use, a time zone-specified lighting system named Dream Eight is created, which is one of the billing systems dependent upon time zone. Introduced therein for industrial use is a demand/supply adjustment contract system. Furthermore, in compliance with the amended Electricity Business Law that came into force in 1995, efforts are under way for revising the period wherein power is to be supplied for melting snow, expanding the scope of application of the power supply system dependent upon time zone, and newly introducing a heat accumulation assisted peak adjustment contract system and an operation adjustment contract system. As for business efforts in relation to load levelling, the company proposes household electrical systems centering about 200V high-efficiency apparatuses, electric water warmer contributing to the enhancement of year-round load levelling, popularization and reinforcement of electric snow melting systems, and power utilizing technologies capable of meeting local demands raised for example by agriculture and fishery.

  11. Efforts of load leveling in Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc.; Tohoku denryoku no fuka heijunka eno torikumi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes efforts of load leveling in Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. from the viewpoint of the rate system and business development. For the approach from the rate system, various rate menus for the peak shift have been arranged for domestic and large industry customers. To create the midnight demand, spread and expansion of electric hot water service are promoted. Consequently, the contract of midnight power has reached 914,000 kW at the end of 1995, which was 774,000 kW in 1985. To spread the ice regenerative air conditioning systems, the grant of incentive to the manufacturers and special discount of electricity rate have been conducted. These systems have been introduced in the eight places of Tohoku Electric Power`s business. The spread incident system has been created to introduce the automatic vending machines for beverages with the power peak cut function. Unused energy, such as exhaust heat from the non-treated sewage water and substations has been utilized as a heat supply project for city redevelopment. Multi-functional heat pump with regenerative function has been developed. This system aims at the peak shift by combining multi-functional heat pump and electric hot water service. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Approach undertaken by our Company for leveling electric loads; Chubu Denryoku Kabushi Kaisha no fuka heijunka eno torikumi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Measures for leveling the electric loads relying upon two facets - tariff system and business activities - in Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. are presented. Firstly, the existing pricing systems for midnight electric power and electric light according to the period of time for the household as well as those of seasonal and time zone electric power, modifiable contract with the time zone and so forth for large industry users, together with a similar contract for the owner of regenerating installation are outlined. In addition, a price reduction system is indicated in favor of a scheduled shutdown of large industry operations as a means of avoiding electric consumption during weekdays in summer and between 13h and 16h when large demands exist. Further, a selective contract system put in service in 1995 and the price reduction for ice regenerating air conditioning system are cited. As for business facet, 1995 is regarded as the first year of the ice regenerator for its generalization through exhibition and promotive campaign to the foods processing industry, and the application of the latent heat regenerative system to perishable foods is recommended. Moreover, installation of energy saving type automatic vending machine, so-called eco-vendor is encouraged for its merit of peak-cut and energy price lowering. Lastly, activities to extend the use of electric calorifiers and the regenerative floor heating are mentioned. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Investigation of load leveling in Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc.; Hokuriku denryoku no fuka heijunka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc. aims at an around 2% improvement of the load factor up to 2005, by which the quick and proper service and the proposal of load leveling menu are planned. This paper describes an outline of the investigation of load leveling. Various programs have been proposed so that the customers can further shift the load by their consideration. Proposed systems include the time-of-day electricity rate system, the load regulation contract system for industries, the seasonal time-of-day rate system, the electric power system for snowmelt in which the load is dumped at the peak, and the secondary electric power system for snowmelt. Accompanying with the revision of electric utility law, the enlargement of its available time, the price reduction, and the discount rate system for the ice regenerative air conditioners have been provided. For the business activities, a demonstration model house was exhibited to indicate a proper house with local characteristics in Hokuriku district. Furthermore, the spreading activities of regenerative systems and the consulting activities have been positively promoted. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Load levelling measures being tackled by shikoku Electric Power Co. Inc.; Shikoku Denryoku Kabushi Kaisha no fuka heijunka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    For the electric power companies, the activity of pushing forward the load levelling contributes greatly to the curtailment of cost by means of effective formation and utilization of facilities. It is planned to take up more positive activities with a target of 3% improvement in the load factor in ten years. Concrete measures for further promotion of load levelling are the diversity of the rate menu of appraising the load levelling effort of the customers and the promotion of the spread of equipment and systems relating to load levelling such as electric water heating apparatuses and thermal energy storage air conditioning systems. The rate system has been reviewed taking the opportunity of rate revision made in January, 1996. Particularly, further load shift to midnight time zone is expected as a result of better rate incentive for customers which is brought about by large reduction of the rate level due to the cost reduction effect accompanying the improvement in atomic power generation ratio. Outlines are given on the fields relating to general households, business, dwellings, buildings, and industry. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Technologies to apply optic fibers to an underground cable system; Chichu cable system eno hikari fiber oyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-10

    Discussions were given for the purpose of realizing automation of facility operation and automatic monitoring of facilities by using optical electronics technologies in underground power transmission facilities. In sensing technologies using optic fibers, an optic fiber distribution type sensor was found suitable for monitoring underground power transmission lines as a sensor to measure temperature distribution and pressure distribution along the optic fibers. In sensor signal transmission technologies using optic fibers, laying ultra-high voltage transmission lines over a distance of several ten kilometers is becoming used generally in underground transmission paths, with the environmental requirements on electromagnetic fields becoming more stringent. Under these restraints, an optical transmission system is more advantageous that has longer-distance and wider-area transmission capabilities, and high-insulation and non-induction performances. In technologies to lay optic fiber cables in underground cable paths, contrivances are given on the cable construction for cases where optic fibers and power cables, each varying in mechanical strength are to be integrated. 151 refs., 155 figs., 30 tabs.

  16. Ultra-low light level imaging and its application to biosciences. Goku bijakuko imaging to sono seitai keisoku eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, T. (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan))

    1992-12-05

    This paper describes an ultra-high sensitivity TV camera (photon counting camera) that can detect photons one by one and image them under ultra-low level light, and its application. Photographing under ultra-low level light has become possible by using a two-dimensional photon counting method. In observing movements of sea urchin roes before and after fertilization, fluidity of the membranes was quantified two-dimensionally and chronologically. In the example of the number of fluorescent molecules sealed in red blood cell ghosts, the number was imaged up to 10 molecules per ghost. Its most characteristic application would be to utilize its capability of imaging performance under as low light as incident photons would not almost superpose with each other in terms of space and time. The number of biological photons after about one week of sowing soybean seeds was several hundred photons per cm[sup 2]/S in a portion receiving abundance of light on a test sample. Other applications may include imaging Ca ions discharged during fertilization of the roes, chronological observation on process of active oxygen release from white blood cells in defective nutrition, and visualization of gene emergence utilizing luciferin-luciferase light emission. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Efficacy of nitric oxide, with or without continuing antihypertensive treatment, for management of high blood pressure in acute stroke (ENOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bath, Philip M W; Woodhouse, Lisa; Scutt, Polly

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is associated with poor outcome after stroke. Whether blood pressure should be lowered early after stroke, and whether to continue or temporarily withdraw existing antihypertensive drugs, is not known. We assessed outcomes after stroke in patients given drugs......·91-1·13; p=0·83), and with continue versus stop antihypertensive drugs OR was 1·05 (0·90-1·22; p=0·55). INTERPRETATION: In patients with acute stroke and high blood pressure, transdermal glyceryl trinitrate lowered blood pressure and had acceptable safety but did not improve functional outcome. We show...

  18. Realization of an accelerator for environmental refreshment in case of soil; Fukyugata kasokuki ni yoru kankyo sosei eno koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isogai, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Learning from a history of the earth of ancient times, the paper studies effects of refreshing environment and soil or making them natural and harmless mostly using primitive bacteria, and develops element technology which is industrially accelerating. The spread type accelerator working only by solar energy was installed and operated for experiment. As indices of refreshment effects, a study was comparatively made between a sugar degree of sweet potato and a yield shown in the number of potatotimesunit weight. An EM propagation garbage layer is formed, and the two sections were installed of a site of the actual installation of the spread type accelerator and a site naturally left alone. Other effects of weather, temperature and humidity which are external factors and general fertilization are offset as common modes, and a consideration was so made that only refreshment effects of primitive bacteria can be relatively compared. Acceleration effects in using accelerator for growing sweet potato could be quantitatively confirmed. As to sugar degree, because the last study was made in the beginning of summer, the underground temperature was high enough. Even only EM effects were fully effective. This time, the weather was much colder, and it was found to be a must to use accelerator. 2 figs.

  19. Design and erection of the MUSEUM BRIDGE; Bijutsu no sekai eno yume no kakehashi. MUSEUM BRIDGE no sekkei seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, S.; Tsunekawa, M.; Umda, A.; Kishimoto, Y.; Yotsukura, Y.; Miitsu, K.; Okada, S.; Furukawa, M. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-12-20

    MUSEUM Projects for the religious corporation of Shinji-Shumeikai, at Shigaraki, Shiga prefecture. Fundamental design was by a project team led by the world-famous architect I.M. Pei. The museum is located in a prefectural park surrounded by forests. The design concept of the bridge aimed to connect Shangri-La (museum) to the real world. In order to satisfy this purpose, a cable-stayed bridge with external tendon was adopted as an original structure style, and details such as handrails, gratings, and gloss painting taken into consideration. The authors report the characteristics of the bridge and the sequence of erection. (author)

  20. Study on application of radar technique to explore mineral resources. 1. Sample test in laboratory; Radar ho no kosho tansa eno tekiyosei kento. 1. Shitsunai shiryo shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, A.; Okada, K. [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Noguchi, K.; Fujiwara, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Dielectric constants of ore body and mother rock specimens taken from an epithermal gold deposit were measured in the frequency band of radar technique. Applicability of the radar technique to mineral exploration has been investigated by comparing measured results and ore showing. This paper describes the results. Measured results of the dielectric constants are summarized as follows. The specific dielectric constant in the forced dry condition did not depend on specimens. The specific dielectric constant in the water saturated condition increased with increasing the porosity. The conductivity increased with increasing the specific dielectric constant. The specific dielectric constant and conductivity increased with increasing the water content. The specific dielectric constant did not depend on types of rocks. The specific dielectric constant decreased with increasing the frequency. Difference of the specific dielectric constant in the water saturated condition decreased with increasing the frequency. The radar technique was applied to blind deposits. Since they were often in the ground water saturated zones, it was considered that the reflection at the boundary was enhanced with increasing the difference of specific dielectric constant between ore body and mother rock compared with that in unsaturated zones. 8 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Fundamental study on PV system for floating water power device `Mighty Whale`; Okiai futaishiki haryoku sochi `Mighty Whale` eno taiyoko hatsuden sochi tosai no kihon kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washio, Y. [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Studied in this paper is the use of a photovoltaic power generation system in combination with a wave energy conversion system to cover the latter`s weak point that it is available but intermittently. An offshore floating wave power device Mighty Whale (MW) is described, which will have a wave energy absorbing air chamber in the front and an anti-rocking float that looks like a whale in the rear. The movement, up and down and back and forth, of the water surface in the air chamber due to incident waves turns the power generator turbine. Out of the space available on the MW, a 200m{sup 2} area has been specified as the place suitable for the installation of solar cells capable of a maximum output of 20kW, for which specification the elevation of the sun has been taken into account. Batteries will routinely be supplied with power in parallel from the wave activated and photovoltaic devices, the supply will be limited when the batteries are fully charged, and an auxiliary power generator will be run in case of shortage. Power that can be provided by a 20kW solar array was calculated using actual data of sunshine on the slope for each array orientation, and required battery capacity was calculated for each solar array orientation. Important items for consideration for the insurance of reliability on the ocean include measures against salt damage, detailed designing of wiring, and coordinated operation of photovoltaic and wave activated power generation systems. 3 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Conversion of char nitrogen to N2 under incomplete combustion conditions; Fukanzen nensho jokenka ni okeru char chuchisso no N2 eno tenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Q.; Yamauchi, A.; Oshima, Y.; Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    The effect of combustion conditions on conversion of char nitrogen to N2 was studied in the combustion experiment of char obtained by pyrolysis of coal. Char specimen was prepared by holding ZN coal of Chinese lignite in Ar atmosphere at 1123K for one hour. A batch scale quartz-made fluidized bed reactor was used for combustion experiment. After the specimen was fluidized in reaction gas, it was rapidly heated to start combustion reaction. CO, CO2 and N2 in produced gases were online measured by gas chromatography (GC). As the experimental result, under the incomplete combustion condition where a large amount of CO was produced by consuming almost all of O2, no NOx and N2O produced from char were found, and almost all of N-containing gas was N2. At the final stage of combustion, pyridinic-N disappeared completely, and pyrrolic-N decreased, while O-containing nitrogen complexes became a main component. It was thus suggested that O-containing nitrogen complexes are playing the role of intermediate product in combustion reaction. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Všeobecný přenos daňové povinnosti jako krok k zásadní modernizaci DPH

    OpenAIRE

    Kohoutková, Růžena

    2014-01-01

    This final thesis deals with introduction of reverse charge mechanism of value added tax. The current system of value added tax has weaknesses, including carousel fraud, negative impact on cash flow of businesses and complicated rules to collect and manage the tax. Reverse charge mechanism is considered as a solution of existing weaknesses of current system. Although this regime is able to solve the mentioned weaknesses, it also has some disadvantages. Especially, it is a negative impact on c...

  4. Application of photovoltaic generating system to electric power in large ship; Taiyoko hatsuden system no ogata senpaku eno oyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagi, T.; Ogawa, S.; Nishikawa, E.; Hashimoto, T. [Kobe University of Mercantile Marine, Kobe (Japan); Ishida, K.

    1996-10-27

    This paper describes the design of electric power system in a ship with photovoltaic power generating system, to examine applicability of the photovoltaic power generating system to the inboard power source. It also discusses effectiveness of the system for sea environment. At first, the actual route of a car carrier, meteorological data, and quantity of power consumption were picked up from the deck logbook and engine logbook. Then, the installation area of photovoltaic arrays, the quantity of photovoltaic power generation derived from the quantity of solar radiation, and the capacities of batteries and inverters were calculated, to design the electric power system in the ship with photovoltaic power generation system. Moreover, the NOx and SOx emissions were compared between the present power system and the usual power system using diesel power generator, to discuss the effectiveness of the present system for sea environment. Consequently, it was found that the emission of NOx was reduced by about 33% and the emission of SOx was reduced by about 28% compared to the usual power system. The effectiveness for sea environment was confirmed. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Study on the effect of micro-gravity on bio-functions; Seitai kino eno bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The effect of micro-gravity on bio-functions and vital reaction was studied using the facility of Underground Gravity-free Experiment Center Co. On the effect on osteoblast shape and gene expression, although fluorochrome reacting with Ca was well taken into cells, no significant difference in Ca content in cells was observed before/after falling. Expression of genes related to cell propagation was controlled under micro-gravity. Protoplast fusion of Lentinus was unaffected by micro-gravity. The mRNA fragments of gravity sensitive mutant of rice plant were affected by micro-gravity. Paramecium was set swimming in solutions with different specific gravities. The reaction behavior of Paramecium was affected by the difference in specific gravity between cell bodies and solutions. The water content metabolism functions of a mouse with needle stimulus, in particular excretory, were slightly promoted by micro- gravity. The cortisol level in blood of a falling mouse group rose showing strong stress. As the preliminary study on the geotaxis of insects, motion of bagworm was observed. 12 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Genetic algorithm based on virus theory of evolution for traveling salesman problem; Virus shinkaron ni motozuku identeki algorithm no junkai salesman mondai eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, N. [Osaka Inst. of Technology, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    This paper deals with virus evolutionary genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithms (GAs) have been demonstrated its effectiveness in optimization problems in these days. In general, the GAs simulate the survival of fittest by natural selection and the heredity of the Darwin`s theory of evolution. However, some types of evolutionary hypotheses such as neutral theory of molecular evolution, Imanishi`s evolutionary theory, serial symbiosis theory, and virus theory of evolution, have been proposed in addition to the Darwinism. Virus theory of evolution is based on the view that the virus transduction is a key mechanism for transporting segments of DNA across species. This paper proposes genetic algorithm based on the virus theory of evolution (VE-GA), which has two types of populations: host population and virus population. The VE-GA is composed of genetic operators and virus operators such as reverse transcription and incorporation. The reverse transcription operator transcribes virus genes on the chromosome of host individual and the incorporation operator creates new genotype of virus from host individual. These operators by virus population make it possible to transmit segment of DNA between individuals in the host population. Therefore, the VE-GA realizes not only vertical but also horizontal propagation of genetic information. Further, the VE-GA is applied to the traveling salesman problem in order to show the effectiveness. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Sildenafil citrate-restored eNOS and PDE5 regulation in sickle cell mouse penis prevents priapism via control of oxidative/nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Musicki, Biljana; Hsu, Lewis L; Berkowitz, Dan E; Champion, Hunter C; Burnett, Arthur L

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate revolutionized the practice of sexual medicine upon its federal regulatory agency approval approximately 15 years ago as the prototypical phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. We now provide scientific support for its alternative use in the management of priapism, a clinical disorder of prolonged and uncontrolled penile erection. Sildenafil administered continuously to sickle cell mice, which show a priapism phenotype, reverses oxidative/nitrosative stress effects in the penis, mainly via reversion of uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase to the functional coupled state of the enzyme, which in turn corrects aberrant signaling and function of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP/protein kinase G/phosphodiesterase type 5 cascade. Priapism tendencies in these mice are reverted partially toward normal neurostimulated erection frequencies and durations after sildenafil treatment in association with normalized cyclic GMP concentration, protein kinase G activity and phosphodiesterase type 5 activity in the penis. Thus, sildenafil exerts pleiotropic effects in the penis that extend to diverse erection disorders.

  8. Application of soft heating method using temperature-sensitive ferrite rod for local hyperthermia. Kanon ferrite wo mochiita soft heating ho no hyperthermia eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuki, H. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)); Sato, T. (Fukushima Medical School, Fukushima (Japan)); Murakami, K. (Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan))

    1991-09-20

    In soft heating method, a kind of hyperthermia, a temperature-sensitive magnetic material is implanted inside body and a deep heating is performed by an induced current using AC magnetic flux. A temperature-sensitive ferrite rod, inserted into a metallic ring (Cu), was prepared as a heating unit having 2mm in diameter and 10mm in length. This unit in the appropriate magnetic field can automatically control temperatures such that the flux is concentrated on the rod and an alternating flux develops heat of the metallic ring at temperatures less or equal to Curie point, the heat of the ring, however, is reduced at temperatures around the Curie point. If the temperature characteristic (saturation temperature is 44 {degree} C) was suitable, a carcinosarcoma was transplanted into the right femoral regions of rats, cultured to grow up to appropriate size. Seven heating operations were performed, for 30 minutes twice a week. The result led to the effect that tumors whose volume were less than 1 cm {sup 3} vanished completely. 19 refs., 12 figs.

  9. eNOS signaling is essential in GLP-2-mediated stimulation of blood flow, but not cell proliferation in the mouse gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through a G protein-coupled receptor, glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) stimulates intestinal crypt cell proliferation and mucosal blood flow. GLP-2 receptor is localized to enteric neurons, endocrine cells, and myofibroblasts, but not enterocytes. However, it is largely unknown how GLP-2 receptor-act...

  10. KOORDINIRANA REGULACIJA NAPETOSTI V DISTRIBUCIJSKIH OMREŽJIH Z RAZPRŠENO PROIZVODNJO OB RAZLIČNIH KRITERIJIH REGULACIJE JALOVE MOČI

    OpenAIRE

    KOLENC, MARKO

    2015-01-01

    Doktorska disertacija sega na področje kakovosti električne energije in pametnih distribucijskih omrežij v elektroenergetiki. V prvem poglavju so predstavljeni glavni pojmi in smernice v elektroenergetiki. V Sloveniji in svetu se poraba energije neprenehoma zvišuje. Tako je lahko pričakovati, da bomo leta 2035 porabili približno 36 % več energije kot leta 2000. Od tega se bo najbolj povečala raba električne energije, do leta 2035 za približno 70 %, največjo rast pa se pričakuje v državah ...

  11. Expression of iNOS, eNOS, and peroxynitrite-modified proteins in experimental anti-myeloperoxidase associated crescentic glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; van Goor, H; Moshage, H; Klok, PA; Huitema, MG; de Jager, A; Schep, AJ; Kallenberg, CGM

    Nitric oxide radicals are recognized as important mediators in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. During inflammation, increased amounts of nitric oxide (NO) are produced, but it is unclear whether NO radicals are either protective or harmful. To obtain more insight into the

  12. Measurement and correlation of solubility of limonene and linalool in high pressure carbon dioxide; Limonene, linalool no koatsu nisanka tanso eno yokaido sokutei to sokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, J. [Japan Tabacco Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Nagahama, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-20

    In order to carry out the deterpenation of orange oil using carbon dioxide extraction under high pressure, the solubilities of constituents were examined experimentally. Limonene and linalool were selected as the major component and a flavor component, respectively. Solubilities of each component in high pressure carbon dioxide were measured by use of a high pressure cell with glass windows at 313K and 333K and from 1 MPa to the near critical point. All isothermal solubilities had minima against pressure and they increased along with temperature. Solubility data have been correlated based not only on the regular solution theory but the SRK equation of state. The solubilities of limonene have been correlated well by the regular solution theory, and those of linalool have been represented fairly accurately by the SRK equation. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. In Vitro Activation of eNOS by Mangifera indica (Careless™) and Determination of an Effective Dosage in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Human Pilot Study on Microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstgrasser, Alexandra; Röchter, Sigrid; Dressler, Dirk; Schön, Christiane; Reule, Claudia; Buchwald-Werner, Sybille

    2016-03-01

    Mangifera indica fruit preparation (Careless™) activates the evolutionary conserved metabolic sensors sirtuin 1 and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which have been identified as playing a key role in microcirculation and endothelial function. Here, an acute effect of a single dose of 100 mg or 300 mg Careless™ on microcirculation was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover pilot study in ten healthy women to determine the effective dosage. Microcirculation and endothelial function were assessed by the Oxygen-to-see system and pulse amplitude tonometry (EndoPAT™), respectively. Cutaneous blood flow was increased over time by 100 mg (54% over pre-values, p = 0.0157) and 300 mg (35% over pre-value, p = 0.209) Careless™. The EndoPAT™ reactive hyperemia response was slightly improved 3 h after intake compared to pretesting with 300 mg Careless™. Furthermore, activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, as an important regulator for endothelial function, was tested in vitro in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Careless™, after simulation of digestion, increased the activated form of endothelial nitric oxide synthase dose-dependently by 23% (300 µg/mL), 42% (1500 µg/mL), and 60% (3000 µg/mL) compared to the untreated control. In conclusion, the study suggests moderate beneficial effects of Careless™ on microcirculation, which is at least partly mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. H2O2 Treatment of HUVECs Facilitates PKC Mediated Thr495 Phosphorylation on eNOS when Pre-treated with High Glucose Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guterbaum, Thomas J; Braunstein, Thomas H; Fossum, Anna

    2015-01-01

    of hyperglycemia in clinical trials has not improved clinical outcome or has even been detrimental. H2 O2 is produced under hyperglycemic conditions and under reperfusion. This study aims to provide a mechanistic approach evaluating the impact of high glucose on the endothelial nitric oxide pathway in a H2 O2...... -rich environment. Methods and results: HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) were exposed to high glucose (20 mM) for either 20 or 72 hours co-incubated with or without H2 O2 (400 µM) for 30 minutes as models of increased oxidative stress during acute and prolonged hyperglycemia, respectively......) high concentration of glucose alone increased ROS in mitochondria to 133.5% (pH2 O2 for 30 minutes resulted...

  15. Effects of fuel properties and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions; Keiyu seijo oyobi sanka shokubai no diesel haishutsu gas eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S.; Morihisa, H.; Tamanouchi, M.; Araki, H.; Yamada, S. [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Effects of fuel properties (T90 and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAH) and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions were studied using three DI diesel engines and two diesel passenger cars. (IDI engine) PM emissions were found to increase as T90 and PAH increased and could be decreased considerably for each fuel if an oxidation catalyst was installed. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Instantaneous heat flux flowing into ceramic combustion chamber wall surface of low heat rejection engine; Shanetsu engine no ceramic nenshoshitsu hekimen eno shunji netsuryusoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Y.; Hagihara, Y. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, S. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, K. [Daido Hoxan Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Nagano, H. [Riso Kagaku Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ishii, A. [Mitani Sangyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-25

    To evaluate the effectiveness of low heat rejection engine under heat loss condition, instantaneous heat fluxes flowing into ceramic piston surface and aluminum alloy (Loex) piston surface using thin film thermocouple were measured, and both were compared. As a result, in the working stroke, the instantaneous heat flux flowing into ceramic piston surface was larger than the instantaneous heat flux flowing into Loex piston surface. Accordingly, it became clear that reduction of heat loss was not effected when ceramics that thermal conductivity is small was used for combustion chamber wall. 21 refs., 14 figs.

  17. The microRNA-7-mediated reduction in EPAC-1 contributes to vascular endothelial permeability and eNOS uncoupling in murine experimental retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Morales, Veronica; Friedrich, Julian; Jorna, Lysanne M; Campos-Toimil, Manuel; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Schmidt, Martina; Krenning, Guido

    To investigate the consequences of oxidative stress and hypoxia on EPAC-1 expression during retinopathy. Oxygen-induced retinopathy was induced in mice and EPAC-1 expression investigated by immunofluorescence. In silico analyses were used to identify a link between EPAC-1 expression and

  18. Psychological influences for the driver by the changes of running circumstance; Jidosha no soko kankyo henka no driver eno shinriteki eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okura, S.; Yokomori, M.; Yamaguchi, S. [Meijo University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A driver is influenced psychologically by the cars proceeding on the street and the cars parked on the shoulder which come into the front view. The traffic accidents are caused when these influences put a lot of stress on a driver. In this report, we study the relations between the road traffic condition on the streets and the highway and the driver`s psychological and psysiological responses by using the driver`s front view, sweating and pulse rate. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  19. ANALYSIS OF ACE, ACTN3, ENOS, PPARG, PPARA, HIF-15, PPARGC1B GENE POLYMORPHISMS FOR DETERMINATION A GENETIC PREDISPOSITION TO A VARIETY OF SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Drozdovska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To establishing the possibility of assessing genetic iinherited predisposition to various sports, the differences in the distribution of genotypes of the complex polymorphisms in groups of athletes, specializing in sports with different types of energy supply of muscular work were studied. The paper examined the DNA 332 persons, of which 110 athletes involved in speed- power sports, 85 - in endurance sports , 51 - in sports that require a combination of strength and endurance, 86 - with no experience regular exercise.

  20. Three dimensional transient electromagnetic model study for fracture prediction from tunnel face; Sanjigen model keisan ni yoru TEM ho no tunnel zenpo tansa eno tekiyosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, K.; Tsutsui, T.; Saito, A. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hara, T. [Toda Corp., Tokyo, (Japan); Zhdanov, M. [University of Utah, UT (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In order to apply TEM model to fracture prediction at tunnel face, 3-D TEM model computation by FEM was conducted by installing a transmission loop on a tunnel face. MT field responses diffusing into the 3-D model were computed by time-domain difference calculus, and analytical precision was improved by introducing a staggered grid method. In the case where a low resistive zone exists before a tunnel face, time variance in diffused eddy current and induction current in the low resistive zone could be obtained. The difference in tunnel-axial transient curve (transient phenomenon curve in magnetic field) between uniform medium and low resistive zone models was based on the absorption process of diffused eddy current into the low resistive zone, and the expanding process of it toward the outside. Change in background condition could be predicted from the background and the ratio of transient curves every measurement. The detection limit of the low resistive zone was dependent on resistivity contrast, distance and geometry. Fluctuation in measurement due to noises and S/N ratio were also essential. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Economical effect of introducing a photovoltaic system on future electric power system; Shorai no denryoku keito eno taiyoko hatsuden system donyu ni yoru keizaiteki eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akata, N.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Economic impact of introduction in the future of photovoltaic power generation (PV) systems into the commercial power system is discussed from the electric utilities` point of view. In the discussion, future demand for power is predicted from the demand for power in the base year, and the optimum power source configuration corresponding to the future demand and power generation curve are worked out by use of linear programming. Then, the fixed cost and variable cost are calculated for each of the power source components, and then the expected reduction in cost per unit of power generated is calculated. As the power sources, the hydroelectric, pumped storage, oil-fired, coal-fired, LNG-fired, combined cycle, and atomic technologies are considered. The conclusion is stated below. Upon introduction of PV power equivalent to 10% of the maximum demand power, the maximum power in the service area of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., will be reduced by 1.23GW in 2025, and the yearly demand power by 5472GWh. Since PV lowers the peak, an increased number of power sources low in variable cost will be used although such will be low in tracking capability. An increase in power demand will enhance the cost reducing effect of the PV system. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Inverse LMI control design method and its application to position keeping system; Gyakumondai LMI seigyokei sekkeiho no kaihatsu to ichi hoji system eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, I.; Hayashi, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, with a progress of robust control such as H{infinity} control, the application of a control system design considering a robustness of controlled system fluctuation to real machinery became possible. In addition, LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) control system design method is superior to conventional H{infinity} control, although including various difficult elements. The design algorithm permitting the robust control system design of non-linear problems by giving controlled systems was thus developed by introducing an inverse LMI control design method. This design algorithm determines the solution of models outputting the deviation between a target value and controlled variables by solving the simultaneous equations composed of a linear matrix inequality under an impulse response constraint condition and that under an H{infinity} norm constraint condition. This technique allows to give a pending step response as control condition. The technique was confirmed to be effective by its application to the position keeping control problem of marine floating structures. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of the influence on the cardiac function after excessive exercise is loaded at the wheelchair marathon; Kurumaisu marathon no undo fukago no shinkino eno eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshihara, S. [Oita Prefectural Education Center, Oita (Japan); Nishimura, T. [Oita University, Oita (Japan); Hosokawa, H. [Oita Medical University, Oita (Japan); Hamamoto, K. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, M. [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    To grasp dynamic cardiac function physiologically and biochemically before, during and after the wheelchair marathon for physically handicapped persons, the safety of athletic sports rapidly diffused for physically handicapped persons and the significance of cooperation among health, medical treatment and welfare are medically evaluated. There were no changes on the echocardiogram. Decrease in left ventricular function, which was observed in the triathlon race, was not recognized. From the results of biochemical test of blood, no damages of cardiac muscle were suggested. The findings of dehydration, which were anticipated in the biochemical test of blood, were not recognized after the race. It was suggested that stricter prevention of atherosclerosis, such as sufficient supply of water, is required for older persons. It is possible that these subjects who have hardly atherosclerosis, if they enter the race after full training and with supplying water, do safely without the bad influence to the heart. 9 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Beraprost sodium, a stable prostacyclin analogue, elicits dilation of isolated porcine retinal arterioles: roles of eNOS and potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shinji; Nagaoka, Taiji; Omae, Tsuneaki; Tanano, Ichiro; Kamiya, Takayuki; Otani, Shinichi; Ishibazawa, Akihiro; Yoshida, Akitoshi

    2014-07-31

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is usually described as an endoEDRFsthelium-derived relaxing factor, but the vasoreactivity to PGI2 in the retinal arterioles and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the effects of PGI2 on the retinal microcirculation using beraprost sodium (BPS), a stable PGI2 analogue, and the signaling mechanisms involved in this vasomotor activity. Porcine retinal arterioles were isolated, cannulated, and pressurized without flow in vitro. Video microscopic techniques recorded the diametric responses to BPS. Beraprost sodium elicited dose-dependent (0.1 pM-0.1 μM) vasodilation of the retinal arterioles that was abolished by the PGI2 receptor (IP) antagonist CAY10441. Beraprost sodium-induced vasodilation decreased by 50% after the endothelium was removed and was inhibited by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) comparable with denudation. Inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase by 1H-1,2,4-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) and blockage of protein kinase A (PKA) by Rp-8-Br-cAMPS were comparable to L-NAME. Beraprost sodium-induced vasodilation was also inhibited by the nonselective potassium channel inhibitor, tetraethylammonium, and the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blocker, glibenclamide. Residual vasodilation in the presence of glibenclamide decreased further with subsequent application of ODQ. Beraprost sodium, a stable PGI2 analogue, causes vasodilation of the retinal arterioles mediated via the IP receptor. The current findings suggest that BPS elicits endothelium-dependent and -independent dilation of the retinal arterioles mediated by NO induced by activation of PKA in the endothelium and the KATP channel activation in the vascular smooth muscle, respectively. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  5. Management in ekonomija: ali je to dvoje ali eno? (Elementi in razumevanje postocializma in managerske revolucije = Management and Economy: Are They the Same Or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonci Kuzmanic

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Author starts from important but suppressed equalisation of economy and management in post socialist and post capitalist circumstances which represents the very essence of post-modern global dominance (globalisation. An attempt to distinguish economy from management is connected with the appearance of neo-liberalism as the central argumentative machinery of management being connected with postmodern type of subjectivity. In comparison with the so-called »objective law« around which economy used to revolve (ideally, of course, management explicitly leaves this terrain and opens itself up to the subjective, even subversive activity at the level of global society. In that sense economy and management are operating on two radically different levels and we could even speak of two different entities which should be analytically distinguished. The very supposition for modern defence with regard to post-modern forms of dominance is exactly a possibility of differentiating between economy and management.

  6. Application of photo-excitation reaction on titanium oxide thin film for control of wettability; Sanka chitann hakumakujo no hikari reiki hanno no nuresei seigyo eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T.; Nakajima, A.; Hashimoto, K. [The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Takada, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-03-31

    It is clarified that the photo-excitation hydrophilic reaction increasing wettability remarkably is induced by changing surface structure of titanium oxide radiated light. There are already many examples being in practical use of coating products applied hydrophilic reaction of titanium oxide surface such as drip-proof side millers for automobiles, self-cleaning building materials, and the like. When surface of titanium oxide having high activities for oxidisation and decomposition is coated organic materials and radiated light, wettability of surface changes as organic materials are decomposed. If it is possible to change wettability shaping pattern drastically by radiating light, the possibility of application for printing materials will be developed. After increasing contact angle by coating water and oil repellent on the titanium oxide thin film, images can be shaped by radiating light into pattern for changing surface of titanium oxide to be ultra hydrophilicity as decomposition of repellent. At that time, contact angle is 150 degree in water, 80 degree in oil, for not radiated aria, and is 0 degree in water and oil for radiated aria. Application for control technology of wettability keeps possibility of broader development to itself, not staying ability of self-cleaning and drip-proof. (NEDO)

  7. Estrogen and phytoestrogens: Effect on eNOS expression and in vitro vasodilation in cerebral arteries in ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus Otto; Mortensen, A; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    -six female ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits were randomised to treatment with 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E(2)), SoyLife 150 or control for 16 weeks. Ring segments of basilar artery (BA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) were mounted in myographs for isometric tension recordings...

  8. Growth hormone receptor deficiency in mice results in reduced systolic blood pressure and plasma renin, increased aortic eNOS expression, and altered cardiovascular structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egecioglu, E; Andersson, I J; Bollano, E

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in the development of cardiovascular structure and function, female GHR gene-disrupted or knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at age 18 wk were used. GHR KO mice had lower plasma renin levels (12 +/- 2 vs. 20 +/- 4 mGU/ml, P ... to acetylcholine (P functional and morphological changes in both heart and vasculature that are beyond the observed alterations in body size...

  9. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on project for supporting the formation of energy/environmental technology verification project. International joint verification research project (Use of combined binary power generation systems at new geothermal fields on Mindoro Island, the Philippines, and comparison with conventional power generation systems); 1999 nendo Philippines koku Mindoro to no shinki chinetsutai ni okeru combined binary hatsuden hoshiki no tekiyo seika hokokusho. Conventional hatsuden hoshiki tono hikaku kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Concerning the Manito Lowlands geothermal field and the Montelago geothermal field where the systems are to be newly installed, the geothermal reservoir characteristics are assessed, and cost effectiveness is compared between different power generating systems. According to the investigations conducted into the two geothermal fields in the past, they are supposed to have geothermal potentials of the medium grade. Chemical analyses are conducted anew on this occasion into the hot spring water and fumarole gas, and the MT (magnetotelluric) method is implemented for the survey of reservoir distribution. It is now expected that approximately 20MWe will be exploited from each of the two geothermal fields. The power generation systems studied are the single flash type and double flash type for the conventional power generation system, and the cascade type, bottoming type, and two-phase binary type for the combined binary power generation system. As the result, it is concluded that the double flash type or two-phase binary type will be advantageous to the Manito Lowlands geothermal field, and the double flash type or bottoming type or two-phase binary type will be advantageous to the Montelago geothermal field. (NEDO)

  10. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation, etc. (conversion of old coal-fired thermoelectric power plants in Poland into combined cycle plants); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Poland sekitan karyoku hatsudensho (kyushiki) combined cycle eno tenkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A project is discussed for modernization for energy efficiency enhancement and greenhouse gas reduction. The most effective way to reduce greenhouse gas in Poland is to totally replace the existing coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants. Under this project, however, natural gas-fired power generation and integrated coal/brown coal gasification combined cycle power generation are both subjected to study. This is because the power plant modernization project is closely related to the fate of coal/brown coal industries which constitute the important industrial department of Poland. As for the earning rate of the project in case of natural gas-fired combined cycle power generation, the rate will be 13.2% even at the Kaweczyn station which is the highest in earning rate, and this fails to satisfy the project conditions. If integrated coal/brown gasification combined cycle power generation is chosen, the rate will be still lower. When the cost for greenhouse gas reduction is taken up, the Konin station exhibits the lowest of 9 dollars/tCO2, and the others 15-17 dollars/tCO2. When coal gas combined cycle is employed, the cost will be 3-4 times higher. (NEDO)

  11. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of decomposition of oxygen-functional groups on coal liquefaction; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gansanso kannoki no bunkai kyodo to ekika hanno eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komeiji, A.; Kaneko, T.; Shimazaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Pretreatment of brown coal in oil was conducted using 1-methyl naphthalene or mixture of tetralin and 1-methyl naphthalene as solvent at temperatures ranging from 300 to 430{degree}C under nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of the solvent properties on the structural change of oxygen-functional groups (OFG) and coal liquefaction were investigated by means of quantitative analysis of OFG and solid state {sup 13}C-NMR measurement. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient, it was suggested that brown coal molecules loose their hydrogen to be aromatized. While, at lower temperatures ranging from 300 to 350{degree}C, hydrogen contained in brown coal molecules was consumed for the stabilization of pyrolytic radicals, and the deterioration of liquefaction was not observed. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient at higher temperatures above 400{degree}C in nitrogen atmosphere during pretreatment in oil, crosslinking like benzofuran type was formed by dehydration condensation of hydroxyl group in brown coal, to deteriorate the liquefaction, remarkably. The addition of donor solvent like tetralin decreased the formation of crosslinking like benzofuran type, which suppressed the deterioration of liquefaction. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Advanced mineral and lithological mapping using high spectral resolution TIR data from the active CO2 remote sensing system; CO2 laser wo mochiita kosupekutoru bunkaino netsusekigai remote sensing data no ganseki kobutsu shikibetsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K. [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Hato, M. [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan); Cudahy, T.; Tapley, I.

    1997-05-27

    A study was conducted on rock/mineral mapping technology for the metal ore deposit survey using MIRACO2LAS, an active type thermal infrared ray remote sensing system which was developed by CSIRO of Australia and is now the highest in spectral resolution in the world, and TIMS of NASA which is a passive type system. The area for the survey is the area of Olary/Broken Hill and Mt. Fitton of Australia. A good correlation is seen between the ground reflectance measured by MIRACO2LAS and the value measured by the chamber CO2 laser of rocks sampled at the above-mentioned area. In case that the width of spectral characteristics is below 300nm, the inspection ability by MIRACO2LAS`s high spectral resolution is more determined in mineral mapping as compared with TIMS which is large in band width. Minerals mapped using MIRACO2LAS are quartz, talc, amphibole, hornblende, garnet, supessartine, dolomite, magnesite, etc. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Development of hydriding alloys with multi-functionally-graded properties and their applications to energy conversion devices; Keishagata fukugo kino wo hyomen ni motsu suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu to energy henkan gijutsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, S.; Kadoma, H.; Nagamoto, H.; Okura, T. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the formation of fluoride layer on the surface of hydriding alloys. The fluoride formation reaction consists of a reduction removal process of surface oxide and a fluorination process. Specific surface area of alloy grains can be increased by the hydrogenation reaction in the surface layer accompanied with the removal of surface oxide, which results in easier permeation of molecular hydrogen into fluoride layer. During the fluorination process, a large amount of Ni in the alloy components is eluted, which results in the reduction of Ni distribution immediately under the fluoride layer in the alloy. Consequently, collector sites near the surface are reduced, and conductivity among alloy grains is degraded. To enhance the hydrogen collector sites, specific surface area of alloy grains can be increased by controlling the pH value of fluorination treatment solution in a given range. Moreover, performance of fluoride layer can be advanced by electrochemically dispersing metal Ni in the fluoride layer using Ni complex ion mixed in the treatment solution. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  15. FY1995 preparation of magnetic films with nano size magnetic domain structure and application for magnetic recording media with ultra-high density; 1995 nendo nano jiku seigyo jisei usumaku no sosei to chokomitsudo jiki kiroku media eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    It is required to control microstructure and micro magnetic behavior in Co-Cr based alloy thin films strictly in order to apply these thin films to the ultra high density magnetic recording media. In this study, thin film deposition technology to control nano-metric micro-structure and micro magnetic properties, especially in the distribution through thickness direction, were examined. Furthermore, to develop some evaluation technique to determine such local distribution of magnetic properties was one of the purpose of this study. The relationship between c-axis orientation of crystallites and distribution of the perpendicular coercivity H{sub c} in Co-Cr films has been investigated through the evaluation of the the H{sub c} of surface layer H{sub c}(s) measured by Kerr hysteresis loop tracer. Better c-axis orientation, higher Cr content and addition of Ta seemed to be essential requirements to get higher H{sub c} of initial growth layer H{sub c}(i) and good uniformity of H{sub c}. Lower {delta}H{sub c} caused better recording characteristics and lower media noise level. It has been clarified that the homogeneity of the magnetic properties in the film and c-axis orientation in the initial layer of the films were the essential factors to deposit low noise and high performance recording media. (NEDO)

  16. Bussijuhtide streigi ärahoidmiseks on täna jäänud viimane võimalus / Ingvar Bärenklau, Hindrek Riikoja, Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bärenklau, Ingvar, 1967-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 11. dets. 2007, lk. 6. Postimees : na russkom jazõke lüh. Transpordi ametiühingu ja autoettevõtete liidu delegatsioonid annavad hinnangu riikliku lepitaja ettepanekule palgatüli lahendamiseks, mis on viimane võimalus üldstreigi ärahoidmiseks. Lisa: Võimaliku streigi ajakava; Kuidas elab Tartu streigipäevadel?; Streigid ja streigiähvardused. Vt. samas intervjuud bussijuht Leo Sillastega: 6000-kroonist kuupalka peetakse kodus valejutuks; Pärnu bussijuhid on streigi osas ühel meelel

  17. Development and problems on concrete technology in Thailand. Effort toward performance-based design and wastes utilization; Tai ni okeru konkurito gijutsu no katten to kongo no mondai. Seino shosagata sekkei to haikibutsu no riyo eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somnuk, Tangtermsirikul [University Thailand, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1999-03-10

    They explained economic crisis and development trend of concrete technology of Thailand in the back and future problem. They introduced growth (GNP) of the economy from 1989 to 1998, growth of the construction business and the cement production quantity and the cement consumption of the interval. In addition, as a design concept of concreting material, they introduced the utilization of the natural and artificial pozzolans (fly ash, steel slag, silica fume, pumice, metakaolin, etc.) as a utilization of a waste to the concrete, when they considered property and strength of the concrete suitable for the climate of Thailand, and they introduced strength of the concrete using these, etc.. (NEDO)

  18. Epidemias de ferrugem asiática no Rio Grande do Sul explicadas pelo fenômeno ENOS e pela incidência da doença na entressafra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Antonio Minchio

    Full Text Available RESUMO Estudou-se a interferência da variabilidade da variabilidade climática e do número de relatos de ferrugem asiática na entressafra sobre a epidemia da doença no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, durante 11 safras agrícolas. A ocorrência da doença foi obtida a partir de relatos apresentados no Consórcio Antiferrugem e dividida entre os períodos “Safra”, “Entressafra” e “Ano Todo”. Os dados das epidemias foram testados para correlação, via regressões polinomiais lineares e quadráticas, com as variáveis climáticas: precipitação pluvial, índice padronizado de precipitação - SPI, índice de oscilação sul - IOS e anomalia da Temperatura na Superfície do Mar - SST no Oceano Pacífico Tropical e número de ocorrências da doença no período de entressafra. Os índices que melhor explicaram a variação das ocorrências da doença para o período “Ano Todo” foram o SST e IOS, com coeficientes de determinação (R2 de 0,94 e 0,59, respectivamente. As ocorrências de ferrugem no período “Entressafra” influenciaram positivamente nas ocorrências no período “Safra”.

  19. Effect of sail on augmenting attitude stability of hovering VTOL vehicle supported by one-ducted-fan. Ductedter dot fan shiji VTOL ki no hover shisei anteisei eno ho no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, S.; Kato, M. (Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-07-05

    An analytical investigation was given on augmenting attitude stability of a VTOL airplane supported by one-ducted-fan, at hovering, by means of installing a sail having air resistance on a place higher than the vehicle center-of-gravity. Since the problem becomes nonlinear, the time-marching technique was used. The sail on which the emphasis was placed had an area of as less than several times as much of the duct sectional area, and a height of as less than several times as much of the duct diameter. The stabilization effect is expressed as {Delta}h = center of gravity height region providing the stability/duct diameter. Without a sail, {Delta}h was several percent, but with a sail, the value increased to about ten times as much. This increase in {Delta}h was remarkable in the direction that elevate the position of the center of gravity. More stability is obtained by increasing the sail height than by increasing the area. Substitutes to a sail, working on the same principle, could be a gas-bag and wind mill. A gas-bag, which can change its volume readily, will be able to vary the sail area easily. A wind mill could make the weight lighter than a sail, and has a possibility of varying the resistance through changing its blade pitch angle. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Development of a high temperature electric resistance measuring apparatus and the applications to measurements for carbon materials. Koon denki teiko sokutei sochi no shisaku to tansokei zairyo eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S.; Kurumada, A.; Kawamata, K. (Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sasaki, T.; Shibano, M. (Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1990-12-20

    A trial fabrication was done to build a vertical type high temperature electric resistance measuring apparatus utilizing an ultra high temperature electric furnace using graphite as a heater for the purpose of studying application of carbon materials under ultra high temperatures. Electric specific resistance was measured on carbon materials to a temperature of up to 2,400 {degree}C. The test pieces are of composite material composed of fine grain isotropic graphite, electrode graphite for steel furnace made by Arc, and C/C. The electric resistance was obtained using a voltage drop method at a reference current of 100 mA, and the specific resistance was calculated using the test piece diameter and the distance between electrodes. The temperature was raised at a rate of 550-600 {degree}C/h. All the graphite materials have their own individual values of electric specific resistance at the room temperature. As the temperature is raised, the specific resistance decreases, shows a minimum value, and then increases gradually showing a nearly constant increase rate until the temperature approaches the graphitization temperature of 3000 {degree}C. At low temperatures, the current carrier mobility is constant, but at higher than the normal temperature, mobility reducing speed becomes dominant because of heat excitation scattering, which is believed to increase the electric specific resistance. 5 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Měření dohlednosti kamerou pro účely studia vlivu reálné atmosféry na přenos optického bezkabelového spoje

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázda, V.; Fišer, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 1 (2013) ISSN 1802-4564 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/1376 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : visibility * digital camera * free space optical link Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://147.228.94.30/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=369:meni-dohlednosti-kamerou-pro-uely-studia-vlivu-realne-atmosfery-na-penos-optickeho-bezkabeloveho-spoje&catid=44:islo-12013&Itemid=51

  2. Investigation of several dynamic processes on solid surfaces and its application to the extreme high vacuum technology. Kotai hyomenjo no doteki katei no kaimei to sono goku koshinku gijutsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, D.; Honma, T. (The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Industrial Science)

    1991-08-26

    This paper makes fundamental studies on several dynamic processes on solid surfaces such as adsorption, desorption, surface segregation, surface precipitation and initial oxidation. The studies aim at applying the information and knowledge obtained to development of an extreme high vacuum technology. Theoretical and technological consideration is given to quantification and precision of surface analytical methods necessary and indispensable for a base technology for the study. The paper pays particular attention to the following three surface analytical methods: Auger electron spectroscopy for a composition analysis, surface extended electron energy loss fine strucutre as a surface short-distance order structural analysis, and thermal sesorption spectroscopy as an adsorption/desorption process analysis. These methods are applied to fundamental studies for development of materials required for creation of an extreme high vacuum. Taking an outgassing phenomenon in the extreme high vacuum as a set of various dynamic processes, quantitative measurement and a mechanism analysis of outgassing are conducted. Actually, the extreme high vacuum is trially produced. 244 refs., 128 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. Ultimate strength analysis of thin plated structures using eigen-functions. 3rd Report. Application to reliability analysis; Koyu kansu wo mochiita usuita kozobutsu no dansosei kaisekiho. 3. Shinraisei kaiseki eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Welding Research Institute; Masaoka, K.; Okada, H. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A reliability analysis was performed on ultimate strength of a hull by introducing reliability engineerings into the idealized structural unit method. Elements developed under the present study were applied to a model of an actual structure to indicate that even an analysis requiring much time under the finite element method can be performed in a short time and at high accuracy when this method is used. Analysis acted with bending moment and shear force simultaneously was performed on a model used as a structure in experiments carried out by Nishihara, assuming pure bending moment and longitudinal strength during slamming. Then, a reliability analysis was conducted on the same model based on this analysis method to investigate the ultimate strength. In an analysis of an ultimate strength when bending and shearing that assume slamming act upon simultaneously, axial force in the hull side decreases as loading increases, wherein how the shearing force increases can be identified clearly. Although existence of initial bends reduces the strength, the effect of variance in the vicinity of the average value on the reliability is rather small, while the effect due to variance in yield stress is greater. 27 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Equivalent CTOD concept based on the local approach and its application to fracture performance evaluation of welded joints; Local approach ni motozuku toka CTOD gainen no teian to tsugite hakai seino hyoka eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, M.; Minami, F.; Toyoda, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, T.; Arimochi, K. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Glover, A. [Nova Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary (Canada); North, T. [University of Toronto (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A proposal was given on an equivalent crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) concept which relates quantitatively fracture performance of a structural member with the result of a three-point bending CTOD test via the Weibull stress based on a local approach. The equivalent CTOD is defined as a CTOD in which a three-point CTOD test piece and a structural member provide the same Weibull stress. Experimental and analytical discussions were performed on X80 steel welded joints. Effectiveness of the equivalent CTOD concept was verified from the fact that the fracture performance in welded joints with a large width estimated from the result of the three-point bending CTOD test using the equivalent CTOD concept showed good correspondence with the fracture performance obtained in the experiments. On the other hand, the result of estimation using the conventional CTOD concept is considerably smaller than measurements. As an application of the equivalent CTOD concept, a new determination procedure was introduced on required fracture tenacity to ensure deformation performance required on structural elements. The required CTOD value shows a trend that the smaller the ratio of yield stress of the welded metals to that in the base material, the greater the required CTOD grows. 16 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Study on electrical monitoring of fill-up improvement. Utilization of resistivity data for soil compaction management; Hiteiko mitsudo kanri ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu. Moritsuchi seko kanri eno hiteiko yuko riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, N.; Hiramatsu, W. [Dai Nippon Construction, Gifu (Japan); Sugano, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    At present, measurement of wet density and water content by radio isotope (RI method) is used for filling management. It is supposed for filling in road construction that putting-out thickness of banking material reaches nearly 1m in the future rapid construction, however, use of RI method is difficult because of inserting and installing of a radiation source rod, large measuring apparatus, and the legal regulation on radioactivity intensity. Application of resistivity measurement was thus considered. Since resistivity has the same parameter as compaction curve, and monotonously decreases with an increase in water content by volume, it is applicable as construction management index. The management reference of resistivity (Rm) is set by plotting of a compaction curve and corresponding resistivity curve, determination of the reference resistivity (Ro) corresponding to a maximum dry density and optimum water content ratio, and setting of the allowance to Ro according to soil or application. It was clarified that Rm is applicable as set for every filling material. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Fiscal 1997 report on the feasibility survey of Japan`s cooperation into energy/environment related fields in Asian countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia shokoku ni okeru energy kankyo kanren bun`ya eno kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A survey was made to study possibilities of Japan`s cooperation in tackling energy/environment problems in Asian countries. In 1995 the GNP growth rate was 2.6% in the world, while it was 7.9% in Asia showing a rapid growth. With the accelerating industrialization and urbanization, energy demand is now over three times as much as that in the 1980s. This means increases in waste and environmental pollution. Especially, the use of firewood in non-electrified areas is a serious problem the same as the slash-and-burn farming and deforestation. Also relating to the production of electric power, it is inevitable to choose hydroelectric power and renewable energy in addition to fossil fuels. Therefore, the necessity is heightening of various technologies for it and environmental protection technologies such as coal cleaning. Local areas, where the population density is extremely low and the electrification cost is high, became victims of elecrification. There the power system should be shifted from the central supply system to the local distributed one. For it, it is necessary to recognize an importance of the distributed type renewable energy which is friendly to the environment. The paper outlined the state of each country and energy by policy and environment. 10 figs., 83 tabs.

  7. Fázově koherentní přenos stabilní optické frekvence Brno - Praha po optickém vlákně délky 306 km

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číp, Ondřej; Čížek, Martin; Pravdová, Lenka; Hucl, Václav; Řeřucha, Šimon; Hrabina, Jan; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Vojtěch, J.; Smotlacha, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, 4-5 (2016), s. 91-97 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : laser * optical fiber * optical and frequency transfer * optical frequency standard Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  8. Desarrollo y aplicación de índices y simulaciones para la vigilancia y el pronóstico a mediano plazo del impacto del ENOS frente a la costa peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Quispe Ccalluari, Carlos; Tam Málaga, Jorge; Arrellano Rojas, Cinthia; Chamorro Gómez, Adolfo; Espinoza Morriberón, Dante; Romero Tadeo, Carlos; Ramos Flores, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    El propósito del trabajo es presentar índices oceanográficos del Pacifico Sudeste, pronósticos de la propagación de las ondas Kelvin ecuatoriales (OKE) y pronósticos del Índice Térmico Costero Peruano (ITCP), usando como un ejemplo la información observacional actualizada hasta setiembre 2016. Durante el trimestre julio-agosto-setiembre (JAS) 2016, los Índices Térmico Costero Peruano (ITCP) y del Anticiclón del Pacífico Sur (IAPS) presentaron condiciones neutras, el Índice del Áre...

  9. Preparation of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O high Tc thick films on Ag or MgO substrate with superconductor paste; Bi kei ko Tc chodendo paste ni yoru Ag, MgO kibanjo eno atsumaku sakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabatake, N. [Ishikawa Technical High School, Ishikawa (Japan); Tsubota, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Ohashi, K. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-07-15

    The following were reported on making Bi series superconducting thick films by a wet method. A paste was made by adding PSO (or ethanol solution of ethylenegrycol) of Yushiro Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. as a binder to a Bi series 2223 single-phase powder sample (blending composition Bi:Pb:Sr:Ca:Cu=1.8:0.4:2:2:3.2); the sample was then coated on an Ag (or MgO) substrate with a brush; after being dried at 105{degree}C for one hour, it was thermally decomposed at 700{degree}C for one hour; then, the process of prissurized forming (at pressure 2 to 5 ton f/cm{sup 2}) and of sintering at 845{degree}C for 20 hours or more were performed on the sample to form a thick film sample. A critical temperature Tc, critical current density Jc, etc., were measured on such thick film sample. As a result, nearly same values were obtained as Tc (93K) and Jc (84A/cm{sup 2}) which were those of a bulk sample made by using the same powder sample, pressurizing at 2 ton f/cm{sup 2} for pelletizing, and sintering at 845{degree}C for 20 hours. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Vliv konečné apertury na přenos výkonu super-gaussovských svazků - analýza s využitím VirtualLabu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stanke, Ladislav; Palatka, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, Jan (2017), s. 26-29 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : beam clipping * super-Gaussian beams * simulation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics)

  11. Biochemical and toxicological impacts of persistent organochlorines on aquatic ecosystem. With particular attention to dioxins and their related compounds; Zanryusei yuki enso kagobutsu no suiken seitaikei eno eikyo. Toku ni dioxin rui ni chakumokushite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-07-10

    PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs are organochlorine compounds which induce toxicological impacts on test animals, such as reduced weight, thymic gland dwarf, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, developmental toxicity, carcinogenecity, teratogenicity and endocrine disturbance. They are generally referred to as dioxins. They are difficult to be decomposed in vivo, and tend to be more concentrated in higher organisms, placed at higher positions in the food chain. In aquatic ecosystems, they are observed to accumulate at high concentrations in fishes, fish-eating birds, claspers and whales. Therefore, there are growing concerns over their possible adverse effects on wild animals in aquatic ecosystems. This paper describes the effects of persistent organochlorine compounds on fishes, birds and aquatic mammals; and induction of cytochrome P450 of each organic species, caused by exposure to dioxins, and the induction examples in aquatic ecosystems. It also discusses whether or not the cytochrome P450 induction capacity of each organism species can be used as an index which explains difference between organism species in toxicological impacts of dioxins. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Study of solute incorporation into ice-layer on freeze concentration with ice-lining; Ice lining toketsu noshukuho ni okeru hyosho sochu eno yoshitsu torikomi ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Shinozaki, K. [Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Hirata, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    The mechanism of solute incorporation into an ice-layer in freeze concentration with ice-lining was studied by changing the impeller speed N and the difference between the brine temperature and the freezing point of the feed solution {Delta}T in 10 kg/m{sup 3} CCNa solution. The effect of N on the apparent partition coefficient of the solute K, is more serious than that of {Delta}T. The growth rate of the ice layer is 10{sup -7} - 10{sup -6}m/s under the condition of {Delta}T=2.8 - 7.9degC and N = 20-400 min{sup -1}. The growth rate had a little effect on solute incorporation into the ice-layer. K values depended on the surface condition of the ice layer, which is effected by the mixing speed of the impeller. The ice layer formed at low mixing speed has a complex rough shape, and has much solute because of adhesion to a large surface area. Therefore, it is recommended that freeze concentration is performed by making an ice layer with smooth surface at high mixing speed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Research of the elastic waves generated by a pulse laser. Excitation mechanism of elastic waves and application to nondestructive testing; Pulse laser de reikishita danseiha ni kansuru kenkyu. Danseiha reiki no mechanism to hihakai kensa eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Engineering

    1994-07-20

    A bulk wave is generated when a pulse laser is irradiated to the material, and the characteristics of a Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio can be nondestructively estimated from the bulk wave. The generation mechanism of laser ultrasonic waves must be first clarified for such application. In this paper, fundamental research was conducted to study the generation mechanism of the elastic waves excited by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser, and the generation method and characteristics of Rayleigh waves. The following result was obtained. A bulk wave is generated by the disk-like adiabatic expansion near the surface if the laser power is small when a spot-shape pulse laser was irradiated. A bulk wave is generated by the thin disk-like adiabatic expansion beneath the surface due to the thermal diffusion in the depth direction of a base material when the laser power becomes large. Moreover, a bulk wave is generated by the impact force due to abrasion and plasma when the power becomes still larger. The information on the bulk wave characteristics and Rayleigh wave was also obtained. 25 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  14. FY 1997 report on the survey of potential impacts of enlarging ASEAN on political and economic systems in South East Asia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (ASEAN kakudai no Higashi Asia no seiji keizai chitsujo eno eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report surveys potential impacts of ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) on inter-ASEAN affairs and its external relations when ASEAN will enlarge its members to include all nations in South East Asia, and thus fully represent the region. For this purpose, the survey was conducted on Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, which joined in 1995, from the viewpoint of their economic and political system, and their relations with other member countries. The nature of ASEAN has gradually transformed, in which all the countries in the region have increased and internal economic issues have been tackled. It has an aim to stimulate inter-ASEAN trade and induce foreign direct investment into ASEAN as a whole by reducing import duties on intra-ASEAN trade. Underlying in these, new development is a concern about growing economic and military power of China. ASEAN solidarity will work an leverage against China should change toward worse, and ASEAN will function as a regional stabilization factor. ASEAN is needed for the stability of both in economic and political order in East Asia. Japan has to further promote its cooperation with ASEAN to help its solidarity as an association. 24 refs., 21 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Relationship between endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the enzyme in charge of nitric oxide production, plays a crucial role in vascular biology. However, the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting the gene encoding for eNOS (eNOS) on coronary artery diseases remains under debate and no data were ...

  16. Enhancer-associated long non-coding RNA LEENE regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yifei; Ajami, Nassim E; Huang, Tse-Shun; Lin, Feng-Mao; Lou, Chih-Hong; Wang, Yun-Ting; Li, Shuai; Kang, Jian; Munkacsi, Hannah; Maurya, Mano R; Gupta, Shakti; Chien, Shu; Subramaniam, Shankar; Chen, Zhen

    2018-01-18

    The optimal expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the hallmark of endothelial homeostasis, is vital to vascular function. Dynamically regulated by various stimuli, eNOS expression is modulated at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels. However, epigenetic modulations of eNOS, particularly through long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and chromatin remodeling, remain to be explored. Here we identify an enhancer-associated lncRNA that enhances eNOS expression (LEENE). Combining RNA-sequencing and chromatin conformation capture methods, we demonstrate that LEENE is co-regulated with eNOS and that its enhancer resides in proximity to eNOS promoter in endothelial cells (ECs). Gain- and Loss-of-function of LEENE differentially regulate eNOS expression and EC function. Mechanistically, LEENE facilitates the recruitment of RNA Pol II to the eNOS promoter to enhance eNOS nascent RNA transcription. Our findings unravel a new layer in eNOS regulation and provide novel insights into cardiovascular regulation involving endothelial function.

  17. Suppressive Role of PPARγ-Regulated Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Adipocyte Lipolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Yamada

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome causes insulin resistance and is associated with risk factor clustering, thereby increasing the risk of atherosclerosis. Recently, endothelial nitric oxide synthase deficient (eNOS-/- mice have been reported to show metabolic disorders. Interestingly, eNOS has also been reported to be expressed in non-endothelial cells including adipocytes, but the functions of eNOS in adipocytes remain unclear.The eNOS expression was induced with adipocyte differentiation and inhibition of eNOS/NO enhanced lipolysis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the administration of a high fat diet (HFD was able to induce non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH in eNOS-/- mice but not in wild type mice. A PPARγ antagonist increased eNOS expression in adipocytes and suppressed HFD-induced fatty liver changes.eNOS-/- mice induce NASH development, and these findings provide new insights into the therapeutic approach for fatty liver disease and related disorders.

  18. Resveratrol and Endothelial Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO derived from the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS has antihypertensive, antithrombotic, anti-atherosclerotic and antiobesogenic properties. Resveratrol is a polyphenol phytoalexin with multiple cardiovascular and metabolic effects. Part of the beneficial effects of resveratrol are mediated by eNOS. Resveratrol stimulates NO production from eNOS by a number of mechanisms, including upregulation of eNOS expression, stimulation of eNOS enzymatic activity and reversal of eNOS uncoupling. In addition, by reducing oxidative stress, resveratrol prevents oxidative NO inactivation by superoxide thereby enhancing NO bioavailability. Molecular pathways underlying these effects of resveratrol involve SIRT1, AMPK, Nrf2 and estrogen receptors.

  19. Association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with the risk of Henoch-Schönlein purpura/Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weiqiang; Zhou, Tian-Biao; Jiang, Zongpei

    2015-04-01

    Association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphism and Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP)/Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) risk is still controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between eNOS gene polymorphism and HSP/HSPN susceptibility. A predefined literature search and selection of eligible relevant studies were performed to collect data from electronic database. Three articles were identified for the analysis of association between eNOS gene polymorphism and HSPN/HSP risk. eNOS G894T gene polymorphism was not associated with HSPN susceptibility and the risk of patients with HSP developing into HSPN. Interestingly, eNOS G894T T allele and GG genotype were associated with HSP susceptibility, but not the TT genotype. eNOS T786C TT genotype was associated with HSPN susceptibility, but not C allele and CC genotype. Furthermore, eNOS T786C gene polymorphism was not associated with HSP risk and the risk of patients with HSP developing into HSPN. In conclusion, eNOS T786C TT genotype was associated with and eNOS G894T T allele and GG genotype were associated with HSP susceptibility. However, more studies should be performed in the future.

  20. Peripheral treatment with enoxaparin exacerbates amyloid plaque pathology in Tg2576 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hao; King, Anna E; Jacobson, Glenn A; Small, David H

    2017-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex, progressive neurological disorder characterized by the formation of extracellular amyloid plaques composed of β-amyloid protein (Aβ), the key component in pathogenesis of AD. Peripheral administration of enoxaparin (ENO) reportedly reduces the level of Aβ and the amyloid plaques in the cortex of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. However, the exact mechanism of these effects is unclear. Our previous studies indicated that ENO can inhibit APP processing to Aβ in primary cortical cells from Tg2576 mice by downregulating BACE1 levels. This study examines whether ENO-induced reduction of amyloid load is due to the decreased APP processing to Aβ in Tg2576 mice. Surprisingly, our results indicated that ENO significantly increases the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio in cortex and enhances the amyloid plaque load in both cortex and hippocampus, although overall APP processing was not influenced by ENO. Moreover, ENO stimulated the aggregation of both Aβ40 and Aβ42 in vitro. Although ENO has been reported to improve cognition in vivo and has potential as a therapeutic agent for AD, the results from our study suggest that ENO can exacerbate the amyloid pathology, and the strategy of using ENO for the treatment of AD may require further assessment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Posttranslational inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the transgenic sickle cell mouse penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Champion, Hunter C.; Hsu, Lewis L.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated priapism is characterized by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction in the penis. However, the mechanism of decreased eNOS function/activation in the penis in association with SCD is not known. AIMS Our hypothesis in the present study was that eNOS is functionally inactivated in the SCD penis in association with impairments in eNOS posttranslational phosphorylation and the enzyme’s interactions with its regulatory proteins. METHODS Sickle cell transgenic (sickle) mice were used as an animal model of SCD. Wild type (WT) mice served as controls. Penes were excised at baseline for molecular studies. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site) and Thr-495 (negative regulatory site), total eNOS, and phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177) expressions, and eNOS interactions with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and caveolin-1 were measured by Western blot. Constitutive NOS catalytic activity was measured by conversion of L-[14C]arginine-to-L-[14C]citrulline in the presence of calcium. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Molecular mechanisms of eNOS dysfunction in the sickle mouse penis. RESULTS eNOS phosphorylated on Ser-1177, an active portion of eNOS, was decreased in the sickle mouse penis compared to WT penis. eNOS interaction with its positive protein regulator HSP90, but not with its negative protein regulator caveolin-1, and phosphorylated AKT expression, as well as constitutive NOS activity, were also decreased in the sickle mouse penis compared to WT penis. eNOS phosphorylated on Thr-495, total eNOS, HSP90, and caveolin-1 protein expressions in the penis were not affected by SCD. CONCLUSION These findings provide a molecular basis for chronically reduced eNOS function in the penis by SCD, which involves decreased eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 and decreased eNOS-HSP90 interaction. PMID:21143412

  2. Crystal structure of enolase from Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Congcong; Xu, Baokui; Liu, Xueyan; Zhang, Zhen; Su, Zhongliang

    2017-04-01

    Enolase is an important enzyme in glycolysis and various biological processes. Its dysfunction is closely associated with diseases. Here, the enolase from Drosophila melanogaster (DmENO) was purified and crystallized. A crystal of DmENO diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group R32. The structure was solved by molecular replacement. Like most enolases, DmENO forms a homodimer with conserved residues in the dimer interface. DmENO possesses an open conformation in this structure and contains conserved elements for catalytic activity. This work provides a structural basis for further functional and evolutionary studies of enolase.

  3. Transgenerační přenos agresivního chování v rodinách jako příčina vzniku domácího násilí

    OpenAIRE

    Růžičková, Světlana

    2012-01-01

    Thesis Transgeneration transfer of aggressive behaviour in families as a cause of domestic violence has theoretically - empirical nature and is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. The theoretical part is defined by the family, its functions, types, and family pathology is described in the context of domestic violence and CAN syndrome. The central chapters of this section also deal with educational styles, parental attitudes, characteristics of domestic violence and child develo...

  4. Study on traffic accidents mechanism with automatic recording systems. Part 2. Application of data from ADR and DMR for practical driver education; Jidosha kiroku sochi ni yoru kotsu jiko hassei mechanism no kenkyu. 2. Jiko data kirokukei (ADR) to unko kirokukei (DMR) no untensha kyoiku eno katsuyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueyama, M.; Ogawa, S. [National Research Inst. of Police Science, Tokyo (Japan); Chikasue, H.; Muramatsu, K. [Yazaki Meter Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A field trial are carried out using automatic receding system; ADR (Accident Data Recorder) and DMR (Driving Monitoring Recorder) installed on 20 commercial vehicles, in order to assess the implications for driver behavior and accidents. The data suggest that the accident mechanism can be explained in terms of situation-specific factor and behavior of drivers just before accident that is, their attitude to the handing and control of vehicles. The data might offer a new information for practical driver education. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. FY 1995 development of fluorinated hydriding alloys with multi functional and functionally-graded surface and their application to energy conversion devices; 1995 nendo keishagata fukugo kino wo hyomen ni motsu suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu to energy henkan gijutsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project is the extended researches of a fluorination technique invented by the project leader (Suda) for improving the surface properties and characteristics of conventional hydriding alloys from the following viewpoints; (1) To investigate the roles of fluorinated surface during hydrogen uptake both in the gas-solid and the electrochemical reactions. (2) To elucidate the factors which increase the protective nature of the surface. (3) To develop a material design procedure for synthesizing thin layer of functionally graded surface which is composed of metallic Ni and the fluoride compound. (1) An advanced fluorination technique was developed to incorporate metallic Ni in the surface fluoride layer. (2) Metallic Ni was successfully distributed in a functionally graded manner in the Surface fluoride layer. (3) Through the technique developed, the following properties and characteristics were successfully donated in the fluorinated hydriding alloys such as AB{sub 5}, AB{sub 2}, and AB; (3-1)Surface oxides which act as the resistant layer to the hydrogen up take was completely eliminated to result in the enhancement of the initial activation characteristics. (3-2) Hydrogen selectivity and permeability was greatly improved. (3-3) Surface protective nature against the impurity gases and contaminants was significantly improved. (3-4) Initial activation characteristics both in the gas-solid and the electrochemical reactions were distinguishably improved. (3-5) Fluorinated surface was found to function as the catalyst for a methanation reaction between the CO{sub 2} gas adsorbed over the fluorinated surface and the monatomic hydrogen absorbed in the metal lattice of the crystalline structure of the hydriding alloys. (4) A technique was developed for increasing the specific surface area and decreasing the specific surface diameter of the fluorinated hydriding alloy articles. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development on a new manufacturing method for functional thin films suitable for recycling, and their application to colored glasses (the second year); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Recycle ni tekishita kinosei usumaku no shinki seizoho to chakushoku glass eno oyo ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu (dai 2 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A new thin film manufacturing method is established to add a function to glass material surface, as a new material technology which harmonizes with global environment, and is suitable for resource re-utilization and energy conservation. It is intended to develop a leading technology to promote recycling of colored glasses by applying this technical method to colored glasses. Fiscal 1998 has implemented subsequently to fiscal 1997 the following subjects in the three research items composed of a new manufacturing method of functional thin films, application of the functional thin films to colored glasses, and the comprehensive investigative studies: establishment of an industrial manufacturing method for color coating liquid and evaluation of basic characteristics of the colored functional thin films, optimization of element technology for photo-sensitive gel films by means of chemically modifying metallic alkoxide, tests of forming films on glass bottles and plate glasses by using a coating machine installed in fiscal 1997, design and prototype fabrication of a new demonstration coating machine, and analysis on thermal decomposition of the colored thin films. Optimization was performed on the element technology for manufacturing sol-gel functional thin films, and a survey was carried out on recycling systems of colored glasses adopted in Europe. (NEDO)

  7. Přístup ke spravedlnosti ve věcech životního prostředí a Soudní dvůr EU: navzdory Aarhuské úmluvě stále zavřeno

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2016), s. 8-40 ISSN 1213-5542 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : access to justice in environmental matters * Court of Justice of the EU * non-privileged applicants Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  8. FY 1997 report on the verification survey of new mechanisms for load leveling. IEA`s international collaboration `Participation of Japan in IEA/DSM Task VI`; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (fuka heijunka shinshuho jissho chosa). IEA kokusai kyoryoku jigyo `IEA/DSM task IV eno sanka ni tsuite`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Current electricity markets in Europe and the USA are drastically changing due to the introduction of competition principle and the reconsideration of business systems. Are also changing the activities and their forms of DSM (demand side management) for load leveling which has been conventionally conducted by electricity companies for the efficient operation of facilities. Task IV and Task VI aim at developing new mechanisms to promote DSM in the changing electricity markets as well as disseminating and communicating information on the new mechanism. Japan participates in Sub-task IV/6 and 7 and Task VI. Activities for developing new mechanisms are divided into Phase 1 and Phase 2. The Phase 1 includes review of existing mechanisms and preliminary development and evaluation of new mechanisms. The Phase 2 includes the detailed development of new mechanisms and evaluation criteria, communication and information about mechanisms, and identification of the public policy implications which would follow a decision by the responsible authorities to implement each of various DSM mechanisms. The time frame of Phase 1 is between February 1996 and March 1997, and that of Phase 2 is between January 1997 and December 1999. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. FY1998 survey on IEA international cooperation project on demonstration and survey of new load leveling methods (participation in the IEA/DSM task VI); 1998 nendo fuka heijunka shinshuho jissho chosa IEA kokusai kyoryoku jigyo 'IEA/DSM task 6 eno sanka ni tsuite' chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    It is intended to participate in the IEA international cooperation project related to DSA, exchange items of information, and promote demonstration and survey of new load leveling methods. The existing and newly proposed DSM mechanisms as the achievement of the previous tasks were put into order. The arena of information exchange and discussions was prepared through use of the Internet homepage for the IEA/DSM implementation agreement. Necessary official policies were also made available. Points of precautions when the mechanisms of other countries are used in Japan: the key to the success depends on social or cultural situations that work as the base; therefore, comparisons and analyses are necessary on such elements as customers as the object, energy projects and governments; compatibility of the situation and pattern of the demand side with the DSM technologies governs the reasonability thereof; the types of the mechanisms are narrowed down by size of the customer division, consumption pattern, electric power quality and safety, and needs on the flexibility; proliferation levels of the DSM technologies determine the appropriate mechanisms; and how the DSM is conceived against the final consumption is governed by the conception by both of the customers and the government. (NEDO)

  10. Report on the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the demonstrative investigation of a new load leveling method. Participation to the IEA/DSM task VI, an IEA international cooperation project; 1999 nendo fuka heijunka shinshuho jissho chosa hokokusho. IEA kokusai kyoryoku jigyo IEA/DSM task VI eno sanka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Participation was implemented to the IEA/DSM task VI as the demonstrative investigation of a new load leveling method. The DSM strategy is a means to achieve the public objectives of wide range, wherein the DSM mechanism is important, that can obtain accurate and useful information in competitive markets. Consumer protecting activities have close relation with general information needs. A financial incentive mechanism is also necessary to support nurturing of business organizations and new ESCO industries. A market forming mechanism using the DSM can solve the problem of disagreement in the incentives (for example, private profit of electric power companies and the public nature of the government). These include system plans considering the DSM, setting of upper limit in the profit, demand side bidding, and green charge institution. It is important to utilize affluent findings and means used in the past and utilize each mechanism to meet the needs for public benefit at the present and in the future, while structuring an electric power business structure incorporating the DSM. The DSM promoting mechanisms in each country were classified and put into order of regulations, supports, funds, and markets. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Survey for verification of new load levelling technique - IEA international joint project (Participation in IEA/DSM task); 2000 nendo fuka heijunka shuho jissho chosa hokokusho. IEA kokusai kyoryoku jigyo 'IEA/DSM task eno sanka ni tsuite'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Japan participated in IEA/DSM (International Energy Agency/demand side management) Task X (performance contracting) for collecting information on energy service contracting business designed to promote load levelling centered DSM activities on the basis of market principles for achieving efficient operation of facilities. Task X aims to adjust and popularize the energy service contracting business. In the energy service contracting business, the facility related party and the energy service related party work under a contract to enhance efficiency of facility operation, and share the gains between them. In concrete terms, information was collected and exchanged at the 14th and 15th executive committee meeting of IEA/DSM Task X (Turkey in April 2000, Sweden in September 2000); new task preparation conference (Sweden in September 2000); 1st specialist conference (France in February 2001); and 17th annual convention of All-America ESCO (energy service company) Council (U.S. in November 2000). (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Study of safety of laser and light emitting diodes (LED) for human body; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Laser, oyobi hakko diode (LED) ni taisuru jintai eno anzensei no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    LD and LED are used in a wide range from telecommunication systems to residential/commercial equipment. Optical semiconductor devices existing in the domain between LD and LED are also being commercialized. In the field of this project, there are a lot of contradictions about the international standards. For the purpose of promoting the common understanding of standards and improving the consistency, the paper examined mainly safety, principles of motion and various applications of laser and LED, and developed international standards for the output measuring method. At the same time, the paper systematically studied the biological safety, determined regulatory values which were backed up as safety standards, and proposed/worked out a draft for new international standardization for safety of LED. Further, by the definition of laser in general, standards related to a lot of TCs among ISO and IEC standards were harmonized for the common understanding on the basis of a common idea. 40 refs., 163 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Síntese e atividade fitotóxica de 2-fenil-6,7-exo-isopropilidenodioxi-8-oxabiciclo [3.2.1]oct-2-eno Synthesis and phytotoxic activity of 2-Phenyl-6,7-exo isopropylidenedioxi-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-ene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio A. Barbosa

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The [3+4] cycloaddition between furan and the oxyallyl cation generated from 1-bromo-1-phenylpropan-2-one (4, resulted in the formation of 2-phenyl-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-6-en-3-one (5 in 30% yield. This compound was further converted into 2-phenyl-6,7-exo-isopropylidenedioxi-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-ene (13 in 35.4% yield. The selective effect of compound (13 and its isomer 3-phenyl-6,7-exo-isopropylidenedioxi-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct -2-ene (1a on the radicle growth of Sorghum bicolor L. (sorghum and Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber were evaluated. For both plants, compound 13 showed to be more potent than its isomer 1a.

  14. Research on PV system application on residences. Part 1. Report on the systems and PV measurement results of an experimental passive solar house; Taiyoko hatsuden system no jutaku eno oyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Taisho tatemono taiyo to taiyoko hatsuden system keisoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O.; Sakai, K.; Hirakawa, M. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    System of the house is outlined, and warming performance and photovoltaic power generation system energy performance are taken up. It is a one-storied meeting hall situated in an apartment area, whose heat loss factor is 2.59kcal/m2hdegC. Ninety hybrid solar cells provided with circulating air heat collectors are installed on the east-side of the roof, interconnected to the commercial power system. In the daytime in summer, the house is fully insulated from solar radiation, with the room temperature kept a little lower than the open air temperature. The range of daily change in the room temperature is narrow, providing a comfortable residential space. When the windows are opened in the evening, cool air comes into the room to replace the warm air inside, reducing the difference in temperature between the inside and outside of the room. In winter, insolation time is short on the east side of the roof which finds itself out of the sun. Under the circumstances, the system outputs but a little and the quantity sold is quite small in winter. But, in summer, sale of power can be practicable, thanks to exposure to sufficient sunshine. The inverter rated at 3.5kW attains a 90% or higher operating rate in the presence of an input of power of 0.5kW or more. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Study on application of single-crystal ice `Kurobe ice column` to high-speed skating rinks. Demonstration test result at Olympic memorial arena `M wave` in Nagano city; Tankesshohyo `Kurobe no hyojun` no kosoku skate link eno tekiyosei kenkyu. Naganoshi olympic kinen arina `Emu Wave` deno jissho shiken kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-06-10

    For high-speed low-friction skating rinks, research was made on sticking artificial ice columns (ice bamboo shoot). The ice columns were fabricated with the ice column production equipment equipped with 4-line water droplet dropping devices which were installed at intervals of 0.3m on both sides of a pathway of 200m long, 2.6m wide and 1.8m high in the lateral adit of Kurobegawa No.4 hydroelectric power station. The grown ice columns were processed for high-speed skating rinks through cutting, confirmation of single crystal and crystal orientation, slicing for every 7mm thickness and packaging. The ice columns were spread all over the rink while sliding them to prevent mixing of bubbles after spraying distilled water of nearly 25 degreesC onto base ices. In addition, hot water of nearly 40 degreesC was sprayed to produce the final ice rink of 30mm thick by nearly 5mm a day. The dynamic friction coefficient of the ice column rink reduced to 0.0038 by nearly 16% as compared with 0.0045 of conventional rinks. (NEDO)

  16. Applying computers to construction planning and management. Proposal of Hi-CIC (Human Intercommunicated Computer Integrated Construction) concept; Seko keikaku / seko kanri eno computer riyo hoho ni kansuru kenkyu. Atarashii seisan keitai de aru Hi-CIC (haishikku) koso no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, I.; Masamura, Y.; Oyamoto, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-31

    Arranged reports of recent computer aided research and development in the field of building, they are divided substantially four types: all construction support, information integration, construction technique selection, and CAD/OA as the types of utilization. These types fall within a region of saving of business management and speeding-up of the same, and hence it is difficult to break through the limit in present framework. This paper investigates and proposes a new mechanism which can exceed the limits of productivity growth. For this, there is required a mechanism of production where it is planned and managed in a production unit greater than that of the present situation. The new mechanism which employs communication network/computer as a premise will herein be named as a Hi-CIC. The Hi-CIC is not a stratified organization and not centralized management where the scales of the units of building production are simply expanded, but is a global concept where an individual Hi-CIC center and a group of business Hi-CIC centers complements each other by the use of computers adhering to users. 2 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Acoustic excitation of diffusion flames with coherent structure in a plane shear layer. ; Application of active combustion control to two-dimensional phase-locked arranging measurements. Soshiki kozo wo tomonau heimen sendai kakusan kaen no onkyo reiki. ; Nijigen iso heikin bunpu sokutei eno active nensho seigyo no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Y.; Kojima, T.; Oiwa, N.; Yamaguchi, S. (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-11-25

    The acoustic excitation of a plane diffusion flame enhances the periodicity of organized eddy controlled combustion. In this study, to clarify an effectiveness of application of active combustion control, phase characteristics of the excited eddy flames with high periodicity have been examined. A computer-aided phase-locked averaging method was employed to obtain graphical two-dimensional contour maps of the instantaneous profiles of temperature and CH emission. Both maps consisting of eight consecutive phases indicated clearly not only the periodic behavior of the organized eddy flame, but also the gas dynamic properties peculiar to those flames with coherent structure. In addition, the profiles of local contribution of the sound field to the combustion process were examined by calculating the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index. Calculation results of the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index indicated that the organized eddy flames have high sensitivity to sound, and play an important role in an interaction of sound and flame. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Posttranscriptional and transcriptional regulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase during hypoxia: the role of microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Leszek; Janaszak-Jasiecka, Anna; Siekierzycka, Anna; Bartoszewska, Sylwia; Woźniak, Marcin; Lejnowski, Dawid; Collawn, James F; Bartoszewski, Rafal

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the cellular pathways that regulate endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS, NOS3 ) expression and consequently nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability during hypoxia is a necessary aspect in the development of novel treatments for cardiovascular disorders. eNOS expression and eNOS-dependent NO cellular signaling during hypoxia promote an equilibrium of transcriptional and posttranscriptional molecular mechanisms that belong to both proapoptotic and survival pathways. Furthermore, NO bioavailability results not only from eNOS levels, but also relies on the presence of eNOS substrate and cofactors, the phosphorylation status of eNOS, and the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can inactivate eNOS. Since both NOS3 levels and these signaling pathways can also be a subject of posttranscriptional modulation by microRNAs (miRNAs), this class of short noncoding RNAs contribute another level of regulation for NO bioavailability. As miRNA antagomirs or specific target protectors could be used in therapeutic approaches to regulate NO levels, either by changing NOS3 mRNA stability or through factors governing eNOS activity, it is critical to understand their role in governing eNOS activity during hypoxa. In contrast to a large number of miRNAs reported to the change eNOS expression during hypoxia, only a few miRNAs modulate eNOS activity. Furthermore, impaired miRNA biogenesis leads to NOS3 mRNA stabilization under hypoxia. Here we discuss the recent studies that define miRNAs' role in maintaining endothelial NO bioavailability emphasizing those miRNAs that directly modulate NOS3 expression or eNOS activity.

  19. [Prokaryotic expression, identification and histo-localization of the Taenia asiatica enolase gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wu-Ying; Dai, Jia-Ling; Huang, Jiang; Hu, Xu-Chu; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xin-Bing; Liao, Xing-Jiang; Lang, Shu-Yuan

    2009-12-01

    To express enolase gene of Taenia asiatica, investigate the immunoreactivity of the recombinant TaENO protein, and immuno-histo-localize the presence of the recombinant TaENO in adults of T. asiatica. The gene encoding enolase of T. asiatica (TaENO) was cloned by high throughput sequencing from the cDNA library of adult T. asiatica. The coding region of TaENO was amplified by PCR, and cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a (+). The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL-21/DE3 and followed by expression of the protein induced by IPTG. The protein was purified by Ni-IDA affinity chromatography, and tested by SDS-PAGE. Its immunoreactivity was examined by Western blotting. The mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified TaENO formulated in Freund's adjuvant. Serum samples were collected and analyzed for specific antibodies by ELISA. The localization of TaENO in adult worms was demonstrated by immunofluorescent technique. The recombinant expression plasmid was identified by PCR, double endonuclease digestion and sequencing. The recombinant TaENO was about Mr 47 000 with a concentration of 0.37 mg/ml. It was recognized by antisera of SD rats immunized with TaENO, sera of taeniasis patients and sera of infected swine. The immunofluorescence assay revealed that TaENO immune serum located in the tegument of T. asiatica adult. The TaENO gene has been expressed with immunoreactivity, and the recombinant TaENO is immunolocalized in the tegument of T. asiatica adult.

  20. Exhaled nitric oxide - circadian variations in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosova M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO has been suggested as a marker of airway inflammatory diseases. The level of eNO is influenced by many various factor including age, sex, menstrual cycle, exercise, food, drugs, etc. The aim of our study was to investigate a potential influence of circadian variation on eNO level in healthy subjects. Methods Measurements were performed in 44 women and 10 men, non-smokers, without respiratory tract infection in last 2 weeks. The eNO was detected at 4-hour intervals from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. using an NIOX analyzer. We followed the ATS/ERS guidelines for eNO measurement and analysis. Results Peak of eNO levels were observed at 10 a.m. (11.1 ± 7.2 ppb, the lowest value was detected at 10 p.m. (10.0 ± 5.8 ppb. The difference was statistically significant (paired t-test, P Conclusions The daily variations in eNO, with the peak in the morning hours, could be of importance in clinical practice regarding the choice of optimal time for monitoring eNO in patients with respiratory disease.

  1. Similar levels of nitric oxide in exhaled air in non-asthmatic rhinitis and asthma after bronchial allergen challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopuhaä, C. E.; Koopmans, J. G.; Jansen, H. M.; van der Zee, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide in exhaled air (eNO) is elevated in allergic asthma compared with healthy subjects and has been proposed as a marker of bronchial inflammation. However, eNO is elevated to a lesser extent in allergic non-asthmatic rhinitis as well. Considering the distinctive clinical

  2. Changes in the level of cytosolic calcium, nitric oxide and nitric oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    cytosolic Ca2+ during collagen-induced in vitro aggregation of platelets in patients with cirrhosis. The level of aggregation in the presence of an eNOS inhibitor was also assessed to confirm the inhibitory effect of eNOS on platelet function. The data presented here demonstrate the role of cytosolic Ca2+ and NO in the ...

  3. Role of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Previous studies indicated an association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and maintenance of pregnancy, but it is rather controversial whether polymorphisms of the gene encoding for eNOS are associated with recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSAs). Aim: The aim was to investigate ...

  4. Overexpression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in visceral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... expression in the adrenal cortex (zona fasciculata) was significantly lower in the dogs with HAC than in the control dogs. 11β-HSD1 overexpression and eNOS underexpression could play a role in the maintenance of hypercortisolism in dogs with HAC. Keywords: 11β-HSD1, eNOS, Glucocorticoids, Hyperadrenocorticism ...

  5. Lack of endothelial nitric oxide synthase aggravates murine accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; van Goor, H; Itoh-Lindstrom, Y; Maeda, N; Falk, RJ; Assmann, KJM; Kallenberg, CGM; Jennette, JC

    Nitric oxide (NO) radicals generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In addition, NO radicals derived from eNOS inhibit platelet aggregation and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and, thus, may have anti-inflammatory effects. To study

  6. Microbial content of household dust associated with exhaled NO in asthmatic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Elisabet; Reponen, Tiina; Vesper, Stephen; Levin, Linda; Lockey, James; Ryan, Patrick; Bernstein, David I.; Villareal, Manuel; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana; Schaffer, Chris; LeMasters, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is increasingly used as a non-invasive measure of airway inflammation. Despite this, little information exists regarding the potential effects of indoor microbial components on eNO. We determined the influence of microbial contaminants in house dust and other indoor environmental characteristics on eNO levels in seven-year-olds with and without a physician- diagnosis of asthma. The study included 158 children recruited from a birth cohort study, and 32 were physician-diagnosed as asthmatic. The relationship between eNO levels and exposures to home dust streptomycetes, endotoxin, and molds was investigated. Streptomycetes and endotoxin were analyzed both as loads and concentrations in separate models. Dog, cat, and dust mite allergens also were evaluated. In the multivariate exposure models high streptomycetes loads and concentrations were significantly associated with a decrease in eNO levels in asthmatic (p Dust endotoxin was not significant. The relationship between eNO and indoor exposure to common outdoor molds was u-shaped. In non-asthmatic children, none of the exposure variables were significantly associated with eNO levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating a significant association between microbial components in the indoor environment and eNO levels in asthmatic children. This study demonstrates the importance of simultaneously assessing multiple home exposures of asthmatic children to better understand opposing effects. Common components of the indoor Streptomyces community may beneficially influence airway inflammation. PMID:23807177

  7. Tetrahydrobiopterin, but not L-arginine, decreases NO synthase uncoupling in cells expressing high levels of endothelial NO synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, LM; Braam, B; Post, JA; van Zonneveld, AJ; Rabelink, TJ; Koomans, HA; Verhaar, MC; Joles, JA

    Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) produces superoxide when depleted of (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH4) and L-arginine by uncoupling the electron flow from NO production. High expression of eNOS has been reported to have beneficial effects in atherosclerotic arteries after relatively short

  8. Tetrahydrobiopterin Has a Glucose-Lowering Effect by Suppressing Hepatic Gluconeogenesis in an Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase–Dependent Manner in Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudukadier, Abulizi; Fujita, Yoshihito; Obara, Akio; Ohashi, Akiko; Fukushima, Toru; Sato, Yuichi; Ogura, Masahito; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Hosokawa, Masaya; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction induces insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of eNOS that regulates eNOS activity. In the diabetic state, BH4 is oxidized to 7,8-dihydrobiopterin, which leads to eNOS dysfunction owing to eNOS uncoupling. The current study investigates the effects of BH4 on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice. Single administration of BH4 lowered fasting blood glucose levels in wild-type mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and alleviated eNOS dysfunction by increasing eNOS dimerization in the liver of these mice. Liver has a critical role in glucose-lowering effects of BH4 through suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. BH4 activated AMP kinase (AMPK), and the suppressing effect of BH4 on gluconeogenesis was AMPK-dependent. In addition, the glucose-lowering effect and activation of AMPK by BH4 did not appear in mice with STZ-induced diabetes lacking eNOS. Consecutive administration of BH4 in ob/ob mice ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Taken together, BH4 suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis in an eNOS-dependent manner, and BH4 has a glucose-lowering effect as well as an insulin-sensitizing effect in diabetic mice. BH4 has potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23649519

  9. Six Open Questions about the Migration of Engineered Nano-Objects from Polymer-Based Food Contact Materials: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokar, Maryam; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Löschner, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials in food contact applications has created enormous interest in recent years. The potential migration of engineered nano-objects (ENOs) from food contact materials (FCMs) is one of the most important concerns regarding potential human exposure to ENOs and health risks...

  10. Immunohistochemical localization of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase within neurons of cattle with rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Taekyun; Weinstock, Daniel; Castro, Marlene D; Hamir, Amir N; Wampler, Thomas; Walter, Mark; Kim, Hyun Young; Acland, Helen

    2004-05-01

    The expression of constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) in the brains of cattle with natural rabies was studied. Increased expression of eNOS was detected in neurons of the brain stem and Purkinje cells of cerebellum. By contrast, iNOS was diffusely localized in the cytoplasm of affected neurons, and some inflammatory cells were positive. eNOS and rabies antigen were co-localized in inclusion bodies (Negri bodies) in neurons. The specific localization of eNOS, but not iNOS, in the Negri bodies suggests that eNOS is involved in the formation of rabies virus inclusion bodies.

  11. Buffering airway acid decreases exhaled nitric oxide in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Benjamin; Kelly, Robin; Urban, Peter; Liu, Lei; Henderson, Edward M; Doctor, Allan; Teague, W Gerald; Fitzpatrick, Anne; Erzurum, Serpil; Hunt, John F

    2006-10-01

    The human airway is believed to be acidified in asthma. In an acidic environment nitrite is converted to nitric oxide (NO). We hypothesized that buffering airway lining fluid acid would decrease the fraction of exhaled NO (F(ENO)). We treated 28 adult nonsmoking subjects (9 healthy control subjects, 11 subjects with mild intermittent asthma, and 8 subjects with persistent asthma) with 3 mL of 10 mmol/L phosphate buffered saline (PBS) through a nebulizer and then serially measured F(ENO) levels. Six subjects also received PBS mouthwash alone. F(ENO) levels decreased after buffer inhalation. The maximal decrease occurred between 15 and 30 minutes after treatment; F(ENO) levels returned to pretreatment levels by 60 minutes. The decrease was greatest in subjects with persistent asthma (-7.1 +/- 1.0 ppb); this was more than in those with either mild asthma (-2.9 +/- 0.3 ppb) or healthy control subjects (-1.7 +/- 0.3 ppb, P mouthwash. Neutralizing airway acid decreases F(ENO) levels. The magnitude of this change is greatest in persistent asthma. These data suggest that airway pH is a determinant of F(ENO) levels downstream from NO synthase activation. Airway biochemistry modulates F(ENO) levels. For example, nitrite is converted to NO in the airway, particularly the inflamed airway, by means of acid-based chemistry. Thus airway pH should be considered in interpreting clinical F(ENO) values. In fact, PBS challenge testing integrates airway pH and F(ENO) analysis, potentially improving the utility of F(ENO) as a noninvasive test for the type and severity of asthmatic airway inflammation.

  12. Stereospecific assignments in proteins using exact NOEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orts, Julien; Vögeli, Beat; Riek, Roland, E-mail: roland.riek@phys.chem.ethz.ch [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Güntert, Peter, E-mail: guentert@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry (Germany)

    2013-10-18

    Recently developed methods to measure distances in proteins with high accuracy by “exact” nuclear Overhauser effects (eNOEs) make it possible to determine stereospecific assignments, which are particularly important to fully exploit the accuracy of the eNOE distance measurements. Stereospecific assignments are determined by comparing the eNOE-derived distances to protein structure bundles calculated without stereospecific assignments, or an independently determined crystal structure. The absolute and relative CYANA target function difference upon swapping the stereospecific assignment of a diastereotopic group yields the respective stereospecific assignment. We applied the method to the eNOE data set that has recently been obtained for the third immunoglobulin-binding domain of protein G (GB3). The 884 eNOEs provide relevant data for 47 of the total of 75 diastereotopic groups. Stereospecific assignments could be established for 45 diastereotopic groups (96 %) using the X-ray structure, or for 27 diastereotopic groups (57 %) using structures calculated with the eNOE data set without stereospecific assignments, all of which are in agreement with those determined previously. The latter case is relevant for structure determinations based on eNOEs. The accuracy of the eNOE distance measurements is crucial for making stereospecific assignments because applying the same method to the traditional NOE data set for GB3 with imprecise upper distance bounds yields only 13 correct stereospecific assignments using the X-ray structure or 2 correct stereospecific assignments using NMR structures calculated without stereospecific assignments.

  13. Quantitative detection of nitric oxide in exhaled human breath by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Susu; Tian, Yong; Li, Ming; Zhao, Jiuyan; Zhu, Lanlan; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Haiwei; Wang, Haidong; Shi, Jianbo; Fang, Xiang; Li, Penghui; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a useful biomarker of various physiological conditions, including asthma and other pulmonary diseases. Herein a fast and sensitive analytical method has been developed for the quantitative detection of eNO based on extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS). Exhaled NO molecules selectively reacted with 2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) reagent, and eNO concentration was derived based on the EESI-MS response of 1-oxyl-2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline (PTI) product. The method allowed quantification of eNO below ppb level (~0.02 ppbv) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 11.6%. In addition, eNO levels of 20 volunteers were monitored by EESI-MS over the time period of 10 hrs. Long-term eNO response to smoking a cigarette was recorded, and the observed time-dependent profile was discussed. This work extends the application of EESI-MS to small molecules (mass spectrometers. Long-term quantitative profiling of eNO by EESI-MS opens new possibilities for the research of human metabolism and clinical diagnosis.

  14. The prognostic value of electroneurography of Bell's palsy at the orbicularis oculi versus nasolabial fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Ryu, Eun Woong; Yang, Chul Won; Yeo, Seung Geun; Park, Moon Suh; Byun, Jae Yong

    2016-07-01

    We compared the prognostic value of different placements measured by electroneurography (ENoG) in Bell's palsy, especially among patients with poor results on ENoG. Retrospective study using electrodiagnostic data and medical chart review from August 2006 to June 2013 was performed of patients who were diagnosed with Bell's palsy. We included 81 patients treated from August 2006 to June 2013. Initial and final facial function was established clinically by the House-Brackmann scale. Final state of facial palsy was estimated after 6 months from onset of facial palsy. Patients with less than 10% of ENoG response (more than 90% degeneration) were divided into three groups according to ENoG response by electrode placement as follows: group A, ENoG for orbicularis oculi (oculi) ≥ 10% and ENoG for nasolabial fold (NLF) Bell's palsy than ENoG of the oculi, with poorest results in patients with the NLF < 10%. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1644-1648, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Reduction of FENOby tap water and carbonated water mouthwashes: magnitude and time course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassmann-Klee, Paul Guenther; Lindholm, Tuula; Metsälä, Markus; Halonen, Lauri; Sovijärvi, Anssi Raimo Antero; Piirilä, Päivi

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F ENO ) assesses eosinophilic inflammation of the airways, but F ENO values are also influenced by oral nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this pilot study was to measure F ENO and compare the effect of two different mouthwashes on F ENO and analyse the duration of the effect. F ENO was measured in 12 randomized volunteers (healthy or asthmatic subjects) with a NIOX VERO® analyser at an expiratory flow rate of 50 mL/s. After a baseline measurement, a mouthwash was performed either with tap water or carbonated water and was measured during 20 min in 2 min intervals. The procedure was repeated with the other mouthwash. We found that both mouthwashes reduced F ENO immediately at the beginning compared to the baseline (p mouthwash effect lasted 12 min (p ranging from mouthwash reduced F ENO statistically significantly only for 2 min compared with the baseline. We conclude that a single carbonated water mouthwash can significantly reduce the oropharyngeal NO contribution during a 12 min time interval.

  16. High levels and gender difference of exhaled nitric oxide in Chinese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G W K; Liu, E K H; Leung, T F; Yung, E; Ko, F W S; Hui, D S C; Fok, T F; Lai, C K W

    2005-07-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) may represent a useful noninvasive marker of airway inflammation, but data on the reference population values in schoolchildren are limited. No reference eNO study in Asian children has been published. Levels of eNO in a sample of 531 schoolchildren aged 11-18 years recruited from five schools (three international schools) in Hong Kong were measured online by a chemiluminescence analyser according to ERS/ATS standard. Each student also completed an International Study of Asthma and Allergic disease in Childhood questionnaire. Among the children without a physician's diagnosis of asthma or symptoms of wheeze, rhinitis and eczema, there were 258 Chinese and 33 Caucasians. In control Chinese children, the eNO level (median: interquantile range) was significantly higher (P<0.001) in males (17.0 parts per billion (p.p.b.); 10.7-36.6) than in females (10.8 p.p.b.; 7.8-17.6). When compared with Caucasian control males (11.6 p.p.b.; 8.2-19.3) and females (9.1 p.p.b.; 7.5-11.9), the Chinese children had significantly higher eNO levels for both males (P=0.011) and females (P=0.037). For Chinese asthmatic males, the median eNO (interquartile range) was 39.8 p.p.b. (12.5-73.8), and for asthmatic females, 18.0 (9.6-56.3). After controlling for sex in Chinese controls, eNO did not have any significant correlation with height, weight and body mass index or body surface area. This study demonstrates a gender difference of eNO level in healthy Chinese schoolchildren. When compared with Caucasians, Chinese children have significantly higher eNO levels.

  17. Increased Salt-Sensitivity in Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase-Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Allison M.; Chafe, Linda L.; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Van Vliet, Bruce N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although impaired nitric oxide production contributes importantly to salt-sensitivity, the role of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has received little attention. In the present study we compared the effects of a high-salt diet on the blood pressure response of eNOS knockout (eNOS−/−) and control (eNOS+/+) mice. Methods: Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, pulse pressure, and activity levels were recorded by telemetry in mice fed a regular-salt diet (0...

  18. High order filtering methods for approximating hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafon, F.; Osher, S.

    1991-01-01

    The essentially nonoscillatory (ENO) schemes, while potentially useful in the computation of discontinuous solutions of hyperbolic conservation-law systems, are computationally costly relative to simple central-difference methods. A filtering technique is presented which employs central differencing of arbitrarily high-order accuracy except where a local test detects the presence of spurious oscillations and calls upon the full ENO apparatus to remove them. A factor-of-three speedup is thus obtained over the full-ENO method for a wide range of problems, with high-order accuracy in regions of smooth flow.

  19. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene haplotypes and diabetic nephropathy among Asian Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh; Ahuja, Monica; Rai, Taranjit Singh

    2008-01-01

    of the constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) polymorphisms with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. We genotyped three polymorphisms of eNOS (Two SNPs: -786T > C, 894G > T and one 27-bp repeat polymorphism in Intron 4 (27VNTR)) in type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients (cases: n = 195) and type 2 diabetic...... without nephropathy (controls: n = 255), using validated PCR-RFLP assays. We measured serum NO levels in these subjects and examined its correlation with diabetic nephropathy and eNOS genotypes. The frequency of CC (-786T > C), TT (894G > T) and aa genotypes (27VNTR) were significantly higher in diabetic...

  20. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / Study on a new production process of functional thin films suitable for recycling and its application to colored glasses (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / recycle ni tekishita kinosei usumaku no shinki seizoho to chakushoku glass eno oyo ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1997 result. Using organic pigment and dye, the basic composition of sol-gel colored coating liquid for glass bottles and sheets was selected to clarify characteristics of gel films. Moreover, chemical modification and optical sensitivity of metallic alkoxide were studied to obtain a trially produced colored glass bottle use coating liquid. As to sheet glass, strength of the gel film is low, which requires further improvement. In relation to optical sensitive gel films, the reaction of various metallic alkoxides and {beta}-diketones was discussed to clarify chemical reactivity with utltaviolet rays. Trial design was also conducted of the coating equipment. The paper examined by literature the present status of recycling systems of colored glass bottles and the technical development in European countries. The problem is a method to wash colored bottles for sterilization. To make colored films durable, it is necessary to form films by organic-inorganic hybrid thin films. Also discussed was a possibility of changing the washing method by administrative guidance. 27 refs., 62 figs., 42 tabs.

  1. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium field / Development of technology to treat aquatic environment by using microorganisms fixed on carbon fabrics (abbreviation: carbon/aquatic environment project) (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium bun`ya / tanso sen`i nansoshiki eno biseibutsu kochaku gensho wo riyoshita mizukankyo seibi gijutsu no kaihatsu (ryakusho: tanso mizu kankyo project) daiichi nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Out of the development of technology to arrange the aquatic environment using phenomena of microorganism fixation on carbon fiber soft textures, the paper stated the fiscal 1997 result. On carbon fibers in a state of swaying in water, microorganisms in water fix in an amazingly large quantity. A catalog was compiled of 58 kinds of carbon fabrics trially woven and knitted. When carbon fiber is used as activated sludge carrier, activity of microorganism lasts more than one year. Only a little amount of surplus sludge is generated. The fixed microorganisms are more active in case of carbon fiber than in case of nylon and polyester fibers. Fiber texture models of carbon fiber fixing activated sludge groups were proposed. By pump operation, the water flow inside/outside microorganism groups is being accelerated. Several new strains of bacillus carboniphilus were isolated/identified from soil and marsh. To grasp relationships of characteristics among three elements such as the state of aquatic environment, fiber, and microorganism group, the experiment was prepared. Preliminary work is conducted to derive a simple equation for facility design, and experimental directions to obtain design conditions were proposed. 6 refs., 166 figs., 47 tabs.

  2. Study on application of single-crystal ice 'Kurobe ice column' to high-speed skating rinks. Demonstration test result at Olympic memorial arena 'M wave' in Nagano city. Tankesshohyo 'Kurobe no hyojun' no kosoku skate link eno tekiyosei kenkyu. Naganoshi olympic kinen arina 'Emu Wave' deno jissho shiken kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, M. (Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1999-06-10

    For high-speed low-friction skating rinks, research was made on sticking artificial ice columns (ice bamboo shoot). The ice columns were fabricated with the ice column production equipment equipped with 4-line water droplet dropping devices which were installed at intervals of 0.3m on both sides of a pathway of 200m long, 2.6m wide and 1.8m high in the lateral adit of Kurobegawa No.4 hydroelectric power station. The grown ice columns were processed for high-speed skating rinks through cutting, confirmation of single crystal and crystal orientation, slicing for every 7mm thickness and packaging. The ice columns were spread all over the rink while sliding them to prevent mixing of bubbles after spraying distilled water of nearly 25 degreesC onto base ices. In addition, hot water of nearly 40 degreesC was sprayed to produce the final ice rink of 30mm thick by nearly 5mm a day. The dynamic friction coefficient of the ice column rink reduced to 0.0038 by nearly 16% as compared with 0.0045 of conventional rinks. (NEDO)

  3. Differential expression of monocyte CD163 in single- and dual-asthmatic responders during allergen-induced bronchoconstriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, K; Møller, H J; Dubuske, L M

    2006-01-01

    a chemiluminescence analyser. In 21 DR, nine SR and 13 NR-soluble CD163 in plasma was measured by ELISA before, 1, 8 and 24 h after the challenge. RESULTS: In DR, the baseline expression of monocyte CD163 and eNO were significantly greater than in SR and NR. A pattern of (1) decreased monocyte CD163 expression, (2......) unchanged sCD163 and (3) increased eNO in DR was contrasted by a pattern of (1) increased CD163 expression, (2) increased sCD163 and (3) unchanged eNO in SR. During allergen challenge, the changes in monocyte CD163 expression and sCD163 inversely correlated with the changes in eNO. CONCLUSION: Both pro...

  4. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  5. Tamaulipan Brushland of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of South Texas: Description, Human Impacts, and Management Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    aculeata); granj eno (Celtis pallida ); huisache (Acacia srnallii); prickly pear (Opuntia lindheimeri); and mesquite ( Prosopis glaiidulosa) - although prevalence of one mesquite may be due to human land abuse (Archer et al. 1988).

  6. EFFECT OF ARSENICALS ON CELL CYCLE DISTRIBUTION AND EXPRESSION OF CELL CYCLE PROTEINS IN HUMAN PRIMARY KERATINOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental exposure to arsenic is a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between levels of arsenic in drinking water and incidence of cancers of skin, lung, bladder and peripheral and cerebro vascular diseases. Despite eno...

  7. Prognostic factors of Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhengyi; Li, Huijing; Wang, Xun; Niu, Xiaoting; Ni, Peiqi; Zhang, Wanli; Shao, Bei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare clinical characteristics, electroneurography (ENoG) results, and functional outcomes of patients with Bell's palsy (BP) and Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS). Around 57 patients with BP and 23 patients with RHS were enrolled in this study from January 2010 and September 2015. Both clinical characteristics and ENoG results were recorded at hospital admission. The evaluations of functional outcomes were conducted with House–Brackmann (H-B) grading system at 6-month follow-up. There were no significant differences in age, gender proportion, initial H-B grades, time before commencement of treatment and the presence of comorbid disease in 2 groups. However, the final H-B grades at 6-month follow-up were significantly better in BP patients than RHS patients. The results of ENoG showed that degeneration index (DI) was significantly higher in the RHS group than the BP group. But no significant difference was found in the value of prolonged latency time (PLT) between the 2 groups. In multivariate analysis, age and ENoG DI were independently associated with functional outcome of recovery in the BP group (OR 0.167, 95% CI 0.038–0.622, P = 0.009 and OR 0.289 95% CI 0.107–0.998, P = 0.050, respectively). However, in the RHS group, only ENoG DI was related to the final H-B grades (OR 0.067, 95% CI 0.005–0.882, P = 0.040). Spearman's rank correlation analysis showed that higher age and ENoG DI were related to poorer prognosis in 2 groups (P < 0.05). PLT was related to functional outcomes only in the BP group (rs = 0.460, P < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of ENoG DI analysis revealed that the cutoff value was 67.0% for BP prognosis and 64.5% for RHS prognosis. What's more, patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus had both higher final H-B grade and ENoG DI than those without the same comorbidity. Patients with RHS had poorer prognosis than those with BP. Some factors including age

  8. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, JM; Bivalacqua, TJ; Lagoda, GA; Burnett, AL; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 ...

  9. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, B?rbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in ...

  10. Oral Immunization Against Candidiasis Using Lactobacillus casei Displaying Enolase 1 from Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Karasaki, Miki; Tafuku, Senji; Aoki, Wataru; Sewaki, Tomomitsu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Candidiasis is a common fungal infection that is prevalent in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, an oral vaccine against Candida albicans was developed by using the molecular display approach. Enolase 1 protein (Eno1p) of C. albicans was expressed on the Lactobacillus casei cell surface by using poly-gamma-glutamic acid synthetase complex A from Bacillus subtilis as an anchoring protein. The Eno1p-displaying L. casei cells were used to immunize mice, which were later chall...

  11. An injectable elastin-based gene delivery platform for dose-dependent modulation of angiogenesis and inflammation for critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Biraja C; Thomas, Dilip; Monaghan, Michael; Carroll, Oliver; Chen, Xizhe; Woodhouse, Kimberly; O'Brien, Timothy; Pandit, Abhay

    2015-10-01

    Critical limb ischemia is a major clinical problem. Despite rigorous treatment regimes, there has been only modest success in reducing the rate of amputations in affected patients. Reduced level of blood flow and enhanced inflammation are the two major pathophysiological changes that occur in the ischemic tissue. The objective of this study was to develop a controlled dual gene delivery system capable of delivering therapeutic plasmid eNOS and IL-10 in a temporal manner. In order to deliver multiple therapeutic genes, an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) based injectable system was designed. The injectable system was comprised of hollow spheres and an in situ-forming gel scaffold of elastin-like polypeptide capable of carrying gene complexes, with an extended manner release profile. In addition, the ELP based injectable system was used to deliver human eNOS and IL-10 therapeutic genes in vivo. A subcutaneous dose response study showed enhanced blood vessel density in the treatment groups of eNOS (20 μg) and IL-10 (10 μg)/eNOS (20 μg) and reduced inflammation with IL-10 (10 μg) alone. Next, we carried out a hind-limb ischemia model comparing the efficacy of the following interventions; Saline; IL-10, eNOS and IL-10/eNOS. The selected dose of eNOS, exhibited enhanced angiogenesis. IL-10 treatment groups showed reduction in the level of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that eNOS up-regulated major proangiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factors, platelet derived growth factor B, and fibroblast growth factor 1, which may explain the mechanism of this approach. These factors help in formation of a stable vascular network. Thus, ELP injectable system mediating non-viral delivery of human IL10-eNOS is a promising therapy towards treating limb ischemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Value of electroneurography as a prognostic indicator for recovery in acute severe inflammatory facial paralysis: a prospective study of Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hayoung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Chung, Kyu Whan; Hwang, Soojin; Chung, Won-Ho; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of electroneuronography (ENoG) in acute severe inflammatory facial paralysis, including Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS). Prospective observational study. Patients with acute severe facial paralysis of House-Brackmann (H-B) grade IV or worse and diagnosed with Bell's palsy or RHS were enrolled from August 2007 to July 2011. After treatment with oral corticosteroid, antiviral agent, and protective eye care, patients were followed up until recovery or 12 months from onset. Sixty-six patients with Bell's palsy and 22 with RHS were included. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant effect of ENoG value on recovery in both Bell's palsy and RHS. Values of ENoG were significantly worse in RHS than Bell's palsy. Chance of early recovery within 6 weeks after correction of ENoG effect was still significantly worse in RHS. Logistic regression analysis showed 90% chance of recovery within 6 months, expected with ENoG values of 69.2% degeneration (Bell's palsy) and 59.3% (RHS). The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves showed ENoG values of 82.5% (Bell's palsy) and 78.0% (RHS) as a critical cutoff value of nonrecovery until 1 year, with the best sensitivity and specificity. A higher chance of recovery was expected with better ENoG in Bell's palsy and RHS. Based on our data, nonrecovery is predicted in patients with ENoG value greater than 82.5% in Bell's palsy, and 78% in RHS. 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Estrogen-dependent dynamic profile of eNOS-DNA associations in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Nanni

    Full Text Available In previous work we have documented the nuclear translocation of endothelial NOS (eNOS and its participation in combinatorial complexes with Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ and Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs that determine localized chromatin remodeling in response to estrogen (E2 and hypoxia stimuli, resulting in transcriptional regulation of genes associated with adverse prognosis in prostate cancer (PCa. To explore the role of nuclear eNOS in the acquisition of aggressive phenotype in PCa, we performed ChIP-Sequencing on chromatin-associated eNOS from cells from a primary tumor with poor outcome and from metastatic LNCaP cells. We found that: 1. the eNOS-bound regions (peaks are widely distributed across the genome encompassing multiple transcription factors binding sites, including Estrogen Response Elements. 2. E2 increased the number of peaks, indicating hormone-dependent eNOS re-localization. 3. Peak distribution was similar with/without E2 with ≈ 55% of them in extragenic DNA regions and an intriguing involvement of the 5' domain of several miRs deregulated in PCa. Numerous potentially novel eNOS-targeted genes have been identified suggesting that eNOS participates in the regulation of large gene sets. The parallel finding of downregulation of a cluster of miRs, including miR-34a, in PCa cells associated with poor outcome led us to unveil a molecular link between eNOS and SIRT1, an epigenetic regulator of aging and tumorigenicity, negatively regulated by miR-34a and in turn activating eNOS. E2 potentiates miR-34a downregulation thus enhancing SIRT1 expression, depicting a novel eNOS/SIRT1 interplay fine-tuned by E2-activated ER signaling, and suggesting that eNOS may play an important role in aggressive PCa.

  14. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase: a potential therapeutic target for cerebrovascular diseases.

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    Zhu, Jinqiang; Song, Wanshan; Li, Lin; Fan, Xiang

    2016-03-22

    Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is a significant signaling molecule that regulates cerebral blood flow (CBF), playing a pivotal role in the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. However, achieving the expected therapeutic efficacy is difficult using direct administration of NO donors. Therefore, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) becomes a potential therapeutic target for cerebrovascular diseases. This review summarizes the current evidence supporting the importance of CBF to cerebrovascular function, and the roles of NO and eNOS in CBF regulation.

  15. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae enolase-related regions encode proteins that are active enolases.

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    Kornblatt, M J; Richard Albert, J; Mattie, S; Zakaib, J; Dayanandan, S; Hanic-Joyce, P J; Joyce, P B M

    2013-02-01

    In addition to two genes (ENO1 and ENO2) known to code for enolase (EC4.2.1.11), the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome contains three enolase-related regions (ERR1, ERR2 and ERR3) which could potentially encode proteins with enolase function. Here, we show that products of these genes (Err2p and Err3p) have secondary and quaternary structures similar to those of yeast enolase (Eno1p). In addition, Err2p and Err3p can convert 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate, with kinetic parameters similar to those of Eno1p, suggesting that these proteins could function as enolases in vivo. To address this possibility, we overexpressed the ERR2 and ERR3 genes individually in a double-null yeast strain lacking ENO1 and ENO2, and showed that either ERR2 or ERR3 could complement the growth defect in this strain when cells are grown in medium with glucose as the carbon source. Taken together, these data suggest that the ERR genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode a protein that could function in glycolysis as enolase. The presence of these enolase-related regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their absence in other related yeasts suggests that these genes may play some unique role in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Further experiments will be required to determine whether these functions are related to glycolysis or other cellular processes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Gastro-oesophageal reflux, eosinophilic airway inflammation and chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Adalberto; Faro, Vicenta; Cobeta, Ignacio; Royuela, Ana; Molyneux, Ian; Morice, Alyn H

    2011-08-01

    Patients with eosinophilic airway inflammation (EAI) often show a therapeutic response to corticosteroids. Non-invasive methods of diagnosing EAI are potentially useful in guiding therapy, particularly in conditions such as chronic cough, for which corticosteroids may not be the first-line treatment. The value of exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) in the diagnosis of EAI was prospectively investigated in a cohort of 116 patients with chronic cough of varying aetiology. An optimum cut-off value was derived for differentiating between EAI and non-EAI causes of chronic cough. As the diagnosis was gastro-oesophageal reflux in 70 patients (60.3% of the total), the possible relationship between ENO and EAI in the presence or absence of reflux was subsequently investigated. The optimum value of ENO for differentiating EAI (32% of patients) from non-EAI causes of cough was 33 parts per billion (sensitivity 60.5%, specificity 84.6%). In the subgroup of patients with reflux, ENO was highly specific for the diagnosis of EAI (sensitivity 66%, specificity 100%). Conversely, in the patients without reflux, ENO did not discriminate between cough due to EAI or other causes (sensitivity 100%, specificity 28.9%). These results suggest that the presence or absence of reflux should be taken into consideration when interpreting ENO measurements in the diagnosis of chronic cough associated with EAI. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. Facial nerve paralysis associated with temporal bone masses.

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    Nishijima, Hironobu; Kondo, Kenji; Kagoya, Ryoji; Iwamura, Hitoshi; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the clinical and electrophysiological features of facial nerve paralysis (FNP) due to benign temporal bone masses (TBMs) and elucidate its differences as compared with Bell's palsy. FNP assessed by the House-Brackmann (HB) grading system and by electroneurography (ENoG) were compared retrospectively. We reviewed 914 patient records and identified 31 patients with FNP due to benign TBMs. Moderate FNP (HB Grades II-IV) was dominant for facial nerve schwannoma (FNS) (n=15), whereas severe FNP (Grades V and VI) was dominant for cholesteatomas (n=8) and hemangiomas (n=3). The average ENoG value was 19.8% for FNS, 15.6% for cholesteatoma, and 0% for hemangioma. Analysis of the correlation between HB grade and ENoG value for FNP due to TBMs and Bell's palsy revealed that given the same ENoG value, the corresponding HB grade was better for FNS, followed by cholesteatoma, and worst in Bell's palsy. Facial nerve damage caused by benign TBMs could depend on the underlying pathology. Facial movement and ENoG values did not correlate when comparing TBMs and Bell's palsy. When the HB grade is found to be unexpectedly better than the ENoG value, TBMs should be included in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Oleic acid increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in cultured endothelial cells.

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    Gremmels, Hendrik; Bevers, Lonneke M; Fledderus, Joost O; Braam, Branko; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Verhaar, Marianne C; Joles, Jaap A

    2015-03-15

    Elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This may be related to FFA-induced elevation of oxidative stress in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that, in addition to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated reactive oxygen species production contributes to oleic acid (OA)-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells, due to eNOS uncoupling. We measured reactive oxygen species production and eNOS activity in cultured endothelial cells (bEnd.3) in the presence of OA bound to bovine serum albumin, using the CM-H2DCFDA assay and the L-arginine/citrulline conversion assay, respectively. OA induced a concentration-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species production, which was inhibited by the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA). OA had little effect on eNOS activity when stimulated by a calcium-ionophore, but decreased both basal and insulin-induced eNOS activity, which was restored by TTFA. Pretreatment of bEnd.3 cells with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) prevented OA-induced reactive oxygen species production and restored inhibition of eNOS activity by OA. Elevation of OA levels leads to both impairment in receptor-mediated stimulation of eNOS and to production of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species and hence endothelial dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Telmisartan activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase via Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells.

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    Masahiro Myojo

    Full Text Available Because endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS has anti-inflammatory and anti-arteriosclerotic functions, it has been recognized as one of the key molecules essential for the homeostatic control of blood vessels other than relaxation of vascular tone. Here, we examined whether telmisartan modulates eNOS function through its pleiotropic effect. Administration of telmisartan to mice significantly increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS (Ser1177 in the aortic endothelium, but administration of valsartan had no effect. Similarly, telmisartan treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (Thr172 and eNOS and the concentration of intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP. Furthermore, pretreatment with a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK inhibitor suppressed the increased phosphorylation level of eNOS and intracellular cGMP concentration. These data show that telmisartan increases eNOS activity through Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells mainly via p38 MAPK signaling.

  20. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates estrogen-induced nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Akira; Ohmichi, Masahide; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Toshifumi; Mori-Abe, Akiko; Kawagoe, Jun; Otsu, Reiko; Mochizuki, Yoshiko; Inaba, Noriyuki; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2004-01-01

    We report the novel observation that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) attenuates the induction by 17β estradiol (E2) of both nitric oxide (NO) production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Although MPA had no effect on basal NO production or basal eNOS phosphorylation or activity, it attenuated the E2-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and activity. Moreover, we examined the mechanism by which MPA attenuated the E2-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. MPA attenuated the E2-induced phosphorylation of Akt, a kinase that phosphorylates eNOS. Treatment with pure progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist RU486 completely abolished the inhibitory effect of MPA on E2-induced Akt phosphorylation and eNOS phosphorylation. In addition, the effects of actinomycin D were tested to rule out the influence of genomic events mediated by nuclear PRs. Actinomycin D did not affect the inhibitory effect of MPA on E2-induced Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, the potential roles of PRA and PRB were evaluated. In COS cells transfected with either PRA or PRB, MPA attenuated E2-induced Akt phosphorylation. These results indicate that MPA attenuated E2-induced NO production via an Akt cascade through PRA or PRB in a non-genomic manner

  1. Role of heat shock protein 90 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase during early anesthetic and ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Julien; Brzezinska, Anna K; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Billstrom, Amie R; Zielonka, Jacek; Krolikowski, John G; Bienengraeber, Martin W; Warltier, David C; Pratt, Philip F; Kersten, Judy R

    2009-02-01

    Nitric oxide is known to be essential for early anesthetic preconditioning (APC) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) of myocardium. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that Hsp90-eNOS interactions modulate APC and IPC. Myocardial infarct size was measured in rabbits after coronary occlusion and reperfusion in the absence or presence of preconditioning within 30 min of isoflurane (APC) or 5 min of coronary artery occlusion (IPC), and with or without pretreatment with geldanamycin or radicicol, two chemically distinct Hsp90 inhibitors, or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nonspecific nitric oxide synthase NOS inhibitor. Isoflurane-dependent nitric oxide production was measured (ozone chemiluminescence) in human coronary artery endothelial cells or mouse cardiomyocytes, in the absence or presence of Hsp90 inhibitors or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Interactions between Hsp90 and eNOS, and eNOS activation, were assessed with immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and confocal microscopy. APC and IPC decreased infarct size (by 50% and 59%, respectively), and this action was abolished by Hsp90 inhibitors. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester blocked APC but not IPC. Isoflurane increased nitric oxide production in human coronary artery endothelial cells concomitantly with an increase in Hsp90-eNOS interaction (immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry). Pretreatment with Hsp90 inhibitors abolished isoflurane-dependent nitric oxide production and decreased Hsp90-eNOS interactions. Isoflurane did not increase nitric oxide production in mouse cardiomyocytes, and eNOS was below the level of detection. The results indicate that Hsp90 plays a critical role in mediating APC and IPC through protein-protein interactions, and suggest that endothelial cells are important contributors to nitric oxide-mediated signaling during APC.

  2. Immune response induced by oral delivery of Bacillus subtilis spores expressing enolase of Clonorchis sinensis in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongye; Chen, Tingjin; Sun, Hengchang; Tang, Zeli; Yu, Jinyun; Lin, Zhipeng; Ren, Pengli; Zhou, Xinyi; Huang, Yan; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

    2017-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish containing infective metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensisis (C.sinensis), remains a common public health problem. New effective prevention strategies are still urgent to control this food-borne infectious disease. The previous studies suggested Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spores was an ideal vaccines delivery system, and the C.sinensis enolase (CsENO) was a potential vaccine candidate against clonorchiasis. In the current study, we detected CsENO-specific IgM levels by ELISA in sera, intestinal mucus and skin mucus in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idella) through oral administration with B. subtilis spores surface expressing CsENO. In addition, immune-related genes expression was also measured by qRT-PCR. Grass carps orally treated with B. subtilis spores or normal forages were used as controls. The results of ELISA manifested that specific IgM levels of grass carps in CsENO group in sera, intestine mucus and skin mucus almost significantly increased from week 4 post the first oral administration when compared to the two control groups. The levels of specific IgM reached its peak in intestine mucus firstly, then in sera, and last in skin mucus. qRT-PCR results showed that 5 immune-related genes expression had different degree of rising trend in CsENO group when compared to the two control groups. Our study demonstrated that orally administrated with B. subtilis spores expressing CsENO induced innate and adaptive immunity, systemic and local mucosal immunity, and humoral and cellular immunity. Our work may pave the way to clarify the exact mechanisms of protective efficacy elicited by B. subtilis spores expressing CsENO and provide new ideas for vaccine development against C. sinensis infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, Bärbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in venous and lung tissue and to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57Bl/6 mice underwent voluntary exercise or forced physical activity. Changes of vascular mRNA and protein levels and activity of eNOS, ecSOD and catalase were determined in aorta, heart, lung and vena cava. Both training protocols similarly increased relative heart weight and resulted in up-regulation of aortic and myocardial eNOS. In striking contrast, eNOS expression in vena cava and lung remained unchanged. Likewise, exercise up-regulated ecSOD in the aorta and in left ventricular tissue but remained unchanged in lung tissue. Catalase expression in lung tissue and vena cava of exercised mice exceeded that in aorta by 6.9- and 10-fold, respectively, suggesting a lack of stimulatory effects of hydrogen peroxide. In accordance, treatment of mice with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole for 6 weeks resulted in significant up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD in vena cava. These data suggest that physiological venous catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD. Furthermore, therapeutic inhibition of vascular catalase might improve pulmonary rehabilitation. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide inhibits endothelin-1 in endothelial cell by repressing nuclear factor-kappa B activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yao; Mehta, Jawahar L; Chen, Mingwei

    2013-10-01

    The increase in endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) both induce vasoconstriction and lead to molecular changes associated with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) activation stimulates insulin secretion and may prevent atherosclerosis by increasing eNOS synthesis. However, there is paucity of information on the effect of GLP-1 activation on ET-1 expression. This study was conducted to address this issue. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with different concentrations of liraglutide, a GLP-1 agonist, and the expression of ET-1 and eNOS and activity of NF-κB were measured. Liraglutide, in a concentration-dependent manner, was observed to promote eNOS expression and to inhibit ET-1 expression both at mRNA and protein levels. Liraglutide also inhibited NF-κB phosphorylation and its translocation from cytoplasm to the nucleus. To ascertain the role of NF-κB activation in the altered expression of ET-1 and eNOS, we treated HUVECs with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). PMA activated NF-κB and reversed the effects of liraglutide on eNOS and ET-1 expression. The effects of PMA on eNOS and ET-1 expression were reproduced in experiments wherein cells were treated with TNF-α. Further, we measured the generation of IL-6, apowerful pro-inflammatory molecule released by endothelial cells, as a measure of cellular function. PMA increased IL-6 generation, and this effect was blocked by liraglutide. Our observations suggest liraglutide suppresses ET-1 expression by inhibiting the phosphorylation of NF-κB. This mechanism may underlie the potential anti-atherosclerotic effects of GLP-1 agonists. Of note, these effects of liraglutide were seen in an in vitro setting wherein cellular glucose concentrations were elevated.

  5. Comparison of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Electroneuronography Between Bell's Palsy and Ramsay Hunt Syndrome in Their Acute Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Dong Min; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Jung Mi; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yong, Sang Yeol; Shinn, Jong Mock; Oh, Kyung Joon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the neurophysiologic status in patients with idiopathic facial nerve palsy (Bell's palsy) and Ramsay Hunt syndrome (herpes zoster oticus) within 7 days from onset of symptoms, by comparing the amplitude of compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) of facial muscles in electroneuronography (ENoG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods The facial nerve conduction study using ENoG and TMS was performed in 42 patients with Bell's palsy and 14 patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome within 7 days from onset of symptoms. Denervation ratio was calculated as CMAP amplitude evoked by ENoG or TMS on the affected side as percentage of the amplitudes on the healthy side. The severity of the facial palsy was graded according to House-Brackmann facial grading scale (H-B FGS). Results In all subjects, the denervation ratio in TMS (71.53±18.38%) was significantly greater than the denervation ratio in ENoG (41.95±21.59%). The difference of denervation ratio between ENoG and TMS was significantly smaller in patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome than in patients with Bell's palsy. The denervation ratio of ENoG or TMS did not correlated significantly with the H-B FGS. Conclusion In the electrophysiologic study for evaluation in patients with facial palsy within 7 days from onset of symptoms, ENoG and TMS are useful in gaining additional information about the neurophysiologic status of the facial nerve and may help to evaluate prognosis and set management plan. PMID:23525840

  6. Response of cardiac endothelial nitric oxide synthase to plasma viscosity modulation in acute isovolemic hemodilution

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    Kanyanatt Kanokwiroon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS is generally expressed in endocardial cells, vascular endothelial cells and ventricular myocytes. However, there is no experimental study elucidating the relationship between cardiac eNOS expression and elevated plasma viscosity in low oxygen delivery pathological conditions such as hemorrhagic shock-resuscitation and hemodilution. This study tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma viscosity increases cardiac eNOS expression in a hemodilution model, leading to positive effects on cardiac performance. Materials and Methods: Two groups of golden Syrian hamster underwent an acute isovolemic hemodilution where 40% of blood volume was exchanged with 2% (low-viscogenic plasma expander [LVPE] or 6% (high-viscogenic plasma expander [HVPE] of dextran 2000 kDa. In control group, experiment was performed without hemodilution. All groups were performed in awake condition. Experimental parameters, i.e., mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, heart rate, hematocrit, blood gas content and viscosity, were measured. The eNOS expression was evaluated by eNOS Western blot analysis. Results: After hemodilution, MAP decreased to 72% and 93% of baseline in the LVPE and HVPE, respectively. Furthermore, pO 2 in the LVPE group increased highest among the groups. Plasma viscosity in the HVPE group was significantly higher than that in control and LVPE groups. The expression of eNOS in the HVPE group showed higher intensity compared to other groups, especially compared with the control group. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that cardiac eNOS has responded to plasma viscosity modulation with HVPE and LVPE. This particularly supports the previous studies that revealed the positive effects on cardiac function in animals hemodiluted with HVPE.

  7. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular damage in hypertensive subjects: an Italian case-control study

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    Pizzo Federica

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO synthesized by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS plays an important role in regulation of endothelial function and in the control of blood pressure. However, the results from some studies on the association between three clinically relevant eNOS gene polymorphisms (G894T, T786C and intron 4b/a and essential hypertension are unclear. We designed a case-control study to evaluate the influence of eNOS polymorphisms on target organ damage in 127 hypertensives and 67 normotensives. Clinical evaluation, biochemical parameters, Urinary Albumin Excretion (UAE and echocardiogram were performed to characterize target organ damage. eNOS polymorphism were recognized by PCR method. Results The distribution of eNOS genotypes was similar in hypertensives and normotensives but 4aa was present in the 2.5% of hypertensives and completely absent in normotensives. Subjects with 4bb, G894T, and T786C genotypes showed an increased prevalence of target organ damage. Moreover prevalence of G894T and introne 4 variants was significantly higher in hypertensives than in normotensives both with cardiovascular damage. Logistic regression analysis didn't show any association between eNOS polymorphisms, Body Mass Index (BMI, hypertension, gender and cardiovascular damage. Only the age (OR 1.11; IC 95% 1.06–1.18 was predictive of cardiovascular damage in our population. Conclusion Our results seem to indicate a lack of association with eNOS variants and cardiovascular damage onset.

  8. Exercise-Induced Changes in Exhaled NO Differentiates Asthma With or Without Fixed Airway Obstruction From COPD With Dynamic Hyperinflation.

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    Huang, Shu-Yi; Chou, Pai-Chien; Wang, Tsai-Yu; Lo, Yu-Lun; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Chung, Kian Fan; Wang, Chun-Hua; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2016-04-01

    Asthmatic patients with fixed airway obstruction (FAO) and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) share similarities in terms of irreversible pulmonary function impairment. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) has been documented as a marker of airway inflammation in asthma, but not in COPD. To examine whether the basal eNO level and the change after exercise may differentiate asthmatics with FAO from COPD, 27 normal subjects, 60 stable asthmatics, and 62 stable COPD patients were studied. Asthmatics with FAO (n = 29) were defined as showing a postbronchodilator FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ≤70% and FEV1 less than 80% predicted after inhaled salbutamol (400 μg). COPD with dynamic hyperinflation (n = 31) was defined as a decrease in inspiratory capacity (ΔIC%) after a 6 minute walk test (6MWT). Basal levels of eNO were significantly higher in asthmatics and COPD patients compared to normal subjects. The changes in eNO after 6MWT were negatively correlated with the percent change in IC (r = -0.380, n = 29, P = 0.042) in asthmatics with FAO. Their levels of basal eNO correlated with the maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF % predicted) before and after 6MWT. In COPD patients with air-trapping, the percent change of eNO was positively correlated to ΔIC% (rs = 0.404, n = 31, P = 0.024). We conclude that asthma with FAO may represent residual inflammation in the airways, while dynamic hyperinflation in COPD may retain NO in the distal airspace. eNO changes after 6MWT may differentiate the subgroups of asthma or COPD patients and will help toward delivery of individualized therapy for airflow obstruction.

  9. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hien, Tran Thi [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Myung Ho [Heart Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Tae Cheon, E-mail: taecheon@ynu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-{alpha} induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  10. AVE3085, an enhancer of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, restores endothelial function and reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Xue, Hong-Mei; Wong, Wing-Tak; Tian, Xiao-Yu; Huang, Yu; Tsui, Stephen KW; Ng, Patrick KS; Wohlfart, Paulus; Li, Huige; Xia, Ning; Tobias, Silke; Underwood, Malcolm John; He, Guo-Wei

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in endothelial function, and impaired NO production is involved in hypertension. Therefore, compounds that regulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) may be of therapeutic benefit. A novel, low molecular weight compound AVE3085 is a recently developed compound with the ability to enhance eNOS transcription. The present study investigated the effects of AVE3085 in endothelial dysfunction associated with hypertension. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with AVE 3085 (10 mg·kg·day−1, orally) for 4 weeks. Isometric force measurement was performed on rings of isolated aortae in organ baths. Protein expression of eNOS, phosphorylated-eNOS and nitrotyrosine in the aortae were examined by Western blotting. mRNA for eNOS in rat aortae were examined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). KEY RESULTS AVE3085 greatly improved endothelium-dependent relaxations in the aortae of SHRs. This functional change was accompanied by up-regulated expression of eNOS protein and mRNA, enhanced eNOS phosphorylation and decreased formation of nitrotyrosine. Furthermore, AVE3085 treatment reduced the blood pressure in SHR without affecting that of hypertensive eNOS−/− mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The eNOS-transcription enhancer AVE3085 restored impaired endothelial function in a hypertensive model. The present study provides a solid basis for the potential development of eNOS-targeting drugs to restore down-regulated eNOS, as a new strategy in hypertension. PMID:21385179

  11. C38. Óxido nítrico exalado e provas funcionais respiratórias num rastreio de asma

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    J. Fonseca

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico de asma é fundamentalmente clínico, no entanto, a utilização de medidas de função pulmonar e de inflamação brônquica poderá ser útil.Pretendemos avaliar a utilização destas medidas na distinção de indivíduos com e sem asma, num rastreio com voluntários adultos recrutados através dos media. Cada indivíduo realizou medição da fracção de óxido nítrico exalado (eNO, AerocrineÒ, espirometria com broncodilatação (PFRBD e questionário de despiste e impacto da asma (QVA, ACAAI.Dos 61 incluídos, 38% eram homens, tinham idade de 46±16 anos (média±dp, queixas nasais 79%; fumadores 20%; QVA 10±5; eNO 34,6±41,3 ppb; FEV1 previsto 102±16% e fev1/fvc 96±13% A medição do eNO demorou entre 2,3 e 11,6 minutos (mediana 4,8. Foram efectuadas 317 manobras (165 válidas para medição no eNO (por doente entre 3-9; mediana -5.Considerando as normas da ATS, 48(79% indivíduos tiveram uma medição correcta de eNO e 39(64% de PFRBD.Considerando os critérios diagnósticos para as PFRBD do GINA e um cut-off de 20 ppb para o eNO, foram identificados como asmáticos respectivamente 45% e 46% dos doentes com QVA ³13. A utilização de PFRBD e do eNO numa avaliação de despiste de asma é exequível e útil mas actualmente insuficiente para um diagnóstico adequado. : The asthma diagnosis is primarily based on clinical data, sometimes, however, objective measures are useful. We aimed to study the use of Exhaled Nitric Oxide (eNO and spirometry before and after inhaled albuterol (PFT in asthma screening of adult volunteers recruited through media announcements. Each individual also answered structured questionnaires including the LQ Test (ACAAI, a valid test for asthma screening and disease impact.Sixty one patients were analyzed, 38% were men, with mean±SD age of 46±16 years, nasal symptoms 79%; smokers 20%; LQ 10±5; eNO 34.6±41.3 ppb; FEV1 % predicted 102±16% e fev1/fvc 96±13%.The eNO measurement duration

  12. Next Generation Immunotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: DNA Vaccination is Seeking New Combo Partners

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    Paola Cappello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDA is an almost incurable radio- and chemo-resistant tumor, and its microenvironment is characterized by a strong desmoplastic reaction associated with a significant infiltration of T regulatory lymphocytes and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Tregs, MDSC. Investigating immunological targets has identified a number of metabolic and cytoskeletal related molecules, which are typically recognized by circulating antibodies. Among these molecules we have investigated alpha-enolase (ENO1, a glycolytic enzyme that also acts a plasminogen receptor. ENO1 is also recognized by T cells in PDA patients, so we developed a DNA vaccine that targets ENO1. This efficiently induces many immunological processes (antibody formation and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC-mediated tumor killing, infiltration of effector T cells, reduction of infiltration of myeloid and Treg suppressor cells, which significantly increase the survival of genetically engineered mice that spontaneously develop pancreatic cancer. Although promising, the ENO1 DNA vaccine does not completely eradicate the tumor, which, after an initial growth inhibition, returns to proliferate again, especially when Tregs and MDSC ensue in the tumor mass. This led us to develop possible strategies for combinatorial treatments aimed to broaden and sustain the antitumor immune response elicited by DNA vaccination. Based on the data we have obtained in recent years, this review will discuss the biological bases of possible combinatorial treatments (chemotherapy, PI3K inhibitors, tumor-associated macrophages, ENO1 inhibitors that could be effective in amplifying the response induced by the immune vaccination in PDA.

  13. Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide with the single-breath technique and positive expiratory pressure in infants.

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    Wildhaber, J H; Hall, G L; Stick, S M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt the single-breath technique with positive expiratory pressure to measure exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in infants. We hypothesized that exhaled eNO was greater in wheezy than in healthy infants. We studied 30 infants (16 wheezy and 14 healthy). The forced expiratory volume in 0.5 s (FEV0.5) was determined with the raised volume rapid thoracic compression technique, and eNO was measured during constant expiratory flow with a rapid-response chemiluminescence analyzer. After passive inflation to a preset pressure of 20 cm H2O, thoracic compression with an inflatable jacket caused forced expiration to occur through a face-mask with an expiratory flow resistor attached. During the forced expiration, the jacket pressure was increased to maintain a constant driving mouth pressure and hence a constant expiratory flow (50 ml/s). The mean level of eNO in the wheezy infants (31.8 ppb) was significantly higher than the level in healthy infants (18.8 ppb) (p = 0.03). A family history of atopy in parents was associated with increased eNO levels (p history of atopy.

  14. Distinctive expression patterns of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and endothelial nitric oxide synthase following hypergravity exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Gun; Oh, Choong Sik; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-06-07

    This study was designed to examine the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the level and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the hearts and livers of mice exposed to hypergravity. Hypergravity-induced hypoxia and the subsequent post-exposure reoxygenation significantly increased cardiac HIF-1α levels. Furthermore, the levels and activity of cardiac eNOS also showed significant increase immediately following hypergravity exposure and during the reoxygenation period. In contrast, the expression of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) showed significant elevation only during the reoxygenation period. These data raise the possibility that the increase in cardiac HIF-1α expression induced by reoxygenation involves a cascade of signaling events, including activation of the Akt and ERK pathways. In the liver, HIF-1α expression was significantly increased immediately after hypergravity exposure, indicating that hypergravity exposure to causes hepatocellular hypoxia. The hypergravity-exposed livers showed significantly higher eNOS immunoreactivity than did those of control mice. Consistent with these results, significant increases in eNOS activity and nitrate/nitrite levels were also observed. These findings suggest that hypergravity-induced hypoxia plays a significant role in the upregulation of hepatic eNOS.

  15. The human milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose attenuates the severity of experimental necrotising enterocolitis by enhancing mesenteric perfusion in the neonatal intestine.

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    Good, Misty; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Jia, Hongpeng; Lu, Peng; Fulton, William B; Martin, Laura Y; Prindle, Thomas; Nino, Diego F; Zhou, Qinjie; Ma, Congrong; Ozolek, John A; Buck, Rachael H; Goehring, Karen C; Hackam, David J

    2016-10-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a common disease in premature infants characterised by intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. The only effective preventative strategy against NEC is the administration of breast milk, although the protective mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesise that an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) in breast milk, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), protects against NEC by enhancing intestinal mucosal blood flow, and we sought to determine the mechanisms underlying this protection. Administration of HMO-2'FL protected against NEC in neonatal wild-type mice, resulted in a decrease in pro-inflammatory markers and preserved the small intestinal mucosal architecture. These protective effects occurred via restoration of intestinal perfusion through up-regulation of the vasodilatory molecule endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as administration of HMO-2'FL to eNOS-deficient mice or to mice that received eNOS inhibitors did not protect against NEC, and by 16S analysis HMO-2'FL affected the microbiota of the neonatal mouse gut, although these changes do not seem to be the primary mechanism of protection. Induction of eNOS by HMO-2'FL was also observed in cultured endothelial cells, providing a link between eNOS and HMO in the endothelium. These data demonstrate that HMO-2'FL protects against NEC in part through maintaining mesenteric perfusion via increased eNOS expression, and suggest that the 2'FL found in human milk may be mediating some of the protective benefits of breast milk in the clinical setting against NEC.

  16. GC-MS study of Nigella sativa (seeds fatty oil

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    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GC-MS study of N. sativa (seeds fatty oil revealed the presence of 26 compounds which were identified as methyl hept-6-enoate,1-phenylhepta-2,4-dione, pentadecane, hexadec-1-ene, 1-phenyldecan-2-one, octadec-1-ene, octadecane, methyl pentadecanoate, bis(3-chlorophenyl ketone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl octadec-7-enoate, methyl octadecanoate, tricos-9-ene, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadec-15-enoate, henicosan-10-one, 2-methyl octadecanoic acid, docos-1-ene, ethyl octadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, pentacos-5-ene,12-methyltricosane, dibutyl phthalate and 2-methyltetracosane.El estudio por GC-MS del aceite de la semilla de Nigella sativa reveló la presencia de 26 compuestos los cuales fueron identificados como: hept-6-enoato de metilo, 1-fenilhepta-2,4-diona, pentadecano, hexadec-1-eno, 1-fenildecan-2-ona, octadec-1-eno, octadecano, pentadecanoato de metilo, bis(3-clorofenil cetona, ftalato de dietilo, octadec-7-enoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, tricos-9-eno, ácido octadeca-9,12-dienoico, ácido hexadecanoico, hexadecanoato de metilo, octadec-15-enoato de metilo, henicosan-10-ona, ácido 2-metil octadecanoico, docos-1-eno, octadecanoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, pentacos-5-eno, 12-metiltricosano, ftalato de dibutilo y 2-metiltetracosano.

  17. Role of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms in Predicting Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in South Indian Patients

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    Linda Koshy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene polymorphisms have been implicated as predisposing genetic factors that can predict aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH, but with controversial results from different populations. Using a case-control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether variants in eNOS gene can increase risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease. We enrolled 122 patients, along with 224 ethnically matched controls. We screened the intron-4 27-bp VNTR, the promoter T-786C and the exon-7 G894T SNPs in the eNOS gene. We found marked interethnic differences in the genotype distribution of eNOS variants when comparing the South Indian population with the reported frequencies from Caucasian and Japanese populations. Genotype distributions in control and patient populations were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In patients, the allele, genotype and estimated haplotype frequencies did not differ significantly from the controls. Multiple logistic regression indicated hypertension and smoking as risk factors for the disease, however the risk alleles did not have any interaction with these risk factors. Although the eNOS polymorphisms were not found to be a likely risk factor for aSAH, the role of factors such as ethnicity, gender, smoking and hypertension should be evaluated cautiously to understand the genotype to phenotype conversion.

  18. Immunohistochemical properties of the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in placenta in its dysfunction in women with iron deficiency anemia

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    I. A. Ancheva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The pertinence of the study is related to a large prevalence of dysfunction of the placenta in pregnant women suffering from anemia. To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression characteristics of endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS in the placenta during its dysfunction in women against the background of anemia 30 samples of placental tissue were studied with the use of immunohistochemical and micrometer methods. Materials and results. It was found that the expression of eNOS in patients with iron defi ciency anemia in the cytoplasm of syncytium of villi and fetal capillary endothelium as well as decidual vessels decreases, with the most pronounced changes in the expression of eNOS observed in the presence of the combination of placental dysfunction and iron defi ciency anemia in the form of paradoxical increase in expression. Conclusion. This indicates the necessity for correction of endothelial function in women with anemia during pregnancy.

  19. Arctigenin, a Potent Ingredient of Arctium lappa L., Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Attenuates Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm through PI3K/Akt Pathway in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Zen; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Chia-Mao; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) is observed within the cerebral arteries of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) animals. This study is of interest to examine Arctigenin, a potent antioxidant, on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt pathways in a SAH in vitro study. Basilar arteries (BAs) were obtained to examine phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-PI3K, Akt, phospho-Akt (Western blot) and morphological examination. Endothelins (ETs) and eNOS evaluation (Western blot and immunostaining) were also determined. Arctigenin treatment significantly alleviates disrupted endothelial cells and tortured internal elastic layer observed in the SAH groups (p Arctigenin (p Arctigenin might exert dural effects in preventing SAH-induced vasospasm through upregulating eNOS expression via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and attenuate endothelins after SAH. Arctigenin shows therapeutic promise in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following SAH.

  20. High order filtering methods for approximating hyberbolic systems of conservation laws

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    Lafon, F.; Osher, S.

    1990-01-01

    In the computation of discontinuous solutions of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, the recently developed essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) schemes appear to be very useful. However, they are computationally costly compared to simple central difference methods. A filtering method which is developed uses simple central differencing of arbitrarily high order accuracy, except when a novel local test indicates the development of spurious oscillations. At these points, the full ENO apparatus is used, maintaining the high order of accuracy, but removing spurious oscillations. Numerical results indicate the success of the method. High order of accuracy was obtained in regions of smooth flow without spurious oscillations for a wide range of problems and a significant speed up of generally a factor of almost three over the full ENO method.

  1. Intracellular acidification reduces l-arginine transport via system y+L but not via system y+/CATs and nitric oxide synthase activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Marco A; Morales, Jorge; Cornejo, Marcelo; Blanco, Elias H; Mancilla-Sierpe, Edgardo; Toledo, Fernando; Beltrán, Ana R; Sobrevia, Luis

    2018-04-01

    l-Arginine is taken up via the cationic amino acid transporters (system y + /CATs) and system y + L in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). l-Arginine is the substrate for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) which is activated by intracellular alkalization, but nothing is known regarding modulation of system y + /CATs and system y + L activity, and eNOS activity by the pHi in HUVECs. We studied whether an acidic pHi modulates l-arginine transport and eNOS activity in HUVECs. Cells loaded with a pH-sensitive probe were subjected to 0.1-20 mmol/L NH 4 Cl pulse assay to generate pHi 7.13-6.55. Before pHi started to recover, l-arginine transport (0-20 or 0-1000 μmol/L, 10 s, 37 °C) in the absence or presence of 200 μmol/L N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) (system y + /CATs inhibitor) or 2 mmol/L l-leucine (systemy + L substrate) was measured. Protein abundance for eNOS and serine 1177 or threonine 495 phosphorylated eNOS was determined. The results show that intracellular acidification reduced system y + L but not system y + /CATs mediated l-arginine maximal transport capacity due to reduced maximal velocity. Acidic pHi reduced NO synthesis and eNOS serine 1177 phosphorylation. Thus, system y + L activity is downregulated by an acidic pHi, a phenomenon that may result in reduced NO synthesis in HUVECs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exhaled nitric oxide collected with two different mouthpieces: a study in asthmatic patients

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    A.S. Leme

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for collecting exhaled nitric oxide (ENO recommend the use of antibacterial filters of 0.3 µm. The aim of the present study was to compare the measurements of ENO obtained with two different filtering devices. Air samples from 17 asthmatic and 17 non-asthmatic subjects were collected by a recommended off-line technique using two different mouthpieces: 1 the Sievers disposable tool (A under a breathing pressure of 18 cmH2O, and 2 a mouthpiece containing a HEPA filter (B under a breathing pressure of 12 cmH2O. The nitric oxide samples were collected into an impermeable reservoir bag. Values for ENO were compared using two-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. Agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. ENO values obtained with mouthpieces A and B were comparable for asthmatic (mean ± SEM, 42.9 ± 6.9 vs 43.3 ± 6.6 ppb and non-asthmatic (13.3 ± 1.3 vs 13.7 ± 1.1 ppb subjects. There was a significant difference in ENO between asthmatics and non-asthmatics using either mouthpiece A (P<0.001 or B (P<0.001. There was a positive correlation between mouthpiece A and mouthpiece B for both groups. The Bland-Altman limits of agreement were considered to be acceptable. Mouthpiece B was less expensive than A, and these data show that it can be used without compromising the result. Our data confirm reports of higher ENO values in the presence of airway inflammation.

  3. Exogenous, but not Endogenous Nitric Oxide Inhibits Adhesion Molecule Expression in Human Endothelial Cells

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    Jin eQian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO has many beneficial actions on the vascular wall including suppression of inflammation. The mechanism(s by which NO antagonizes cytokine signaling are poorly understood, but are thought to involve inhibition of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor, NF-κB. NO represses nuclear translocation of NF-κB via the S-nitrosylation of its subunits which decreases the expression of target genes including adhesion molecules. In previous studies, we have shown that the intracellular location of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS can influence the amount of NO produced and that NO levels are paramount in regulating the S-nitrosylation of target proteins. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the significance of subcellular eNOS to NF-κB signaling induced by proinflammatory cytokines in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs. We found that in HAECs stimulated with TNFα, L-NAME did not influence the expression of ICAM-1 or VCAM-1. In eNOS knock down HAECs reconstituted with either plasma membrane or Golgi restricted forms of eNOS, there was no significant effect on the activation of the NF-κB pathway over different times and concentrations of TNFα. Similarly, the endogenous production of NO did not influence the phosphorylation of IkBα. In contrast, higher concentrations of NO derived from the use of the exogenous NO donor, DETA NONOate, effectively suppressed the expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 in response to TNFα. Collectively these results suggest that neither endogenous eNOS nor eNOS location is an important influence on inflammatory signaling via the NF-κB pathway and that higher NO concentrations are required to suppress NF-κB in HAECs.

  4. Folic Acid Promotes Recycling of Tetrahydrobiopterin and Protects Against Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension by Recoupling Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

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    Chalupsky, Karel; Kračun, Damir; Kanchev, Ivan; Bertram, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) has been implicated in the adaptive response to hypoxia. An imbalance between 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2) can result in eNOS uncoupling and the generation of superoxide instead of NO. Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) can recycle BH2 to BH4, leading to eNOS recoupling. However, the role of DHFR and eNOS recoupling in the response to hypoxia is not well understood. We hypothesized that increasing the capacity to recycle BH4 from BH2 would improve NO bioavailability as well as pulmonary vascular remodeling (PVR) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) as indicators of pulmonary hypertension (PH) under hypoxic conditions. Results: In human pulmonary artery endothelial cells and murine pulmonary arteries exposed to hypoxia, eNOS was uncoupled as indicated by reduced superoxide production in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Concomitantly, NO levels, BH4 availability, and expression of DHFR were diminished under hypoxia. Application of folic acid (FA) restored DHFR levels, NO bioavailability, and BH4 levels under hypoxia. Importantly, FA prevented the development of hypoxia-induced PVR, right ventricular pressure increase, and RVH. Innovation: FA-induced upregulation of DHFR recouples eNOS under hypoxia by improving BH4 recycling, thus preventing hypoxia-induced PH. Conclusion: FA might serve as a novel therapeutic option combating PH. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1076–1091. PMID:26414244

  5. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 (SNAT1 modulates L-citrulline transport and nitric oxide (NO signaling in piglet pulmonary arterial endothelial cells.

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    Anna Dikalova

    Full Text Available There is evidence that impairments in nitric oxide (NO signaling contribute to chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. The L-arginine-NO precursor, L-citrulline, has been shown to ameliorate pulmonary hypertension. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs are involved in the transport of L-citrulline into pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs. The functional link between the SNATs, L-citrulline, and NO signaling has not yet been explored.We tested the hypothesis that changes in SNAT1 expression and transport function regulate NO production by modulating eNOS coupling in newborn piglet PAECs.A silencing RNA (siRNA technique was used to assess the contribution of SNAT1 to NO production and eNOS coupling (eNOS dimer-to-monomer ratios in PAECs from newborn piglets cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of L-citrulline. SNAT1 siRNA reduced basal NO production in normoxic PAECs and prevented L-citrulline-induced elevations in NO production in both normoxic and hypoxic PAECs. SNAT1 siRNA reduced basal eNOS dimer-to-monomer ratios in normoxic PAECs and prevented L-citrulline-induced increases in eNOS dimer-to-monomer ratios in hypoxic PAECs.SNAT1 mediated L-citrulline transport modulates eNOS coupling and thus regulates NO production in hypoxic PAECs from newborn piglets. Strategies that increase SNAT1-mediated transport and supply of L-citrulline may serve as novel therapeutic approaches to enhance NO production in patients with pulmonary vascular disease.

  6. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 1 (SNAT1) modulates L-citrulline transport and nitric oxide (NO) signaling in piglet pulmonary arterial endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikalova, Anna; Fagiana, Angela; Aschner, Judy L; Aschner, Michael; Summar, Marshall; Fike, Candice D

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that impairments in nitric oxide (NO) signaling contribute to chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. The L-arginine-NO precursor, L-citrulline, has been shown to ameliorate pulmonary hypertension. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNATs) are involved in the transport of L-citrulline into pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs). The functional link between the SNATs, L-citrulline, and NO signaling has not yet been explored. We tested the hypothesis that changes in SNAT1 expression and transport function regulate NO production by modulating eNOS coupling in newborn piglet PAECs. A silencing RNA (siRNA) technique was used to assess the contribution of SNAT1 to NO production and eNOS coupling (eNOS dimer-to-monomer ratios) in PAECs from newborn piglets cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of L-citrulline. SNAT1 siRNA reduced basal NO production in normoxic PAECs and prevented L-citrulline-induced elevations in NO production in both normoxic and hypoxic PAECs. SNAT1 siRNA reduced basal eNOS dimer-to-monomer ratios in normoxic PAECs and prevented L-citrulline-induced increases in eNOS dimer-to-monomer ratios in hypoxic PAECs. SNAT1 mediated L-citrulline transport modulates eNOS coupling and thus regulates NO production in hypoxic PAECs from newborn piglets. Strategies that increase SNAT1-mediated transport and supply of L-citrulline may serve as novel therapeutic approaches to enhance NO production in patients with pulmonary vascular disease.

  7. Differential proteomic analysis of noncardia gastric cancer from individuals of northern Brazil.

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    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Chung, Janete; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Demachki, Samia; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Chammas, Roger; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The identification of new cancer biomarkers is necessary to reduce the mortality rates through the development of new screening assays and early diagnosis, as well as new target therapies. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of noncardia gastric neoplasias of individuals from Northern Brazil. The proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. For the identification of differentially expressed proteins, we used statistical tests with bootstrapping resampling to control the type I error in the multiple comparison analyses. We identified 111 proteins involved in gastric carcinogenesis. The computational analysis revealed several proteins involved in the energy production processes and reinforced the Warburg effect in gastric cancer. ENO1 and HSPB1 expression were further evaluated. ENO1 was selected due to its role in aerobic glycolysis that may contribute to the Warburg effect. Although we observed two up-regulated spots of ENO1 in the proteomic analysis, the mean expression of ENO1 was reduced in gastric tumors by western blot. However, mean ENO1 expression seems to increase in more invasive tumors. This lack of correlation between proteomic and western blot analyses may be due to the presence of other ENO1 spots that present a slightly reduced expression, but with a high impact in the mean protein expression. In neoplasias, HSPB1 is induced by cellular stress to protect cells against apoptosis. In the present study, HSPB1 presented an elevated protein and mRNA expression in a subset of gastric cancer samples. However, no association was observed between HSPB1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. Here, we identified several possible biomarkers of gastric cancer in individuals from Northern Brazil. These biomarkers may be useful for the assessment of prognosis and stratification for therapy if validated in larger clinical study

  8. Diagnostic Value of Facial Nerve Antidromic Evoked Potential in Patients With Bell's Palsy: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Kim, Sun Mi; Yang, Hea Eun; Lee, Jang Woo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the practical diagnostic value of facial nerve antidromic evoked potential (FNAEP), we compared it with the diagnostic value of the electroneurography (ENoG) test in Bell's palsy. Methods In total, 20 patients with unilateral Bell's palsy were recruited. Between the 1st and 17th days after the onset of facial palsy, FNAEP and ENoG tests were conducted. The degeneration ratio and FNAEP latency difference between the affected and unaffected sides were calculated in all subjects. Results In all patients, FNAEP showed prolonged latencies on the affected side versus the unaffected side. The difference was statistically significant. In contrast, there was no significant difference between sides in the normal control group. In 8 of 20 patients, ENoG revealed a degeneration ratio less than 50%, but FNAEP show a difference of more than 0.295±0.599 ms, the average value of normal control group. This shows FNAEP could be a more sensitive test for Bell's palsy diagnosis than ENoG. In particular, in 10 patients tested within 7 days after onset, an abnormal ENoG finding was noted in only four of them, but FNAEP showed a significant latency difference in all patients at this early stage. Thus, FANEP was more sensitive in detecting facial nerve injury than the ENoG test (p=0.031). Conclusion FNAEP has some clinical value in the diagnosis of facial nerve degeneration. It is important that FNAEP be considered in patients with facial palsy at an early stage and integrated with other relevant tests. PMID:25024963

  9. Constitutive NOS uncoupling and NADPH oxidase upregulation in the penis of type 2 diabetic men with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, B; Burnett, A L

    2017-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) involves dysfunctional nitric oxide (NO) signaling and increased oxidative stress in the penis. However, the mechanisms of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) dysregulation, and the sources of oxidative stress, are not well defined, particularly at the human level. The objective of this study was to define whether uncoupled eNOS and nNOS, and NADPH oxidase upregulation, contribute to the pathogenesis of ED in T2DM men. Penile erectile tissue was obtained from 9 T2DM patients with ED who underwent penile prosthesis surgery for ED, and from six control patients without T2DM or ED who underwent penectomy for penile cancer. The dimer-to-monomer protein expression ratio, an indicator of uncoupling for both eNOS and nNOS, total protein expressions of eNOS and nNOS, as well as protein expressions of NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91phox (an enzymatic source of oxidative stress) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE] and nitrotyrosine (markers of oxidative stress) were measured by western blot in this tissue. In the erectile tissue of T2DM men, eNOS and nNOS uncoupling and protein expressions of NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox, 4-HNE- and nitrotyrosine-modified proteins were significantly (p penis may involve uncoupled eNOS and nNOS and NADPH oxidase upregulation. Our description of molecular factors contributing to the pathogenesis of T2DM-associated ED at the human level is relevant to advancing clinically therapeutic approaches to restore erectile function in T2DM patients. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Arginase Inhibition Restores Peroxynitrite-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction via L-Arginine-Dependent Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Phosphorylation

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    Nguyen, Minh Cong; Park, Jong Taek; Jeon, Yeong Gwan; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Kim, Young Myeong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peroxynitrite plays a critical role in vascular pathophysiology by increasing arginase activity and decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement could restore peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and determine the involved mechanism. Materials and Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with SIN-1, a peroxynitrite generator, and arginase activity, nitrite/nitrate production, and expression levels of proteins were measured. eNOS activation was evaluated via Western blot and dimer blot analysis. We also tested nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and performed a vascular tension assay. Results SIN-1 treatment increased arginase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and reciprocally decreased nitrite/nitrate production that was prevented by peroxynitrite scavenger in HUVECs. Furthermore, SIN-1 induced an increase in the expression level of arginase I and II, though not in eNOS protein. The decreased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and the increased at Thr495 by SIN-1 were restored with arginase inhibitor and L-arginine. The changed eNOS phosphorylation was consistent in the stability of eNOS dimers. SIN-1 decreased NO production and increased ROS generation in the aortic endothelium, all of which was reversed by arginase inhibitor or L-arginine. NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) prevented SIN-1-induced ROS generation. In the vascular tension assay, SIN-1 enhanced vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 and attenuated vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine that were reversed by arginase inhibition. Conclusion These findings may explain the beneficial effect of arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement on endothelial dysfunction under redox imbalance-dependent pathophysiological conditions. PMID:27593859

  11. Low Nitric Oxide Synthases (NOS) in Eyes with Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutto, Imran A.; Baba, Takayuki; Merges, Carol; McLeod, D. Scott; Lutty, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production by vascular endothelium is important in regulation of blood flow. Reduced production of NO can adversely affect blood flow and other vascular functions. We investigated the expression of three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in retina and choroid of aged human eyes and eyes with AMD. Alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against inducible (iNOS), neuronal (nNOS), and endothelial (eNOS) NOSs on cryopreserved sections from aged control donor eyes (n= 13) and eyes with AMD (n= 22). CD34 antibody was used as an endothelial cell (EC) marker. Three independent masked observers scored the intensity of the immunohistochemical reaction product. Mean scores from the aged control and AMD eyes were statistically compared. In aged control retinas, nNOS was in ganglion cells (RGCs) and neurons of both nuclear layers. In choroid, perivascular nerve fibers and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were nNOS+. eNOS and iNOS were confined to the retinal and choroidal vascular ECs. Some cells presumably melanocytes or dendritic cells in choroid were also eNOS+. In AMD eyes, nNOS was significantly lower in RGCs, neurons, retinal vessels and RPE (p≤0.05) compared to the aged control eyes. iNOS and eNOS showed no significant differences between aged control and AMD eyes except that there was significantly less eNOS in choroidal arteries (p=0.006) and choroidal cells (p=0.03) of AMD eyes. Although NO was not measured directly, these findings suggest that there is less NO produced in AMD eyes. The decrease in retinal nNOS in AMD eyes is probably related to neuronal degeneration. The decrease in nNOS and eNOS in AMD choroid could be associated with vasoconstriction and hemodynamic changes. PMID:19836390

  12. Exercise training provides cardioprotection by activating and coupling endothelial nitric oxide synthase via a β3-adrenergic receptor-AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A Barr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training confers sustainable protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the mechanism by which this process occurs is not fully understood. Previously, it was shown that β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs play a critical role in regulating the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in response to exercise and play a critical role in exercise-mediated cardioprotection. Intriguingly, a deficiency in β3-ARs led to increased myocardial injury following exercise training. The purpose of the current study was to determine mechanisms by which β3-ARs are linked to eNOS activation and to determine the mechanism responsible for the exacerbated ischemia/reperfusion injury displayed by β3-AR deficient (β3-AR KO mice after exercise training. Wild-type (n = 37 and β3-AR KO ( n = 40 mice were subjected to voluntary wheel running for 4 weeks. Western blot analysis revealed that neither protein kinase B nor protein kinase A linked β3-ARs to eNOS following exercise training. However, analysis revealed a role for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Specifically, exercise training increased the phosphorylation of AMPK in the hearts of wild-type mice, but failed to do so in the hearts of β3-AR KO mice. Additional studies revealed that exercise training rendered eNOS less coupled and increased NOS-dependent superoxide levels in β3-AR KO mice. Finally, supplementing β3-AR KO mice with the eNOS coupler, tetrahydrobiopterin, during the final week of exercise training reduced myocardial infarction. These findings provide important information that exercise training protects the heart in the setting of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating and coupling eNOS via the stimulation of a β3-AR-AMPK signaling pathway.

  13. Effects of Chinese yellow wine on nitric oxide synthase and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expressions in rat vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Ji, Zheng; Chi, Jufang; Tang, Weiliang; Zhai, Xiaoya; Meng, Liping; Guo, Hangyuan

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine similarities in the effect of yellow wine as compared to statin and the possibility that yellow wine inhibits tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in cultured rat vascular endothelial cells (VECs). We isolated VECs, and cultivated and purified Sprague Dawley (SD) rat thoracic aortas in vitro. We selected the optimal wine concentration using clonogenic and MTT assays to measure cell survival. Next, we divided the cells into 9 groups: (1) control, (2) TNF-α, (3) TNF-α + rosuvastatin (10 μmol/L), (4) TNF-α + ethanol 0.5%, (5) TNF-α + yellow wine 0.5%, (6) TNF-α + ethanol 1.0%, (7) TNF-α + yellow wine 1.0%, (8) TNF-α + ethanol 1.5%, and (9) TNF-α + yellow wine 1.5% and they were given the corresponding treatment for 24 h. We determined NO production with nitrate reductase. We then measured eNOS activity, and detected eNOS, iNOS, and ICAM-1 protein levels by Western blotting. Compared with the TNF-α group, NO production, eNOS activity, and eNOS protein expression in the rosuvastatin, and yellow wine 1.0%, and 1.5% groups were significantly increased. Protein expression of iNOS and ICAM-1 in the rosuvastatin, yellow wine 1.0%, and 1.5% groups were significantly decreased. Compared with the rosuvastatin group, eNOS, iNOS, and ICAM-1 protein expression in the yellow wine (0.5% -1.5%) groups were significantly different. Treatment with yellow wine increased NO production, eNOS activity, and eNOS protein expression, which decreases iNOS and ICAM-1 protein expression. We conclude that yellow wine may have similar beneficial effects as rosuvastatin on the cardiovascular system. These effects may be attributed to their anti-atherosclerotic actions.

  14. The human placenta from heavy smokers: evaluation of vasoactive peptides by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, H V; Larsen, L Grupe; Jørgensen, A

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to demonstrate the expression of nitric oxide converting enzyme, nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS), and endothelin-1 (Et-1) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded placental tissue, and to demonstrate a difference in staining intensity between heavy smokers and non-smokers. Term placentas...... from pregnancies from otherwise healthy women smoking 15 or more cigarettes per day (heavy smokers) and term placentas from a matching group of non-smokers were included. The antibodies for Et-1 and e-NOS are recommended for cryostat sections. We evaluated the antibodies on paraffin-embedded tissue...

  15. Smoking cessation early in pregnancy and birth weight, length, head circumference, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in umbilical and chorionic vessels: an observational study of healthy singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Simonsen, Ulf; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    and chorionic vessels from nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers and related the findings to the fetal outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 266 healthy, singleton pregnancies, 182 women were nonsmokers, 43 were smokers, and 41 stopped smoking early in pregnancy. eNOS activity and concentration were quantified...... were similar for nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that maternal smoking reduces eNOS activity in the fetal vascular bed, contributing to retarded fetal growth caused by the reduction of vasodilatory capacity, and suggest that smoking cessation early in pregnancy...

  16. A Influência de Samuel Beckett no Teatro Pós-Dramático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Arns de Miranda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A influência do dramaturgo irlandês Samuel Beckett, considerado um dos pilares do teatro pós-dramático, transparece claramente no monólogo Thom Pain (baseado em nada, escrito pelo dramaturgo estadunidense Will Eno. A peça, que foi finalista de 2005 do prêmio Pulitzer na categoria drama, fez importantes críticos de teatro considerarem Eno como ‘o novo Beckett’. O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar, através de uma análise comparativa, os vários aspectos que aproximam e/ou distanciam estes dois autores.

  17. Numerical methods for systems of conservation laws of mixed type using flux splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chi-Wang

    1990-01-01

    The essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) finite difference scheme is applied to systems of conservation laws of mixed hyperbolic-elliptic type. A flux splitting, with the corresponding Jacobi matrices having real and positive/negative eigenvalues, is used. The hyperbolic ENO operator is applied separately. The scheme is numerically tested on the van der Waals equation in fluid dynamics. Convergence was observed with good resolution to weak solutions for various Riemann problems, which are then numerically checked to be admissible as the viscosity-capillarity limits. The interesting phenomena of the shrinking of elliptic regions if they are present in the initial conditions were also observed.

  18. Effects of air pollution on exhaled nitric oxide in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Flexeder, Claudia; Fuertes, Elaine; Cyrys, Josef; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Hoffmann, Barbara; von Berg, Andrea; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies which have investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on airway inflammation, assessed by an increase of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), have been conducted among asthmatic children. Few studies have considered this potential association among non-asthmatics. Furthermore, although both short- and long-term effects of air pollution on eNO had been reported separately, studies which include both are scarce. We explored associations between 24h NO2 and PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 10μm) mass with eNO in 1985 children (192 asthmatics and 1793 non-asthmatics) aged 10 years and accounted for the long-term effects of air pollution by adjusting for annual averages of NO2, PM10 mass, PM2.5 mass (particles with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5μm) and PM2.5 absorbance, using data from two German birth cohorts in Munich and Wesel. In total, robust associations between 24h NO2 and eNO were observed in both single-pollutant (percentage change: 18.30%, 95% confidence interval: 11.63-25.37) and two-pollutant models (14.62%, 6.71-23.11). The association between 24h PM10 mass and eNO was only significant in the single-pollutant model (9.59%, 4.80-14.61). The same significant associations were also observed in non-asthmatic children, while they did not reach significant levels in asthmatic children. Associations between annual averages of ambient air pollution (NO2, PM10 mass, PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 absorbance) and eNO were consistently null. In conclusion, significantly positive associations were observed between short-term ambient air pollution and eNO. No long-term effects of air pollution on eNO were found in this study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid diagnosis of invasive candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengxin He; Lanchun Shi; Xiangyang Ran; Wei Li; Xianling Wang; Fukun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC) is very important. In this study, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed to detect antibody against Candida albicans enolase (Eno). Colloidal gold particle labeled mouse anti human IgG (1.0 mg/L) was used as the detector reagent. Recombinant enolase (rEno, 1.0 mg/L) and goat anti IgG (1.0 mg/L) were immobilized in test and control lines, respectively, of a nitrocellulose membrane, acting as the capture reagents. The LFIA was u...

  20. Pop / Tristan Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Tristan, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Bonzo "Teisipidi tegelikkus", Client "City", Robbie Williams "Greatest Hits", Fripp&Eno "The Equatorial Stars", Harold Budd "Avalon Sutra / As Long As I Can Hold My Breath", Compay Segundo "En Concierto", Son of Clay "The Bird You Never Were", Sondre Lerche "Two Way Monoloque", Reuber "Kintopp"

  1. Kaks uut näitust Kunstihoones

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    20. detsembrist Tallinna Kunstihoones kontseptuaalne kunstiprojekt "Expat-Art-Centre" (koostaja Mathieu Copeland, osalevad Brian Eno, Pierre Huyghe, Ben Kinmont, Claude Leveque, Didier Marcel, Olivier Mosset, Shimabuku, Dan Walsh, Ian Wilson) ning Tallinna Linnagaleriis Marko Mäetamme "Mälestusnäitus"

  2. Placental Vesicles Carry Active Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Their Activity is Reduced in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mejia, Carolina; Kandzija, Neva; Zhang, Wei; Mhlomi, Vuyane; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Burdujan, Alexandra; Tannetta, Dionne; Dragovic, Rebecca; Sargent, Ian L; Redman, Christopher W; Kishore, Uday; Vatish, Manu

    2017-08-01

    Preeclampsia, a multisystem hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is associated with increased systemic vascular resistance. Placentae from patients with preeclampsia have reduced levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and, thus, less nitric oxide (NO). Syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV), comprising microvesicles (STBMV) and exosomes, carry signals from the syncytiotrophoblast to the mother. We hypothesized that STBEV-bound eNOS (STBEV-eNOS), capable of producing NO, are released into the maternal circulation. Dual-lobe ex vivo placental perfusion and differential centrifugation was used to isolate STBEV from preeclampsia (n=8) and normal pregnancies (NP; n=11). Plasma samples of gestational age-matched preeclampsia and NP (n=6) were used to isolate circulating STBMV. STBEV expressed placental alkaline phosphatase, confirming placental origin. STBEV coexpressed eNOS, but not inducible nitric oxide synthase, confirmed using Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunodepletion. STBEV-eNOS produced NO, which was significantly inhibited by N   G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (eNOS inhibitor; P preeclampsia-perfused placentae had lower levels of STBEV-eNOS (STBMV; P preeclampsia women had lower STBEV-eNOS expression compared with that from NP women ( P preeclampsia placentae, as well as in plasma. The lower STBEV-eNOS NO production seen in preeclampsia may contribute to the decreased NO bioavailability in this disease. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Infections Up to 76 Days After Stroke Increase Disability and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learoyd, Annastazia E; Woodhouse, Lisa; Shaw, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Early infection after stroke is associated with a poor outcome. We aimed to determine whether delayed infections (up to 76 days post-stroke) are associated with poor outcome at 90 days. Data came from the international Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Stroke (ENOS, ISRCTN99414122) trial. Post hoc data on...

  4. The Role of the Blood-Brain Barrier in the Pathogenesis of Senile Plaques in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Provias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of beta-amyloid [Aβ] within senile plaques [SP] is characteristic of these lesions in Alzheimer’s disease. The accumulation of Aβ42, in particular, in the superior temporal [ST] cortex may result from an inability of the blood brain barrier (BBB to regulate the trans-endothelial transport and clearance of the amyloid. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein [LRP] and P-glycoprotein [P-gp] facilitate the efflux of Aβ out of the brain, whereas receptor for advanced glycation end products [RAGE] facilitates Aβ influx. Additionally, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and endothelial nitric oxide synthase [eNOS] may influence the trans-BBB transport of Aβ. In this study we examined ST samples and compared SP burden of all types with the capillary expression of LRP, p-gp, RAGE, VEGF, and e-NOS in samples from 15 control and 15 Alzheimer brains. LRP, P-gp, RAGE, VEGF, and eNOS positive capillaries and Aβ42 plaques were quantified and statistical analysis of the nonparametric data was performed using the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. In the Alzheimer condition P-gp, VEGF, and eNOS positive capillaries were negatively correlated with SP burden, but LRP and RAGE were positively correlated with SP burden. These results indicate altered BBB function in the pathogenesis of SPs in Alzheimer brains.

  5. Combined preconditioning with hypoxia and GYKI-52466 protects rats from cerebral ischemic injury by HIF-1α/eNOS pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuchan; Lu, Fang; Zhuang, Lihua; Yang, Shuohui; Kong, Yingnan; Tan, Wenli; Gong, Zhigang; Zhan, Songhua

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral ischemic injury has been the leading cause of death and long term disability in the world because of the lack of successful therapies to it, leading to neurological and behavioral deficits. The present study aims to investigate the effects of combined preconditioning (PC) with hypoxia and GYKI-52466 (GYKI) on cerebral ischemic injury and to explore the mechanism. The results showed that combined preconditioning with hypoxia and GYKI-52466 increased the survival rate of cerebral ischemia rats, alleviated the neurological deficit, increased the object recognition and social recognition memory of rats and suppressed the inflammatory reaction induced by cerebral ischemia. Further experiments found that preconditioning with hypoxia and GYKI-52466 significantly increased the HIF-1α and eNOS expression as well as eNOS activity, while inhibitors of HIF-1α and eNOS abolished the protective effects of hypoxia+GYKI PC on neurological deficit. Taken together, these results indicate that combined preconditioning with hypoxia and GYKI-52466 is effective to prevent cerebral ischemia injury, while HIF-1α and eNOS may be involved in the mechanism. PMID:29312485

  6. Effects of a food supplement rich in arginine in patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis--a randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schön, T; Idh, J; Westman, A

    2011-01-01

    and secondary outcomes were sputum smear conversion, weight gain, sedimentation rate, reduction of cough and chest X-ray improvement as well as levels of NO in urine (uNO) or exhaled air (eNO) at two months. There was no effect of the intervention on the primary outcome (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 0.69-3.0, p = 0...

  7. Identification of free nitric oxide radicals in rat bone marrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleksinskaya, Marina A; van Faassen, Ernst E H; Nelissen, Jelly

    2013-01-01

    trapping and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy we give the first experimental confirmation of free NO radicals in rodent BM. NO production was quantified and attributed to enzymatic activity of NO synthases (NOS). Although endothelial NOS (eNOS) accounts for most (66%) of basal NO, we...

  8. Exhaled nitric oxide in healthy young children during tidal breathing through a facemask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Peter F; Klug, Bent; Valerius, Niels H

    2007-01-01

    .p.b. respectively. Twenty-three children completed measurements of within-day and day-to-day variations, none of which showed significant variation. In conclusion, the established reference values and data on variability within and between days may facilitate the clinical application for measurement of eNO during...

  9. Effect of Spatial Decorrelation on Nulling Performance of Linear Adaptive Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    fully adaptive arrays are considered, more analysis and evaluation is carried out for the FORM 43 E,,NO ’NO ,SO OL E DD I JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF...University SRI International ATTN: C. Meng ATTN: A. Burns ATTN: K. Potocki ATTN: G. Price ATTN: J. Phillips ATTN: R. Tsunoca ATTN: T. Evans ATTN: J. Vickrey

  10. Association of the Glu →Asp polymorphism in the endothelial nitric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... gene is associated with an enhanced vascular responsiveness to phenylephrine. Circulation, 99: 3096-3098. Shi C, Kang X, Wang Y, Zhou Y (2008). The coagulation factor V. Leiden, MTHFRC677T variant and eNOS 4ab polymorphism in young. Chinese population with ischemic stroke. Clin. Chim. Acta ...

  11. Relative contributions of NOS isoforms during experimental colitis : endothelial-derived NOS maintains mucosal integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallance, BA; Dijkstra, G; Qiu, BS; van der Waaij, LA; van Goor, H; Jansen, PLM; Mashimo, H; Collins, SM

    2004-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in inflammatory bowel diseases has traditionally focused on the inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS). However, the constitutive endothelial (eNOS) and neuronal (nNOS) isoforms may also impact on colitis, either by contributing to the inflammation or by regulating

  12. Exhaled nitric oxide in spray painters exposed to isocyanates : Effect modification by atopy and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonaid, Badri Sadat; Pronk, Anjoeka; Doekes, Gert; Heederik, Dick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Isocyanate asthma is one of the most frequently identified forms of occupational asthma in industrialised countries. The underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. There is only limited information about the relationship between exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and occupational exposure to

  13. Exhaled nitric oxide in spray painters exposed to isocyanates: Effect modification by atopy and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonaid, B.S.; Pronk, A.; Doekes, G.; Heederik, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Isocyanate asthma is one of the most frequently identified forms of occupational asthma in industrialised countries. The underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. There is only limited information about the relationship between exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and occupational exposure to

  14. Kollaaž arhitektuuris / Anne Prommik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prommik, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Arhitekt Vilen Künnapu projekteeritud 14-korteline elamu Nõmme tee 54. Ehitas Heinla Ehitus. Projektijuht Eno Lagle. Põhimaterjalid: metall, puit, kivi, klaas. Kommenteerivad: arhitekt, projektijuht, AS Haabersti Maja müügijuht R. Nermann, Heinla Ehituse juht M. Heinsaar.

  15. Circulating Microparticles Carry a Functional Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase That Is Decreased in Patients With Endothelial Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Patrick; Cortese‐Krott, Miriam Margherita; Amabile, Nicolas; Hundsdörfer, Claas; Kröncke, Klaus‐Dietrich; Kelm, Malte; Heiss, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Microparticles (MPs) are circulating membrane particles of less than a micrometer in diameter shed from endothelial and blood cells. Recent literature suggests that MPs are not just functionally inert cell debris but may possess biological functions and mediate the communication between vascular cells. As a significant proportion of MPs originate from platelets and endothelial cells, we hypothesized that MPs may harbor functional enzymes including an endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Methods and Results Using immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis, we found that human circulating MPs carry an eNOS. Ca2+ and l‐arginine‐dependent NOS activity of crude enzyme extract from MPs was determined by measuring the conversion of [3H]‐L‐arginine to [3H]‐citrulline and NOS‐dependent nitrite production. NOS‐dependent NO production in intact MPs was assessed by the NO‐specific fluorescent probe MNIP‐Cu. In patients with cardiovascular disease, endothelial dysfunction was associated with an increase in the total number of circulating MPs as well as a significant decrease in the expression and activity of eNOS in MPs. No difference in reactive oxygen species was noted in MPs isolated from either group. Conclusions Our data further support the concept that circulating MPs may not only retain phenotypic markers but also preserve the functionality of enzymes of the cells they originate from, including eNOS. PMID:23525410

  16. The effects of pioglitazone in cirrhotic rats with hepatopulmonary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Yi Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Pioglitazone down-regulated VEGF, eNOS and decreased intrapulmonary shunts without improving oxygenation. The current finding suggests a multifactorial mechanism of HPS that could not be successfully overcome merely by pioglitazone-induced anti-angiogenesis and shunting reduction.

  17. Exhaled nitric oxide in healthy young children during tidal breathing through a facemask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Peter F; Klug, Bent; Valerius, Niels H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values and to examine day-to-day and within-day variations of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) during tidal breathing in healthy children using a newly described method. Exhaled NO was measured on-line and off-line during tidal breathing through a facemask...... tidal breathing in young children....

  18. Hydrogen sulfide increases nitric oxide production from endothelial cells by an Akt-dependent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo J Cardounel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S and nitric oxide (NO are both gasotransmitters that can elicit synergistic vasodilatory responses in the in the cardiovascular system, but the mechanisms behind this synergy are unclear. In the current study we investigated the molecular mechanisms through which H2S regulates endothelial NO production. Initial studies were performed to establish the temporal and dose-dependent effects of H2S on NO generation using EPR spin trapping techniques. H2S stimulated a two-fold increase in NO production from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, which was maximal 30 min after exposure to 25-150 µM H2S. Following 30 min H2S exposure, eNOS phosphorylation at Ser 1177 was significantly increased compared to control, consistent with eNOS activation. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt, the kinase responsible for Ser 1177 phosphorylation, attenuated the stimulatory effect of H2S on NO production. Taken together, these data demonstrate that H2S up-regulates NO production from eNOS through an Akt-dependent mechanism. These results implicate H2S in the regulation of NO in endothelial cells, and suggest that deficiencies in H2S signaling can directly impact processes regulated by NO.

  19. Rhynchophylline Ameliorates Endothelial Dysfunction via Src-PI3K/Akt-eNOS Cascade in the Cultured Intrarenal Arteries of Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hui-Feng; Liu, Li-Mei; Pan, Chun-Shui; Wang, Chuan-She; Gao, Yuan-Sheng; Fan, Jing-Yu; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the protective effect of Rhynchophylline (Rhy) on vascular endothelial function in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs) and the underlying mechanism. Methods: Intrarenal arteries of SHRs and Wistar rats were suspended in myograph for force measurement. Expression and phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS), Akt, and Src kinase (Src) were examined by Western blotting. NO production was assayed by ELISA. Results: Rhy time- and concentration-dependently improved endothelium-dependent relaxation in the renal arteries from SHRs, but had no effect on endothelium-independent relaxation in SHR renal arteries. Wortmannin (an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) or PP2 (an inhibitor of Src) inhibited the improvement of relaxation in response to acetylcholine by 12 h-incubation with 300 μM Rhy. Western blot analysis revealed that Rhy elevated phosphorylations of eNOS, Akt, and Src in SHR renal arteries. Moreover, wortmannin reversed the increased phosphorylations of Akt and eNOS induced by Rhy, but did not affect the phosphorylation of Src. Furthermore, the enhanced phosphorylations of eNOS, Akt, and Src were blunted by PP2. Importantly, Rhy increased NO production and this effect was blocked by inhibition of Src or PI3K/Akt. Conclusion: The present study provides evidences for the first time that Rhy ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in SHRs through the activation of Src-PI3K/Akt-eNOS signaling pathway.

  20. Vascular dysfunctions in the isolated aorta of double-transgenic hypertensive mice developing aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waeckel, L.; Badier-Commander, C.; Damery, T.

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-II and oxidative stress are involved in the genesis of aortic aneurysms, a phenomenon exacerbated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) deletion or uncoupling. The purpose of this work was to study the endothelial function in wild-type C57BL/6 (BL) and transgenic mice expressing...

  1. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences - Vol 17, No 4 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis and spectra characterization of mixed ligand complexes derived from N-Propylidene-2-methylpyridylamine and Terpyridine · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. SA Adalikwu, OE Offiong, EA Eno, AL Ufefe, 523-527 ...

  2. Arctigenin, a Potent Ingredient of Arctium lappa L., Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Attenuates Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm through PI3K/Akt Pathway in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Zen Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Upregulation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt is observed within the cerebral arteries of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH animals. This study is of interest to examine Arctigenin, a potent antioxidant, on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and Akt pathways in a SAH in vitro study. Basilar arteries (BAs were obtained to examine phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, phospho-PI3K, Akt, phospho-Akt (Western blot and morphological examination. Endothelins (ETs and eNOS evaluation (Western blot and immunostaining were also determined. Arctigenin treatment significantly alleviates disrupted endothelial cells and tortured internal elastic layer observed in the SAH groups (p<0.01. The reduced eNOS protein and phospho-Akt expression in the SAH groups were relieved by the treatment of Arctigenin (p<0.01. This result confirmed that Arctigenin might exert dural effects in preventing SAH-induced vasospasm through upregulating eNOS expression via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and attenuate endothelins after SAH. Arctigenin shows therapeutic promise in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following SAH.

  3. of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene and serum level of vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uwerhiavwe

    Davignon and Ganz, 2004). NO is synthe- sized via a reaction that includes the conversion of L- arginine to L-citruline catalyzed by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which is one of the three isoforms of the enzyme (Mayer and Hemmens, 1997) ...

  4. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...

  5. ADSORPTION ON HEAT REGENERATED SPENT BLEACHING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS OF AQUEOUS Cu(II) ADSORPTION ON. HEAT REGENERATED SPENT BLEACHING EARTH. Enos W. Wambu1*, Gerald K. Muthakia2*, Joseph K. wa-Thiong'o1 and Paul M. Shiundu3. 1Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

  6. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Haplotypes Are Associated with Preeclampsia in Maya Mestizo Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Díaz-Olguín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a specific disease of pregnancy and believed to have a genetic component. The aim of this study was to investigate if three polymorphisms in eNOS or their haplotypes are associated with preeclampsia in Maya mestizo women.

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropicaux, 52: 107-112. UMECHE, A., AND ENO, R. O. A. (1987). A survey of parasites of chickens from poultry farms in Calabar,. Nigeria. Revista. Latinoamericana de Microbiologia, 29: 133-136. ZUK, M., KIM, T., ROBINSON, S. I., AND. JOHNSEN, T. S. (1998). Parasites. influence social rank and morphology, but not mate ...

  8. Aloha - Rigolette Area, Louisiana, Agricultural Flood Control. Volume 2. Technical Appendixes, A, B, C, D, E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Accions taken: None. 6. Factual Deterninacion (1230.LL). A reviev of appropriate infornaction as identified in it.5s 2-5 above indicates tht there is... potencial harm to the .aqi. ltic .,o.ysL:m ....... ................... DATE.________ SICNATURE Colonel. Corps of EnO nears District Engineer .1-14

  9. Targeting nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Gerard; van Goor, Harm; Jansen, Peter L M; Moshage, Han

    This review discusses the contributions of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isozymes neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) to the function and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Small (nanomolar) quantities of NO produced by calcium-dependent nNOS play a

  10. Targeting nitric oxide in the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Gerard; van Goor, Harry; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Moshage, Han

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the contributions of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isozymes neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) to the function and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Small (nanomolar) quantities of NO produced by calcium-dependent nNOS play a

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 183 ... Vol 14, No 1-2 (2009), Analysis Of The University Of Lagos Organizational Selfreliance And Survival Scheme, Abstract. L Nwinkina. Vol 8, No 1 (2003) ... Vol 12, No 2 (2007), Causes Of Burnout Among Primary School Teachers Within Kericho Municipality, Kenya, Abstract. G Ng'Eno. Vol 16, No 2 (2011) ...

  12. Kontserdipeegel / Igor Garshnek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garšnek, Igor, 1958-

    1999-01-01

    27. sept. toimunud kontserdist Estonia kontserdisaalis. Kavas B.Eno "Music for Airports". Rahvusvahelise muusikapäeva kontserdist 1. okt. Kavas M.Stachowski "Choreias, W.Lutoslawski Sümf. nr. 4 ja J.MacMillani löökriistakontsert "Veni, veni, Emmanuel". 3. okt. Rotermanni soolalaos toimunud kontserdist. Kavas Nielseni, T.Takemitsu ja R.Straussi muusika

  13. Deletion of T-type calcium channels Cav3.1 or Cav3.2 attenuates endothelial dysfunction in aging mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne D; Andersen, Kenneth; Lyngsø, Kristina S

    2018-01-01

    Impairment of endothelial function with aging is accompanied by reduced nitric oxide (NO) production. T-type Cav3.1 channels augment nitric oxide and co-localize with eNOS. Therefore, the hypothesis was that T-type channels contribute to the endothelial dysfunction of aging. Endothelial function ...

  14. Relation of Biochemical Parameters with Flow-mediated Dilatation in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurver Turfaner Sipahioglu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Increased ox-LDL, hs-CRP, and e-NOS are likely to be a result of oxidative stress, a condition in which an imbalance occurs between the production and inactivation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. In addition, in patients with MetS, smoking is independently related to endothelial dysfunction.

  15. Expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in acute radiation-induced cerebral edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoguo; Zhang Baomin; Chen Xiaohua; Gao Yabing; Wang Dewen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the relation between changes in expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in brain vascular endothelial cells and acute radiation-induced cerebral edema after 60 Co gamma knife irradiation with a high dose. Methods: The right caudate nucleus of rats were irradiated with 200 Gy 60 Co gamma knife. the rats were sacrificed within 14 days after irradiation. By a light microscopy, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, the authors studied the formation and development of acute radiation-induced cerebral edema as well as the expression of eNOS in brain vascular endothelial cells. Results: Acute radiation-induced cerebral edema was observed morphologically 2 hours after irradiation and peaked on day 3 after irradiation. The expression of eNOS in brain vascular endothelial cells markedly increased 2 hours after irradiation, which could be consistently visualized during the acute developmental phase of radiation-induced cerebral edema. Conclusion: The increased expression of eNOS may be related to the formation and development of acute radiation-induced cerebral edema after 60 Co gamma knife irradiation with a high dose

  16. Nosferatu Pärnus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    PÖFFi Suvekino raames algab mööda Eestit nn "Nosferatu tuur" ehk saksa tummfilmiklassika - Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau filmi "Nosferatu - õuduste sümfoonia" ("Nosferatu - Eine Symphonie des Grauens", 1921) ringreis koos ansambliga Kriminaalne Elevant (Kaspar Jancis, Danel Aljo, Eno Kollom, Hannes Kivi, Henry Tiisma)

  17. Kõlab õuduste sümfoonia / Kaupo Meiel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meiel, Kaupo, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    PÖFFi Suvekino raames jõuab 11. juunil Pärnusse nn "Nosferatu tuur" ehk saksa tummfilmiklassika - Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau filmi "Nosferatu - õuduste sümfoonia" ("Nosferatu - Eine Symphonie des Grauens", 1921) ringreis koos ansambliga Kriminaalne Elevant (Kaspar Jancis, Danel Aljo, Eno Kollom, Hannes Kivi, Henry Tiisma)

  18. PÖFF-i suvekino : Nosferatu hirmufilmi show Katariina kirikus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    PÖFFi Suvekino raames algab mööda Eestit nn "Nosferatu tuur" ehk saksa tummfilmiklassika - Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau filmi "Nosferatu - õuduste sümfoonia" ("Nosferatu - Eine Symphonie des Grauens", 1921) ringreis koos ansambliga Kriminaalne Elevant (Kaspar Jancis, Danel Aljo, Eno Kollom, Hannes Kivi, Henry Tiisma)

  19. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein/kg mice i.p (Eno et al. 1998). [n the same study, it was! found that the extract produced spontaneous contractions of the guineapig ileum, and that it blocked the contractile effect of histamine. The blocking actions of the extract of another sea anemone, Tealia felina on histamine ~ induced contractions of the guinea pig ...

  20. The human placenta from heavy smokers: evaluation of vasoactive peptides by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, H V; Larsen, L Grupe; Jørgensen, A

    2007-01-01

    combined with the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase technique. Et-1 and e-NOS were demonstrated in the placental vasculature, the trophoblast, and the amnion. A blinded comparative study showed no reproducible significant differences in the staining intensity of the antigen-antibody reaction to Et-1 and e...

  1. 2018-02-22T05:48:48Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/35699 2018-02-22T05:48:48Z joten:ART Causes Of Burnout Among Primary School Teachers Within Kericho Municipality, Kenya Ng'Eno, G burnout, primary school teachers, Kenya Teacher Burnout is a type of chronic response to the ...

  2. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Phosphorylation at Threonine 495 and Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Formation in Response to a High H2O2 Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guterbaum, Thomas Jeremy; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig; Fossum, A

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) is produced in vessels during ischemia/reperfusion and during inflammation, both leading to vascular dysfunction. We investigated cellular pathways involved in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation at Threonine 495 (Thr(495)) in human umbilical vein end...

  3. Intense intermittent exercise provides weak stimulus for vascular endothelial growth factor secretion and capillary growth in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Passos, Madla; Bangsbo, Jens

    2013-01-01

    capillarization in the muscle but abolished the exercise induced increase in mRNA for several angiogenic factors, increased the eNOS protein levels, lowered TSP-1 protein levels in muscle but increased interstitial TSP-1 protein levels. We conclude that intense intermittent exercise provides a weak stimulus...

  4. Pro- and anti-angiogenic factors in human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Nordsborg, Nikolai; Andersen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    to acute exercise increased similarly (>6-fold; P TSP-1) and Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in muscle, were unaffected by training, whereas e......NOS protein levels in muscle increased by 50% (P TSP-1. After training, TIMP-1mRNA content increased with exercise (P

  5. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at serine-615 contributes to nitric oxide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart A; Kohlhaas, Christine F; Boyd, Alasdair R; Yalla, Krishna C; Walsh, Kenneth; Connell, John M C; Salt, Ian P

    2010-01-27

    Insulin stimulates endothelial NO (nitric oxide) synthesis via PKB (protein kinase B)/Akt-mediated phosphorylation and activation of eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) at Ser-1177. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that stimulation of eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 may be required, yet is not sufficient for insulin-stimulated NO synthesis. We therefore investigated the role of phosphorylation of eNOS at alternative sites to Ser-1177 as candidate parallel mechanisms contributing to insulin-stimulated NO synthesis. Stimulation of human aortic endothelial cells with insulin rapidly stimulated phosphorylation of both Ser-615 and Ser-1177 on eNOS, whereas phosphorylation of Ser-114, Thr-495 and Ser-633 was unaffected. Insulin-stimulated Ser-615 phosphorylation was abrogated by incubation with the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) inhibitor wortmannin, infection with adenoviruses expressing a dominant-negative mutant PKB/Akt or pre-incubation with TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha), but was unaffected by high culture glucose concentrations. Mutation of Ser-615 to alanine reduced insulin-stimulated NO synthesis, whereas mutation of Ser-615 to aspartic acid increased NO production by NOS in which Ser-1177 had been mutated to an aspartic acid residue. We propose that the rapid PKB-mediated stimulation of phosphorylation of Ser-615 contributes to insulin-stimulated NO synthesis.

  6. Pharmacology of Endothelium-Dependent and Independent Relaxation of Rabbit Aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo

    2001-01-01

    tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), but unaffected by glibenclamid. It is concluded that the acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta is dependent on: the endothelium; the activation of muscarinic receptors; independent of prostanoids; and mediatedn by NO alone. Th eNO released...

  7. Tedmical Note on Local Adaptations to Soil Erosion and Low Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994) In- di~enoUs soil and water conservation: A review of the sta'te of knowledge and prospects for building on tradi- tiohs. Land degradation and rehabilitation. Vol. 5 p. I. 293-314. I. Edwards, R. (1993) Traditional farming systems and farm-.

  8. T-type Ca(2+) channels facilitate NO-formation, vasodilatation and NO-mediated modulation of blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Andersen, Kenneth; Thuesen, Anne D

    2014-01-01

    nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in arteries from wild type mice. Nitric oxide release measured as DAF fluorescence and cGMP levels were significantly lower in depolarized Cav3.1(-/-) compared to wild type arteries. In summary, the absence of T-type Cav3.1 channels attenuates NO-dependent dilatation...

  9. Identification of protein phosphatase involvement in the AT-receptor induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peluso, A Augusto; Bertelsen, Jesper Bork; Andersen, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    -antagonist), L-NAME (10µM; eNOS inhibitor), MK-2206 (100nM; Akt-inhibitor) sodium fluoride (1nM; serine/threonine-phosphatase inhibitor) or sodium orthovanadate (10nM; tyrosine-phosphatase inhibitor). NO release was estimated by quantifying DAF-FM fluorescence. The phosphorylation status of activating (e...

  10. Adverse effects of tempol on hidrosaline balance in rats with acute sodium overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdzian, N M; Mikusic, Nl Rukavina; Cao, G; Choi, M R; Penna, Sl Della; Fernández, B E; Toblli, J E; Rosón, M I

    2016-11-01

    We studied the effects of tempol, an oxygen radical scavenger, on hydrosaline balance in rats with acute sodium overload. Male rats with free access to water were injected with isotonic (control group) or hypertonic saline solution (0.80 mol/l NaCl) either alone (Na group) or with tempol (Na-T group). Hydrosaline balance was determined during a 90 min experimental period. Protein expressions of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), aquaporin 2 (AQP2), angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were measured in renal tissue. Water intake, creatinine clearance, diuresis and natriuresis increased in the Na group. Under conditions of sodium overload, tempol increased plasma sodium and protein levels and increased diuresis, natriuresis and sodium excretion. Tempol also decreased water intake without affecting creatinine clearance. AQP1 and eNOS were increased and Ang II decreased in the renal cortex of the Na group, whereas AQP2 was increased in the renal medulla. Nonglycosylated AQP1 and eNOS were increased further in the renal cortex of the Na-T group, whereas AQP2 was decreased in the renal medulla and was localized mainly in the cell membrane. Moreover, p47-phox immunostaining was increased in the hypothalamus of Na group, and this increase was prevented by tempol. Our findings suggest that tempol causes hypernatremia after acute sodium overload by inhibiting the thirst mechanism and facilitating diuresis, despite increasing renal eNOS expression and natriuresis.

  11. L-arginine supplementation attenuates capillary regression without increasing integrated succinate dehydrogenase activity and VEGF expression in skeletal muscle during hindlimb unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kensaku; Tanaka, Minoru; Kondo, Hiroyo; Ishihara, Akihiko; Fujino, Hidemi

    2016-10-01

    Decreased capillary number is observed in atrophied muscle. The change in capillary number is regulated by angiogenic factors. L-arginine enhances expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), angiogenic factor, in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of L-arginine supplementation on capillary regression during hindlimb unloading. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four treatment groups: (1) control, (2) L-arginine supplementation, (3) hindlimb unloading, and (4) hindlimb unloading with L-arginine supplementation. Hindlimb unloading resulted in a decrease of capillary-to-muscle fibre (C/F) ratio, eNOS expression, and integrated succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. L-arginine supplementation attenuated the decrease in both eNOS expression and C/F ratio, although it did not increase integrated SDH activity in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that L-arginine supplementation is effective for maintaining capillary number in atrophied muscle, and that elevation of eNOS expression may be one mechanism associated with these responses.

  12. Role of nitric oxide in vasodilation in upstream muscle during intermittent pneumatic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-En; Liu, Kang; Qi, Wen-Ning; Joneschild, Elizabeth; Tan, Xiangling; Seaber, Anthony V; Stamler, Jonathan S; Urbaniak, James R

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated the dosage effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) on intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC)-induced vasodilation in uncompressed upstream muscle and the effects of IPC on endothelial NOS (eNOS) expression in upstream muscle. After L-NMMA infusion, mean arterial pressure increased by 5% from baseline (99.5 +/- 18.7 mmHg; P < 0.05). Heart rate and respiratory rate were not significantly affected. One-hour IPC application on legs induced a 10% dilation from baseline in 10- to 20-microm arterioles and a 10-20% dilation in 21- to 40 microm arterioles and 41- to 70-microm arteries in uncompressed cremaster muscle. IPC-induced vasodilation was dose dependently reduced, abolished, or even reversed by concurrently infused L-NMMA. Moreover, expression of eNOS mRNA in uncompressed cremaster muscle was upregulated to 2 and 2.5 times normal at the end of 1- and 5-h IPC on legs, respectively, and the expression of eNOS protein was upregulated to 1.8 times normal. These increases returned to baseline level after cessation of IPC. The results suggest that eNOS plays an important role in regulating the microcirculation in upstream muscle during IPC.

  13. GLP-1 inhibits VEGFA-mediated signaling in isolated human endothelial cells and VEGFA-induced dilation of rat mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbøl, Cecilie Egholm; Khammy, Makhala Michell; Dalsgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    to PLCγ activation, Src, and endothelial NOS (eNOS) signaling, thereby controlling endothelial vessel tone. By using RT-PCR analysis, we found mRNA for the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC), human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, and rat arteries...

  14. Přehledný kalkul tříparametrových modelů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klán, Petr

    -, 8-9 (2011), s. 70-73 ISSN 1210-9592 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : automatické řízení * uzavřený regulační obvod, * přenos * Laplaceova transformace * PID regulace Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation http://www.odbornecasopisy.cz/res/pdf/44344.pdf

  15. Přehledný kalkul uzavřených regulačních obvodů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klán, Petr

    -, č. 12 (2011), s. 53-55 ISSN 1210-9592 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : automatické řízení * tříparametrový model * přenos * Laplaceova transformace Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation http://www.odbornecasopisy.cz/res/pdf/45426.pdf

  16. Endothelial Fcγ Receptor IIB Activation Blunts Insulin Delivery to Skeletal Muscle to Cause Insulin Resistance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Chambliss, Ken L.; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Ahmed, Mohamed; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Huang, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Modest elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with type 2 diabetes. We previously revealed in mice that increased CRP causes insulin resistance and mice globally deficient in the CRP receptor Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) were protected from the disorder. FcγRIIB is expressed in numerous cell types including endothelium and B lymphocytes. Here we investigated how endothelial FcγRIIB influences glucose homeostasis, using mice with elevated CRP expressing or lacking endothelial FcγRIIB. Whereas increased CRP caused insulin resistance in mice expressing endothelial FcγRIIB, mice deficient in the endothelial receptor were protected. The insulin resistance with endothelial FcγRIIB activation was due to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake caused by attenuated insulin delivery, and it was associated with blunted endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in skeletal muscle. In culture, CRP suppressed endothelial cell insulin transcytosis via FcγRIIB activation and eNOS antagonism. Furthermore, in knock-in mice harboring constitutively active eNOS, elevated CRP did not invoke insulin resistance. Collectively these findings reveal that by inhibiting eNOS, endothelial FcγRIIB activation by CRP blunts insulin delivery to skeletal muscle to cause insulin resistance. Thus, a series of mechanisms in endothelium that impairs insulin movement has been identified that may contribute to type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:27207525

  17. Acute coronary syndrome: Role of the telomere dynamic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... SSDB, single-stranded DNA breaks; eNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase; RNP ... ignore telomere as a double stranded DNA break point ...... 62(1): 7-12. Bellini A, Mattoli S (2007). The role of the fibrocyte, a bone marrow- derived mesenchymal progenitor, in reactive and reparative fibroses. Lab. Invest.

  18. Mtafiti Mwafrika (African Researcher) - Vol 31 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Case for an African Solution to Cybercrime -A Critical Assessment of the African Union Convention on Security in Cyberspace and Personal Data Protection · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Rene Nkongho Eno-Akpa, 1-71 ...

  19. Au-nano-delci in njihova uporaba

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, Rebeka; Zorko, Lidija; Anžel, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Razvoj tehnik za sintezo Au-nano delcev z določeno velikostjo, obliko in sestavo je izziv in pomembno področje raziskav v nanotehnologiji. Zlati nanodelci so namreč atraktivni zaradi potencialne uporabe v elektrokemiji in medicini, kot tudi za proizvodnjo različnih nano-naprav.

  20. Fluoride adsorption onto an acid treated lateritic mineral from Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wambu

    Fluoride adsorption onto an acid treated lateritic mineral from Kenya: Equilibrium studies. Enos W. Wambu1,2*, Charles O. Onindo2, Willis J. Ambusso3 and Gerald K. Muthakia4. 1Department of Chemistry, Bondo University College, P. O. Box 210 -60401, Bondo, Kenya. 2Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, P. O. ...

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    ABSTRACT. A Schiff-base derived from leucine and acety were synthesized and analyzed based on solubility, molar conductance, magnetic an suggested that the Schiff base acted as trid deprotonated-O of carboxylic group and eno lower molar conductance values (6.4. The magnetic moment values showed that a.

  2. Dynamin2 S-nitrosylation regulates adenovirus type 5 infection of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhimin; Kim, Jae Il; Frilot, Nicole; Daaka, Yehia

    2012-10-01

    Dynamin2 is a large GTPase that regulates vesicle trafficking, and the GTPase activity of dynamin2 is required for the multistep process of adenovirus infection. Activity of dynamin2 may be regulated by post-translational phosphorylation and S-nitrosylation modifications. In this study, we demonstrate a role for dynamin2 S-nitrosylation in adenovirus infection of epithelial cells. We show that adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) infection augments production of nitric oxide (NO) in epithelial cells and causes the S-nitrosylation of dynamin2, mainly on cysteine 86 (C86) and 607 (C607) residues. Forced overexpression of dynamin2 bearing C86A and/or C607A mutations decreases Ad5 infection. Diminishing NO synthesis by RNAi-induced knockdown of endogenous endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression attenuates virus infection of target cells. Ad5 infection promotes the kinetically dynamic S-nitrosylation of dynamin2 and eNOS: there is a rapid decrease in eNOS S-nitrosylation and a concomitant increase in the dynamin2 S-nitrosylation. These results support the hypothesis that dynamin2 S-nitrosylation following eNOS activation facilitates adenovirus infection of host epithelial cells.

  3. Is endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-derived nitric oxide involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most of the NOS activity in the heart corresponds to eNOS, which is located in the vascular endothelium within the myocardium as well as in cardiomyocytes (Kelly et al. 1996). Being localized in scattered nerves and ganglion cells. (Ursell and Mayes 1995), nNOS is far less prominent. Finally, iNOS can be induced within the ...

  4. Potential proliferative effect of lipopolysaccharide preconditioning on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... TLR4, vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-Cadherin), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) from the culture EPCs (control group) and EPCs preconditioned with 0.1 µg/ml LPS (preconditioned treated group) were also assessed by Real-time qPCR. EPCs cultured from hUCB were isolated, ...

  5. Employees’ participation in electronic networks of practice within a corporate group: perceived benefits and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi, M.; Lukosch, S.G.; van Splunter, S.; Brazier, F.M.; Hamedi, Mohsen; van Beers, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores benefits and costs of knowledge exchange perceived by individuals in connected electronic networks of practice (ENoP) in a corporate setting. The results of 25 semi-structured interviews show 9 perceived benefits and 5 perceived costs to be of importance for knowledge exchange.

  6. Immunoseroproteomic Profiling in African American Men with Prostate Cancer: Evidence for an Autoantibody Response to Glycolysis and Plasminogen-Associated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tino W; Zhang, Guangyu; Li, Jitian; Dai, Liping; Mirshahidi, Saied; Wall, Nathan R; Yates, Clayton; Wilson, Colwick; Montgomery, Susanne; Zhang, Jian-Ying; Casiano, Carlos A

    2016-12-01

    African American (AA) men suffer from a disproportionately high incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Despite these disparities, African American men are underrepresented in clinical trials and in studies on PCa biology and biomarker discovery. We used immunoseroproteomics to profile antitumor autoantibody responses in AA and European American (EA) men with PCa, and explored differences in these responses. This minimally invasive approach detects autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens that could serve as clinical biomarkers and immunotherapeutic agents. Sera from AA and EA men with PCa were probed by immunoblotting against PC3 cell proteins, with AA sera showing stronger immunoreactivity. Mass spectrometry analysis of immunoreactive protein spots revealed that several AA sera contained autoantibodies to a number of proteins associated with both the glycolysis and plasminogen pathways, particularly to alpha-enolase (ENO1). The proteomic data is deposited in ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003968. Analysis of sera from 340 racially diverse men by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) showed higher frequency of anti-ENO1 autoantibodies in PCa sera compared with control sera. We observed differences between AA-PCa and EA-PCa patients in their immunoreactivity against ENO1. Although EA-PCa sera reacted with higher frequency against purified ENO1 in ELISA and recognized by immunoblotting the endogenous cellular ENO1 across a panel of prostate cell lines, AA-PCa sera reacted weakly against this protein by ELISA but recognized it by immunoblotting preferentially in metastatic cell lines. These race-related differences in immunoreactivity to ENO1 could not be accounted by differential autoantibody recognition of phosphoepitopes within this antigen. Proteomic analysis revealed differences in the posttranslational modification profiles of ENO1 variants differentially recognized by AA-PCa and EA-PCa sera. These

  7. A role for endothelial nitric oxide synthase in intestinal stem cell proliferation and mesenchymal colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarando, Jon; López-Sánchez, Laura M; Mena, Rafael; Guil-Luna, Silvia; Conde, Francisco; Hernández, Vanessa; Toledano, Marta; Gudiño, Victoria; Raponi, Michela; Billard, Caroline; Villar, Carlos; Díaz, César; Gómez-Barbadillo, José; De la Haba-Rodríguez, Juan; Myant, Kevin; Aranda, Enrique; Rodríguez-Ariza, Antonio

    2018-01-10

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been highlighted as an important agent in cancer-related events. Although the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) isoform has received most attention, recent studies in the literature indicate that the endothelial isoenzyme (eNOS) can also modulate different tumor processes including resistance, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. However, the role of eNOS in cancer stem cell (CSC) biology and mesenchymal tumors is unknown. Here, we show that eNOS was significantly upregulated in VilCre ERT2 Apc fl/+ and VilCre ERT2 Apc fl/fl mouse intestinal tissue, with intense immunostaining in hyperproliferative crypts. Similarly, the more invasive VilCre ERT2 Apc fl/+ Pten fl/+ mouse model showed an overexpression of eNOS in intestinal tumors whereas this isoform was not expressed in normal tissue. However, none of the three models showed iNOS expression. Notably, when 40 human colorectal tumors were classified into different clinically relevant molecular subtypes, high eNOS expression was found in the poor relapse-free and overall survival mesenchymal subtype, whereas iNOS was absent. Furthermore, Apc fl/fl organoids overexpressed eNOS compared with wild-type organoids and NO depletion with the scavenger carboxy-PTIO (c-PTIO) decreased the proliferation and the expression of stem-cell markers, such as Lgr5, Troy, Vav3, and Slc14a1, in these intestinal organoids. Moreover, specific NO depletion also decreased the expression of CSC-related proteins in human colorectal cancer cells such as β-catenin and Bmi1, impairing the CSC phenotype. To rule out the contribution of iNOS in this effect, we established an iNOS-knockdown colorectal cancer cell line. NO-depleted cells showed a decreased capacity to form tumors and c-PTIO treatment in vivo showed an antitumoral effect in a xenograft mouse model. Our data support that eNOS upregulation occurs after Apc loss, emerging as an unexpected potential new target in poor-prognosis mesenchymal colorectal tumors

  8. Non-invasive measurements of exhaled NO and CO associated with methacholine responses in mice

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    Ameredes Bill T

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath are considered obtainable biomarkers of physiologic mechanisms. Therefore, obtaining their measures simply, non-invasively, and repeatedly, is of interest, and was the purpose of the current study. Methods Expired NO (ENO and CO (ECO were measured non-invasively using a gas micro-analyzer on several strains of mice (C57Bl6, IL-10-/-, A/J, MKK3-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/- and NOS-3-/- with and without allergic airway inflammation (AI induced by ovalbumin systemic sensitization and aerosol challenge, compared using independent-sample t-tests between groups, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA within groups over time of inflammation induction. ENO and ECO were also measured in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, ages 8–58 weeks old, the relationship of which was determined by regression analysis. S-methionyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC, and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP were used to inhibit neuronal/constitutive NOS-1 and heme-oxygenase, respectively, and alter NO and CO production, respectively, as assessed by paired t-tests. Methacholine-associated airway responses (AR were measured by the enhanced pause method, with comparisons by repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc testing. Results ENO was significantly elevated in naïve IL-10-/- (9–14 ppb and NOS-2-/- (16 ppb mice as compared to others (average: 5–8 ppb, whereas ECO was significantly higher in naïve A/J, NOS-3-/- (3–4 ppm, and MKK3-/- (4–5 ppm mice, as compared to others (average: 2.5 ppm. As compared to C57Bl6 mice, AR of IL-10-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/-, and NOS-3-/- mice were decreased, whereas they were greater for A/J and MKK3-/- mice. SMTC significantly decreased ENO by ~30%, but did not change AR in NOS-2-/- mice. SnPP reduced ECO in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, and increased AR in NOS-2-/- mice. ENO decreased as a function of age in IL-10-/- mice, remaining unchanged in C57Bl6 mice. Conclusion These results are

  9. Prevention of vascular dysfunction and arterial hypertension in mice generated by assisted reproductive technologies by addition of melatonin to culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhaj, Emrush; Pireva, Agim; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane; Allemann, Yves; Cerny, David; Dessen, Pierre; Sartori, Claudio; Scherrer, Urs; Rimoldi, Stefano F

    2015-10-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) induce vascular dysfunction in humans and mice. In mice, ART-induced vascular dysfunction is related to epigenetic alteration of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene, resulting in decreased vascular eNOS expression and nitrite/nitrate synthesis. Melatonin is involved in epigenetic regulation, and its administration to sterile women improves the success rate of ART. We hypothesized that addition of melatonin to culture media may prevent ART-induced epigenetic and cardiovascular alterations in mice. We, therefore, assessed mesenteric-artery responses to acetylcholine and arterial blood pressure, together with DNA methylation of the eNOS gene promoter in vascular tissue and nitric oxide plasma concentration in 12-wk-old ART mice generated with and without addition of melatonin to culture media and in control mice. As expected, acetylcholine-induced mesenteric-artery dilation was impaired (P = 0.008 vs. control) and mean arterial blood pressure increased (109.5 ± 3.8 vs. 104.0 ± 4.7 mmHg, P = 0.002, ART vs. control) in ART compared with control mice. These alterations were associated with altered DNA methylation of the eNOS gene promoter (P culture media prevented eNOS dysmethylation (P = 0.005, vs. ART + vehicle), normalized nitric oxide plasma concentration (23.1 ± 14.6 μM, P = 0.002 vs. ART + vehicle) and mesentery-artery responsiveness to acetylcholine (P culture media prevents ART-induced vascular dysfunction. We speculate that this approach will also allow preventing ART-induced premature atherosclerosis in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Aortic superoxide production at the early hyperglycemic stage in a rat type 2 diabetes model and the effects of pravastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Chigusa; Kajikuri, Junko; Hori, Eisei; Nagami, Chie; Matsunaga, Tamihide; Kimura, Kazunori; Itoh, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Endothelium-derived superoxide induces vascular dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which leads to vascular superoxide production in type 2 diabetes, in addition to the effects of pravastatin. We studied these mechanisms in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats (type 2 diabetes model) at the early hyperglycemic stage (vs. non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO] rats). Superoxide production and catalase activity were measured in aortas, as were the protein expressions of PKCδ and phospho-Ser(1177) eNOS. Superoxide production was increased in OLETF rats, and this increase was inhibited by the selective conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor Gö6976 and by the non-selective cPKC and novel PKC inhibitor GF109203X. Phospho-Ser(1177) eNOS was significantly increased in OLETF rats, whereas the protein expressions of PKCδ and phosopho-Thr(505) PKCδ and catalase activity were all greatly reduced. Pravastatin administration to OLETF rats in vivo had normalizing effects on all of these variables. The increment in superoxide production seen in OLETF rats (but not the production in pravastatin-treated OLETF rats) was abolished by high concentration of N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (electron transport inhibitor of eNOS), by sepiapterin (precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin), and by LY294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3-kinase] inhibitor). In OLETF rats at the early hyperglycemic stage, aortic superoxide production is increased owing to activation of uncoupled eNOS through phosphorylation by PI3-kinase/Akt. This may be related to the observed reduction in PKCδ/catalase activities. Pravastatin inhibited endothelial superoxide production via normalization of PKCδ/catalase activities.

  11. Hypobaric hypoxia induced arginase expression limits nitric oxide availability and signaling in rodent heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjulata; Padhy, Gayatri; Vats, Praveen; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar

    2014-06-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate regulation of cardiac arginase expression during hypobaric hypoxia and subsequent effect on nitric oxide availability and signaling. Rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (282mmHg for 3h) and ARG1 expression was monitored. The expression levels of eNOS and eNOS(Ser1177) were determined by Western blotting, cGMP levels were measured by ELISA and amino acid concentrations were measured by HPLC analysis. Transcription regulation of arginase was monitored by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay with anti-c-Jun antibody for AP-1 consensus binding site on ARG1 promoter. Arginase activity was inhibited by intra-venous dose of N-(ω)-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA) prior to hypoxia exposure and subsequent effect on NO availability and oxidative stress were evaluated. Hypobaric hypoxia induced cardiac arginase expression by recruiting c-Jun to AP-1 binding site on ARG1 promoter. This increased expression redirected l-arginine towards arginase and resulted in limited endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, nitric oxide (NO) availability and cGMP mediated signaling. Inhibition of arginase restored the eNOS activity, promoted cardiac NO availability and ameliorated peroxynitrite formation during hypoxia. Hypoxic induced arginase under transcription control of AP-1 reciprocally regulates eNOS activity and NO availability in the heart. This also results in cardiac oxidative stress. This study provides understanding of hypoxia-mediated transcriptional regulation of arginase expression in the heart and its subsequent effect on eNOS activity, NO availability and signaling as well as cardiac oxidative stress. This information will support the use of arginase inhibitors as therapeutics for pathological hypoxia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Erythropoietin enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiomyocytes exposed to chronic hypoxia through Akt/eNOS signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan; Zhou, Shengkai; Xiao, Yingbin; Chen, Lin

    2014-03-01

    Adaptation of cardiomyocytes to chronic hypoxia in cyanotic patients remains unclear. Mitochondrial biogenesis is enhanced in myocardium from cyanotic patients, which is possibly an adaptive response. Erythropoietin (EPO) in blood and its receptor (EPOR) on cardiomyocytes are upregulated by chronic hypoxia, suggesting that EPO-EPOR interaction is increased, which is inferred to positively regulate mitochondrial biogenesis through protein kinase B (Akt)/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signalling pathway. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to hypoxia (1% O(2)) for 1 week and treated with different doses of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Mitochondrial number, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator alpha (PGC-1α) mRNA expression increased in a dose-dependent manner induced by rhEPO. Akt and eNOS were significantly phosphorylated by rhEPO. Both blocking Akt with Wortmannin and silencing eNOS expression with shRNA plasmid decreased the mtDNA copy number and PGC-1α mRNA expression induced by rhEPO. Blocking Akt was associated with the decreased phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. RNA interference led to a reduction in the total and phosphorylated proteins of eNOS. Thus EPO enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiomyocytes exposed to chronic hypoxia, at least partly through Akt/eNOS signalling, which might be an adaptive mechanism of cardiomyocytes associated with the increased EPO-EPOR interaction in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD). © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  13. Schistosomes Enhance Plasminogen Activation: The Role of Tegumental Enolase.

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    Barbara C Figueiredo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke parasite that causes schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease of global public health importance. These relatively large parasites are able to survive prolonged periods in the human vasculature without inducing stable blood clots around them. We show here that the intravascular life stages (schistosomula and adult males and females can all promote significant plasminogen (PLMG activation in the presence of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA. This results in the generation of the potent fibrinolytic agent plasmin which could degrade blood clots forming around the worms in vivo. We demonstrate that S. mansoni enolase (SmEno is a host-interactive tegumental enzyme that, in recombinant form, can bind PLMG and promote its activation. Like classical members of the enolase protein family, SmEno can catalyze the interconversion of 2-phospho-D-glycerate (2-PGA and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP. The enzyme has maximal activity at pH 7.5, requires Mg2+ for optimal activity and can be inhibited by NaF but not mefloquin. Suppressing expression of the SmEno gene significantly diminishes enolase mRNA levels, protein levels and surface enzyme activity but, surprisingly, does not affect the ability of the worms to promote PLMG activation. Thus, while SmEno can enhance PLMG activation, our analysis suggests that it is not the only contributor to the parasite's ability to perform this function. We show that the worms possess several other PLMG-binding proteins in addition to SmEno and these may have a greater importance in schistosome-driven PLMG activation.

  14. Disaccharide combinations and the expression of enolase3 and plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase isoform in sturgeon sperm cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, M D; Li, P; Du, H; Qiao, X M; Liu, Z G; Wei, Q W

    2018-01-19

    Acipenser sinensis and Acipenser dabryanus are critically endangered species, so germplasm conservation via cryopreservation of sperm is necessary. Disaccharides can act as membrane-impermeable cryoprotectants, and enolase3 (ENO3) and plasma membrane Ca 2+ ATPase isoform (PMCA2) are proteins associated with sperm quality. We considered seven characteristics of sperm quality in cultured brood stock from A. sinensis and A. dabryanus. We tested use of sucrose or trehalose alone and in combination at different concentrations for cryopreservation of A. dabryanus sperm. A low concentration of sucrose plus trehalose (S 15 T 15 ) was optimal. Mixing of the extender with sucrose, lactose, or trehalose alone or with pairwise mixtures revealed that a mixture of lactose and trehalose (L 15 T 15 ) gave the best results for both A. sinensis and A. dabryanus. Enolase3 and PMCA2 expression levels were measured in cryopreserved A. sinensis sperm via Western blotting. Relative ENO3 and PMCA2 expression levels were examined, and the relationship between disaccharide composition, sperm quality and protein expression was explored in A. sinensis. The results showed that relative ENO3 and PMCA2 expression levels were the highest at L 15 T 15 in cryopreserved A. sinensis sperm. There were significant positive correlations between ENO3 expression and percentage membrane integrity, and between PMCA2 expression and sperm motility parameters (percentage of motile sperm, curvilinear velocity, straight-line velocity and average path velocity; p < .05) in cryopreserved A. sinensis sperm. Our results indicate the optimal disaccharide combination and concentrations for cryopreservation of A. sinensis and A. dabryanus sperm and suggest that ENO3 and PMCA2 expression levels could serve as a valuable indicator of sperm quality in A. sinensis. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Impact of nutrient excess and endothelial nitric oxide synthase on the plasma metabolite profile in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Sansbury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An increase in calorie consumption is associated with the recent rise in obesity prevalence. However, our current understanding of the effects of nutrient excess on major metabolic pathways appears insufficient to develop safe and effective metabolic interventions to prevent obesity. Hence, we sought to identify systemic metabolic changes caused by nutrient excess and to determine how endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS—which has anti-obesogenic properties—affects systemic metabolism by measuring plasma metabolites. Wild-type (WT and eNOS transgenic (eNOS-TG mice were placed on low fat or high fat diets for six weeks, and plasma metabolites were measured using an unbiased metabolomic approach. High fat feeding in WT mice led to significant increases in fat mass, which was associated with significantly lower plasma levels of 1,5-anhydroglucitol, lysophospholipids, 3-dehydrocarnitine, and bile acids, as well as branched chain amino acids (BCAAs and their metabolites. Plasma levels of several lipids including sphingomyelins, stearoylcarnitine, dihomo-linoleate and metabolites associated with oxidative stress were increased by high fat diet. In comparison with low fat-fed WT mice, eNOS-TG mice showed lower levels of several free fatty acids, but in contrast, the levels of bile acids, amino acids, and BCAA catabolites were increased. When placed on a high fat diet, eNOS overexpressing mice showed remarkably higher levels of plasma bile acids and elevated levels of plasma BCAAs and their catabolites compared with WT mice. Treatment with GW4064, an inhibitor of bile acid synthesis, decreased plasma bile acid levels but was not sufficient to reverse the anti-obesogenic effects of eNOS overexpression. These findings reveal unique metabolic changes in response to high fat diet and eNOS overexpression and suggest that the anti-obesity effects of eNOS are likely independent of changes in the bile acid pool.

  16. Inhibition of ice recrystallization and cryoprotective activity of wheat proteins in liver and pancreatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow-Shi-Yée, Mélanie; Briard, Jennie G; Grondin, Mélanie; Averill-Bates, Diana A; Ben, Robert N; Ouellet, François

    2016-05-01

    Efficient cryopreservation of cells at ultralow temperatures requires the use of substances that help maintain viability and metabolic functions post-thaw. We are developing new technology where plant proteins are used to substitute the commonly-used, but relatively toxic chemical dimethyl sulfoxide. Recombinant forms of four structurally diverse wheat proteins, TaIRI-2 (ice recrystallization inhibition), TaBAS1 (2-Cys peroxiredoxin), WCS120 (dehydrin), and TaENO (enolase) can efficiently cryopreserve hepatocytes and insulin-secreting INS832/13 cells. This study shows that TaIRI-2 and TaENO are internalized during the freeze-thaw process, while TaBAS1 and WCS120 remain at the extracellular level. Possible antifreeze activity of the four proteins was assessed. The "splat cooling" method for quantifying ice recrystallization inhibition activity (a property that characterizes antifreeze proteins) revealed that TaIRI-2 and TaENO are more potent than TaBAS1 and WCS120. Because of their ability to inhibit ice recrystallization, the wheat recombinant proteins TaIRI-2 and TaENO are promising candidates and could prove useful to improve cryopreservation protocols for hepatocytes and insulin-secreting cells, and possibly other cell types. TaENO does not have typical ice-binding domains, and the TargetFreeze tool did not predict an antifreeze capacity, suggesting the existence of nontypical antifreeze domains. The fact that TaBAS1 is an efficient cryoprotectant but does not show antifreeze activity indicates a different mechanism of action. The cryoprotective properties conferred by WCS120 depend on biochemical properties that remain to be determined. Overall, our results show that the proteins' efficiencies vary between cell types, and confirm that a combination of different protection mechanisms is needed to successfully cryopreserve mammalian cells. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  17. A T4SS Effector Targets Host Cell Alpha-Enolase Contributing to Brucella abortus Intracellular Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, María I; Morrone Seijo, Susana M; Guaimas, Francisco F; Comerci, Diego J

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus , the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, invades and replicates within cells inside a membrane-bound compartment known as the Brucella containing vacuole (BCV). After trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways, BCVs mature into endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartments permissive for bacterial replication. Brucella Type IV Secretion System (VirB) is a major virulence factor essential for the biogenesis of the replicative organelle. Upon infection, Brucella uses the VirB system to translocate effector proteins from the BCV into the host cell cytoplasm. Although the functions of many translocated proteins remain unknown, some of them have been demonstrated to modulate host cell signaling pathways to favor intracellular survival and replication. BPE123 (BAB2_0123) is a B. abortus VirB-translocated effector protein recently identified by our group whose function is yet unknown. In an attempt to identify host cell proteins interacting with BPE123, a pull-down assay was performed and human alpha-enolase (ENO-1) was identified by LC/MS-MS as a potential interaction partner of BPE123. These results were confirmed by immunoprecipitation assays. In bone-marrow derived macrophages infected with B. abortus , ENO-1 associates to BCVs in a BPE123-dependent manner, indicating that interaction with translocated BPE123 is also occurring during the intracellular phase of the bacterium. Furthermore, ENO-1 depletion by siRNA impaired B. abortus intracellular replication in HeLa cells, confirming a role for α-enolase during the infection process. Indeed, ENO-1 activity levels were enhanced upon B. abortus infection of THP-1 macrophagic cells, and this activation is highly dependent on BPE123. Taken together, these results suggest that interaction between BPE123 and host cell ENO-1 contributes to the intracellular lifestyle of B. abortus .

  18. The structure of bradyzoite-specific enolase from Toxoplasma gondii reveals insights into its dual cytoplasmic and nuclear functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Jiapeng [Northwestern University, 320 E. Superior Street, Morton 7-601, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Mouveaux, Thomas [Université Lille Nord de France, (France); Light, Samuel H.; Minasov, George; Anderson, Wayne F. [Northwestern University, 320 E. Superior Street, Morton 7-601, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Tomavo, Stanislas [Université Lille Nord de France, (France); Ngô, Huân M., E-mail: h-ngo@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, 320 E. Superior Street, Morton 7-601, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); BrainMicro LLC, 21 Pendleton Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The second crystal structure of a parasite protein preferentially enriched in the brain cyst of T. gondii has been solved at 2.75 Å resolution. Bradyzoite enolase 1 is reported to have differential functions as a glycolytic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator in bradyzoites. In addition to catalyzing a central step in glycolysis, enolase assumes a remarkably diverse set of secondary functions in different organisms, including transcription regulation as documented for the oncogene c-Myc promoter-binding protein 1. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two nuclear-localized, plant-like enolases: enolase 1 (TgENO1) in the latent bradyzoite cyst stage and enolase 2 (TgENO2) in the rapidly replicative tachyzoite stage. A 2.75 Å resolution crystal structure of bradyzoite enolase 1, the second structure to be reported of a bradyzoite-specific protein in Toxoplasma, captures an open conformational state and reveals that distinctive plant-like insertions are located on surface loops. The enolase 1 structure reveals that a unique residue, Glu164, in catalytic loop 2 may account for the lower activity of this cyst-stage isozyme. Recombinant TgENO1 specifically binds to a TTTTCT DNA motif present in the cyst matrix antigen 1 (TgMAG1) gene promoter as demonstrated by gel retardation. Furthermore, direct physical interactions of both nuclear TgENO1 and TgENO2 with the TgMAG1 gene promoter are demonstrated in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that T. gondii enolase functions are multifaceted, including the coordination of gene regulation in parasitic stage development. Enolase 1 provides a potential lead in the design of drugs against Toxoplasma brain cysts.

  19. The human milk oligosaccharide 2′-fucosyllactose attenuates the severity of experimental necrotising enterocolitis by enhancing mesenteric perfusion in the neonatal intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Misty; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Jia, Hongpeng; Lu, Peng; Fulton, William B.; Martin, Laura Y.; Prindle, Thomas; Nino, Diego F.; Zhou, Qinjie; Ma, Congrong; Ozolek, John A.; Buck, Rachael H.; Goehring, Karen C.; Hackam, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a common disease in premature infants characterised by intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. The only effective preventative strategy against NEC is the administration of breast milk, although the protective mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesise that an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) in breast milk, 2′-fucosyllactose (2′FL), protects against NEC by enhancing intestinal mucosal blood flow, and we sought to determine the mechanisms underlying this protection. Administration of HMO-2′FL protected against NEC in neonatal wild-type mice, resulted in a decrease in pro-inflammatory markers and preserved the small intestinal mucosal architecture. These protective effects occurred via restoration of intestinal perfusion through up-regulation of the vasodilatory molecule endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as administration of HMO-2′FL to eNOS-deficient mice or to mice that received eNOS inhibitors did not protect against NEC, and by 16S analysis HMO-2′FL affected the microbiota of the neonatal mouse gut, although these changes do not seem to be the primary mechanism of protection. Induction of eNOS by HMO-2′FL was also observed in cultured endothelial cells, providing a link between eNOS and HMO in the endothelium. These data demonstrate that HMO-2′FL protects against NEC in part through maintaining mesenteric perfusion via increased eNOS expression, and suggest that the 2′FL found in human milk may be mediating some of the protective benefits of breast milk in the clinical setting against NEC. PMID:27609061

  20. Analysis of T-786C and 4a/b endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms in retinopathy of prematurity

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    Pantelić Jelica R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a vascular proliferative disorder of retina, that causes visual impairment in premature children. Beside well known risk factors such as short gestational age, low birth weight and early oxygen exposure, genetic susceptibility is considered as a risk factor for development of the disease. The aim of our study was to explore the association of T-786C and 4a/b eNOS gene polymorphisms with the development of severe ROP. Study included 174 preterm infants, 84 with ROP and 90 as a control group. No differences have been observed in genotypes and alleles distributions of eNOS T-786C and eNOS 4a/b polymorphisms between two analyzed groups. There was significant difference in female infants by dominant model for 4a/b genotypes (4bb/4ba+4aa. Namely, female infants in ROP group were more frequently carriers of 4ba and 4aa genotypes than female infants in control group (p=0.037. Analysis of association between 4a/b eNOS polymorphism and ROP among preterm infants have not shown statistically significant association (p=0.288. Gestational age values by recessive model (4bb+4ba/4aa were significantly lower in infants with 4aa genotype (t=2.034 p=0.044. Almost all detected 4aa genotypes were present in the group of infants with gestational age under 30 weeks (p=0.032, but multivariate linear regression analysis does not show association of 4a/b genotypes with gestational age of premature infants. According to results of the present study T-786C and 4a/b polymorphisms of the eNOS gene may not be the risk factors for the manifestation of severe ROP in Serbian infants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175091

  1. Gene therapy of transplant arteriopathy by liposome-mediated transfection of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, A; Sai, S; Moore, M; Nyhuis, J; de Fries-Hallstrand, R; Quetingco, G C; Allen, M D

    2000-11-01

    Transplant arteriopathy is the major factor limiting long-term survival after cardiac transplantation. We have previously demonstrated that liposome-mediated gene delivery of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to donor hearts reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury by blocking NFkappaB activation, adhesion molecule expression, and leukocyte infiltration. In this study, we used gene transfer of eNOS in a rabbit carotid transplant model to see whether these same effects would similarly ameliorate transplant arteriopathy. Liposomes complexed to the gene encoding eNOS were injected into donor carotid arterial segments that were transplanted orthotopically into recipient carotid arteries (n = 10). Controls included transplanted carotids transfected with liposomes complexed to empty plasmids (no functional gene) (n = 4) and transplanted carotids treated with saline (n = 6). Transplanted arteries were harvested for processing at 21 days. Intima/media (I/M) area ratios were calculated by computerized image analysis. Infiltrating T-lymphocytes and macrophages, and expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were quantified on immunocytochemistry. The I/M ratio was significantly reduced in eNOS-transfected arteries compared with arteries transfected with empty plasmids and saline-treated controls. Compared to transplanted control arteries, eNOS-transfected arteries demonstrated significantly reduced T-cell infiltration into the intima and significantly reduced macrophage infiltration into the media. Cell surface expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were both reduced in eNOS-transfected arteries. ENOS gene delivery can suppress neointimal lesion formation and T-lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration in transplanted arteries, associated with a reduction in relevant adhesion molecule expression. Thus, gene therapy with eNOS may not only reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury but may also ameliorate transplant arteriopathy in transplanted hearts.

  2. Genetic engineering with endothelial nitric oxide synthase improves functional properties of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with coronary artery disease: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Savneet; Kumar, T R Santhosh; Uruno, Akira; Sugawara, Akira; Jayakumar, Karunakaran; Kartha, Chandrasekharan Cheranellore

    2009-11-01

    Recent studies have reported a marked impairment in the number and functions of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In view of an important role of eNOS in angiogenesis, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of eNOS gene transfer in ex vivo expanded EPCs isolated from patients with CAD. The expanded EPCs were transfected with mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1-eNOS containing the full-length human eNOS gene using lipofectamine. About 35-40% of the eNOS-EPCs had higher expression of eNOS as compared to untransfected EPCs. EPCs transfected with pcDNA3.0-EGFP, the plasmid vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used as control. The untransfected, GFP-transfected and eNOS-transfected EPCs were compared in terms of important functional attributes of angiogenesis such as proliferation, migration, differentiation and adhesion/integration into tube-like structures in vitro. Functional studies revealed that in the presence of defined growth conditions, compared to the untransfected and GFP-transfected cells, eNOS-EPCs from patients with CAD have a significant increase in [3H] thymidine-labeled DNA (P < 0.01), migration (14.6 +/- 1.8 and 16.5 +/- 1.9 vs. 23.5 +/- 3.4 cells/field, P < 0.01), ability to differentiate into endothelial-like spindle-shaped cells (46 +/- 4.5 and 56.5 +/- 2.1 vs. 93.2 +/- 6.6 cells/field, P < 0.001) and also incorporation into tube-like structures on the matrigel (GFP-EPCs: 21.25 +/- 2.9 vs. GFP-eNOS-EPCs: 34.5 +/- 5.5 cells/field, P < 0.05). We conclude that eNOS gene transfection is a valuable approach to augment angiogenic properties of ex vivo expanded EPCs and eNOS-modified EPCs may offer significant advantages than EPCs alone in terms of their clinical use in patients with myocardial ischemia.

  3. Delta- and gamma-tocotrienol isomers are potent in inhibiting inflammation and endothelial activation in stimulated human endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaila Muid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tocotrienols (TCTs are more potent antioxidants than α-tocopherol (TOC. However, the effectiveness and mechanism of the action of TCT isomers as anti-atherosclerotic agents in stimulated human endothelial cells under inflammatory conditions are not well established. Aims: 1 To compare the effects of different TCT isomers on inflammation, endothelial activation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. 2 To identify the two most potent TCT isomers in stimulated human endothelial cells. 3 To investigate the effects of TCT isomers on NFκB activation, and protein and gene expression levels in stimulated human endothelial cells. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with various concentrations of TCT isomers or α-TOC (0.3–10 µM, together with lipopolysaccharides for 16 h. Supernatant cells were collected and measured for protein and gene expression of cytokines (interleukin-6, or IL-6; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or TNF-α, adhesion molecules (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, or ICAM-1; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, or VCAM-1; and e-selectin, eNOS, and NFκB. Results: δ-TCT is the most potent TCT isomer in the inhibition of IL-6, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and NFκB, and it is the second potent in inhibiting e-selectin and eNOS. γ-TCT isomer is the most potent isomer in inhibiting e-selectin and eNOS, and it is the second most potent in inhibiting is IL-6, VCAM-1, and NFκB. For ICAM-1 protein expression, the most potent is δ-TCT followed by α-TCT. α- and β-TCT inhibit IL-6 at the highest concentration (10 µM but enhance IL-6 at lower concentrations. γ-TCT markedly increases eNOS expression by 8–11-fold at higher concentrations (5–10 µM but exhibits neutral effects at lower concentrations. Conclusion: δ- and γ-TCT are the two most potent TCT isomers in terms of the inhibition of inflammation and endothelial activation whilst enhancing eNOS, possibly mediated via the NFκB pathway. Hence

  4. Nitric oxide and coronary vascular endothelium adaptations in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Levy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrew S Levy*, Justin CS Chung*, Jeffrey T Kroetsch*, James WE RushDepartment of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: This review highlights a number of nitric oxide (NO-related mechanisms that contribute to coronary vascular function and that are likely affected by hypertension and thus become important clinically as potential considerations in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of coronary complications of hypertension. Coronary vascular resistance is elevated in hypertension in part due to impaired endothelium-dependent function of coronary arteries. Several lines of evidence suggest that other NO synthase isoforms and dilators other than NO may compensate for impairments in endothelial NO synthase (eNOS to protect coronary artery function, and that NO-dependent function of coronary blood vessels depends on the position of the vessel in the vascular tree. Adaptations in NOS isoforms in the coronary circulation to hypertension are not well described so the compensatory relationship between these and eNOS in hypertensive vessels is not clear. It is important to understand potential functional consequences of these adaptations as they will impact the efficacy of treatments designed to control hypertension and coronary vascular disease. Polymorphisms of the eNOS gene result in significant associations with incidence of hypertension, although mechanistic details linking the polymorphisms with alterations in coronary vasomotor responses and adaptations to hypertension are not established. This understanding should be developed in order to better predict those individuals at the highest risk for coronary vascular complications of hypertension. Greater endothelium-dependent dilation observed in female coronary arteries is likely related to endothelial Ca2+ control and eNOS expression and activity. In hypertension models, the coronary vasculature has not been

  5. The T -786C, G894T, and Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) Polymorphisms of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene in Prostate Cancer Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, S B; Öden, A

    2016-02-01

    In previously conducted some studies it has been revealed that nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) system play a significant role in carcinogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO) is regulated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme which is one of the isoenzymes of NO synthase (NOS). In this study we have tried to come to a conclusion about whether eNOS gene T -786C, G894T and Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) polymorphisms might be considered as a risk factor causing prostate cancer (PCa) or not. A total of 200 subjects were included in this research. 84 patients with PCa (mean age 70.0 ± 6.4) and 116 healthy controls (mean age 69.9 ± 7.5) were recruited in this case-control study. Genomic DNA was extracted using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (QIAGEN GmbH, Maryland, USA), according to the manufacturer's guidelines. The T-786C, G894T and Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) polymorphisms were amplified using polymerase chain reation (PCR), detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). For T -786C polymorphism CC genotype [odds ratio (OR): 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15-0.78, P = 0.009)] and allele frequency (OR: 0.631, CI: 0.421-0.946, P = 0.026) is significant for control. In patients with PCa eNOS G894T polymorphism, both GT (OR: 0.069, CI: 0.027-0.174; P = 0.0001) and TT (OR: 0.040, CI: 0.013-0.123; P = = 0.0001) genotype distribution, and also T allele frequency (OR: 0.237, CI: 0.155-0.362, P = 0.0001) were considered significant statistically. While genotype distribution for the other polymorphism eNOS, intron 4 VNTR (4a/b), is insignificant statistically, "a" allele frequency was found out to be significant (OR: 2.223, CI: 1.311-3.769, P = 0.003). In this study we indicated that genotype and allele frequencies of eNOS T -786C and G894T polymorphisms are statistically significant in patients with PCa. eNOS T -786C and G894T polymorphisms may be associated with PCa susceptibility in the Turkish population. In contrast, intron 4 VNTR (4a

  6. Nicorandil prevents endothelial dysfunction due to antioxidative effects via normalisation of NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase in streptozotocin diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serizawa Ken-ichi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicorandil, an anti-angina agent, reportedly improves outcomes even in angina patients with diabetes. However, the precise mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of nicorandil on diabetic patients has not been examined. We investigated the protective effect of nicorandil on endothelial function in diabetic rats because endothelial dysfunction is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg, once a day for 3 days to induce diabetes. Nicorandil (15 mg/kg/day and tempol (20 mg/kg/day, superoxide dismutase mimetic were administered in drinking water for one week, starting 3 weeks after STZ injection. Endothelial function was evaluated by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD in the femoral arteries of anaesthetised rats. Cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs were treated with high glucose (35.6 mM, 24 h and reactive oxygen species (ROS production with or without L-NAME (300 μM, apocynin (100 μM or nicorandil (100 μM was measured using fluorescent probes. Results Endothelial function as evaluated by FMD was significantly reduced in diabetic as compared with normal rats (diabetes, 9.7 ± 1.4%; normal, 19.5 ± 1.7%; n = 6-7. There was a 2.4-fold increase in p47phox expression, a subunit of NADPH oxidase, and a 1.8-fold increase in total eNOS expression in diabetic rat femoral arteries. Nicorandil and tempol significantly improved FMD in diabetic rats (nicorandil, 17.7 ± 2.6%; tempol, 13.3 ± 1.4%; n = 6. Nicorandil significantly inhibited the increased expressions of p47phox and total eNOS in diabetic rat femoral arteries. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly inhibited the decreased expression of GTP cyclohydrolase I and the decreased dimer/monomer ratio of eNOS. ROS production in HCAECs was increased by high-glucose treatment, which was prevented by L-NAME and nicorandil

  7. Flow prediction models using macroclimatic variables and multivariate statistical techniques in the Cauca River Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal Escobar Yesid; Munoz, Flor Matilde

    2007-01-01

    The project this centred in the revision of the state of the art of the ocean-atmospheric phenomena that you affect the Colombian hydrology especially The Phenomenon Enos that causes a socioeconomic impact of first order in our country, it has not been sufficiently studied; therefore it is important to approach the thematic one, including the variable macroclimates associated to the Enos in the analyses of water planning. The analyses include revision of statistical techniques of analysis of consistency of hydrological data with the objective of conforming a database of monthly flow of the river reliable and homogeneous Cauca. Statistical methods are used (Analysis of data multivariante) specifically The analysis of principal components to involve them in the development of models of prediction of flows monthly means in the river Cauca involving the Lineal focus as they are the model autoregressive AR, ARX and Armax and the focus non lineal Net Artificial Network.

  8. MiR-492 impairs the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patella, Francesca; Leucci, Eleonora; Evangelista, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells growing in high glucose-containing medium show reduced cell proliferation and in vitro angiogenesis. Evidence suggests that the molecular pathways leading to these cellular responses are controlled by microRNAs, endogenous post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression....... To identify the microRNAs and their targeted genes involved in the glucose responses, we performed the miRNA signature of Human Umbelical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) exposed and unexposed to high glucose. Among differentially expressed microRNAs, we analysed miR-492 and showed that its overexpression...... was able to reduce proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVEC. These effects were accompanied by the down-regulation of eNOS, a key regulator of the endothelial cell function. We showed that eNOS was indirectly down-regulated by miR-492 and we discovered that miR-492 was able to bind m...

  9. Oral Immunization Against Candidiasis Using Lactobacillus casei Displaying Enolase 1 from Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Karasaki, Miki; Tafuku, Senji; Aoki, Wataru; Sewaki, Tomomitsu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Candidiasis is a common fungal infection that is prevalent in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, an oral vaccine against Candida albicans was developed by using the molecular display approach. Enolase 1 protein (Eno1p) of C. albicans was expressed on the Lactobacillus casei cell surface by using poly-gamma-glutamic acid synthetase complex A from Bacillus subtilis as an anchoring protein. The Eno1p-displaying L. casei cells were used to immunize mice, which were later challenged with a lethal dose of C. albicans. The data indicated that the vaccine elicited a strong IgG response and increased the survival rate of the vaccinated mice. Furthermore, L. casei acted as a potent adjuvant and induced high antibody titers that were comparable to those induced by strong adjuvants such as the cholera toxin. Overall, the molecular display method can be used to rapidly develop vaccines that can be conveniently administered and require minimal processing.

  10. An oral vaccine against candidiasis generated by a yeast molecular display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Aoki, Wataru; Nomura, Takashi; Miyoshi, Ayuko; Tafuku, Senji; Sewaki, Tomomitsu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-12-01

    Enolase 1 (Eno1p) of Candida albicans is an immunodominant antigen. However, conventional technologies for preparing an injectable vaccine require purification of the antigenic protein and preparation of an adjuvant. To develop a novel type of oral vaccine against candidiasis, we generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that display the Eno1p antigen on their surfaces. Oral delivery of the engineered S. cerevisiae cells prolonged survival rate of mice that were subsequently challenged with C. albicans. Given that a vaccine produced using molecular display technology avoids the need for protein purification, this oral vaccine offers a promising alternative to the use of conventional and injectable vaccines for preventing a range of infectious diseases. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Doubly truncated FosB isoform (Delta2DeltaFosB) induces osteosclerosis in transgenic mice and modulates expression and phosphorylation of Smads in osteoblasts independent of intrinsic AP-1 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatakos, George; Rowe, Glenn C; Kveiborg, Marie

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Activator protein (AP)-1 family members play important roles in the development and maintenance of the adult skeleton. Transgenic mice that overexpress the naturally occurring DeltaFosB splice variant of FosB develop severe osteosclerosis. Translation of Deltafosb mRNA produces both...... that overexpress only Delta2DeltaFosB using the enolase 2 (ENO2) promoter-driven bitransgenic Tet-Off system. RESULTS: Despite Delta2DeltaFosB's failure to induce transcription of an AP-1 reporter gene, the transgenic mice exhibited both the bone and the fat phenotypes seen in the ENO2-DeltaFosB mice. Both Delta......6 expression. CONCLUSIONS: DeltaFosB's AP-1 transactivating function is not needed to induce increased bone formation, and Delta2DeltaFosB may act, at least in part, by increasing Smad1 expression, phosphorylation, and translocation to the nucleus....

  12. Power plants Novaky wishes a new block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.; Beer, G.

    2004-01-01

    In 2007 two undesulphurized blocks - the 3 rd and 4 th of Novaky Power plant (ENO) in Zemianske Kostolany can no longer burn a domestic brown coal. It means the stopping of around a half of production of the biggest Slovak miner - Hornonitrianske bane Prievidza, a.s. (HBP). HBP together with Swiss partner Advanced Power began the project of their own power plant several years ago. This project is halted because of high capital expenses, but the mining engineers see also the other way - project of construction of new source with capacity 125 MW instead of ENO 3 and 4 in patronage of Slovenske elektrarne (SE). However Slovenske elektrarne is in process of privatisation and there is a question how will the investor accede to several millions Slovak crowns project. This issue deals with project of new power plant and with related possibilities of the next mining of brown coal in the region of Horna Nitra

  13. COX-2–prostacyclin signaling through endothelial nitric oxide is not necessary for lipopolysaccharide-induced hypotension and bradycardia in conscious unrestrained mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Mette

    caused a concomitant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) that was significant after 2-3h and sustained through the experiment (8h). The LPS-induced changes in MAP and HR were not different from control in COX-2-/- mice and in eNOS-/- mice. Intravenous infusion...... of a prostacyclin receptor (IP) antagonist, (BR5064, 0.1 mg/kg bolus followed by infusion at a rate of 0.005 mg/kg/h for 8 h), effectively blocked the hypotensive effect of an IP agonist (beraprost 20 µg/kg), but did not attenuate the LPS-induced decrease in MAP and HR. LPS decreased eNOS mRNA level in liver...

  14. Behavior of phytoplankton during the ENSO event in the Pacific Ocean off Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Higuera, Paula J; Ortiz, Javier R.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the Phytoplankton behavior in the Colombian Pacific basin and its relation with physical and chemical variables present during the 1996 - 2000 period, in order to establish different behaviors during the occurrence of Enos (El Nino y la Nina) and under normal conditions and to define biological indicators. Eight new species of diatoms were detected during the Nino phenomenon and 6 new one during the Nina phenomenon. These new species can be considered as biological indicators. Dinoflagellate are better indicators of the Enos events than the diatoms, as it is the case for Ceratium fusus var. seta, C. tripos var. tripos and C. furca var. furca, which are biological indicators of the Nino phenomenon. During the Nina phenomenon, nine new species of Dinoflagellate were reported and considered as biological indicator belonging to Amphidinium, Goniodoma, Gonyaulax, Lingulodinium, Peridinium, Phalacroma, Polikrikos and Protoperidinium.

  15. Monomeric adiponectin increases cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells cultured in normal and high glucose conditions: Data on kinases activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grossini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We found that monomeric adiponectin was able to increase cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE cultured both in normal and high glucose condition. Moreover, in normal glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased p38MAPK, Akt, ERK1/2 and eNOS phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent way. Also in high glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased eNOS and above kinases phosphorylation with similar patterns but at lower extent. For interpretation of the data presented in this article, please see the research article “Monomeric adiponectin modulates nitric oxide release and calcium movements in porcine aortic endothelial cells in normal/high glucose conditions” (Grossini et al., in press [1].

  16. Näitus nagu kuu / Anders Härm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Näitusest "Expat-Art-Centre" Tallinna Kunstihoone fuajees, Ku fassaadil ja Ku-Ku kohvikus kuni 12. I. Näituse ja sellega kaasneva ajakirja on koostanud Mathieu Copeland, osalevad Brian Eno, Pierre Huyghe (sünd. 1962), Ben Kinmont, Claude Leveque (sünd. 1953), Didier Marcel, Olivier Mosset (sünd. 1933), Shimabuku (sünd. 1969), Dan Walsh (sünd. 1962), Ian Wilson (sünd. 1940)

  17. Endothelial Fcγ Receptor IIB Activation Blunts Insulin Delivery to Skeletal Muscle to Cause Insulin Resistance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Keiji; Chambliss, Ken L; Yuhanna, Ivan S; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Ahmed, Mohamed; Atochin, Dmitriy N; Huang, Paul L; Shaul, Philip W; Mineo, Chieko

    2016-07-01

    Modest elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with type 2 diabetes. We previously revealed in mice that increased CRP causes insulin resistance and mice globally deficient in the CRP receptor Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) were protected from the disorder. FcγRIIB is expressed in numerous cell types including endothelium and B lymphocytes. Here we investigated how endothelial FcγRIIB influences glucose homeostasis, using mice with elevated CRP expressing or lacking endothelial FcγRIIB. Whereas increased CRP caused insulin resistance in mice expressing endothelial FcγRIIB, mice deficient in the endothelial receptor were protected. The insulin resistance with endothelial FcγRIIB activation was due to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake caused by attenuated insulin delivery, and it was associated with blunted endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in skeletal muscle. In culture, CRP suppressed endothelial cell insulin transcytosis via FcγRIIB activation and eNOS antagonism. Furthermore, in knock-in mice harboring constitutively active eNOS, elevated CRP did not invoke insulin resistance. Collectively these findings reveal that by inhibiting eNOS, endothelial FcγRIIB activation by CRP blunts insulin delivery to skeletal muscle to cause insulin resistance. Thus, a series of mechanisms in endothelium that impairs insulin movement has been identified that may contribute to type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Adrenalectomy alters regulation of blood pressure and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in sheep: modulation by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wood, Charles E; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2007-07-01

    Hypoadrenocorticism produces more severe hypotension during the peripartal period in pregnant ewes and women. We hypothesized that estradiol increases the severity of hypotension after withdrawal of corticosteroids and that this results from combined effects of adrenalectomy and estradiol to increase endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). In study I, blood pressure and eNOS mRNA and protein in aorta, uterine, renal, and mesenteric arteries were measured in intact ewes or adrenalectomized ewes 18-20 h after cessation of infusion of cortisol and aldosterone; half of each group ewes were treated with estradiol. In study II, adrenalectomized ewes were similarly studied 22-28 h after withdrawal of corticosteroids. Estradiol treatment in both studies significantly increased eNOS mRNA and protein in uterine artery, whereas corticosteroid withdrawal decreased expression of eNOS mRNA and protein in uterine artery. In both studies, adrenalectomy and steroid withdrawal decreased mean arterial pressure. In study II, four of six adrenalectomized ewes not treated with estradiol showed dramatic phasic variations in blood pressure and heart rate with a period of approximately 20 s, developing within 22-28 h after corticosteroid withdrawal. Although there was no effect of estradiol on blood pressure in study I, in study II, ewes treated with estradiol did not develop this pattern. Estradiol also slowed both the decline in plasma sodium and the rise in plasma potassium after corticosteroid withdrawal. These results disprove the hypothesis that estradiol increases the severity of hypotension during hypoadrenocorticism. However, the study reveals an important effect of corticosteroid withdrawal on blood pressure, consistent with corticosteroid modulation of baroreflex responsiveness.

  19. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase single nucleotide polymorphism and left ventricular function in early chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Chand

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with accelerated cardiovascular disease and heart failure. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS Glu298Asp single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotype has been associated with a worse phenotype amongst patients with established heart failure and in patients with progression of their renal disease. The association of a cardiac functional difference in non-dialysis CKD patients with no known previous heart failure, and eNOS gene variant is investigated.140 non-dialysis CKD patients, who had cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR imaging and tissue doppler echocardiography as part of two clinical trials, were genotyped for eNOS Glu298Asp SNP retrospectively.The median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was 50 mls/min and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 74% with no overt diastolic dysfunction in this cohort. There were significant differences in LVEF across eNOS genotypes with GG genotype being associated with a worse LVEF compared to other genotypes (LVEF: GG 71%, TG 76%, TT 73%, p = 0.006. After multivariate analysis, (adjusting for age, eGFR, baseline mean arterial pressure, contemporary CMR heart rate, total cholesterol, high sensitive C-reactive protein, body mass index and gender GG genotype was associated with a worse LVEF, and increased LV end-diastolic and systolic index (p = 0.004, 0.049 and 0.009 respectively.eNOS Glu298Asp rs1799983 polymorphism in CKD patients is associated with relevant sub-clinical cardiac remodelling as detected by CMR. This gene variant may therefore represent an important genetic biomarker, and possibly highlight pathways for intervention, in these patients who are at particular risk of worsening cardiac disease as their renal dysfunction progresses.

  20. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the rat is associated with changes in vaginal hemodynamics, morphology and biochemical markers

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Noel N; Stankovic, Miljan; Cushman, Tulay T; Goldstein, Irwin; Munarriz, Ricardo; Traish, Abdulmaged M

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes is associated with declining sexual function in women. However, the effects of diabetes on genital tissue structure, innervation and function remains poorly characterized. In control and streptozotocin-treated female rats, we investigated the effects of diabetes on vaginal blood flow, tissue morphology, and expression of arginase I, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), key enzymes that regulate smooth muscle relaxation....

  1. Musical geography and space music

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Pavle

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses certain aspects of musical geography as a complex field of crossing musical content and musical, geographical and social space, social practices and system communication rules. Space music as the hybrid style and genre is layered mapping psychoacoustic phenomenon, sociological and cultural-historical coordinates in shaping the musical geography. It is presented by two aspects of this mapping: sound mapping in musical producing and sound making on autors like Brian Eno, and...

  2. Blood transfusion improves renal oxygenation and renal function in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrani, Lara; Ergin, Bulent; Kapucu, Aysegul; Ince, Can

    2016-12-20

    The effects of blood transfusion on renal microcirculation during sepsis are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion on renal microvascular oxygenation and renal function during sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Twenty-seven Wistar albino rats were randomized into four groups: a sham group (n = 6), a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group (n = 7), a LPS group that received fluid resuscitation (n = 7), and a LPS group that received blood transfusion (n = 7). The mean arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal microvascular oxygenation within the kidney cortex were recorded. Acute kidney injury was assessed using the serum creatinine levels, metabolic cost, and histopathological lesions. Nitrosative stress (expression of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)) within the kidney was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Hemoglobin levels, pH, serum lactate levels, and liver enzymes were measured. Fluid resuscitation and blood transfusion both significantly improved the mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow after LPS infusion. Renal microvascular oxygenation, serum creatinine levels, and tubular damage significantly improved in the LPS group that received blood transfusion compared to the group that received fluids. Moreover, the renal expression of eNOS was markedly suppressed under endotoxin challenge. Blood transfusion, but not fluid resuscitation, was able to restore the renal expression of eNOS. However, there were no significant differences in lactic acidosis or liver function between the two groups. Blood transfusion significantly improved renal function in endotoxemic rats. The specific beneficial effect of blood transfusion on the kidney could have been mediated in part by the improvements in renal microvascular oxygenation and sepsis-induced endothelial dysfunction via the restoration of eNOS expression within the kidney.

  3. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by IRFI 042, a vitamin E analogue, decreases monensin cardiotoxicity in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calo, Margherita; Altavilla, Domenica; Seminara, Paolo; Marini, Herbert; Minutoli, Letteria; Bitto, Alessandra; Naccari, Francesco; Squadrito, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Monensin, a well-known ionophore antibiotic, may cause severe damage in myocardial cells. We investigated whether IRFI 042, a new analogue of vitamin E, may block lipid peroxidation in myocardial cells and in turn protect against monensin toxicity. Monensin toxicity was induced by repeated daily administration of the ionophore antibiotic (150 mg/kg/day for 7 days). Sham animals received by oral gavages only a saline solution and were used as controls. All animals were randomized to receive concomitantly by oral gavages IRFI 042 (20 mg/kg) or its vehicle. The experiment lasted 8 days. Survival rate, heart lipid peroxidation, studied by means of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) levels, cardiac expression of endothelial nitric oxide (e-NOS) and histological analysis of the heart were performed. Monensin administration caused a decrease in survival rate. Mortality appeared following the second monensin injection and at day 7 caused a survival rate of 20%. Thereafter, no further mortality was observed. IRFI 042 administration improved survival rate. Injection of the ionophore antibiotic resulted in a marked cardiac lipid peroxidation and in a significant reduction in cardiac e-NOS message and protein expression. IRFI 042 decreased heart TBARs levels (Monensin + vehicle = 6.5 ± 0.8 nmol/mg; Monensin + IRFI 042 = 3.2 ± 1.1 nmol/mg; P < 0.001) and increased e-NOS message and protein expression. Histological analysis showed that IRFI 042 improved myocardial cells damage and enhanced the depressed e-NOS expression in chick heart samples following monensin administration. Our data suggest that IRFI 042 is a promising drug to reduce monensin cardio-toxicity in chicks

  4. Prognostic factors of synkinesis after Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Naohito; Yagi, Ryo; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Ota, Susumu

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the prognostic factors of synkinesis following Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. A total of 345 patients consisting of 309 cases of Bell's palsy and 36 cases of Ramsay Hunt syndrome were enrolled in our study. The following 13 factors were considered as candidate prognostic factors for the presence of synkinesis at 6 months from onset: age, sex, diagnosis, diabetes mellitus, initial onset or recurrence, electroneurography (ENoG), number of days from onset to first visit to our hospital, the lowest Yanagihara grading system score, the change in Yanagihara score after 1 month, otalgia, hearing loss, vertigo and taste disturbances. These factors were analyzed by logistic regression. Logistic regression analysis clarified the lowest Yanagihara score, the change in Yanagihara score after 1 month, and the ENoG value for a prognosis of synkinesis. The most predictive prognostic factor was the lowest Yanagihara score, and the adjusted odds ratio in the multivariate model was 11.415. As for other prognostic factors, the adjusted odds ratios ranged from 7.017 (ENoG value) to 8.310 (the change in Yanagihara score after 1 month). These findings were therefore considered as high risk factors for synkinesis. It is possible to predict synkinesis following Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome on the basis of clinical symptoms. The lowest Yanagihara score, and the change in Yanagihara score after 1 month, together with the ENoG value at the onset, were found to be especially important factors for predicting synkinesis following Bell's palsy and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central......, dehierarchization, ubiquity and the production of unfocused sensations in contrast to the conventional notion of the aesthetic experience as a focused contemplation of a stationary object....

  6. Plasma autoantibodies against heat shock protein 70, enolase 1 and ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor 1 as potential biomarkers for cholangiocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucksak Rucksaken

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is often challenging, leading to poor prognosis. CCA arises via chronic inflammation which may be associated with autoantibodies production. This study aims to identify IgG antibodies directed at self-proteins and tumor-associated antigens. Proteins derived from immortalized cholangiocyte cell line (MMNK1 and CCA cell lines (M055, M214 and M139 were separated using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and incubated with pooled plasma of patients with CCA and non-neoplastic controls by immunoblotting. Twenty five immunoreactive spots against all cell lines-derived proteins were observed on stained gels and studied by LC-MS/MS. Among these, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, enolase 1 (ENO1 and ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor 1 (RNH1 obtained the highest matching scores and were thus selected for further validation. Western blot revealed immunoreactivity against HSP70 and RNH1 in the majority of CCA cases and weakly in healthy individuals. Further, ELISA showed that plasma HSP70 autoantibody level in CCA was significantly capable to discriminate CCA from healthy individuals with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.9158 (cut-off 0.2630, 93.55% sensitivity and 73.91% specificity. Plasma levels of IgG autoantibodies against HSP70 were correlated with progression from healthy individuals to cholangitis to CCA (r = 0.679, P<0.001. In addition, circulating ENO1 and RNH1 autoantibodies levels were also significantly higher in cholangitis and CCA compared to healthy controls (P<0.05. Moreover, the combinations of HSP70, ENO1 or RNH1 autoantibodies positivity rates improved specificity to over 78%. In conclusion, plasma IgG autoantibodies against HSP70, ENO1 and RNH1 may represent new diagnostic markers for CCA.

  7. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms (G894T) in diabetes mellitus in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-baz1 ; Farouk2; Tag Eldin2; Ezat2

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major microvascular complications of diabetes. Genetic predisposition has been implicated in DN. The eNOS protein synthesizes nitric oxide constitutively via a reaction including the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline, which involves the transfer of five electrons provided by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of G894T polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) ...

  8. The Effect of Alcohol Administration on the Corpus Cavernosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Min Choi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We studied the effects of alcohol administration on the corpus cavernosum (CC using an animal model. Materials and Methods: CC sections and the aortic ring of rabbits were used in an organ bath study. After acute alcohol administration, changes in blood alcohol concentration and electrical stimulation induced intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP percentage were compared in rats. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP levels in the CC were measured using immunoassays. After chronic alcohol administration, ICP/MAP percentage, cAMP and cGMP were compared in rats. Histological changes were examined using the Masson trichrome stain and the Sircol collagen assay. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results: Alcohol relaxed the CC in a dose-dependent manner, and the relaxation response was suppressed when pretreated with propranolol, indomethacin, glibenclamide, and 4-aminopyridine. In rats with acute alcohol exposure, the cAMP level in the CC was significantly greater than was observed in the control group (p<0.05. In rats with chronic alcohol exposure, however, changes in cAMP and cGMP levels were insignificant, and the CC showed markedly smaller areas of smooth muscle, greater amounts of dense collagen (p<0.05. Immunohistochemical analysis of eNOS showed a less intense response, and western blotting showed that eNOS expression was significantly lower in this group (p<0.05. Conclusions: Acute alcohol administration activated the cAMP pathway with positive effects on erectile function. In contrast, chronic alcohol administration changed the ultrastructures of the CC and suppressed eNOS expression, thereby leading to erectile dysfunction.

  9. S100A1 deficiency impairs postischemic angiogenesis via compromised proangiogenic endothelial cell function and nitric oxide synthase regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Patrick; Lerchenmüller, Carolin; Rengo, Giuseppe; Mahlmann, Adrian; Ritterhoff, Julia; Rohde, David; Goodman, Chelain; Busch, Cornelius J; Laube, Felix; Heissenberg, Julian; Pleger, Sven T; Weiss, Norbert; Katus, Hugo A; Koch, Walter J; Peppel, Karsten

    2013-01-04

    Mice lacking the EF-hand Ca2+ sensor S100A1 display endothelial dysfunction because of distorted Ca2+ -activated nitric oxide (NO) generation. To determine the pathophysiological role of S100A1 in endothelial cell (EC) function in experimental ischemic revascularization. Patients with chronic critical limb ischemia showed almost complete loss of S100A1 expression in hypoxic tissue. Ensuing studies in S100A1 knockout (SKO) mice subjected to femoral artery resection unveiled insufficient perfusion recovery and high rates of autoamputation. Defective in vivo angiogenesis prompted cellular studies in SKO ECs and human ECs, with small interfering RNA-mediated S100A1 knockdown demonstrating impaired in vitro and in vivo proangiogenic properties (proliferation, migration, tube formation) and attenuated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated and hypoxia-stimulated endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity. Mechanistically, S100A1 deficiency compromised eNOS activity in ECs by interrupted stimulatory S100A1/eNOS interaction and protein kinase C hyperactivation that resulted in inhibitory eNOS phosphorylation and enhanced VEGF receptor-2 degradation with attenuated VEGF signaling. Ischemic SKO tissue recapitulated the same molecular abnormalities with insufficient in vivo NO generation. Unresolved ischemia entailed excessive VEGF accumulation in SKO mice with aggravated VEGF receptor-2 degradation and blunted in vivo signaling through the proangiogenic phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt/eNOS cascade. The NO supplementation strategies rescued defective angiogenesis and salvaged limbs in SKO mice after femoral artery resection. Our study shows for the first time downregulation of S100A1 expression in patients with critical limb ischemia and identifies S100A1 as critical for EC function in postnatal ischemic angiogenesis. These findings link its pathological plasticity in critical limb ischemia to impaired neovascularization, prompting further studies to probe the

  10. Postnatal hyperoxia exposure differentially affects hepatocytes and liver haemopoietic cells in newborn rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guya Diletta Marconi

    Full Text Available Premature newborns are frequently exposed to hyperoxic conditions and experimental data indicate modulation of liver metabolism by hyperoxia in the first postnatal period. Conversely, nothing is known about possible modulation of growth factors and signaling molecules involved in other hyperoxic responses and no data are available about the effects of hyperoxia in postnatal liver haematopoiesis. The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of hyperoxia in the liver tissue (hepatocytes and haemopoietic cells and to investigate possible changes in the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α, endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS, and Nuclear Factor-kB (NF-kB. Experimental design of the study involved exposure of newborn rats to room air (controls, 60% O2 (moderate hyperoxia, or 95% O2 (severe hyperoxia for the first two postnatal weeks. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were performed. Severe hyperoxia increased hepatocyte apoptosis and MMP-9 expression and decreased VEGF expression. Reduced content in reticular fibers was found in moderate and severe hyperoxia. Some other changes were specifically produced in hepatocytes by moderate hyperoxia, i.e., upregulation of HIF-1α and downregulation of eNOS and NF-kB. Postnatal severe hyperoxia exposure increased liver haemopoiesis and upregulated the expression of VEGF (both moderate and severe hyperoxia and eNOS (severe hyperoxia in haemopoietic cells. In conclusion, our study showed different effects of hyperoxia on hepatocytes and haemopoietic cells and differential involvement of the above factors. The involvement of VEGF and eNOS in the liver haemopoietic response to hyperoxia may be hypothesized.

  11. Chronic hypoxia attenuates VEGF signaling and angiogenic responses by downregulation of KDR in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska-Pazdrak, Barbara; Hein, Travis W; Olszewska, Paulina; Carney, Darrell H

    2009-05-01

    Coronary artery disease results in progressive vascular stenosis associated with chronic myocardial ischemia. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates endothelial cell angiogenic responses to revascularize ischemic tissues; however, the effect of chronic hypoxia on the responsiveness of endothelial cells to VEGF remains unclear. We, therefore, investigated whether hypoxia alters VEGF-stimulated signaling and angiogenic responses in primary human coronary artery endothelial (HCAE) cells. Exposure of HCAE cells to hypoxia (1% O(2)) for 24 h decreased VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration ( approximately 82%), proliferation ( approximately 30%), and tube formation. Hypoxia attenuated VEGF-stimulated activation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) ( approximately 72%) and reduced NO production in VEGF-stimulated cells from 237 +/- 38.8 to 61.3 +/- 28.4 nmol/l. Moreover, hypoxia also decreased the ratio of phosphorylated eNOS to total eNOS in VEGF-stimulated cells by approximately 50%. This effect was not observed in thrombin-stimulated cells, suggesting that hypoxia specifically inhibited VEGF signaling upstream of eNOS phosphorylation. VEGF-induced activation of Akt, ERK1/2, p38, p70S6 kinases, and S6 ribosomal protein was also attenuated in hypoxic cells. Moreover, VEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 (KDR) at Y996 and Y1175 was decreased by hypoxia. This decrease correlated with a 70 +/- 12% decrease in KDR protein expression. Analysis of mRNA from these cells showed that hypoxia reduced steady-state levels of KDR mRNA by 52 +/- 16% and decreased mRNA stability relative to normoxic cells. Our findings demonstrate that chronic hypoxia attenuates VEGF-stimulated signaling in HCAE cells by specific downregulation of KDR expression. These data provide a novel explanation for the impaired angiogenic responses to VEGF in endothelial cells exposed to chronic hypoxia.

  12. Regulation of iNOS-Derived ROS Generation by HSP90 and Cav-1 in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Infected Swine Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Meiping; Hou, Make; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Songlin; Liu, Bang; Wu, Xiaoxiong; Liu, Guoquan

    2017-08-01

    In the lungs, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is usually expressed in endothelial cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is mainly expressed in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. Both eNOS and iNOS are involved in lung inflammation. While they play several roles in lung inflammation formation and resolution, their expression and activity are also regulated by inflammatory factors. Their expression relationship in virus infection-induced lung injury is not well addressed. In this report, we analyzed expression of both eNOS and iNOS, the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of their associated regulatory proteins, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1), in a swine lung injury model induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. The combination of upregulation of iNOS and downregulation of eNOS was observed in both natural and experimental PRRSV-infected lungs, while the combination is much enhanced in natural infected lungs. While NO production is much reduced in both infections, ROS was enhanced only in natural infected lungs. Moreover, HSP90 is increased in both natural and experimental infection and less Cav-1 expressed was observed only in the natural PRRSV-infected lungs. Therefore, the increased ROS generation is likely due to the increased iNOS and its unbalanced regulation by HSP90 and Cav-1, and it also likely causes higher endothelial dysfunction in clinical PRRSV-infected lungs.

  13. [Raamatututvustused] / Ervin Õunapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õunapuu, Ervin, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Tutvustus: Remarque, Erich Maria. Lissaboni öö. Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2006 ; Jõgisalu, Harri, Tihkan, Lembit. Tulihända püüdmas : lugusid vanalt Läänemaalt. Tallinn : Eesti Raamat, 2001 // Kivirähk, Andrus. Mees, kes teadis ussisõnu. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2007 // Raud, Eno. Tallinn : Ilo, 2005 // Tammsaare, A. H. Sic transit... : kas seni teadlikult "unustatud"?. Muraste : Matrix Kirjastus, 2004

  14. Otázka stáří nejvyšší části líňského souvrství (mšensko-roudnická pánev, Český masiv) – nové indicie z vrtu Be-1 Bechlín

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíc, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2011, podzim (2012), s. 59-62 ISSN 0514-8057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Mšeno-Roudnice Basin * Carboniferous/Permian boundary * Líně Formation * zoopalaeontology * biostratigraphy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2011/zpravy_2011-13.pdf

  15. Clinical Implication of Aortic Wall Biopsy in Aortic Valve Disease with Bicuspid Valve Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Han Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although unique aortic pathology related to bicuspid aortic valve (BAV has been previously reported, clinical implications of BAV to aortopathy risk have yet to be investigated. We looked for potential differences in matrix protein expressions in the aortic wall in BAV patients. Methods: Aorta specimens were obtained from 31 patients: BAV group (n=27, tricuspid aortic valve (TAV group (n=4. The BAV group was categorized into three subgroups: left coronary sinus-right coronary sinus (R+L group; n=13, 42%, right coronary sinus-non-coronary sinus (R+N group; n=8, 26%, and anteroposterior (AP group; n=6, 19%. We analyzed the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP-2. Results: Based on the mean value of the control group, BAV group showed decreased expression of eNOS in 72.7% of patients, increased MMP-9 in 82.3%, and decreased TIMP in 79.2%. There was a higher tendency for aortopathy in the BAV group: eNOS (BAV:TAV= 53%±7%:57%±11%, MMP-9 (BAV:TAV=48%±10%:38%±1%. The AP group showed lower expression of eNOS than the fusion (R+L, R+N group did; 48%±5% vs. 55%±7% (p=0.081. Conclusion: Not all patients with BAV had expression of aortopathy; however, for patients who had a suspicious form of bicuspid valve, aortic wall biopsy could be valuable to signify the presence of aortopathy.

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_000962 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctase ... pdb|1P45|B Chain B, Targeting Tuberculosis And Malaria ... Through Inhibition Of Eno...yl Reductase: Compound Activity ... And Structural Data pdb|1P45|A Chain A, Targeting ... Tuberculosis...ctivity And Structural Data ... pdb|1P44|F Chain F, Targeting Tuberculosis And Malaria ... Thr... Reductase: Compound Activity And Structural Data ... pdb|1P44|D Chain D, Targeting Tuberculosis And ...db|1P44|C Chain C, Targeting ... Tuberculosis And Malaria Through Inhibiti

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_002755 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctase ... pdb|1P45|B Chain B, Targeting Tuberculosis And Malaria ... Through Inhibition Of Eno...yl Reductase: Compound Activity ... And Structural Data pdb|1P45|A Chain A, Targeting ... Tuberculosis...ctivity And Structural Data ... pdb|1P44|F Chain F, Targeting Tuberculosis And Malaria ... Thr... Reductase: Compound Activity And Structural Data ... pdb|1P44|D Chain D, Targeting Tuberculosis And ...db|1P44|C Chain C, Targeting ... Tuberculosis And Malaria Through Inhibiti

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_002945 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctase ... pdb|1P45|B Chain B, Targeting Tuberculosis And Malaria ... Through Inhibition Of Eno...yl Reductase: Compound Activity ... And Structural Data pdb|1P45|A Chain A, Targeting ... Tuberculosis...ctivity And Structural Data ... pdb|1P44|F Chain F, Targeting Tuberculosis And Malaria ... Thr... Reductase: Compound Activity And Structural Data ... pdb|1P44|D Chain D, Targeting Tuberculosis And ...db|1P44|C Chain C, Targeting ... Tuberculosis And Malaria Through Inhibiti

  19. Image Understanding and Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    with respect to the computer analysis of Image data (and especially multlspectral image data) from high-flying aircraft and earth- orbiting satellites...REAL AXIS 500 1.00:1 l.fOO 2,000 78 Figure \\k BOEING 707-320 2.000- l.OOO- 1.000- .etij to k S •wo ft - . EDO - •l .0.10 -i.eno

  20. Uspredba konfekcijskih i individualnih CAD/CAM suprastruktura u implanto-protetici

    OpenAIRE

    Šeparović, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Ovaj rad ima za svrhu usporediti biološke karakteristike konfekcijskih i individualnih CAD/CAM nadogradnji kroz 1 godinu u funkciji. Ukupno je 64 ispitanika, koji su imali nedostatak jednog zuba, bilo uključeno u istraživanje. Ispitanicima su ugrađeni dentalni implantati koji su naknadno opskrbljeni nadogradnjom za dentalne implantate i metalokeramičkom krunicom. Ispitanici su podijeljeni u dvije skupine s obzirom na vrstu nadogradnje. 34 ispitanika bila su opskrbljena sa ...